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Sample records for internal control structure

  1. Internal Control: Peran Dan Perkembangannya

    OpenAIRE

    Murtin, Alek

    2000-01-01

    Perhatian terhadap pentingnya internal control dalam organisasi berjalan dari waktu ke waktu untuk meningkatkan fungsi internal control yang disesuaikan dengan perkembangan lingkungan organisasi, dimulai dengan adanya internal check, kemudian internal control system, internal control structure dan terakhir adalah internal control-integrated framework. Internal control system sempat berkembang beberapa tahun di Indonesia yang selanjutnya digantikan oleh internal control structure yang digunaka...

  2. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  3. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  4. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  5. Design of complex bone internal structure using topology optimization with perimeter control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaejong; Sutradhar, Alok; Shah, Jami J; Paulino, Glaucio H

    2018-03-01

    Large facial bone loss usually requires patient-specific bone implants to restore the structural integrity and functionality that also affects the appearance of each patient. Titanium alloys (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V) are typically used in the interfacial porous coatings between the implant and the surrounding bone to promote stability. There exists a property mismatch between the two that in general leads to complications such as stress-shielding. This biomechanical discrepancy is a hurdle in the design of bone replacements. To alleviate the mismatch, the internal structure of the bone replacements should match that of the bone. Topology optimization has proven to be a good technique for designing bone replacements. However, the complex internal structure of the bone is difficult to mimic using conventional topology optimization methods without additional restrictions. In this work, the complex bone internal structure is recovered using a perimeter control based topology optimization approach. By restricting the solution space by means of the perimeter, the intricate design complexity of bones can be achieved. Three different bone regions with well-known physiological loadings are selected to illustrate the method. Additionally, we found that the target perimeter value and the pattern of the initial distribution play a vital role in obtaining the natural curvatures in the bone internal structures as well as avoiding excessive island patterns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Engineering the internal structure of magnetic silica nanoparticles by thermal control

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2014-01-01

    Calcination of hydrated iron salts in the pores of both spherical and rod-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs) changes the internal structure from an ordered 2D hexagonal structure into a smaller number of large voids in the particles with sizes ranging from large hollow cores down to ten nanometer voids. The voids only form when the heating rate is rapid at a rate of 30 °C min-1. The sizes of the voids are controlled reproducibly by the final calcination temperature; as the temperature is decreased the number of voids decreases as their size increases. The phase of the iron oxide NPs is α-Fe2O3 when annealed at 500 °C, and Fe3O4 when annealed at lower temperatures. The water molecules in the hydrated iron (III) chloride precursor salts appear to play important roles by hydrolyzing Si-O-Si bonding, and the resulting silanol is mobile enough to affect the reconstruction into the framed hollow structures at high temperature. Along with hexahydrates, trivalent Fe3+ ions are assumed to contribute to the structure disruption of mesoporous silica by replacing tetrahedral Si4+ ions and making Fe-O-Si bonding. Volume fraction tomography images generated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images enable precise visualization of the structures. These results provide a controllable method of engineering the internal shapes in silica matrices containing superparamagnetic NPs.

  7. Engineering the internal structure of magnetic silica nanoparticles by thermal control

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2014-09-30

    Calcination of hydrated iron salts in the pores of both spherical and rod-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs) changes the internal structure from an ordered 2D hexagonal structure into a smaller number of large voids in the particles with sizes ranging from large hollow cores down to ten nanometer voids. The voids only form when the heating rate is rapid at a rate of 30 °C min-1. The sizes of the voids are controlled reproducibly by the final calcination temperature; as the temperature is decreased the number of voids decreases as their size increases. The phase of the iron oxide NPs is α-Fe2O3 when annealed at 500 °C, and Fe3O4 when annealed at lower temperatures. The water molecules in the hydrated iron (III) chloride precursor salts appear to play important roles by hydrolyzing Si-O-Si bonding, and the resulting silanol is mobile enough to affect the reconstruction into the framed hollow structures at high temperature. Along with hexahydrates, trivalent Fe3+ ions are assumed to contribute to the structure disruption of mesoporous silica by replacing tetrahedral Si4+ ions and making Fe-O-Si bonding. Volume fraction tomography images generated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images enable precise visualization of the structures. These results provide a controllable method of engineering the internal shapes in silica matrices containing superparamagnetic NPs.

  8. Nonlinear Attitude Control of Planar Structures in Space Using Only Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhanoglu, Mahmut; Mcclamroch, N. Harris

    1993-01-01

    An attitude control strategy for maneuvers of an interconnection of planar bodies in space is developed. It is assumed that there are no exogeneous torques and that torques generated by joint motors are used as means of control so that the total angular momentum of the multibody system is a constant, assumed to be zero. The control strategy utilizes the nonintegrability of the expression for the angular momentum. Large angle maneuvers can be designed to achieve an arbitrary reorientation of the multibody system with respect to an inertial frame. The theoretical background for carrying out the required maneuvers is summarized.

  9. COSO MODELİ: İÇ KONTROL YAPISI - COSO MODEL: INTERNAL CONTROL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan TÜREDİ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Özetİktisadi ve teknolojik gelişmeler; zaman içinde çok sayıda faaliyetin çok sayıda kişi ve uzun süreçlerleyürütüldüğü, hiyerarşik örgütsel düzenlerin sürekli geliştiği, karmaşık işletme yapılarının ortaya çıkmasınaneden olmuştur. Bunun sonucunda işletmelerin faaliyetleri basit kontrol yöntemleriyle izlenemeyecek halegelmiştir. Amerika’da beş bağımsız meslek kuruluşundan oluşan COSO (The Committe of SponsoringOrganizations, iç kontrolün işletmelerde standartlaşan bir yapı hale gelmesinde öncülük etmiştir. COSOiç kontrol modeli; iç kontrol ortamı, risk değerlendirmesi, kontrol faaliyetleri, bilgi ve iletişim ile izlemefaaliyetlerinden oluşan; işletme faaliyetlerinin etkinliği ve verimliliği, mali raporların güvenilirliği veyürürlükteki kanun ve düzenlemelerle uyum amaçları etrafında şekillenmiş çok boyutlu bir yapıdır.İç kontrol yapısının başlıca hedefleri; faaliyetlerin etkinlik ve verimliliği, karlılık hedefine ulaşmak vevarlıkların korunması, kamuya açıklanan mali tablolar, geçici ve özet mali raporları da dâhil olmak üzerehazırlanan tüm mali tabloların güvenilirliğinin sağlanması ve tabi olunan kanun ve düzenlemelerle uyumunsağlanmasıdır. Bu çalışmada; COSO’nun iç kontrol yapısına ilişkin geliştirdiği model ve bu modelin beşbileşeni olan kontrol ortamı, risk değerlendirmesi, kontrol faaliyetleri, bilgi ve iletişim ile izleme faaliyetleriaracılığı ile bu bileşenlerin hem işletme hedefleri hem de işletme yapısı içindeki etkileşimi açıklanmayaçalışılmıştır.AbstractDevelopments in economy and technology have caused enterprises to have sophisticated structuresaffected by developing hierarchical structuring along with the significant number of activities performed via significant number of process and individuals. COSO (The Committee of Sponsoring Organizationshas established a common internal control

  10. COSO MODELİ: İÇ KONTROL YAPISI - COSO MODEL: INTERNAL CONTROL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan TÜREDİ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Özetİktisadi ve teknolojik gelişmeler; zaman içinde çok sayıda faaliyetin çok sayıda kişi ve uzun süreçlerleyürütüldüğü, hiyerarşik örgütsel düzenlerin sürekli geliştiği, karmaşık işletme yapılarının ortaya çıkmasınaneden olmuştur. Bunun sonucunda işletmelerin faaliyetleri basit kontrol yöntemleriyle izlenemeyecek halegelmiştir. Amerika’da beş bağımsız meslek kuruluşundan oluşan COSO (The Committe of SponsoringOrganizations, iç kontrolün işletmelerde standartlaşan bir yapı hale gelmesinde öncülük etmiştir. COSOiç kontrol modeli; iç kontrol ortamı, risk değerlendirmesi, kontrol faaliyetleri, bilgi ve iletişim ile izlemefaaliyetlerinden oluşan; işletme faaliyetlerinin etkinliği ve verimliliği, mali raporların güvenilirliği veyürürlükteki kanun ve düzenlemelerle uyum amaçları etrafında şekillenmiş çok boyutlu bir yapıdır.İç kontrol yapısının başlıca hedefleri; faaliyetlerin etkinlik ve verimliliği, karlılık hedefine ulaşmak vevarlıkların korunması, kamuya açıklanan mali tablolar, geçici ve özet mali raporları da dâhil olmak üzerehazırlanan tüm mali tabloların güvenilirliğinin sağlanması ve tabi olunan kanun ve düzenlemelerle uyumunsağlanmasıdır. Bu çalışmada; COSO’nun iç kontrol yapısına ilişkin geliştirdiği model ve bu modelin beşbileşeni olan kontrol ortamı, risk değerlendirmesi, kontrol faaliyetleri, bilgi ve iletişim ile izleme faaliyetleriaracılığı ile bu bileşenlerin hem işletme hedefleri hem de işletme yapısı içindeki etkileşimi açıklanmayaçalışılmıştır.AbstractDevelopments in economy and technology have caused enterprises to have sophisticated structuresaffected by developing hierarchical structuring along with the significant number of activities performed via significant number of process and individuals. COSO (The Committee of Sponsoring Organizationshas established a common internal control

  11. Echoes on the motor network: how internal motor control structures afford sensory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jed D; Lum, Jarrad A G; Hohwy, Jakob; Enticott, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    Often, during daily experiences, hearing peers' actions can activate motor regions of the CNS. This activation is termed auditory-motor resonance (AMR) and is thought to represent an internal simulation of one's motor memories. Currently, AMR is demonstrated at the neuronal level in the Macaque and songbird, in conjunction with evidence on a systems level in humans. Here, we review evidence of AMR development from a motor control perspective. In the context of internal modelling, we consider data that demonstrates sensory-guided motor learning and action maintenance, particularly the notion of sensory comparison seen during songbird vocalisation. We suggest that these comparisons generate accurate sensory-to-motor inverse mappings. Furthermore, given reports of mapping decay after songbird learning, we highlight the proposal that the maintenance of these sensorimotor maps potentially explains why frontoparietal regions are activated upon hearing known sounds (i.e., AMR). In addition, we also recommend that activation of these types of internal models outside of action execution may provide an ecological advantage when encountering known stimuli in ambiguous conditions.

  12. Enhancing the crumb rubber modified asphalt’s storage stability through the control of its internal network structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohyeldin Ragab

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research investigated the effect of the internal network structure developed in the crumb rubber modified asphalt (CRMA on its storage stability. The authors investigated the influence of asphalt-crumb rubber modifier (CRM interaction parameters (interaction time, interaction speed, and interaction temperature on the development of the internal network structure in CRMA. The authors found that the existence of three dimensional (3D network structures in the CRMA enhanced its storage stability. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy was utilized to determine the nature of CRM components responsible for the development of 3D network structure in the liquid phase of CRMA. This was achieved by monitoring the changes of the IR distinctive peaks in the CRMA liquid phase. Dissolution tests and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were carried out on the extracted CRM after interaction with asphalt to determine the role of CRM dissolved amounts and released components on the development of 3D network structure in CRMA. The asphalt-CRM interaction parameters were found to be essential to induce the formation of the 3D network structure within the liquid phase of the CRMA through controlling the swelling, dissolution and release of CRM components into the asphalt liquid phase. The existence of 3D network structure in the CRMA had determinant impact on the enhancement of its storage stability. Keywords: Storage stability, Three dimensional (3D network, Crumb rubber modified asphalt

  13. Structured patient handoff on an internal medicine ward: A cluster randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Penny; Nijjar, Aman P; Fok, Mark; Little, Chris; Shingina, Alexandra; Bittman, Jesse; Raghavan, Rashmi; Khan, Nadia A

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a multi-faceted handoff strategy in a high volume internal medicine inpatient setting on process and patient outcomes has not been clearly established. We set out to determine if a multi-faceted handoff intervention consisting of education, standardized handoff procedures, including fixed time and location for face-to-face handoff would result in improved rates of handoff compared with usual practice. We also evaluated resident satisfaction, health resource utilization and clinical outcomes. This was a cluster randomized controlled trial in a large academic tertiary care center with 18 inpatient internal medicine ward teams from January-April 2013. We randomized nine inpatient teams to an intervention where they received an education session standardizing who and how to handoff patients, with practice and feedback from facilitators. The control group of 9 teams continued usual non-standardized handoffs. The primary process outcome was the rate of patients handed over per 1000 patient nights. Other process outcomes included perceptions of inadequate handoff by overnight physicians, resource utilization overnight and hospital length of stay. Clinical outcomes included medical errors, frequency of patients requiring higher level of care overnight, and in-hospital mortality. The intervention group demonstrated a significant increase in the rate of patients handed over to the overnight physician (62.90/1000 person-nights vs. 46.86/1000 person-nights, p = 0.002). There was no significant difference in other process outcomes except resource utilization was increased in the intervention group (26.35/1000 person-days vs. 17.57/1000 person-days, p-value = 0.01). There was no significant difference between groups in medical errors (4.8% vs. 4.1%), need for higher level of care or in hospital mortality. Limitations include a dependence of accurate record keeping by the overnight physician, the possibility of cross-contamination in the handoff process, analysis at

  14. Association between tax structure and cigarette consumption: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Lee, Hye Myung; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O'Connor, Richard J

    2018-05-24

    Recent studies show that greater price variability and more opportunities for tax avoidance are associated with tax structures that depart from a specific uniform one. These findings indicate that tax structures other than a specific uniform one may lead to more cigarette consumption. This paper aims to examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with cigarette consumption. We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Self-reported cigarette consumption was aggregated to average measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on cigarette consumption was estimated using generalised estimating equations after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, average taxes and year fixed effects. Our study provides important empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette consumption. We find that a change from a specific to an ad valorem structure is associated with a 6%-11% higher cigarette consumption. In addition, a change from uniform to tiered structure is associated with a 34%-65% higher cigarette consumption. The results are consistent with existing evidence and suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. 1st International Conference on Hydraulic Design in Water Resources Engineering : Channels and Channel Control Structures

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    The development of water resources has proceeded at an amazing speed around the world in the last few decades. The hydraulic engineer has played his part: in constructing much larger artificial channels than ever before, larger and more sophisticated control structures, and systems of irrigation, drainage and water supply channels in which the flow by its nature is complex and unsteady requiring computer-based techniques at both the design and operation stage. It seemed appropriate to look briefly at some of the developments in hydraulic design resulting from this situation. Hence the idea of the Conference was formed. The Proceedings of the Conference show that hydraulic engineers have been able to acquire a very substantial base of design capability from the experience of the period referred to. The most outstanding development to have occurred is in the combination of physical and mathematical modelling, which in hydraulic engineering has followed a parallel path to that in other branches of engineering sc...

  16. Internal Control Organization Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Dorin Lenghel

    2013-01-01

    Internal control represents the totality of policies and procedures adopted by management, which contribute: to the fulfilment of managerial objectives, to the prevention and detection of frauds or errors, to the accuracy and exhaustiveness of accounting entries, as well as to the preparation in due course of financial accounting information. Internal control represents a managerial instrument which assures the fulfilment of objectives of the entity, being an ongoing process in which administ...

  17. Internal budget control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-06-01

    Generally, duties of internal control officers within ministries and institutions must be clearly divided to reduce the risk of inco-rrect behaviour. Operations of an efficient control mechanism influence and ensure conditions for rule of law, good governance, and democracy.

  18. The Association between Tax Structure and Cigarette Price Variability: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thompson, Mary; O’Connor, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance when cigarette excise tax structure departs from a uniform specific structure. However, the association between tax structure and cigarette price variability has not been thoroughly studied in the existing literature. Objective To examine how cigarette tax structure is associated with price variability. The variability of self-reported prices is measured using the ratios of differences between higher and lower prices to the median price such as the IQR-to-median ratio. Methods We used survey data taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project in 17 countries to conduct the analysis. Cigarette prices were derived using individual purchase information and aggregated to price variability measures for each surveyed country and wave. The effect of tax structures on price variability was estimated using Generalised Estimating Equations after adjusting for year and country attributes. Findings Our study provides empirical evidence of a relationship between tax structure and cigarette price variability. We find that, compared to the specific uniform tax structure, mixed uniform and tiered (specific, ad valorem or mixed) structures are associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). Moreover, while a greater share of the specific component in total excise taxes is associated with lower price variability (p≤0.05), a tiered tax structure is associated with greater price variability (p≤0.01). The results suggest that a uniform and specific tax structure is the most effective tax structure for reducing tobacco consumption and prevalence by limiting price variability and decreasing opportunities for tax avoidance. PMID:25855641

  19. Internal budget control

    OpenAIRE

    MSc. Mervete Shala

    2011-01-01

    Internal control is established by the Government to ensure effective and proper operations of ministries, institutions and generally of all public agencies, in compliance with the law, the goals and objectives stated by them, to provide protection against abuse and mismanagement or poor governance. The instrument of internal audit entails a series of mechanisms which aim at enabling budgetary policies compliance, such as: financial reporting; effective system of communication between mana...

  20. 13th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) and the 12th International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the Thirteenth International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MoViC), together with the Twelfth International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD). MoViC is an event that started in Yokohama, Japan in 1992 and has been organised every two years alternating between Japan, USA and Europe. The eleven previous RASD conferences have been held every three years or so since 1980 primarily in Southampton, UK. The idea of joining the two conferences came quite naturally because of the common ground of the two conferences and the chances of cross-pollination between two otherwise separate research groups. This joint conference is devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental developments in motion/vibration/structural dynamics, their control and application to all types of structures and dynamical systems. The conference reflects the state-of-the- art in these topics, and is an excellent opportunity to exchange scientific, technical and experimental ideas. The Conference Proceedings include over 250 papers by authors from over 20 countries, forty technical sessions and five plenary presentations. The five invited speakers are Professor Roger Goodall (Loughborough University, UK) presenting “Motion and vibration control for railway vehicles”, Professor Takeshi Mizuno (Saitama University, Japan) presenting “Recent advances in magnetic suspension technology”, Professor Kevin Murphy (University of Louisville, USA) presenting “Dynamics of Passive Balancing Rings for Rotating Systems”, Professor David Wagg (University of Sheffield, UK) presenting “Reducing vibrations in structures using structural control”, and Professor Kon-Well Wang (University of Michigan, USA) presenting “From Muscles to Plants - Nature-Inspired Adaptive Metastructures for Structural Dynamics Enhancement”. I would like to thank members of the Organising Committee for their help, over the last year or so, in

  1. Internal control system

    OpenAIRE

    Pavésková, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Dissertation focuse on the internal control system in the enterprises, aims to map the control system by focusing on the purchasing department. I focused on the purchasing process, because with an increasing trends of outsourcing services and the increasing interconnectedness of enterprises increases the risk of fraud currently in the purchasing process. To the research was selected the sample of companies from the banking and non-banking environment, to which were sent a questionnaire focusi...

  2. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. Objective This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. Methods We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Findings Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities

  3. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance and brand

  4. Internal dosimetry and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1990-05-01

    This internal dosimetry and control report provides guidance for EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., field programs in detecting, evaluating, and controlling personnel exposure resulting from uptake of radionuclides by the body. Procedures specific to each program or facility are required to define the details of guidance from this report. Fundamental principles related to philosophy, policies, monitoring guidelines, and dose evaluation are discussed. Specific numerical guides and action levels are developed to guide the programs in evaluating the significance of specific analytical results. The requirement to thoroughly document the results and provide a formal technical base for each policy and/or practice is outlined and explained. 8 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  5. The Relationship Between the Evolution of an Internal Structure and Drug Dissolution from Controlled-Release Matrix Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr; Hudy, Wiktor; Mendyk, Aleksander; Juszczyk, Ewelina; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Dorożyński, Przemysław

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, imaging has been introduced as a supplementary method to the dissolution tests, but a direct relationship of dissolution and imaging data has been almost completely overlooked. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of relating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dissolution data to elucidate dissolution profile features (i.e., kinetics, kinetics changes, and variability). Commercial, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose-based quetiapine fumarate controlled-release matrix tablets were studied using the following two methods: (i) MRI inside the USP4 apparatus with subsequent machine learning-based image segmentation and (ii) dissolution testing with piecewise dissolution modeling. Obtained data were analyzed together using statistical data processing methods, including multiple linear regression. As a result, in this case, zeroth order release was found to be a consequence of internal structure evolution (interplay between region's areas-e.g., linear relationship between interface and core), which eventually resulted in core disappearance. Dry core disappearance had an impact on (i) changes in dissolution kinetics (from zeroth order to nonlinear) and (ii) an increase in variability of drug dissolution results. It can be concluded that it is feasible to parameterize changes in micro/meso morphology of hydrated, controlled release, swellable matrices using MRI to establish a causal relationship between the changes in morphology and drug dissolution. Presented results open new perspectives in practical application of combined MRI/dissolution to controlled-release drug products.

  6. Control Techtronics International

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, J.

    1995-12-31

    Polish graded coal can be burned in existing stoker boilers and meet the 1998 Air Quality standard. This is accomplished with the Control Techtronics microprocessor-based combustion controller accurately and repeatedly: (a) matching the combustion air to the coal firing rate, with continuous stack sensor feedback; (b) continuously varying the boiler`s firing rate based on output water temperature or steam pressure; (c) continuously varying the exhaust fan`s speed to maintain minimum negative pressure in the boiler`s combustion chamber; and recirculating a portion of the flue gas, at varying amounts throughout the boiler`s firing rate. Systems for five boilers have been installed and are operating on MPEC`s Balicka plant in Krakow. Control Techtronics International has $10 million of U.S. Export-Import Bank funds available for similar projects throughout Poland.

  7. THE INTERNAL CONTROL MODELS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODORESCU CRISTIAN DRAGOȘ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control is indissolubly linked to business and accounting. Throughout history, domestic and international trade has grown exponentially, which has led to an increasing complexity of internal control, to new methods and techniques to control the business. The literature has presented the first models of internal control in the Sumerian period (3600 - 3200 BC, and the emergence and development of internal control in Egypt, Persia, Greek and Roman Empire, in the Middle Ages till modern times. The purpose of this article is to present the models of internal control in Romania, starting from the principles of the classical model of internal control (COSO model. For a better understanding of the implication of internal control in terms of public and private sector, I have structured the article in the following parts: (a the definition of internal control in the literature; (b the presentation of the COSO model; (c internal control and internal audit in public institutions; (d internal control issues in accounting regulations on the individual and consolidated annual financial statements; (e internal / managerial control; (f conclusions.

  8. International control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, Hannu

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials are subject to both national and international safeguards control. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) takes care of the international safeguards control. The control activities, which are discussed in this article, are carried out according to the agreements between various countries and the IAEA

  9. Performance and Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mifti, Sri; Lestariyo, Nugroho Budi; Kowanda, Anacostia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the influence of internal auditing on performance. Research object is Inspectorate General Department of Home Affairs staffs. As research instrument, questionnaire was developed and distributed to respondents. Closed type questionnaire was developed with five (5) choices to measure the two (2) research variables. Internal auditing is measured using six (6) dimensions, and performance is measured using three (3) dimensions. As the two variables are lat...

  10. International Drug Control Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-24

    Common illegal drugs include cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs. International trade in these drugs represents a lucrative and what...into effect, decriminalizing “personal use” amounts of marijuana , heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other internationally sanctioned drugs.15 While...President Calls for Legalizing Marijuana ,”CNN.com, May 13, 2009. 15 “Mexico Legalizes Drug Possession,” Associated Press, August 21, 2009. 16 In support

  11. Evaluation of Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Suciu; Pipu-Nicolae Barsan

    2013-01-01

    Performance is indissolubly tied to control. Performance cannot be obtained without a strong, adequate control, regardless if it is in the public or private sector. Control is one of management’s attributes and it must be organized, implemented and evaluated in every company, regardless of its size. Each person from a company participates to a greater or lesser extent in the control activities.

  12. INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVESTMENT PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Yudenkov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation and technics of the account of expenses, efficiency, financial result should enter into the list of regular checks from service of internal control that demands corresponding vocational training of internal controlers which should own methods of an estimation of expediency of acquisition of long-term actives.

  13. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  14. Controlled etching of internal and external structures of SiO2 nanoparticles using hydrogen bond of polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Shahinul; Choi, Won San; Lee, Ha-Jin

    2014-06-25

    We have demonstrated a novel strategy for the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) using a surfactant-free method under ambient conditions. By the simple addition of an amine-based polymer (polyethylenimine; PEI) with a high molecular weight to a silica nanoparticle (SNP) solution, two types of MSNPs, including rambutan-like MSNPs (R-MSNPs) and hollow MSNPs (H-MSNPs), were produced. The structural changes of the MSNPs were systematically studied using various reaction conditions (reaction time, molar ratio and molecular weight of PEI, etc.) and were observed using electron microscopic techniques. The formation mechanisms of both MSNPs were carefully investigated using XPS, Raman, and IR spectroscopies. Because the synthesized MSNPs are highly porous materials that contain internal organic/inorganic networks, we investigated the removal/adsorption properties of these MSNPs with respect to pollutants toward possible future use in environmental remediation applications. The H-MSNPs exhibited better environmental remediation capabilities relative to the R-MSNPs because PEI is present between the cobweb-like internal structures of the H-MSNPs, thereby providing a significant number of reaction sites for the adsorption of pollutants. The approach presented here can also be used as a direct method for the preparation of intraconnected networks within the substructures.

  15. Mechanical properties of molybdenum-titanium alloys micro-structurally controlled by multi-step internal nitriding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, M.; Yoshio, T.; Takemoto, Y.; Takada, J.; Hiraoka, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Internally nitrided dilute Mo-Ti alloys having a heavily deformed microstructure near the specimen surface were prepared by a novel two-step nitriding process at 1173 to 1773 K in N 2 gas. For the nitrided specimens three-point bend tests were performed at temperatures from 77 to 298 K in order to investigate the effect of microstructure control by internal nitriding on the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of the alloy Yield strength obtained at 243 K of the specimen maintaining the deformed microstructure by the two-step nitriding was about 1.7 times as much as recrystallized specimen. The specimen subjected to the two-step nitriding was bent more than 90 degree at 243 K, whereas recrystallized specimen was fractured after showing a slight ductility at 243 K. DBTT of the specimen subjected to the two-step nitriding and recrystallized specimen was about 153 K and 203 K, respectively. These results indicate that multi-step internal nitriding is very effective to the improvement in the embrittlement by the recrystallization of molybdenum alloys. (author)

  16. The internal control of tax

    OpenAIRE

    E. B. Shuvalova; L. A. Butenko; Ju. A. Rudenko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to study the theoretical and practical issues of internal fiscal control. Internal tax control system requires the development of methodological tools, its scientific basis and practical recommendations for the application. This difficult task is now solved only in organizations, which are the largest taxpayers. For small and medium-sized businesses in the organization of internal fiscal control may improve the quality of the accounting organization of the company. ...

  17. INTERNAL CONTROL IN PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila FRUMUSACHI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Internal control has a special role in the efficient organization of the entity’s management. The components of this control in the institutions of public health service are determined by the specific character of these institutions and National Standards of Internal Control in the Public Sector. The system of internal control in the institutions of public health service has the capacity to canalize the effort of the whole institution for the achievement of proposed objectives, to signalize permanently the dysfunctionalities about the quality of medical services and the deviations and to operate timely corrective measures for eliminating the noticed problems. In this regard the managers are obliged to analyse and to resize the system of internal control when in the organizational structure appear substantial changes.

  18. Expanding Internal Control Functionality Scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola M. Vuitsiv

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the influence of «western» concepts of the information needs of management process provisions on forming and developing the up-to-date model of Internal Control. An attempt has been made to develop the approach to solve urgent management tasks by applying the ideas of controlling and management accounting via the traditional national approach to the content of control. The place of control in the enterprise management information system has also been reviewed.

  19. Internal structure of magnetic endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, C.; Wilhelm, C.; Cousin, F.; Dupuis, V.; Gazeau, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2007-01-01

    The internal structure of biological vesicles filled with magnetic nanoparticles is investigated using the following complementary analyses: electronic transmission microscopy, dynamic probing by magneto-optical birefringence and structural probing by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). These magnetic vesicles are magnetic endosomes obtained via a non-specific interaction between cells and anionic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Thanks to a magnetic purification process, they are probed at two different stages of their formation within HeLa cells: (i) adsorption of nanoparticles onto the cellular membrane and (ii) their subsequent internalisation within endosomes. Differences in the microenvironment of the magnetic nanoparticles at those two different stages are highlighted here. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed onto cellular membranes and confined within endosomes is respectively 3 and 5 orders of magnitude slower than for isolated magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media. Interestingly, SANS experiments show that magnetic endosomes have an internal structure close to decorated vesicles, with magnetic nanoparticles locally decorating the endosome membrane, inside their inner-sphere. These results, important for future biomedical applications, suggest that multiple fusions of decorated vesicles are the biological processes underlying the endocytosis of that kind of nanometric materials.

  20. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  1. Thermonuclear controlled fusion: international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conscience, J.-F.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the current worldwide status of research in the field of thermonuclear controlled fusion as well as the international research programme planed for the next decades. The two main projects will be the ITER facility (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) that should produce 10 times more energy than the energy injected, and the IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) designed to study the reactions of materials under intense neutron fluxes. The future of the pioneering JET facility (Joint European Torus) is also discussed. The engagement of the various countries (USA, Japan, Germany, Russian Federation and Canada) and international organisations (EURATOM and IEA) in terms of investment and research is described. Switzerland is involved in this program through an agreement with EURATOM and is mainly dedicated to experimental studies with the TCV machine in Lausanne and numerical studies of plasma configurations. It will participate to the development of the microwave plasma heating system for the ITER machine

  2. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  3. Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.

  4. [The influence of the organizational structure on the internal controls of a foundation for cancer research, prevention and care in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacim, Carlos Alberto Grespam; Salgado, André Luís; Girioli, Lumila Souza; de Araujo, Adriana Maria Procópio

    2011-05-01

    This work focuses on a discussion about the extent to which the level of organizational structure interferes in the internal control practices of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), especially those related to health. The objective of this work was to observe the efficiency of the internal control tests applied within the organizational structure of the Foundation for Cancer Research, Prevention and Care, checking the reliability of the accounting records and operational controls. A case study in a third sector health organization was the chosen methodology. The case study involved company interviews and the analysis of confidential reports. After an evaluation of the organizational structure (of the relations between officials and volunteers) and the application of evaluation proceedings on the quality of the internal controls, the extent to which the organizational structure interferes with the internal control practices of the hospital was assessed. It was revealed that there are structured mechanisms of control in the institution, however the implementation of these controls is inadequately performed. It was further detected that the level of the organizational structure does indeed interfere in internal control practices at the entity.

  5. King post truss as a motif for internal structure of (meta)material with controlled elastic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Emilio; Giorgio, Ivan; Misra, Anil; dell'Isola, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    One of the most interesting challenges in the modern theory of materials consists in the determination of those microstructures which produce, at the macro-level, a class of metamaterials whose elastic range is many orders of magnitude wider than the one exhibited by `standard' materials. In dell'Isola et al. (2015 Zeitschrift für angewandte Mathematik und Physik 66, 3473-3498. (doi:10.1007/s00033-015-0556-4)), it was proved that, with a pantographic microstructure constituted by `long' micro-beams it is possible to obtain metamaterials whose elastic range spans up to an elongation exceeding 30%. In this paper, we demonstrate that the same behaviour can be obtained by means of an internal microstructure based on a king post motif. This solution shows many advantages: it involves only microbeams; all constituting beams are undergoing only extension or compression; all internal constraints are terminal pivots. While the elastic deformation energy can be determined as easily as in the case of long-beam microstructure, the proposed design seems to have obvious remarkable advantages: it seems to be more damage resistant and therefore to be able to have a wider elastic range; it can be realized with the same three-dimensional printing technology; it seems to be less subject to compression buckling. The analysis which we present here includes: (i) the determination of Hencky-type discrete models for king post trusses, (ii) the application of an effective integration scheme to a class of relevant deformation tests for the proposed metamaterial and (iii) the numerical determination of an equivalent second gradient continuum model. The numerical tools which we have developed and which are presented here can be readily used to develop an extensive measurement campaign for the proposed metamaterial.

  6. 12 CFR 618.8430 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls. 618.8430 Section 618.8430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Internal Controls § 618.8430 Internal controls. Each Farm Credit institution's board of directors must adopt an internal...

  7. Vrednotenje ureditve notranjih kontrol z metodo COSO v trgovskem podjetju = Evaluation of Structures Regarding Internal Controls by Way of the COSO Method in a Trading Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Markoja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In carrying out internal audit, the selection of methodological tools forevaluation of internal control procedures, used to identify and evaluatekey places of exposure to risks in individual areas, is of partic ular importance. The approved coso method, taking into considerationthe wider meaning of control environment, has significantly contributedto integrated evaluation of internal control mechanisms in individualorganizations by defining the so-called soft controls. A possibleexample of internal audit implementation by using the coso methodon the example of a trading company is shown in the article. It introducesan example of how to apply the coso method in a given areaof internal audit, which can serve as a starting point for further auditprogramme development in accordance with the COSO method.

  8. Structural Emergency Control Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    demand and hopefully stabilize the system. This traditional emergency control results in interrupted service with severe economic damage to customers. Also, such control is usually less effective due to the lack of coordination among protective devices. In this paper, we propose a novel structural...

  9. Market structures in international telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures.......Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures....

  10. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX, have higher institutional ownership or attach greater importance to internal control. Our findings suggest that ICEs play an important role in the design and implementation of internal control systems. Our study should be of interest to both top managers who wish to improve corporate internal control quality and regulators who wish to understand the mechanisms of internal control monitoring.

  11. Employee quality, monitoring environment and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Chunli Liu; Bin Lin; Wei Shu

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of internal control employees (ICEs) on internal control quality. Using special survey data from Chinese listed firms, we find that ICE quality has a significant positive influence on internal control quality. We examine the effect of monitoring on this result and find that the effect is more pronounced for firms with strict monitoring environments, especially when the firms implement the Chinese internal control regulation system (CSOX), have higher institutional ow...

  12. Organizational Structures that Support Internal Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambur, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores how the structure of large complex organizations such as Cooperative Extension affects their ability to support internal evaluation of their programs and activities. Following a literature review of organizational structure and its relation to internal evaluation capacity, the chapter presents the results of interviews with…

  13. 48 CFR 519.7014 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 519... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS GSA Mentor-Protégé Program 519.7014 Internal controls. (a) The GSA Mentor-Protégé Program Manager will manage the Program. Internal controls will be established by...

  14. 48 CFR 819.7112 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 819... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS VA Mentor-Protégé Program 819.7112 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU... Program objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the...

  15. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa I. Egorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodological aspects of the internal control system formation are stated in the article. The great attention is focused on the problems of financial statements misrepresentation. The basic principles and structure of the internal control system are discussed in this article.

  16. COSO internal control integrated framework 2013

    CERN Document Server

    American Institute of Certified Public Accountants

    2013-01-01

    Issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), the 2013 Internal Control – Integrated Framework(Framework) is expected to help organizations design and implement internal control in light of many changes in business and operating environments since the issuance of the original Framework in 1992. The new Framework retains the core definition of internal control and the five components of internal control, and it continues to emphasize the importance of management judgment in designing, implementing, and conducting a system of internal control, and in assessing its effectiveness. It broadens the application of internal control in addressing operations and reporting objectives, and clarifies the requirements for determining what constitutes effective internal control.

  17. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  18. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  19. Internal quality control: best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinns, Helen; Pitkin, Sarah; Housley, David; Freedman, Danielle B

    2013-12-01

    There is a wide variation in laboratory practice with regard to implementation and review of internal quality control (IQC). A poor approach can lead to a spectrum of scenarios from validation of incorrect patient results to over investigation of falsely rejected analytical runs. This article will provide a practical approach for the routine clinical biochemistry laboratory to introduce an efficient quality control system that will optimise error detection and reduce the rate of false rejection. Each stage of the IQC system is considered, from selection of IQC material to selection of IQC rules, and finally the appropriate action to follow when a rejection signal has been obtained. The main objective of IQC is to ensure day-to-day consistency of an analytical process and thus help to determine whether patient results are reliable enough to be released. The required quality and assay performance varies between analytes as does the definition of a clinically significant error. Unfortunately many laboratories currently decide what is clinically significant at the troubleshooting stage. Assay-specific IQC systems will reduce the number of inappropriate sample-run rejections compared with the blanket use of one IQC rule. In practice, only three or four different IQC rules are required for the whole of the routine biochemistry repertoire as assays are assigned into groups based on performance. The tools to categorise performance and assign IQC rules based on that performance are presented. Although significant investment of time and education is required prior to implementation, laboratories have shown that such systems achieve considerable reductions in cost and labour.

  20. Internal combustion engine and method for control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-05-21

    In one exemplary embodiment of the invention an internal combustion engine includes a piston disposed in a cylinder, a valve configured to control flow of air into the cylinder and an actuator coupled to the valve to control a position of the valve. The internal combustion engine also includes a controller coupled to the actuator, wherein the controller is configured to close the valve when an uncontrolled condition for the internal engine is determined.

  1. INTERMARS: User-controlled international management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    Existing international space law as well as the best interest of all nations are consistent with the establishment of a user-based international organization, herein called INTERMARS. INTERMARS would provide access to facilities and services at a Martian base which would be of high functional potential, quality, safety, and reliability. These opportunities would be available on an open and nondiscriminatory basis to all peaceful users and investors. INTERMARS is a model organization concept tailored to provide cooperative international management of a Martian base for the benefit of its members, users, and investors. Most importantly, INTERMARS would provide such management through a sharing of both sovereignty and opportunity rather then unilateral control by any one nation or set of competing nations. Through an Assembly of Parties, a Board of Governors, a Board of Users and Investors, and a Director General, INTERMARS would meet its primary goal as it would be in the self-interest of all members, users, and investors to do so. The internal structure and philosophy of INTERMARS would provide not only for all participants to have representation in decisions affecting its activities, but also would insure effective and responsive management. Surely this is the precedent wished for, to establish for mankind at the now not-so-distant shores of the new ocean of space.

  2. Structure of molecules and internal rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, San-Ichiro

    1954-01-01

    Structure of Molecules and Internal Rotation reviews early studies on dihalogenoethanes. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 8 chapters that evaluate the Raman effect in ethane derivatives, the energy difference between rotational isomers, and the infrared absorption of ethane derivatives. Some of the topics covered in the book are the potential barrier to internal rotation; nature of the hindering potential; entropy difference between the rotational isomers; internal rotation in butane, pentane, and hexane; and internal rotation in long chain n-paraffins. Other chapters deal wi

  3. Internal Temperature Control For Vibration Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    Vibration test fixtures with internal thermal-transfer capabilities developed. Made of aluminum for rapid thermal transfer. Small size gives rapid response to changing temperatures, with better thermal control. Setup quicker and internal ducting facilitates access to parts being tested. In addition, internal flows smaller, so less energy consumed in maintaining desired temperature settings.

  4. Structural Pain Compensating Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Chris J.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. Designers must design the aircraft structure and the control architecture to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to build the structure with high margins, restrict control surface commands to known good combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage.

  5. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  6. INTERNAL CONTROLS IN ENSURING GOOD CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOSMAS NJANIKE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed factors that influence the internal controls in ensuring good corporate governance in financial institutions in developing economies with special reference to Zimbabwe. The research paper assessed how lack of internal controls affected good corporate governance and aimed to bring out elements of good corporate governance. It emerged that failure to effectively implement internal controls contributed significantly to poor corporate governance. The study discovered that internal control system overrides and the issue of “fact cat” directors also contributed to poor corporate governance. The study recommended that there is need for the board of directors to guarantee an organizational structure that clearly defines management responsibilities, authority and reporting relationships. There is also need to ensure that delegated responsibilities are effectively carried out to ensure compliance with internal controls of the financial institution concerned.

  7. Efficacy of internal control and controlling business risks

    OpenAIRE

    IONESCU, Luminiţa

    2010-01-01

    Companies can gain additional efficiency in designing and implementing or assessing internal control by focusing on only those financial reporting objectives directly applicable to the company’s activities and circumstances, taking a risk based approach to internal control. It is important for any organization to have reliable financial data for internal decision-making purpose. Financial information is often useful in many internal decisions such as product or service pricing. This is why th...

  8. Internal control reporting and accounting quality : Insight "comply-or-explain" internal control regime

    OpenAIRE

    Cao Thi Thanh, Huyen; Cheung, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there exist two reporting regimes, rules-based and principle-based (comply-or-explain). In the rules-based environment, researchers have studied the relationship between internal control quality and accounting quality. Prior studies have suggested that reports on internal control are an effective way for investors to evaluate the quality of the firm‟s internal control. By having a sound system of internal control, it creates reliance upon the firm‟s financial reporting. Therefore, t...

  9. International security and arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekeus, R.

    2000-01-01

    The end of the cold war also ended the focus on the bilateral approach to arms control and disarmament. Key concepts of security needed to be revisited, along with their implications for the disarmament and arms control agenda. Though there is currently a unipolar global security environment, there remain important tasks on the multilateral arms control agenda. The major task is that of reducing and eliminating weapons of mass destruction, especially nuclear weapons. The author contends that maintaining reliance on the nuclear-weapons option makes little sense in a time when the major Powers are strengthening their partnerships in economics, trade, peacemaking and building. (author)

  10. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.

    1991-01-01

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  11. An Analysis of Internal Controls and Procurement Fraud Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    might keep the organization from achieving its objectives and analyze risks , including fraud risk , so as to decide how the risk should be managed ( COSO ...internal control to adequately manage the risk ( COSO , 2013). Risk management involves developing the effective internal control targeted at a...structure and management . While the risk of fraud cannot be eliminated entirely, it can be greatly reduced with an appropriate procurement fraud prevention

  12. Budgeting-Based Organization of Internal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogulenko, Tatiana; Ponomareva, Svetlana; Bodiaco, Anna; Mironenko, Valentina; Zelenov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The article suggests methodical approaches to the budgeting-based organization of internal control, determines the tasks and subtasks of control that consist in the construction of an efficient system for the making, implementation, control, and analysis of managerial decisions. The organization of responsibility centers by means of implementing…

  13. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhamilya F. Ismailova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the theoretical aspects of internal financial control, summarizes the definition formulated by scientists and experts, analyzed for differences between incompany and intrafarm control. The article discusses the collapse of Enron, notes the general provisions of various types of financial control.

  14. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud are developing every year. Thus, the introduction of computerized accounting has created the opportunities to conduct very comprehensive tests at relatively little cost. However, the fraudsters became more and more clever, and the controllers are responsible for the prevention and detection of fraud. The procedures that controllers should adopt with regard to fraud depend on the risk that fraud could occur and remain undetected and also the risk of that fraud impairing the truth and fairness of the statement.

  15. Internal transport control in pot plant production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    Drawing up internal transport schedules in pot plant production is a very complex task. Scheduling internal transport at the operational level and providing control on a day-to-day or even hour-to-hour basis in particular requires a new approach. A hierarchical planning approach based on

  16. Alushta-2012. International Conference-School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion and the Adjoint Workshop 'Nano-and micro-sized structures in plasmas'. Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Conference was devoted to a new valuable information about the present status of plasma physics and controlled fusion research. The main topics was : magnetic confinement systems; plasma heating and current drive; ITER and fusion reactor aspects; basic plasma physics; space plasma; plasma dynamics and plasma-wall interaction; plasma electronics; low temperature plasma and plasma technologies; plasma diagnostics; formation of nano-and micro-sized structures in plasmas; properties of plasmas with nano- and micro- objects

  17. Corruption, fraud and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-01-01

    The economic crunch created a specific context for activity and profitability failing. The corruption is more and more common in our days. In the same time, the amount of money lost by businesses and the public sector to larger frauds increased last year to unthinkable limits. The shareholders expect the directors to take care to protect their company’s assets. This is why the financial controller has a very important role in each organization. The techniques to detect corruption or a fraud a...

  18. Internal spin structure of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, V.W.; Kuti, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the structure of the proton and neutron through deep inelastic scattering, initially with electrons but subsequently with muons and neutrinos as well, has played a central role in establishing the quark-parton theory of the composition of hadrons and of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). One important aspect of these theoretical and experimental developments is the two spin-dependent structure functions, which are independent of the two spin-averaged structure functions and define the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Since both quarks and gluons possess spin and the forces between them are spin dependent, we can expect important information on these forces and on nucleon structure to be obtained through the study of the spindependent aspects of the nucleon wave function, as has been the case before in atomic and nuclear physics

  19. Internal corrosion control of northern pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papavinasam, S.

    2005-02-01

    The general causes of internal corrosion in pipelines were discussed along with the methods to control them. Efficient methods are needed to determine chemical efficiency for mitigating internal corrosion in transmission pipelines, particularly those used in environmentally sensitive regions in the Arctic where harsh environmental conditions prevail. According to the Office of Pipeline Safety, 15 per cent of pipeline failures in the United States from 1994 to 2000 were caused by internal corrosion. Since pipelines in the United States are slightly older than Canadian pipelines, internal corrosion is a significant issue from a Canadian perspective. There are 306,618 km of energy-related pipelines in western Canada. Between April 2001 and March 2002 there were 808 failures, of which 425 failures resulted from internal corrosion. The approach to control internal corrosion comprises of dehydrating the gases at production facilities; controlling the quality of corrosive gases such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide; and, using internal coatings. The approaches to control internal corrosion are appropriate, when supplemented by adequate integrity management program to ensure that corrosive liquids do not collect, over the operational lifetime of the pipelines, at localized areas. It was suggested that modeling of pipeline operations may need improvement. This paper described the causes, prediction and control of internal pitting corrosion. It was concluded that carbon steel equipment can continue to be used reliably and safely as pipeline materials for northern pipelines if the causes that lead to internal corrosion are scientifically and accurately predicted, and if corrosion inhibitors are properly evaluated and applied. 5 figs.

  20. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  1. Differential Internalization Rates and Postendocytic Sorting of the Norepinephrine and Dopamine Transporters Are Controlled by Structural Elements in the N Termini*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorenpää, Anne; Jørgensen, Trine N.; Newman, Amy H.; Madsen, Kenneth L.; Scheinin, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) mediates reuptake of synaptically released norepinephrine in central and peripheral noradrenergic neurons. The molecular processes governing availability of NET in the plasma membrane are poorly understood. Here we use the fluorescent cocaine analogue JHC 1-64, as well as several other approaches, to investigate the trafficking itinerary of NET in live noradrenergic neurons. Confocal imaging revealed extensive constitutive internalization of JHC 1-64-labeled NET in the neuronal somata, proximal extensions and presynaptic boutons. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased intracellular accumulation of JHC 1-64-labeled NET and caused a parallel reduction in uptake capacity. Internalized NET strongly colocalized with the “long loop” recycling marker Rab11, whereas less overlap was seen with the “short loop” recycling marker Rab4 and the late endosomal marker Rab7. Moreover, mitigating Rab11 function by overexpression of dominant negative Rab11 impaired NET function. Sorting of NET to the Rab11 recycling compartment was further supported by confocal imaging and reversible biotinylation experiments in transfected differentiated CATH.a cells. In contrast to NET, the dopamine transporter displayed markedly less constitutive internalization and limited sorting to the Rab11 recycling compartment in the differentiated CATH.a cells. Exchange of domains between the two homologous transporters revealed that this difference was determined by non-conserved structural elements in the intracellular N terminus. We conclude that NET displays a distinct trafficking itinerary characterized by continuous shuffling between the plasma membrane and the Rab11 recycling compartment and that the functional integrity of the Rab11 compartment is critical for maintaining proper presynaptic NET function. PMID:26786096

  2. Differential Internalization Rates and Postendocytic Sorting of the Norepinephrine and Dopamine Transporters Are Controlled by Structural Elements in the N Termini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorenpää, Anne Elina; Jørgensen, Trine Nygaard; Newman, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    . Moreover, mitigating Rab11 function by overexpression of dominant negative Rab11 impaired NET function. Sorting of NET to the Rab11 recycling compartment was further supported by confocal imaging and reversible biotinylation experiments in transfected differentiated CATH.a cells. In contrast to NET......, the dopamine transporter displayed markedly less constitutive internalization and limited sorting to the Rab11 recycling compartment in the differentiated CATH.a cells. Exchange of domains between the two homologous transporters revealed that this difference was determined by non-conserved structural elements...... in the intracellular N terminus. We conclude that NET displays a distinct trafficking itinerary characterized by continuous shuffling between the plasma membrane and the Rab11 recycling compartment and that the functional integrity of the Rab11 compartment is critical for maintaining proper presynaptic NET function....

  3. Atomic structures and compositions of internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, D.N. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Merkle, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This research program addresses fundamental questions concerning the relationships between atomic structures and chemical compositions of metal/ceramic heterophase interfaces. The chemical composition profile across a Cu/MgO {l brace}111{r brace}-type heterophase interface, produced by the internal oxidation of a Cu(Mg) single phase alloy, is measured via atom-probe field-ion microscopy with a spatial resolution of 0.121 nm; this resolution is equal to the interplanar space of the {l brace}222{r brace} MgO planes. In particular, we demonstrate for the first time that the bonding across a Cu/MgO {l brace}111{r brace}-type heterophase interface, along a <111> direction common to both the Cu matrix and an MgO precipitate, has the sequence Cu{vert bar}O{vert bar}Mg{hor ellipsis} and not Cu{vert bar}Mg{vert bar}O{hor ellipsis}; this result is achieved without any deconvolution of the experimental data. Before determining this chemical sequence it was established, via high resolution electron microscopy, that the morphology of an MgO precipitate in a Cu matrix is an octahedron faceted on {l brace}111{r brace} planes with a cube-on-cube relationship between a precipitate and the matrix. First results are also presented for the Ni/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} interface; for this system selected area atom probe microscopy was used to analyze this interface; Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} precipitates are located in a field-ion microscope tip and a precipitate is brought into the tip region via a highly controlled electropolishing technique.

  4. The Environmental Action Internal Control Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1994-01-01

    Reports research designed to develop a reliable and valid instrument to assess the relationship between locus of control of reinforcement and environmentally responsible behavior in (n=853) undergraduate students. Results suggest that the Environmental Action Internal Control Index can accurately predict environmentally responsible behavior.…

  5. PERFORMANCE IN INTERNAL CONTROL AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    JELER (POPA) IOANA; FOCŞAN ELEONORA IONELA; CORICI MARIAN CĂTĂLIN

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of internal control and risk management. In practice, economic entities meet a variety of risks that have the origins from the internal environment or the external one. Although there are different of views on addressing the concept of risk - threats or opportunities, event or action, accordingly uncertain, proposed by specialists in risk management in this article we try to present these issues and identify techniques to ...

  6. Internal Control Good Cooperative Governance And Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andry Arifian Rachman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of internal control and good cooperative governance partially and simultaneously to the performance of cooperatives in West Java Province. The research method used in this research is descriptive and verification. The sample in this research is 22 boards as manager of cooperative in West Java Province. The data used in the research is the primary data through questionnaire collection. Validity and reliability testing is performed before hypothesis testing. This research uses multiple regression analysis technique. Based on hypothesis testing obtained 1 internal control has no significant effect on performance 2 good cooperative governance has a significant effect on performance and 3 internal control and good cooperative governance have a significant effect on performance.

  7. Meta-Strategies of the Internal Control Development within the Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Voronko

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the influence of external and internal environment of the organization on the structure of the internal control system. A critical analysis is made on existing scientific researches and practice of setting internal control within the organizations. Determined the cause-and-effect relationship between the stages of development of the industry and business, on the one hand, and the development of the internal control structure on the other hand. It made it p...

  8. Efficacy of internal control and controlling business risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies can gain additional efficiency in designing and implementing or assessing internal control by focusing on only those financial reporting objectives directly applicable to the company’s activities and circumstances, taking a risk based approach to internal control. It is important for any organization to have reliable financial data for internal decision-making purpose. Financial information is often useful in many internal decisions such as product or service pricing. This is why the most important function of the controller is to create and maintain the corporate financial control system. Today’s corporation operates in an increasingly complex environment and the controller’s role is to advice the management of current or future problems of the business environment or to prevent the fraud.

  9. Earthquake design for controlled structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos G. Pnevmatikos

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An alternative design philosophy, for structures equipped with control devices, capable to resist an expected earthquake while remaining in the elastic range, is described. The idea is that a portion of the earthquake loading is under¬taken by the control system and the remaining by the structure which is designed to resist elastically. The earthquake forces assuming elastic behavior (elastic forces and elastoplastic behavior (design forces are first calculated ac¬cording to the codes. The required control forces are calculated as the difference from elastic to design forces. The maximum value of capacity of control devices is then compared to the required control force. If the capacity of the control devices is larger than the required control force then the control devices are accepted and installed in the structure and the structure is designed according to the design forces. If the capacity is smaller than the required control force then a scale factor, α, reducing the elastic forces to new design forces is calculated. The structure is redesigned and devices are installed. The proposed procedure ensures that the structure behaves elastically (without damage for the expected earthquake at no additional cost, excluding that of buying and installing the control devices.

  10. The international uranium market - structure and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oe.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the international uranium market is immature and is subject to factors of a political, rather than economic nature. This is due largely to potential military exploitation, which has led USA, Canada and Australia to adopt a restrictive export policy. South Africa and France, on the other hand have a more liberal attitude. The history of the market, and the development of U308 prices are then discussed and related to the phases in the commercial exploitation of nuclear power. The present market structure is described, both international and within Canada, USA, Australia, South Africa and France. The future demand is then discussed, assuming three levels of demand and various price categories. It is shown that the demand will be only slightly influenced by moderate to large increases in price, assuming price rises for coal and oil. It is concluded that the price can rise to $400-500/pound U308. (JIW)

  11. Maxwell-Higgs vortices with internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2018-05-01

    Vortices are considered in relativistic Maxwell-Higgs systems in interaction with a neutral scalar field. The gauge field interacts with the neutral field via the presence of generalized permeability, and the charged and neutral scalar fields interact in a way dictated by the presence of first order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. The neutral field may be seen as the source field of the vortex, and we study some possibilities, which modify the standard Maxwell-Higgs solution and include internal structure to the vortex.

  12. Argue internal audit on how to promote the nuclear power enterprise internal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    In order to strengthen and standardize enterprise internal control, improve the management level and risk prevention ability, five departments jointly established the basic rules of internal control in enterprises, large and medium-sized enterprises as the national power enterprise, the enterprise internal audit executive power in strengthening and perfecting internal control, and in the enterprise internal control of play an active role. (author)

  13. Nuclear reactor internals with control elements guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baujat, J.; Chevereau, G.

    1991-01-01

    The internals have a lower plate, a superior plate, support columns and guide tubes for the control rods displacements. The lower section of the control rod guide tube have a base that fits into a bevelled seat in the lower plate. The guide tube is held into the seat by a spring, compressed between the base of the upper section of the tube and the lower plate

  14. Climatic changes, the international control stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maljean-Dubois, S.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a juridical and economic analysis of the control mechanism called ''observance'' of the Kyoto protocol. This political and juridical innovation in the domain of the international agreements on the environment deals with the national sovereignty and the economical development mode. (A.L.B.)

  15. International Telecommunication Control: International Law and the Ordering of Satellite and Other Forms of International Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delbert D.

    The need for and the available alternatives for international telecommunication controls are examined, and a functional approach to this area of law is offered. Information from a number of areas is collected and examined as it relates to the basic problem. These areas include general principles of international law, the activities of the…

  16. A reexamination and extension of international strategy-structure theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Joachim; Egelhoff, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Using a sample of 95 German firms, the study finds general support for the traditional fits of international strategy-structure theory. Employing an information-processing perspective, the study conceptually and empirically extends existing theory (1) to address strategy-structure fit for various types of matrix structure, and (2) by adding two new elements of international strategy to the existing international strategy-structure model: the level of international transfers and level of forei...

  17. The Glioma International Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amirian, E. Susan; Armstrong, Georgina N; Zhou, Renke

    2016-01-01

    Decades of research have established only a few etiological factors for glioma, which is a rare and highly fatal brain cancer. Common methodological challenges among glioma studies include small sample sizes, heterogeneity of tumor subtypes, and retrospective exposure assessment. Here, we briefly...... describe the Glioma International Case-Control (GICC) Study (recruitment, 2010-2013), a study being conducted by the Genetic Epidemiology of Glioma International Consortium that integrates data from multiple data collection sites, uses a common protocol and questionnaire, and includes biospecimen...

  18. Specificity of continuous auditing approach on information technology internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business world, can not be imagined without the use of information technology in all aspects of business. The use of information technology in manufacturing and non-production companies' activities can greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of operation and control. Because of its complexity, they possess vulnerable areas and provide space for the emergence of accidental and intentional frauds that can significantly materially affect the business decisions made by the companies' management. Implementation of internal controls can greatly reduce the level of errors that can contribute to making the wrong decisions. In order to protect the operating system, the company's management implement an internal audit to periodically examine the fundamental quality of the internal control systems. Since the internal audit, according to its character, only periodically checks quality of internal control systems and information technologies to be reported to the manager, the problem arises in the process of in wrong time reporting the management structures of the business entity. To eliminate this problem, management implements a special approach to internal audit, called continuous auditing.

  19. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josyula, Eswar; Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream

  20. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF ROMANIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of structural changes in Romanian trade is somewhat interesting if you look at it from the perspective of mutations that occurred in the categories of goods and services subject to international trade. After the Revolution of 1989, the Romanian economy has gone through dramatic changes that had determinate a total reconfiguration of foreign trade. At the same time, the economic instability has had further repercussions on the Romanian economy manifested through higher prices, reduced wages or earnings, reduced employment and rising unemployment, increasing interest rates on loans due to the devaluation of the national currency, increase value-added tax, consumption reduction etc. We proposed in this paper an analyze for a significant period of time evolution of international trade in goods and services of Romania in order to establish the main categories of goods traded but Romania's main trading partners, too. In order to achieve the central goal of this paper we will use statistical data found in the databases provided by the WTO, Eurostat and the National Statistical Institutes and statistical methods to support our initiative.

  1. Structural analysis of the Upper Internals Structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) provides control of core outlet flow to prevent severe thermal transients from occuring at the reactor vessel and primary heat transport outlet piping, provides instrumentation to monitor core performance, provides support for the control rod drivelines, and provides secondary holddown of the core. All of the structural analysis aspects of assuring the UIS is structurally adequate are presented including simplified and rigorous inelastic analysis methods, elevated temperature criteria, environmental effects on material properties, design techniques, and manufacturing constraints

  2. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  3. Internal control in an EDI environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Dal Hyeoung

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. Electronic Data Interchange(EDI) is the electronic transmission of standard business documents in machine-readable format between parent companies and respective trading partners. As the use of EDI has grown, there have been the associated risks due to an uncontrolled environment. Accordingly, the necessity for effective internal controls in an EDI environment is on the rise. This thesis evaluates and analyzes the feasi...

  4. Internal control activities in small Turkish companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Bilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present major outcomes from an empirical study concerning internal control activities in small Turkish companies, as to propose the improvement guidelines. Methods of analysis and synthesis, descriptive statistics, and statistical comparison were used. The collected data was processed with the help of the SPSS software. Тhe study is limited to organizations based in the European part of Turkey. Most of them operate in areas around large cities, such as Istanbul, Edirne, Kırklareli, and Tekirdağ. They employ on average 19-20 people and have a turnover of about TRY 3 million (≈€715,000, https://sdw.ecb.europa.eu on average. The survey concentrates mainly on small family businesses, which have been present on the market for more than ten years, with managers of good education and other characteristics that presuppose availability of internal control systems. The research results were used to compile main points of a SWOT analysis, as a part of the broader effort to help modernizing the internal control system in Turkish small businesses.

  5. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  6. Internal structure of reactor building for Madras Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    The structural configuration and analysis of structural elements of the internal structure of reactor building for the Madras Atomic Power Project has been presented. Two methods of analysis of the internal structure, viz. Equivalent Plane Frame and Finite Element Method, are explained and compared with the use of bending moments obtained. (author)

  7. Event Structure and Cognitive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, Jason F.; Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Lorsbach, Thomas C.; Armendarez, Joseph J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research has demonstrated that although everyday experience is continuous in nature, it is parsed into separate events. The aim of the present study was to examine whether event structure can influence the effectiveness of cognitive control. Across five experiments we varied the structure of events within the AX-CPT by shifting the spatial location of cues and probes on a computer screen. When location shifts were present, a pattern of AX-CPT performance consistent w...

  8. Implementation guide of internal contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balter, Henia; Savio, Eduardo; Souto, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    A review of current methods of contamination control for radioisotopes 131I, 125I and 99mTc, periodic control of personnel exposed to radiation.Maximum permissible body burden (Mpbb) for each radionuclide,radiotoxicity as danger of internal contamination directly related with Let, type of radiation,Ali values for various radionuclides and external irradiation as an opposed factor.Effective half life,examples, 99mTc in urine,iodine in thyroid caption, 99m Tc absorption by skin and mouth. Procedure of control and calculation by measurement of urine samples in a gamma spectrometer. Iodine thyroid caption by monitoring of thyroid with a solid NaI(TI)scintillator taking as background radiation the activity of upper leg muscle. Standard solutions are prepared to fill a thyroid phantoms.Results must not be higher than Mpbb of corresponding radionuclide.Bibliography

  9. 49 CFR 192.477 - Internal corrosion control: Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. 192.477... Control § 192.477 Internal corrosion control: Monitoring. If corrosive gas is being transported, coupons... internal corrosion. Each coupon or other means of monitoring internal corrosion must be checked two times...

  10. PERFORMANCE IN INTERNAL CONTROL AND RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELER (POPA IOANA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of internal control and risk management. In practice, economic entities meet a variety of risks that have the origins from the internal environment or the external one. Although there are different of views on addressing the concept of risk - threats or opportunities, event or action, accordingly uncertain, proposed by specialists in risk management in this article we try to present these issues and identify techniques to counter risks occurrence. In this article we present also means managing risk and why needs to be implemented at institutional level a risk management. The paper concludes by highlight the role of efficient risk management in the company’s management and company's activities.

  11. Importance of Internal Audit and Internal Control in an organization - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bubilek, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This research is a descriptive case study of a company. It presents concepts of the internal audit and internal control based on an example of a Finnish company. The research examines the role and importance that internal audit and internal controls have in an organization. The main research question is “What is the role and importance of internal audit and internal control in an organization” Additional sub-questions relating to the case company that will allow for better understanding of...

  12. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF STATE INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL AND INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Voronchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the innovative aspects of development of state internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in terms of the budgeting focused on result. A mechanism for implementing the functions of the Supervisory bodies in order to ensure the effi cient use of budgetary funds and eff ectiveness of budget expenditures. The main purpose of the article is justifi cation of implementing systems of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit in the structures of the major administrators and recipients of budgetary funds, with the allocation of the basic tools that ensure the functioning of the control mechanism, the combination of control procedures and sequence of their implementation. Methodological base of research is the generalization of domestic and foreign experience of internal fi nancial control and internal fi nancial audit, refl ecting an objective law and the necessity of development of state fi nancial control system in the conditions of innovative economy. The result of the implementation of the proposed mechanism and instruments for its implementation in key spending units and recipients of budget funds should be to ensure the eff ectiveness of the implementation of government programmes and projects. Signifi cance of the research contained in the article problems and their solutions is to ensure the effectiveness of the regulatory authorities at all stages of movement of budgetary funds and effective implementation of their Manager and recipient assigned to them socio-economic functions.

  13. Direct experimental determination of the atomic structure at internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Pennycook, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A crucial first step in understanding the effect that internal interfaces have on the properties of materials is the ability to determine the atomic structure at the interface. As interfaces can contain atomic disorder, dislocations, segregated impurities and interphases, sensitivity to all of these features is essential for complete experimental characterization. By combining Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), the ability to probe the structure, bonding and composition at interfaces with the necessary atomic resolution has been obtained. Experimental conditions can be controlled to provide, simultaneously, both incoherent imaging and spectroscopy. This enables interface structures observed in the image to be interpreted intuitively and the bonding in a specified atomic column to be probed directly by EELS. The bonding and structure information can then be correlated using bond-valence sum analysis to produce structural models. This technique is demonstrated for 25{degrees}, 36{degrees} and 67{degrees} symmetric and 45{degrees} and 25{degrees} asymmetric [001] tilt grain boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3} The structures of both types of boundary were found to contain partially occupied columns in the boundary plane. From these experimental results, a series of structural units were identified which could be combined, using continuity of gain boundary structure principles, to construct all [001] tilt boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3}. Using these models, the ability of this technique to address the issues of vacancies and dopant segregation at grain boundaries in electroceramics is discussed.

  14. The Principles of Organization of Internal Control of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panteleiev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The question to give a convincing assessment of the Rules of the internal controls and present them in the form of principles of organization of internal control. Since the final decision in the form of an exhaustive list and universal principles of internal control is no scientific research continues these principles. It is necessary to examine the logic of the main provisions of the organization's internal control due consideration of the requirements of international practice controls and propose principles of internal control. For this purpose, conducted a critical analysis of the main provisions of internal controls contained in the publications and in the regulations on internal control proceedings. Synthesis of articles of authors of lead scientific and practical journal Ukraine "Accounting and Auditing" for the 1994-2015 biennium pointed out that despite the coverage of current journal articles provisions, principles, requirements, rules and other modern techniques. On internal control and comprehensive set of reasonable response to the organization and classification of internal control is absent. This leads to continue the search key components of the organization's internal control. The above basic concepts in publications on the organization of internal control were used in the formation of a set of principles of control. According to the requirements of the OECD field of internal control includes risk management, cost control, change in control, complete information to guarantee the effectiveness of internal control systems, providing the ability to make decisions and so on. COSO model contains an exhaustive list of five components. The results of the questionnaire trainees have provided compelling arguments for classifying and establishing relevant principles of organization and internal controls were rejected. A list of the basic principles of the organization of internal control, which consists of 25 elements that are shaped

  15. International consensus principles for ethical wildlife control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Sara; Fenwick, Nicole; Ryan, Erin A; Baker, Liv; Baker, Sandra E; Beausoleil, Ngaio J; Carter, Scott; Cartwright, Barbara; Costa, Federico; Draper, Chris; Griffin, John; Grogan, Adam; Howald, Gregg; Jones, Bidda; Littin, Kate E; Lombard, Amanda T; Mellor, David J; Ramp, Daniel; Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David

    2017-08-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human-wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles through a facilitated engagement process and discussion. They determined that efforts to control wildlife should begin wherever possible by altering the human practices that cause human-wildlife conflict and by developing a culture of coexistence; be justified by evidence that significant harms are being caused to people, property, livelihoods, ecosystems, and/or other animals; have measurable outcome-based objectives that are clear, achievable, monitored, and adaptive; predictably minimize animal welfare harms to the fewest number of animals; be informed by community values as well as scientific, technical, and practical information; be integrated into plans for systematic long-term management; and be based on the specifics of the situation rather than negative labels (pest, overabundant) applied to the target species. We recommend that these principles guide development of international, national, and local standards and control decisions and implementation. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Event structure and cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Jason F; Radvansky, Gabriel A; Lorsbach, Thomas C; Armendarez, Joseph J

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a great deal of research has demonstrated that although everyday experience is continuous in nature, it is parsed into separate events. The aim of the present study was to examine whether event structure can influence the effectiveness of cognitive control. Across 5 experiments we varied the structure of events within the AX-CPT by shifting the spatial location of cues and probes on a computer screen. When location shifts were present, a pattern of AX-CPT performance consistent with enhanced cognitive control was found. To test whether the location shift effects were caused by the presence of event boundaries per se, other aspects of the AX-CPT were manipulated, such as the color of cues and probes and the inclusion of a distractor task during the cue-probe delay. Changes in cognitive control were not found under these conditions, suggesting that the location shift effects were specifically related to the formation of separate event models. Together, these results can be accounted for by the Event Horizon Model and a representation-based theory of cognitive control, and suggest that cognitive control can be influenced by the surrounding environmental structure. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Internal Controlling of a Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewer, W; Busch, H P

    2015-11-01

    Caused by legal reform initiatives there is a continuous need to increase effectiveness and efficiency in hospitals and surgeries, and thus to improve processes.Consequently the successful management of radiological departments and surgeries requires suitable structures and optimization processes to make optimization in the fields of medical quality, service quality and efficiency possible.In future in the DRG System it is necessary that the organisation of processes must focus on the whole clinical treatment of the patients (Clinical Pathways). Therefore the functions of controlling must be more established and adjusted. On the basis of select Controlling instruments like budgeting, performance indicators, process optimization, staff controlling and benchmarking the target-based and efficient control of radiological surgeries and departments is shown. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mediavilla, F.

    2000-01-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  19. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  20. 47 CFR 90.473 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.473 Operation of internal transmitter control systems through licensed fixed control points. An internal transmitter control system may be operated...

  1. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  2. Internal cost control on the ecological quality of products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Syroid

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the environmental quality of products due attention should be paid to control the processes related to environmental quality input of the product. The results of the study help to state the purpose and objectives of the control, also to define objects for internal control of operations cost of environmental quality. So, we believe that the main purpose of internal cost control on the ecological quality of products is the establishment of the correctness and legality of business operations, prevention of violations and abuses in the expenditure of natural, labour, material and financial resources to ensure the minimization of negative impact on the health of consumers and the environment. The basic objectives of internal control of expenditure are brought forward, but it should be noted that they can vary and depend on the size, structure, spheres and types of economic activity of the enterprise, the requirements of management personnel. In the process of identifying the objects of control of environmental quality it should be noted that this list is not exhaustive, but it is most relevant to highlight objects such as genetically modified organisms and waste production. Also the subjects of cost control to environmental quality, their functions and the information base for monitoring are determined. Proper organization of the process of internal cost control on the ecological quality of products would benefit from a clear documentation of transactions, timely and complete registration of accounting data in the registers, the true reflection of information in managerial financial reporting and ensure reduction of the negative impact on the health of consumers and the environment.

  3. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  4. 49 CFR 193.2631 - Internal corrosion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control. 193.2631 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2631 Internal corrosion control. Each component that is subject to internal corrosive attack must be protected from internal corrosion by— (a...

  5. Corruption and internal control weaknesses. Case study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa IONESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Corruption represents one of the major causes of poverty all over the world and European Union is fighting against it. In the last few years, the corruption phenomenon registered a high level in some European countries and became one of the most problematic factors for doing business, due to the evolution of the perceived top five global risks: interstate conflict and regional consequences, extreme weather events, failure of national governance, state collapse or crises, high structural unemployment or underemployment              (WEF-Global Risk Report 2015, p. 14. One of the modalities in combating corruption is implementing the internal control and most of the governments and organizations adopted strong control techniques. Most of the control weaknesses are related to the financial procedures and the number of controllers. Some of the controllers do not have enough financial expertise or do not understand the importance of informatics systems.

  6. National Transportation Safety Board : weak internal control impaired financial accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-28

    The U. S. General Accounting Office (GAO) was asked to review the National Transportation Safety Board's (NTSB) internal controls over selected types of fiscal year expenditures. They were asked to determine whether internal control weaknesses were a...

  7. Trajectory-tracking control of underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals using Time Delay Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joon-Young; Cho, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the trajectory control problem of an underwater inspection robot for nuclear reactor internals. From the viewpoint of control engineering, the trajectory control of the underwater robot is a difficult task due to its nonlinear dynamics, which includes various hydraulic forces such as buoyancy and hydrodynamic damping, the difference between the centres of gravity and buoyancy, and disturbances from a tether cable. To solve such problems, we applied Time Delay Control to the underwater robot. This control law has a very simple structure not requiring nonlinear plant dynamics, and was proven to be highly robust against nonlinearities, uncertainties and disturbances. We confirmed its effectiveness through experiments.

  8. Internal quality control: planning and implementation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgard, James O

    2003-11-01

    The first essential in setting up internal quality control (IQC) of a test procedure in the clinical laboratory is to select the proper IQC procedure to implement, i.e. choosing the statistical criteria or control rules, and the number of control measurements, according to the quality required for the test and the observed performance of the method. Then the right IQC procedure must be properly implemented. This review focuses on strategies for planning and implementing IQC procedures in order to improve the quality of the IQC. A quantitative planning process is described that can be implemented with graphical tools such as power function or critical-error graphs and charts of operating specifications. Finally, a total QC strategy is formulated to minimize cost and maximize quality. A general strategy for IQC implementation is recommended that employs a three-stage design in which the first stage provides high error detection, the second stage low false rejection and the third stage prescribes the length of the analytical run, making use of an algorithm involving the average of normal patients' data.

  9. Nuclear power proliferation. Problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B [International Inst. for Environment and Development, London (UK)

    1977-09-01

    The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical and ethical aspects are blended inextricably. Nuclear hardware costs have everywhere soared far beyond inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in programme completion arising from problems of reactor and fuel cycle. Meanwhile, partly as a result of this cost escalation, there is widespread and growing doubt as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall - but particularly nuclear - energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels which might reassure both concerned publics and the energy industries themselves. This paper appraises some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power.

  10. Nuclear power proliferation: problems of international control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, B

    1977-09-01

    Some of the present limitations of international institutions in achieving control and management of nuclear power are reviewed and appraised. The nuclear industry is experiencing a multiple crisis in which economic, technical, and ethical aspects are blended. Nuclear hardware costs have increased faster than inflation in the last five years, largely as a result of delays in program completion arising from reactor and fuel-cycle safety problems. Meanwhile, there is a widespread and growing doubt, partly as a result of this cost escalation, as to whether capital will be available to finance the electricity-generating levels projected by the industry and by governments for the 1990s. The nuclear industry is now in trouble at every stage of the fuel cycle. The industry's difficulties have also revealed a lack of overall--but particularly nuclear--energy strategy at either national or international levels, and a lack of will to create regulations and institutional machinery at either of these levels that could reassure the concerned public and the energy industries.

  11. 48 CFR 719.273-10 - Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal controls. 719.273...égé Program 719.273-10 Internal controls. (a) OSDBU will oversee the Program and will work in... objectives. OSDBU will establish internal controls as checks and balances applicable to the Program. These...

  12. 12 CFR 1731.5 - Internal controls, procedures, and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal controls, procedures, and training... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS MORTGAGE FRAUD REPORTING § 1731.5 Internal controls, procedures, and training. An Enterprise shall establish adequate and efficient internal controls and...

  13. 49 CFR 192.475 - Internal corrosion control: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: General. 192.475... Control § 192.475 Internal corrosion control: General. (a) Corrosive gas may not be transported by... taken to minimize internal corrosion. (b) Whenever any pipe is removed from a pipeline for any reason...

  14. 15 CFR 752.11 - Internal Control Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal Control Programs. 752.11... COMPREHENSIVE LICENSE § 752.11 Internal Control Programs. (a) Scope—(1) Introduction. It is through Internal Control Programs (ICPs) that the SCL holder and the consignee assure that exports and reexports are not...

  15. Measures for the capitalization of internal control activity performed on the entity's financial and accounting activities

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Maria Tilea; Dragos Zaharia

    2013-01-01

    In the organization of internal control flexibility is required because if a rule is too rigid or no longer current it can leads to inefficiency. Current organizational complexity involving the private sector to organize a system of internal control to fold on this, which can cover a territory so expanded and a wide variety of activities. Thus, the Company's internal controls is exercised at the level of each structure and because of the importance and implications of the financial ones are h...

  16. Analyzing the Structure of the International Business Curriculum in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the structure of the international business curriculum through a questionnaire-based survey among current students and young managers who are studying or have studied international business courses in one of the top B-Schools of India. Respondents have the opinion that international business is more than internationalization…

  17. Structured control for autonomous robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    To operate in rich, dynamic environments, autonomous robots must be able to effectively utilize and coordinate their limited physical and occupational resources. As complexity increases, it becomes necessary to impose explicit constraints on the control of planning, perception, and action to ensure that unwanted interactions between behaviors do not occur. This paper advocates developing complex robot systems by layering reactive behaviors onto deliberative components. In this structured control approach, the deliberative components handle normal situations and the reactive behaviors, which are explicitly constrained as to when and how they are activated, handle exceptional situations. The Task Control Architecture (TCA) has been developed to support this approach. TCA provides an integrated set of control constructs useful for implementing deliberative and reactive behaviors. The control constructs facilitate modular and evolutionary system development: they are used to integrate and coordinate planning, perception, and execution, and to incrementally improve the efficiency and robustness of the robot systems. To date, TCA has been used in implementing a half-dozen mobile robot systems, including an autonomous six-legged rover and indoor mobile manipulator

  18. Internal Targeting and External Control: Phototriggered Targeting in Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrue, Lily; Ratjen, Lars

    2017-12-07

    The photochemical control of structure and reactivity bears great potential for chemistry, biology, and life sciences. A key feature of photochemistry is the spatiotemporal control over secondary events. Well-established applications of photochemistry in medicine are photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photopharmacology (PP). However, although both are highly localizable through the application of light, they lack cell- and tissue-specificity. The combination of nanomaterial-based drug delivery and targeting has the potential to overcome limitations for many established therapy concepts. Even more privileged seems the merger of nanomedicine and cell-specific targeting (internal targeting) controlled by light (external control), as it can potentially be applied to many different areas of medicine and pharmaceutical research, including the aforementioned PDT and PP. In this review a survey of the interface of photochemistry, medicine and targeted drug delivery is given, especially focusing on phototriggered targeting in nanomedicine. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. International pollution control: Cooperative versus noncooperative strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dockner, E.J.; Van Long, N.

    1993-01-01

    International pollution control involving two neighboring countries is modeled as a simple two-player dynamic game. Each country produces a good that is consumed by domestic households. Production of each consumption good results in emissions of pollutants. Households in each country derive utility from the consumption of the domestically produced good but incur costs through the total stock of pollution (stock externality). In this setting we characterize cooperative as well as noncooperative pollution control strategies of the governments of the two countries that maximize the discounted stream of net benefits of a representative consumer. It turns out that when the governments are restricted to use linear strategies noncooperative behavior results in overall losses for both countries. If, on the contrary, governments use nonlinear Markov-perfect strategies and the discount rate is small enough a Pareto-efficient steady-state pollution stock can be supported as a differentiable subgame-perfect equilibrium. Thus, the emergence of first-best solutions (cooperative outcomes) does not require any institutional arrangements (threats, retaliation, etc.) but can be brought about through the use of nonlinear Markov-perfect equilibrium strategies. 20 refs., 1 tab

  20. Improvement of internal book-keeping control at company "Balttranslaine"

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodinska, Aļona

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis "Internal Accounting Control Improvement in Ltd."Balttranslaine"" is designed to determine the potential and directions for improving accounting controls Ltd. "Balttranslaine". The paper assesses Ltd. "Balttranslaine" internal accounting control system and develops proposals for its improvement, based on research on accounting control nature and its place in the overall company's internal control system, as well as the Latvian laws and regulations for construction and maint...

  1. Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of Effective Internal Control System in Nigerian Banks. ... (21) chief internal auditors of selected recapitalized banks currently operating in Port Harcourt. ... can be carried out, high level ethical standards should be enshrined in Nigerian banks to make internal control more effective. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Darlington GS vacuum building - internal structures and foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.; Brown, D.G.; Yanchula, S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the internal structure from initial concept to final design. Fundamental changes to the original configuration were precipitated by the action of large seismic forces acting on a top-heavy configuration. Prestressing was eliminated in deference to high humidity. Aspects of the elevated water tank's peripheral support beam are discussed vis-a-vis an adjacent slipforming operation, and practical construction limitations on steel placement. Also reviewed are the shortening of peripheral columns due to shrinkage and creep, and considerations of crack control for purposes of water-tightness. The authors justify the choice of stainless steel for fabrication of the siphon system's riser pipes. The foundation slab must resist the combined effects of vacuum pressure, hydrostatic uplift, and the seismic reactions of the internal structure and perimeter wall. The dependency of a key foundation component, the gallery roof slab, on the dome tendon layout is high-lighted; and aspects of its constructability are reviewed in light of congestion of vertical tendon anchorages, and of reinforcement. The design of the air-tight slab liner is reviewed, attention focusing on weld design under vacuum and accident temperature loads; on corrosion protection; and on the related construction access bulkhead - its ASME requirements and fabrication tolerances. (orig.)

  3. Internal control in non - agricultural cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda García Castro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation of non-agricultural cooperatives in Cuba, has been a step forward for the Cuban economy, provide primary care represents economic sustainability for the country. A necessary tool for achieving quality in the provision of services and products, it represents the audit process. In this sense the present work was aimed in the Council of the Provincial Administration, in order to strengthen the functioning of non-agricultural cooperatives. Theoretical and empirical methods, techniques, surveys and interviews with leaders and workers, aimed to assess the knowledge, applications for the creation of cooperatives, processing, approval, establishment and operation, based on guidelines established in internal control were applied; and descriptive statistics for processing information, which identified the important work that developed the organization, which was able to promote the operation of non-agricultural cooperatives, as well as the tools necessary for the production of income and consequently improve the quality of services. The diagnosis made it possible to identify the point in the process, so disruption to the operation. Undoubtedly, every experiment needs time to mature and gain experience, besides confirming Waste Disposal workers cooperatives and agencies to jump-start this process. Improvement measures were implemented in order to increase the economic efficiency of each process, in response to various guidelines of Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution, adopted at the Sixth Party Congress and Conference Objectives.

  4. Active control of noise radiation from vibrating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkholt, Jakob

    developed, based on the theory of radiation filters for estimating the sound radiation from multimodal vibrations. This model has then been used in simulations of optimal feedback control, with special emphasis of the stability margins of the optimal control scheme. Two different methods of designing...... optimal and robust discrete-time feedback controllers for active vibration control of multimodal structures have been compared. They have been showed to yield controllers with identical frequency response characteristics, even though they employ completely different methods of numerical solutions...... and result in different representations of the controllers. The Internal Model Control structure combined with optimal filtering is suggested as an alternative to state space optimal control techniques for designing robust optimal controllers for audio frequency vibration control of resonant structures....

  5. Vibration control of active structures an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Preumont, Andre

    2002-01-01

    This text is an introduction to the dynamics of active structures and to the feedback control of lightly damped flexible structures. The emphasis is placed on basic issues and simple control strategies that work.

  6. Integrated Control Using the SOFFT Control Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo, Nesim

    1996-01-01

    The need for integrated/constrained control systems has become clearer as advanced aircraft introduced new coupled subsystems such as new propulsion subsystems with thrust vectoring and new aerodynamic designs. In this study, we develop an integrated control design methodology which accomodates constraints among subsystem variables while using the Stochastic Optimal Feedforward/Feedback Control Technique (SOFFT) thus maintaining all the advantages of the SOFFT approach. The Integrated SOFFT Control methodology uses a centralized feedforward control and a constrained feedback control law. The control thus takes advantage of the known coupling among the subsystems while maintaining the identity of subsystems for validation purposes and the simplicity of the feedback law to understand the system response in complicated nonlinear scenarios. The Variable-Gain Output Feedback Control methodology (including constant gain output feedback) is extended to accommodate equality constraints. A gain computation algorithm is developed. The designer can set the cross-gains between two variables or subsystems to zero or another value and optimize the remaining gains subject to the constraint. An integrated control law is designed for a modified F-15 SMTD aircraft model with coupled airframe and propulsion subsystems using the Integrated SOFFT Control methodology to produce a set of desired flying qualities.

  7. International Good Market Segmentation and Financial Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Suleyman; Croitoru, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    While financial markets have recently become more complete and international capital flows well liberalized, markets for goods remain segmented. To investigate how more complete security markets may relieve the effects of this segmentation, we examine a series of two-country economies with internationally segmented good markets, distinguished by the available financial securities. We show that, under heterogeneity within countries, the financial structure matters: even with internationally co...

  8. 77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...

  9. 22 CFR 96.32 - Internal structure and oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accreditation and Approval Licensing and Corporate Governance § 96.32 Internal structure and oversight. (a) The... number of such other provider; and (3) The name, address, and phone number of any entity it uses or...

  10. Internal control in the management system of meat processing enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kushnir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is described the theoretical basis of internal control and its practical aspects in the work of meat processing enterprises (a case in the meat processing industry in Ukraine. The purpose of the research is to establish the theoretical foundations of the internal control and its improvement in the activity of meat processing plants of various forms of management. It is proposed to use precisely internal control among other names of domestic control. Definition of internal control, its subject and purpose are improved. The subjects and objects of internal control are determined; the principles of its implementation are supplemented. Specific control tasks in meat processing plants according to the needs of this industry are outlined. Specific examples of control subjects are presented and the role of the revision commission is emphasized. The state of internal control in meat processing plants in Ukraine is investigated and it is established that it has a bad condition and unfounded approach to its implementation by managers of meat processing enterprises. To improve the situation we recommend that each meat processing enterprise have in its staff a revision commission or an apposer (auditor. It is established that internal control is more effective in joint-stock companies than in limited liability companies. The necessity of internal control as an important element in the enterprise management system is accented.

  11. International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Continued warfare, destmction of the economic infrastmcture and absence of a recognized central government with administrative control over the entire country remain obstacles to effective dmg control...

  12. Investigating the effective factors on management internal controls applying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadkhani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing internal control in many organizations. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of information technology, hiring high quality skilled management team, using high quality standards and increasing employees' awareness on managing internal control. The survey uses a questionnaire based on Likert scale and distributes among the people who work in either administration or financial sectors of governmental agencies in province of Zanjan, Iran. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of information technology positively influences management team to control their system, more effectively, using more skilled and specialized managers positively influences management internal control, an organization with suitable standard positively influences management internal control and increasing employees' awareness positively influences management internal control.

  13. International seminar on structural investigations on pulsed neutron sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the International seminar on structural investigations using pulsed neutron sources are presented. The seminar is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Yu.M. Ostanevich, a world acknowledged physicist. The problems of structural analysis using pulsed neutron source at the IBR-2 reactor are discussed

  14. The Nuclotron internal target control and data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isupov, A.Yu., E-mail: isupov@moonhe.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Krasnov, V.A.; Ladygin, V.P.; Piyadin, S.M.; Reznikov, S.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-11

    The new control system of the Nuclotron (JINR, Dubna) internal target is described in both hardware and software aspects. The CAMAC hardware is based on the use of the standard CAMAC modules developed and manufactured at JINR. The internal target control and data acquisition (IntTarg CDAQ) system software is implemented using the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system (OS) FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the online data collected from internal target and accompanying detectors, as well as the internal target remote control.

  15. International conference on design, fabrication and economy of metal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference on Design, Fabrication and Economy of Metal Structures held on 24-26 April 2013 in Miskolc, Hungary which contain 99 papers covering: Structural optimization Thin-walled structures Stability Fatigue Frames Fire Fabrication Welding technology Applications Steel-concrete composite Special problems The authors are from 23 different countries, ensuring that the themes covered are of worldwide interest and importance. The International Institute of Welding (IIW), the International Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (ISSMO), the TÁMOP 4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010-0001 project entitled “Increasing the quality of higher education through the development of research - development and innovation program at the University of Miskolc supported by the European Union, co-financed by the European Social Fund” and many other sponsors helped organizers to collect these valuable studies, the results of which will provoke discussion, and provide an i...

  16. Modelling and controlling infectious diseases | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The research team is exploring the potential of mathematical modelling to ... to China's health system and improvements to its medical research capacity. ... and on the scientific board of the Gates Foundation's Global Health program. ... He has published more than 400 research papers in national and international journals.

  17. Internal control in the company in order to financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov A.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available the article explores the definition of financial monitoring, financial analysis and internal control in aspect to their correlation to fight money laundering and terrorism financing. Internal control is analyzed from the point of view of law, economics and management. The author pays much attention in the article to the work of systems of financial monitoring in organizations.

  18. Internal quality control in serological tests for syphilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Wasley, G D

    1985-01-01

    The importance of syphilis serological tests demands that laboratory reports are reliable. Internal quality control applied to the organisation of a syphilis serology service improves laboratory bench performance and reporting. Described here are internal quality control procedures of a department that serves a genitourinary medicine clinic and conducts 70 000 tests a year to investigate for syphilis.

  19. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and control design. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  20. Internal Control Systems in the Library Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Examines system for safeguarding assets and guaranteeing reliability of library's financial records within context of management functions that comprise accounting controls: planning by budget or other standard of comparison; operation of effective accounting and record-keeping system; personnel management practices. Cash controls as example of…

  1. Zambia Tobacco Control Campaign | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting development has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC). Ratifying countries must design and implement a national tobacco control action plan and ...

  2. AUTOMATION OF THE SYSTEM OF INTERNAL LABORATORY QUALITY CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Stetsyuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality control system base d on the principles of standardi zation of all phases of laboratory testing and analysis of internal laboratory quality control and external quality assessment. For the detection accuracy of the results of laboratory tests, carried out internally between the laboratory and laboratory quality control. Under internal laboratory quality control we understand measurement results of each analysis in each anal ytical series rendered directly in the lab every day. The purpose of internal laboratory control - identifying and eliminating unacceptable deviations from standard perfor mance test in the laboratory, i.e. identifying and eliminating harmful analytical errors. The solutions to these problems by implementing automated systems - software that allows you to optimize analytical laboratory research stage of the procedure by automatically creating process control charts was shown.

  3. Internal Decoupling in Nonlinear Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens G. Balchen

    1988-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple method has been investigated for the total or partial removal of the effect of non-linear process phenomena in multi-variable feedback control systems. The method is based upon computing the control variables which will drive the process at desired rates. It is shown that the effect of model errors in the linearization of the process can be partly removed through the use of large feedback gains. In practice there will be limits on how large gains can he used. The sensitivity to parameter errors is less pronounced and the transient behaviour is superior to that of ordinary PI controllers.

  4. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and controld esign. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  5. Active and passive vibration control of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Spelsberg-Korspeter, Gottfried

    2014-01-01

    Active and Passive Vibration Control of Structures form an issue of very actual interest in many different fields of engineering, for example in the automotive and aerospace industry, in precision engineering (e.g. in large telescopes), and also in civil engineering. The papers in this volume bring together engineers of different background, and it fill gaps between structural mechanics, vibrations and modern control theory.  Also links between the different applications in structural control are shown.

  6. Rotational characterization of methyl methacrylate: Internal dynamics and structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbers, Sven; Wachsmuth, Dennis; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Rotational constants, Watson's S centrifugal distortion coefficients, and internal rotation parameters of the two most stable conformers of methyl methacrylate were retrieved from the microwave spectrum. Splittings of rotational energy levels were caused by two non equivalent methyl tops. Constraining the centrifugal distortion coefficients and internal rotation parameters to the values of the main isotopologues, the rotational constants of all single substituted 13C and 18O isotopologues were determined. From these rotational constants the substitution structures and semi-empirical zero point structures of both conformers were precisely determined.

  7. Structural and Infrastructural Underpinnings of International R&D Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process of globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on the effects of network maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...... to dispersed development. Drawing from case studies of two international R&D networks, it presents a capability maturity model and argues that understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks has become a key requirement for developing organizational...

  8. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    -category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...... used to simplify different structures. Next the chapter points to the blindness of most structural theories of IR to the role of assemblages in general and governance-objects in particular. Thirdly, the idea that a polity is constituted precisely by the assemblage of a governance...

  9. A Design Method of Robust Servo Internal Model Control with Control Input Saturation

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 功; 舩見, 洋祐

    2001-01-01

    In the present paper, we examine a design method of robust servo Internal Model Control with control input saturation. First of all, we clarify the condition that Internal Model Control has robust servo characteristics for the system with control input saturation. From this consideration, we propose new design method of Internal Model Control with robust servo characteristics. A numerical example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method is shown.

  10. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  11. Determinants of human resource investment in internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hag Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the unique reporting environment in Korea, this study investigates the determinants of human resource investment in internal controls for 1352 listed firms disclosing the number of personnel who are in charge of internal control-related tasks (IC personnel from 2005 to 2008. We find that the number of IC personnel within a firm and several key departments increase with firm size, number of employees, complexity and for Chaebols, and decrease in rapidly growing firms. Additional analysis reveals that the factors influencing internal control systems have an accentuated effect on firms with relatively larger firm size.

  12. Reactor control rod supporting structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tokuzo; Miyata, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable stable reactor core control even in extremely great vertical earthquakes, as well as under normal operation conditions in FBR type reactors. Constitution: Since a mechanism for converting the rotational movement of a control rod into vertical movement is placed at the upper portion of the reactor core at high temperature, the mechanism should cause fusion or like other danger after the elapse of a long period of time. In view of the above, the conversion mechanism is disposed to the lower portion of the reactor core at a lower temperature region. Further, the connection between the control rod and the control rod drive can be separated upon great vertical earthquakes. (Seki, T.)

  13. Influence Implementation Internal Control To Quality Audit Internal Education Consultant In Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zeina Maya Sari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research focus to quality audit internal with accountancy Inspection. Hameed 1995 found that the most important factors that affect auditing quality are auditors experience honesty and the knowledge in accounting and auditing standards. Research into this express an inspection of Intern Accountancy amp attributed to Monetary inspection an consultant education with quality. Audit quality is obtained by a process of identifying and administering the activities needed to achieve the quality objectives . Since an entityamp8223s internal control is under the purview of its audit committee Krishnan 2005 the relation between audit committee quality and internal control weaknesses is a subject to be investigated. The methodology used is a quantitative analysis by examining the relationship between variables conceptually. While some study its accounting activity. In self-supporting internal control. Internal control is defined as a process affected by an entitys board of directors management and other personnel designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of objectives International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions 1998 its bearing by reporting level an environment and reduction conduct in reporting result of mistake. What finally involvement by Audit Intern can be of benefit. In addition to researching into proposing Audit Intern can improve the target of consultant education going concern.

  14. Investigating the Role of International Law in Controlling Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Kheirkhah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available International law globally plays a key role in the surveillance and control of communicable diseases. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, due to changed forms of infectious diseases and individuals' lifestyles as well as individuals' proximity caused by increased air travels, communicable diseases are in an international and cross-border form. In this regard, binding regulations and inconsistent rules adopted in international multilateral institutions like the World Health Organization, World Trade Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization can be of great use in surveillance and control of communicable diseases. With the globalization of public health, international law can be used as an essential tool in monitoring global health and reducing human vulnerability and mortality.

  15. International lighting in controlled environments workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Lighting is a central and critical aspect of control in environmental research for plant research and is gaining recognition as a significant factor to control carefully for animal and human research. Thus this workshop was convened to reevaluate the technology that is available today and to work toward developing guidelines for the most effective use of lighting in controlled environments with emphasis on lighting for plants but also to initiate interest in the development of improved guidelines for human and animal research. There are a number of established guidelines for lighting in human and animal environments. Development of new lighting guidelines is necessary for three reasons: (1) recent scientific discoveries show that in addition to supporting the sensation of vision, light has profound nonvisual biological and behavioral effects in both animals and humans; (2) federal regulations (EPACT 1992) are requiring all indoor environments to become more energy efficient with a specific emphasis on energy conservation in lighting; (3) lighting engineers and manufacturers have developed a wealth of new light sources and lighting products that can be applied in animal and human environments. The workshop was aimed at bringing together plant scientists and physical scientists to interact in the discussions. It involved participation of biological scientists involved in studying mechanisms of light reactions and those involved in utilizing lighting for production of plants and maintenance of animals in controlled environments. It included participation of physical scientists from universities and government involved in research as well as those from industry involved in producing lamps and in construction of controlled growth facilities. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. Flow Control of Flexible Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-06

    levels of modeling [Dowell and Hall, 2001]. Fur- thermore, even for the most complex models, the main research goal has been a mathe - matical description...possibility for localized, discrete actuation to coun- teract detrimental flow developments before they result in significant structural loads and

  17. Chapter 10. Multinational and international controls. Paper 18. Nuclear proliferation: arrangements for international control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1979-01-01

    In the context of nuclear proliferation, the role of Third World countries is crucial since they constitute the great majority of nations, but only a few of them have as yet decided on their future energy programmes. Both the IAEA and the nuclear energy industries are urging them to opt for nuclear power. This is undesirable, because nuclear energy is an unsuitable energy source for most of these countries; it would create a new economic dependence on industrialized countries and would greatly increase the dangers of a nuclear war. To counteract this, measures are needed (a) to encourage Third World countries to meet their energy need from sources other than nuclear ones; (b) to reduce pressures on countries to acquire nuclear reactors; and (c) to eliminate the threat of new hegemonies to countries that already have nuclear power. To achieve this, it is proposed that two new international organizations be set up. One, a World Energy Organization (WEO), would be a specialized agency of the United Nations, with functions similar to those of WHO or FAO but with sufficient funds to make loans to individual countries which accept WEO's advice about their energy programmes. The second, an International Nuclear Fuel Agency (INFA), would be the sole authority to operate enrichment, fuel fabrication, reprocessing and waste disposal plants. Organizationally, it could be part of the IAEA, but the latter would have to separate its promotional and safeguarding activities. An amendment to the NPT would be needed to oblige all countries both nuclear and non-nuclear weapon states, equally to accept INFA controls. (author)

  18. 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the 2013 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Hangzhou, China on August 10-11, 2013. .

  19. Electron gun controlled smart structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey W.; Main, John Alan; Redmond, James M.; Henson, Tammy D.; Watson, Robert D.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and system for actively controlling the shape of a sheet of electroactive material; the system comprising: one or more electrodes attached to the frontside of the electroactive sheet; a charged particle generator, disposed so as to direct a beam of charged particles (e.g. electrons) onto the electrode; a conductive substrate attached to the backside of the sheet; and a power supply electrically connected to the conductive substrate; whereby the sheet changes its shape in response to an electric field created across the sheet by an accumulation of electric charge within the electrode(s), relative to a potential applied to the conductive substrate. Use of multiple electrodes distributed across on the frontside ensures a uniform distribution of the charge with a single point of e-beam incidence, thereby greatly simplifying the beam scanning algorithm and raster control electronics, and reducing the problems associated with "blooming". By placing a distribution of electrodes over the front surface of a piezoelectric film (or other electroactive material), this arrangement enables improved control over the distribution of surface electric charges (e.g. electrons) by creating uniform (and possibly different) charge distributions within each individual electrode. Removal or deposition of net electric charge can be affected by controlling the secondary electron yield through manipulation of the backside electric potential with the power supply. The system can be used for actively controlling the shape of space-based deployable optics, such as adaptive mirrors and inflatable antennae.

  20. Optical Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Grant; Singha, Sima; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Gordon, Robert

    2014-03-01

    We apply quantum control schemes previously reserved for atoms and small molecules to more complex polyatomic molecules. Pyrazine was chosen as a model polyatomic molecule for its well-studied conical intersection seam between the S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces (PESs). Using shaped ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate optical control of the excited state dynamics of this molecule under collisionless conditions. This was achieved in a pump-probe experiment by employing a genetic algorithm programmed to suppress ionization of the pyrazine molecules at a preselected time. Our findings indicate that the optimized pulses localize the wave packet for times up to 1.5 ps at a location on the coupled S1/S2 PESs where ionization is energetically forbidden. Our approach is general and does not require knowledge of the molecular Hamiltonian. Funding provided by National Science Foundation grant no. CHE-0848198.

  1. Fuel cell with internal flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Venkiteswaran, Arun [Karnataka, IN

    2012-06-12

    A fuel cell stack is provided with a plurality of fuel cell cassettes where each fuel cell cassette has a fuel cell with an anode and cathode. The fuel cell stack includes an anode supply chimney for supplying fuel to the anode of each fuel cell cassette, an anode return chimney for removing anode exhaust from the anode of each fuel cell cassette, a cathode supply chimney for supplying oxidant to the cathode of each fuel cell cassette, and a cathode return chimney for removing cathode exhaust from the cathode of each fuel cell cassette. A first fuel cell cassette includes a flow control member disposed between the anode supply chimney and the anode return chimney or between the cathode supply chimney and the cathode return chimney such that the flow control member provides a flow restriction different from at least one other fuel cell cassettes.

  2. International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    CSNDD 2012; CSNDD 2014

    2015-01-01

    This book, which presents the peer-reviewed post-proceedings of CSNDD 2012 and CSNDD 2014, addresses the important role that relevant concepts and tools from nonlinear and complex dynamics could play in present and future engineering applications. It includes 22 chapters contributed by outstanding researchers and covering various aspects of applications, including: structural health monitoring, diagnosis and damage detection, experimental methodologies, active vibration control and smart structures, passive control of structures using nonlinear energy sinks, vibro-impact dynamic MEMS/NEMS/AFM, energy-harvesting materials and structures, and time-delayed feedback control, as well as aspects of deterministic versus stochastic dynamics and control of nonlinear phenomena in physics.  Researchers and engineers interested in the challenges posed and opportunities offered by nonlinearities in the development of passive and active control strategies, energy harvesting, novel design criteria, modeling and characteriz...

  3. Reduce Fraud Risk in Your District with Stronger Internal Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okrzesik, Daryl J.; Nuehring, Bert G.

    2011-01-01

    Internal accounts offer schools a faster, more convenient way to handle the income and expenses that result from student fees, school clubs and organizations, field trips, fund-raising, and similar activities. But this convenience also incurs the added risk of fraud. Fortunately, there are proven ways to strengthen internal controls and reduce…

  4. Structural studies on an internal loop from a hairpin ribozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Tinoco, I. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Ribozymes, RNA enzymes, catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation reactions. We are studying the three-dimensional structure of a hairpin ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ring spot virus satellite RNA ((-)sTRSV), which has been engineering to specifically cleave the HIV-1 RNA. The minimum structure for the catalytic reaction involves a 50-nucleotide ribozyme and a 14-nucleotide substrate. The proposed secondary structure of the ribozyme-substrate complex consists of four short helices separated by two internal loops. The relatively large size (64-nucleotide) of the ribozyme-substrate complex presents formidable problems in solving the structure using NMR. Therefore we are studying smaller structural subunits of the complex. We are determining the high resolution structure of the symmetric internal loop involving the cleavage site and the flanking helices. One strand of the internal loop was selectively {sup 13}C-labeled at C8 of each purine and C6 of each pyrimidine. By using {sup 13}C-edited two-dimensional NMR, the proton NOESY spectrum was greatly simplified. This allowed unambiguous sequential proton resonance assignments along each strand. Three-dimensional {sup 1}-{sup 13}C HMQC-NOESY was used to further facilitate resonance assignments. We are also enzymatically synthesizing the entire 50-nucleotide ribozyme and will combine it with the {sup 13}C-labeled substrate. Through comparison of the NOE connectivities of the labeled nucleotides from the internal loop alone with those from the entire complex, the differences between the two structures can be elucidated.

  5. Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the expression of internal control transcripts by real-time RT-PCR analysis during tomato flower abscission. Song Gao, Tao Xu, Mingfang Qi, Yufeng Liu, Hong Li, Shuangshuang Lv, Jinhong Li, Tianlai Li ...

  6. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations and Rules on Intellectual ... New funding opportunity to fight antimicrobial resistance ... IDRC and key partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and ...

  7. Construction of an internal amplification control for Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elham

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... million and 10 bacteria and the most suitable internal control concentration for the mix was ... But the risk of contamination is unavoidable in normal ..... Contamination Management: Implication for Broad-Range Ribosomal.

  8. Notification: FY 2018 CSB Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    December 26, 2017. The OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2018 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  9. Internal Capital Market Controls and Financial Performance in Multidivisional Firms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Charles W L

    1988-01-01

    It is proposed that, within the population of M-form firms, the control systems necessary to realize economic benefits from interrelationships between subunits o f a firm are incompatible with the systems necessary to realize benef its from an M-form type internal capital market. This hypothesis is t ested on 156 large U.K. firms. Questionnaire data are used to classif y the firms according to their internal control characteristics. The findings provide tentative support for the hypothesis. C...

  10. Internal controls and credit risk relationship among banks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study purport to investigate the effectiveness of internal control mechanisms, investigate whether evidence of agency problem is found among banks in Europe and determine how internal controls affect credit risk. Design/methodology/approach: Panel data from 91 banks from 23 European Union countries were studied from 2008-2014. Hausman’s specification test suggest the use of fixed effects estimation technique of GLS. Quantitatively modelled data on 15 variables covering elements of internal controls, objectives of internal controls, agency problem, bank and country specific variables were used. Findings: There is still high credit risk in spite of measures being implemented by the European Central Bank. Banks have individual entity factors that increase or decrease credit risk. The study finds effective internal control systems because objectives of internal controls are achieved and significantly determine credit risk. Agency problem is confirmed due to significant positive relation with credit risk. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk with specific variables as risk assessment, return on average risk weighted assets, institutional ownership, bank size, inflation, interest rate and GDP. Research limitations/implications: Missing data prevented the use of strongly balanced panel. The lack of flexibility with using quantitative approach did not allow further scrutiny of the nature of variables. However, statistical tests were acceptable for the model used. The study has implications for management and owners of banks to be warry of agency problem because that provides incentive for reckless high risk transactions that may benefit the agent than the principal. Management must engage in actions that profile the company better and enhances value maximization. Rising default risk has tendency to impair corporate image leading to loss of reputational capital. Originality/value: The study provides the use of

  11. Control Modes in International Service Operations: The Propensity to Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Fladmoe-Lindquist; Laurent L. Jacque

    1995-01-01

    What determines a service firm's organizational choice between equity-based control and franchising? This question, which has elicited some theoretical answers and a few empirical tests in a domestic setting, has never been addressed in an international context before. This study explains the mode of control chosen in terms of a theoretical framework which borrows from agency theory and transaction cost analysis. The propensity to franchise internationally was found to be directly related to ...

  12. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2017-05-09

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  13. Fuzzy logic for structural system control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Martins Gomes

    Full Text Available This paper provides some information and numerical tests that aims to investigate the use of a Fuzzy Controller applied to control systems. Some advantages are reported regarding the use of this controller, such as the characteristic ease of implementation due to its semantic feature in the statement of the control rules. On the other hand, it is also hypothesized that these systems have a lower performance loss when the system to be controlled is nonlinear or has time varying parameters. Numerical tests are performed using modal LQR optimal control and Fuzzy control of non-collocated systems with full state feedback in a two-dimensional structure. The paper proposes a way of designing a controller that may be a supervisory Fuzzy controller for a traditional controller or even a fuzzy controller independent from the traditional control, consisting on individual mode controllers. Some comments are drawn regarding the performance of these proposals in a number of arrangements.

  14. Nonlinearity measure and internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perev, Kamen [Systems and Control Department, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Cl. Ohridski Blvd., 1756 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2013-12-18

    This paper considers the problem of internal model control based linearization in anti-windup design. The nonlinearity measure concept is used for quantifying the control system degree of nonlinearity. The linearizing effect of a modified internal model control structure is presented by comparing the nonlinearity measures of the open-loop and closed-loop systems. It is shown that the linearization properties are improved by increasing the control system local feedback gain. However, it is emphasized that at the same time the stability of the system deteriorates. The conflicting goals of stability and linearization are resolved by solving the design problem in different frequency ranges.

  15. Nuclear materials control and accountability internal audit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barham, M.A.; Abbott, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy Order (DOE) 5633.3, Control and Accountability for Nuclear Materials, includes several requirements for development and implementation of an internal audit program. Martin Marietta Energy System, Inc., manages five sites in Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio for the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge and has a Central Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability (NMC and A) Manager with matrixed responsibility for the NMC and A program at the five sites. The Energy Systems Central NMC and A Manager has developed an NMC and A Internal Audit Handbook which defines the functional responsibilities, performance criteria, and reporting and documentation requirements for the Energy Systems NMC and A Internal Audit Program. The initial work to develop and implement these standards was tested at the K-25 Site when the site hired an internal auditor to meet the DOE requirements for an NMC and A Internal Audit program

  16. A multicontroller structure for teaching and designing predictive control strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodouin, D.; Desbiens, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with the unification of the existing linear control algorithms in order to facilitate their transfer to the engineering students and to industry's engineers. The resulting control algorithm is the Global Predictive Control (GlobPC), which is now taught at the graduate and continuing education levels. GlobPC is based on an internal model framework where three independent control criteria are minimized: one for tracking, one for regulation and one for feedforward. This structure allows to obtain desired tracking, regulation and feedforward behaviors in an optimal way while keeping them perfectly separated. It also cleanly separates the deterministic and stochastic predictions of the process model output. (author)

  17. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  18. STRUCTURAL APPROACH TO THE CONTROLLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOREDANA CIURLĂU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic concentration has led to the emergence of large enterprises and complex that by the activities or the environment of their operation because of an activity of decentralization. The enterprise is cut in centers of responsibility which enjoys a autonomy more or less widely. The management control will be able to meet the needs of coordination of these organizations decentralised, orienting the "actors" within the meaning of the desired by the manager through the evaluation of the results obtained. The success of an enterprise requires a continuous adapting it to the environment or and competitiveness is transformed into a economic criterion by excellence.

  19. Discrete Optimization of Internal Part Structure via SLM Unit Structure-Performance Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural optimization of the internal structure of parts based on three-dimensional (3D printing has been recognized as being important in the field of mechanical design. The purpose of this paper is to present a creation of a unit structure-performance database based on the selective laser melting (SLM, which contains various structural units with different functions and records their structure and performance characteristics so that we can optimize the internal structure of parts directly, according to the database. The method of creating the unit structure-performance database was introduced in this paper and several structural units of the unit structure-performance database were introduced. The bow structure unit was used to show how to create the structure-performance database of the unit as an example. Some samples of the bow structure unit were designed and manufactured by SLM. These samples were tested in the WDW-100 compression testing machine to obtain their performance characteristics. After this, the paper collected all data regarding unit structure parameters, weight, performance characteristics, and other data; and, established a complete set of data from the bow structure unit for the unit structure-performance database. Furthermore, an aircraft part was reconstructed conveniently to be more lightweight according to the unit structure-performance database. Its weight was reduced by 36.8% when compared with the original structure, while the strength far exceeded the requirements.

  20. 2nd International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book examines mechatronics and automatic control systems. The book covers important emerging topics in signal processing, control theory, sensors, mechanic manufacturing systems and automation. The book presents papers from the second International Conference on Mechatronics and Automatic Control Systems held in Beijing, China on September 20-21, 2014. Examines how to improve productivity through the latest advanced technologies Covering new systems and techniques in the broad field of mechatronics and automatic control systems.

  1. Internal laboratory control in residue analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The thesis contains a chapter on gaschromatographic system in which gas current, temperatures, separation system, detector system, recorder, dosing system and integrator are described. The chapter on reagents deals with standards and solvents, absorbents and other reagents. The chapter on laboratory equipment deals with general recommendations for apparatus, purification and total numerical result of blank test. The chapter ''Methods'' contains general references, aptitude for a special problem, common investigations and control by standard reference materials. The chapter on the work up of samples treats extraction, purification, concentrating the solution, internal standard, multiple determination and control samples. The chapter on measurement presents calibration, internal standard, multiple determination, securing the result and control samples. The chapter on evaluation consists of qualitative and quantitave evaluation, decision criteria and communication of the result. The chapter of documentation described routine investigations, tests and controls of internal laboratory control, preliminary works, maintenance and service works.

  2. Internal structure changes of eyelash induced by eye makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kawai, Tomomitsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how eye makeup affects eyelash structure, internal structure of eyelashes were observed with a scanning X-ray microscopic tomography system using synchrotron radiation light source. Eyelash samples were obtained from 36 Japanese women aged 20-70 years and whose use of eye makeup differed. Reconstructed cross-sectional images showed that the structure of the eyelash closely resembled that of scalp hair. The eyelash structure is changed by use of eye makeup. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of mascara use and the degree of cracking in cuticle. The positive correlation was also found between the frequency of mascara use and the porosity of the cortex. By contrast, the use of eyelash curler did not affect the eyelash structure with statistical significance.

  3. Decentralized Networked Control of Building Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Rehák, Branislav; Papík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2016), s. 871-886 ISSN 1093-9687 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decentralized control * networked control * building structures Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 5.786, year: 2016

  4. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  5. Indirect control and power in mutual control structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, D.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a mutual control structure agents exercise control over each other. Typical examples occur in the area of corporate governance: firms and investment companies exercise mutual control, in particular by owning each others’ stocks. In this paper we formulate a general model for such situations.

  6. PREFACE: International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, James

    2012-09-01

    Dear Colleagues It is a great pleasure to welcome you to NanoStruc2012 at Cranfield University. The purpose of the 2012 International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NanoStruc2012) is to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NanoStruc brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas. The conference is split in 7 panel sessions, Metallic Nanocomposites and Coatings, Silica based Nanocomposites, safty of Nanomaterials, Carboin based Nanocomposites, Multscale Modelling, Bio materials and Application of Nanomaterials. All accepted Papers will be published in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), and included in the NanoStruc online digital library. The abstracts will be indexed in Scopus, Compedex, Inspec, INIS (International Nuclear Information System), Chemical Abstracts, NASA Astrophysics Data System and Polymer Library. Before ending this message, I would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which ensured the general organisation. As a conclusion, I would like to Welcome you to the Nanostruc2012 and wish you a stimulating Conference and a wonderful time. On behalf of the scientific committee, Signature James Njuguna Conference Chair The PDF of this preface also contains committee listings and associates logos.

  7. Issues of internal control during the reform period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. Gresova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers theoretical and methodological problems of organization and financial control activities, the main problems and reasons causing the need for a unified system of internal financial control in the State Administration of Railway Transport of Ukraine at the stage of the reform.

  8. Model tracking dual stochastic controller design under irregular internal noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Bok; Heo, Hoon; Cho, Yun Hyun; Ji, Tae Young

    2006-01-01

    Although many methods about the control of irregular external noise have been introduced and implemented, it is still necessary to design a controller that will be more effective and efficient methods to exclude for various noises. Accumulation of errors due to model tracking, internal noises (thermal noise, shot noise and l/f noise) that come from elements such as resistor, diode and transistor etc. in the circuit system and numerical errors due to digital process often destabilize the system and reduce the system performance. New stochastic controller is adopted to remove those noises using conventional controller simultaneously. Design method of a model tracking dual controller is proposed to improve the stability of system while removing external and internal noises. In the study, design process of the model tracking dual stochastic controller is introduced that improves system performance and guarantees robustness under irregular internal noises which can be created internally. The model tracking dual stochastic controller utilizing F-P-K stochastic control technique developed earlier is implemented to reveal its performance via simulation

  9. Pinning Control Strategy of Multicommunity Structure Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of community structure on synchronization, a pinning control strategy is researched in a class of complex networks with community structure in this paper. A feedback control law is designed based on the network community structure information. The stability condition is given and proved by using Lyapunov stability theory. Our research shows that as to community structure networks, there being a threshold hT≈5, when coupling strength bellows this threshold, the stronger coupling strength corresponds to higher synchronizability; vice versa, the stronger coupling strength brings lower synchronizability. In addition the synchronizability of overlapping and nonoverlapping community structure networks was simulated and analyzed; while the nodes were controlled randomly and intensively, the results show that intensive control strategy is better than the random one. The network will reach synchronization easily when the node with largest betweenness was controlled. Furthermore, four difference networks’ synchronizability, such as Barabási-Albert network, Watts-Strogatz network, Erdös-Rényi network, and community structure network, are simulated; the research shows that the community structure network is more easily synchronized under the same control strength.

  10. Studies in stellar evolution. 3. The internal structure constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejlesen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the results of extensive stellar evolution calculations. The internal structure constants k j (j = 2, 3, 4) have been computed for a fine grid of stellar models covering the HR-diagram from the zero-age main sequence to the subgiant region. These constants represent the influence of the internal structure on the disturbing potentials of stars, and they are needed for prediction of theoretical apsidal motion rates in close eccentric binaries as well as for other tidal effects. Results for four different initial chemical compositions are presented. The opacity tables by Cox and Stewart (1969) have been adopted, and a mixing length parameter of l/H p = 2.0 has been used throughout. The results are compared with previous calculations. A comparison with observational data for eclipsing binaries will be published elsewhere

  11. The internal structure of magnetic nanoparticles determines the magnetic response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacáková, Barbara; Kubíčková, Simona; Salas, G.; Mantlíková, Alice; Marciello, M.; Morales, M.P.; Nižňanský, D.; Vejpravová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 16 (2017), s. 5129-5140 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoparticles * single-domain * internal structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.367, year: 2016

  12. The effect of internal magnetic structure on the fishbone instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.W.; Powell, E.; Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Chance, M.; Hatcher, R.; Holland, A.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Pomphrey, N.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; White, R.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.; Gammel, G.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas exhibiting the ''fishbone'' instability studied on the PBX-M tokamak show a distinct relationship between the plasma shape, the internal magnetic structure, and the presence or absence of fast ion losses associated with the fishbone mode. We have, for the first time, carried out measurements of the magnetic safety factor profile in fishbone-unstable plasmas, and used the knowledge of the associated experimental equilibria to compare the stability and fast ion loss properties of these plasmas with experimental observations

  13. Optimal resonant control of flexible structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    2009-01-01

    When introducing a resonant controller for a particular vibration mode in a structure this mode splits into two. A design principle is developed for resonant control based oil equal damping of these two modes. First the design principle is developed for control of a system with a single degree...... of freedom, and then it is extended to multi-mode structures. A root locus analysis of the controlled single-mode structure identifies the equal modal damping property as a condition oil the linear and Cubic terms of the characteristic equation. Particular solutions for filtered displacement feedback...... and filtered acceleration feedback are developed by combining the root locus analysis with optimal properties of the displacement amplification frequency curve. The results are then extended to multi-mode structures by including a quasi-static representation of the background modes in the equations...

  14. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Michael James; Brake, Matthew Robert; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Ewins, David J.

    2013-08-01

    The Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures was held from August 16th to 17th, 2012, in Chicago Illinois, following the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Thirty two researchers from both the United States and international locations convened to discuss the recent progress of mechanical joints related research and associated efforts in addition to developing a roadmap for the challenges to be addressed over the next five to ten years. These proceedings from the workshop include the minutes of the discussions and follow up from the 2009 workshop [1], presentations, and outcomes of the workshop. Specifically, twelve challenges were formulated from the discussions at the workshop, which focus on developing a better understanding of uncertainty and variability in jointed structures, incorporating high fidelity models of joints in simulations that are tractable/efficient, motivating a new generation of researchers and funding agents as to the importance of joint mechanics research, and developing new insights into the physical phenomena that give rise to energy dissipation in jointed structures. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is to develop a predictive model of joint mechanics.

  15. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered

  16. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  17. Structural Control Systems Implemented in Civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Pastia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades, a great interest has been generated by the use of protection systems to mitigate the effects of dynamic environmental hazards on civil engineering structures, such as earthquakes and strong wind. These control systems develop controllable forces to add or dissipate energy in a structure, or both, due to specific devices integrated with sensors, controllers and real – time process to operate. The paper includes the advantages of these technologies consisting of the following sections: 1 represents an introduction, 2 deals with passive control system, 3 regards some control techniques, 4 concerns hybrid control techniques, 5 contains semi – active control techniques, and 6 is dedicated to general conclusions.

  18. Internal quality control of RIA with Tonks error calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaodong

    1996-01-01

    According to the methodology feature of RIA, an internal quality control chart with Tonks error calculation method which is suitable for RIA is designed. The quality control chart defines the value of the allowance error with normal reference range. The method has the simplicity of its performance and directly perceived through the senses. Taking the example of determining T 3 and T 4 , the calculation of allowance error, drawing of quality control chart and the analysis of result are introduced

  19. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matviychuk, Oksana G. [Institute of Mathematics and Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 16 S. Kovalevskaya str., Ekaterinburg, 620990, Russia and Ural Federal University, 19 Mira str., Ekaterinburg, 620002 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  20. Work stress and emotional exhaustion in nurses: the mediating role of internal locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partlak Günüşen, Neslihan; Ustün, Besti; Erdem, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Burnout is a major problem for nursing. There is a strong relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion. Although studies report a negative correlation between the internal locus of control and emotional exhaustion and work stress, the number of studies available on the subject is limited. This study intends to examine the extent to which the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion is mediated by nurses' internal locus of control. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. The study sample consisted of 347 nurses who worked in a university hospital in Izmir, Turkey and who agreed to participate in the study. The Work-Related Strain Inventory was used to evaluate the nurses' work stress level, Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate their emotional exhaustion levels, and the Locus of Control Scale was used to evaluate the internal locus of control. The variables of the study were based on the Neuman Systems Model. Work stress was positively related to internal locus of control (β3 = .21, p 0.1). Internal locus of control was negatively related to emotional exhaustion (β = -.14, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p Work stress is directly (β = .87, p work stress was mediated, the impact of internal locus of control was limited. It is recommended that different variables be included in future studies so that they can mediate the relationship between work stress and emotional exhaustion.

  1. Self-force as probe of internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Poisson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The self-force acting on a (scalar or electric) charge held in place outside a massive body contains information about the body's composition, and can therefore be used as a probe of internal structure. We explore this theme by computing the (scalar or electromagnetic) self-force when the body is a spherical ball of perfect fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium, under the assumption that its rest-mass density and pressure are related by a polytropic equation of state. The body is strongly self-gravitating, and all computations are performed in exact general relativity. The dependence on internal structure is best revealed by expanding the self-force in powers of r -1 0 , with r 0 denoting the radial position of the charge outside the body. To the leading order, the self-force scales as r -3 0 and depends only on the square of the charge and the body's mass; the leading self-force is universal. The dependence on internal structure is seen at the next order, r -5 0 , through a structure factor that depends on the equation of state. We compute this structure factor for relativistic polytropes, and show that for a fixed mass, it increases linearly with the body's radius in the case of the scalar self-force, and quadratically with the body's radius in the case of the electromagnetic self-force. In both cases we find that for a fixed mass and radius, the self-force is smaller if the body is more centrally dense, and larger if the mass density is more uniformly distributed. (paper)

  2. Aspects Regarding the Use of Coco Model for Public Entities� Internal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Beldiman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Control, from the semantic analysis point of view, is a permanent or regular activity, a situation, to track the overall progress and improvement measures. According to the Romanian legislation, internal control is defined as all forms of control exercised at the level of the public entity, including internal audit, established by management in accordance with its objectives and legal regulations, to ensure the management of public funds economically, efficiently and effective. In general, the audit includes organizational structures, methods and procedures.

  3. On Control Strategies for Responsive Architectural Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Parigi, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The present paper considers control of responsive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability. The general scope of...

  4. Cutting-in control of the variable speed constant frequency wind power generator based on internal model controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Jindong; Xu Honghua; Zhao Dongli [Inst. of Electrical Engineering, CAS, BJ (China)

    2008-07-01

    The no-impact-current cutting-in-network control is the key of variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power control system. Based on the stator flux linkage oriented control theory of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), the field-oriented vector control technique and the internal model controller (IMC) are transplanted into the voltage control of DFIG and a novel cutting-in control strategy is obtained. The strategy does not need the exact inductor generator model, and has perfect performance without overshoot. The structure of the controller is simple, and the only parameter to be adjusted is directly related to system performance, so the strategy is easy to realize. Finally the strategy is studied by simulation using Matlab, the results of the simulation show that the control strategy can effectively control the stator voltage. (orig.)

  5. Reactor Structure Materials: Corrosion of Reactor Core Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on the corrosion of reactor core internals are: (1) to gain mechanistic insight into the Irradition Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) phenomenon by studying the influence of separate parameters in well controlled experiments; (2) to develop and validate a predictive capability on IASCC by model description and (3) to define and validate countermeasures and monitoring techniques for application in reactors. Progress and achievements in 1999 are described

  6. [Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, M L; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2009-02-01

    Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations. The concept of satisfaction is considered theoretically relevant in practically all the studies that have investigated the factors that influence the permanence of volunteer participation in organizations. However, the practical results are not conclusive, perhaps due to the wide range of ways in which the concept is understood and measured. The object of this study is: to analyse the internal structure of satisfaction and to verify its relationship with volunteer duration in organizations. The results of the factor analysis yield a three-factor structure: Satisfaction with the management of the organization, Satisfaction with the tasks, Satisfaction of motivations. The three factors allow us to differentiate between individuals who remain in the organization for a period of 12 consecutive months, and those who leave earlier. The results of structural equation model analysis show that the relationship between satisfaction and the length of time that volunteers stay with the organization is affected by the intention to remain.

  7. Studies on muon tomography for archaeological internal structures scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    Muon tomography is a potential non-invasive technique for internal structure scanning. It has already interesting applications in geophysics and can be used for archaeological purposes. Muon tomography is based on the measurement of the muon flux after crossing the structure studied. Differences on the mean density of these structures imply differences on the detected muon rate for a given direction. Based on this principle, Monte Carlo simulations represent a useful tool to provide a model of the expected muon rate and angular distribution depending on the composition of the studied object, being useful to estimate the expected detected muons and to better understand the experimental results. These simulations are mainly dependent on the geometry and composition of the studied object and on the modelling of the initial muon flux at surface. In this work, the potential of muon tomography in archaeology is presented and evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations by estimating the differences on the muon rate due to the presence of internal structures and its composition. The influence of the chosen muon model at surface in terms of energy and angular distributions in the final result has been also studied.

  8. Control of large flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelde, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in robust design of generalized parity relations, design of failure sensitive observers using the geometric system theory of Wonham, computational techniques for evaluation of the performance of control systems with fault tolerance and redundancy management features, and the design and evaluation od control systems for structures having nonlinear joints are described.

  9. Internal quality control of PCR-based genotyping methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Gram, Jørgen; Jespersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Internal quality control programmes for genetic analyses are needed. We have focused on quality control aspects of selected polymorphism analyses used in thrombosis research. DNA was isolated from EDTA-blood (n = 500) and analysed for 18 polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i...... because of positive reagent blanks (controls (Control of data handling revealed 0.1% reading mistakes and 0.5% entry mistakes. Based on our experiences, we propose an internal quality control programme......, electrophoresis (analytical factors), result reading and entry into a database (post-analytical factors). Furthermore, we evaluated a procedure for result confirmation. Isolated DNA was of good quality (42 micrograms/ml blood, A260/A280 ratio > 1.75, negative DNAsis tests). Occasionally, results were reanalysed...

  10. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  11. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  12. 4th International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book presents contributions on the most active lines of recent advanced research in the field of nonlinear mechanics and physics selected from the 4th International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis. It includes fifteen chapters by outstanding scientists, covering various aspects of applications, including road tanker dynamics and stability, simulation of abrasive wear, energy harvesting, modeling and analysis of flexoelectric nanoactuator, periodic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam problems, nonlinear stability in Hamiltonian systems, nonlinear dynamics of rotating composites, nonlinear vibrations of a shallow arch, extreme pulse dynamics in mode-locked lasers, localized structures in a photonic crystal fiber resonator, nonlinear stochastic dynamics, linearization of nonlinear resonances, treatment of a linear delay differential equation, and fractional nonlinear damping. It appeals to a wide range of experts in the field of structural nonlinear dynamics and offers researchers and engineers a...

  13. Robust Structured Control Design via LMI Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure for discrete-time robust structured control design. Parameter-dependent nonconvex conditions for stabilizable and induced L2-norm performance controllers are solved by an iterative linear matrix inequalities (LMI) optimization. A wide class of controller...... structures including decentralized of any order, fixed-order dynamic output feedback, static output feedback can be designed robust to polytopic uncertainties. Stability is proven by a parameter-dependent Lyapunov function. Numerical examples on robust stability margins shows that the proposed procedure can...

  14. Laminated structure in internally oxidized Ru-Ta coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    During the development of refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes at high temperature under oxygen-containing atmospheres, previous studies noted and examined the internal oxidation phenomenon for Mo-Ru and Ru-Ta coatings. The internally oxidized zone shows a laminated structure, consisting of alternating oxygen-rich and deficient layers stacked with a general orientation. Previous studies proposed a forming mechanism. To investigate in detail, Ru-Ta coatings were prepared with various rotating speeds of a substrate-holder. The coatings were annealed at 600 Degree-Sign C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O{sub 2}-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the laminated-layer periods. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles certified the periodical variation of the related constituents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved the valence variation of Ta in the near surface, accompanied by the introduction of oxygen ions. The inward diffusion of oxygen was dominated by lattice diffusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laminated Ru-Ta coatings consisted of a cyclical gradient concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited coatings showed a laminated structure with a period of 4-34 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internal oxidation of Ru-Ta coatings executed after annealing in 1% O{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen inward diffusion was dominated by lattice diffusion.

  15. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  16. Institutional Structure and International Competitiveness Relationship in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yıldırım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of institutional structure on the international competitiveness of developed countries econometrically by employing a “Panel Data Analysis” with a sample of 21 developed countries and 23 institutional variables for the period 2000-2011. The results of the analysis indicate that while judicial independence, protection of intellectual property rights, integrity of the juridical system, marginal tax, political freedoms, black market exchange rate, restrictions on foreign investment, private sector’s share in the banking system, hiring-minimum wage, and hiring-dismissal have a positive effect; the nature of legal arrangements, government spending, transfers and subsidies, civil liberties, tariffs, regulations regarding trade barriers, collective bargaining, and military tutelage have a negative effect on the international competitiveness of developed countries.

  17. International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Kaliczyńska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Control and Information Technologies 2016. It includes research findings from leading experts in the fields connected with INDUSTRY 4.0 and its implementation, especially: intelligent systems, advanced control, information technologies, industrial automation, robotics, intelligent sensors, metrology and new materials. Each chapter offers an analysis of a specific technical problem followed by a numerical analysis and simulation as well as the implementation for the solution of a real-world problem.

  18. Plasma Vertical Control with Internal and External Coils in Nest Step Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Kessel; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Jun

    2000-11-03

    Vertical stability and control are examined for a tokamak configuration intended to be a generic representation of next step devices. Vertical stability calculations show that a critical resistive wall location can be determined for realistic structures, and that the introduction of small amounts of low resistivity material to an all steel structure can significantly reduce the vertical instability growth rate. Vertical control simulations show that internal control coils require significantly less feedback power than external coils, and that low resistivity materials can allow very low feedback powers or coils to be located externally with reasonable feedback powers.

  19. 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of instrument electrical and automatic control system, the 5th International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Automatic Control (CEEAC) was established at the crossroads of information technology and control technology, and seeks to effectively apply information technology to a sweeping trend that views control as the core of intelligent manufacturing and life. This book takes a look forward into advanced manufacturing development, an area shaped by intelligent manufacturing. It highlights the application and promotion of process control represented by traditional industries, such as the steel industry and petrochemical industry; the technical equipment and system cooperative control represented by robot technology and multi-axis CNC; and the control and support of emerging process technologies represented by laser melting and stacking, as well as the emerging industry represented by sustainable and intelligent life. The book places particular emphasis on the micro-segments field, such as...

  20. Inference Attacks and Control on Database Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamed Turkanovic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Today’s databases store information with sensitivity levels that range from public to highly sensitive, hence ensuring confidentiality can be highly important, but also requires costly control. This paper focuses on the inference problem on different database structures. It presents possible treats on privacy with relation to the inference, and control methods for mitigating these treats. The paper shows that using only access control, without any inference control is inadequate, since these models are unable to protect against indirect data access. Furthermore, it covers new inference problems which rise from the dimensions of new technologies like XML, semantics, etc.

  1. Dose control for internal radiation; Kawalan dos untuk sinaran dalam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: aerosol physics, relationship of surface contamination and internal contamination for workers, surface contamination control and the it`s procedures i.e. protective personnel cloth, waste management in active area, storage of radioactive materials etc.

  2. Trends in International Persuasion: Persuasion in the Arms Control Negotiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, P. Terrence; Walcott, Charles

    An analysis of the bargaining process in international arms control negotiations is possible by developing a framework of interrelated hypotheses, by delineating and practicing interactions study called "Bargaining Process Analysis," and by formulating procedural steps that bridge the gap between laboratory studies and "real world" situations. In…

  3. 49 CFR 225.33 - Internal Control Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... official business. Each railroad shall amend its Internal Control Plan, as necessary, to reflect any..., incident, injury or illness will not be permitted or tolerated and will result in some stated disciplinary... paragraph (a)(1). Each railroad shall have procedures to process complaints from any person about the policy...

  4. International Electrotechnical Commission standards and French material control standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Weill, J.

    1978-01-01

    There are reported the international standards incorporated into the IEC Subcommitee 45 A (Nuclear Reactor Instrumentation) and the national standards elaborated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEA, Group of normalized control equipment, the degree of application of those being reported on the base design, call of bids and exploitation of nuclear power plants. (J.E. de C)

  5. Internal Controls for Accounting Areas. Alliance Action Information Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Internal controls are important to ensure your Parent Center's resources are well protected. Steps should be taken to ensure that finance transactions are authorized by management, executed properly and on time, and recorded appropriately. Some centers may not have staff with all of the titles used in the procedures presented in this paper.…

  6. 12 CFR 609.940 - Internal systems and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Internal systems and controls. 609.940 Section 609.940 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Standards... business plan objectives and policies and procedures requirements regarding E-commerce; and (b) Prevent and...

  7. Planes, Politics and Oral Proficiency: Testing International Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Carol Lynn; Halleck, Gene B.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the variation in oral proficiency demonstrated by 14 Air Traffic Controllers across two types of testing tasks: work-related radio telephony-based tasks and non-specific English tasks on aviation topics. Their performance was compared statistically in terms of level ratings on the International Civil Aviation Organization…

  8. The Future Control of Food: A Guide to International Negotiations ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 févr. 2008 ... This is the best single summary of the political choices facing food and agriculture policymakers that has been written in this decade. Pat Mooney, Executive Director, the ETC Group An excellent resource for those mapping the increasing control of our food chain by international players. Suman Sahai ...

  9. Fast flexible modeling of RNA structure using internal coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Samuel Coulbourn; Sherman, Michael A; Bruns, Christopher M; Eastman, Peter; Altman, Russ Biagio

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the structure and dynamics of large macromolecules remains a critical challenge. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are expensive because they model every atom independently, and are difficult to combine with experimentally derived knowledge. Assembly of molecules using fragments from libraries relies on the database of known structures and thus may not work for novel motifs. Coarse-grained modeling methods have yielded good results on large molecules but can suffer from difficulties in creating more detailed full atomic realizations. There is therefore a need for molecular modeling algorithms that remain chemically accurate and economical for large molecules, do not rely on fragment libraries, and can incorporate experimental information. RNABuilder works in the internal coordinate space of dihedral angles and thus has time requirements proportional to the number of moving parts rather than the number of atoms. It provides accurate physics-based response to applied forces, but also allows user-specified forces for incorporating experimental information. A particular strength of RNABuilder is that all Leontis-Westhof basepairs can be specified as primitives by the user to be satisfied during model construction. We apply RNABuilder to predict the structure of an RNA molecule with 160 bases from its secondary structure, as well as experimental information. Our model matches the known structure to 10.2 Angstroms RMSD and has low computational expense.

  10. 8th international conference on electronic spectroscopy and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art

    2000-10-16

    Gathering from 33 countries around the world, 408 registrants and a number of local drop-in participants descended on the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from Monday, August 7 through Saturday, August 12, 2000 for the Eighth International Conference on Electronic Structure and Spectroscopy (ICESS8). At the conference, participants benefited from an extensive scientific program comprising more than 100 oral presentations (plenary lectures and invited and contributed talks) and 330 poster presentations, as well as ample time for socializing and a tour of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the nearby Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  11. ENHANCING ASSETS' PROTECTION THROUGH AN ADEQUATE MONITORING OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM BY INTERNAL AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Eugen Cosmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The assets are established into a company as very important and strategic resources that are contributing at the creation of the needed premises to conduct the daily-basis activity and also to reach present and future planned objectives. Recent studies like COSO's Fraudulent Financial Reporting 1998-2007 have highlighted an increasing fraudulent activity against assets therefore the efforts of fighting against fraud must be supplemented in order to preserve the existence and value of those resources. Internal controls are processes implemented in order to give a reasonable assurance that the company will not become a fraud victim. Even so, a lot of internal controls are paying a heavy tribute to their lack of efficiency and update. Thus, for a correct functioning, internal controls must be monitored and assessed permanently in order to preserve their strength and ability to fulfill their mission. This approach will deliver more added value because rather than being corrected after they have already occurred, the frauds related with the assets will be prevented, detected and reported at a timely moment, thereby the incidence and value of those criminal activities will decrease significantly. Furthermore, because not only the process of monitoring is important but even the entity conducting this activity we believe that internal audit is the most appropriate to undertake this responsibility. Thus, through this material we opened a discussion about how important permanent monitored and updated internal controls are in order to assure a proper assets protection and why internal audit, rather than the management, should be the most eligible to undertake this responsibility. Also we provided some suggestions regarding the main activities that must be taken into consideration by an internal audit professional when is being involved in a monitoring process of internal control system. We do believe that this paper will be the starting point for new

  12. Compact Radiative Control Structures for Millimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ari D.; Chuss, David T.; Chervenak, James A.; Henry, Ross M.; Moseley, s. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested compact radiative control structures, including antireflection coatings and resonant absorbers, for millimeter through submillimeter wave astronomy. The antireflection coatings consist of micromachined single crystal silicon dielectric sub-wavelength honeycombs. The effective dielectric constant of the structures is set by the honeycomb cell geometry. The resonant absorbers consist of pieces of solid single crystal silicon substrate and thin phosphorus implanted regions whose sheet resistance is tailored to maximize absorption by the structure. We present an implantation model that can be used to predict the ion energy and dose required for obtaining a target implant layer sheet resistance. A neutral density filter, a hybrid of a silicon dielectric honeycomb with an implanted region, has also been fabricated with this basic approach. These radiative control structures are scalable and compatible for use large focal plane detector arrays.

  13. 47 CFR 90.475 - Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of internal transmitter control... Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.475 Operation of internal transmitter control systems in specially equipped systems. (a) An internal transmitter control system need not be designed to meet the...

  14. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  15. Structural Emergency Control for Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a structural emergency control to render post-fault dynamics of power systems from the critical fault-cleared state to a stable equilibrium point (EP). Theoretically, this is a new control paradigm that does not rely on any continuous measurement or load shedding......, as in the classical setup. Instead, the grid is made stable by intentionally changing the power network structure, and thereby, discretely relocating the EP and its stability region such that the system is consecutively driven from fault-cleared state through a set of EPs to the desired EP. The proposed control...... is designed by solving convex optimization problems, making it possibly scalable to large-scale power grids. In the practical side, the proposed control can be implemented by exploiting the FACTS devices that will be widely available on the grids, and hence, requiring minor investment....

  16. Dynamic control of quadruped robot with hierarchical control structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu-Zhang; Furusho, Junji; Okajima, Yosuke.

    1988-01-01

    For moving on irregular terrain, such as the inside of a nuclear power plant and outer space, it is generally recognized that the multilegged walking robot is suitable. This paper proposes a hierarchical control structure for the dynamic control of quadruped walking robots. For this purpose, we present a reduced order model which can approximate the original higher order model very well. Since this reduced order model does not require much computational time, it can be used in the real-time control of a quadruped walking robot. A hierarchical control experiment is shown in which the optimal control algorithm using a reduced order model is calculated by one microprocessor, and the other control algorithm is calculated by another microprocessor. (author)

  17. PIV measurement of internal structure of diesel fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Z M [Ecotechnology System Lab., Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Nishino, K [Div. of Artificial Environment and Systems, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Mizuno, S [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Torii, K [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of diesel fuel spray injected from a single-hole nozzle at injection pressures ranging from 30 to 70 MPa, which are comparable to partial-load operating conditions of commercial diesel engines. The fuel is injected into a non-combusting environment pressurized up to 2.0 MPa. A laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) technique is utilized to visualize internal structures of fuel sprays formed by densely-distributing droplets. A specially designed synchronization system is developed to acquire double-frame spray images at an arbitrary time delay after injection. A direct cross-correlation PIV technique is applied to measure instantaneous droplet velocity distribution. Unique large-scale structures in droplet concentration, called 'branch-like structures' by Azetsu et al. (1990), are observed and shown to be associated with active vortical motions, which appear to be responsible for the mixing between droplets and the surrounding gas. It is found that the droplets tend to move out of the vortical structures and accumulate in the regions of low vorticity. Some other interesting features concerning droplet velocity fields are also presented. (orig.)

  18. Protective guide structure for reactor control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Minoru; Umeda, Kenji; Kubo, Noboru; Ito, Tomohiro.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides an improved protective guide structure for control rods, which does not cause swirling of coolants and resonance even though a slit is formed on a protective tube which surrounds a control rod element in a PWR type reactor. Namely, a reactor control rod is constituted with elongated control elements collectively bundled in the form of a cluster. The protective guide structure protectively guides the collected constituent at the upper portion of a reactor container. The protective structure comprises a plurality of protective tubes each having a C-shaped cross section disposed in parallel for receiving control rod elements individually in which the corners of the opening of the cross section of the protective tube are chamfered to an appropriate configuration. With such a constitution, even if coolant flows in a circumferential direction along the protective tubes surrounding the control rod elements, no shearing stream is caused to the coolants flow since the corners of the cross sectional opening (slit) of the tube are chamfered. Accordingly, occurrence of swirlings can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  19. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Simulation study of burning control with internal transport barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Gonta [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, S.I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-02-01

    Dynamics of burning plasma with internal transport barrier is studied by use of a one dimensional transport simulation code. Two possible mechanisms are modeled for internal transport barrier collapse. One is the collapse, which occurs above the critical pressure gradient, the impact of which is modeled by the enhancement of thermal conductivity. The other is the collapse, which occurs due to the sawtooth trigger. The extended Kadomtsev type reconnection model with multiple resonant surfaces is introduced. Both models are examined for the analysis of long time sustainment of burning. A test of profile control to mitigate the collapse is investigated. The additional circulating power to suppress thermal quench (collapse) is evaluated. (author)

  1. Nuclear reactor internals and control rod handling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, G.N.; Etzel, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing, in an essentially continuous operation, the control rods and the upper guide structure from a nuclear reactor vessel during refueling. The apparatus includes a rigid frame which is secured to the upper guide structure after the vessel head is removed. A platform is vertically reciprocable within the frame and is adapted to engage and lift simultaneously all control rod drive shafts to a maximum elevation within the frame. A mechanical interface between the platform and the frame is provided so that continuation of the lifting force on the platform transfers the lift force to the frame whereby the upper guide structure is lifted out of the vessel. Automatically operated stop means are provided to lock the platform and rods in the maximum elevation within the frame in order to prevent accidental dropping of the rods during transfer of the upper guide structure and control rods to a temporary storage area

  2. Active Control Of Structure-Borne Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, S. J.

    1994-11-01

    The successful practical application of active noise control requires an understanding of both its acoustic limitations and the limitations of the electrical control strategy used. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound in enclosures. First, a review is presented of the fundamental physical limitations of using loudspeakers to achieve either global or local control. Both approaches are seen to have a high frequency limit, due to either the acoustic modal overlap, or the spatial correlation function of the pressure field. These physical performance limits could, in principle, be achieved with either a feedback or a feedforward control strategy. These strategies are reviewed and the use of adaptive digital filters is discussed for both approaches. The application of adaptive feedforward control in the control of engine and road noise in cars is described. Finally, an indirect approach to the active control of sound is discussed, in which the vibration is suppressed in the structural paths connecting the source of vibration to the enclosure. Two specific examples of this strategy are described, using an active automotive engine mount and the incorporation of actuators into helicopter struts to control gear-meshing tones. In both cases good passive design can minimize the complexity of the active controller.

  3. Control Structures for Smart Grid Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Totu, Luminita Cristiana; Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of maintaining the balance between consumption and production in the electricity grid when volatile resources, such as wind and sun, account for a large percentage of the power generation. We present control structures for Smart Grid balancing services on three...

  4. Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.

  5. Disturbance Observer based internal Model Controller Design: Applications to Tracking Control of Optical Disk Drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyun Taek; Suh, Il Hong [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    A digital tracking controller is proposed for a precise positioning control under a large repetitive and/or non repetitive disturbances. The proposed controller consists of the internal model controller and the disturbance observer to eliminate the modeling uncertainty. A sufficient condition is given for robust stability of the proposed control system. Numerical Examples are illustrated for a precise head positioning of optical disk drives regardless of a torque disturbance and/or output disturbance. (author). 8 refs., 19 figs.

  6. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However, to d...... management is aware of this shortcoming they use the cybernetic controls more interactively to overcome this shortcoming, whereby the cybernetic controls are also used as a learning platform and not just for performance control....

  7. Strengthening, modification and repair techniques’ prioritization for structural integrity control of ageing offshore structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarakoon, Samindi M.K.; Ratnayake, R.M. Chandima

    2015-01-01

    Structural integrity control is vital for existing ageing as well as newly built offshore and onshore structures. Structural integrity control becomes highly sensitive to interventions under a potential loss of structural integrity when it comes to offshore oil and gas production and process facilities. This is mainly due to the inherent constraints present in carrying out engineering work in the offshore atmosphere. It has been further exacerbated by the ageing offshore structures and the necessity of carrying out life extension toward the end of their design service lives. Local and international regulations demand the implementation of appropriate strengthening, modification and repair plans when significant changes in the structural integrity are revealed. In this context, strengthening, modification and repair techniques such as welding, member removal/reduction of loading, mechanical clamping and grouted repairs play a vital role. This manuscript presents an approach for prioritizing the strengthening, modification and repair techniques using a multi-criteria analysis approach. An analytic hierarchy process has been selected for the analysis via an illustrative case. It also provides a comprehensive overview of currently existing; strengthening, modification and repair techniques and their comparative pros and cons. - Highlights: • Structural integrity control (SIC) of ageing and intact offshore structures. • Strengthening, modification and/or repair (SMR) techniques have been explained. • Application of multi-criteria analysis conserving SI has been illustrated. • SMR techniques prioritization and sensitivity analysis has been performed

  8. The stages of the international drug control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstairs, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that the history of the international drug control system of the League of Nations/United Nations can be divided into three cumulative stages. The first stage, the supply stage, dates back to early part of the 20th century, and aimed to reduce the supply of drugs through careful monitoring and trade regulations. This has remained the dominant control strategy. In the middle of the century, demand control, in the form of treatment and criminalization of the individual user, began to appear. This was the least successful stage. Finally, in the 1980s, the dangers of the drug traffic assumed an important place on the international agenda and measures to reduce drug-related organized crime were enacted. To date, this has been a process of proliferation of regulatory strategies. Recently, new challenges to the international drug control system have emerged, including well-funded non-governmental organizations critical of the war on drugs, and the adoption of harm reduction measures in national policies around the world.

  9. Structural controllability and controlling centrality of temporal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yujian; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Temporal networks are such networks where nodes and interactions may appear and disappear at various time scales. With the evidence of ubiquity of temporal networks in our economy, nature and society, it's urgent and significant to focus on its structural controllability as well as the corresponding characteristics, which nowadays is still an untouched topic. We develop graphic tools to study the structural controllability as well as its characteristics, identifying the intrinsic mechanism of the ability of individuals in controlling a dynamic and large-scale temporal network. Classifying temporal trees of a temporal network into different types, we give (both upper and lower) analytical bounds of the controlling centrality, which are verified by numerical simulations of both artificial and empirical temporal networks. We find that the positive relationship between aggregated degree and controlling centrality as well as the scale-free distribution of node's controlling centrality are virtually independent of the time scale and types of datasets, meaning the inherent robustness and heterogeneity of the controlling centrality of nodes within temporal networks.

  10. Connecting inventory control and repair shop control : a differentiated control structure for repairable spare parts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.A.; Rustenburg, W.D.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a control structure for integrating decisions on spare parts inventory control and the control of repair shops for maintenance spare parts. A dierentiated control structure is proposed for the various repair shop types recognized in practice. Decisions functions are mapped and

  11. Financial structure, financial development and banking fragility: International evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Porras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of financial structure and financial development on banking fragility. We develop our study by using fixed-effects panel-data regressions and by controlling the effects of certain banking indicators. We use individual and principal-components indicators of the activity, size and efficiency of intermediaries and markets. The indicators include data for 211 countries between 1990 and 2003. Our main findings suggest that banking stability is enhanced in market-based financia...

  12. Quality Control of Concrete Structure For APR1400 Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Inseop; Song, Changhak; Kim, Duill

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear structure shall be constructed to protect internal facilities in the normal operation against external accidents such as the radiation shielding, earthquakes and to be leak-proof of radioactive substances to the external environment in case of loss of coolants. containment and auxiliary building of nuclear power plants are built in reinforced concrete structures to maintain these protection functions. Nuclear structures shall be designed to ensure soundness in operation since they are located on the waterfront where is easy do drain the cooling water and so deterioration and damage of concrete structures caused by seawater can occur. Durability is ensured for concrete structures of APR1400, a Korea standard NPP, in compliance with all safety requirements. In particular, owners perform quality control directly on the production and pouring of cast in place concrete for the concrete structure construction to make sure concrete structures established with quality homogeneity and durability. This report is to look into the quality control standard and management status of cast in place concrete for APR1400 construction

  13. 47 CFR 90.471 - Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Transmitter Control Internal Transmitter Control Systems § 90.471 Points of operation in internal transmitter control systems. The... licensee for internal communications and transmitter control purposes. Operating positions in internal...

  14. Strengthening the regulatory control of consumer goods through international harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yus Rusdian Akhmad

    2013-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is currently working on a recommendation in the form of guidelines for regulating consumer goods. Preparation of this document has a significant dimension of international issues, especially in terms of the application of the principles of justification and application of the concept of exemption. International harmonization among regulators ranging from the regional to the global level is a central issue and considering the complex issues that arise in addition to covering the scientific aspects also involve consideration of the legal aspects or values espoused by any State which may differ from one another. PERKA BAPETEN on consumer goods is still in the preparation stage so that the discussion of the material will be useful for improving the quality of the regulation in time. There is a significant gap of understanding to the related materials by the parties concerned (between local and international parties were among the local party). This paper intends to propose the understanding and views on radiation protection and regulatory control for consumer goods and hopely could contributed significantly to strengthening its regulatory control which is primarily through a reduction in the gap of understanding to the related concept that potentially multi perceptions and encourage stronger cooperation among regulatory bodies. (author)

  15. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  16. Problems is applying new internal dose coefficients to radiation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yuichi [Oarai Laboratory, Chiyoda Technol Corporation, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The author discussed problems concerning the conceivable influence in the radiation control and those newly developing when the new internal dose coefficients are applied in the law in the future. For the conceivable influence, the occupational and public exposure was discussed: In the former, the effective dose equivalent limit (at present, 50 mSv/y) was thought to be reduced and in the latter, the limit to be obscure although it might be more greatly influenced by the new coefficients. For newly developing problems, since the new biological model which is more realistic was introduced for calculation of the internal dose and made the calculation more complicated, use of computer is requisite. The effective dose of the internal exposure in the individual monitoring should be conveniently calculated as done at present even after application of the new coefficients. For calculation of the effective dose of the internal exposure, there are such problems as correction of the inhaled particle size and of the individual personal parameter. A model calculation of residual rate in the chest where the respiratory tract alone participated was presented as an example but for the whole body, more complicated functions were pointed out necessary. The concept was concluded to be incorporated in the law in a convenient and easy manner and a software for calculation of internal dose using the new coefficients was wanted. (K.H.)

  17. Internal Interdecadal Variability in CMIP5 Control Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, A. H.; Mann, M. E.; Frankcombe, L. M.; England, M. H.; Steinman, B. A.; Miller, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Here we make use of control simulations from the CMIP5 models to quantify the amplitude of the interdecadal internal variability component in Atlantic, Pacific, and Northern Hemisphere mean surface temperature. We compare against estimates derived from observations using a semi-empirical approach wherein the forced component as estimated using CMIP5 historical simulations is removed to yield an estimate of the residual, internal variability. While the observational estimates are largely consistent with those derived from the control simulations for both basins and the Northern Hemisphere, they lie in the upper range of the model distributions, suggesting the possibility of differences between the amplitudes of observed and modeled variability. We comment on some possible reasons for the disparity.

  18. Analytical quality control services of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency provides quality control services to analytical laboratories. These services which include the provision of reference materials and the organisation of intercomparisons are rendered for the purpose of assisting laboratories in determining the accuracy of their analytical work. The following classes of materials are presently available: nuclear materials, environmental materials, animal and plant materials, materials for biomedical studies and materials of marine origin. (orig.) [de

  19. Ligation of internal iliac arteries for control of pelvic haemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanwar Y

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a retrospective review of the internal iliac ligations (IAL done over a period of 3 years. Both gynaecological and obstetric cases were considered. A total of 46 ligations were performed. The additional treatment required was hysterectomy to control haemorrhage. Intra-and post-operative complications were noted. A comparative review of the effectiveness of IAL in different situations is done and alternative modalities of treatment are considered.

  20. A demand assignment control in international business satellite communications network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio; Hirata, Yasuo

    An experimental system is being developed for use in an international business satellite (IBS) communications network based on demand-assignment (DA) and TDMA techniques. This paper discusses its system design, in particular from the viewpoints of a network configuration, a DA control, and a satellite channel-assignment algorithm. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission rate, HPA output power, satellite resource efficiency, service quality, and so on.

  1. Engine modeling and control modeling and electronic management of internal combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Isermann, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demands for internal combustion engines with regard to fuel consumption, emissions and driveability lead to more actuators, sensors and complex control functions. A systematic implementation of the electronic control systems requires mathematical models from basic design through simulation to calibration. The book treats physically-based as well as models based experimentally on test benches for gasoline (spark ignition) and diesel (compression ignition) engines and uses them for the design of the different control functions. The main topics are: - Development steps for engine control - Stationary and dynamic experimental modeling - Physical models of intake, combustion, mechanical system, turbocharger, exhaust, cooling, lubrication, drive train - Engine control structures, hardware, software, actuators, sensors, fuel supply, injection system, camshaft - Engine control methods, static and dynamic feedforward and feedback control, calibration and optimization, HiL, RCP, control software developm...

  2. Molecular Diagnostics of the Internal Structure of Starspots and Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afram, N.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Fluri, D. M.; Solanki, S. K.; Lagg, A.; Petit, P.; Arnaud, J.

    2006-12-01

    We have analyzed the usefulness of molecules as a diagnostic tool for studying solar and stellar magnetism with the molecular Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects. In the first part we concentrate on molecules that are observed in sunspots such as MgH and TiO. We present calculated molecular line profiles obtained by assuming magnetic fields of 2-3 kG and compare these synthetic Stokes profiles with spectro-polarimetric observations in sunspots. The good agreement between the theory and observations allows us to turn our attention in the second part to starspots to gain insight into their internal structure. We investigate the temperature range in which the selected molecules can serve as indicators for magnetic fields on highly active cool stars and compare synthetic Stokes profiles with our recent observations.

  3. Nonlocal transformation of the internal quantum particle structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Samarin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the integral wave equation, having path integral kernel, has resulted, that collapse phenomenon is based on the nonlocal transformation of the internal structure of a quantum particle, considering in the form of the matter fields collection. This nonlocality allows to escape the contradiction between the reduction quantum mechanics postulate and special relativity. It is shown, that the wave function transformation, corresponding to von Neumann's reduction, has the deterministic nature and the quantum mechanics stochasticity is a consequence of a macroscopic measurer presence in the measuring process. Besides it is demonstrated, that the decogerence phenomenon has the same mechanism of the wave function transformation. EPR-type experiment is described in detail and the possibility of the faster-then light communication is proved, as well the possible rules of thumb of this communication are proposed.

  4. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEMS OF INTERNAL FINANCIAL CONTROL IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela – Lavinia CIOBĂNICĂ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Beyond the multitude of definitions, internal control is found in the centre of managerial concerns worldwide. This amplification of interest towards internal control has its origin in a series of events, of which two can be mentioned: the growing business complexity and dispersal activity centres, which led to the growth and development of the delegation of competence, the only way which enables the responsible to exercise powers from a distance and entirely, bringing together the components needed by its delegates. Regulatory domain, which has not ceased to expand: laws, regulations, rules, professional constraints, budgetary and social – all these have increasingly limited the decision makers, through a network of rules that must be respected. Consequently, what can be done to be safe from any punishment and to ensure constant watch over the essentials? To answer these questions, and many others, experts in the field have taken initiatives that have enabled them to define with precision the specific internal control and to set goals, creating the famous models: COSO and CoCo.

  6. Internal quality control of neutron activation analysis laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Mun, J. H.; BaeK, S. Y.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The importance for quality assurance and control in analytical laboratories has been emphasized, day by day. Internal quality control using certified reference materials(CRMs) can be one of effective methods for this purpose. In this study, 10 kinds of CRMs consisting of soil, sediment and biological matrix were analyzed. To evaluate the confidence of analytical results and the validation of testing method and procedure, the accuracy and the precision of the measured elements were treated statistically and the reproducibility was compared with those values produced before 2003.

  7. Imaging Internal Structure of Long Bones Using Wave Scattering Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Le, Lawrence H; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Lou, Edmond

    2015-11-01

    An ultrasonic wavefield imaging method is developed to reconstruct the internal geometric properties of long bones using zero-offset data acquired axially on the bone surface. The imaging algorithm based on Born scattering theory is implemented with the conjugate gradient iterative method to reconstruct an optimal image. In the case of a multilayered velocity model, ray tracing through a smooth medium is used to calculate the traveled distance and traveling time. The method has been applied to simulated and real data. The results indicate that the interfaces of the top cortex are accurately imaged and correspond favorably to the original model. The reconstructed bottom cortex below the marrow is less accurate mainly because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. The current imaging method has successfully recovered the top cortical layer, providing a potential tool to investigate the internal structures of long bone cortex for osteoporosis assessment. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Government Internal Control System Maturity: The Role of Internal Guidance and External Control of Local Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo Sutaryo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Government Internal Control System (SPIP. The purpose of this study is to obtain empirical evidence of influence of guidance, external control, and the characteristics of Local Governments on Internal Control (SPIP maturity of local governments in Indonesia. The samples used in this study are 188 local governments in 2014. The variables used include the dependent variable, i.e. the SPIP maturity of local government; Independent variables, i.e. guidance frequency, the number of internal control findings, total assets, total expenditure and the number of local government units. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPKP and the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK. This study uses multiple regression analysis and the results show that the guidace frequency and total expenditure have a positive influence on maturity of SPIP, SPI finding has a negative influence, and the total assets and the number of units do not have significant influence on the maturity of SPIP.

  9. Changes in the internal structure of the human crystalline lens with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiemer, N.G.M.; Dubbelman, M.; Hermans, E.A.; Ringens, P.J.; Polak, B.C.P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 and type 2 on the internal structure of the lens. Design: Observational cross-sectional study. Participants and Controls: One hundred seven patients with DM type 1, 106 patients with DM type 2, and 75 healthy control subjects.

  10. Time scaling internal state predictive control of a solar plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.N. [DEE-FCT/UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rato, L.M. [INESC-ID/University, Evora (Portugal); Lemos, J.M. [INESC-ID/IST, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-12-01

    The control of a distributed collector solar field is addressed in this work, exploiting the plant's transport characteristic. The plant is modeled by a hyperbolic type partial differential equation (PDE) where the transport speed is the manipulated flow, i.e. the controller output. The model has an external distributed source, which is the solar radiation captured along the collector, approximated to depend only of time. From the solution of the PDE, a linear discrete state space model is obtained by using time-scaling and the redefinition of the control input. This method allows overcoming the dependency of the time constants with the operating point. A model-based predictive adaptive controller is derived with the internal temperature distribution estimated with a state observer. Experimental results at the solar power plant are presented, illustrating the advantages of the approach under consideration. (author)

  11. THE COMMUNICATION OF INTERNAL CONTROL SYSTEM WEAKNESSES - NECESSITY AND RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, NEDELCU (BUNEA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its mission, the control is an inherent part of management, being a specifically human activity, especially useful serving both the management, business partners, public institutions and public. Especially in the last period, amid the economic and financial crisis manifested in recent years, the control has evolved and evolving both by the improvement of organization and management systems and by the response to continuous development of the environment in which it operates. The control activities are an integral part of the management process by which the entity aims to achieve their objectives. The research methodology consists essentially in a literature review and recent regulations in the analyzed field.The objective of this study is to highlight the way in which shall be communicated the deficiencies of internal control systems, to the persons responsible for their governance, inclusively in the banking system.

  12. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  13. Control of internal exposure doses of Belarus population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minenko, V.; Drozdovich, V.; Ulanovski, A.; Ternov, V.I.; Vasilyeva, I.

    1997-01-01

    Starting from May 1986 instrumental control of internal exposure is being carried out in Belarus using different equipment. In earlier, iodine period, the basic aim of the control was a mass screening of the population for defining of iodine content in thyroid. After the iodine period attention of the radiological control was focused on monitoring of caesium radionuclides content in human bodies of the inhabitants of radioactively contaminated territories. Goals of the control were changing, depending on the time that passed since the day of the accident. Nowadays the National Commission of Belarus recognizes entering of the, Republic into rehabilitation period of the accident of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Developed Conception of Protection Measures for the rehabilitation period for the population living at the territories affected by the radioactive contamination in the result of the Chernobyl catastrophe

  14. Control of Modular Multilevel Converter with reduced internal data exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Máthé, Lászlo; Burlacu, Paul Dan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2017-01-01

    for such an application, several key parameters have to be considered such as high speed data transfer with low propagation delay, data integrity, and ability for accurate synchronization. In order to minimize the data flow in the MMC a hierarchical control is proposed where a CCU calculates an identical reference......Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC) are penetrating due to their superior performances. Due to the modular structure of the converter, communication platform has to be established between the Sub-Modules (SM) and a Central Controller Unit (CCU). When the communication platform is designed...... for all the SMs while the modulation and capacitor voltage balancing is performed in the controller from the SM. Thus, at each sampling instance only four bytes references are sent by the central controller to the controllers from the SM, while one or two bytes are received from SMs. Further, the control...

  15. Internal structure and swelling behaviour of in silico microgel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Zaccarelli, Emanuela

    2018-01-01

    Microgels are soft colloids that, by virtue of their polymeric nature, can react to external stimuli such as temperature or pH by changing their size. The resulting swelling/deswelling transition can be exploited in fundamental research as well as for many diverse practical applications, ranging from art restoration to medicine. Such an extraordinary versatility stems from the complex internal structure of the individual microgels, each of which is a crosslinked polymer network. Here we employ a recently-introduced computational method to generate realistic microgel configurations and look at their structural properties, both in real and Fourier space, for several temperatures across the volume phase transition as a function of the crosslinker concentration and of the confining radius employed during the ‘in-silico’ synthesis. We find that the chain-length distribution of the resulting networks can be analytically predicted by a simple theoretical argument. In addition, we find that our results are well-fitted to the fuzzy-sphere model, which correctly reproduces the density profile of the microgels under study.

  16. External cues challenging the internal appetite control system-Overview and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, Els; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-09-02

    Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.

  17. CONCRETE STRUCTURES' QUALITY CONTROL IN PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Dolaček-Alduk, Zlata; Blanda, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    The Croatian civil engineering is characterized by a lack of systematic approach to planning, control and quality assurance in all phases of project realization. The results obtained in establishing the quality management system in some segments of civil engineering production represent initial trends in solving this problem. Benefits are of two types: the achievement of quality for the contractor and obtaining that quaity is being achieved for clients. Execution of concrete structures is a c...

  18. Delayed Antiwindup Control Using a Decoupling Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the antiwindup (AW control problem for plants with input saturation. The AW compensator is not activated as soon as input saturation occurs as usual. A delayed decoupling structure is first proposed. Then, appropriate linear matrix inequalities (LMIs are developed to determine a plant-order AW compensator. Effectiveness of the presented AW technique is illustrated by a fighter aircraft model.

  19. Modeling and control of flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, B.; Bryson, A. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of actuator and sensor locations on transfer function zeros are investigated, using uniform bars and beams as generic models of flexible space structures. It is shown how finite element codes may be used directly to calculate transfer function zeros. The impulse response predicted by finite-dimensional models is compared with the exact impulse response predicted by the infinite dimensional models. It is shown that some flexible structures behave as if there were a direct transmission between actuator and sensor (equal numbers of zeros and poles in the transfer function). Finally, natural damping models for a vibrating beam are investigated since natural damping has a strong influence on the appropriate active control logic for a flexible structure.

  20. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of international controlled material in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: area of material delivery; fluctuation of stock; batch; real stock, effective value; fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for permission of the uses of international controlled material shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency by the processor, the establisher of reactor, the reprocessor or the user for each works or enterprise, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the works or the enterprise where such material is used, kind and quantity of the material and expected period of the uses. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works or enterprise on specified matters, including especially delivery, stock and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. Provisions on control of measurement, method of analysis and information processing business are stipulated. Reports shall be submitted to the Director in the forms attached on delivery, control and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. (Okada, K.)

  1. The potential value of dynamic materials control in international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keepin, G.R.; Lovett, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    The difficulties inherent in conventional materials accountancy based on semi-annual or annual shutdown cleanout physical inventories have been recognized for many years. The increasing importance of international nuclear materials safeguards, coupled with the availability of advanced non-destructive measurement technology which could be installed on or near process lines, has led to the development of the concept of advanced or dynamic materials control. The potential benefits of dynamic materials control in terms of significantly improved detection capabilities (ranging from a few kilograms of plutonium down to perhaps a few hundred grams, even for large-scale bulk processing facilities), and even more dramatically improved detection timeliness (typically a few days, and potentially only a few hours, in advanced facilities), are reviewed. At least twelve major dynamic material control systems already in existence or in the process of being installed are noted, and some of the essential characteristics are discussed. Some currently unresolved questions are explored, and future prospects for the concept of dynamic material control in international safeguards are reviewed. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 4290.506 - Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls... Safeguarding the RBIC's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures. ...

  3. 13 CFR 107.506 - Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .../Internal controls. 107.506 Section 107.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION... Safeguarding Licensee's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to safeguard your assets and monitor... your control procedures. ...

  4. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro [Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kumamoto University 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto, 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  5. Real-time control of internal transport barriers in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazon, D.; Litaudon, X.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul lez Durance (France)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    We present the results of recent experiments related to real-time control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) in JET. Using a simple criterion to characterize the ITB existence, location and strength, we have successfully controlled for the first time the radial electron temperature profile within the ITB. The dimensionless variable used in the real-time algorithm - ratio of the ion gyro-radius to the local gradient scale length of the electron temperature - is a measure of the normalized electron temperature gradient and characterizes satisfactorily the main ITB features with a relatively low computational cost. We show several examples of control of this variable in various experimental conditions of toroidal field and plasma current, using different heating systems as control actuators. We also present a double-loop feedback scheme where both the global neutron rate from D-D reactions and the ITB strength are controlled simultaneously. In this case the ITB is sustained in a fully non-inductive current drive regime during several seconds. With the proposed control method, disruptions are avoided by holding the plasma performance at a prescribed target and this opens the route towards stationary operation of tokamak plasmas with ITBs. Initial results suggest that the additional control of the current profile is an important issue for achieving steady-state operation, in particular in the triggering and the sustainment of the ITB. (author)

  6. 2011 International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control Proceedings

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set contains the very latest, cutting-edge material in electrics, communication and automatic control. As a vital field of research that is highly relevant to current developments in a number of technological domains, the subjects it covers include micro-electronics and integrated circuit control, signal processing technology, next-generation network infrastructure, wireless communication and scientific instruments. The aim of the International Conference in Electrics, Communication and Automatic Control, held in Chongqing, China, in June 2011 was to provide a valuable inclusive platform for researchers, engineers, academicians and industrial professionals from all over the world to share their research results with fellow scientists in the sector. The call for papers netted well over 600 submissions, of which 224 were selected for presentation. This fully peer-reviewed collection of papers from the conference can be viewed as a single-source compendium of the latest trends and techniques in t...

  7. International Conference on Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the outcome of the international meeting on instability, control and noise generated by massive flow separation that was organized at the Monash Center, in Prato, Italy, September 4-6, 2013. The meeting served as the final review of the EU-FP7 Instability and Control of Massively Separated Flows Marie Curie travel grant and was supported by the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development. Fifty leading specialists from twelve countries reviewed the progress made since the 50s of the last century and discussed modern analysis techniques, advanced experimental flow diagnostics, and recent developments in active flow control techniques from the incompressible to the hypersonic regime. Applications involving massive flow separation and associated instability and noise generation mechanisms of interest to the aeronautical, naval and automotive industries have been addressed from a theoretical, numerical or experimental point of view, making this book a unique source containing the stat...

  8. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 1 includes best papers selected from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into five sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Identification and Control, Navigation, Guidance and Sensor, Simulation Technology, Future Telecommunications and Control

  9. Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement: A Review of the Locus of Control Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Martin B.; Rocco, Tonette S.

    2009-01-01

    One aspect of personality, perceptions of internal versus external control of reinforcement, shifts under conditions of change. This review of the literature examines the relationship between planned organizational change and locus of control. The review includes literature from the disciplines of clinical and social psychology, adult development,…

  10. Effects of Internal Control Training on the Locus of Control of Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of internal control training on the locus of control of selected school going adolescents in Benin City. A sample size of 60 was drawn from two of the 27 co-educational schools in Oredo Local government area of Benin City. A table of random number technique was used to select subjects for ...

  11. Sustainable Innovation, Management Accounting and Control Systems, and International Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Lopez-Valeiras

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes how Management Accounting and Control Systems (MACS facilitate the appropriation of the benefits of sustainable innovations in organizations. In particular, this paper examines the moderating role of different types of MACS in the relationships between sustainable innovation and international performance at an organizational level. We collected survey data from 123 Spanish and Portuguese organizations. Partial Least Square was used to analyze the data. Results show that the effect of sustainable innovations on international performance is enhanced by contemporary rather than traditional types of MACS. Overall our findings show that MACS can help managers to develop and monitor organizational activities (e.g., costumer services and distribution activities, which support the appropriation of the potential benefits from sustainable innovation. This paper responds to recent calls for in-depth studies about the organizational mechanism that may enhance the success of sustainable innovation.

  12. Impact of Public Internal Financial Control on Public Administration in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna VAŠIČEK

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The PIFC /Public Internal Financial Control/ was developed by the European Commission. PIFC is set of principles internal financial controls system established for the purpose of controlling, auditing, supervise on the use of national budget and European Union budget and funds. Also, in order to support candidate countries in their internal control system reforms in the public sector. Therefore, it is expected for the candidate countries to establish and develop the system of internal financial controls according to the concept which was in that field developed by the European Union based on International Standards and the best practice of European countries. Since the year 2003 the Republic of Croatia undertakes intensive activities on the establishment and development of the internal financial control system according with the regulation of European Union. In keeping with the set concept, the Republic of Croatia undertook numerous activities during the past six years to create all the necessary assumptions for the establishment and development of the system, including: the adoption of the initial strategic documents; drafting of laws; the creation of organisational capacities and human resources; and the implementation of the system with budget users at central government and local levels. In this paper we will present phases of implementation PIFC in Croatian Public Sector. Through this phases we will show impact that PIFC has on development of New Public Management in Croatia and changes in organizational structure and human resource that are caused during this process. Also, we will give critical opinion of that process and problems which occur during implementation. In this paper we will present approach in implementation of PIFC in Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and compare this with implementation in Croatia.

  13. Saturn's Internal Structure: A View through its Natural Seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovich, Christopher; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Movshovitz, Naor

    2017-10-01

    Saturn's nonradial oscillations perturb the orbits of ring particles. The C ring is fortuitous in that it spans several resonances with Saturn's fundamental acoustic (f-) modes, and its moderate optical depth allows the characterization of wave features using stellar occultations. The growing set of C-ring waves with precise pattern frequencies and azimuthal order m measured from Cassini stellar occultations (Hedman & Nicholson 2013, 2014; French et al. 2016) provides new constraints on Saturn's internal structure, with the potential to resolve long-standing questions about the planet's distribution of helium and heavier elements, its means of internal energy transport, and its rotation state.We construct Saturn interior models and calculate mode eigenfrequencies, mapping the planet mode frequencies to resonant locations in the rings to compare with the locations of observed spiral density and vertical bending waves in the C ring. While spiral density waves at low azimuthal order (m=2-3) appear strongly affected by resonant coupling between f-modes and deep g-modes (Fuller 2014), the locations of waves with higher azimuthal order can be fit reasonably well with a spectrum of pure f-modes for Saturn models with adiabatic envelopes and realistic equations of state. In particular, four observed bending waves (Nicholson et al., DPS 2016) align with outer vertical resonances for non-sectoral (m≠l) Saturn f-modes of relatively high angular degree, and we present preliminary identifications of these. We assess the range of resonance locations in the C and D rings allowed for the spectrum of f-modes given gravity field constraints and discuss what role a realistic helium distribution in the planet might play.

  14. Non-proliferation through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear disarmament and international control of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Ryukichi

    1993-01-01

    The role of nuclear factors in the international political situation has changed. The emphasis is now on the new circumstance of the post cold-war world. Non-proliferation is dealt with through effective international control, with particular reference to peaceful uses of nuclear material as a result of nuclear weapons dismantling and international control of plutonium

  15. Structure formation control of foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steshenko, Aleksei; Kudyakov, Aleksander; Konusheva, Viktoriya; Syrkin, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    The process of predetermined foam concrete structure formation is considered to be a crucial issue from the point of process control and it is currently understudied thus defining the need for additional research. One of the effective ways of structure formation control in naturally hardening foam concrete is reinforcement with dispersed fibers or introduction of plasticizers. The paper aims at studying the patterns of influence of microreinforcing and plasticizing additives on the structure and performance properties of foam concrete. Preparation of foam concrete mix has been conducted using one-step technology. The structure of modified foam concrete has been studied by means of electron microscopy. The cellular structure of foam concrete samples with the additives is homogeneous; the pores are uniformly distributed over the total volume. It has been revealed that introduction of the Neolas 5.2 plasticizer and microreinforcing fibers in the foam concrete mixture in the amount of 0.4 - 0.1 % by weight of cement leads to reduction of the average pore diameter in the range of 45.3 to 30.2 microns and the standard deviation of the pore average diameter from 23.6 to 9.2 in comparison with the sample without additive. Introduction of modifying additives has stimulated formation of a large number of closed pores. Thus porosity of conditionally closed pores has increased from 16.06 % to 34.48 %, which has lead to increase of frost resistance brand of foam concrete from F15 to F50 and to reduction of its water absorption by weight by 20 %.

  16. Internal Leakage Fault Detection and Tolerant Control of Single-Rod Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of internal leakage fault detection and tolerant control for single-rod hydraulic actuators is present in this paper. Fault detection is a potential technique to provide efficient condition monitoring and/or preventive maintenance, and fault tolerant control is a critical method to improve the safety and reliability of hydraulic servo systems. Based on quadratic Lyapunov functions, a performance-oriented fault detection method is proposed, which has a simple structure and is prone to implement in practice. The main feature is that, when a prescribed performance index is satisfied (even a slight fault has occurred, there is no fault alarmed; otherwise (i.e., a severe fault has occurred, the fault is detected and then a fault tolerant controller is activated. The proposed tolerant controller, which is based on the parameter adaptive methodology, is also prone to realize, and the learning mechanism is simple since only the internal leakage is considered in parameter adaptation and thus the persistent exciting (PE condition is easily satisfied. After the activation of the fault tolerant controller, the control performance is gradually recovered. Simulation results on a hydraulic servo system with both abrupt and incipient internal leakage fault demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed fault detection and tolerant control method.

  17. Control of Internal Transport Barriers in Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, Soma; Newman, David; Sanchez, Raul; Terry, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In magnetic confinement fusion devices the best performance often involves some sort of transport barriers to reduce the energy and particle flow from core to edge. Those barriers create gradients in the temperature and density profiles. If gradients in the profiles are too steep that can lead to instabilities and the system collapses. Control of these barriers is therefore an important challenge for fusion devices (burning plasmas). In this work we focus on the dynamics of internal transport barriers. Using a simple 7 field transport model, extensively used for barrier dynamics and control studies, we explore the use of RF heating to control the local gradients and therefore the growth rates and shearing rates for barrier initiation and control in self-heated fusion plasmas. Ion channel barriers can be formed in self-heated plasmas with some NBI heating but electron channel barriers are very sensitive. They can be formed in self-heated plasmas with additional auxiliary heating i.e. NBI and radio-frequency(RF). Using RF heating on both electrons and ions at proper locations, electron channel barriers along with ion channel barriers can be formed and removed demonstrating a control technique. Investigating the role of pellet injection in controlling the barriers is our next goal. Work supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-04ER54741.

  18. Introduction to modeling and control of internal combustion engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, Lino; Onder, Christopher H. [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICE) still have potential for substantial improvements, particularly with regard to fuel efficiency and environmental compatibility. In order to fully exploit the remaining margins, increasingly sophisticated control systems have to be applied. This book offers an introduction to cost-effective model-based control-system design for ICE. The primary emphasis is put on the ICE and its auxiliary devices. Mathematical models for these processes are developed and solutions for selected feedforward and feedback control-problems are presented. The discussions concerning pollutant emissions and fuel economy of ICE in automotive applications constantly intensified since the first edition of this book was published. Concerns about the air quality, the limited resources of fossil fuels and the detrimental effects of greenhouse gases exceedingly spurred the interest of both the industry and academia in further improvements. The most important changes and additions included in this second edition are: - restructured and slightly extended section on superchargers; - short subsection on rotational oscillations and their treatment on engine test-benches; - complete section on modeling, detection, and control of engine knock; - improved physical and chemical model for the three-way catalytic converter; - new methodology for the design of an air-to-fuel ratio controller; - short introduction to thermodynamic engine-cycle calculation and corresponding control-oriented aspects. (orig.)

  19. A survey. Financial accounting and internal control functions pursued by hospital boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, T A

    1984-09-01

    Justification for a board committee's existence is its ability to devote time to issues judged to be important by the full board. This seems to have happened. Multiple committees pursue more functions than the other committee structures. Boards lacking an FA/IC committee pursue significantly fewer functions than their counterparts with committees. Substantial respondent agreement exists on those functions most and least frequently pursued, those perceived to be most and least important, and those perceived to be most and least effectively undertaken. Distinctions between committee structures and the full board, noted in the previous paragraph, hold true with respect to the importance of functions. All board structures identified reviewing the budget and comparing it to actual results as important. Committee structures are generally more inclined to address functions related to the work of the independent auditor and the effectiveness of the hospital's system and controls than are full board structures. Functions related to the internal auditor are pursued least frequently by all FA/IC board structures. The following suggestions are made to help boards pay adequate attention to and obtain objective information about the financial affairs of their hospitals. Those boards that do not have some form of an FA/IC committee should consider starting one. Evidence shows chief financial officers have been a moving force in establishing and strengthening such committees. Boards having a joint or single committee structure should consider upgrading their structure to either a single committee or multiple committees respectively. The complexity of the healthcare environment requires that more FA/IC functions be addressed by the board. The board or its FA/IC committee(s) should meet with their independent CPA's, fiscal intermediary auditors, and internal auditors. Where the hospital lacks an internal audit function a study should be undertaken to determine the feasibility of

  20. Controlling pandemic flu: the value of international air travel restrictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Epstein

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Planning for a possible influenza pandemic is an extremely high priority, as social and economic effects of an unmitigated pandemic would be devastating. Mathematical models can be used to explore different scenarios and provide insight into potential costs, benefits, and effectiveness of prevention and control strategies under consideration.A stochastic, equation-based epidemic model is used to study global transmission of pandemic flu, including the effects of travel restrictions and vaccination. Economic costs of intervention are also considered. The distribution of First Passage Times (FPT to the United States and the numbers of infected persons in metropolitan areas worldwide are studied assuming various times and locations of the initial outbreak. International air travel restrictions alone provide a small delay in FPT to the U.S. When other containment measures are applied at the source in conjunction with travel restrictions, delays could be much longer. If in addition, control measures are instituted worldwide, there is a significant reduction in cases worldwide and specifically in the U.S. However, if travel restrictions are not combined with other measures, local epidemic severity may increase, because restriction-induced delays can push local outbreaks into high epidemic season. The per annum cost to the U.S. economy of international and major domestic air passenger travel restrictions is minimal: on the order of 0.8% of Gross National Product.International air travel restrictions may provide a small but important delay in the spread of a pandemic, especially if other disease control measures are implemented during the afforded time. However, if other measures are not instituted, delays may worsen regional epidemics by pushing the outbreak into high epidemic season. This important interaction between policy and seasonality is only evident with a global-scale model. Since the benefit of travel restrictions can be substantial while

  1. Future Control and Automation : Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    This volume Future Control and Automation- Volume 2 includes best papers from 2012 2nd International Conference on Future Control and Automation (ICFCA 2012) held on July 1-2, 2012, Changsha, China. Future control and automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. This volume can be divided into six sessions on the basis of the classification of manuscripts considered, which is listed as follows: Mathematical Modeling, Analysis and Computation, Control Engineering, Reliable Networks Design, Vehicular Communications and Networking, Automation and Mechatronics.

  2. Penetration effect in internal conversion and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listengarten, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions for the appearance of the anomalous internal conversion coefficients (ICC) are considered, when the contribution of the penetration matrix element (PME) is of the order of or larger than the main part of the conversion matrix element. The experimental magnitudes of the nuclear PME agree well with those calculated in the framework of simple nuclear models, provided the magnitude of PME is not decreased due to the model -dependent selection rules. The magnitude of the anomaly ( lanbda parameter ) is compared with the exclusion factor of γ-transition relative to the Weisskopf estimation. The better is the model of the nucleus the weaker is the dependence of the lambda magnitude on the exclusion factor. ICC coefficients might be anomalous for those γ-transitions for which the exclusion factor calculated in the framework of more rigorous model are of the order of unity. In the ''ideal'' model of nucleus completely adequate to the true nuclear structure the dependence of the lambda penetration parameter on the exclusion factor vanishes

  3. Internal combustion engines - Modelling, estimation and control issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, C.W.

    2001-12-01

    Alternative power-trains have become buzz words in the automotive industry in the recent past. New technologies like Lithium-Ion batteries or fuel cells combined with high efficient electrical motors show promising results. However both technologies are extremely expensive and important questions like 'How are we going to supply fuel-cells with hydrogen in an environmentally friendly way?', 'How are we going to improve the range - and recharging speed - of electrical vehicles?' and 'How will our existing infrastructure cope with such changes?' are still left unanswered. Hence, the internal combustion engine with all its shortcomings is to stay with us for the next many years. What the future will really bring in this area is uncertain, but one thing can be said for sure; the time of the pipe in - pipe out engine concept is over. Modem engines, Diesel or gasoline, have in the recent past been provided with many new technologies to improve both performance and handling and to cope with the tightening emission legislations. However, as new devices are included, the number of control inputs is also gradually increased. Hence, the control matrix dimension has grown to a considerably size, and the typical table and regression based engine calibration procedures currently in use today contain both challenging and time-consuming tasks. One way to improve understanding of engines and provide a more comprehensive picture of the control problem is by use of simplified physical modelling - one of the main thrusts of this dissertation. The application of simplified physical modelling as a foundation for engine estimation and control design is first motivated by two control applications. The control problem concerns Air/Fuel ratio control of Spark Ignition engines. Two different ways of control are presented; one based on. a model based Extended Kalman Filter updated predictor, and one based on robust H {infinity} techniques. Both controllers are

  4. 25 CFR 542.7 - What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for bingo... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.7 What are the minimum internal control standards for... utilized, alternate documentation and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by...

  5. 25 CFR 542.14 - What are the minimum internal control standards for the cage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for the... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.14 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  6. 25 CFR 542.8 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pull tabs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for pull... SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.8 What are the minimum internal control standards for... and/or procedures that provide at least the level of control described by the standards in this...

  7. 1st International Conference on Intelligent Communication, Control and Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Sushabhan

    2017-01-01

    The book presents high-quality research papers presented at the first international conference, ICICCD 2016, organised by the Department of Electronics, Instrumentation and Control Engineering of University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun on 2nd and 3rd April, 2016. The book is broadly divided into three sections: Intelligent Communication, Intelligent Control and Intelligent Devices. The areas covered under these sections are wireless communication and radio technologies, optical communication, communication hardware evolution, machine-to-machine communication networks, routing techniques, network analytics, network applications and services, satellite and space communications, technologies for e-communication, wireless Ad-Hoc and sensor networks, communications and information security, signal processing for communications, communication software, microwave informatics, robotics and automation, optimization techniques and algorithms, intelligent transport, mechatronics system, guidance and navigat...

  8. International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Gunnar

    1976-01-01

    This book includes all papers presented at the International Symposium on Monitoring Behavior and Supervisory Control held at Berchtesgaden, Federal Republic of Germany, March 8-12, 1976. The Symposium was sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Brussels, and the government of the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn. We believe the book constitutes an important and timely status report on monitoring behavior and supervisory control by human operators of complex man-machine systems in which the computer is sharing key functions with the man. These systems include aircraft and other vehicles, nuclear and more conventional power plants, and processes for the manu­ facture of chemicals, petroleum, and discrete parts. By "monitoring" we mean the systematic observation by a human operator of mul tiple sources of information, e. g. , ranging from integrated display consoles to disparate "live situations". The monitor's purpose is to determine whether operations are norm...

  9. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    OpenAIRE

    O.М. Bunda; E.М. Guzenko

    2016-01-01

    The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institu...

  10. An Inverse Optimal Control Approach to Explain Human Arm Reaching Control Based on Multiple Internal Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Ozgur S; Zhou, Zhehua; Glasauer, Stefan; Wollherr, Dirk

    2018-04-03

    Human motor control is highly efficient in generating accurate and appropriate motor behavior for a multitude of tasks. This paper examines how kinematic and dynamic properties of the musculoskeletal system are controlled to achieve such efficiency. Even though recent studies have shown that the human motor control relies on multiple models, how the central nervous system (CNS) controls this combination is not fully addressed. In this study, we utilize an Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) framework in order to find the combination of those internal models and how this combination changes for different reaching tasks. We conducted an experiment where participants executed a comprehensive set of free-space reaching motions. The results show that there is a trade-off between kinematics and dynamics based controllers depending on the reaching task. In addition, this trade-off depends on the initial and final arm configurations, which in turn affect the musculoskeletal load to be controlled. Given this insight, we further provide a discomfort metric to demonstrate its influence on the contribution of different inverse internal models. This formulation together with our analysis not only support the multiple internal models (MIMs) hypothesis but also suggest a hierarchical framework for the control of human reaching motions by the CNS.

  11. Startle stimuli reduce the internal model control in discrete movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Zachary A; Rogers, Mark W; MacKinnon, Colum D; Patton, James L

    2009-01-01

    A well known and major component of movement control is the feedforward component, also known as the internal model. This model predicts and compensates for expected forces seen during a movement, based on recent experience, so that a well-learned task such as reaching to a target can be executed in a smooth straight manner. It has recently been shown that the state of preparation of planned movements can be tested using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS). SAS, presented 500, 250 or 0 ms before the expected "go" cue resulted in the early release of the movement trajectory associated with the after-effects of the force field training (i.e. the internal model). In a typical motor adaptation experiment with a robot-applied force field, we tested if a SAS stimulus influences the size of after-effects that are typically seen. We found that in all subjects the after-effect magnitudes were significantly reduced when movements were released by SAS, although this effect was not further modulated by the timing of SAS. Reduced after-effects reveal at least partial existence of learned preparatory control, and identify startle effects that could influence performance in tasks such as piloting, teleoperation, and sports.

  12. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  13. Diagnostic Technology Development for Core Internal Structure in CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    Degradation of critical components of nuclear power plants has become important as the operating years of plants increase. The necessity of degradation study including measurement and monitoring technology has increased continuously. Because the fuel channels and the neighboring sensing tubes and control rods are particularly one of the critical components in CANDU nuclear plant, they are treated as a major research target in order to counteract the possible problems and establish the counterplan for the CANDU reactor safety improvement. To ensure the core structure integrity in CANDU nuclear plant, the following 2 research tasks were performed: Development of NDE technologies for the gap measurement between the fuel channels and LIN tubes. Development of vibration monitoring technology of the fuel channels and sensing tubes. The technologies developed in this study could contribute to the nuclear safety and estimation of the remaining life of operating CANDU nuclear power plants

  14. Internal audit: the expert in providing comfort to the audit committee. The case of risk management and internal control

    OpenAIRE

    G. SARENS; I. DE BEELDE

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent audit committees feel uncomfortable about risk management and internal control, and focuses on how internal audit can be the expert in providing comfort in these areas, building upon the sociology of professions literature. Four case studies reveal that audit committees need comfort with respect to the control environment. Thanks to their internal position, their familiarity with the company, and their position close to people across the company, interna...

  15. Structural-phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarenko, Victor A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The vocational activities of doctors and their social status do not ensure their health. And, falling ill, doctors don’t identify themselves with ordinary patients as they have a deep knowledge of medicine. Thus, the internal picture of a doctor’s illness is both a research and a practical problem: the problem of the psychoprevention of doctors’ illnesses at all stages of their professionalization. The purpose of the research was to study the phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses using the structural approach. The total number of participants was 132. The experimental group consisted of 66 sick doctors, differentiated according to their stage of professionalization: vocational training (students, professional adaptation (interns, full professionalization (doctors. The control group consisted of 66 people who did not have any medical education. All the control subjects were hospitalized with chronic diseases during the study period. The organization of the research was carried out with the use of clinical-psychological and diagnostic methods, the methods of descriptive statistics, and comparative, multidimensional, and structural analysis. The research revealed the following phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses: the prevalence of some anxiety in the doctors and high awareness of their health; the doctors’ altruistic orientation; their willingness to work despite difficulties; and their ability to achieve high results in different activities. The structural features of the doctors’ image of their own diseases on the cognitive level were the following: qualitative heterogeneity during in-service activities; a high degree of image integration during in-service activities; and stereotyped perceptions of the disease. The emotional level revealed the emotional distance between doctors and their patients, and the behavioral level revealed doctors’ disregard for the

  16. 10th international conference on ground control in mining - proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    36 papers are presented covering topics that include longwall pillar design, assessment of underground structural design, load and convergence measurements in longwall faces, shield strata interaction, longwall shield recovery, roof control in longwall mining, anchor resin system, thrust bolting, roof bolts, cable slings, roof support in retreat mining, coal bump prediction, delineation of abandoned workings, stability of coal mine openings, mining under rivers, rock strength determination, subsidence prediction and measurement, drag picks, measuring roof convergence, and finite element modelling of subsidence

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  18. The Evolution and Internal Structure of Jupiter and Saturn with Compositional Gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazan, A.; Helled, R.; Podolak, M.; Kovetz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The internal structure of gas giant planets may be more complex than the commonly assumed core-envelope structure with an adiabatic temperature profile. Different primordial internal structures as well as various physical processes can lead to non-homogenous compositional distributions. A

  19. Structural learning in feedforward and feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Nada; Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2012-11-01

    For smooth and efficient motor control, the brain needs to make fast corrections during the movement to resist possible perturbations. It also needs to adapt subsequent movements to improve future performance. It is important that both feedback corrections and feedforward adaptation need to be made based on noisy and often ambiguous sensory data. Therefore, the initial response of the motor system, both for online corrections and adaptive responses, is guided by prior assumptions about the likely structure of perturbations. In the context of correcting and adapting movements perturbed by a force field, we asked whether these priors are hard wired or whether they can be modified through repeated exposure to differently shaped force fields. We found that both feedback corrections to unexpected perturbations and feedforward adaptation to a new force field changed, such that they were appropriate to counteract the type of force field that participants had experienced previously. We then investigated whether these changes were driven by a common mechanism or by two separate mechanisms. Participants experienced force fields that were either temporally consistent, causing sustained adaptation, or temporally inconsistent, causing little overall adaptation. We found that the consistent force fields modified both feedback and feedforward responses. In contrast, the inconsistent force field modified the temporal shape of feedback corrections but not of the feedforward adaptive response. These results indicate that responses to force perturbations can be modified in a structural manner and that these modifications are at least partly dissociable for feedback and feedforward control.

  20. Retrospective exposure assessment and quality control in an international multi-centre case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinnerberg, H; Heikkilä, P; Huici-Montagud, A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the exposure assessment method and quality control procedure used in an international, multi-centre case-control study within a joint Nordic and Italian cohort. This study was conducted to evaluate whether occupational exposure to carcinogens influenced the predictivity of high...... was higher among the original assessors (the assessor from the same country as the subject) than the average prevalence assessed by the other four in the quality control round. The original assessors classified more job situations as exposed than the others. Several reasons for this are plausible: real...... country-specific differences, differences in information available to the home assessor and the others and misunderstandings or difficulties in translation of information. To ensure the consistency of exposure assessments in international retrospective case-control studies it is important to have a well...

  1. Effect of internal controls on credit risk among listed Spanish banks

    OpenAIRE

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi; Moreno Gené, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used...

  2. SOME CONSIDERATIONS OVER THE INTERNAL CONTROL IN THE CONTEXT OF CURRENT ACCOUNTANCY REGULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenghel Dorin Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the hereby study we set ourselves on an analysis over the internal control and the ways of implementation of it. The final purpose of our research is represented by the characteristics of the internal control system in the context of current accountancy regulations. The accomplishment of such goal has forced us to research the current literature in the area and also the legal regulations over internal control. Of course, the accomplishment of such a research was possible only after a pertinent analysis over the opinions expressed in specialty literature regarding this area. Our research wants to be with a theoretical and applicative character. It is based on analysing the internal control system, the methodology of internal control and the steps of internal control. We express our belief that the implementation of the internal control in a very exact manner comes as an aid to the company management and lead to the accomplishment of managerial objectives and policies. In what it regards the result of our research there can be drawn the following conclusions: from the legal regulations (OMFP nr. 3055/2009, there is no clear conclusion over the procedures and policies of implementation of internal control applicable to an economical entity; also there are not presented in a detailed way the types (forms of internal control, being presented in the legal regulations only a classification of them after the time in which they are exercised (before, during or after the finishing of the operations; also in the legal regulations there is developed a certain way of internal control, represented by the financial and accounting internal control, as if the other forms of internal control do not exist; in what regards the components of internal control, these are presented in another way, but similar to already known models of internal control (Coso and Coco; also in the legal regulations there are presented the general objectives of internal control

  3. Proceedings of the 17th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The conference was divided into the following divisions and subdivisions: DIVISION A: Plenary lectures and panel; DIVISION B: Computational mechanics (Structural and thermal analysis; High-non linear analysis, material behaviour; Vibration and fluid dynamics analysis); DIVISION C: Fuel and core structures (Fuel vibration and fretting; Fuel design and constitutive modelling; Fuel failure under operation and accident conditions; Fuel failure under operation and accident conditions; Components and material behaviour under irradiation; Integrity of fuel systems under transient conditions); DIVISION D: Aging, Life Extension and Licence Renewal (International Regulatory and Economic Perspectives; Utility perspectives, WWER technology; Fatigue, corrosion and crack issues; Component integrity; Aging assessment and monitoring; Containment and other structures); DIVISION F: Design methods and rules for components (International codes and standards; Tube, piping codes and standards; Analyses; Fatigue and life assessment; Creep; Bolted connections and gaskets); DIVISION G: Fracture mechanics (Reactor pressure vessel integrity; Dynamic loading; Fracture considerations for various applications; Failure assessment of Zr alloy; Pipe integrity; Integrity of welds; Failure of non-metallic materials; Leak before break (LBB); Corrosion aspects); DIVISION H: Concrete Containment and Other Structures (Concrete materials and performance; Tests of scale prestressed concrete containment vessel; Shear wall test and analysis; Structural analysis and containment design; Structural integrity and analysis); DIVISION J: Analysis and design for dynamic and extreme load (Vibration of shells and plates; Impact analysis; Piping vibration; Structural dynamics; Experimental and other topics); DIVISION K: Seismic analysis, design and qualification (General seismic issues; Ground motion and sitting; Soil-structure interaction; Seismic response of structures; Seismic re-evaluation; Seismic response and

  4. Dimensional control and check of field machining parts for reactor internals installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caifang

    2010-01-01

    Some key issues of dimensional control for reactor internals installation are analyzed, and important technical requirements of crucial quality control elements on the measurement, machining, and checking of reactor internals filed machining parts are discussed. Moreover, provisions on quality control and risk prevention of reactor internals filed machining parts are presented in this paper. (author)

  5. 17 CFR 240.17Ad-13 - Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... internal accounting control. 240.17Ad-13 Section 240.17Ad-13 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES... Company Rules § 240.17Ad-13 Annual study and evaluation of internal accounting control. (a) Accountant's... accountant concerning the transfer agent's system of internal accounting control and related procedures for...

  6. 78 FR 68447 - Exposure Draft-Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Exposure Draft--Standards for Internal Control in the Federal... revisions to the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government, known as the ``Green Book,'' to... proposed changes contained in the 2013 Exposure Draft update to the Standards for Internal Control in the...

  7. 49 CFR 192.476 - Internal corrosion control: Design and construction of transmission line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Internal corrosion control: Design and... STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.476 Internal corrosion control: Design and construction... the risk of internal corrosion. At a minimum, unless it is impracticable or unnecessary to do so, each...

  8. 78 FR 22263 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government; Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is initiating efforts to revise the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 327 - Internal Management Control Review Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Internal Management Control Review Checklist B... B to Part 327—Internal Management Control Review Checklist (a) Task: Personnel and/or Organization... See footnote 2 to this Appendix B. (1) I attest that the above listed internal controls provide...

  10. Control structures for high speed processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, G. K.; Mankin, R.; Owsley, P. A.; Kim, G. M.

    1982-01-01

    A special processor was designed to function as a Reed Solomon decoder with throughput data rate in the Mhz range. This data rate is significantly greater than is possible with conventional digital architectures. To achieve this rate, the processor design includes sequential, pipelined, distributed, and parallel processing. The processor was designed using a high level language register transfer language. The RTL can be used to describe how the different processes are implemented by the hardware. One problem of special interest was the development of dependent processes which are analogous to software subroutines. For greater flexibility, the RTL control structure was implemented in ROM. The special purpose hardware required approximately 1000 SSI and MSI components. The data rate throughput is 2.5 megabits/second. This data rate is achieved through the use of pipelined and distributed processing. This data rate can be compared with 800 kilobits/second in a recently proposed very large scale integration design of a Reed Solomon encoder.

  11. Control of internal transport barriers on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiore, C.L.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ernst, D.R.; Hubbard, A.E.; Greenwald, M.J.; Lynn, A.; Marmar, E.S.; Phillips, P.; Redi, M.H.; Rice, J.E.; Wolfe, S.M.; Wukitch, S.J.; Zhurovich, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies of internal transport and double transport barrier regimes in the Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] have explored the limits for forming, maintaining, and controlling these plasmas. The C-Mod provides a unique platform for studying such discharges: the ions and electrons are tightly coupled by collisions and the plasma has no internal particle or momentum sources. The double-barrier mode comprised of an edge barrier with an internal transport barrier (ITB) can be induced at will using off-axis ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) injection on either the low or high field side of the plasma with either of the available ICRF frequencies (70 or 80 MHz). When an enhanced D α high confinement mode (EDA H-mode) is accessed in Ohmic plasmas, the double barrier ITB forms spontaneously if the H-mode is sustained for ∼2 energy confinement times. The ITBs formed in both Ohmic and ICRF heated plasmas are quite similar regardless of the trigger method. They are characterized by strong central peaking of the electron density, and a reduction of the core particle and energy transport. The control of impurity influx and heating of the core plasma in the presence of the ITB have been achieved with the addition of central ICRF power in both the Ohmic H-mode and ICRF induced ITBs. The radial location of the particle transport barrier is dependent on the toroidal magnetic field but not on the location of the ICRF resonance. A narrow region of decreased electron thermal transport, as determined by sawtooth heat pulse analysis, is found in these plasmas as well. Transport analysis indicates that a reduction of the particle diffusivity in the barrier region allows the neoclassical pinch to drive the density and impurity accumulation in the plasma center. An examination of the gyrokinetic stability at the trigger time for the ITB suggests that the density and temperature profiles are inherently stable to ion temperature gradient and

  12. Social Structures in the Economics of International Education: Perspectives from Vietnamese International Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…

  13. Glass-based confined structures enabling light control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappini, Andrea; Normani, Simone; Chiasera, Alessandro [IFN–CNR CSMFO Lab., and FBK Photonics Unit via alla Cascata 56/C Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy); Lukowiak, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, Okolna St. 2, 50-422 Wroclaw (Poland); Vasilchenko, Iustyna [IFN–CNR CSMFO Lab., and FBK Photonics Unit via alla Cascata 56/C Povo, 38123 Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Trento, via Sommarive 14 Povo, 38123Trento (Italy); Ristic, Davor [Institut Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Boulard, Brigitte [IMMM, CNRS Equipe Fluorures, Université du Maine, Av. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans cedex 9 (France); Dorosz, Dominik [Department of Power Engineering, Photonics and Lighting Technology, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska Street 45D, 15-351 Bialystok (Poland); Scotognella, Francesco [Center for Nano Science and Technology@PoliMi, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Giovanni Pascoli, 70/3, 20133, Milan (Italy); Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Vaccari, Alessandro [FBK -CMM, ARES Unit, 38123 Trento (Italy); Taccheo, Stefano [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea (United Kingdom); Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C. [IFAC - CNR, MiPLab., 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro di Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi”, Piazza del Viminale 1, 00184 Roma (Italy); Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi [IFAC - CNR, MiPLab., 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Ramponi, Roberta [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie CNR, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); and others

    2015-04-24

    When a luminescent ion is confined in a system characterized by one or more specific properties such as spatial size, geometrical dimension and shape, refractive index, local crystal field, cut-off vibrational energy and so on, it's possible to control its emission. The control of branching ratios as a function of the composition, the luminescence enhancement induced by a photonic crystal, or the laser action in a microresonator, are well known examples of light control. Photonic glass-based structures are extremely viable systems to exploit the above mentioned properties and in our research team we have successfully fabricated luminescent photonic structures by different techniques, including sol-gel, rf sputtering, drawing, melting, and physical vapour deposition. Here we will discuss some of them with the aim to make the reader aware of the chemical-physical properties related to each specific system. We will demonstrate that glass ceramic waveguides in some cases present superior spectroscopic properties in respect to the parent glass, that compositional properties can play a positive role in reducing luminescence quenching and in developing novel planar waveguides and fibers, that colloids allow to obtain high internal quantum efficiency and that photonic crystals, microcavities and microresonators can enable the handling of the rare earth luminescence. Finally, the pros and cons of the systems and of the different techniques employed for their fabrication will be discussed and some perspectives concerning the glass photonics will be proposed looking at both possible applications and investigation of physical properties.

  14. Glass-based confined structures enabling light control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiappini, Andrea; Normani, Simone; Chiasera, Alessandro; Lukowiak, Anna; Vasilchenko, Iustyna; Ristic, Davor; Boulard, Brigitte; Dorosz, Dominik; Scotognella, Francesco; Vaccari, Alessandro; Taccheo, Stefano; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Ramponi, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    When a luminescent ion is confined in a system characterized by one or more specific properties such as spatial size, geometrical dimension and shape, refractive index, local crystal field, cut-off vibrational energy and so on, it's possible to control its emission. The control of branching ratios as a function of the composition, the luminescence enhancement induced by a photonic crystal, or the laser action in a microresonator, are well known examples of light control. Photonic glass-based structures are extremely viable systems to exploit the above mentioned properties and in our research team we have successfully fabricated luminescent photonic structures by different techniques, including sol-gel, rf sputtering, drawing, melting, and physical vapour deposition. Here we will discuss some of them with the aim to make the reader aware of the chemical-physical properties related to each specific system. We will demonstrate that glass ceramic waveguides in some cases present superior spectroscopic properties in respect to the parent glass, that compositional properties can play a positive role in reducing luminescence quenching and in developing novel planar waveguides and fibers, that colloids allow to obtain high internal quantum efficiency and that photonic crystals, microcavities and microresonators can enable the handling of the rare earth luminescence. Finally, the pros and cons of the systems and of the different techniques employed for their fabrication will be discussed and some perspectives concerning the glass photonics will be proposed looking at both possible applications and investigation of physical properties

  15. Rotational Spectrum of 1,1-Difluoroethane: Internal Rotation Analysis and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamanan, R. M.; Chen, W. D.; Wlodarczak, G.; Demaison, J.; Lesarri, A. G.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    1995-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of CH3CHF2 in its ground state was measured up to 653 GHz. Accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The internal rotation splittings were analyzed using the internal axis method. An ab initio structure has been calculated and a near-equilibrium structure has been estimated using offsets derived empirically. This structure was compared to an experimental r0 structure. The four lowest excited states (including the methyl torsion) have also been assigned.

  16. The JET PCU project: An international plasma control project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, F.; Crisanti, F.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, G.; Toigo, V.; Hay, J.; Lomas, P.; Rimini, F.; Shaw, S.R.; Luchetta, A.; Sousa, J.; Portone, A.; Bonicelli, T.; Ariola, M.; Artaserse, G.; Bigi, M.; Card, P.; Cavinato, M.; De Tommasi, G.; Gaio, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the new JET enhancement project 'Plasma Control Upgrade' (PCU). Initially aimed at an overhaul of JET plasma control capabilities it was eventually focused on improving the vertical stabilisation (VS) system ability to recover from large ELM (edge localised mode) perturbations. The paper describes the results of the first two years where the activity was aimed principally at researching a solution that could be implemented within the timing and budget constraints. A very important task was that of improving the modelling of JET plasma, iron core and passive structures. Using dedicated experiments, the models were progressively refined until it was possible not just to explain the experimental data but predict the VS system behaviour. At the same time the project team studied the best options for power supply (PS) and control system upgrades and evaluated whether a change of turns in the stabilisation coil was desirable and possible. A new fast radial field power supply is now being ordered and the VS control system is being upgraded

  17. International symposium on exotic nuclear structures. Book of abstracst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The following topics were discussed at the meeting: Physics of weakly bound nuclei, neutron skin and halo; Evolution of shell structures for neutron-rich nuclei; Collective excitations in nuclei with exotic nuclear shapes; Cluster structures; Super- and hyperdeformed nuclei, exotic structures in the actinides; Superheavy elements; Towards understanding the structure of nucleons; New experimental techniques, facilities for radioactive beams. All abstracts (75 items) were submitted as full text to the INIS database. (R.P.)

  18. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CRPP-EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2004-05-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The {rho}{sub T}{sup *} (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength.

  19. Control of electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, M A; Behn, R; Coda, S; Condrea, I; Duval, B P; Goodman, T P; Karpushov, A; Martin, Y; Martynov, An; Moret, J-M; Nikkola, P; Porte, L; Sauter, O; Scarabosio, A; Zhuang, G

    2004-01-01

    Current profile tailoring has been performed by application of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and electron cyclotron current drive, leading to improved energy confinement in the plasma core of the TCV tokamak. The improved confinement is characterized by a substantial enhancement (H-factor) of the global electron energy confinement time relative to the prediction of the RLW scaling law (Rebut P H et al 1989 Proc. 12th Int. Conf. of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research (Nice, 1988) vol 2 (Vienna: IAEA) p 191), which predicts well Ohmic and standard ECH discharges on TCV. The improved confinement is attributed to a hollow current density profile producing a reversed shear profile creating an electron internal transport barrier. We relate the strength of the barrier to the depth of the hollow current density profile and the volume enclosed by the radial location of the peak current density. The ρ T * (Tresset G et al 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 520) criterion is used to evaluate the performance of the barrier relative to changes in the ECH parameters or the addition of Ohmic current, which aid in identifying the control parameters available for improving either the strength or volume of the barrier for enhanced performance. A figure of merit for the global scaling factor is used that scales the confinement enhancement as the product of the barrier volume and strength

  20. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  1. Smooth Adaptive Internal Model Control Based on U Model for Nonlinear Systems with Dynamic Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved smooth adaptive internal model control based on U model control method is presented to simplify modeling structure and parameter identification for a class of uncertain dynamic systems with unknown model parameters and bounded external disturbances. Differing from traditional adaptive methods, the proposed controller can simplify the identification of time-varying parameters in presence of bounded external disturbances. Combining the small gain theorem and the virtual equivalent system theory, learning rate of smooth adaptive internal model controller has been analyzed and the closed-loop virtual equivalent system based on discrete U model has been constructed as well. The convergence of this virtual equivalent system is proved, which further shows the convergence of the complex closed-loop discrete U model system. Finally, simulation and experimental results on a typical nonlinear dynamic system verified the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The proposed method is shown to have lighter identification burden and higher control accuracy than the traditional adaptive controller.

  2. Minnowbrook VI: 2009 Workshop on Flow Physics and Control for Internal and External Aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGraff, John E.; Povinelli, Louis A.; Gostelow, J. Paul; Glauser, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Topics covered include: Flow Physics and control for Internal and External Aerodynamics (not in TOC...starts on pg13); Breaking CFD Bottlenecks in Gas-Turbine Flow-Path Design; Streamwise Vortices on the Convex Surfaces of Circular Cylinders and Turbomachinery Blading; DNS and Embedded DNS as Tools for Investigating Unsteady Heat Transfer Phenomena in Turbines; Cavitation, Flow Structure and Turbulence in the Tip Region of a Rotor Blade; Development and Application of Plasma Actuators for Active Control of High-Speed and High Reynolds Number Flows; Active Flow Control of Lifting Surface With Flap-Current Activities and Future Directions; Closed-Loop Control of Vortex Formation in Separated Flows; Global Instability on Laminar Separation Bubbles-Revisited; Very Large-Scale Motions in Smooth and Rough Wall Boundary Layers; Instability of a Supersonic Boundary-Layer With Localized Roughness; Active Control of Open Cavities; Amplitude Scaling of Active Separation Control; U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Need for Flow Physics and Control With Applications Involving Aero-Optics and Weapon Bay Cavities; Some Issues Related to Integrating Active Flow Control With Flight Control; Active Flow Control Strategies Using Surface Pressure Measurements; Reduction of Unsteady Forcing in a Vaned, Contra-Rotating Transonic Turbine Configuration; Active Flow Control Stator With Coanda Surface; Controlling Separation in Turbomachines; Flow Control on Low-Pressure Turbine Airfoils Using Vortex Generator Jets; Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows; Study and Control of Flow Past Disk, and Circular and Rectangular Cylinders Aligned in the Flow; Periodic Forcing of a Turbulent Axisymmetric Wake; Control of Vortex Breakdown in Critical Swirl Regime Using Azimuthal Forcing; External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group; Boundary Layers, Transitions and Separation; Efficiency Considerations in Low Pressure Turbines; Summary of Conference; and Final Plenary Session

  3. Nonuniform Internal Structure of Fibrin Fibers: Protein Density and Bond Density Strongly Decrease with Increasing Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.

  4. Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Robert J., E-mail: rjgordon@uic.edu; Singha, Sima; Zhao, Youbo [Department of Chemistry (m/c 111), University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680-7061 (United States); Hu, Zhan [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Seideman, Tamar [Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Sukharev, Maxim [Science and Mathematics Faculty, College of Letters and Sciences, Arizona State University, Mesa, Arizona 85212 (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S{sub 2} potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S{sub 0} → S{sub 2} followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Based Set-Point Weighting Controller Tuning for an Internal Model Control Based PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruthai Suresh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Controller tuning is the process of adjusting the parameters of the selected controller to achieve optimum response for the controlled process. For many of the control problems, a satisfactory performance is obtained by using PID controllers. One of the main problems with mathematical models of physical systems is that the parameters used in the models cannot be determined with absolute accuracy. The values of the parameters may change with time or various effects. In these cases, conventional controller tuning methods suffer when trying a lot to produce optimum response. In order to overcome these difficulties a fuzzy logic based Set- Point weighting controller tuning method is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is analyzed through computer simulation using SIMULINK software and the results are presented. The fuzzy logic based simulation results are compared with Cohen-Coon (CC, Ziegler- Nichols (ZN, Ziegler – Nichols with Set- Point weighting (ZN-SPW, Internal Model Control (IMC and Internal model based PID controller responses (IMC-PID. The effects of process modeling errors and the importance of controller tuning have been brought out using the proposed control scheme.

  6. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  7. Modelling of internal structure in seismic analysis of a PHWR building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushawaha, H.S.; Ingle, R.K.; Subramanian, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    Seismic analysis of complex and large structures, consisting of thick shear walls, such as Reactor Building is very involved and time consuming. It is a standard practice to model the structure as a stick model to predict reasonably the dynamic behaviour of the structure. It is required to determine approximate equivalent sectional properties of Internal Structure for representation in the stick model. The restraint to warping can change the stress distribution thus affecting the centre of rigidity and torsional inertia, Hence, standard formulae does not hold good for determination of sectional properties of the Internal Structure. In this case the equivalent sectional properties for the Internal Structure are calculated using a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the Internal Structure and applying unit horizontal forces in each direction. A 3-D stick model is developed using the guidelines. Using the properties calculated by FEM and also by standard formulae, the responses of the 3-D stick model are compared. (J.P.N.)

  8. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  9. Have the auditors closed the expectation gap concerning evaluation of internal control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkholm, Peter; Holm, Claus

    internal controls intended for management directors, it provides a framework which explicitly deals with the interests of all parties involved (including auditors, board of directors and regulating bodies). The auditors took this into account by updating the particular auditing standard on internal control....... Realized discrepancies are identified and related to the necessary features of an integrated framework. The necessary features include (1) the definition of internal controls, (2) the components of internal control, (3) the criteria for evaluating internal control as stated by the auditors (4) the criteria...... for evaluating internal controls as stated by management, and (5) the integration of internal control evaluations from management and auditors. The paper provides evidence from an in-depth contents analysis comparing SAS No. 55 from 1988 with the COSO-report from 1992 and SAS No. 78 from 1995. The analysis...

  10. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  11. Control superstructure of rigid polyelectrolytes in oppositely charged hydrogels via programmed internal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Riku; Wu, Zi Liang; Arifuzzaman, Md; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2014-08-01

    Biomacromolecules usually form complex superstructures in natural biotissues, such as different alignments of collagen fibres in articular cartilages, for multifunctionalities. Inspired by nature, there are efforts towards developing multiscale ordered structures in hydrogels (recognized as one of the best candidates of soft biotissues). However, creating complex superstructures in gels are hardly realized because of the absence of effective approaches to control the localized molecular orientation. Here we introduce a method to create various superstructures of rigid polyanions in polycationic hydrogels. The control of localized orientation of rigid molecules, which are sensitive to the internal stress field of the gel, is achieved by tuning the swelling mismatch between masked and unmasked regions of the photolithographic patterned gel. Furthermore, we develop a double network structure to toughen the hydrogels with programmed superstructures, which deform reversibly under large strain. This work presents a promising pathway to develop superstructures in hydrogels and should shed light on designing biomimetic materials with intricate molecular alignments.

  12. Variable-Structure Control of a Model Glider Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Anderson, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    A variable-structure control system designed to enable a fuselage-heavy airplane to recover from spin has been demonstrated in a hand-launched, instrumented model glider airplane. Variable-structure control is a high-speed switching feedback control technique that has been developed for control of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  13. Biomimetic mineral-organic composite scaffolds with controlled internal architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjubala, I; Woesz, Alexander; Pilz, Christine; Rumpler, Monika; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Roschger, Paul; Stampfl, Juergen; Fratzl, Peter

    2005-12-01

    Bone and cartilage generation by three-dimensional scaffolds is one of the promising techniques in tissue engineering. One approach is to generate histologically and functionally normal tissue by delivering healthy cells in biocompatible scaffolds. These scaffolds provide the necessary support for cells to proliferate and maintain their differentiated function, and their architecture defines the ultimate shape. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a technology by which a complex 3-dimensional (3D) structure can be produced indirectly from computer aided design (CAD). The present study aims at developing a 3D organic-inorganic composite scaffold with defined internal architecture by a RP method utilizing a 3D printer to produce wax molds. The composite scaffolds consisting of chitosan and hydroxyapatite were prepared using soluble wax molds. The behaviour and response of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells on the scaffolds was studied. During a culture period of two and three weeks, cell proliferation and in-growth were observed by phase contrast light microscopy, histological staining and electron microscopy. The Giemsa and Gömöri staining of the cells cultured on scaffolds showed that the cells proliferated not only on the surface, but also filled the micro pores of the scaffolds and produced extracellular matrix within the pores. The electron micrographs showed that the cells covering the surface of the struts were flattened and grew from the periphery into the middle region of the pores.

  14. International Expansion and Transition to the Network Structure of the Multinational Companies and Their Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ettaleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is associated with growing interconnectedness, interdependence and the integration of businesses into a single economic system, improving the competitiveness of businesses, and places new demands and requirements on firms. Companies that wanted to survive in a new, dynamic and competitive environment had to apply new development strategies, whose main motto was to reduce costs and to create greater flexibility on the global market. Many large companies managed huge cost reductions in the globalized economy through international expansion to the industrial periphery and semi-periphery countries (developing countries and Central and Eastern Europe and through the transition from a pyramidal organizational structure to a network structure. The control centre of companies in a network organization deprives hierarchical and pyramidal corporate structures, rather temporarily joins a network of small suppliers, subcontractors and service providers. In the business environment networks are more flexible and adaptable than firms with a hierarchical structure. They are highly effective because they allow significant reductions in the operating costs of the company. On the other hand, the network structure of relations has a number of social consequences, such as the reduction in the number of employees, the rise in non-standard employment contracts and the abolition of responsibility.

  15. Relativistic Processes and the Internal Structure of Neutron Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D. E.; Kubis, S.

    2011-01-01

    Models for the internal composition of Dense Compact Stars are reviewed as well as macroscopic properties derived by observations of relativistic processes. Modeling of pure neutron matter Neutron Stars is presented and crust properties are studied by means of a two fluid model.

  16. Getting Women Into the Physics Leadership Structure Nationally and Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elvira S.; Diaz, Lilliam Alvarez; Gebbie, Katharine B.; El-Sayed, Karimat

    2005-10-01

    The underrepresentation of women among physicists around the world, especially in leadership positions, has broad implications for industries and government agencies with a strong need for a technologically educated workforce. The dearth of women physicists in academia exacerbates the situation in that female students lack exposure to successful women in the field. Three years ago, an international group of women met for a round table discussion at the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics and discussed the importance of having women in leadership positions. They shared their experiences and successes, and drew up and reported a set of recommendations addressing the preparation of women for leadership, the selection process, and the responsibilities of institutions. They acknowledged that implementation of their recommendations would differ among countries. At the Second IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics an international group of women met again to review, revise, and move forward on revamped recommendations from the first conference. This is a report on the new set of revamped recommendations, which address why women should be in leadership positions, goal setting, best practices, commitments, and follow-up actions for the attendees of the second conference.

  17. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John Fp; Gallego, Gisselle; Blauvelt, Barri M

    2011-07-28

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary), de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1) Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2) Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3) Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  18. 25 CFR 900.54 - Should the property management system prescribe internal controls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System Standards § 900.54 Should the property management system prescribe internal controls? Yes. Effective internal controls should include procedures: (a) For the conduct of periodic inventories; (b) To... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Should the property management system prescribe internal...

  19. 78 FR 40740 - Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Advisory Council on the Standards for Internal Control in the... on the Green Book Advisory Council and the Standards for Internal Control in the Federal Government.... SUMMARY: The US Government Accountability Office (GAO) is preparing to revise the Standards for Internal...

  20. 17 CFR 229.308T - (Item 308T) Internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... over financial reporting. 229.308T Section 229.308T Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 229.308T (Item 308T) Internal control over financial reporting. Note to Item 308T: This is a special... internal control over financial reporting. Provide a report of management on the registrant's internal...

  1. 17 CFR 229.308 - (Item 308) Internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... over financial reporting. 229.308 Section 229.308 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... § 229.308 (Item 308) Internal control over financial reporting. (a) Management's annual report on internal control over financial reporting. Provide a report of management on the registrant's internal...

  2. Internal control as part of prevention irregularities in accounting of budgetary institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.М. Bunda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the principles of internal control, the importance, the rationale for the essence of the system of internal control and the legislative building in budgetary institution. It describes the main challenges and problems of practical application of internal control in the normal course of business in modern enterprises. It reveals the following elements of the internal control of a budget institution as: control environment, risk assessment process of a budget institution, information systems, control procedures and control monitoring. The dependence between the effectiveness of accounting and internal control of a budget institution is determined. The paper highlights the methods of evaluation of internal control of a budget institution. This method is recommended for use in the preliminary assessment of control risk budget institution. The concept of «decision» as on the whole and also in particular in internal control is covered. The essential grouping indications of internal control decisions are defined and every type of decisions is characterized. The main directions of improvement of internal control to prevent violations in accounting of a budgetary institution is examined.

  3. Shared internal models for feedforward and feedback control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mark J; Smith, Maurice A

    2008-10-15

    A child often learns to ride a bicycle in the driveway, free of unforeseen obstacles. Yet when she first rides in the street, we hope that if a car suddenly pulls out in front of her, she will combine her innate goal of avoiding an accident with her learned knowledge of the bicycle, and steer away or brake. In general, when we train to perform a new motor task, our learning is most robust if it updates the rules of online error correction to reflect the rules and goals of the new task. Here we provide direct evidence that, after a new feedforward motor adaptation, motor feedback responses to unanticipated errors become precisely task appropriate, even when such errors were never experienced during training. To study this ability, we asked how, if at all, do online responses to occasional, unanticipated force pulses during reaching arm movements change after adapting to altered arm dynamics? Specifically, do they change in a task-appropriate manner? In our task, subjects learned novel velocity-dependent dynamics. However, occasional force-pulse perturbations produced unanticipated changes in velocity. Therefore, after adaptation, task-appropriate responses to unanticipated pulses should compensate corresponding changes in velocity-dependent dynamics. We found that after adaptation, pulse responses precisely compensated these changes, although they were never trained to do so. These results provide evidence for a smart feedback controller which automatically produces responses specific to the learned dynamics of the current task. To accomplish this, the neural processes underlying feedback control must (1) be capable of accurate real-time state prediction for velocity via a forward model and (2) have access to recently learned changes in internal models of limb dynamics.

  4. An Autophagic Flux Probe that Releases an Internal Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizuka, Takeshi; Morishita, Hideaki; Hama, Yutaro; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Matsui, Takahide; Toyota, Yuichiro; Kodama, Akihiko; Ishihara, Tomoaki; Mizushima, Tohru; Mizushima, Noboru

    2016-11-17

    Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system that utilizes the autophagosome to deliver cytoplasmic components to the lysosome. Measuring autophagic activity is critically important but remains complicated and challenging. Here, we have developed GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3ΔG, a fluorescent probe to evaluate autophagic flux. This probe is cleaved by endogenous ATG4 proteases into equimolar amounts of GFP-LC3 and RFP-LC3ΔG. GFP-LC3 is degraded by autophagy, while RFP-LC3ΔG remains in the cytosol, serving as an internal control. Thus, autophagic flux can be estimated by calculating the GFP/RFP signal ratio. Using this probe, we re-evaluated previously reported autophagy-modulating compounds, performed a high-throughput screen of an approved drug library, and identified autophagy modulators. Furthermore, we succeeded in measuring both induced and basal autophagic flux in embryos and tissues of zebrafish and mice. The GFP-LC3-RFP-LC3ΔG probe is a simple and quantitative method to evaluate autophagic flux in cultured cells and whole organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Internal quality control program for individual monitoring service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Moura Junior, Jose; Patrao, Karla C.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br; moura@ird.gov.br; karla@ird.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    With a focus on continuous improvement, since 2002, a special internal procedure for following and checking the performance of our individual monitoring services has been implemented. A fictitious installation, named 'Fantasma' has been created, initially, with 4 film badges and 7 thermoluminescent dosimetric ring users. Since 2005, this quality control program includes also the albedo neutron individual monitoring service. Monthly, the 'Fantasma' test monitors are irradiated by traceable Cs-137 and Am-Be sources. The calibration quantities are: the photon dose equivalent (H{sub x}) for the photographic individual monitor, the maximum dose equivalent (MADE) for the albedo neutron individual monitor and the personal dose equivalent at 0.07 mm depth (H{sub p}(0.07)) for ring monitor. Up to now, all results show compliance with the specific trumpet curves acceptance limits. Once, a small sub-evaluation tendency has been noted and this information was used to improve the film system. For the photographic film system, the evaluated value to reference dose ratios range from 0.71 to 1.12, with a mean value of 0.91 {+-} 0.12. For the ring system, the ratio ranges from 0.69 to 1.40, with a mean value of 1.02 {+-} 0.07. For the neutron system, which presents intrinsic larger uncertainties, the ratio ranged from 0.67 to 1.88, with mean value of 1.16 {+-} 0.27. (author)

  6. AUDITING INTERNAL CONTROLS IN FINANCING PRESCHOOL PUBLIC INSTITUTION: EVIDENCE FROM SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana HORVAT

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public preschool educational institutions in Slovenia are mostly financed by public money, it means bay state and municipalities. They are also financed by parents. So, it is important that preschool institutions are using public money transparent and responsible, for this reason public preschool institution should have internal controls in financing. The internal auditor as independent professional should verify if internal controls works. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how internal controls in financing public educational institution works it means which internal controls are important in financing the preschool institution - on the selected institution to show and check how internal controls work. For this reason we divide internal controls in the financing in two phases: (1 internal controls in the preparation of the annual financial plan and financial planning of financial resources for institution’s programs and activities, (2 internal controls in obtaining financial resources. We used methods of internal auditing and research approaches as sampling, unstructured interviews and analysis of documents. The results showed that selected preschool institution should work on rules of recovery and monitoring of claims. The findings provide useful academic insight to setting internal controls as well as practical guidance for preschool institutions.

  7. Control mechanisms for a nonlinear model of international relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentek, A.; Kadtke, J. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Inst. for Pure and Applied Physical Sciences; Lenhart, S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Mathematics Dept.; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Div.

    1997-07-15

    Some issues of control in complex dynamical systems are considered. The authors discuss two control mechanisms, namely: a short range, reactive control based on the chaos control idea and a long-term strategic control based on an optimal control algorithm. They apply these control ideas to simple examples in a discrete nonlinear model of a multi-nation arms race.

  8. Eighth International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics (ICINCO 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Alain; Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

    2013-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected papers from the eighth "International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics" (ICINCO 2011), held in Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, from 28 to 31 July 2011. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: "Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization", "Robotics and Automation", "Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modeling and Control" and "Industrial Engineering, Production and Management". The book is based on the same structure.   ICINCO received 322 paper submissions, not including those of workshops or special sessions, from 52 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee only 33 submissions were accepted as full papers and thus selected for oral presentation, leading to a full paper acceptance ratio of 10%. Additional papers were accepted as short papers and posters. A further refinement was made after the conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality,...

  9. Controlling a hurricane by altering its internal climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardhekar, D.

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric hazards, like the fury of a hurricane, can be controlled by altering its internal climate. The hurricane controlling technique suggested is eco-friendly, compatible with hurricane size, has a sound scientific base and is practically possible. The key factor is a large scale dilution of the hurricane fuel, vapour, in the eye wall and spiral rain bands where condensation causing vapor volume reduction (a new concept which can be explained by Avogadro's law) and latent heat release drive the storm. This can be achieved by installing multiple storage tanks containing dry liquefied air on the onshore and offshore coastal regions and islands, preferably underground, in the usual path of a hurricane. Each storage tank is designed to hold and release dry liquefied air of around 100,000 tons. Satellite tracking of hurricanes can locate the eye wall and the spiral rain bands. The installed storage tanks coming under these areas will rapidly inject dry air in huge quantities thereby diluting the vapour content of the vapour-rich air in the eye wall and in the spiral rain bands. This will result in reduced natural input of vapour-rich air, reduced release of latent heat, reduced formation of the low pressure zone due to condensation and volume reduction of the vapor, expansion of the artificially introduced dry air as it goes up occupying a larger space with the diluted fuel, absorption of energy from the system by low temperature of the artificially introduced air. It will effect considerable condensation of the vapor near the sea surface thus further starving the hurricane of its fuel in its engine. Seeding materials, or microscopic dust as suggested by Dr. Daniel Rosenfeld in large quantities may also be introduced via the flow of the injected dry air in order to enhance the hurricane controlling ability. All the above factors are in favour of retarding the hurricane's wind speed and power. The sudden weakening of hurricane Lili was found to be partially caused

  10. Coulomb two-body problem with internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperin, Yu.A.; Makarov, K.A.; Mel'nikov, Yu.B.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of the theory of extensions to an enlarged Hilbert space are used to construct a model of the interaction of the external (Coulomb) and internal (quark) channels in the two-body problem. The mutual influence of the spectra of the corresponding channel Hamiltonians is studied: it leads, in particular, to a rearrangement of the spectra of hadronic atoms. An explicit representation is obtained for the S matrix, and its singularities on the energy shell are studied

  11. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures; Projet de norme C.E.I. pour la surveillance des structures internes des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenty, A.

    1994-06-01

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe.

  12. Good practice recommendations - medical-professional control of internal exposure to radionuclides in nuclear base installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berard, Philippe; Blanchin, Nicolas; Fottorino, Robert; Gonin, Michele; Quesne, Benoit; Agrinier, Anne-Laure; Bourgaut, Laurent; Blanchardon, Eric; Challeton de Vathaire, Cecile; Franck, Didier; Piechowski, Jean; Fritsch, Paul; Poncy, Jean-Luc

    2011-07-01

    The first part of this voluminous report presents the context and method of definition of recommendations for a clinical practice and comprises a literature review of national, European and international recommendations, standards and work-group reports. The second part develops recommendations under four main themes: assessment of the committed effective dose (objectives, implementation, communication, traceability and archiving), control programs, dosimetric estimation based on results, and health risk and taking into care by the occupational physician. The authors adopted the same structure for each sub-theme or issue: target extract of regulatory and standard requirements and international recommendations, analysis of literature and of data from professional practices, opinion of the work-group, and graded recommendations with respect to the proof level

  13. Poverty and Family Structure - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the dynamics of change in family structure is critical in poverty diagnosis, ... And, how could public social security be conceived to protect the most vulnerable? ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  14. Evaluation of CANDU NPP containment structure subjected to aging and internal pressure increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Kwon, Oh-Sung, E-mail: os.kwon@utoronto.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bentz, Evan [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Tcherner, Julia [Candu Energy Inc. a member of SNC-Lavalin Group, Mississauga L5K 1B1 (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The aging effects on the performance of a nuclear containment structure is evaluated. • A numerical model of the structure is subjected to increasing internal pressure. • No through-thickness cracks are predicted under the design level internal pressure. • The structure is predicted to be ductile up to large internal pressure levels. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term performance of a typical CANDU® containment structure. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was built to realistically evaluate the performance of the structure under service load as well as a hypothetical beyond-design level internal pressure. Consideration is given to the time-dependent effects, such as shrinkage, creep, and relaxation of prestressing tendons, over a 60-year timeframe. In addition, the sensitivity of the response of the containment structure against support condition, internal temperature profile and temporary construction openings was also investigated. The accuracy of the numerical model was validated against structural measurements made during a routine leak rate test. The analysis results show that the containment structure would develop a ductile mechanism if the internal pressure significantly exceeded the design pressure. The pressure-deformation relationship of the structure is sensitive to the considered time-dependent parameters.

  15. Disarmament verification and its contribution to the theory of international control: A legal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed Anwar Abou Ali.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the Deputy Director of the Department of International Organizations in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egypt, discusses the legal aspects related to the international control for verification of disarmament

  16. Family Structure and Adolescent Substance Use: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P

    2017-11-10

    Numerous studies indicate that family structure is a key correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet there are some important limitations to this research. Studies have been conducted mainly in the United States, with relatively few studies that have compared family structure and youth substance use across nations. There is also a lack of recognition of the complexity of family types prevalent in contemporary global society. Moreover, there remains a need to consider personal, interpersonal, and macro-level characteristics that may help account for the association between family structure and youth substance use. This study uses data from 37 countries to examine several models that purport to explain the association between family structure and substance use. The data are from the 2005-2006 WHO-sponsored Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) (n = 193,202). Multilevel models, including linear, probit, and structural equation models (SEMs), were used to test several hypotheses. The results suggest that time spent with friends largely accounted for the association between specific types of family structures and frequency of alcohol use and getting drunk, but that cannabis use was negatively associated with living with both biological parents irrespective of other factors.

  17. Improved fuzzy PID controller design using predictive functional control structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhong; Jin, Qibing; Zhang, Ridong

    2017-11-01

    In conventional PID scheme, the ensemble control performance may be unsatisfactory due to limited degrees of freedom under various kinds of uncertainty. To overcome this disadvantage, a novel PID control method that inherits the advantages of fuzzy PID control and the predictive functional control (PFC) is presented and further verified on the temperature model of a coke furnace. Based on the framework of PFC, the prediction of the future process behavior is first obtained using the current process input signal. Then, the fuzzy PID control based on the multi-step prediction is introduced to acquire the optimal control law. Finally, the case study on a temperature model of a coke furnace shows the effectiveness of the fuzzy PID control scheme when compared with conventional PID control and fuzzy self-adaptive PID control. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Internal Structure Quality Control of Solid Pharmaceuticals. A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was a comparative investigation by spectral and thermal analysis in order to asses a number of characteristics of different varieties ofrawmaterials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen. The different dissolution behavior of two ursodeoxycholic acid pharmaceutical product by crystallinity pattern was investigated. Methods: Raw materials of ursodeoxycholic acid and ibuprofen were used. IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis were applied. Results: The results show no crystallinitydifferences for different batches of the tested drugs. No solid solid transition was proved during sample preparation for transmission IR analysis. Conclusions: A combination of two more affordabletests by IR spectrometry and differential scanning calorimetry lead to the same results as X-Ray diffraction analysis for crystallinity similarity assessment of the studied substances. The dissolution differences of test drugs were not related to the polymorphism of the raw materials.

  19. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....... of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important...

  20. Enhancement of white light OLED efficiency by combining both internal and external light extraction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, I.-Ling; Ku, Chun-Neng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ding-Zheng

    2012-09-01

    We proposed an internal nanostructure with a high reflective index planarization layer to solve the optical loss due to the reflective index mismatch between ITO and glass substrate. In our experiments, we found the electrical property of OLED device was significantly influenced by the internal nanostructures without planarization layer. Moreover, the internal extraction structure (IES) is not necessarily beneficial for light extraction. Therefore, we proposed a new substrate combine both internal and external extraction structure (EES) to extract trapping light. We successfully developed a high refractive index (N 1.7) planarization material with flat surface (RMS roughness < 2 nm), and improved about 70% device efficiency compared to traditional glass substrate.

  1. Innovation in Active Vibration Control Strategy of Intelligent Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moutsopoulou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large amplitudes and attenuating vibration periods result in fatigue, instability, and poor structural performance. In light of past approaches in this field, this paper intends to discuss some innovative approaches in vibration control of intelligent structures, particularly in the case of structures with embedded piezoelectric materials. Control strategies are presented, such as the linear quadratic control theory, as well as more advanced theories, such as robust control theory. The paper presents sufficiently a recognizable advance in knowledge of active vibration control in intelligent structures.

  2. Hierarchically structured distributed microprocessor network for control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, J.R.; Holloway, F.W.; Rupert, P.R.; Ozarski, R.G.; Suski, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    To satisfy a broad range of control-analysis and data-acquisition requirements for Shiva, a hierarchical, computer-based, modular-distributed control system was designed. This system handles the more than 3000 control elements and 1000 data acquisition units in a severe high-voltage, high-current environment. The control system design gives one a flexible and reliable configuration to meet the development milestones for Shiva within critical time limits

  3. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  4. International regulatory control of the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the IAEA regulations on the transport of radioactive materials and the background for the adoption of these regulations by the various international organizations responsible for regulating the different modes of international transport of hazardous materials is briefly discussed

  5. Optimal Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thesbjerg, Leo

    In designing large civil engineering structures, an important consideration is prospective dynamic loadings which may include earthquake ground motion, wind gusts, severe sea states and moving vehicles, rotating and reciprocating machinery and others. successful design of such structures requires...... providing for the safety and integrity of the structure, and in some cases also providing for a measure of comfort for the occupants during such loading which the structure and its occupants must endure. Due to these uncertainties, the civil engineering community has traditionally adopted a very...

  6. Cylinder head fastening structure for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futakuchi, Y.; Oshiro, N.

    1988-01-26

    In a construction for an overhead cam internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder head adapted to be affixed to another component of the engine by at least one fastener having a tool receiving portion for tightening thereof and having a bearing cap affixed to the cylinder head and rotatably journaling the overhead camshaft, the improvement is described comprising the bearing cap having a portion overlying the fastener tool receiving portion, and means defining an access opening passing through the bearing cap and adapted to pass a tool for tightening of the fastener without removal of the bearing cap.

  7. The economics of tobacco control: evidence from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Quah, Anne Chiew Kin; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    Over the past few decades, the importance of economic research in advancing tobacco control policies has become increasingly clear. Extensive research has demonstrated that increasing tobacco taxes and prices is the single most cost-effective tobacco control measure. The research contained in this supplement adds to this evidence and provides new insights into how smokers respond to tax and price changes using the rich data on purchase behaviours, brand choices, tax avoidance and evasion, and tobacco use collected systematically and consistently across countries and over time by the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project. The findings from this research will help inform policymakers, public health professionals, advocates, and others seeking to maximise the public health and economic benefits from higher taxes.

  8. Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Francine D; Kahn, Lawrence M

    1996-01-01

    Using microdata to analyze the gender pay gap in ten industrialized nations, the authors focus on the role of wage structure--the prices of labor market skills in influencing the gender gap. They find wage structure enormously important in explaining why the U.S. gender gap is higher than that in most other countries. The authors conclude that the U.S. gap would be similar to that in Sweden and Australia (the countries with the smallest gaps) if the United States had their levels of wage ineq...

  9. The Impact of Capital Structure on Stock Returns: International Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza TAHMOORESPOUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between capital structure and stock returns of firms in the following eight countries in the Asia Pacific regionfor a period of 22 years from 1990 to 2012. The methodology is Panel Regression. The results indicate that the effect of capital structure depends on the nature of industry as well as market. In Australia, China, and Korea, return of companies in the Basic Material industry have negative relationship with debt to common equity. Long term debt to common equity positively affects the return of firms in Australia and Korea in the Basic Material industry.

  10. Corporate strategy and the organizational structure of companies in international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illuminate the importance of corporate strategy and organizational structure as crucial variables for successful international business. We wanted to point out that companies, in order to exploit opportunities in international environment, must develop a high level of consent between the applied strategy and the model of organizational structure. Today all organizations, no matter how big they are, are affected by the international environment and its management must consider very carefully the benefits and costs of alternative strategies and the corresponding models of organizational structure.

  11. International nuclear commerce: structure, trends and proliferation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years a surge has taken place in international nuclear commerce and this paper analyses the new patterns that have emerged. Despite uncertainties in nuclear energy forecasting the market is huge. Projections for the industry for the period 1971-1985 estimate a worldwide investment of 250 billion dollars. Following an initial decade of cooperation, 1955-1965, the superpower monopoly has become eroded. The export market for power reactors is analysed and the growth and spread of reprocessing facilities is discussed. It is pointed out that while commercial scale reprocessing requires vast and complex chemical plant, reprocessing small amounts for bomb production may be done relatively simply. Enrichment capabilities are also becoming more generally available. The market is not only expanding, but becoming multipolar and diversified, and the entire fuel cycle is now involved. The cooperation network France - W. Germany - South Africa- Iran is discussed at some length. The role of international safeguards is also treated fairly extensively, leading to a discussion of the motives and paths in the acquisition of nuclear weapons. It is concluded that little is to be gained from the London talks on safeguard measures and commercial restraint and that the root causes of proliferation should be tackled by comprehensive disarmament schemes. (JIW)

  12. 13 CFR 108.506 - Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assets/Internal controls. 108.506 Section 108.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS... Requirements § 108.506 Safeguarding the NMVC Company's assets/Internal controls. You must adopt a plan to... document describing your control procedures. ...

  13. 12 CFR 630.5 - Accuracy of reports and assessment of internal control over financial reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... control over financial reporting. 630.5 Section 630.5 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM... assessment of internal control over financial reporting. (1) Annual reports must include a report by the... disclose any material change(s) in the internal control over financial reporting occurring during the...

  14. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleines, H. [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Sarkadi, J. [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Zwoll, K. [Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Engels, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Grigoryev, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Mikirtychyants, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Nekipelov, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Rathmann, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Seyfarth, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: h.seyfarth@fz-juelich.de; Kravtsov, P. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Vasilyev, A. [St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-10

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Juelich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  15. The control system of the polarized internal target of ANKE at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleines, H.; Sarkadi, J.; Zwoll, K.; Engels, R.; Grigoryev, K.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Rathmann, F.; Seyfarth, H.; Kravtsov, P.; Vasilyev, A.

    2006-05-01

    The polarized internal target for the ANKE experiment at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY of the Forschungszentrum Jülich utilizes a polarized atomic beam source to feed a storage cell with polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms. The nuclear polarization is measured with a Lamb-shift polarimeter. For common control of the two systems, industrial equipment was selected providing reliable, long-term support and remote control of the target as well as measurement and optimization of its operating parameters. The interlock system has been implemented on the basis of SIEMENS SIMATIC S7-300 family of programmable logic controllers. In order to unify the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipment is connected via the PROFIBUS DP fieldbus. The process control software was implemented using the Windows-based WinCC toolkit from SIEMENS. The variety of components, to be controlled, and the logical structure of the control and interlock system are described. Finally, a number of applications derived from the present development to other, new installations are briefly mentioned.

  16. Pengaruh Proporsi Komisaris Independen dan Komposisi Komite Audit terhadap Internal Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makhdalena Makhdalena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accounting manipulation that occurred in recent years makes accounting experts to focus on internal control issues. The experts agree that internal control is an important issue through a substance that can be given by the internal control. Internal control can be effective if supported by the proportion of independent commissioners and audit committee composition are adequate. Based on that idea, the researchers interested in conducting research that aims to find out: the influence of the proportion of independent commissioners and audit committee composition of the internal control eithersimultaneously or partially. Research conducted by the survey in 48 listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange manufacturing drawn at random from the population. Data used in this study are primary data from the questionnaire and secondary data from the annual report. Data were analyzed using path analysis. The results showed that: the proportion of independent commissioners and audit committee composition has a significant influence on the internal control eithersimultaneously or partially.

  17. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A., E-mail: Fasilat17@gmail.com; Hassan, Haslinda, E-mail: lynn@uum.edu.my [School of Accountancy, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  18. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery

  19. Evaluation of information technology impact on effective internal control in the University system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi Fasilat, A.; Hassan, Haslinda

    2015-12-01

    Information Technology (IT) plays a key role in internal control system in various organizations in terms of maintaining records and other internal services. Internal control system is defined as an efficient control procedures set up by firm to safeguard resources and to assure the reliability and accuracy of both financial and non-financial records in line with applicable governance and procedure to acquire the established goal and objectives. This paper focuses on the impact of IT on internal control system in the Nigerian universities. Data are collected from three different universities via questionnaire. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data; Chi-square is performed to test the hypothesis. The results of the hypothesis showed that IT has a positive relationship with the effective internal control activities in the University system. It is concluded that the adoption of IT will significantly improve the effectiveness of the internal control system operations in the University in terms of quality service delivery.

  20. Modeling Complex Nesting Structures in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Nielsen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    hierarchical random coefficient models (RCM) are often used for the analysis of multilevel phenomena, IB issues often result in more complex nested structures. This paper illustrates how cross-nested multilevel modeling allowing for predictor variables and cross-level interactions at multiple (crossed) levels...

  1. Internal circle uplifts, transversality and stratified G-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalic, Elena Mirela [Department of Theoretical Physics, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering,Str. Reactorului no.30, P.O.BOX MG-6, Postcode 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Department of Physics, University of Craiova,13 Al. I. Cuza Str., Craiova 200585 (Romania); Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu [Center for Geometry and Physics, Institute for Basic Science,Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-24

    We study stratified G-structures in N=2 compactifications of M-theory on eight-manifolds M using the uplift to the auxiliary nine-manifold M̂=M×S{sup 1}. We show that the cosmooth generalized distribution D̂ on M̂ which arises in this formalism may have pointwise transverse or non-transverse intersection with the pull-back of the tangent bundle of M, a fact which is responsible for the subtle relation between the spinor stabilizers arising on M and M̂ and for the complicated stratified G-structure on M which we uncovered in previous work. We give a direct explanation of the latter in terms of the former and relate explicitly the defining forms of the SU(2) structure which exists on the generic locus U of M to the defining forms of the SU(3) structure which exists on an open subset Û of M̂, thus providing a dictionary between the eight- and nine-dimensional formalisms.

  2. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An adaptive nonlinear internal-model control for the speed control of homopolar salient-pole BLDC motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    CheshmehBeigi, Hassan Moradi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a novel speed control method for Homopolar Brushless DC (HBLDC) motor based on the adaptive nonlinear internal-model control (ANIMC) is presented. Rotor position information is obtained online by the Hall-Effect sensors placed on the motor's shaft, and is used to calculate the accurate model and accurate inverse model of the HBLDC motor. The online inverse model of the motor is used in the controller structure. To suppress the reference ? error, the negative feedback of difference between the motor speed and its model output ? is applied in the proposed controller. An appropriate signal is the output of the controller, which drives the power switches to converge the motor speed to the constant desired speed. Simulations and experiments are carried out on a ? three-phase HBLDC motor. The proposed drive system operates well in the speed response and has good robustness with respect to the disturbances. To validate the theoretical analysis, several experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  4. ROMANIAâ€(tm)S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Danescu Tatiana; Dogar Cristian

    2012-01-01

    The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiaryâ€(tm)s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiar...

  5. ROMANIA’S FACTS ABOUT INTERNAL CONTROL ENVIRONMENT OF EUROPEAN SOCIAL FUND FINANCED PROJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dogar Cristian; Dãnescu Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The malfunctioning of internal control system of European Social Fund (ESF) financed interventions may prejudice the sound financial management principle. Incorporating COSO principles in the beneficiary’s internal control systems may provide some warranties about compliance to the above mentioned principle as described in the EC Regulation 1605-2002. This study aims to explore some facts in actual internal control environment, as a base for future improvements of Romanian ESF beneficiaryâ€...

  6. Adaptive cellular structures and devices with internal features for enhanced structural performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael Eugene

    This dissertation aims to develop a family of cellular and repeatable devices that exhibit a variety of force-displacement behaviors. It is envisioned that these cellular structures might be used either as stand-alone elements, or combined and repeated to create multiple types of structures (i.e. buildings, ship hulls, vehicle subfloors, etc.) with the ability to passively or actively perform multiple functions (harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, modulus change) over a range of loading types, amplitudes, and frequencies. To accomplish this goal, this work combines repeatable structural frameworks, such as that provided by a hexagonal cellular structure, with internal structural elements such as springs, viscous dampers, buckling plates, bi-stable von Mises trusses (VMTs), and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). The repeatable framework serves to position damping and load carrying elements throughout the structure, and the configuration of the internal elements allow each cell to be tuned to exhibit a desired force-displacement response. Therefore, gradient structures or structures with variable load paths can be created for an optimal global response to a range of loads. This dissertation focuses on the development of cellular structures for three functions: combined load-carrying capability with harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, and cell modulus variation. One or more conceptual designs are presented for devices that can perform each of these functions, and both experimental measurements and simulations are used to gain a fundamental understanding of each device. Chapter 2 begins with a presentation of a VMT model that is the basis for many of the elements. The equations of motion for the VMT are derived and the static and dynamic behavior of the VMT are discussed in detail. Next, two metrics for the energy dissipation of the VMT - hysteresis loop area and loss factor - are presented. The responses of the VMT to harmonic displacement

  7. Global Command and Control Management Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This instruction establishes: responsibilities for the Joint Staff, Services, Defense agencies, combatant and functional unified commands, and other activities regarding management of Global Command and Control (GCC...

  8. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theoretical grounds of internal audit in the system of state financial control in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikan Larysa V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern directions of reformation of the system of state financial control connected with introduction of the state internal financial control. It considers economic essence of the state internal financial control in the context of its components. It justifies the place of the internal audit in the system of the state internal financial control in Ukraine. It considers existing definitions of internal audit in legislative acts. It generalises views of scientists on interpretation of the “internal audit” notion. It provides definitions united in approaches. It conducts a critical analysis of generalised approaches. It offers the authors’ view on the essence of internal audit in budget institutions, which has certain positive features compared to existing ones.

  10. STRUCTURE AND SHARES IN THE ROMANIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TOMA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of a wider range of external trade sector of Romania was carried out in this paper. Main purpose of the paper was identification of the products which have submitted during the period 2002-2011 a wide dynamic with regard to trade of Romania, the total and in particular with the EU countries. The methodology used in this respect was detailed analysis of the data, of the structure of imports and exports and the dynamics of these exchanges during the ten years. Thus, we have identified productions which have had a production upward or downward trend in the structure of total trade. It is a case of grain, milk and seeds and oleaginous fruits and tobacco, which has had a positive development in imports and exports. Tobacco and meat products for the imports and live livestock and vegetables for the exports have registered a decreased share.

  11. Coordination of international multicenter studies: governance and administrative structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangdiwala Shrikant I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-conducted multicenter study needs to assure standardization, uniformity of procedures, high data quality, and collaboration across sites. This manuscript describes the organization and dynamics of multicenter studies, focusing on governance and administrative structures among countries of diverse cultures. The organizational structure of a multicenter study is described, and a system for oversight and coordination, along with roles and responsibilities of participants in the multicenter study, are presented. The elements of a governance document are also reviewed, along with guidelines and policies for effective collaboration. The experience of an ongoing multi-country collaboration, the World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE, illustrates the implementation of these guidelines. It is essential that multicenter studies have an objective coordinating center and that the investigators jointly develop a written governance document to enable collaboration and preserve collegiality among participating investigators.

  12. Gazprom: internal structure, management principles and financial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, Valery; Moe, Arild.

    1996-01-01

    Gazprom is responsible for over 95% of total Russian natural gas production and is one of the largest companies in the world. As well as being of major importance in the Russian domestic energy balance, it is also the largest gas trader in the world, supplying about half the gas imported into western and east-central Europe. The scale of these external activities means that the terms on which it supplies gas to its customers will have an impact on business beyond the gas industry. This study investigates the roots of the company and analyses its current organisation, management structure and financial flows. The main topics covered are: the Russian gas industry in the Soviet era; the organisational structure of Gazprom after privatisation; pricing policy; the company's financial position; Gazprom in relation to the domestic economy and the outside world. (9 figures; 7 tables). (author)

  13. Reactor building with internal structure of which the movements are independent of those of the general raft and process for building these internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hista, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This reactor building includes a containment enclosure for the internal structures composed of a slab wedged on its periphery against the containment enclosure gusset and resting on the general raft by means of a peripheral bearing ring, a compressible layer being provided between the general raft and the slab [fr

  14. Foreign Banks: Internal Control and Audit Weaknesses in U.S. Branches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... Weaknesses in the branch's internal controls, including inadequate segregation of duties in trading and electronic funds transfer activities, had enabled an employee to trade illegally and to hide...

  15. International activities concerning seismic effects on underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    At the 5th Annual Meeting of the ITA in Atlanta, Georgia, on June 15-17, 1979, the General Assembly approved the formation of the Working Group Seismic Effects on Underground Structures. The objectives of this Working Group are to: (1) collect data on earthquake damage to underground facilities throughout the world; (2) collect information on aseismic design procedures used within the various countries; and (3) synthesize the information and disseminate the results to the member nations of ITA. William W. Hakala of the US was designated the Animateur of the Working Group. The Working Group decided on the following sequential course of action to achieve the stated objectives: (1) continue to develop a bibliograhy on damages to underground structures by dynamic forces. This will be an ongoing activity of the Working Group; (2) each country is to develop a summary of case histories of earthquake damage to underground structures. These case histories will be discussed at the next meeting of the Working Group in order to identify those parameters that permit or prevent such damage; (3) the state-of-the-art paper on earthquake damage to underground opening being prepared in the US (John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers) is presently being printed and will then be distributed to the membership for comment. This report will form the basis for the activities described below; (4) the above activities should lead to a textbook - like document that provides a design philosophy for underground structures subjected to seismic forces; (5) the work tasks will suggest needed research to solve the identified problems. At each Working Group meeting the member nation delegates will provide a summary of research progress in their countries. These research needs will be documented, reviewed, revised, and disseminated on an annual basis

  16. Clearance and release from control - An international perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierfeldt, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper tries to give an overview of the clearance, or release from regulatory control, on an international scale, including some of those countries where clearance has become or is about to become vital for D and D. The emphasis lies on the impact of clearance, and in particular of differences between clearance levels of various countries, on D and D. Relevance of clearance for D and D of nuclear installations Clearance is an essential part of waste management (or more general, material management) in nuclear installations, and in particular during the decommissioning phase where waste streams continues to arise. Of course, the relevance of clearance in a particular country depends on a number of factors, like: availability of a final repository and its price; prevailing decommissioning strategy; number of nuclear installations reaching decommissioning phase. This small selection of reasons why clearance may be of varying importance for different countries may already suffice to illustrate why up to now clearance has been developed and implemented in quite different ways. If one thinks of additional reasons that may influence clearance, like politics, the public opinion, availability of funds etc., the situation becomes even more complex. It is, however safe to draw the conclusion that countries with a certain number of nuclear installations which have been or will soon be shut down or which are already in the decommissioning phase will need to implement provisions for clearance. This has indeed been the case with countries like the UK, Germany, the USA, Sweden, and a number of others. It is not essential for clearance levels to be exactly equal between various countries. They may differ as long as the difference is not too large, e.g. the values fall into the same order of magnitude. This is the reason why for example Germany has no problems with clearance levels which differ from the EU recommendation RP 122 partially adopted in a number of EU countries

  17. Integrated structure/control design - Present methodology and future opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Newsom, J. R.; Zeiler, T. A.; Gilbert, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to current methodology applied to the integration of the optimal design process for structures and controls. Multilevel linear decomposition techniques proved to be most effective in organizing the computational efforts necessary for ISCD (integrated structures and control design) tasks. With the development of large orbiting space structures and actively controlled, high performance aircraft, there will be more situations in which this concept can be applied.

  18. The International Alcohol Control Study in Vietnam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... and, -policies that restrict the physical availability of alcoholic beverages or ... This study will provide internationally comparative data on Vietnam's alcohol policy ... among policymakers, there is substantial potential for the research results to ...

  19. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  20. Lighting fires for tobacco control | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-22

    Jul 22, 2011 ... Moreover, internal tobacco industry documents point to a deliberate strategy on the part ... advocacy, as well as a lack of a tradition of corporate philanthropy in the region. .... Exploring eco-health in China and Southeast Asia.

  1. Effect of internal controls on credit risk among listed Spanish banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Kofi Akwaa-Sekyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper examines the effectiveness of internal control systems, explores the exposure of Spanish banks to the dangers of default as a result of internal control systems and establishes a relationship between internal controls and credit risk. Design/Methodology/Approach: Quantitative research approach is used to test hypotheses on the relationship between internal controls and credit risk among listed banks in Spain. Data from Bankscope and company websites from 2004-2013 were used. Generalized Least Squares (random effect econometric estimation technique was used for the model. Findings: We find that internal control systems are in place but their effectiveness cannot be guaranteed. This exposes Spanish listed banks to serious default situations. There is significant effect of internal controls on credit risk especially the control environment, risk management, control activities and monitoring. The non-disclosure of material internal control weakness is a contributory factor to the ineffective internal control systems. There is however a perceived board ineffectiveness which does not augur well for effective internal control systems. Board characteristics for Spanish banks confirm the agency theory. Research Limitations and Implications: Data unavailability for certain years, variables and many inactive banks did not permit a larger sample size than expected. The use of quantitative variables lacks flexibility. Practical Implications: Bank management will find the work useful to ensure strict enforcement of internal control mechanisms and see it as both credit risk and operational risk issues. Central bank should hurry to compel banks to disclose material internal control weakness as provided in the reviewed COSO framework. Social Implications: Ineffective internal controls lead to credit risks, bank closure and loss of investments. Society suffers a lot from such losses and contagion. Disclosure of material internal control

  2. Data envelopment analysis a handbook of modeling internal structure and network

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Wade D

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook on state-of-the-art topics in DEA modeling of internal structures and networks presents work by leading researchers who share their results on subjects including additive efficiency decomposition and slacks-based network DEA.

  3. An investigation of structural design methodology for HTGR reactor internals with ceramic materials (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-03-01

    To advance the performance and safety of HTGR, heat-resistant ceramic materials are expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. C/C composite and superplastic zirconia are the promising materials for this purpose. In order to use these new materials as reactor internals in HTGR, it is necessary to establish a structure design method to guarantee the structural integrity under environmental and load conditions. Therefore, C/C composite expected as reactor internals of VHTR is focused and an investigation on the structural design method applicable to the C/C composite and a basic applicability of the C/C composite to representative structures of HTGR were carried out in this report. As the results, it is found that the competing risk theory for the strength evaluation of the C/C composite is applicable to design method and C/C composite is expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. (author)

  4. Social constructivist interpretation of «agency-structure» dilemma in the science of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Senyuk

    2017-07-01

    The scientific novelty of the article has been pointed out by accents, which allow making a comprehensive analysis and describing an alternative approach to the study of structural and subjective levels of the international system.

  5. Experimental study on cascaded attitude angle control of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with the simple internal model control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jun Beom; Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI

  6. Experimental study on cascaded attitude angle control of a multi-rotor unmanned aerial vehicle with the simple internal model control method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jun Beom [Dept. of Aviation Maintenance, Dongwon Institute of Science and Technology, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Young Seop; Jeong, Jin Seok; Kim, Jeong; Kang, Beom Soo [Dept. of Aerospace Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This paper proposes a cascaded control structure and a method of practical application for attitude control of a multi-rotor Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The cascade control, which has tighter control capability than a single-loop control, is rarely used in attitude control of a multi-rotor UAV due to the input-output relation, which is no longer simply a set-point to Euler angle response transfer function of a single-loop PID control, but there are multiply measured signals and interactive control loops that increase the complexity of evaluation in conventional way of design. However, it is proposed in this research a method that can optimize a cascade control with a primary and secondary loops and a PID controller for each loop. An investigation of currently available PID-tuning methods lead to selection of the Simple internal model control (SIMC) method, which is based on the Internal model control (IMC) and direct-synthesis method. Through the analysis and experiments, this research proposes a systematic procedure to implement a cascaded attitude controller, which includes the flight test, system identification and SIMC-based PID-tuning. The proposed method was validated successfully from multiple applications where the application to roll axis lead to a PID-PID cascade control, but the application to yaw axis lead to that of PID-PI.

  7. 10th International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Gusikhin, Oleg; Madani, Kurosh; Sasiadek, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The present book includes a set of selected papers from the tenth “International Conference on Informatics in Control Automation and Robotics” (ICINCO 2013), held in Reykjavík, Iceland, from 29 to 31 July 2013. The conference was organized in four simultaneous tracks: “Intelligent Control Systems and Optimization”, “Robotics and Automation”, “Signal Processing, Sensors, Systems Modeling and Control” and “Industrial Engineering, Production and Management”. The book is based on the same structure. ICINCO 2013 received 255 paper submissions from 50 countries, in all continents. After a double blind paper review performed by the Program Committee only 30% were published and presented orally. A further refinement was made after the conference, based also on the assessment of presentation quality, so that this book includes the extended and revised versions of the very best papers of ICINCO 2013.

  8. The Persistence of Structural Inequality?: A Network Analysis of International Trade, 1965-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports results from a network analysis of international trade from 1965 through 2000. It addresses the impact of changes associated with globalization and the "new international division of labor" (NIDL) on structural inequality in the world economy. To assess this impact, I ask three specific questions. (1) Do patterns of…

  9. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  10. On the internal consistency of the term structure of forecasts of housing starts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term structure of forecasts of housing starts to test for rationality of forecasts. Our test is based on the idea that short-term and long-term forecasts should be internally consistent. We test the internal consistency of forecasts using data for Australia, Canada, Japan and the United...

  11. Work Values of Lithuanian University Students: Internal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s work values define his/her career purposefulness. Individual’s chosen work values allow foreseeing what activity context and career model is important for him/her, seeking to successfully realize oneself in professional activity. Planning his/her professional career an individual is searching for the activity sphere, which could conform not only to his/her personal features, but also to his/her value orientations. Work values important for the individual allow realizing if they form conditions for planning modern career (successfully solve constantly changing activity problems and to correspond to always new raised requirements for a person in the organisation or in labour market, the realisation of which in today’s constantly changing labour market and social context becomes more and more problematic. Empiric research was carried out seeking to discover the work (activity value structure. The research instrument was created by the authors of the research. Two hundred sixty five first-year students from three Lithuanian universities participated in the research. These are the main higher education institutions, preparing teachers in Lithuania. The obtained results show that work value structure of the first year students studying in social and humanitarian science programmes can be expressed by 6 main factors: responsible activity values, active work values, harmony values, reward values, activity style values, and social status values. Also, the main differences were ascertained between female and male work value structure. Responsible activity values, active work values and harmony values were much more important for female than male students.

  12. Procedures of ASME code case N-201 for KALIMER. Reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, B.

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to describe the design procedure of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Code Case N-201-4, which is an elevated temperature structural design code of the Nuclear reactor internal structures, checking the criteria of stress limit, accumulated inelastic strain and deformation, creep-fatigue damage, and buckling limit. As one of examples, the creep-fatigue damage evaluations are carried out for the KALIMER reactor internal structures of baffle annulus. This report is expected to be very useful in evaluating the structural integrity of the liquid metal reactor operating under an elevated temperature

  13. EVALUATING IMPLEMENTION OF GOVERNMENTAL PROVISION ON NO. 60 YEAR 2008 FOR GOVERNMENTAL INTERNAL CONTROL IN BOARD OF FINANCE AND DEVELOPMENT CONTROL OF SOUTH SULAWESI

    OpenAIRE

    Mediaty

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate Governmental Internal Control System in Board of Finance and Development Control of South Sulawesi. Governmental Internal Control System is a management control of government in achieving purpose of the state with the issuance of Governmental Provision No. 60 year 2008. List of Governmental Internal Control Test consists of five parts in accordance with the Internal Control System elements are: Control Environment, Risk Assessment, Control Activitie...

  14. FIV Estimation for the Reactor Internal Structure of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Jeong, K. H.; Park, J. S.; Lee, W. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    It is necessary to confirm the possibility of flow- induced vibration of upper ICI guide tubes and CRA extension guide tubes, since they are exposed to the cross flow of the coolant. This study will provide an estimation of the flow- induced vibration owing to the vortex shedding by carrying out a free-vibration analysis of the structures, not only in air but also in water using a commercial finite element analysis code, ANSYS, and also by comparison with the vortex shedding frequency.

  15. Design study for KALIMER upper internal structure and reactor refueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho

    1996-09-01

    The design study for the KALIMER upper internal structure (UIS) and reactor refueling system has been described. Two distinct features are plug-in UIS and extended refueling outage. For the UIS system, the functional, structural and material requirements have been determined and the accommodation approaches to meet these functional requirements described. For the refueling system, the functional, structural, process and I and C (Instrument and Control) requirements have been established and the accommodation approaches for the functional and process requirements described. The impact on plant availability due to extension of the refueling outage has also been investigated. The accommodation approaches for UIS system show that the design concept of the system will satisfy the functional requirements with a few design issues to be resolved, such as UIS plug in/out handling system and cask design. It is also shown that the functional and process requirements of the refueling system are achievable with the design of the IVTM cask and related transfer system and the extended refueling outage has little effect (within 1%) on the plant availability if extra refueling time do not exceed 1 week. 1 refs. (Author)

  16. Design study for KALIMER upper internal structure and reactor refueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    The design study for the KALIMER upper internal structure (UIS) and reactor refueling system has been described. Two distinct features are plug-in UIS and extended refueling outage. For the UIS system, the functional, structural and material requirements have been determined and the accommodation approaches to meet these functional requirements described. For the refueling system, the functional, structural, process and I and C (Instrument and Control) requirements have been established and the accommodation approaches for the functional and process requirements described. The impact on plant availability due to extension of the refueling outage has also been investigated. The accommodation approaches for UIS system show that the design concept of the system will satisfy the functional requirements with a few design issues to be resolved, such as UIS plug in/out handling system and cask design. It is also shown that the functional and process requirements of the refueling system are achievable with the design of the IVTM cask and related transfer system and the extended refueling outage has little effect (within 1%) on the plant availability if extra refueling time do not exceed 1 week. 1 refs. (Author).

  17. Tectonic controlled submarine slidings and dewatering structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Hirono, T.; Takahashi, M.

    2003-04-01

    Geologic structures associated with mass movements processes such as slumping, sliding, and creeping can be the key to understanding the tectonic or geologic constraints in the time they were formed. Because they are sensitively reflected by the paleo-topography which must be associated with active tectonics. It must be very useful if the direction of paleo-slope instability is known easily in a wide area. We paid attentions to convolute lamination and flame structure which might be associated with dewatering and loading, respectively. Some recent researches report the possibility that well regulated flame structures might be formed in relation to paleo-slope instability. However, there is an alternative idea that they were reflection of heterogeneous loading associated with ripple marks on the sandy layers. This controversy has not been settled. Accordingly, to evaluate the reliability of the relationship between formation of such structures with well regulated arrays and paleo-slope instability, the Pliocene Chikura Group in the southern part of the Boso Peninsula, central Japan, was studied. The Chikura Group overlying the Miura Group, Miocene accretionary prism, is composed of trench-fill sediments in the lowermost and of trench-slope basin sediments in the upper. The Chikura Group was deposited on an east-west extended sedimentary basin during east-west trending folds and faults development. These indicate the direction of paleo-slope in the Chikura Group due north or south. Flame structures and convolute laminations were recognized over 60 sites in the Chikura Group. They have well-regulated planar arrays which extend almost east west, perpendicular to the direction of paleo-slope instability. Some examples of such structures and slump deposit were observed in the same outcrop. Vergence of these slump deposits were toward north or south, and ridges of flame structures and convolute laminations extend east-west. Experimental study of direct imaging of

  18. A STRUCTURAL MODEL OF AN EXCAVATOR WORKFLOW CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gurko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Earthwork improving is connected with excavators automation. In this paper, on the basis of the analysis of problems that a hydraulic excavator control system have to solve, the hierarchical structure of a control system have been proposed. The decomposition of the control process had been executed that allowed to develop the structural model which reflects the characteristics of a multilevel space-distributed control system of an excavator workflow.

  19. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  20. Turbine Energy Evaluation by internal dimensional control; Evaluacion energetica de turbinas por control dimensional de internos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, F. [Tecnatom. Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To maintain the optimum thermal performance in a high level throughout the life of the turbines requires a good testing program, proper analysis of the test data, and a steam path audit during turbine overhauls. If from operating data analysis collected during the performance test before the outage shows that the efficiency of the turbine is coming down, the steam path audit, that is an internal inspection and a dimensional control of the internals, identity and quantity causes of performance degradation like, seal leakages, excessive clearances, solid particle erosion damages, blades deposits and other losses. The steam path audit assigns the heat rate penalties associated with each of these individual losses to the total degradation. This are used to make cost-effective maintenance decisions during the course of the overhaul. After repairs, a closing steam path audit is conducted during the re assembly of the turbine in order to predict return to service condition of the machine and to provide a quality control check on outage repairs. (Author)

  1. Sun oscillations and the problem of its internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severnyj, A.B.; Kotov, V.A.; Tsap, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of global solar oscillation measurements for five years (1974-1978, more than 1000 hours of observations, 215 days) is given. It is shown that the period of oscillations is 160sup(m)x0.10+-0sup(m)x004 and the amplitude is 1 m/s. The phases of oscillations, obtained at the Crimea, Stanford, Kitt Peak and Pic du Midi, are in good agreement, thus making the assumption on ''telluric origin'' of the oscillations improbable. It has been found: 1) slow, synchronous (at Crimea and Stanford) drift of the phase of velocity maximum from year to year and 2) the dependence of amplitude on the phase of 27-day rotational period of the Sun which favours the assumption on the quadrupole character of oscillations. It is pointed out that these facts, as well as the absence of oscillation waves in the telluric line observed simultaneously with the solar line, exclude the possibility of explaining the results as a statistical artifact. It has also been shown that the differential extinction effect produces an oscillation effect which is by an order of magnitude lower than the observed one. The following preliminary results are noted: a) the appearance of synchronous oscillations of the mean solar magnetic field of the brightness of the Sun and of the solar radio emission; b) the disappearance of the oscillations from time to time, possibly due to the effect of the supergranulation passage across the solar disk. The oscillations observed imply new important restrictions on the problem of the internal constitution of the Sun, and point to the possibility of non-radiative heat-transfer inside the Sun which might help the solution of the low neutrino flux problem

  2. Vibration monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assedo, R.; Carre, J.C.; Sol, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The internal structures of pressurized water reactors are the seat of vibrations induced by fluctuations in primary fluid flow. A knowledge of these phenomena is indispensable in order to ensure that the structures are in proper mechanical order. It can also be used for operational monitoring. This paper describes all the methods developed and the results already achieved in this domain. The first part deals with tests on mockup associated with the calculation models which afforded a good knowledge of the vibrational characteristics of the internal structures, as well as the measurements made during hot tests of certain reactors which made it possible to qualify these models on real structures. The second part describes the means of detection (neutron noise, external accelerometers) as well as the processing methods used in the follow-up. A few typical results obtained on site are then presented. Finally, the general principles of operational monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures are described [fr

  3. Audit Oversight: Quality Control Review of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Office of Internal Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... The Government Auditing Standards (GAS) require that an audit organization performing Government audits have an appropriate internal quality control system and undergo an external quality control review every 3 years by an organization...

  4. Land use intensity controls actinobacterial community structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hill, P.; Krištůfek, Václav; Dijkhuizen, L.; Boddy, Ch.; Kroetsch, D.; van Elsas, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 2 (2011), s. 286-302 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06154 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : actinobacterial community structure * DNA * soils Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.912, year: 2011

  5. Review of Air Traffic Controller Selection: An International Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broach, Dana

    1997-01-01

    ...) in Hamburg is reviewed. Job analysis, test battery development, and validation research for the controller occupation in the United Kingdom is presented next, followed by a description of the Swedish "MRU Project" on controller...

  6. Destruction mechanism of the internal structure in Lithium-ion batteries used in aviation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swornowski, Paweł J.

    2017-01-01

    In the article, the reasons for destruction of the internal structure in Lithium-ion batteries used in aviation industry have been explained. They manifest themselves in the battery's overheating, and in extreme cases they result in explosion. The report presents the results of experiments, which consisted in subjecting the tested Lithium-ion battery to vibration over a specified period of time and observing the changes of temperature inside it with the use of a thermal infrared camera. Another focal point of the study was the influence of vibrations on voltage change in relation to variable current load, and the influence of ambient temperature change on the Lithium-ion battery's voltage change. It has also been demonstrated that vibrations can damage the control electronics of the Lithium-ion battery. Moreover, the mechanism by which potentially dangerous thermal hot spots are formed in a Lithium-ion battery has been presented, as well as an uncertainty analysis of all measurement results. - Highlights: • The causes of internal destruction of Lithium-ion batteries are external vibrations. • The influence of vibrations on the change of a Lithium-ion battery's most parameters. • The mechanism leading to the explosion of a Lithium-ion battery was demonstrated. • The conclusions ensuring safe exploitation of a Lithium-ion battery were presented.

  7. Features of Bayou Choctaw SPR caverns and internal structure of the salt dome.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, Darrell E.

    2007-07-01

    The intent of this study is to examine the internal structure of the Bayou Choctaw salt dome utilizing the information obtained from graphical representations of sonar survey data of the internal cavern surfaces. Many of the Bayou Choctaw caverns have been abandoned. Some existing caverns were purchased by the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program and have rather convoluted histories and complex cavern geometries. In fact, these caverns are typically poorly documented and are not particularly constructive to this study. Only two Bayou Choctaw caverns, 101 and 102, which were constructed using well-controlled solutioning methods, are well documented. One of these was constructed by the SPR for their use while the other was constructed and traded for another existing cavern. Consequently, compared to the SPR caverns of the West Hackberry and Big Hill domes, it is more difficult to obtain a general impression of the stratigraphy of the dome. Indeed, caverns of Bayou Choctaw show features significantly different than those encountered in the other two SPR facilities. In the number of abandoned caverns, and some of those existing caverns purchased by the SPR, extremely irregular solutioning has occurred. The two SPR constructed caverns suggest that some sections of the caverns may have undergone very regular solutioning to form uniform cylindrical shapes. Although it is not usually productive to speculate, some suggestions that point to the behavior of the Bayou Choctaw dome are examined. Also the primary differences in the Bayou Choctaw dome and the other SPR domes are noted.

  8. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shiwen; Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  9. Towards structural controllability of local-world networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Shiwen, E-mail: sunsw80@126.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China); Ma, Yilin; Wu, Yafang; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Intelligence Computing and Novel Software Technology, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Key Laboratory of Computer Vision and System (Tianjin University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Controlling complex networks is of vital importance in science and engineering. Meanwhile, local-world effect is an important ingredient which should be taken into consideration in the complete description of real-world complex systems. In this letter, structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. Through extensive numerical simulations, firstly, effects of local world size M and network size N on structural controllability are examined. For local-world networks with sparse topological configuration, compared to network size, local-world size can induce stronger influence on controllability, however, for dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and local-world effect can be neglected. Secondly, relationships between controllability and topological properties are analyzed. Lastly, the robustness of local-world networks under targeted attacks regarding structural controllability is discussed. These results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity and connectivity patterns of complex systems. - Highlights: • Structural controllability of a class of local-world networks is investigated. • For sparse local-world networks, compared to network size, local-world size can bring stronger influence on controllability. • For dense networks, controllability is greatly affected by network size and the effect of local-world size can be neglected. • Structural controllability against targeted node attacks is discussed.

  10. Modeling internal deformation of salt structures targeted for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemia, Zurab

    2008-01-01

    This thesis uses results of systematic numerical models to argue that externally inactive salt structures, which are potential targets for radioactive waste disposal, might be internally active due to the presence of dense layers or blocks within a salt layer. The three papers that support this thesis use the Gorleben salt diapir (NW Germany), which was targeted as a future final repository for high-grade radioactive waste, as a general guideline. The first two papers present systematic studies of the parameters that control the development of a salt diapir and how it entrains a dense anhydrite layer. Results from these numerical models show that the entrainment of a dense anhydrite layer within a salt diapir depends on four parameters: sedimentation rate, viscosity of salt, perturbation width and the stratigraphic location of the dense layer. The combined effect of these four parameters, which has a direct impact on the rate of salt supply (volume/area of the salt that is supplied to the diapir with time), shape a diapir and the mode of entrainment. Salt diapirs down-built with sedimentary units of high viscosity can potentially grow with an embedded anhydrite layer and deplete their source layer (salt supply ceases). However, when salt supply decreases dramatically or ceases entirely, the entrained anhydrite layer/segments start to sink within the diapir. In inactive diapirs, sinking of the entrained anhydrite layer is inevitable and strongly depends on the rheology of the salt, which is in direct contact with the anhydrite layer. During the post-depositional stage, if the effective viscosity of salt falls below the threshold value of around 10 18 -10 19 Pa s, the mobility of anhydrite blocks might influence any repository within the diapir. However, the internal deformation of the salt diapir by the descending blocks decreases with increase in effective viscosity of salt. The results presented in this thesis suggest that it is highly likely that salt structures

  11. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-01

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification

  12. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  13. A Robust Controller Structure for Pico-Satellite Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Martin Nygaard; Green, Martin; Kristensen, Mads

    This paper describes the development of a robust controller structure for use in pico-satellite missions. The structure relies on unknown disturbance estimation and use of robust control theory to implement a system that is robust to both unmodeled disturbances and parameter uncertainties. As one...

  14. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges John FP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. Objective To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary, de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Results Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1 Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2 Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3 Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. Conclusion This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  15. La mise en oeuvre des codes d'éthique par le control interne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    The real value of the internal control system lies in the animation of the ethical values in the organization. The integration of ethical risks in the internal control process enables the moving notions of ethical behaviour and accommodate the training and inducement programs of all employees

  16. New software of the control and data acquisition system for the Nuclotron internal target station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isupov, A.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The control and data acquisition system for the Internal Target Station (ITS) of the Nuclotron (LHEP, JINR) is implemented. The new software is based on the ngdp framework under the Unix-like operating system FreeBSD to allow easy network distribution of the on-line data collected from ITS, as well as the internal target remote control

  17. Internal Control Over Financial Reporting and Managerial Rent Extraction: Evidence from the Profitability of Insider Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaife, H.A.; Veenman, D.; Wangerin, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the association between ineffective internal control over financial reporting and the profitability of insider trading. We predict and find that the profitability of insider trading is significantly greater in firms disclosing material weaknesses in internal control relative to

  18. 25 CFR 23.46 - Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial management, internal and external controls and....46 Financial management, internal and external controls and other assurances. Grantee financial... required by the grantee's financial management system. The Secretary or his/her designee may review the...

  19. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  20. The impact of inclusive business on ethical values & internal control quality: an accounting perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Tamer A. El Nashar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of inclusive business on the internal ethical values and the internal control quality while conceiving the accounting perspective. I construct the hypothesis for this paper based on the potential impact on the organizations’ awareness to be directed to the inclusive business approach that will significantly impact the culture of the organizations then the ethical values and the internal control quality. I use the approach of the expected va...

  1. Design of the upper internals structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.C.; Novendstern, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) is located above the core and is supported from the head at four locations. It is designed to perform the following primary functions: provide secondary core holddown in the event of a malfunction of the core hydraulic holddown system; provide support for routing all in-vessel instrumentation to core assemblies; maintain alignment between the core assemblies, the UIS and the closure head; provide guidance and crossflow protection for the control rod drivelines; and mix/duct flow to the upper region of the vessel outlet plenum to minimize rapid temperature changes to components during a reactor trip transient. In accomplishing these functions, the UIS will experience a sodium environment with temperatures up to 1200 0 F (649 0 C), and as many as 7 x 10 8 cycles of fluid temperature fluctuations up to 250 0 F (121 0 C) at full power operation. It must be designed to survive these conditions in combination with seismic and flow-induced vibration loadings for its 30 year design life. The design program of designing to controlled functional requirements and design conditions is discussed. Included is a description of the significant parts of the design and the approach used to balance the requirement of tight joints. The thermal and hydraulic environment including the results of a comprehensive test program are discussed. The test program results establish the basis of the thermal boundary used in the structural evaluation, and the UIS vibration characteristics. A summary of the areas which have required design changes is included with a summary of the structural evaluation of these changes

  2. Optimal control of large space structures via generalized inverse matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Charles C.; Fang, Xiaowen

    1987-01-01

    Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) is a control scheme that decouples the space structure into n independent second-order subsystems according to n controlled modes and controls each mode independently. It is well-known that the IMSC eliminates control and observation spillover caused when the conventional coupled modal control scheme is employed. The independent control of each mode requires that the number of actuators be equal to the number of modelled modes, which is very high for a faithful modeling of large space structures. A control scheme is proposed that allows one to use a reduced number of actuators to control all modeled modes suboptimally. In particular, the method of generalized inverse matrices is employed to implement the actuators such that the eigenvalues of the closed-loop system are as closed as possible to those specified by the optimal IMSC. Computer simulation of the proposed control scheme on a simply supported beam is given.

  3. Structural Empowerment and Organizational Commitment of Lecturers in Private International Educational Institutions at Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure the level of structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers at private international educational institutions at Thailand. Further to measure the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers. The target respondents of the study were lecturers…

  4. Structure-preservingness, internal merge, and the strict locality of triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.; Karimi, S.; Samiian, V.; Wilkins, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Emonds’ Structure Preserving Hypothesis, and suggests that the insight behind this hypothesis survives reformulation in terms of recent minimalist theory: each structure created by internal merge can also, independently, be created by external merge. As before, this makes

  5. Coordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1984-09-01

    This meeting of the International NSDD (Nuclear Structure and Decay Data) Network dealt with problems related to both the coordination of the NSDD network of centres and groups and to physics questions related to the evaluation of NSDD. The status of the mass-chain and nuclear structure data is reviewed and the planned activities are presented

  6. Organizational Structures for International Universities: Implications for Campus Autonomy, Academic Freedom, Collegiality, and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ron; Crosling, Glenda; Lim, Ngat-Chin

    2014-01-01

    One significant form of transnational higher education is the International Branch Campus (IBC), in effect an "outpost" of the parent institution located in another country. Its organizational structure is alignable with offshore subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). The implications of organizational structure for academic…

  7. Integrated seismic design of structure and control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The structural optimization procedure presented in this book makes it possible to achieve seismic protection through integrated structural/control system design. In particular, it is explained how slender structural systems with a high seismic performance can be achieved through inclusion of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an integral part of the system. Readers are provided with essential introductory information on passive structural control and passive energy dissipation systems. Dynamic analyses of both single and multiple degree of freedom systems are performed in order to verify the achievement of pre-assigned performance targets, and it is explained how the optimal integrated design methodology, also relevant to retrofitting of existing buildings, should be applied. The book illustrates how structural control research is opening up new possibilities in structural forms and configurations without compromising structural performance.

  8. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF LABORATORY COMPACTED WARM-MIX ASPHALT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALLEX E. ALVAREZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las mezclas asfálticas tibias (MAT son mezclas asfálticas fabricadas a menores temperaturas (i.e., 30-50 °C que las mezclas asfálticas en caliente (MAC convencionales. Por tanto, en comparación con las MAC, las MAT ofrecen diferentes ventajas ambientales, económicas y de ingeniería. Sin embargo, aún se requiere investigación para identificar las propiedades, el desempeño y la respuesta de las MAT, dado que estas mezclas constituyen una tecnología relativamente nueva. Este artículo se centra en el análisis de la estructura interna de especímenes de MAT compactados usando el Compactador Giratorio Superpave (CGS y el Compactador Giratorio de Texas (CGTx. Este análisis fue realizado en términos de las características de los vacíos evaluadas mediante la aplicación de tomografía computarizada con Rayos-X y técnicas de análisis de imágenes. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que la adición de aditivos tipo MAT y la correspondiente reducción de la temperatura de compactación de especímenes compactados en el CGS no generaron cambios significativos en la distribución vertical del contenido total de vacíos comparado con la distribución de la MAC de control. Sin embargo, algunas diferencias fueron reportadas en términos del tamaño de los vacíos, lo cual sugiere la existencia de discrepancias en la condición de empaquetamiento del agregado. Por lo tanto, se sugirió investigación adicional para validar completamente la equivalencia de la estructura interna de las MAT y las MAC.

  9. Detection, characterization and evolution of internal repeats in Chitinases of known 3-D structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigandan Sivaji

    Full Text Available Chitinase proteins have evolved and diversified almost in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. During evolution, internal repeats may appear in amino acid sequences of proteins which alter the structural and functional features. Here we deciphered the internal repeats from Chitinase and characterized the structural similarities between them. Out of 24 diverse Chitinase sequences selected, six sequences (2CJL, 2DSK, 2XVP, 2Z37, 3EBV and 3HBE did not contain any internal repeats of amino acid sequences. Ten sequences contained repeats of length <50, and the remaining 8 sequences contained repeat length between 50 and 100 residues. Two Chitinase sequences, 1ITX and 3SIM, were found to be structurally similar when analyzed using secondary structure of Chitinase from secondary and 3-Dimensional structure database of Protein Data Bank. Internal repeats of 3N17 and 1O6I were also involved in the ligand-binding site of those Chitinase proteins, respectively. Our analyses enhance our understanding towards the identification of structural characteristics of internal repeats in Chitinase proteins.

  10. Automatic Control of ITER-like Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosia, G.; Bremond, S.

    2005-01-01

    In ITER Ion Cyclotron System requires a power transfer efficiency in excess of 90% from power source to plasma in quasi continuous operation. This implies the availability of a control system capable of optimizing the array radiation spectrum, automatically acquiring impedance match between the power source and the plasma loaded array at the beginning of the power pulse and maintaining it against load variations due to plasma position and plasma edge parameters fluctuations, rapidly detecting voltage breakdowns in the array and/or in the transmission system and reliably discriminating them from fast load variations. In this paper a proposal for a practical ITER control system, including power, phase, frequency and impedance matching is described. (authors)

  11. Co-ordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1991-11-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the ninth meeting of the international nuclear structure and decay data network at Kuwait, 10-14 March 1990. The meeting was attended by 19 scientists from 9 Member States and two international organizations, concerned with the compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. The document contains a summary and the proceedings of the meeting, and in annexes, status reports of activities in nuclear structure and decay data from the participating centers. A separate abstract was prepared for one of the scientific lectures related to the topics of the meeting which is reproduced in full length. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Structural Changes of International Trade Flows under the Impact of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of international trade flows indicate modifications in competitiveness of countries, in terms of production, technological upgrading and exports under the pressure of globalization. The paper aims to point out sources of competitive advantages especially in manufacturing exports of different groups of countries. The focus is on the shifts in the structure of manufacturing in the European Union and their effects on international rankings in export performances. An important issue refers to the opportunities given by the enlargement of the European Union and their impact on EU trade structures.

  13. Co-ordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the eighth meeting of the international nuclear structure and decay data network at Ghent, Belgium, 16-20 May 1988. The meeting was attended by 21 scientists from 12 Member States and three international organizations, concerned with the compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. This document contains a summary of the meeting, the proceedings of the meeting and in appendices status reports of activities in nuclear structure and decay data from the participating centers. Refs and tabs

  14. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  15. Internal Diffusion-Controlled Enzyme Reaction: The Acetylcholinesterase Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyun; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Sangyoub

    2012-02-14

    Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme with a very high turnover rate; it quenches the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, at the synapse. We have investigated the kinetics of the enzyme reaction by calculating the diffusion rate of the substrate molecule along an active site channel inside the enzyme from atomic-level molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast to the previous works, we have found that the internal substrate diffusion is the determinant of the acetylcholinesterase kinetics in the low substrate concentration limit. Our estimate of the overall bimolecular reaction rate constant for the enzyme is in good agreement with the experimental data. In addition, the present calculation provides a reasonable explanation for the effects of the ionic strength of solution and the mutation of surface residues of the enzyme. The study suggests that internal diffusion of the substrate could be a key factor in understanding the kinetics of enzymes of similar characteristics.

  16. Computer-based control of nuclear power information systems at international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, Ekechukwu; Okonkwo, Obi

    2011-01-01

    In most highly industrialized countries of the world information plays major role in anti-nuclear campaign. Information and discussions on nuclear power need critical and objective analysis before the structured information presentation to the public to avoid bias anti-nuclear information on one side and neglect of great risk in nuclear power. This research is developing a computer-based information system for the control of nuclear power at international level. The system is to provide easy and fast information highways for the followings: (1) Low Regulatory dose and activity limit as level of high danger for individuals and public. (2) Provision of relevant technical or scientific education among the information carriers in the nuclear power countries. The research is on fact oriented investigation about radioactivity. It also deals with fact oriented education about nuclear accidents and safety. A standard procedure for dissemination of latest findings using technical and scientific experts in nuclear technology is developed. The information highway clearly analyzes the factual information about radiation risk and nuclear energy. Radiation cannot be removed from our environment. The necessity of radiation utilizations defines nuclear energy as two-edge sword. It is therefore, possible to use computer-based information system in projecting and dissemination of expert knowledge about nuclear technology positively and also to use it in directing the public on the safety and control of the nuclear energy. The computer-based information highway for nuclear energy technology is to assist in scientific research and technological development at international level. (author)

  17. Kink dynamics in a parametric ϕ 6 system: a model with controllably many internal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirkaya, A.; Decker, R.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Christov, I. C.; Saxena, A.

    2017-12-01

    We explore a variant of the ϕ 6 model originally proposed in Phys. Rev. D 12 (1975) 1606 as a prototypical, so-called, "bag" model in which domain walls play the role of quarks within hadrons. We examine the steady state of the model, namely an apparent bound state of two kink structures. We explore its linearization, and we find that, as a function of a parameter controlling the curvature of the potential, an effectively arbitrary number of internal modes may arise in the point spectrum of the linearization about the domain wall profile. We explore some of the key characteristics of kink-antikink collisions, such as the critical velocity and the multi-bounce windows, and how they depend on the principal parameter of the model. We find that the critical velocity exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on the parameter controlling the curvature of the potential. For the multi-bounce windows, we find that their range and complexity decrease as the relevant parameter decreases (and as the number of internal modes in the model increases). We use a modified collective coordinates method [in the spirit of recent works such as Phys. Rev. D 94 (2016) 085008] in order to capture the relevant phenomenology in a semi-analytical manner.

  18. Adjustable internal structure for reconstructing gradient index profile of crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2014-03-01

    Employing advanced technologies in studying the crystalline lens of the eye has improved our understanding of the refractive index gradient of the lens. Reconstructing and studying such a complex structure requires models with adaptable internal geometry that can be altered to simulate geometrical and optical changes of the lens with aging. In this Letter, we introduce an optically well-defined, geometrical structure for modeling the gradient refractive index profile of the crystalline lens with the advantage of an adjustable internal structure that is not available with existing models. The refractive index profile assigned to this rotationally symmetric geometry is calculated numerically, yet it is shown that this does not limit the model. The study provides a basis for developing lens models with sophisticated external and internal structures without the need for analytical solutions to calculate refractive index profiles.

  19. Transition of RF internal antenna plasma by gas control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamajima, Takafumi; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Hiruta, Toshihito; Kanno, Yoshinori [Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, 1-10-40 HigashiOhi, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, 140-0011 (Japan); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-07-11

    The transition between the capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) and the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) was investigated with the internal radio frequency (RF) multi-turn antenna. The transition between them showed the hysteresis curve. The radiation power and the period of the self-pulse mode became small in proportion to the gas pressure. It was found that the ICP transition occurred by decreasing the gas pressure from 400 Pa.

  20. Internal Administrative Control: Its Applicability to the Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    activities and units, or ly regulatory and sulervisozy agencies. Ziautz contends that "internal auditing is a very effective source oil mcnitcring in many...to ccapare the perfcrmance cf a functional area with the standards set forth in the SOE, it should be determined if the SCP is 100 currezt and complies...SC 2990’ COMCABWEST El Toro CA 92709 CG Fourth MAW New Orleans LA 70146 CG MCB Camp Lejeune NC 28542 CG MCAGCC Twentynine Palms CA 92278 125