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Sample records for internal consistency temporal

  1. Felder-Soloman's Index of Learning Styles: internal consistency, temporal stability, and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Charles C; Siders, William A

    2010-10-01

    Strategies to facilitate learning include using knowledge of students' learning style preferences to inform students and their teachers. Aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure, internal consistency, and temporal stability of medical student responses to the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and determine its appropriateness as an instrument for medical education. The ILS assesses preferences on four dimensions: sensing/intuitive information perceiving, visual/verbal information receiving, active/reflective information processing, and sequential/global information understanding. Students entering the 2002-2007 classes completed the ILS; some completed the ILS again after 2 and 4 years. Analyses of responses supported the ILS's intended structure and moderate reliability. Students had moderate preferences for sensing and visual learning. This study provides evidence supporting the appropriateness of the ILS for assessing learning style preferences in medical students.

  2. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    OpenAIRE

    Piacenza, Susan E.; Thurman, Lindsey L.; Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monito...

  3. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  4. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  5. Internal consistency, reliability, and temporal stability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form: Test-retest data over two weeks

    OpenAIRE

    MCGUCKIN, CONOR

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form is a recently developed eight-item measure of happiness. This study evaluated the internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form among 55 Northern Irish undergraduate university students who completed the measure on two occasions separated by two weeks. Internal consistency of the measure on both occasions was satisfactory at both Time 1 (alpha = .62) and Time 2 (alpha = ....

  6. Temporal and Geographic variation in the validity and internal consistency of the Nursing Home Resident Assessment Minimum Data Set 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Vincent; Intrator, Orna; Unruh, Mark Aaron; Cai, Shubing

    2011-04-15

    The Minimum Data Set (MDS) for nursing home resident assessment has been required in all U.S. nursing homes since 1990 and has been universally computerized since 1998. Initially intended to structure clinical care planning, uses of the MDS expanded to include policy applications such as case-mix reimbursement, quality monitoring and research. The purpose of this paper is to summarize a series of analyses examining the internal consistency and predictive validity of the MDS data as used in the "real world" in all U.S. nursing homes between 1999 and 2007. We used person level linked MDS and Medicare denominator and all institutional claim files including inpatient (hospital and skilled nursing facilities) for all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries entering U.S. nursing homes during the period 1999 to 2007. We calculated the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of diagnoses taken from Medicare hospital claims and from the MDS among all new admissions from hospitals to nursing homes and the internal consistency (alpha reliability) of pairs of items within the MDS that logically should be related. We also tested the internal consistency of commonly used MDS based multi-item scales and examined the predictive validity of an MDS based severity measure viz. one year survival. Finally, we examined the correspondence of the MDS discharge record to hospitalizations and deaths seen in Medicare claims, and the completeness of MDS assessments upon skilled nursing facility (SNF) admission. Each year there were some 800,000 new admissions directly from hospital to US nursing homes and some 900,000 uninterrupted SNF stays. Comparing Medicare enrollment records and claims with MDS records revealed reasonably good correspondence that improved over time (by 2006 only 3% of deaths had no MDS discharge record, only 5% of SNF stays had no MDS, but over 20% of MDS discharges indicating hospitalization had no associated Medicare claim). The PPV and sensitivity levels of

  7. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain......Employee behaviours conveying brand values, named brand consistent behaviours, affect the overall brand evaluation. Internal branding literature highlights a knowledge gap in terms of communication practices intended to sustain such behaviours. This study contributes to the development of a non...

  8. Temporal consistent depth map upscaling for 3DTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Sjöström, Mârten; Olsson, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing success of three-dimensional (3D) cinema fuels increasing efforts to spread the commercial success of 3D to new markets. The possibilities of a convincing 3D experience at home, such as three-dimensional television (3DTV), has generated a great deal of interest within the research and standardization community. A central issue for 3DTV is the creation and representation of 3D content. Acquiring scene depth information is a fundamental task in computer vision, yet complex and error-prone. Dedicated range sensors, such as the Time­ of-Flight camera (ToF), can simplify the scene depth capture process and overcome shortcomings of traditional solutions, such as active or passive stereo analysis. Admittedly, currently available ToF sensors deliver only a limited spatial resolution. However, sophisticated depth upscaling approaches use texture information to match depth and video resolution. At Electronic Imaging 2012 we proposed an upscaling routine based on error energy minimization, weighted with edge information from an accompanying video source. In this article we develop our algorithm further. By adding temporal consistency constraints to the upscaling process, we reduce disturbing depth jumps and flickering artifacts in the final 3DTV content. Temporal consistency in depth maps enhances the 3D experience, leading to a wider acceptance of 3D media content. More content in better quality can boost the commercial success of 3DTV.

  9. Directional selection in temporally replicated studies is remarkably consistent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael B; Hadfield, Jarrod D

    2012-02-01

    Temporal variation in selection is a fundamental determinant of evolutionary outcomes. A recent paper presented a synthetic analysis of temporal variation in selection in natural populations. The authors concluded that there is substantial variation in the strength and direction of selection over time, but acknowledged that sampling error would result in estimates of selection that were more variable than the true values. We reanalyze their dataset using techniques that account for the necessary effect of sampling error to inflate apparent levels of variation and show that directional selection is remarkably constant over time, both in magnitude and direction. Thus we cannot claim that the available data support the existence of substantial temporal heterogeneity in selection. Nonetheless, we conject that temporal variation in selection could be important, but that there are good reasons why it may not appear in the available data. These new analyses highlight the importance of applying techniques that estimate parameters of the distribution of selection, rather than parameters of the distribution of estimated selection (which will reflect both sampling error and "real" variation in selection); indeed, despite availability of methods for the former, focus on the latter has been common in synthetic reviews of the aspects of selection in nature, and can lead to serious misinterpretations. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Temporal and contextual consistency of leadership in homing pigeon flocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos D Santos

    Full Text Available Organized flight of homing pigeons (Columba livia was previously shown to rely on simple leadership rules between flock mates, yet the stability of this social structuring over time and across different contexts remains unclear. We quantified the repeatability of leadership-based flock structures within a flight and across multiple flights conducted with the same animals. We compared two contexts of flock composition: flocks of birds of the same age and flight experience; and, flocks of birds of different ages and flight experience. All flocks displayed consistent leadership-based structures over time, showing that individuals have stable roles in the navigational decisions of the flock. However, flocks of balanced age and flight experience exhibited reduced leadership stability, indicating that these factors promote flock structuring. Our study empirically demonstrates that leadership and followership are consistent behaviours in homing pigeon flocks, but such consistency is affected by the heterogeneity of individual flight experiences and/or age. Similar evidence from other species suggests leadership as an important mechanism for coordinated motion in small groups of animals with strong social bonds.

  11. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  12. Sex-differences and temporal consistency in stickleback fish boldness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J King

    Full Text Available Behavioural traits that co-vary across contexts or situations often reflect fundamental trade-offs which individuals experience in different contexts (e.g. fitness trade-offs between exploration and predation risk. Since males tend to experience greater variance in reproductive success than females, there may be considerable fitness benefits associated with "bolder" behavioural types, but only recently have researchers begun to consider sex-specific and life-history strategies associated with these. Here we test the hypothesis that male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus show high risk but potentially high return behaviours compared to females. According to this hypothesis we predicted that male fish would show greater exploration of their environment in a foraging context, and be caught sooner by an experimenter than females. We found that the time fish spent out of cover exploring their environment was correlated over two days, and males spent significantly more time out of cover than females. Also, the order in which fish were net-caught from their holding aquarium by an experimenter prior to experiments was negatively correlated with the time spent out of cover during tests, and males tended to be caught sooner than females. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between the catch number prior to our experiments and nine months after, pointing towards consistent, long-term individual differences in behaviour.

  13. Delimiting coefficient alpha from internal consistency and unidimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, K.

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient α to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient α is a lower bound to reliability and

  14. Internally consistent gamma ray burst time history phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A phenomenology for gamma ray burst time histories is outlined. Order of their generally chaotic appearance is attempted, based on the speculation that any one burst event can be represented above 150 keV as a superposition of similarly shaped increases of varying intensity. The increases can generally overlap, however, confusing the picture, but a given event must at least exhibit its own limiting characteristic rise and decay times if the measurements are made with instruments having adequate temporal resolution. Most catalogued observations may be of doubtful or marginal utility to test this hypothesis, but some time histories from Helios-2, Pioneer Venus Orbiter and other instruments having one-to several-millisecond capabilities appear to provide consistency. Also, recent studies of temporally resolved Solar Maximum Mission burst energy spectra are entirely compatible with this picture. The phenomenology suggested here, if correct, may assist as an analytic tool for modelling of burst processes and possibly in the definition of burst source populations

  15. Object-Oriented Hierarchy Radiation Consistency for Different Temporal and Different Sensor Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Su

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we propose a novel object-oriented hierarchy radiation consistency method for dense matching of different temporal and different sensor data in the 3D reconstruction. For different temporal images, our illumination consistency method is proposed to solve both the illumination uniformity for a single image and the relative illumination normalization for image pairs. Especially in the relative illumination normalization step, singular value equalization and linear relationship of the invariant pixels is combined used for the initial global illumination normalization and the object-oriented refined illumination normalization in detail, respectively. For different sensor images, we propose the union group sparse method, which is based on improving the original group sparse model. The different sensor images are set to a similar smoothness level by the same threshold of singular value from the union group matrix. Our method comprehensively considered the influence factors on the dense matching of the different temporal and different sensor stereoscopic image pairs to simultaneously improve the illumination consistency and the smoothness consistency. The radiation consistency experimental results verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method by comparing two other methods. Moreover, in the dense matching experiment of the mixed stereoscopic image pairs, our method has more advantages for objects in the urban area.

  16. Visually defining and querying consistent multi-granular clinical temporal abstractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Carlo; Oliboni, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    The main goal of this work is to propose a framework for the visual specification and query of consistent multi-granular clinical temporal abstractions. We focus on the issue of querying patient clinical information by visually defining and composing temporal abstractions, i.e., high level patterns derived from several time-stamped raw data. In particular, we focus on the visual specification of consistent temporal abstractions with different granularities and on the visual composition of different temporal abstractions for querying clinical databases. Temporal abstractions on clinical data provide a concise and high-level description of temporal raw data, and a suitable way to support decision making. Granularities define partitions on the time line and allow one to represent time and, thus, temporal clinical information at different levels of detail, according to the requirements coming from the represented clinical domain. The visual representation of temporal information has been considered since several years in clinical domains. Proposed visualization techniques must be easy and quick to understand, and could benefit from visual metaphors that do not lead to ambiguous interpretations. Recently, physical metaphors such as strips, springs, weights, and wires have been proposed and evaluated on clinical users for the specification of temporal clinical abstractions. Visual approaches to boolean queries have been considered in the last years and confirmed that the visual support to the specification of complex boolean queries is both an important and difficult research topic. We propose and describe a visual language for the definition of temporal abstractions based on a set of intuitive metaphors (striped wall, plastered wall, brick wall), allowing the clinician to use different granularities. A new algorithm, underlying the visual language, allows the physician to specify only consistent abstractions, i.e., abstractions not containing contradictory conditions on

  17. Occlusion-Aware Fragment-Based Tracking With Spatial-Temporal Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chong; Wang, Dong; Lu, Huchuan

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present a robust tracking method by exploiting a fragment-based appearance model with consideration of both temporal continuity and discontinuity information. From the perspective of probability theory, the proposed tracking algorithm can be viewed as a two-stage optimization problem. In the first stage, by adopting the estimated occlusion state as a prior, the optimal state of the tracked object can be obtained by solving an optimization problem, where the objective function is designed based on the classification score, occlusion prior, and temporal continuity information. In the second stage, we propose a discriminative occlusion model, which exploits both foreground and background information to detect the possible occlusion, and also models the consistency of occlusion labels among different frames. In addition, a simple yet effective training strategy is introduced during the model training (and updating) process, with which the effects of spatial-temporal consistency are properly weighted. The proposed tracker is evaluated by using the recent benchmark data set, on which the results demonstrate that our tracker performs favorably against other state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  18. Construct validity and internal consistency in the Leisure Practices Scale (EPL) for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rubian Diego; Schwartz, Gisele Maria; Tavares, Giselle Helena; Pelegrini, Andreia; Teixeira, Clarissa Stefani; Felden, Érico Pereira Gomes

    2018-02-01

    This study proposes and analyzes the construct validity and internal consistency of the Leisure Practices Scale (EPL). This survey seeks to identify the preferences and involvement in in different leisure practices in adults. The instrument was formed based on the cultural leisure content (artistic, manual, physical, sports, intellectual, social, tourist, virtual and contemplation/leisure). The validation process was conducted with: a) content analysis by leisure experts, who evaluated the instrument for clarity of language and practical relevance, which allowed the calculation of the content validity coefficient (CVC); b) reproducibility test-retest with 51 subjects to calculate the temporal variation coefficient; c) internal consistency analysis with 885 participants. The evaluation presented appropriate coefficients, both with respect to language clarity (CVCt = 0.883) and practical relevance (CVCt = 0.879). The reproducibility coefficients were moderate to excellent. The scale showed adequate internal consistency (0.72). The EPL has psychometric quality and acceptable values in its structure, and can be used to investigate adult involvement in leisure activities.

  19. Bootstrap embedding: An internally consistent fragment-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welborn, Matthew; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    Strong correlation poses a difficult problem for electronic structure theory, with computational cost scaling quickly with system size. Fragment embedding is an attractive approach to this problem. By dividing a large complicated system into smaller manageable fragments “embedded” in an approximate description of the rest of the system, we can hope to ameliorate the steep cost of correlated calculations. While appealing, these methods often converge slowly with fragment size because of small errors at the boundary between fragment and bath. We describe a new electronic embedding method, dubbed “Bootstrap Embedding,” a self-consistent wavefunction-in-wavefunction embedding theory that uses overlapping fragments to improve the description of fragment edges. We apply this method to the one dimensional Hubbard model and a translationally asymmetric variant, and find that it performs very well for energies and populations. We find Bootstrap Embedding converges rapidly with embedded fragment size, overcoming the surface-area-to-volume-ratio error typical of many embedding methods. We anticipate that this method may lead to a low-scaling, high accuracy treatment of electron correlation in large molecular systems.

  20. Internal consistency of a Spanish translation of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Díaz, Carmen Elena; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluated the internal consistency of a Spanish version of the short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity based on responses of 405 Colombian adolescent students ages 13 to 17 years. This translated short-form version of the scale had an internal consistency of .80. This estimate indicates suitable internal consistency reliability for research use in this population.

  1. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  2. On the internal consistency of the term structure of forecasts of housing starts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term structure of forecasts of housing starts to test for rationality of forecasts. Our test is based on the idea that short-term and long-term forecasts should be internally consistent. We test the internal consistency of forecasts using data for Australia, Canada, Japan and the United...

  3. Comment on the internal consistency of thermodynamic databases supporting repository safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, R.C.

    2001-11-01

    This report addresses the concept of internal consistency and its relevance to the reliability of thermodynamic databases used in repository safety assessments. In addition to being internally consistent, a reliable database should be accurate over a range of relevant temperatures and pressures, complete in the sense that all important aqueous species, gases and solid phases are represented, and traceable to original experimental results. No single definition of internal consistency need to be universally accepted as the most appropriate under all conditions, however. As a result, two databases that are each internally consistent may be inconsistent with respect to each other, and a database derived from two or more such databases must itself be internally inconsistent. The consequences of alternative definitions that are reasonably attributable to the concept of internal consistency can be illustrated with reference to the thermodynamic database supporting SKB's recent SR 97 safety assessment. This database is internally inconsistent because it includes equilibrium constants calculated over a range of temperatures: using conflicting reference values for some solids, gases and aqueous species that are common to two internally consistent databases (the OECD/NEA database for radioelements and SUPCRT databases for non-radioactive elements) that serve as source databases for the SR 97 TDB, using different definitions in these source databases of standard states for condensed phases and aqueous species, based on different mathematical expressions used in these source databases representing the temperature dependence of the heat capacity, and based on different chemical models adopted in these source databases for the aqueous phase. The importance of such inconsistencies must be considered in relation to the other database reliability criteria noted above, however. Thus, accepting a certain level of internal inconsistency in a database it is probably preferable to use a

  4. Comment on the internal consistency of thermodynamic databases supporting repository safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.C. [Monitor Scientific, LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2001-11-01

    This report addresses the concept of internal consistency and its relevance to the reliability of thermodynamic databases used in repository safety assessments. In addition to being internally consistent, a reliable database should be accurate over a range of relevant temperatures and pressures, complete in the sense that all important aqueous species, gases and solid phases are represented, and traceable to original experimental results. No single definition of internal consistency need to be universally accepted as the most appropriate under all conditions, however. As a result, two databases that are each internally consistent may be inconsistent with respect to each other, and a database derived from two or more such databases must itself be internally inconsistent. The consequences of alternative definitions that are reasonably attributable to the concept of internal consistency can be illustrated with reference to the thermodynamic database supporting SKB's recent SR 97 safety assessment. This database is internally inconsistent because it includes equilibrium constants calculated over a range of temperatures: using conflicting reference values for some solids, gases and aqueous species that are common to two internally consistent databases (the OECD/NEA database for radioelements and SUPCRT databases for non-radioactive elements) that serve as source databases for the SR 97 TDB, using different definitions in these source databases of standard states for condensed phases and aqueous species, based on different mathematical expressions used in these source databases representing the temperature dependence of the heat capacity, and based on different chemical models adopted in these source databases for the aqueous phase. The importance of such inconsistencies must be considered in relation to the other database reliability criteria noted above, however. Thus, accepting a certain level of internal inconsistency in a database it is probably preferable to

  5. Temporal priority effects on competition are not consistent among intermountain grassland species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Li, Hongli; Ma, Yongqing; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2016-08-01

    Previous work indicates that priority effects exist, but mechanisms are not well understood. So we explored shifts in competitive outcomes and intensities as a potential general mechanism. In a standard greenhouse experiment the temporal priority effects of the target species Pseudoroegneria spicata and its competitive responses to five receptor species, i.e., Bromus ciliatus, Bromus marginatus, Coreopsis tinctoria, Senecio atratus, and Solidago canadensis were evaluated. P. spicata adults with a high root: shoot ratio had a significant inhibitory priority effect on B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, and C. tinctoria. Compared with the target species, under later and simultaneous sowing, B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, C. tinctoria, and S. atratus exhibited an increasing trend in terms of competition. However, S. canadensis did not display priority effects. In addition, the gram per gram competitive effect of P. spicata depended on the receptor species in the following order: B. marginatus > B. ciliatus > C. tinctoria > S. atratus. There were positive relationships between the relative interaction indices and the root: shoot ratios in B. ciliatus, B. marginatus, and C. tinctoria, thereby suggesting that the early germination or emergence of P. spicata may reduce the root: shoot ratios of these receptors. The results of this study indicate that priority effects occurred in early colonizers with high root: shoot ratios and greater competitive capacities.

  6. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  7. A theoretically consistent stochastic cascade for temporal disaggregation of intermittent rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F.; Volpi, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.; Serinaldi, F.

    2017-06-01

    Generating fine-scale time series of intermittent rainfall that are fully consistent with any given coarse-scale totals is a key and open issue in many hydrological problems. We propose a stationary disaggregation method that simulates rainfall time series with given dependence structure, wet/dry probability, and marginal distribution at a target finer (lower-level) time scale, preserving full consistency with variables at a parent coarser (higher-level) time scale. We account for the intermittent character of rainfall at fine time scales by merging a discrete stochastic representation of intermittency and a continuous one of rainfall depths. This approach yields a unique and parsimonious mathematical framework providing general analytical formulations of mean, variance, and autocorrelation function (ACF) for a mixed-type stochastic process in terms of mean, variance, and ACFs of both continuous and discrete components, respectively. To achieve the full consistency between variables at finer and coarser time scales in terms of marginal distribution and coarse-scale totals, the generated lower-level series are adjusted according to a procedure that does not affect the stochastic structure implied by the original model. To assess model performance, we study rainfall process as intermittent with both independent and dependent occurrences, where dependence is quantified by the probability that two consecutive time intervals are dry. In either case, we provide analytical formulations of main statistics of our mixed-type disaggregation model and show their clear accordance with Monte Carlo simulations. An application to rainfall time series from real world is shown as a proof of concept.

  8. A diagnostic test for apraxia in stroke patients: internal consistency and diagnostic value.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    1999-01-01

    The internal consistency and the diagnostic value of a test for apraxia in patients having had a stroke are presented. Results indicate that the items of the test form a strong and consistent scale: Cronbach's alpha as well as the results of a Mokken scale analysis present good reliability and good

  9. Psychometrics and the neuroscience of individual differences: Internal consistency limits between-subjects effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajcak, Greg; Meyer, Alexandria; Kotov, Roman

    2017-08-01

    In the clinical neuroscience literature, between-subjects differences in neural activity are presumed to reflect reliable measures-even though the psychometric properties of neural measures are almost never reported. The current article focuses on the critical importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency reliability-the homogeneity of "items" that comprise a neural "score." We demonstrate how variability in the internal consistency of neural measures limits between-subjects (i.e., individual differences) effects. To this end, we utilize error-related brain activity (i.e., the error-related negativity or ERN) in both healthy and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) participants to demonstrate options for psychometric analyses of neural measures; we examine between-groups differences in internal consistency, between-groups effect sizes, and between-groups discriminability (i.e., ROC analyses)-all as a function of increasing items (i.e., number of trials). Overall, internal consistency should be used to inform experimental design and the choice of neural measures in individual differences research. The internal consistency of neural measures is necessary for interpreting results and guiding progress in clinical neuroscience-and should be routinely reported in all individual differences studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Karen instruments for measuring quality of nursing care: construct validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Margareta; Andersson, Inger S

    2011-06-01

    Valid and reliable instruments for measuring the quality of care are needed for evaluation and improvement of nursing care. Previously developed and evaluated instruments, the Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel based on Donabedian's Structure-Process-Outcome triad (S-P-O triad) had promising content validity, discriminative power and internal consistency. The objective of this study was to further develop the instruments with regard to construct validity and internal consistency. This prospective study was carried out in medical and surgical wards at a hospital in Sweden. A total of 95 patients and 120 personnel were included. The instruments were tested for construct validity by performing factor analyses in two steps and for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The first confirmatory factor analyses, with a pre-determined three-factor solution did not load well according to the S-P-O triad, but the second exploratory factor analysis with a six-factor solution appeared to be more coherent and the distribution of variables seemed to be logical. The reliability, i.e. internal consistency, was good in both factor analyses. The Karen-patient and the Karen-personnel instruments have achieved acceptable levels of construct validity. The internal consistency of the instruments is good. This indicates that the instruments may be suitable to use in clinical practice for measuring the quality of nursing care.

  11. Consistent adoption of the International System of Units (SI) in nuclear science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpar, J; Kovar, Z [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Laborator Radiologicke Dozimetrie; Sacha, J [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Fyzikalny Ustav

    1975-11-01

    The principles are stressed behind a consistent introduction of the International System of Units (SI) in Czechoslovakia complying with the latest edition of the Czechoslovak Standard CSN 01 1300 on the prescribed system of national and international units. The use of special and auxiliary units in nuclear physics and technology is discussed, particular attention being devoted to the units of activity and to the time units applied in radiology. Conversion graph and tables are annexed.

  12. The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-07-01

    This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability transformation, (4) loss weighting and no probability transformation, and (5) loss weighting and partial probability transformation. Of the five alternatives, only the prospect theory formulation with loss weighting and no probability transformation offers an improvement in internal consistency over the standard EU valuation procedure.

  13. [Validity and internal consistency of the Maslach Burnout Inventory in Dental Students from Cartagena, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simancas-Pallares, Miguel Angel; Fortich Mesa, Natalia; González Martínez, Farith Damián

    To determine the internal consistency and content validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey (MBI-SS) in dental students from Cartagena, Colombia. Scale validation study in 886 dental students from Cartagena, Colombia. Factor structure was determined through exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Internal consistency was measured using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Analyses were performed using the Stata v.13.2 for Windows (Statacorp., USA) and Mplus v.7.31 for Windows (Muthén & Muthén, USA) software. Internal consistency was α=.806. The factor structure showed three that accounted for the 56.6% of the variance. CFA revealed: χ 2 =926.036; df=85; RMSEA=.106 (90%CI, .100-.112); CFI=.947; TLI=.934. The MBI showed an adequate internal consistency and a factor structure being consistent with the original proposed structure with a poor fit, which does not reflect adequate content validity in this sample. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Studies on the consistency of internally taken contrast medium for pancreas CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Mimura, Seiichi; Tahara, Seiji; Kitayama, Takuichi; Inamura, Keiji; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1985-02-01

    A problem of Pancreatic CT scanning is the discrimination between the pancreas and the adjacent gastrointestinal tract. Generally we administer a dilution of gastrografin internally to make the discrimination. The degree of dilution has been decided by experience at each hospital. When the consistency of the contrast medium is low in density, an enhancement effect cannot be expected, but when the consistency is high, artifacts appear. We have experimented on the degree of the dilution and CT-No to decide the optimum consistency of gastrografin for the diagnosis of pancreatic disease. Statistical analysis of the results show the optimum dilution of gastrografin to be 1.5%.

  15. How Well Does the Sum Score Summarize the Test? Summability as a Measure of Internal Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeman, J.J.; De, Jong N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate

  16. Validity and internal consistency of a whiplash-specific disability measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinfold, Melanie; Niere, Ken R.; O'Leary, Elizabeth F.; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of patients with whiplash-associated disorders investigating the internal consistency, factor structure, response rates, and presence of floor and ceiling effects of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm the

  17. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia : Internal consistency and inter-observer reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heugten, CM; Dekker, J; Deelman, BG; Stehmann-Saris, JC; Kinebanian, A

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  18. Assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia: internal consistency and inter-observer reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, J.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the internal consistency and inter-observer reliability of the assessment of disabilities in stroke patients with apraxia is presented. Disabilities were assessed by means of observation of activities of daily living (ADL). The study was conducted at occupational therapy departments in

  19. Online self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE): validity and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekhora, Keerin; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Jalayondeja, Chutima; Bhuanantanondh, Petcharatana; Dusadiisariyavong, Asadang; Upiriyasakul, Rujiret; Anuraktam, Khajornyod

    2014-07-01

    To develop an online, self-report questionnaire on computer work-related exposure (OSCWE) and to determine the internal consistency, face and content validity of the questionnaire. The online, self-report questionnaire was developed to determine the risk factors related to musculoskeletal disorders in computer users. It comprised five domains: personal, work-related, work environment, physical health and psychosocial factors. The questionnaire's content was validated by an occupational medical doctor and three physical therapy lecturers involved in ergonomic teaching. Twenty-five lay people examined the feasibility of computer-administered and the user-friendly language. The item correlation in each domain was analyzed by the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha; alpha). The content of the questionnaire was considered congruent with the testing purposes. Eight hundred and thirty-five computer users at the PTT Exploration and Production Public Company Limited registered to the online self-report questionnaire. The internal consistency of the five domains was: personal (alpha = 0.58), work-related (alpha = 0.348), work environment (alpha = 0.72), physical health (alpha = 0.68) and psychosocial factor (alpha = 0.93). The findings suggested that the OSCWE had acceptable internal consistency for work environment and psychosocial factors. The OSCWE is available to use in population-based survey research among computer office workers.

  20. Internal Consistency of Performance Evaluations as a Function of Music Expertise and Excerpt Familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Daryl W.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music experience and excerpt familiarity on the internal consistency of performance evaluations. Participants included nonmusic majors who had not participated in high school music ensembles, nonmusic majors who had participated in high school music ensembles, music majors, and experts…

  1. [Factor analysis and internal consistency of pedagogical practices questionnaire among health care teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez V, Cristhian; Vaccarezza G, Giulietta; Aguilar A, César; Coloma N, Katherine; Salgado F, Horacio; Baquedano R, Marjorie; Chavarría R, Carla; Bastías V, Nancy

    2016-06-01

    Teaching practice is one of the most complex topics of the training process in medicine and other health care careers. The Teaching Practices Questionnaire (TPQ) evaluates teaching skills. To assess the factor structure and internal consistency of the Spanish version of the TPP among health care teachers. The TPQ was answered by 315 university teachers from 13 of the 15 administrative Chilean regions, who were selected through a non-probabilistic volunteer sampling. The internal consistency of TPP factors was calculated and the correlation between them was analyzed. Six factors were identified: Student-centered teaching, Teaching planning, Assessment process, Dialogue relationship, Teacher-centered teaching and Use of technological resources. They had Cronbach alphas ranging from 0.60 to 0.85. The factorial structure of TPQ differentiates the most important functions of teaching. It also shows a theoretical consistency and a practical relevance to perform a diagnosis and continuous evaluation of teaching practices. Additionally, it has an adequate internal consistency. Thus, TPQ is valid and reliable to evaluate pedagogical practices in health care careers.

  2. Internal consistency of the CHAMPS physical activity questionnaire for Spanish speaking older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Martín G; Vázquez, Jenniffer M; Cruz, Wanda I; Ortiz, Alexis

    2008-09-01

    The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) is a physical activity monitoring questionnaire for people between 65 to 90 years old. This questionnaire has been previously translated to Spanish to be used in the Latin American population. To adapt the Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire to Puerto Rico and assess its internal consistency. An external review committee adapted the existent Spanish version of the CHAMPS to be used in the Puerto Rican population. Three older adults participated in a second phase with the purpose of training the research team. After the second phase, 35 older adults participated in a third content adaptation phase. During the third phase, the preliminary Spanish version for Puerto Rico of the CHAMPS was given to the 35 participants to assess for clarity, vocabulary and understandability. Interviews to each participant in the third phase were carried out to obtain feedback and create a final Spanish version of the CHAMPS for Puerto Rico. After analyses of this phase, the external review committee prepared a final Spanish version of the CHAMPS for Puerto Rico. The final version was administered to 15 older adults (76 +/- 6.5 years) to assess the internal consistency by using Cronbach's Alpha analysis. The questionnaire showed a strong internal consistency of 0.76. The total time to answer the questionnaire was 17.4 minutes. The Spanish version of the CHAMPS questionnaire for Puerto Rico suggested being an easy to administer and consistent measurement tool to assess physical activity in older adults.

  3. Internal Consistency and Convergent Validity of the Klontz Money Behavior Inventory (KMBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby D. Taylor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Klontz Money Behavior Inventory (KMBI is a standalone, multi-scale measure than can screen for the presence of eight distinct money disorders. Given the well-established relationship between mental health and financial behaviors, results from the KMBI can be used to inform both mental health care professionals and financial planners. The present study examined the internal consistency and convergent validity of the KMBI, through comparison with similar measures, among a sample of college students (n = 232. Results indicate that the KMBI demonstrates acceptable internal consistency reliability and some convergence for most subscales when compared to other analogous measures. These findings highlight a need for literature and assessments to identify and describe disordered money behaviors.

  4. Internal Consistency, Retest Reliability, and their Implications For Personality Scale Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Kurtz, John E.; Yamagata, Shinji; Terracciano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We examined data (N = 34,108) on the differential reliability and validity of facet scales from the NEO Inventories. We evaluated the extent to which (a) psychometric properties of facet scales are generalizable across ages, cultures, and methods of measurement; and (b) validity criteria are associated with different forms of reliability. Composite estimates of facet scale stability, heritability, and cross-observer validity were broadly generalizable. Two estimates of retest reliability were independent predictors of the three validity criteria; none of three estimates of internal consistency was. Available evidence suggests the same pattern of results for other personality inventories. Internal consistency of scales can be useful as a check on data quality, but appears to be of limited utility for evaluating the potential validity of developed scales, and it should not be used as a substitute for retest reliability. Further research on the nature and determinants of retest reliability is needed. PMID:20435807

  5. Assessing motivation for work environment improvements: internal consistency, reliability and factorial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Ann; Ateg, Mattias; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-04-01

    Workers' motivation to actively take part in improvements to the work environment is assumed to be important for the efficiency of investments for that purpose. That gives rise to the need for a tool to measure this motivation. A questionnaire to measure motivation for improvements to the work environment has been designed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the domains of the questionnaire have been measured, and the factorial structure has been explored, from the answers of 113 employees. The internal consistency is high (0.94), as well as the correlation for the total score (0.84). Three factors are identified accounting for 61.6% of the total variance. The questionnaire can be a useful tool in improving intervention methods. The expectation is that the tool can be useful, particularly with the aim of improving efficiency of companies' investments for work environment improvements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  7. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However, to d...... management is aware of this shortcoming they use the cybernetic controls more interactively to overcome this shortcoming, whereby the cybernetic controls are also used as a learning platform and not just for performance control....

  8. Validity and internal consistency of a whiplash-specific disability measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, Melanie; Niere, Ken R; O'Leary, Elizabeth F; Hoving, Jan Lucas; Green, Sally; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2004-02-01

    Cross-sectional study of patients with whiplash-associated disorders investigating the internal consistency, factor structure, response rates, and presence of floor and ceiling effects of the Whiplash Disability Questionnaire (WDQ). The aim of this study was to confirm the appropriateness of the proposed WDQ items. Whiplash injuries are a common cause of pain and disability after motor vehicle accidents. Neck disability questionnaires are often used in whiplash studies to assess neck pain but lack content validity for patients with whiplash-associated disorders. The newly developed WDQ measures functional limitations associated with whiplash injury and was designed after interviews with 83 patients with whiplash in a previous study. Researchers sought expert opinion on items of the WDQ, and items were then tested on a clinical whiplash population. Data were inspected to determine floor and ceiling effects, response rates, factor structure, and internal consistency. Packages of questionnaires were distributed to 55 clinicians, whose patients with whiplash completed and returned 101 questionnaires to researchers. No substantial floor or ceiling effects were identified on inspection of data. The overall floor effect was 12%, and the overall ceiling effect was 4%. Principal component analysis identified one broad factor that accounted for 65% of the variance in responses. Internal consistency was high; Cronbach's alpha = 0.96. Results of the study supported the retention of the 13 proposed items in a whiplash-specific disability questionnaire. Dependent on the results of further psychometric testing, the WDQ is likely to be an appropriate outcome measure for patients with whiplash.

  9. Internal consistency & validity of Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment Scale (IDEAS has been recommended for assessment and certification of disability by the Government of India (GOI. However, the psychometric properties of IDEAS as adopted by GOI remain understudied. Our aim, thus, was to study the internal consistency and validity of IDEAS in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: A total of 103 consenting patients with residual schizophrenia were assessed for disability, quality of life (QOL and psychopathology using the IDEAS, WHO QOL-100 and Positive and Negative symptom scale (PANSS respectively. Internal consistency was calculated using Cronbach′s alpha. For construct validity, relations between IDEAS, and psychopathology and QOL were studied. Results: The inter-item correlations for IDEAS were significant with a Cronbach′s alpha of 0.721. All item scores other than score on communication and understanding; total and global IDEAS scores correlated significantly with the positive, negative and general sub-scales, and total PANSS scores. Communication and understanding was significantly related to negative sub-scale score only. Total and global disability scores correlated negatively with all the domains of WHOQOL-100 (ρ<0.01. The individual IDEAS item scores correlated negatively with various WHOQOL-100 domains (ρ0< 0.01. Interpretation & conclusions: This study findings showed that the GOI-modified IDEAS had good internal consistency and construct validity as tested in patients with residual schizophrenia. Similar studies need to be done with other groups of patients.

  10. The Internal Consistency and Validity of the Vaccination Attitudes Examination Scale: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Louise; Smith, Michael; Miller, Christopher B; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2018-06-19

    Vaccinations are important preventative health behaviors. The recently developed Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale aims to measure the reasons behind refusal/hesitancy regarding vaccinations. The aim of this replication study is to conduct an independent test of the newly developed VAX Scale in the UK. We tested (a) internal consistency (Cronbach's α); (b) convergent validity by assessing its relationships with beliefs about medication, medical mistrust, and perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) construct validity by testing how well the VAX Scale discriminated between vaccinators and nonvaccinators. A sample of 243 UK adults completed the VAX Scale, the Beliefs About Medicines Questionnaire, the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines Scale, and the Medical Mistrust Index, in addition to demographics of age, gender, education levels, and social deprivation. Participants were asked (a) whether they received an influenza vaccination in the past year and (b) if they had a young child, whether they had vaccinated the young child against influenza in the past year. The VAX (a) demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .92); (b) was positively correlated with medical mistrust and beliefs about medicines, and less strongly correlated with perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) successfully differentiated parental influenza vaccinators from nonvaccinators. The VAX demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and construct validity in an independent UK sample. It appears to be a useful measure to help us understand the health beliefs that promote or deter vaccination behavior.

  11. WOrk-Related Questionnaire for UPper extremity disorders (WORQ-UP): Factor Analysis and Internal Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R; Kuijer, P Paul; Beumer, Annechien; Eygendaal, Denise; Frings-Dresen, Monique H

    2018-04-17

    To test a 17-item questionnaire, the WOrk-Related Questionnaire for UPper extremity disorders (WORQ-UP), for dimensionality of the items (factor analysis) and internal consistency. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic. A consecutive sample of patients (N=150) consisting of all new referral patients (either from a general physician or other hospital) who visited the orthopedic outpatient clinic because of an upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Not applicable. Number and dimensionality of the factors in the WORQ-UP. Four factors with eigenvalues (EVs) >1.0 were found. The factors were named exertion, dexterity, tools & equipment, and mobility. The EVs of the factors were, respectively, 5.78, 2.38, 1.81, and 1.24. The factors together explained 65.9% of the variance. The Cronbach alpha values for these factors were, respectively, .88, .74, .87, and .66. The 17 items of the WORQ-UP resemble 4 factors-exertion, dexterity, tools & equipment, and mobility-with a good internal consistency. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Soini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES. A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students.

  13. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Volker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2 is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution similar to that found in 2005 by Lecavalier for the original GARS. Though the three factors appeared to be reasonably consistent with the intended constructs of the three GARS-2 subscales, the analysis indicated that more than a third of the GARS-2 items were assigned to the wrong subscale. Internal consistency estimates met or exceeded standards for screening and were generally higher than those in previous studies. Screening sensitivity was .65 and specificity was .81 for the Autism Index using a cut score of 85. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for instrument revision.

  14. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  15. Factorial validity and internal consistency of the motivational climate in physical education scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key PointsThis study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories.The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the

  16. Link between self-consistent pressure profiles and electron internal transport barriers in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razumova, K A [Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Andreev, V F [Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Donne, A J H [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Hogeweij, G M D [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Lysenko, S E [Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shelukhin, D A [Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Spakman, G W [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Vershkov, V A [Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhuravlev, V A [Nuclear Fusion Institute, RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-09-15

    Tokamak plasmas have a tendency to self-organization: the plasma pressure profiles obtained in different operational regimes and even in various tokamaks may be represented by a single typical curve, called the self-consistent pressure profile. About a decade ago local zones with enhanced confinement were discovered in tokamak plasmas. These zones are referred to as internal transport barriers (ITBs) and they can act on the electron and/or ion fluid. Here the pressure gradients can largely exceed the gradients dictated by profile consistency. So the existence of ITBs seems to be in contradiction with the self-consistent pressure profiles (this is also often referred to as profile resilience or profile stiffness). In this paper we will discuss the interplay between profile consistency and ITBs. A summary of the cumulative information obtained from T-10, RTP and TEXTOR is given, and a coherent explanation of the main features of the observed phenomena is suggested. Both phenomena, the self-consistent profile and ITB, are connected with the density of rational magnetic surfaces, where the turbulent cells are situated. The distance between these cells determines the level of their interaction, and therefore the level of the turbulent transport. This process regulates the plasma pressure profile. If the distance is wide, the turbulent flux may be diminished and the ITB may be formed. In regions with rarefied surfaces the steeper pressure gradients are possible without instantaneously inducing pressure driven instabilities, which force the profiles back to their self-consistent shapes. Also it can be expected that the ITB region is wider for lower dq/d{rho} (more rarefied surfaces)

  17. Test of Gross Motor Development : Expert Validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motordevelopment. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by expertsand the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. Across-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionalsand 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls.Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated thatthe Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices ofconfirmatory factorial validity (χ2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tuckerand Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. ThePortuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  18. Test of Gross Motor Development: expert validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motor development. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by experts and the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. A cross-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionals and 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls. Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices of confirmatory factorial validity (÷2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tucker and Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. The Portuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  19. Content validation: clarity/relevance, reliability and internal consistency of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method. The method known as internal consistency was applied to the total sample, which consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads to the contents of the Phase 1 (3-6 months) and 61 mother-infant dyads to the contents of Phase 2 (7 to 12 months). The data were collected through the analysis of mother-infant interaction based on filming of dyads and application of the parameters to be validated according to the child's age. Data were organized in a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for statistical analysis. The judgments of clarity/relevance indicated no modifications to be made in the instruments. The reliability test showed an almost perfect agreement between judges (0.8 ≤ Kappa ≥ 1.0); only the item 2 of Phase 1 showed substantial agreement (0.6 ≤ Kappa ≥ 0.79). The internal consistency for Phase 1 had alpha = 0.84, and Phase 2, alpha = 0.74. This demonstrates the reliability of the instruments. The results suggest adequacy as to content validity of the instruments created for both age groups, demonstrating the relevance of the content of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

  20. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; DiRago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background Newer behavior genetic methods can better elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). However, no study to date has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risks with the purpose of delineating how general G-E mechanisms influence the development of INT disorders. Methods The sample consisted of 1315 male and female twin pairs participating in the age 17 assessment of the Minnesota Twin Family Study. Quantitative G-E interplay models were used to examine how genetic and environmental risk for INT disorders changes as a function of environmental context. Multiple measures and informants were employed to construct composite measures of INT disorders and 6 environmental risk factors including: stressful life events, mother-child and father-child relationship problems, antisocial and prosocial peer affiliation, and academic achievement and engagement. Results Significant moderation effects were detected between each environmental risk factor and INT such that in the context of greater environmental adversity, nonshared environmental factors became more important in the etiology of INT symptoms. Conclusion Our results are consistent with the interpretation that environmental stressors have a causative effect on the emergence of INT disorders. The consistency of our results suggests a general mechanism of environmental influence on INT disorders regardless of the specific form of environmental risk. PMID:19594836

  1. Construction of a consistent high-definition spatio-temporal atlas of the developing brain using adaptive kernel regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Ahmed; Aljabar, Paul; Ball, Gareth; Counsell, Serena J; Boardman, James P; Rutherford, Mary A; Edwards, A David; Hajnal, Joseph V; Rueckert, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    Medical imaging has shown that, during early development, the brain undergoes more changes in size, shape and appearance than at any other time in life. A better understanding of brain development requires a spatio-temporal atlas that characterizes the dynamic changes during this period. In this paper we present an approach for constructing a 4D atlas of the developing brain, between 28 and 44 weeks post-menstrual age at time of scan, using T1 and T2 weighted MR images from 204 premature neonates. The method used for the creation of the average 4D atlas utilizes non-rigid registration between all pairs of images to eliminate bias in the atlas toward any of the original images. In addition, kernel regression is used to produce age-dependent anatomical templates. A novelty in our approach is the use of a time-varying kernel width, to overcome the variations in the distribution of subjects at different ages. This leads to an atlas that retains a consistent level of detail at every time-point. Comparisons between the resulting atlas and atlases constructed using affine and non-rigid registration are presented. The resulting 4D atlas has greater anatomic definition than currently available 4D atlases created using various affine and non-rigid registration approaches, an important factor in improving registrations between the atlas and individual subjects. Also, the resulting 4D atlas can serve as a good representative of the population of interest as it reflects both global and local changes. The atlas is publicly available at www.brain-development.org. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The memory failures of everyday questionnaire (MFE): internal consistency and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo Carrasco, Pedro; Montenegro, Peña Mercedes; Sueiro, Manuel J

    2012-07-01

    The Memory Failures of Everyday Questionnaire (MFE) is one of the most widely-used instruments to assess memory failures in daily life. The original scale has nine response options, making it difficult to apply; we created a three-point scale (0-1-2) with response choices that make it easier to administer. We examined the two versions' equivalence in a sample of 193 participants between 19 and 64 years of age. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the version we propose were also computed in a sample of 113 people. Several indicators attest to the two forms' equivalence: the correlation between the items' means (r = .94; p MFE 1-9. The MFE 0-2 provides a brief, simple evaluation, so we recommend it for use in clinical practice as well as research.

  3. A temporal modelling environment for internally grounded beliefs, desires and intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.; Wijngaards, W.C.A.

    In this paper the internal dynamics of mental states, in particular states based on beliefs, desires and intentions, is formalised using a temporal language. A software environment is presented that can be used to specify, simulate and analyse temporal dependencies between mental states in

  4. Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy statistics in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2004 to find causes for these irregularities. We discovered that chemical products have occasionally been included, resulting in statistics with an inconsistent system boundary. Lack of guidance in the survey for the complex energy conversions in the chemical industry in the survey also resulted in large fluctuations for certain energy commodities. The findings of our analysis have been the basis for a new survey that has been used since 2007. We demonstrate that the annual questionnaire used for the international energy statistics can result in comparable problems as observed in the Netherlands. We suggest to include chemical residual gas as energy commodity in the questionnaire and to include the energy conversions in the chemical industry in the international energy statistics. In addition, we think the questionnaire should be explicit about the treatment of basic chemical products produced at refineries and in the petrochemical industry to avoid system boundary problems

  5. Crosslinguistic Developmental Consistency in the Composition of Toddlers’ Internal State Vocabulary: Evidence from Four Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental state language, emerging in the second and third years of life in typically developing children, is one of the first signs of an explicit psychological understanding. While mental state vocabulary may serve a variety of conversational functions in discourse and thus might not always indicate psychological comprehension, there is evidence for genuine references to mental states (desires, knowledge, beliefs, and emotions early in development across languages. This present study presents parental questionnaire data on the composition of 297 toddler-aged (30-to 32-month-olds children’s internal state vocabulary in four languages: Italian, German, English, and French. The results demonstrated that across languages expressions for physiological states (e.g., hungry and tired were among the most varied, while children’s vocabulary for cognitive entities (e.g., know and think proved to be least varied. Further, consistent with studies on children’s comprehension of these concepts, across languages children’s mastery of volition terms (e.g., like to do and want preceded their mastery of cognition terms. These findings confirm the cross-linguistic consistency of children’s emerging expression of abstract psychological concepts.

  6. Temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental shelf with random internal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C

    2013-11-01

    An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.

  7. Assessing the internal consistency of the CARINA database in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lo Monaco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon and carbon-relevant hydrographic and hydrochemical ancillary data from previously not publicly available cruises were retrieved and recently merged to a new data base, CARINA (CARbon IN the Atlantic. The initial North Atlantic project, an international effort for ocean carbon synthesis, was extended to include the Arctic Mediterranean Seas (Arctic Ocean and Nordic Seas and all three sectors of the Southern Ocean. Of a total of 188 cruises, 37 cruises are part of the Southern Ocean. The present work focuses on data collected in the Indian sector (20° S–70° S; 30° E–150° E. The Southern Indian Ocean dataset covers the period 1992–2004 and includes seasonal repeated observations. Parameters including salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (TCO2, total alkalinity (TA, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate were examined for cruise-to-cruise and overall consistency. In addition, data from an existing, quality controlled data base (GLODAP were introduced in the CARINA analysis to improve data coverage in the Southern Ocean. A global inversion was performed to synthesize the information deduced from objective comparisons of deep measurements (>1500 m at nearby stations (generally <220 km. The corrections suggested by the inversion were allowed to vary within a fixed envelope, thus accounting for ocean interior variability. The adjustments applied to CARINA data and those recommended for GLODAP data, in order to obtain a consistent merged dataset, are presented and discussed. The final outcome of this effort is a new quality controlled data base for TCO2 and other properties of the carbon system that can now be used to investigate the natural variability or stability of ocean chemistry and the accumulation of anthropogenic carbon. This data product also offers an important new synthesis of seasonal to decadal observations to validate ocean biogeochemical models in a region where available historical data were very

  8. Correlations of External Landmarks With Internal Structures of the Temporal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromchai, Patorn; Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Smeds, Henrik; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    The internal anatomy of a temporal bone could be inferred from external landmarks. Mastoid surgery is an important skill that ENT surgeons need to acquire. Surgeons commonly use CT scans as a guide to understanding anatomical variations before surgery. Conversely, in cases where CT scans are not available, or in the temporal bone laboratory where residents are usually not provided with CT scans, it would be beneficial if the internal anatomy of a temporal bone could be inferred from external landmarks. We explored correlations between internal anatomical variations and metrics established to quantify the position of external landmarks that are commonly exposed in the operating room, or the temporal bone laboratory, before commencement of drilling. Mathematical models were developed to predict internal anatomy based on external structures. From an operating room view, the distances between the following external landmarks were observed to have statistically significant correlations with the internal anatomy of a temporal bone: temporal line, external auditory canal, mastoid tip, occipitomastoid suture, and Henle's spine. These structures can be used to infer a low lying dura mater (p = 0.002), an anteriorly located sigmoid sinus (p = 0.006), and a more lateral course of the facial nerve (p external landmarks. The distances between these two landmarks and the operating view external structures were able to further infer the laterality of the facial nerve (p internal structures with a high level of accuracy: the distance from the sigmoid sinus to the posterior external auditory canal (p external landmarks found on the temporal bone. These relationships could be used as a guideline to predict challenges during drilling and choosing appropriate temporal bones for dissection.

  9. Reliability of AOFAS diabetic foot questionnaire in Charcot arthropathy: stability, internal consistency, and measurable difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Vibhu; Spratt, Kevin F; Pinzur, Michael S; Baumhauer, Judith; Rudicel, Sally; Saltzman, Charles L

    2005-09-01

    The development of Charcot changes is known to be associated with a high rate of recurrent ulceration and amputation. Unfortunately, the effect of Charcot arthropathy on quality of life in diabetic patients has not been systematically studied because of a lack of a disease-specific instrument. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an instrument to evaluate the health-related quality of life of diabetic foot disease. Subjects diagnosed with Charcot arthropathy completed a patient self-administered questionnaire, and clinicians completed an accompanying observational survey. The patient self-administered questionnaire was organized into five general sections: demographics, general health, diabetes-related symptoms, comorbidities, and satisfaction. The scales measured the effect in six health domains: 1) general health, 2) care, 3) worry, 4) sleep, 5) emotion, and 6) physicality. The psychometric properties of the scales were evaluated and the summary scores for the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were compared to published norms for other major medical illnesses. Of the 89 enrolled patients, 57 who completed the questionnaire on enrollment returned a second completed form at 3-month followup. Over the 3-month followup period most of the patients showed an improvement in the Eichenholtz staging. The internal consistency of most was moderate to high and, in general, the scale scores were stable over 3 months. However, several of the scales suffered from low-ceiling or high-floor effects. Patients with Charcot arthropathy had a much lower physical component score on enrollment than the reported norms for other disease conditions, including diabetes. Quality of life represents an important set of outcomes when evaluating the effectiveness of treatment for patients with Charcot arthropathy. This study represents an initial attempt to develop a standardized survey for use with this patient population. Further studies need to be done with larger groups of

  10. An overview of coefficient alpha and a reliability matrix for estimating adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with psychological research measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Ruckdeschel, Daniel E

    2007-12-01

    The present article addresses issues in reliability assessment that are often neglected in psychological research such as acceptable levels of internal consistency for research purposes, factors affecting the magnitude of coefficient alpha (alpha), and considerations for interpreting alpha within the research context. A new reliability matrix anchored in classical test theory is introduced to help researchers judge adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with research measures. Guidelines and cautions in applying the matrix are provided.

  11. Factor structure, internal consistency and reliability of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: an exploratory study Estrutura fatorial, consistência interna e confiabilidade do Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL is a self-report measure largely used to evaluate the presence of PTSD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the internal consistency, temporal reliability and factor validity of the Portuguese language version of the PCL used in Brazil. METHODS: A total of 186 participants were recruited. The sample was heterogeneous with regard to occupation, sociodemographic data, mental health history, and exposure to traumatic events. Subjects answered the PCL at two occasions within a 15 days’ interval (range: 5-15 days. RESULTS: Cronbach’s alpha coefficients indicated high internal consistency for the total scale (0.91 and for the theoretical dimensions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV (0.83, 0.81, and 0.80. Temporal reliability (test-retest was high and consistent for different cutoffs. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted and oblique rotation (Promax was applied. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO index (0.911 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (χ² = 1,381.34, p INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é um transtorno de ansiedade decorrente da exposição a eventos traumáticos. Entre as medidas de avaliação dos sintomas, destaca-se o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL. OBJETIVO: Investigar a consistência interna, a confiabilidade temporal e a validade fatorial da versão do PCL em português, utilizada no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 186 indivíduos heterogêneos em relação a ocupação, características sociodemográficas, histórico de saúde mental e exposição a eventos traumáticos. O PCL foi aplicado em dois momentos considerando um intervalo máximo de 15 dias (intervalo: 5-15 dias. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi adequada para a escala

  12. Spatial-temporal consistency between gross primary productivity and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of vegetation in China during 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Yao; Doughty, Russell; Chen, Bangqian; Zhao, Bin

    2018-10-15

    Accurately estimating spatial-temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) is important for the global carbon cycle. Satellite-based light use efficiency (LUE) models are regarded as an efficient tool in simulating spatial-temporal dynamics of GPP. However, the accuracy assessment of GPP simulations from LUE models at both spatial and temporal scales remains a challenge. In this study, we simulated GPP of vegetation in China during 2007-2014 using a LUE model (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model, VPM) based on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) images with 8-day temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions and NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) climate data. Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data were used to compare with VPM simulated GPP (GPP VPM ) temporally and spatially using linear correlation analysis. Significant positive linear correlations exist between monthly GPP VPM and SIF data over a single year (2010) and multiple years (2007-2014) in most areas of China. GPP VPM is also significantly positive correlated with GOME-2 SIF (R 2  > 0.43) spatially for seasonal scales. However, poor consistency was detected between GPP VPM and SIF data at yearly scale. GPP dynamic trends have high spatial-temporal variation in China during 2007-2014. Temperature, leaf area index (LAI), and precipitation are the most important factors influence GPP VPM in the regions of East Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, Loss Plateau, and Southwestern China, respectively. The results of this study indicate that GPP VPM is temporally and spatially in line with GOME-2 SIF data, and space-borne SIF data have great potential for evaluating LUE-based GPP models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptação transcultural e consistência interna do Early Trauma Inventory (ETI Early Trauma Inventory (ETI: cross-cultural adaptation and internal consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Feijó de Mello

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available As experiências traumáticas precoces são um fator de risco preditivo de problemas psicopatológicos futuros. O Early Trauma Inventory (ETI é um instrumento que avalia em indivíduos adultos experiências traumáticas ocorridas antes dos 18 anos de idade. Tal instrumento foi traduzido, transculturalmente adaptado e sua consistência interna foi avaliada. Vítimas de violência que preencheram os critérios de inclusão e exclusão foram submetidas a uma entrevista diagnóstica (SCID-I e ao ETI. Foram incluídos 91 pacientes com o transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT. O alfa de Cronbach nos diferentes domínios variou de 0,595-0,793, e o escore total foi de 0,878. A maior parte dos itens nos vários domínios, com exceção do abuso emocional, apresentou índices de correlação interitem entre 0,51-0,99. A versão adaptada foi útil tanto na clínica quanto na pesquisa. Apresentou boa consistência interna e na correlação interitem. O ETI é um instrumento válido, com boa consistência para se avaliar a presença de história de traumas precoces em indivíduos adultos.Early life stress is a strong predictor of future psychopathology during adulthood. The Early Trauma Inventory (ETI was developed to detect the presence and impact of traumatic experiences that occurred up to 18 years of age. The ETI was translated and cross-culturally adapted and had its consistency evaluated. Victims of violence that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were submitted to SCID-I and ETI. Ninety-one patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD were included. Cronbach's alpha in the different domains varied from 0.595 to 0.793, and the total score was 0.878. Except for emotional abuse, most of the various domains displayed inter-item correlation rates of 0.51 to 0.99. The adapted version was useful for clinical and research purposes and showed good internal consistency and inter-item correlation. The ETI is a valid instrument with good

  14. Internal consistency reliability and validity of the Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, L J; Katz, Y J

    2000-08-01

    The Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory and the short form Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire were completed by 298 undergraduate women in Israel. The findings confirm the internal reliability of the Hebrew translation of the Oxford Happiness Inventory and support the construct validity according to which "happiness is a thing called stable extraversion."

  15. Internal consistency reliability and validity of the Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M

    2004-06-01

    The Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs was completed by 144 undergraduate students (M age=20.6) in Jordan. The findings support the internal reliability of the Arabic translation of the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs as well as its construct validity.

  16. Gene-Environment Interplay in Internalizing Disorders: Consistent Findings across Six Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Dirago, Ana C.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Background: Behavior genetic methods can help to elucidate gene-environment (G-E) interplay in the development of internalizing (INT) disorders (i.e., major depression and anxiety disorders). To date, however, no study has conducted a comprehensive analysis examining multiple environmental risk factors with the purpose of delineating general…

  17. International cooperation for the development of consistent and stable transportation regulations to promote and enhance safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.

    2004-01-01

    International commerce of radioactive materials crosses national boundaries, linking separate regulatory institutions with a common purpose and making it necessary for these institutions to work together in order to achieve common safety goals in a manner that does not place an undue burden on industry and commerce. Widespread and increasing use of radioactive materials across the world has led to increases in the transport of radioactive materials. The demand for consistency in the oversight of international transport has also increased to prevent unnecessary delays and costs associated with incongruent or redundant regulatory requirements by the various countries through which radioactive material is transported. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the authority for international regulation of transportation of radioactive materials responsible for promulgation of regulations and guidance for the establishment of acceptable methods of transportation for the international community. As such, the IAEA is seen as the focal point for consensus building between its Member States to develop consistency in transportation regulations and reviews and to ensure the safe and secure transport of radioactive material. International cooperation is also needed to ensure stability in our regulatory processes. Changes to transportation regulations should be based on an anticipated safety benefit supported by risk information and insights gained from continuing experience, evaluation, and research studies. If we keep safety as the principle basis for regulatory changes, regulatory stability will be enhanced. Finally, as we endeavour to maintain consistency and stability in our international regulations, we must be mindful of the new security challenges that lay before the international community as a result of a changing terrorist environment. Terrorism is a problem of global concern that also requires international cooperation and support, as we look for ways to

  18. Internal consistency of a five-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2009-04-01

    The short form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (L. J. Francis, 1992) is a 7-item Likert-type scale that shows high homogeneity among adolescents. The psychometric performance of a shorter version of this scale has not been explored. The authors aimed to determine the internal consistency of a 5-item form of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity among 405 students from a school in Cartagena, Colombia. The authors computed the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the 5 items with a greater corrected item-total punctuation correlation. The version without Items 2 and 7 showed internal consistency of .87. The 5-item version of the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity exhibited higher internal consistency than did the 7-item version. Future researchers should corroborate this finding.

  19. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  1. Internal consistency and validity of the self-assessment Parkinson's Disease disability scale. Abstract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  2. Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (EAR: validade fatorial e consistência interna Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS: factorial validity and internal consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Burges Sbicigo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades psicométricas da Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg (EAR para adolescentes. Participaram 4.757 adolescentes, com idades entre 14 e 18 anos (M=15,77; DP=1,22, de nove cidades brasileiras. Os participantes responderam a uma versão da EAR adaptada para o Brasil. A análise fatorial exploratória apontou uma estrutura bidimensional, com 51.4% da variância explicada, que foi sustentada pela análise fatorial confirmatória. As análises de consistência interna realizadas por meio do coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, confiabilidade composta e variância extraída indicaram bons valores de fidedignidade. Diferenças nos escores de autoestima em função do sexo e da idade não foram encontradas. Conclui-se que a EAR apresenta qualidades psicométricas satisfatórias, mostrando-se um instrumento confiável para medir autoestima em adolescentes brasileiros.The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometrics properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS for adolescents. The sample was composed of 4.757 adolescents, with ages between 14 and 18 years old (M=15.77; SD=1.22 in nine Brazilian cities. Participants responded to an adapted version of the RSS for Brazil. Exploratory factorial analysis showed a bidimensional structure, with 51.4% of explained variance. This result was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency analysis by Cronbach alpha coefficient, composite reliability and extracted variance indicated good reliability. Differences in self-esteem for gender and age were not found. These findings show that RSS has satisfactory psychometric qualities and it's a reliable instrument to assess self-esteem in Brazilian adolescents.

  3. Internal Consistency and Concurrent Validity of the Questionnaire for Limitations and Restrictions Assessment in Children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Matilde Salamanca-Duque

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: ADHD is one of the most common diagnoses in child psychiatry, its early diagnosis is of great importance for intervention at family, school and social environment. Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, a questionnaire was designed to assess activity limitations and participation restrictions in children with ADHD. The questionnaire was called “CLARP-ADHD Parent and Teacher Version”. Objective: To determine the degree of internal consistency of the CLARP-ADHD questionnaire, and its concurrent validity with the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire SDQ parent and teacher version”. Material and Methods: A sample of 203 children aged 6 to 12 with ADHD, currently attending school in five Colombian cities. The questionnaires were applied to parents and teachers. The internal consistency analysis was performed through Cronbach coefficient and concurrent validity using the Spearman correlation coefficient utilizing multiple and unique predictors through multiple linear regression as well as simple regression models. Results: A high internal consistency was found for global questionnaires for each of its domains. The CLARP-ADHD for parents gave as result an internal consistency of 0.83, and the CLARP-ADHD for teachers one of 0.93. Concurrent validity was found between the CLARP-ADHD and the SDQ Parent and Teacher version; also, concurrence between the CLARPADHD for Teachers and the SDQ Teachers was found, as well as between CLARP ADHD for Parents and CLARP ADHD Teachers, given by p values of p < 0.001.

  4. Estimators of internal consistency in health research: the use of the alpha coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Cascaes da Silva, Fraciele; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil.; Gonçalves, Elizandra; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil.; Valdivia Arancibia, Beatriz Angélica; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil; Graziele Bento, Salma; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil.; da Silva Castro, Thiago Luis; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil; Soleman Hernandez, Salma Stephany; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil; da Silva, Rudney; Centro de Ciencias de la Salud y del Deporte, Universidad del Estado de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    2015-01-01

    Academic production has increased in the area of health, increasingly demanding high quality in publications of great impact. One of the ways to consider quality is through methods that increase the consistency of data analysis, such as reliability which, depending on the type of data, can be evaluated by different coefficients, especially the alpha coefficient. Based on this, the present review systematically gathers scientific articles produced in the last five years, which in a methodologi...

  5. Brazil-Portugal Transcultural Adaptation of the UWES-9: Internal Consistency, Dimensionality, and Measurement Invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinval, Jorge; Pasian, Sonia; Queirós, Cristina; Marôco, João

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a revision of international versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and to describe the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the UWES-9 developed simultaneously for Brazil and Portugal, the validity evidence related with the internal structure, namely, Dimensionality, measurement invariance between Brazil and Portugal, and Reliability of the scores. This is the first UWES version developed simultaneously for both countries, and it is an important instrument for understanding employees' work engagement in the organizations, allowing human resources departments to better use workforces, especially when they are migrants. A total of 524 Brazilian workers and 522 Portuguese workers participated in the study. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, group comparisons, and Reliability estimates were used. The use of workers who were primarily professionals or administrative support, according to ISCO-08, reinforced the need to collect data on other professional occupations. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable fit for the UWES-9 original three-factor solution, and a second-order factor structure has been proposed that presented an acceptable fit. Full-scale invariance was obtained between the Portuguese and Brazilian samples, both for the original three-factor first-order and second-order models. Data revealed that Portuguese and Brazilian workers didn't show statistically significant differences in the work engagement dimensions. This version allows for direct comparisons of means and, consequently, for performance of comparative and cross-cultural studies between these two countries.

  6. Brazil-Portugal Transcultural Adaptation of the UWES-9: Internal Consistency, Dimensionality, and Measurement Invariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Sinval

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a revision of international versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and to describe the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the UWES-9 developed simultaneously for Brazil and Portugal, the validity evidence related with the internal structure, namely, Dimensionality, measurement invariance between Brazil and Portugal, and Reliability of the scores. This is the first UWES version developed simultaneously for both countries, and it is an important instrument for understanding employees' work engagement in the organizations, allowing human resources departments to better use workforces, especially when they are migrants. A total of 524 Brazilian workers and 522 Portuguese workers participated in the study. Confirmatory Factor Analysis, group comparisons, and Reliability estimates were used. The use of workers who were primarily professionals or administrative support, according to ISCO-08, reinforced the need to collect data on other professional occupations. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable fit for the UWES-9 original three-factor solution, and a second-order factor structure has been proposed that presented an acceptable fit. Full-scale invariance was obtained between the Portuguese and Brazilian samples, both for the original three-factor first-order and second-order models. Data revealed that Portuguese and Brazilian workers didn't show statistically significant differences in the work engagement dimensions. This version allows for direct comparisons of means and, consequently, for performance of comparative and cross-cultural studies between these two countries.

  7. Validation of temporal and spatial consistency of facility- and speed-specific vehicle-specific power distributions for emission estimation: A case study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Zhiqiang; Song, Guohua; Lu, Hongyu; He, Weinan; Yu, Lei

    2017-09-01

    Vehicle-specific power (VSP) has been found to be highly correlated with vehicle emissions. It is used in many studies on emission modeling such as the MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator) model. The existing studies develop specific VSP distributions (or OpMode distribution in MOVES) for different road types and various average speeds to represent the vehicle operating modes on road. However, it is still not clear if the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions are consistent temporally and spatially. For instance, is it necessary to update periodically the database of the VSP distributions in the emission model? Are the VSP distributions developed in the city central business district (CBD) area applicable to its suburb area? In this context, this study examined the temporal and spatial consistency of the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions in Beijing. The VSP distributions in different years and in different areas are developed, based on real-world vehicle activity data. The root mean square error (RMSE) is employed to quantify the difference between the VSP distributions. The maximum differences of the VSP distributions between different years and between different areas are approximately 20% of that between different road types. The analysis of the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission factor indicates that the temporal and spatial differences of the VSP distributions have no significant impact on vehicle emission estimation, with relative error of less than 3%. The temporal and spatial differences have no significant impact on the development of the facility- and speed-specific VSP distributions for the vehicle emission estimation. The database of the specific VSP distributions in the VSP-based emission models can maintain in terms of time. Thus, it is unnecessary to update the database regularly, and it is reliable to use the history vehicle activity data to forecast the emissions in the future. In one city, the areas with less data can still

  8. Item wording and internal consistency of a measure of cohesion: the group environment questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eys, Mark A; Carron, Albert V; Bray, Steven R; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2007-06-01

    A common practice for counteracting response acquiescence in psychological measures has been to employ both negatively and positively worded items. However, previous research has highlighted that the reliability of measures can be affected by this practice (Spector, 1992). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect that the presence of negatively worded items has on the internal reliability of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). Two samples (N = 276) were utilized, and participants were asked to complete the GEQ (original and revised) on separate occasions. Results demonstrated that the revised questionnaire (containing all positively worded items) had significantly higher Cronbach alpha values for three of the four dimensions of the GEQ. Implications, alternatives, and future directions are discussed.

  9. The influence of international and domestic events in the evolution of forest inventory and reporting consistency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a brief chronological look at resource inventory and reporting and links to international influences. It explores events as drivers of more consistent data within the United States and highlights key dates and events in the evolution of inventory policy and practice. From King George to L?Ecole nationale forestiere to the Food and Agriculture...

  10. The eye-complaint questionnaire in a visual display unit work environment: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Ivan A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2009-01-01

    The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of a 10-item eye-complaint questionnaire (ECQ) were examined within a sample of office workers. Repeated within-subjects measures were performed within a single day and over intervals of 1 and 7 d. Questionnaires were completed by 96 workers (70%

  11. Five-Item Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity: Construct and Nomological Validity and Internal Consistency among Colombian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Guillermo A.; Suescun, Jesus D.; Oviedo, Heidi C.; Herazo, Edwin; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2015-01-01

    The Spanish version of the five-item Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity is a refinement of the short version of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity. The scale is a good measurement for intrinsic religiosity. It has been applied previously among Colombian adolescent students. The internal consistency and construct and…

  12. Internal consistency and validity of an observational method for assessing disability in mobility in patients with osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, M.P.M.; Dekker, J.; Baar, M.E. van; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish the internal consistency of validity of an observational method for assessing diasbility in mobility in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), Methods: Data were obtained from 198 patients with OA of the hip or knee. Results of the observational method were compared with results

  13. Internal consistency and validity of an observational method for assessing disability in mobility in patients with osteoarthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, M. P.; Dekker, J.; van Baar, M. E.; Oostendorp, R. A.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    To establish the internal consistency and validity of an observational method for assessing disability in mobility in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Data were obtained from 198 patients with OA of the hip or knee. Results of the observational method were compared with results of self-report

  14. Internal Consistency of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading Measures: Grades 3-8. Technical Report #1407

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Meg; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This technical report documents findings from a study of the internal consistency and split-half reliability of the easyCBM© CCSS Reading measures, grades 3-8. Data, drawn from an extant data set gathered in school year 2013-2014, include scores from over 150,000 students' fall and winter benchmark assessments. Findings suggest that the easyCBM©…

  15. An International Disaster Management SensorWeb Consisting of Space-based and Insitu Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, D.; Frye, S. W.; Policelli, F. S.; Cappelaere, P. G.

    2009-12-01

    For the past year, NASA along with partners consisting of the United Nations Space-based Information for Disaster and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER) office, the Canadian Space Agency, the Ukraine Space Research Institute (SRI), Taiwan National Space Program Office (NSPO) and in conjunction with the Committee on Earth Observing Satellite (CEOS) Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) have been conducting a pilot project to automate the process of obtaining sensor data for the purpose of flood management and emergency response. This includes experimenting with flood prediction models based on numerous meteorological satellites and a global hydrological model and then automatically triggering follow up high resolution satellite imagery with rapid delivery of data products. This presentation will provide a overview of the effort, recent accomplishments and future plans.

  16. The Internal Consistency Reliability of the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism among Australian Jews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Lumbroso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism was developed initially to extend among the Hebrew-speaking Jewish community in Israel a growing body of international research concerned to map the correlates, antecedents and consequences of individual differences in attitude toward religion as assessed by the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity. The present paper explored the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the English translation of the Katz-Francis Scale of Attitude toward Judaism among 101 Australian Jews. On the basis of these data, this instrument is commended for application in further research.

  17. International migration to and from the United Kingdom, 1975-1999: consistency, change and implications for the labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, J; McLaughlan, G

    2001-01-01

    This article presents some findings of a recent study carried out for the Home Office by the Migration Research Unit (MRU) in the Department of Geography at UCL. The study was concerned with patterns and trends in international migration to and from the United Kingdom since 1975, with a particular focus on those in employment, and drew on many sources. The statistics analysed here derive from the International Passenger Survey, including hitherto unpublished tables provided by the Office for National Statistics on migration of the employed by citizenship. They indicate remarkable consistency in some aspects of migration flows and major change in others.

  18. On the Temporal Variability of Low-Mode Internal Tides in the Deep Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Zaron, E. D.

    2010-01-01

    In situ measurements of internal tides are typically characterized by high temporal variability, with strong dependence on stratification, mesoscale eddies, and background currents commonly observed. Thus, it is surprising to find phase-locked internal tides detectable by satellite altimetry. An important question is how much tidal variability is missed by altimetry. We address this question in several ways. We subset the altimetry by season and find only very small changes -- an important exception being internal tides in the South China Sea where we observe strong seasonal dependence. A wavenumber-domain analysis confirms that throughout most of the global ocean there is little temporal variability in altimetric internal-tide signals, at least in the first baroclinic mode, which is the mode that dominates surface elevation. The analysis shows higher order modes to be significantly more variable. The results of this study have important practical implications for the anticipated SWOT wide-swath altimeter mission, for which removal of internal tide signals is critical for observing non-tidal submesoscale phenomena.

  19. Determining the Feasibility, Content Validity, and Internal Consistency of a Newly Developed Care Coordination Scale for People with Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian P. Johnson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increasing complexity of care, people with disabilities and supportive significant others (SSO must often coordinate key aspects of their own care, but no validated scale currently exists to comprehensively characterize the activities done to manage and coordinate their care. Method: This study aimed to improve the feasibility, acceptability, and content validity of the Care and Service Coordination and Management (CASCAM scale and to test its internal consistency. Questionnaire items were administered to 23 individuals with acquired brain injury and 17 SSO. Results: Respondents confirmed content validity and that the instrument addresses important care coordination and management issues. The internal consistency of care coordination domains for medical/ rehabilitative and independent living needs for people with brain injury and their SSO ranged from α = .774 to .945. Conclusion: Care coordination activities by persons with disabilities, including brain injury, and their SSO are multifaceted but feasibly measurable and should be assessed to improve care.

  20. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of Malaysian Adapted Depression Anxiety Stress Scale - 21 in an Adolescent Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychometrically sound measurement instrument is a fundamental requirement across broad range of research areas. In negative affect research, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) has been identified as a psychometrically sound instrument to measure depression, anxiety and stress, especially the 21-item version. However, its psychometric properties in adolescents have been less consistent. Objectives: Thus, the present study sought to examine the factorial validity and internal c...

  1. [Discomfort associated with dental extraction surgery and development of a questionnaire (QCirDental). Part I: Impacts and internal consistency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Martins, Luciana Dorochenko; Takahashi, André; Ribeiro, Bianca; Martins, Ligiane; Pinto, Marcia Helena Baldani

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (QCirDental) to measure the impacts associated with dental extraction surgery. The QCirDental questionnaire was developed in two steps; (1) question and item generation and selection, and (2) pretest of the questionnaire with evaluation of the its measurement properties (internal consistency and responsiveness). The sample was composed of 123 patients. None of the patients had any difficulty in understanding the QCirDental. The instrument was found to have excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83. The principal component analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity with p < 0.001) showed six (6) dimensions explaining 67.5% of the variance. The QCirDental presented excellent internal consistency, being a questionnaire that is easy to read and understand with adequate semantic and content validity. More than 80% of the patients who underwent dental extraction reported some degree of discomfort within the perioperative period which highlights the necessity to assess the quality of care and impacts of dental extraction surgery.

  2. Evaluation of temporal bone pneumatization on high resolution CT (HRCT) measurements of the temporal bone in normal and otitis media group and their correlation to measurements of internal auditory meatus, vestibular or cochlear aqueduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Miyako

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT axial scans were made at the three levels of the temoral bone 91 cases. These cases consisted of 109 sides of normal pneumatization (NR group) and 73 of poor pneumatization resulted by chronic otitis (OM group). NR group included sensorineural hearing loss cases and/or sudden deafness on the side. Three levels of continuous slicing were chosen at the internal auditory meatus, the vestibular and the cochlear aqueduct, respectively. In each slice two sagittal and two horizontal measurements were done on the outer contour of the temporal bone. At the proper level, diameter as well as length of the internal acoustic meatus, the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct were measured. Measurements of the temporal bone showed statistically significant difference between NR and OM groups. Correlation of both diameter and length of the internal auditory meatus to the temporal bone measurements were statistically significant. Neither of measurements on the vestibular or the cochlear aqueduct showed any significant correlation to that of the temporal bone. (author)

  3. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  4. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise; Blackham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  5. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Wisconsin Gait Scale in hemiparetic post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.

  6. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12: factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Sayed

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12 as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. Methods A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Results: In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female. The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4 and 10.2 (SD = 4.4 years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS and the Mental Component Summary (MCS; Cronbach's α for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P Conclusion In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for this alternative form of the SF-36 Health Survey in Iran.

  7. Internal representations of temporal statistics and feedback calibrate motor-sensory interval timing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Acerbi

    Full Text Available Humans have been shown to adapt to the temporal statistics of timing tasks so as to optimize the accuracy of their responses, in agreement with the predictions of Bayesian integration. This suggests that they build an internal representation of both the experimentally imposed distribution of time intervals (the prior and of the error (the loss function. The responses of a Bayesian ideal observer depend crucially on these internal representations, which have only been previously studied for simple distributions. To study the nature of these representations we asked subjects to reproduce time intervals drawn from underlying temporal distributions of varying complexity, from uniform to highly skewed or bimodal while also varying the error mapping that determined the performance feedback. Interval reproduction times were affected by both the distribution and feedback, in good agreement with a performance-optimizing Bayesian observer and actor model. Bayesian model comparison highlighted that subjects were integrating the provided feedback and represented the experimental distribution with a smoothed approximation. A nonparametric reconstruction of the subjective priors from the data shows that they are generally in agreement with the true distributions up to third-order moments, but with systematically heavier tails. In particular, higher-order statistical features (kurtosis, multimodality seem much harder to acquire. Our findings suggest that humans have only minor constraints on learning lower-order statistical properties of unimodal (including peaked and skewed distributions of time intervals under the guidance of corrective feedback, and that their behavior is well explained by Bayesian decision theory.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of the International Merger and Acquisition Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, Marco; Mastrandrea, Rossana; Barigozzi, Matteo; Fagiolo, Giorgio

    2017-09-07

    This paper analyses the world web of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) using a complex network approach. We use data of M&As to build a temporal sequence of binary and weighted-directed networks for the period 1995-2010 and 224 countries (nodes) connected according to their M&As flows (links). We study different geographical and temporal aspects of the international M&A network (IMAN), building sequences of filtered sub-networks whose links belong to specific intervals of distance or time. Given that M&As and trade are complementary ways of reaching foreign markets, we perform our analysis using statistics employed for the study of the international trade network (ITN), highlighting the similarities and differences between the ITN and the IMAN. In contrast to the ITN, the IMAN is a low density network characterized by a persistent giant component with many external nodes and low reciprocity. Clustering patterns are very heterogeneous and dynamic. High-income economies are the main acquirers and are characterized by high connectivity, implying that most countries are targets of a few acquirers. Like in the ITN, geographical distance strongly impacts the structure of the IMAN: link-weights and node degrees have a non-linear relation with distance, and an assortative pattern is present at short distances.

  9. International standards for monoclonal antibodies to support pre- and post-marketing product consistency: Evaluation of a candidate international standard for the bioactivities of rituximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Sandra; Hufton, Simon E; Fox, Bernard; Dougall, Thomas; Rigsby, Peter; Bristow, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The intrinsic complexity and heterogeneity of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is built into the biosimilarity paradigm where critical quality attributes are controlled in exhaustive comparability studies with the reference medicinal product. The long-term success of biosimilars will depend on reassuring healthcare professionals and patients of consistent product quality, safety and efficacy. With this aim, the World Health Organization has endorsed the need for public bioactivity standards for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in support of current controls. We have developed a candidate international potency standard for rituximab that was evaluated in a multi-center collaborative study using participants' own qualified Fc-effector function and cell-based binding bioassays. Dose-response curve model parameters were shown to reflect similar behavior amongst rituximab preparations, albeit with some differences in potency. In the absence of a common reference standard, potency estimates were in poor agreement amongst laboratories, but the use of the candidate preparation significantly reduced this variability. Our results suggest that the candidate rituximab standard can support bioassay performance and improve data harmonization, which when implemented will promote consistency of rituximab products over their life-cycles. This data provides the first scientific evidence that a classical standardization exercise allowing traceability of bioassay data to an international standard is also applicable to rituximab. However, we submit that this new type of international standard needs to be used appropriately and its role not to be mistaken with that of the reference medicinal product.

  10. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  11. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China's international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyan Liu

    Full Text Available Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China's exports and net exports during 2002-2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade.

  12. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleanu, Ioana Sorina

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003-2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford's law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford's law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford's law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community's pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda.

  13. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford's Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Deleanu

    Full Text Available Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003-2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford's law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford's law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford's law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community's pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda.

  14. The Iranian version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12): factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazeri, Ali; Vahdaninia, Mariam; Mousavi, Sayed Javad; Omidvari, Speideh

    2009-09-16

    The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) as a shorter alternative of the SF-36 is largely used in health outcomes surveys. The aim of this study was to validate the SF-12 in Iran. A random sample of the general population aged 15 years and over living in Tehran, Iran completed the SF-12. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed using known groups comparison and convergent validity. In addition, the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In all, 5587 individuals were studied (2721 male and 2866 female). The mean age and formal education of the respondents were 35.1 (SD = 15.4) and 10.2 (SD = 4.4) years respectively. The results showed satisfactory internal consistency for both summary measures, that are the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS); Cronbach's alpha for PCS-12 and MCS-12 was 0.73 and 0.72, respectively. Known-groups comparison showed that the SF-12 discriminated well between men and women and those who differed in age and educational status (P < 0.001). In addition, correlations between the SF-12 scales and single items showed that the physical functioning, role physical, bodily pain and general health subscales correlated higher with the PCS-12 score, while the vitality, social functioning, role emotional and mental health subscales more correlated with the MCS-12 score lending support to its good convergent validity. Finally the principal component analysis indicated a two-factor structure (physical and mental health) that jointly accounted for 57.8% of the variance. The confirmatory factory analysis also indicated a good fit to the data for the two-latent structure (physical and mental health). In general the findings suggest that the SF-12 is a reliable and valid measure of health related quality of life among Iranian population. However, further studies are needed to

  15. Time series pCO2 at a coastal mooring: Internal consistency, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Xue, Liang; Vargas, Rodrigo; Noakes, Scott; Hu, Xinping; Signorini, Sergio R.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Feely, Richard A.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Sabine, Christopher; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Chen, Baoshan; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-08-01

    Marine carbonate system monitoring programs often consist of multiple observational methods that include underway cruise data, moored autonomous time series, and discrete water bottle samples. Monitored parameters include all, or some of the following: partial pressure of CO2 of the water (pCO2w) and air, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH. Any combination of at least two of the aforementioned parameters can be used to calculate the others. In this study at the Gray's Reef (GR) mooring in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) we: examine the internal consistency of pCO2w from underway cruise, moored autonomous time series, and calculated from bottle samples (DIC-TA pairing); describe the seasonal to interannual pCO2w time series variability and air-sea flux (FCO2), as well as describe the potential sources of pCO2w variability; and determine the source/sink for atmospheric pCO2. Over the 8.5 years of GR mooring time series, mooring-underway and mooring-bottle calculated-pCO2w strongly correlate with r-values > 0.90. pCO2w and FCO2 time series follow seasonal thermal patterns; however, seasonal non-thermal processes, such as terrestrial export, net biological production, and air-sea exchange also influence variability. The linear slope of time series pCO2w increases by 5.2 ± 1.4 μatm y-1 with FCO2 increasing 51-70 mmol m-2 y-1. The net FCO2 sign can switch interannually with the magnitude varying greatly. Non-thermal pCO2w is also increasing over the time series, likely indicating that terrestrial export and net biological processes drive the long term pCO2w increase.

  16. Evaluating the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of hospital anxiety and depression scale in Iranian infertile patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Amini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS is a common screening tool designed to measure the level of anxiety and depression in different factor structures and has been extensively used in non-psychiatric populations and individuals experiencing fertility problems. Objective: The aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure, item analyses, and internal consistency of HADS in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 651 infertile patients (248 men and 403 women referred to a referral infertility Center in Tehran, Iran between January 2014 and January 2015. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the underlying factor structure of the HADS among one, two, and threefactor models. Several goodness of fit indices were utilized such as comparative, normed and goodness of fit indices, Akaike information criterion, and the root mean squared error of approximation. In addition to HADS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaires as well as demographic and clinical information were administered to all patients. Results: The goodness of fit indices through CFAs exposed that three and onefactor model provided the best and worst fit to the total, male and female datasets compared to the other factor structure models for the infertile patients. The Cronbach’s alpha for anxiety and depression subscales were 0.866 and 0.753 respectively. The HADS subscales significantly correlated with SWLS, indicating an acceptable convergent validity. Conclusion: The HADS was found to be a three-factor structure screening instrument in the field of infertility.

  17. Thermodynamic consistency of viscoplastic material models involving external variable rates in the evolution equations for the internal variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmberg, T.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study is to derive and investigate thermodynamic restrictions for a particular class of internal variable models. Their evolution equations consist of two contributions: the usual irreversible part, depending only on the present state, and a reversible but path dependent part, linear in the rates of the external variables (evolution equations of ''mixed type''). In the first instance the thermodynamic analysis is based on the classical Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality and the Coleman-Noll argument. The analysis is restricted to infinitesimal strains and rotations. The results are specialized and transferred to a general class of elastic-viscoplastic material models. Subsequently, they are applied to several viscoplastic models of ''mixed type'', proposed or discussed in the literature (Robinson et al., Krempl et al., Freed et al.), and it is shown that some of these models are thermodynamically inconsistent. The study is closed with the evaluation of the extended Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality (concept of Mueller) where the entropy flux is governed by an assumed constitutive equation in its own right; also the constraining balance equations are explicitly accounted for by the method of Lagrange multipliers (Liu's approach). This analysis is done for a viscoplastic material model with evolution equations of the ''mixed type''. It is shown that this approach is much more involved than the evaluation of the classical Clausius-Duhem entropy inequality with the Coleman-Noll argument. (orig.) [de

  18. The Brazilian version of the Constant-Murley Score (CMS-BR): convergent and construct validity, internal consistency, and unidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Rodrigo Py Gonçalves; Barbosa, Marcus Levi Lopes; Balbinotti, Marcos Alencar Abaide; Mothes, Fernando Carlos; da Rosa, Luís Henrique Telles; Silva, Marcelo Faria

    2016-01-01

    To translate and culturally adapt the CMS and assess the validity of the Brazilian version (CMS-BR). The translation was carried out according to the back-translation method by four independent translators. The produced versions were synthesized through extensive analysis and by consensus of an expert committee, reaching a final version used for the cultural adaptation. A field test was conducted with 30 subjects in order to obtain semantic considerations. For the psychometric analyzes, the sample was increased to 110 participants who answered two instruments: CMS-BR and the Disabilities of the Arm, shoulder and Hand (DASH). The CMS-BR and DASH score range from 0 to 100 points. For the first, higher points reflect better function and for the latter, the inverse is true. The validity was verified by Pearson's correlation test, the unidimensionality by factorial analysis, and the internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha. The explained variance was 60.28% with factor loadings ranging from 0.60 to 0.91. The CMS-BR exhibited strong negative correlation with the DASH score (-0.82, p  CMS was satisfactorily adapted for Brazilian Portuguese and demonstrated evidence of validity that allows its use in this population.

  19. An internally consistent pressure calibration of geobarometers applicable to the Earth’s upper mantle using in situ XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, Christopher; Rosenthal, Anja; Myhill, Robert; Crichton, Wilson A.; Yu, Tony; Wang, Yanbin; Frost, Daniel J.

    2018-02-01

    We have performed an experimental cross calibration of a suite of mineral equilibria within mantle rock bulk compositions that are commonly used in geobarometry to determine the equilibration depths of upper mantle assemblages. Multiple barometers were compared simultaneously in experimental runs, where the pressure was determined using in-situ measurements of the unit cell volumes of MgO, NaCl, Re and h-BN between 3.6 and 10.4 GPa, and 1250 and 1500 °C. The experiments were performed in a large volume press (LVPs) in combination with synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Noble metal capsules drilled with multiple sample chambers were loaded with a range of bulk compositions representative of peridotite, eclogite and pyroxenite lithologies. By this approach, we simultaneously calibrated the geobarometers applicable to different mantle lithologies under identical and well determined pressure and temperature conditions. We identified discrepancies between the calculated and experimental pressures for which we propose simple linear or constant correction factors to some of the previously published barometric equations. As a result, we establish internally-consistent cross-calibrations for a number of garnet-orthopyroxene, garnet-clinopyroxene, Ca-Tschermaks-in-clinopyroxene and majorite geobarometers.

  20. An Adapted Measure of Sibling Attachment: Factor Structure and Internal Consistency of the Sibling Attachment Inventory in Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Valerie A; Francis, Sarah E; Tilley, Micah A

    2018-04-01

    Parent-youth and peer relationship inventories based on attachment theory measure communication, trust, and alienation, yet sibling relationships have been overlooked. We developed the Sibling Attachment Inventory and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 172 youth ages 10-14 years. We adapted the 25-item Sibling Attachment Inventory from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised peer measure. Items loaded onto three factors, identified as communication, trust, and alienation, α = 0.93, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively. Sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression (r s  = -0.33, r s  = 0.48) and self-worth (r s  = 0.23; r s  = -0.32); sibling trust and alienation correlated with depression after controlling for parent trust and parent alienation (r s  = -0.23, r s  = 0.22). Preliminary analyses showed good internal consistency, construct validity, and incremental predictive validity. Following replication of these properties, this measure can facilitate large cohort assessments of sibling attachment.

  1. Validity and internal consistency of a Hausa version of the Ibadan knee/hip osteoarthritis outcome measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinpelu Aderonke O

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ibadan Knee/Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Measure (IKHOAM was developed for measuring end results of care in patients with knee or hip OA in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to validate a Hausa translation of IKHOAM in order to promote its use among the Hausa populations of Nigeria and other West African countries. Methods Sixty-seven patients with knee OA, literate in Hausa and English, recruited consecutively from all government hospitals in Kano were assessed on both English and Hausa versions of IKHOAM. The order of assessment with the versions was randomized and separated by 24 hours. Participants also rated their pain intensity on the Visual Analogue Scale. Data was analyzed using the Spearman Rank Order correlation and Cronbach's alpha. Results The participants (17 males, 50 females were aged 55.7 ± 13.4 years. Participants' scores on the Hausa version correlated significantly with the original version (r = 0.67, p = 0.000 and with pain intensity scores on the Visual Analogue Scale (r = -0.24, p = 0.005. The Cronbach's alpha for correlation on the different parts of the Hausa version ranged between 0.28 and 0.95. Conclusion The Hausa version of IKHOAM meets the criteria for validity and internal consistency and may be used in the Hausa speaking parts of Nigeria and other West African countries.

  2. Internally consistent thermodynamic data for aqueous species in the system Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-Cl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, George D.; Wagner, Thomas; Kulik, Dmitrii A.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of critically evaluated experimental data on mineral solubility, covering the entire Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-Cl system over wide ranges in temperature and pressure, was used to simultaneously refine the standard state Gibbs energies of aqueous ions and complexes in the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state. The thermodynamic properties of the solubility-controlling minerals were adopted from the internally consistent dataset of Holland and Powell (2002; Thermocalc dataset ds55). The global optimization of Gibbs energies of aqueous species, performed with the GEMSFITS code (Miron et al., 2015), was set up in such a way that the association equilibria for ion pairs and complexes, independently derived from conductance and potentiometric data, are always maintained. This was achieved by introducing reaction constraints into the parameter optimization that adjust Gibbs energies of complexes by their respective Gibbs energy effects of reaction, whenever the Gibbs energies of reactant species (ions) are changed. The optimized thermodynamic dataset is reported with confidence intervals for all parameters evaluated by Monte Carlo trial calculations. The new thermodynamic dataset is shown to reproduce all available fluid-mineral phase equilibria and mineral solubility data with good accuracy and precision over wide ranges in temperature (25-800 °C), pressure (1 bar to 5 kbar) and composition (salt concentrations up to 5 molal). The global data optimization process adopted in this study can be readily repeated any time when extensions to new chemical elements and species are needed, when new experimental data become available, or when a different aqueous activity model or equation of state should be used. This work serves as a proof of concept that our optimization strategy is feasible and successful in generating a thermodynamic dataset reproducing all fluid-mineral and aqueous speciation equilibria in the Na-K-Al-Si-O-H-Cl system within

  3. Zombie projects, negative networks, and multigenerational science: The temporality of the International Map of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, William

    2017-06-01

    The International Map of the World was a hugely ambitious scheme to create standardized maps of the entire world. It was first proposed in 1891 and remained a going concern until 1986. Over the course of the project's official life, nearly every country in the world took part, and map sheets were published showing all but a few areas of the planet. But the project ended quite unceremoniously, repudiated by cartographers and mapping institutions alike, and it is now remembered as a 'sad story' of network failure. How can we evaluate this kind of sprawling, multigenerational project? In order to move beyond practitioners' (and historians') habit of summarizing the entire endeavor using the blunt categories of success and failure, I propose a more temporally aware reading, one that both disaggregates the (persistent) project from the (always changing) network and sees project and network as invertible, with the possibility of zombie projects and negative networks that can remain robust even when disconnected from their original goals. I therefore see the abandonment of the International Map of the World as resulting from vigorous collaboration and new norms in cartography, not from lack of cooperation or other resources. New categories are required for analyzing science over the long durée.

  4. Changes in dietary habits following temporal migration. The case of international students in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cueto, Federico; Verbeke, Wim; Lachat, Carl; Remaut-De Winter, Anne Marie

    2009-02-01

    This paper reports findings from a cross-sectional survey carried out in April-May 2006 among international students enrolled at Ghent University in Belgium. The aim of the study was to assess their knowledge and attitudes related to nutrition, perceived changes in dietary habits, perceived barriers to healthy eating and the determinants of dietary changes since their arrival in Belgium. In total, 235 students from 60 countries participated. Following the reported dietary changes, which were factor-analyzed into "less energy-dense" foods, "more fruits and vegetables" and "less processed" foods, three clusters could be identified. Cluster 1 composed of students who increased their fruits, vegetables and fiber intake. Cluster 2, the largest, reported dietary changes overall and in particular towards less processed foods. Cluster 3 composed of students who changed in the main towards less energy-dense foods. Gender differences were observed in healthy dietary changes, particularly in males. Healthier choices were hindered by a perceived unavailability of healthy food products. Gender and availability of healthy foods should be taken into consideration when informing temporal migration populations, such as international students in this study, about the healthy food options available during their stay in a different cultural, food and dietary environment.

  5. Spatial-temporal consistency between gross primary productivity and solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of vegetation in China during 2007-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J.; Xiao, X.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, B.; Zhao, B.

    2017-12-01

    Great significance exists in accurately estimating spatial-temporal patterns of gross primary production (GPP) because of its important role in global carbon cycle. Satellite-based light use efficiency (LUE) models are regarded as an efficient tool in simulating spatially time-sires GPP. However, the estimation of the accuracy of GPP simulations from LUE at both spatial and temporal scales is still a challenging work. In this study, we simulated GPP of vegetation in China during 2007-2014 using a LUE model (Vegetation Photosynthesis Model, VPM) based on MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) images of 8-day temporal and 500-m spatial resolutions and NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) climate data. Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data were used to compare with VPM simulated GPP (GPPVPM) temporally and spatially using linear correlation analysis. Significant positive linear correlations exist between monthly GPPVPM and SIF data over both single year (2010) and multiple years (2007-2014) in China. Annual GPPVPM is significantly positive correlated with SIF (R2>0.43) spatially for all years during 2007-2014 and all seasons in 2010 (R2>0.37). GPP dynamic trends is high spatial-temporal heterogeneous in China during 2007-2014. The results of this study indicate that GPPVPM is temporally and spatially in line with SIF data, and space-borne SIF data have great potential in validating and parameterizing GPP estimation of LUE-based models.

  6. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chahoud

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  7. Automatic and consistent registration framework for temporal pairs of mammograms in application to breast cancer risk assessment due to hormone replacement therapy (HRT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Carreras, I. Arganda; Nielsen, Mads

    2009-01-01

     Purpose: Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. However, whether changes in mammographic density due to HRT are associated with risk remains unclear. The aim of this study is to provide a framework for accurate interval change analysis in temporal pairs of mammograms of ...

  8. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively

  9. Internal consistency and construct validity of the Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) proxy – a secondary data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylla, Jonas; Schwab, Christian G G; Isfort, Michael; Halek, Margareta; Dichter, Martin N

    2016-07-01

    Background: The maintenance and promotion of Quality of Life (QoL) of people with dementia is a major outcome in intervention studies and health care. The Quality of Life Alzheimer's Disease (QoL-AD) is an internationally recommended QoL measurement also available in German language. Until now, only a few results on the psychometric properties of the German QoL-AD were available. Objective: Evaluation of internal consistency and construct validity of the QoL-AD proxy. Method: A principal component analysis (secondary data analysis) of the 13 QoL-AD items was carried out based on the total sample of 234 people with dementia from nine nursing homes in Germany. Subsequently, the internal consistency of the identified factors was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Results: Two factors physical and mental health and social network were determined. Both factors explain 53 % of the total variance. The stability of both factors was validated in two sensitivity analyses. The internal consistency is good for both factors with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 (physical and mental health) and 0.75 (social network). Conclusion: The QoL-AD proxy allows the assessment of two relevant health-related QoL domains of people with dementia. However, in future studies especially the inter-rater reliability of the QoL-AD proxy has to be examined.

  10. HEMI-TEMPORAL INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING IS AS EFFECTIVE AND SAFE AS CONVENTIONAL FULL PEELING FOR MACULAR HOLE SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Akira; Kogo, Jiro; Sasaki, Hiroki; Yomoda, Ryo; Jujo, Tatsuya; Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2018-05-09

    To investigate the efficacy of hemi-temporal internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling for idiopathic macular hole. The medical records of patients with macular holes who had undergone vitrectomy with ILM peeling were studied. Forty-two eyes with macular hole were divided into 2 groups based on surgical procedure (hemi-temporal ILM peeling [hemi group]: 15 eyes; 360° ILM peeling [360° group]: 27 eyes). The closure rates and distances between the optic disc and the intersection of two retinal vessels most closely located nasally or temporally to the macular hole were compared. The primary closure rates were not significantly different between the two groups (hemi group: 93.3%; 360° group: 92.5%, P = 0.92). The temporal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced 120.5 ± 102.0 µm toward the optic disc at 1 week postoperatively, which did not differ significantly from the 360° group (136.1 ± 106.1 µm) (P = 0.107). However, the nasal retinal vessels in the hemi group were displaced by 42.4 ± 42.9 µm at 1 week postoperatively, which was significantly less than the 90.1 ± 77.3 µm displacement seen in the 360° group (P = 0.040). Hemi-temporal ILM peeling may be preferable to 360° ILM peeling because of less displacement of the retina and greater safety.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  11. Evidence for the Psychometric Validity, Internal Consistency and Measurement Invariance of Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale Scores in Scottish and Irish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Michael T; Andretta, James R

    2017-09-01

    Mental well-being is an important indicator of current, but also the future health of adolescents. The 14-item Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) has been well validated in adults world-wide, but less work has been undertaken to examine the psychometric validity and internal consistency of WEMWBS scores in adolescents. In particular, little research has examined scores on the short 7-item version of the WEMWBS. The present study used two large samples of school children in Scotland and Northern Ireland and found that for both forms of the WEMWBS, scores were psychometrically valid, internally consistent, factor saturated, and measurement invariant by country. Using the WEMWBS full form, males reported significantly higher scores than females, and Northern Irish adolescents reported significantly higher scores than their Scottish counterparts. Last, the lowest overall levels of well-being were observed among Scottish females. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Test-Retest Reliability, Convergent Validity, and Internal Consistency of the Persian Version of Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale in Iranian Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Sabet; Akram Azad; Ghorban Taghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate convergent validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Persian translation of the Fullerton advanced balance (FAB) for use in Iranian community- dwelling older adults and improve the quality of their functional balance assessment. Methods & Materials: The original scale was translated with forward-backward protocol. In the next step, using convenience sampling and inclusion criteria, 88 functionally indep...

  13. Happiness as stable extraversion : internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire among undergraduate students\\ud \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Edwards, Bethan

    2010-01-01

    The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was developed by Hills and Argyle (2002) to provide a more accessible equivalent measure of the Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The aim of the present study was to examine the internal consistency reliability, and construct validity of this new instrument alongside the Eysenckian dimensional model of personality. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was completed by a sample of 131 undergraduate students together with the abbreviated form of the Revise...

  14. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, M; Chahine, R; Salameh, P; Sauleau, E A

    2017-06-01

    Our goal is to validate and to verify the reliability of the French and English versions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in Lebanese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was implemented. 104 Lebanese students aged between 14 and 19 years participated in the study. The English version of the questionnaire was distributed to English-speaking students and the French version was administered to French-speaking students. A scale (1 to 7 with 1 = very well understood and 7 = not at all) was used to identify the level of the students' understanding of each instruction, question and answer of the ISI. The scale's structural validity was assessed. The factor structure of ISI was evaluated by principal component analysis. The internal consistency of this scale was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. To assess test-retest reliability the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used. The principal component analysis confirmed the presence of a two-component factor structure in the English version and a three-component factor structure in the French version with eigenvalues > 1. The English version of the ISI had an excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90), while the French version had a good internal consistency (α = 0.70). The ICC presented an excellent agreement in the French version (ICC = 0.914, CI = 0.856-0.949) and a good agreement in the English one (ICC = 0.762, CI = 0.481-890). The Bland-Altman plots of the two versions of the ISI showed that the responses over two weeks' were comparable and very few outliers were detected. The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  15. Psychometric analyses and internal consistency of the PHEEM questionnaire to measure the clinical learning environment in the clerkship of a Medical School in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Arnoldo; Herrera, Cristian; Aranis, Carolina; Oporto, Jorge; Padilla, Oslando

    2009-06-01

    The Spanish version of the Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) was evaluated in this study to determine its psychometric properties, validity and internal consistency to measure the clinical learning environment in the hospital setting of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Medical School's Internship. The 40-item PHEEM questionnaire was translated from English to Spanish and retranslated to English. Content validity was tested by a focus group and minor differences in meaning were adjusted. The PHEEM was administered to clerks in years 6 and 7. Construct validity was carried out using exploratory factor analysis followed by a Varimax rotation. Internal consistency was measured using Cronbach's alpha. A total of 125 out of 220 students responded to the PHEEM. The overall response rate was 56.8% and compliances with each item ranged from 99.2% to 100%. Analyses indicate that five factors instrument accounting for 58% of the variance and internal consistency of the 40-item questionnaire is 0.955 (Cronbach's alpha). The 40-item questionnaire had a mean score of 98.21 +/- 21.2 (maximum score of 160). The Spanish version of PHEEM is a multidimensional, valid and highly reliable instrument measuring the educational environment among undergraduate medical students working in hospital-based clerkships.

  16. The three α1-adrenoceptor subtypes show different spatio-temporal mechanisms of internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Aso, M; Segura, V; Montó, F; Barettino, D; Noguera, M A; Milligan, G; D'Ocon, P

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the kinetic and spatial patterns characterizing activation of the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by the three α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) subtypes in HEK293 cells and the contribution of two different pathways to ERK1/2 phosphorylation: protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK1/2 activation and internalization-dependent ERK1/2 activation. The different pathways of phenylephrine induced ERK phosphorylation were determined by western blot, using the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8425, the receptor internalization inhibitor concanavalin A and the siRNA targeting β-arrestin 2. Receptor internalization properties were studied using CypHer5 technology and VSV-G epitope-tagged receptors. Activation of α1A- and α1B-ARs by phenylephrine elicited rapid ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was directed to the nucleus and inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Concomitant with phenylephrine induced receptor internalization α1A-AR, but not α1B-AR, produced a maintained and PKC-independent ERK phosphorylation, which was restricted to the cytosol and inhibited by β-arrestin 2 knockdown or concanavalin A treatment. α1D-AR displayed constitutive ERK phosphorylation, which was reduced by incubation with prazosin or the selective α1D antagonist BMY7378. Following activation by phenylephrine, α1D-AR elicited rapid, transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was restricted to the cytosol and not inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Internalization of the α1D-AR subtype was not observed via CypHer5 technology. The three α1-AR subtypes present different spatio-temporal patterns of receptor internalization, and only α1A-AR stimulation translates to a late, sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation that is restricted to the cytosol and dependent on β-arrestin 2 mediated internalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Internal consistency and content validity of a questionnaire aimed to assess the stages of behavioral lifestyle changes in Colombian schoolchildren: The Fuprecol study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmira CARRILLO-BERNATE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess internal consistency and content validity of a questionnaire aimed to assess the stages of Behavioural Lifestyle Changes in a sample of school-aged children and adolescents aged 9 to 17 years-old. Methods This validation study involved 675 schoolchildren from three official school in the city of Bogota, Colombia. A self-administered questionnaire called Behavioural Lifestyle Changes has been designed to explore stages of change regarding to physical activity/exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol abuse, tobacco use, and drug abuse. Cronbach-α, Kappa index and exploratory factor analysis were used for evaluating the internal consistency and validity of content, respectively. Results The study population consisted of 51.1% males and the participants’ average age was 12.7±2.4 years-old. Behavioural Lifestyle Changes scored 0.720 (range 0.691 to 0.730 on the Cronbach α and intra-observer reproducibility was good (Kappa=0.71. Exploratory factor analysis determined two factors (factor 1: physical activity/exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, and factor 2: alcohol abuse tobacco use and drug abuse, explaining 67.78% of variance by the items and six interactions χ2/gL=11649.833; p<0.001. Conclusion Behavioural Lifestyle Changes Questionnaire was seen to have suitable internal consistency and validity. This instrument can be recommended, mainly within the context of primary attention for studying the stages involved in the lifestyle behavioural changes model on a school-based population.

  18. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul

    2001-01-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  19. Nerve canals at the fundus of the internal auditory canal on high-resolution temporal bone CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yoon Ha; Youn, Eun Kyung; Kim, Seung Chul [Sungkyunkwan Univ., School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To identify and evaluate the normal anatomy of nerve canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal which can be visualized on high-resolution temporal bone CT. We retrospectively reviewed high-resolution (1 mm thickness and interval contiguous scan) temporal bone CT images of 253 ears in 150 patients who had not suffered trauma or undergone surgery. Those with a history of uncomplicated inflammatory disease were included, but those with symptoms of vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, or facial nerve palsy were excluded. Three radiologists determined the detectability and location of canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial, superior vestibular and cochlear nerve, and the saccular branch and posterior ampullary nerve of the inferior vestibular nerve. Five bony canals in the fundus of the internal auditory canal were identified as nerve canals. Four canals were identified on axial CT images in 100% of cases; the so-called singular canal was identified in only 68%. On coronal CT images, canals for the labyrinthine segment of the facial and superior vestibular nerve were seen in 100% of cases, but those for the cochlear nerve, the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve, and the singular canal were seen in 90.1%, 87.4% and 78% of cases, respectiveIy. In all detectable cases, the canal for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve was revealed as one which traversed anterolateralIy, from the anterosuperior portion of the fundus of the internal auditory canal. The canal for the cochlear nerve was located just below that for the labyrinthine segment of the facial nerve, while that canal for the superior vestibular nerve was seen at the posterior aspect of these two canals. The canal for the saccular branch of the inferior vestibular nerve was located just below the canal for the superior vestibular nerve, and that for the posterior ampullary nerve, the so-called singular canal, ran laterally or posteolateralIy from the posteroinferior aspect of

  20. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Profile Fitness Mapping Neck Questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese: Internal Consistency, Reliability, and Construct and Structural Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Mariana Cândido; Björklund, Martin; Dach, Fabiola; Chaves, Thais Cristina

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and evaluate the psychometric properties of the ProFitMap-neck to Brazilian Portuguese. The cross-cultural adaptation consisted of 5 stages, and 180 female patients with chronic neck pain participated in the study. A subsample (n = 30) answered the pretest, and another subsample (n = 100) answered the questionnaire a second time. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity (hypothesis testing and structural validity) were estimated. For construct validity, the scores of the questionnaire were correlated with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency was determined by adequate Cronbach's α values (α > 0.70). Strong reliability was identified by high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC > 0.75). Construct validity was identified by moderate and strong correlations of the Br-ProFitMap-neck with total NDI score (-0.56 50%, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index > 0.50, eigenvalue > 1, and factor loadings > 0.2. Br-ProFitMap-neck had adequate psychometric properties and can be used in clinical settings, as well as research, in patients with chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Internal cycling, not external loading, decides the nutrient limitation in eutrophic lake: A dynamic model with temporal Bayesian hierarchical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen; Liu, Yong; Liang, Zhongyao; Wu, Sifeng; Guo, Huaicheng

    2017-06-01

    Lake eutrophication is associated with excessive anthropogenic nutrients (mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) and unobserved internal nutrient cycling. Despite the advances in understanding the role of external loadings, the contribution of internal nutrient cycling is still an open question. A dynamic mass-balance model was developed to simulate and measure the contributions of internal cycling and external loading. It was based on the temporal Bayesian Hierarchical Framework (BHM), where we explored the seasonal patterns in the dynamics of nutrient cycling processes and the limitation of N and P on phytoplankton growth in hyper-eutrophic Lake Dianchi, China. The dynamic patterns of the five state variables (Chla, TP, ammonia, nitrate and organic N) were simulated based on the model. Five parameters (algae growth rate, sediment exchange rate of N and P, nitrification rate and denitrification rate) were estimated based on BHM. The model provided a good fit to observations. Our model results highlighted the role of internal cycling of N and P in Lake Dianchi. The internal cycling processes contributed more than external loading to the N and P changes in the water column. Further insights into the nutrient limitation analysis indicated that the sediment exchange of P determined the P limitation. Allowing for the contribution of denitrification to N removal, N was the more limiting nutrient in most of the time, however, P was the more important nutrient for eutrophication management. For Lake Dianchi, it would not be possible to recover solely by reducing the external watershed nutrient load; the mechanisms of internal cycling should also be considered as an approach to inhibit the release of sediments and to enhance denitrification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal and spatial patterns of internal phosphorus recycling in a South Florida (USA) stormwater treatment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large constructed wetlands, known as stormwater treatment areas (STAs), have been deployed to remove phosphorus (P) in drainage waters before discharge into the Everglades in South Florida, USA. Their P removal performance depends on internal P cycling under typically hydrated, b...

  3. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  4. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  5. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  6. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN): study of the items and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2009-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named ' Inventário de Fobia Social' . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.

  7. A dynamic Thurstonian item response theory of motive expression in the picture story exercise: solving the internal consistency paradox of the PSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Jonas W B

    2014-07-01

    The measurement of implicit or unconscious motives using the picture story exercise (PSE) has long been a target of debate in the psychological literature. Most debates have centered on the apparent paradox that PSE measures of implicit motives typically show low internal consistency reliability on common indices like Cronbach's alpha but nevertheless predict behavioral outcomes. I describe a dynamic Thurstonian item response theory (IRT) model that builds on dynamic system theories of motivation, theorizing on the PSE response process, and recent advancements in Thurstonian IRT modeling of choice data. To assess the models' capability to explain the internal consistency paradox, I first fitted the model to archival data (Gurin, Veroff, & Feld, 1957) and then simulated data based on bias-corrected model estimates from the real data. Simulation results revealed that the average squared correlation reliability for the motives in the Thurstonian IRT model was .74 and that Cronbach's alpha values were similar to the real data (value of extant evidence from motivational research using PSE motive measures. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. GHGs and air pollutants embodied in China’s international trade: Temporal and spatial index decomposition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengyan; Mao, Xianqiang; Song, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Temporal index decomposition analysis and spatial index decomposition analysis were applied to understand the driving forces of the emissions embodied in China’s exports and net exports during 2002–2011, respectively. The accumulated emissions embodied in exports accounted for approximately 30% of the total emissions in China; although the contribution of the sectoral total emissions intensity (technique effect) declined, the scale effect was largely responsible for the mounting emissions associated with export, and the composition effect played a largely insignificant role. Calculations of the emissions embodied in net exports suggest that China is generally in an environmentally inferior position compared with its major trade partners. The differences in the economy-wide emission intensities between China and its major trade partners were the biggest contribution to this reality, and the trade balance effect played a less important role. However, a lower degree of specialization in pollution intensive products in exports than in imports helped to reduce slightly the emissions embodied in net exports. The temporal index decomposition analysis results suggest that China should take effective measures to optimize export and supply-side structure and reduce the total emissions intensity. According to spatial index decomposition analysis, it is suggested that a more aggressive import policy was useful for curbing domestic and global emissions, and the transfer of advanced production technologies and emission control technologies from developed to developing countries should be a compulsory global environmental policy option to mitigate the possible leakage of pollution emissions caused by international trade. PMID:28441399

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, internal consistency and validation of the Hand Function Sort (HFS©) for French speaking patients with upper limb complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konzelmann, M; Burrus, C; Hilfiker, R; Rivier, G; Deriaz, O; Luthi, F

    2015-03-01

    Functional evaluation of upper limb is not only based on clinical findings but requires self-administered questionnaires to address patients' perspective. The Hand Function Sort (HFS©) was only validated in English. The aim of this study was the French cross cultural adaptation and validation of the HFS© (HFS-F). 150 patients with various upper limbs impairments were recruited in a rehabilitation center. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation were made according to international guidelines. Construct validity was estimated through correlations with Disabilities Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, SF-36 mental component summary (MCS),SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) and pain intensity. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's α and test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation. Cronbach's α was 0.98, test-retest reliability was excellent at 0.921 (95 % CI 0.871-0.971) same as original HFS©. Correlations with DASH were-0.779 (95 % CI -0.847 to -0.685); with SF 36 PCS 0.452 (95 % CI 0.276-0.599); with pain -0.247 (95 % CI -0.429 to -0.041); with SF 36 MCS 0.242 (95 % CI 0.042-0.422). There were no floor or ceiling effects. The HFS-F has the same good psychometric properties as the original HFS© (internal consistency, test retest reliability, convergent validity with DASH, divergent validity with SF-36 MCS, and no floor or ceiling effects). The convergent validity with SF-36 PCS was poor; we found no correlation with pain. The HFS-F could be used with confidence in a population of working patients. Other studies are necessary to study its psychometric properties in other populations.

  10. Internal consistency of a Brazilian version of the unified Huntington's disease rating scale Consistência interna da versão brasileira da escala unificada para avaliação da doença da Huntington

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Tumas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the reliability of a translated Brazilian version of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS to establish the reproducibility of the scale in a population that differs substantially from that on which the scale was originally validated. After a training period with the video and guidelines requested from the Huntington Study Group, we applied the UHDRS, except for the cognitive tests, to a group of 21 Brazilian patients with a molecular diagnosis of Huntington's disease (HD. We found a high degree of internal consistency of the motor section of the UHDRS (Cronbach's alpha= 0.841. There was a negative correlation between the total motor score and the functional assessment, the independence scale and the functional capacity. There was a positive correlation between these 3 scales of functional evaluation and a negative correlation between the age of onset of the disease and the number of CAG repeats. The behavioral scale and disease duration were not correlated with any factor. The clinical characteristics of this sample of patients as described by the UHDRS were roughly similar to those reported in the original validation studies and the correlations described were similar to those reported previously. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the UHDRS is reliable and valid to study patients with HD in the Brazilian setting, that this sample of Brazilian patients had clinical characteristics similar to those observed in other world regions, as expected, and that the clinical training method used for the application of the UHDRS was effective to insure a high degree of clinical reproducibility.Nosso estudo avaliou a confiabilidade da versão brasileira da escala unificada para avaliação da doença de Huntington (UHDRS com o objetivo de estabelecer a reprodutibilidade dessa escala em uma população que difere significativamente daquela em que foi originalmente validada. Após um período de treinamento com um v

  11. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. Design We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Setting Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Main outcome measures Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. Results We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. Conclusions With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally

  12. The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Nosyk, Bohdan; Strathdee, Steffanie; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2013-09-30

    Illegal drug use continues to be a major threat to community health and safety. We used international drug surveillance databases to assess the relationship between multiple long-term estimates of illegal drug price and purity. We systematically searched for longitudinal measures of illegal drug supply indicators to assess the long-term impact of enforcement-based supply reduction interventions. Data from identified illegal drug surveillance systems were analysed using an a priori defined protocol in which we sought to present annual estimates beginning in 1990. Data were then subjected to trend analyses. Data were obtained from government surveillance systems assessing price, purity and/or seizure quantities of illegal drugs; systems with at least 10 years of longitudinal data assessing price, purity/potency or seizures were included. We identified seven regional/international metasurveillance systems with longitudinal measures of price or purity/potency that met eligibility criteria. In the USA, the average inflation-adjusted and purity-adjusted prices of heroin, cocaine and cannabis decreased by 81%, 80% and 86%, respectively, between 1990 and 2007, whereas average purity increased by 60%, 11% and 161%, respectively. Similar trends were observed in Europe, where during the same period the average inflation-adjusted price of opiates and cocaine decreased by 74% and 51%, respectively. In Australia, the average inflation-adjusted price of cocaine decreased 14%, while the inflation-adjusted price of heroin and cannabis both decreased 49% between 2000 and 2010. During this time, seizures of these drugs in major production regions and major domestic markets generally increased. With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally increased since 1990. These findings suggest that expanding efforts at

  13. Cultural competence in mental health nursing: validity and internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the multicultural mental health awareness scale-MMHAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Vieira Monteiro, Ana Paula Teixeira; Fernandes, Alexandre Bastos

    2016-05-17

    Cultural competence is an essential component in rendering effective and culturally responsive services to culturally and ethnically diverse clients. Still, great difficulty exists in assessing the cultural competence of mental health nurses. There are no Portuguese validated measurement instruments to assess cultural competence in mental health nurses. This paper reports a study testing the reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Multicultural Mental Health Awareness Scale-MMHAS in a sample of Portuguese nurses. Following a standard forward/backward translation into Portuguese, the adapted version of MMHAS, along with a sociodemographic questionnaire, were applied to a sample of 306 Portuguese nurses (299 males, 77 females; ages 21-68 years, M = 35.43, SD = 9.85 years). A psychometric research design was used with content and construct validity and reliability. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency and item-total correlations. Construct validity was determined using factor analysis. The factor analysis confirmed that the Portuguese version of MMHAS has a three-factor structure of multicultural competencies (Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills) explaining 59.51% of the total variance. Strong content validity and reliability correlations were demonstrated. The Portuguese version of MMHAS has a strong internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.958 for the total scale. The results supported the construct validity and reliability of the Portuguese version of MMHAS, proving that is a reliable and valid measure of multicultural counselling competencies in mental health nursing. The MMHAS Portuguese version can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of multicultural competency training programs in Portuguese-speaking mental health nurses. The scale can also be a useful in future studies of multicultural competencies in Portuguese-speaking nurses.

  14. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards aged sexuality: validity and internal consistency of the Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahieu, Lieslot; de Casterlé, Bernadette Dierckx; Van Elssen, Kim; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports a study testing the content and face validity and internal consistency of the Dutch version of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. The ability of older residents to sexually express themselves is known to be influenced by the knowledge and attitudes of nursing home staff towards later-life sexuality. Although the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale is a widely used instrument to measure this, there is no validated, Dutch translation available. Instrument development. Following a standard forward/backward translation into Dutch, the scale was further adapted for use in Flemish nursing home settings. Content and face validity and user-friendliness were assessed. The psychometric properties were determined by means of an exploratory study. Data were collected from March-April 2011 at eight Flemish nursing homes. Reliability was assessed using internal consistency and item-total correlations. Both subscales of the Flemish adaptation showed acceptable content validity. The face validity and user-friendliness were deemed favourable with hardly any remarks given by the expert panel. The Cronbach's α was 0.80 and 0.88 for the knowledge and attitude subscales, respectively. The item-total correlations ranged from 0.21-0.48 for the knowledge section and from 0.09-0.68 for the attitude subscale. We conclude from our study that the Dutch version of the scale has acceptable to good psychometric properties. The Flemish adaptation therefore seems to be a valuable instrument for studying nursing staff's knowledge and attitudes towards aged sexuality in Flanders. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  16. Modifications of imaging spectroscopy methods for increases spatial and temporal consistency: A case study of change in leafy spurge distribution between 1999 and 2001 in Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Kathleen Burke

    The noxious weed leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) has spread throughout the northern Great Plains of North America since it was introduced in the early 1800s, and it is currently a significant management concern. Accurate, rapid location and repeatable measurements are critical for successful temporal monitoring of infestations. Imaging spectroscopy is well suited for identification of spurge; however, the development and dissemination of standardized hyperspectral mapping procedures that produce consistent multi-temporal maps has been absent. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, collected in 1999 and 2001 over Theodore Roosevelt National Park, North Dakota, were used to locate leafy spurge. Published image-processing methods were tested to determine the most successful for consistent maps. Best results were obtained using: (1) NDVI masking; (2) cross-track illumination correction; (3) image-derived spectral libraries; and (4) mixture-tuned matched filtering algorithm. Application of the algorithm was modified to standardize processing and eliminate threshold decisions; the image-derived library was refined to eliminate additional variability. Primary (spurge dominant), secondary (spurge non-dominant), abundance, and area-wide vegetation maps were produced. Map accuracies were analyzed with point, polygon, and grid reference sets, using confusion matrices and regression between field-measured and image-derived abundances. Accuracies were recalculated after applying a majority filter, and buffers ranging from 1-5 pixels wide around classified pixels, to accommodate poor reference-image alignment. Overall accuracy varied from 39% to 82%, however, regression analyses yielded r2 = 0.725, indicating a strong relationship between field and image-derived densities. Accuracy was sensitive to: (1) registration offsets between field and image locations; (2) modification of analytical methods; and (3) reference data quality. Sensor viewing angle

  17. The test of variables of attention (TOVA): Internal consistency (Q1 vs. Q2 and Q3 vs. Q4) in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The internal consistency of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was examined in a cohort of 6- to 12-year-old children (N = 63) strictly diagnosed with ADHD. The internal consistency of errors of omission (OMM), errors of commission (COM), response time (RT), and response time variability (RTV...

  18. Do Countries Consistently Engage in Misinforming the International Community about Their Efforts to Combat Money Laundering? Evidence Using Benford’s Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, collected by EUROSTAT, are plagued with shortcomings. In this paper, I have carried out a forensic analysis on a 2003–2010 dataset of indicators of compliance and efficiency in combatting money laundering, that European Union member states self-reported to EUROSTAT, and on the basis of which, their efforts were evaluated. I used Benford’s law to detect any anomalous statistical patterns and found that statistical anomalies were also consistent with strategic manipulation. According to Benford’s law, if we pick a random sample of numbers representing natural processes, and look at the distribution of the first digits of these numbers, we see that, contrary to popular belief, digit 1 occurs most often, then digit 2, and so on, with digit 9 occurring in less than 5% of the sample. Without prior knowledge of Benford’s law, since people are not intuitively good at creating truly random numbers, deviations thereof can capture strategic alterations. In order to eliminate other sources of deviation, I have compared deviations in situations where incentives and opportunities for manipulation existed and in situations where they did not. While my results are not a conclusive proof of strategic manipulation, they signal that countries that faced incentives and opportunities to misinform the international community about their efforts to combat money laundering may have manipulated these indicators. Finally, my analysis points to the high potential for disruption that the manipulation of national statistics has, and calls for the acknowledgment that strategic manipulation can be an unintended consequence of the international community’s pressure on countries to put combatting money laundering on the top of their national agenda. PMID:28122058

  19. Evaluation of the accuracy, consistency, and stability of measurements of the Planck constant used in the redefinition of the international system of units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possolo, Antonio; Schlamminger, Stephan; Stoudt, Sara; Pratt, Jon R.; Williams, Carl J.

    2018-02-01

    The Consultative Committee for Mass and related quantities (CCM), of the International Committee for weights and measures (CIPM), has recently declared the readiness of the community to support the redefinition of the international system of units (SI) at the next meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) scheduled for November, 2018. Such redefinition will replace the international prototype of the Kilogram (IPK), as the definition and sole primary realization of the unit of mass, with a definition involving the Planck constant, h. This redefinition in terms of a fundamental constant of nature will enable widespread primary realizations not only of the kilogram but also of its multiples and sub-multiples, best to address the full range of practical needs in the measurement of mass. We review and discuss the statistical models and statistical data reductions, uncertainty evaluations, and substantive arguments that support the verification of several technical preconditions for the redefinition that the CCM has established, and whose verification the CCM has affirmed. These conditions relate to the accuracy and mutual consistency of qualifying measurement results. We review also an issue that has surfaced only recently, concerning the convergence toward a stable value, of the historical values that the task group on fundamental constants of the committee on Data for Science and Technology CODATA-TGFC has recommended for h over the years, even though the CCM has not deemed this issue to be relevant. We conclude that no statistically significant trend can be substantiated for these recommended values, but note that cumulative consensus values that may be derived from the historical measurement results for h seem to have converged while continuing to exhibit fluctuations that are typical of a process in statistical control. Finally, we argue that the most recent consensus value derived from the best measurements available for h, obtained using

  20. Impact of Alzheimer's Disease on Caregiver Questionnaire: internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of a new measure for assessing caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason C; Ito, Diane; Chen, Yaozhu J; Cheng, Rebecca; Bolognese, Jennifer; Li-McLeod, Josephine

    2014-09-04

    unidimensional, Web-based measure of AD caregiver burden and is supported by strong model fit statistics from CFA, high degree of item-level reliability, good internal consistency, moderate test-retest reliability, and moderate convergent validity. Additional validation of the IADCQ is warranted to ensure invariance between the paper-based and Web-based administration and to determine an appropriate responder definition.

  1. Consistência interna da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN Internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A fobia social é um grave transtorno de ansiedade que traz incapacitação e sofrimento. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a consistência interna da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo da consistência interna do Mini-SPIN em uma amostra de 206 estudantes universitários da cidade de São Paulo, SP. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna do instrumento, analisada pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, foi de 0,81. CONCLUSÕES: Esses achados permitiram concluir que a versão em português do Mini-SPIN exibiu resultados de boa consistência interna, semelhantes aos da versão original em inglês.BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a severe anxiety disorder that brings disability and distress. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN. METHODS: We conducted a study of internal consistency of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 206 college students of the city of São Paulo, SP. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the instrument, analyzed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN has a good internal consistency, similar to those obtained with the original English version.

  2. Internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia following IMRT for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thor, Maria; Owosho, Adepitan A; Clark, Haley D; Oh, Jung Hun; Riaz, Nadeem; Hovan, Allan; Tsai, Jillian; Thomas, Steven D; Yom, Sae Hee K; Wu, Jonn S; Huryn, Joseph M; Moiseenko, Vitali; Lee, Nancy Y; Estilo, Cherry L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2017-02-01

    To study internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer, and to investigate potential amendments of the QUANTEC guidelines. Objective xerostomia was assessed in 121 patients (n Cohort1 =55; n Cohort2 =66) treated to 70Gy@2Gy in 2006-2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses (UVA, MVA with 1000 bootstrap populations) were conducted in Cohort1, and generalizability of the best-performing MVA model was investigated in Cohort2 (performance: AUC, p-values, and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-values (p HL )). Ultimately and for clinical guidance, minimum mean dose thresholds to the contralateral and the ipsilateral parotid glands (Dmean contra , Dmean ipsi ) were estimated from the generated dose-response curves. The observed xerostomia rate was 38%/47% (3months) and 19%/23% (11-12months) in Cohort1/Cohort2. Risk of xerostomia at 3months increased for higher Dmean contra and Dmean ipsi (Cohort1: 0.17·Dmean contra +0.11·Dmean ipsi -8.13; AUC=0.90±0.05; p=0.0002±0.002; p HL =0.22±0.23; Cohort2: AUC=0.81; pxerostomia following IMRT. Our results also suggest decreasing Dmean contra to below 20Gy, while keeping Dmean ipsi to around 25Gy. Long-term xerostomia was less frequent, and no dose-response relationship was established for this follow-up time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship between Internal Quality Audit and Quality Culture toward Implementation Consistency of ISO 9000 in Private College of Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mail, Abdul; Pratikto; Suparman, Sudjito; Purnomo; Santoso, Budi

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to find out the influence of internal quality process on the growth of quality culture in private college. This study is treated toward 178 lecturers of 25 private colleges in Sulawesi, Indonesia by means of questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analysis applied to assess the reliability of validity and measurement model. Relationship…

  4. A Temporal-Causal Network Model for the Internal Processes of a Person with a Borderline Personality Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoțoiu, Maria; Tavella, Federico; Treur, Jan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a computational network model for a person with a Borderline Personality Disorder. It was designed according to a Network-Oriented Modeling approach as a temporal-causal network based on neuropsychological background knowledge. Some example simulations are discussed. The model

  5. The reliability and internal consistency of one-shot and flicker change detection for measuring individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailian, Hrag; Halberda, Justin

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the one-shot change detection task for estimating visual working memory (VWM) storage capacity-and also introduced and tested an alternative flicker change detection task for estimating these limits. In three experiments, we found that the one-shot whole-display task returns estimates of VWM storage capacity (K) that are unreliable across set sizes-suggesting that the whole-display task is measuring different things at different set sizes. In two additional experiments, we found that the one-shot single-probe variant shows improvements in the reliability and consistency of K estimates. In another additional experiment, we found that a one-shot whole-display-with-click task (requiring target localization) also showed improvements in reliability and consistency. The latter results suggest that the one-shot task can return reliable and consistent estimates of VWM storage capacity (K), and they highlight the possibility that the requirement to localize the changed target is what engenders this enhancement. Through a final series of four experiments, we introduced and tested an alternative flicker change detection method that also requires the observer to localize the changing target and that generates, from response times, an estimate of VWM storage capacity (K). We found that estimates of K from the flicker task correlated with estimates from the traditional one-shot task and also had high reliability and consistency. We highlight the flicker method's ability to estimate executive functions as well as VWM storage capacity, and discuss the potential for measuring multiple abilities with the one-shot and flicker tasks.

  6. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  7. WE-DE-201-06: Impact of Temporal Image Coregistration Methods On 3D Internal Dose Calculations in Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besemer, A; Marsh, I; Bednarz, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The calculation of 3D internal dose calculations in targeted radionuclide therapy requires the acquisition and temporal coregistration of a serial PET/CT or SPECT/CT images. This work investigates the dosimetric impact of different temporal coregistration methods commonly used for 3D internal dosimetry. Methods: PET/CT images of four mice were acquired at 1, 24, 48, 72, 96, 144 hrs post-injection of {sup 124}I-CLR1404. The therapeutic {sup 131}I-CLR1404 absorbed dose rate (ADR) was calculated at each time point using a Geant4-based MC dosimetry platform using three temporal image coregistration Methods: (1) no coregistration (NC), whole body sequential CT-CT affine coregistration (WBAC), and individual sequential ROI-ROI affine coregistration (IRAC). For NC, only the ROI mean ADR was integrated to obtain ROI mean doses. For WBAC, the CT at each time point was coregistered to a single reference CT. The CT transformations were applied to the corresponding ADR images and the dose was calculated on a voxel-basis within the whole CT volume. For IRAC, each individual ROI was isolated and sequentially coregistered to a single reference ROI. The ROI transformations were applied to the corresponding ADR images and the dose was calculated on a voxel-basis within the ROI volumes. Results: The percent differences in the ROI mean doses were as large as 109%, 88%, and 32%, comparing the WBAC vs. IRAC, NC vs. IRAC, and NC vs. WBAC methods, respectively. The CoV in the mean dose between the all three methods ranged from 2–36%. The pronounced curvature of the spinal cord was not adequately coregistered using WBAC which resulted in large difference between the WBAC and IRAC. Conclusion: The method used for temporal image coregistration can result in large differences in 3D internal dosimetry calculations. Care must be taken to choose the most appropriate method depending on the imaging conditions, clinical site, and specific application. This work is partially funded by

  8. Mining Temporal Patterns to Improve Agents Behavior: Two Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Nkambou, Roger; Faghihi, Usef; Nguifo, Engelbert Mephu

    We propose two mechanisms for agent learning based on the idea of mining temporal patterns from agent behavior. The first one consists of extracting temporal patterns from the perceived behavior of other agents accomplishing a task, to learn the task. The second learning mechanism consists in extracting temporal patterns from an agent's own behavior. In this case, the agent then reuses patterns that brought self-satisfaction. In both cases, no assumption is made on how the observed agents' behavior is internally generated. A case study with a real application is presented to illustrate each learning mechanism.

  9. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  10. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  11. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI), International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus

    2015-12-12

    Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to map leaf area index (LAI) across landscapes, but advances are still needed to exploit multi-scale data streams for producing LAI at both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multi-scale Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI) has been developed to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI from existing medium resolution LAI products. STEM-LAI has been designed to meet the demands of applications requiring frequent and spatially explicit information, such as effectively resolving rapidly evolving vegetation dynamics at sub-field (30 m) scales. In this study, STEM-LAI is applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based LAI data and utilizes a reference-based regression tree approach for producing MODIS-consistent, but Landsat-based, LAI. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is used to interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisition dates, providing a high spatial and temporal resolution improvement over existing LAI products. STARFM predicts high resolution LAI by blending MODIS and Landsat based information from a common acquisition date, with MODIS data from a prediction date. To demonstrate its capacity to reproduce fine-scale spatial features observed in actual Landsat LAI, the STEM-LAI approach is tested over an agricultural region in Nebraska. The implementation of a 250 m resolution LAI product, derived from MODIS 1 km data and using a scale consistent approach based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), is found to significantly improve accuracies of spatial pattern prediction, with the coefficient of efficiency (E) ranging from 0.77–0.94 compared to 0.01–0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0

  12. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  13. Advances in temporal logic

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  14. Factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS, and the relationship between them: a study from France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaïl Amany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives of this study were to test the factor structure and internal consistency of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS in elderly French people, and to test the relationship between these two questionnaires. Methods Using a standard 'forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language versions of the two instruments (i.e. the 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Subjective Vitality Scale were translated into French. A sample of adults aged 58–72 years then completed both questionnaires. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The factor structures of the two instruments were extracted by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Finally, the relationship between the two instruments was assessed by correlation analysis. Results In all, 217 elderly adults participated in the study. The mean age of the respondents was 61.7 (SD = 6.2 years. The mean GHQ-12 score was 17.4 (SD = 8.0, and analysis showed satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.78. The mean VS score was 22.4 (SD = 7.4 and its internal consistency was found to be good (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.83. While CFA showed that the VS was uni-dimensional, analysis for the GHQ-12 demonstrated a good fit not only to the two-factor model (positive vs. negative items but also to a three-factor model. As expected, there was a strong and significant negative correlation between the GHQ-12 and the VS (r = -0.71, P Conclusion The results showed that the French versions of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and the Subjective Vitality Scale (VS are reliable measures of psychological distress and vitality. They also confirm a significant negative correlation between these two instruments, lending support to their convergent validity in an elderly French population. The findings indicate that both measures have good structural

  15. Construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Phutrit, Suphatha; Tongprasert, Siam; Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Khunachiva, Jeeranan

    2018-03-27

    This study evaluated additional psychometric properties of the Thai version of the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH-TH) which included, test-retest reliability, construct validity, internal consistency of in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. As for determining construct validity, the Thai EuroQOL questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) was also administered in order to examine convergent and divergent validity. Fifty patients completed both questionnaires. The DASH-TH showed excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.811) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.911). The exploratory factor analysis yielded a six-factor solution while the confirmatory factor analysis denoted that the hypothesized model adequately fit the data with a comparative fit index of 0.967 and a Tucker-Lewis index of 0.964. The related subscales between the DASH-TH and the Thai EQ-5D-5L were significantly correlated, indicating the DASH-TH's convergent and discriminant validity. The DASH-TH demonstrated good reliability, internal consistency construct validity, and multidimensionality, in assessing the upper extremity function in carpal tunnel syndrome patients.

  16. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  17. Equivalência semântica e avaliação da consistência interna da versão em português do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 Semantic equivalence and internal consistency of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Soares Amaral

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o processo de adaptação transcultural do Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 para a língua portuguesa. A metodologia foi baseada nas etapas de (1 tradução do questionário para o português; (2 retrotradução para o inglês; (3 comitê de peritos para construção da primeira versão; (4 avaliação da compreensão verbal por especialistas e por uma amostra da população-alvo; (5 análise da consistência interna do instrumento a partir do alfa de Cronbach. O instrumento foi traduzido para o português e a versão final contou com os 30 itens do instrumento original. Todos os itens foram interpretados como de fácil compreensão, tanto por especialistas quanto pela população-alvo. Os valores de consistência interna foram satisfatórios, sendo de 0,91 para toda a escala. O instrumento encontra-se traduzido e adaptado para o português, com evidências de boa compreensão e consistência interna, sendo ainda necessária a avaliação de sua equivalência de mensuração, validade externa e reprodutibilidade.This study aimed to describe the cross-cultural adaptation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 (SATAQ-3 into Brazilian Portuguese. The methodology involved the following stages: (1 translation of the questionnaire into Portuguese; (2 back-translation into English; (3 meeting with experts to prepare a draft version; (4 assessment of verbal understanding of the draft by experts and by a sample of the target population; and (5 analysis of the tool's internal consistency, using Cronbach's alpha. The questionnaire was translated into Portuguese, and the scale's final version included 30 items, as in the original. Both the experts and target population members assessed all the items as easy to understand. Internal consistency was satisfactory, reaching 0.91 for the scale as a whole. The questionnaire has now been translated and adapted into

  18. Kilometric Scale Modeling of the North West European Shelf Seas: Exploring the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihou, K.; Polton, J.; Harle, J.; Wakelin, S.; O'Dea, E.; Holt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The North West European Shelf break acts as a barrier to the transport and exchange between the open ocean and the shelf seas. The strong spatial variability of these exchange processes is hard to fully explore using observations, and simulations generally are too coarse to simulate the fine-scale processes over the whole region. In this context, under the FASTNEt program, a new NEMO configuration of the North West European Shelf and Atlantic Margin at 1/60° (˜1.8 km) has been developed, with the objective to better understand and quantify the seasonal and interannual variability of shelf break processes. The capability of this configuration to reproduce the seasonal cycle in SST, the barotropic tide, and fine-resolution temperature profiles is assessed against a basin-scale (1/12°, ˜9 km) configuration and a standard regional configuration (7 km resolution). The seasonal cycle is well reproduced in all configurations though the fine-resolution allows the simulation of smaller scale processes. Time series of temperature at various locations on the shelf show the presence of internal waves with a strong spatiotemporal variability. Spectral analysis of the internal waves reveals peaks at the diurnal, semidiurnal, inertial, and quarter-diurnal bands, which are only realistically reproduced in the new configuration. Tidally induced pycnocline variability is diagnosed in the model and shown to vary with the spring neap cycle with mean displacement amplitudes in excess of 2 m for 30% of the stratified domain. With sufficiently fine resolution, internal tides are shown to be generated at numerous bathymetric features resulting in a complex pycnocline displacement superposition pattern.

  19. Temporal Trends in Analgesic Use in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Systematic Review of International Prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Frenais, Francesca L; Bedder, Rachel; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Stone, Patrick; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2018-02-01

    To explore global changes in the prescription of analgesic drugs over time in the international long-term care (LTC) population. Systematic review. We included original research articles in English, published and unpublished, that included number of participants, country and year(s) of data collection, and prescription of analgesics (analgesics not otherwise specified, opioids, acetaminophen; scheduled only, or scheduled plus as needed (PRN)). LTC residents. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Web of Science, Google Scholar, using keywords for LTC facilities and analgesic medication; hand-searched references of eligible papers; correspondence. Studies were quality rated using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Pearson correlation coefficients were generated between percentage of residents prescribed an analgesic and year of data collection. If available, we investigated changes in acetaminophen and opioid prescriptions. Forty studies met inclusion criteria. A moderate correlation (0.59) suggested that scheduled prescription rates for analgesics have increased over time. Similar findings were reflected in scheduled prescriptions for acetaminophen and opioids. No increase was seen when analyzing scheduled plus PRN analgesics. Use of opioids (scheduled plus PRN) appears to have increased over time. Worldwide, use of opioids and acetaminophen has increased in LTC residents. Research is needed to explore whether this reflects appropriate pain management for LTC residents and if PRN medication is used effectively. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. The internal auditory clock: what can evoked potentials reveal about the analysis of temporal sound patterns, and abnormal states of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J

    2002-09-01

    internal "clocks"? Abnormal mismatch potentials may provide a manifestation of a disordered auditory time-sense, sometimes being abolished in comatose patients while the C-potentials and similar responses to the onset of tones are preserved. Both C- and M-potentials were usually found to be preserved, however, in patients who had emerged from coma and were capable of discriminating sounds. Substantially intact responses were also recorded from three patients who were functionally in a "vegetative" state. The C- and M-potentials were once again dissociated in a group of patients with multiple sclerosis, only the mismatch potentials being found to be significantly delayed. This subclinical impairment of a memory-based process responsible for the detection of change in temporal sound patterns may be related to defects in other memory domains such as working memory.

  1. Temporal and bi-directional associations between sleep duration and physical activity/sedentary time in children: An international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingyi; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this multinational and cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nighttime sleep duration was associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) the following day, whether daytime PA/SED were associated with sleep duration the subsequent night, and whether the associations were modified by sex and study sites. Data from 5779 children aged 9-11years were analyzed. A waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to assess children's 24-h movement behaviours for 7days, i.e. sleep duration, total SED, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Multilevel linear regression models were used to account for the repeated measures nested within participants (there were up to 7 sleep→PA/SED and PA/SED→sleep pairings per participant) and schools, and adjusted for covariates. To facilitate interpretation, all sleep and PA/SED variables were standardized. Results showed that the relationship between sleep and PA/SED is bi-directional in this international sample of children. Specifically, for each one standard deviation (SD) unit increase in sleep duration, SED the following day decreased by 0.04 SD units, while LPA and MVPA increased by 0.04 and 0.02 SD units, respectively. Sleep duration decreased by 0.02 SD units and increased by 0.04 SD units for each one SD unit increase in SED and MVPA, respectively. Sleep duration was not affected by changes in LPA. These associations differed across sex and study sites in both directions. However, since the observed effect sizes are subtle, public health initiatives should consider the clinical and practical relevance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Construct validity and internal consistency reliability of the Malay version of the 21-item depression anxiety stress scale (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusli, B N; Amrina, K; Trived, S; Loh, K P; Shashi, M

    2017-10-01

    The 21-item English version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) has been proposed as a method for assessing self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in various clinical and nonclinical populations. Several Malay versions of the DASS-21 have been validated in various populations with varying success. One particular Malay version has been validated in various occupational groups (such as nurses and automotive workers) but not among male clinic outpatient attendees in Malaysia. To validate the Malay version of the DASS-21 (Malay-DASS-21) among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. A validation study with a random sample of 402 male respondents attending the outpatient clinic of a major public outpatient clinic in Johor Bahru and Segamat was carried out from January to March 2016. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 was examined using Exploratory Factor Analysis (KMO = 0.947; Bartlett's test of sphericity is significant, pDASS- 21 and the internal consistency reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity of the Malay-DASS-21 based on eigenvalues and factor loadings to confirm the three factor structure (depression, anxiety, and stress) was acceptable. The internal consistency reliability of the factor construct was very impressive with Cronbach's alpha values in the range of 0.837 to 0.863. The present study showed that the Malay- DASS-21 has acceptable psychometric construct and high internal consistency reliability to measure self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress over the past week in male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Further studies are necessary to revalidate the Malay-DASS-21 across different populations and cultures, and using confirmatory factor analyses.

  3. Tradução, adaptação e avaliação da consistência interna do Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test para uso com crianças do sexo feminino Translation, adaptation and internal consistency evaluation of the Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test for female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Moreira Careta Galindo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test, para uso com crianças de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo. Foram sujeitos do estudo 261 escolares do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 9 a 12 anos. Por meio da análise fatorial, com rotação varimax avaliou-se a consistência interna do instrumento. Esta análise, realizada com o auxílio do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, versão 10.0, revelou dois fatores. Para o instrumento total a consistência interna foi adequada (coeficiente a de Cronbach: 0,89 e para os dois fatores (1 e 2 os valores de a também foram considerados satisfatórios (alfa=0,90 e alfa=0,80, respectivamente, mostrando, assim, que o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test é útil para uma avaliação precoce, rastreando atitudes indicadoras de possíveis distúrbios no comportamento alimentar. Foram mantidas as características psicométricas do instrumento original.This study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test, to be used with children in a city in upstate São Paulo. Study subjects were 261 female students aging from 9 to 12 years. The internal consistency of the instrument was evaluated by means of factorial analysis with varimax rotation. This analysis was accomplished through Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0, revealing two factors. The internal consistency was adequate for the total instrument (Cronbach's alpha=0.89 and a values were also considered satisfactory for the two factors (1 and 2 (alpha=0.90 and alpha=0.80, respectively, which demonstrated that the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test is useful for an initial evaluation, tracing symptoms that indicate possible eating behavior disorders. The psychometric characteristics of the original instrument were maintained.

  4. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  5. Internal consistency, concurrent validity, and discriminant validity of a measure of public support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T) in a population-based sample of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Gauvin, Lise; Fournier, Michel; Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2012-04-01

    Active living is a broad conceptualization of physical activity that incorporates domains of exercise; recreational, household, and occupational activities; and active transportation. Policy makers develop and implement a variety of transportation policies that can influence choices about how to travel from one location to another. In making such decisions, policy makers act in part in response to public opinion or support for proposed policies. Measures of the public's support for policies aimed at promoting active transportation can inform researchers and policy makers. This study examined the internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a newly developed measure of the public's support for policies for active living in transportation (PAL-T). A series of 17 items representing potential policies for promoting active transportation was generated. Two samples of participants (n = 2,001 and n = 2,502) from Montreal, Canada, were recruited via random digit dialling. Analyses were conducted on the combined data set (n = 4,503). Participants were aged 18 through 94 years (58% female). The concurrent and discriminant validity of the PAL-T was assessed by examining relationships with physical activity and smoking. To explore the usability of the PAL-T, predicted scale scores were compared to the summed values of responses. Results showed that the internal consistency of the PAL-T was 0.70. Multilevel regression demonstrated no relationship between the PAL-T and smoking status (p > 0.05) but significant relationships with utilitarian walking (p public opinion can inform policy makers and support advocacy efforts aimed at making built environments more suitable for active transportation while allowing researchers to examine the antecedents and consequences of public support for policies.

  6. Análisis de consistencia interna mediante Alfa de Cronbach: un programa basado en gráficos dinámicos Internal consistency analysis by means of Cronbach’s Alpha: a computer program based on dynamic graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ledesma

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una herramienta informática original que permite realizar análisis de consistencia interna (modelo Alfa de Cronbach utilizando métodos gráficos dinámicos. Se trata de un módulo basado en la filosofía del Análisis Exploratorio de Datos y en métodos de visualización estadística, diseñado para asistir al analista en el proceso de construcción de pruebas psicológicas. La herramienta permite analizar la consistencia interna de la prueba, las propiedades de los ítems que la componen, los patrones de respuesta de los sujetos a los ítems, y el efecto de la eliminación de los ítems y del incremento en la longitud de la prueba sobre su fiabilidad. En comparación con otros programas existentes, el beneficio del módulo es la incorporación de gráficos estadísticos dinámicos como complemento a la presentación de resultados convencionales en formato texto.This paper describes a computer software that provides dynamic graphics to perform internal consistence analysis by means of Cronbach’s Alpha. This software, based on Exploratory Data Analysis philosophy and statistical visualization methods, is designed to assist the process of psychological test and scale construction. It allows carry out internal consistency analysis, as well as exploring statistical properties of items, subject responses patterns, and the effect of item deletion and test length increase on reliability coefficient. Comparing with other statistical software, the benefit of this program is to use dynamic graphics complementing statistical output.

  7. Feasibility, internal consistency and covariates of TICS-m (telephone interview for cognitive status-modified) in a population-based sample: findings from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Me; Emeny, Rt; Bickel, H; Linkohr, B; Ladwig, Kh

    2013-09-01

    Test the feasibility of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) as a screening tool to detect cognitive impairment in a population-based sample of older subjects. Data were collected from 3,578 participants, age 65-94 years, of the KORA-Age study. We used analysis of covariance to test for significant sex, age and educational differences in raw TICS-m scores. Internal consistency was analysed by assessing Cronbach's alpha. Correction for education years was undertaken, and participants were divided in three subgroups following validated cut-offs. Finally, a logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of sex on cognition subgroups. Internal consistency of the TICS-m was 0.78. Study participants needed approximately 5.4 min to complete the interview. Lower raw TICS-m scores were associated with male sex, older age and lower education (all p education years, 2,851 (79%) had a non-impaired cognitive status (score >31). Male sex was independently associated with having a score equal to or below 27 and 31 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, respectively). The TICS-m is a feasible questionnaire for community-dwelling older adults with normal cognitive function or moderate cognitive impairment. Lower cognitive performance was associated with being a man, being older, and having fewer years of formal education. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  9. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  10. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: study of the items and internal consistency Validação transcultural da versão para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: estudo dos itens e da consistência interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Lima Osório

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. METHOD: The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named " Inventário de Fobia Social" . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a validação transcultural para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory, um instrumento para avaliação e mensuração dos sintomas de medo, evitação e sintomas fisiológicos associados ao transtorno de ansiedade social. MÉTODO: O processo de tradução e adaptação envolveu quatro profissionais bilingües, apreciação e aprovação da back

  11. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  12. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  13. Internal consistency and factor structure of the Portuguese version of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale among alcoholic patients Consistência interna e estrutura fatorial da versão em português da Escala de Ansiedade Social de Liebowitz entre pacientes alcoolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro B Terra

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale is an instrument used to evaluate the severity of social phobia. It has been widely used in different contexts and cultures, presenting variable psychometric properties. The objective of this article is to investigate the internal consistency and the factor structure of this scale. METHOD: In a sample of 300 alcoholic patients hospitalized in 3 mental clinics in Southern Brazil, 74 of them were social phobics (24.6%. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Axis I Disorders - Patient Edition, a semi-structured clinical interview based on DSM-IV, was used to check for the diagnosis of social phobia. The internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha. Data were subjected to a factor analysis with the principal component method of parameter estimation. Questionnaire items loading at 0.35 or above were considered in the final factor solution. RESULTS: The coefficient of internal consistency was 0.95. All items showed corrected item-total correlation coefficient above 0.15, considered the minimum requested index. The factor analysis resulted in 5 dimensions which corresponded to 52.9% of the total variance. The five factors extracted were: factor I - speaking in a group, factor II - activity in public, factor III - social interaction with unknown person, factor IV - attitude of disagreement or disapproval and factor V - social interaction in leisure activity. CONCLUSIONS: The scale proved to be reliable and structurally valid instrument for use in a population of alcoholic patients. The possibility of screening for social phobia through the use of the instrument may be helpful in identifying probable cases of the disorder among alcoholics.OBJETIVO: A Escala de Ansiedade Social de Liebowitz é um instrumento utilizado na avaliação da gravidade da fobia social. Tem sido amplamente usada em diferentes contextos e culturas, apresentando propriedades psicométricas variadas. O objetivo do artigo

  14. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  15. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  16. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  17. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  18. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  19. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  1. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  2. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  3. Spatio-temporal variability of internal waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico studied with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model, NCOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambazoglu, M. K.; Jacobs, G. A.; Howden, S. D.; Book, J. W.; Arnone, R.; Soto Ramos, I. M.; Vandermeulen, R. A.; Greer, A. T.; Miles, T. N.

    2016-02-01

    Internal waves enhance mixing in the upper ocean, transport nutrients and plankton over the water column and across the shelf from deeper waters to shallower coastal areas, and could also transport pollutants such as hydrocarbons onshore during an oil spill event. This study aims to characterize internal waves in the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) and investigate the possible generation and dissipation mechanisms using a high-resolution (1-km) application of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Three dimensional model products are used to detect the propagation patterns of internal waves. The vertical structure of internal waves is studied and the role of stratification is analyzed by looking at the temperature, salinity and velocity variations along the water column. The model predictions suggest the generation of internal waves on the continental shelf, therefore the role of ocean bottom topography interacting with tides and general circulation features such as the Loop Current Eddy front, on the internal wave generation will be discussed. The time periods of internal wave occurrences are identified from model predictions and compared to satellite ocean color imagery. Further data analysis, e.g. Fourier analysis, is implemented to determine internal wavelengths and frequencies and to determine if the response of internal waves are at tidal periods or at different frequencies. The atmospheric forcing provided to NCOM and meteorological data records are analyzed to define the interaction between wind forcing and internal wave generation. Wavelet analysis characterizes the ocean response to atmospheric events with periodic frequencies. Ocean color satellite imagery was used to visualize the location of the Mississippi river plume (and other oceanic features) and compared to the model predictions because the enhanced stratification from freshwater plumes which propagate across the Mississippi Bight can provide favorable conditions in coastal waters for internal wave

  4. Temporal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  5. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  6. Temporal naturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolin, Lee

    2015-11-01

    Two people may claim both to be naturalists, but have divergent conceptions of basic elements of the natural world which lead them to mean different things when they talk about laws of nature, or states, or the role of mathematics in physics. These disagreements do not much affect the ordinary practice of science which is about small subsystems of the universe, described or explained against a background, idealized to be fixed. But these issues become crucial when we consider including the whole universe within our system, for then there is no fixed background to reference observables to. I argue here that the key issue responsible for divergent versions of naturalism and divergent approaches to cosmology is the conception of time. One version, which I call temporal naturalism, holds that time, in the sense of the succession of present moments, is real, and that laws of nature evolve in that time. This is contrasted with timeless naturalism, which holds that laws are immutable and the present moment and its passage are illusions. I argue that temporal naturalism is empirically more adequate than the alternatives, because it offers testable explanations for puzzles its rivals cannot address, and is likely a better basis for solving major puzzles that presently face cosmology and physics. This essay also addresses the problem of qualia and experience within naturalism and argues that only temporal naturalism can make a place for qualia as intrinsic qualities of matter.

  7. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  8. Temporal contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Craig, Andrew R.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  9. Temporal contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. RANS analyses on erosion behavior of density stratification consisted of helium–air mixture gas by a low momentum vertical buoyant jet in the PANDA test facility, the third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Satoshi, E-mail: abe.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: . • The third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in the reactor containment vessel. • Two types turbulence model modification were applied in order to accurately simulate the turbulence helium transportation in the density stratification. • The analysis result in case with turbulence model modification is good agreement with the experimental data. • There is a major difference of turbulence helium–mass transportation between in case with and without the turbulence model modification. - Abstract: Density stratification in the reactor containment vessel is an important phenomenon on an issue of hydrogen safety. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project on containment thermal hydraulics. As a part of the activity, we participated in the third international CFD benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in containment vessel. This paper shows our approach for the IBE-3, focusing on the turbulence transport phenomena in eroding the density stratification and introducing modified turbulence models for improvement of the CFD analyses. For this analysis, we modified the CFD code OpenFOAM by using two turbulence models; the Kato and Launder modification to estimate turbulent kinetic energy production around a stagnation point, and the Katsuki model to consider turbulence damping in density stratification. As a result, the modified code predicted well the experimental data. The importance of turbulence transport modeling is also discussed using the calculation results.

  11. RANS analyses on erosion behavior of density stratification consisted of helium–air mixture gas by a low momentum vertical buoyant jet in the PANDA test facility, the third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Satoshi; Ishigaki, Masahiro; Sibamoto, Yasuteru; Yonomoto, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: . • The third international benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in the reactor containment vessel. • Two types turbulence model modification were applied in order to accurately simulate the turbulence helium transportation in the density stratification. • The analysis result in case with turbulence model modification is good agreement with the experimental data. • There is a major difference of turbulence helium–mass transportation between in case with and without the turbulence model modification. - Abstract: Density stratification in the reactor containment vessel is an important phenomenon on an issue of hydrogen safety. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started the ROSA-SA project on containment thermal hydraulics. As a part of the activity, we participated in the third international CFD benchmark exercise (IBE-3) focused on density stratification erosion by a vertical buoyant jet in containment vessel. This paper shows our approach for the IBE-3, focusing on the turbulence transport phenomena in eroding the density stratification and introducing modified turbulence models for improvement of the CFD analyses. For this analysis, we modified the CFD code OpenFOAM by using two turbulence models; the Kato and Launder modification to estimate turbulent kinetic energy production around a stagnation point, and the Katsuki model to consider turbulence damping in density stratification. As a result, the modified code predicted well the experimental data. The importance of turbulence transport modeling is also discussed using the calculation results

  12. Escalas de interesses vocacionais (EIV: construção, validade fatorial e consistência interna Escalas de intereses vocacionales (EIV: construcción, validad factorial y consistencia interna Vocational interests scales (VIS: construction, factorial validity and internal consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Pereira Teixeira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi construir um instrumento para avaliar seis dimensões de interesses vocacionais: realista (R, ivestigativa, atística (A, social (S, empreendedora (E e cnvencional (C. Os itens gerados foram aplicados a estudantes de ensino médio e universitários, totalizando 857 protocolos válidos. Análises de componentes principais foram conduzidas para selecionar os melhores itens. Obteve-se uma solução de seis componentes, compatível com as expectativas teóricas, com 48 itens (8 por dimensão. A consistência interna (alpha de Cronbach obtida para cada uma das escalas foi: R (0,83, I (0,79, A (0,78, S (0,85, E (0,74 e C (0,80. Análises das subamostras de estudantes universitários e de ensino médio feitas separadamente produziram resultados similares. Comparações específicas entre pares contrastantes de cursos universitários revelaram a capacidade das escalas para discriminar grupos-critério; portanto, há evidências de que o instrumento proposto é válido e fidedigno, podendo ser utilizado em futuras pesquisas.El objetivo de este estudio fue el construir un instrumento para avaluar seis dimensiones de intereses vocacionales: Realista (R, Investigativo (I, Artístico (A, Social (S, Emprendedor (E y Convencional (C. Los ítemes generados fueron aplicados a estudiantes de secundaria y universitarios, totalizando 857 protocolos válidos. Análisis de componentes principales fueron conducidos para seleccionar los mejores ítemes. Se obtuvo una solución de seis componentes compatible con las expectativas teóricas con 48 ítemes (8 por dimensión. La consistencia interna (alpha de Cronbach obtenida para cada una de las escalas fue: R (0,83, I (0,79, A (0,78, S (0,85, E (0,74 y C (0,80. Análisis de las submuestras de estudiantes universitarios y de secundaria, por separado, produjeron resultados similares. Comparaciones específicas entre pares contrastantes de cursos universitarios revelaron la capacidad de las

  13. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Pronunciation lexicons often contain pronunciation variants. This can create two problems: It can be difficult to define these variants in an internally consistent way and it can also be difficult to extract generalised grapheme-to-phoneme rule sets...

  14. Toward a clinic of temporality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau Jonveaux, Thérèse; Batt, Martine; Trognon, Alain

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of time cells has expanded our knowledge in the field of spatial and temporal information coding and the key role of the hippocampus. The internal clock model complemented with the attentional gate model allows a more in-depth understanding of the perception of time. The motor representation of duration is ensured by the basal ganglia, while the cerebellum synchronizes short duration for the movement. The right prefrontal cortex seemingly intervenes in the handling of temporal information in working memory. The temporal lobe ensures the comparison of durations, especially the right lobe for the reference durations and the medial lobe for the reproduction of durations in episodic memory. During normal aging, the hypothesis of slowing of the temporal processor is evoked when noting the perception of the acceleration of the passage of time that seemingly occurs with advancing age. The various studies pertaining specifically to time cognition, albeit heterogeneous in terms of methodology, attest to the wide-ranging disturbances of this cognitive field during the course of numerous disorders, whether psychiatric - depression and schizophrenia notably - or neurological. Hence, perturbations in temporality are observed in focal brain lesions and in subcortical disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Huntington's chorea. Alzheimer's disease represents a particularly fertile field of exploration with regard to time cognition and temporality. The objectified deconstruction of temporal experience provides insights into the very processes of temporality and their nature: episodic, semantic and procedural. In addition to exploration based on elementary stimuli, one should also consider the time lived, i.e. that of the subject, to better understand cognition as it relates to time. While the temporal dimension permeates the whole cognitive field, it remains largely neglected: integration of a genuine time cognition and temporality clinic in daily practice remains

  15. Temporal Glare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic...

  16. Semantics of Temporal Models with Multiple Temporal Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Otto

    ending up with lexical data models. In particular we look upon the representations by sets of normalised tables, by sets of 1NF tables and by sets of N1NF/nested tables. At each translation step we focus on how the temporal semantic is consistently maintained. In this way we recognise the requirements...... for representation of temporal properties in different models and the correspondence between the models. The results rely on the assumptions that the temporal dimensions are interdependent and ordered. Thus for example the valid periods of existences of a property in a mini world are dependent on the transaction...... periods in which the corresponding recordings are valid. This is not the normal way of looking at temporal dimensions and we give arguments supporting our assumption....

  17. Unilateral Measures addressing Non-Trade Concerns. A Study on WTO Consistency, Relevance of other International Agreements, Economic Effectiveness and Impact on Developing Countries of Measures concerning Non-Product-Related Processes and Production Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Bossche, P.; Schrijver, N.; Faber, G.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two years, the debate in the Netherlands on trade measures addressing non-trade concerns has focused on two important and politically sensitive issues, namely: (1) the sustainability of the large-scale production of biomass as an alternative source of energy; and (2) the production of livestock products in a manner that is consistent with animal welfare requirements. In February 2007 a report was issued on the 'Toetsingskader voor Duurzame Biomassa', the so-called Cramer Report. This report discusses the risks associated with large-scale biomass production and establishes a list of criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. These criteria reflect a broad range of non-trade concerns, including environmental protection, global warming, food security, biodiversity, economic prosperity and social welfare. The report recognizes that the implementation of the criteria (including the establishment of a certification system) will require careful consideration of the obligations of the Netherlands under EU and WTO law. Governments called upon to address non-trade concerns may do so by using different types of measures. Prominent among these are measures concerning processes and production methods of products. In the present study, these issues are examined primarily with regard to existing, proposed or still purely hypothetical measures for implementing the Cramer criteria for the sustainable production of biomass. Several other, non-energy-related issues are discussed in this report

  18. Consistencia de indicadores de especialización en el comercio internacional. Aplicación al caso de la mantequilla en Argentina y Uruguay // Consistency of Specialization Indicators. An Application to Argentina and Uruguay Butter International Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depetris Guiguet, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como objetivo evaluar, en términos de su consistencia cardinal, ordinal y dicotómica, cinco indicadores alternativos de especialización comercial. Tres están basados en el enfoque de las ventajas comparativas reveladas: una versión simétrica del índice de Balassa, el chi-cuadrado y el índice de Ventajas Relativas del Comercio. Los otros dos están basados en el enfoque de la balanza comercial: una variante del índice de Michaely y otra del índice de Iapadre. Se aplica al caso particular del comercio mundial de mantequilla de Argentina y Uruguay en el período 1995-2006. Los resultados varían entre los dos países, habiéndose encontrado que algunos indicadores podrían utilizarse de manera sustitutiva mientras que otros deberían utilizarse de manera complementaria. En términos económicos, se detecta una especialización fluctuante según los años en Argentina y mucha estabilidad en Uruguay. // This study aims to evaluate, in terms of their cardinal, ordinal, and dichotomy consistency, five alternative comercial specialization indicators: a Balassa symmetric index version; a Chi-Squared Index; and the Relative Trade Advantage Index, all these three based on revealed comparative advantage theory; and two additional: Michaely Index variation, and Iapadre Index variation, based on trade balance flows. It is applied to the particular case of Argentina and Uruguay butter world trade during 1995-2006. The results vary for both countries. Some indicators are found to be useful as substitutes while other in a complementary manner. Economically, the indicators show that the Argentine specialization fluctuates among years while the Uruguayan is very stable.

  19. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  20. Cerebrospinal otorrhoea--a temporal bone report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, A P

    1988-05-01

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal otorrhoea is a rare complication of a cholesteatoma. The histological findings in a temporal bone from such a case are reported. The cholesteatoma had eroded deeply through the vestibule into the internal auditory meatus.

  1. Quantum Temporal Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Mankei; Psaltis, Demetri

    2006-01-01

    The concept of quantum temporal imaging is proposed to manipulate the temporal correlation of entangled photons. In particular, we show that time correlation and anticorrelation can be converted to each other using quantum temporal imaging.

  2. The Portuguese language version of social phobia and Anxiety Inventory: analysis of items and internal consistency in a Brazilian sample of 1,014 undergraduate students Versão para o português do Inventário de Fobia Social e Ansiedade: análise de itens e consistência interna numa amostra de 1.014 estudantes universitários brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Picon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Theoretical and empirical analysis of items and internal consistency of the Portuguese-language version of Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-Portuguese. METHODS: Social phobia experts conducted a 45-item content analysis of the SPAI-Portuguese administered to a sample of 1,014 university students. Item discrimination was evaluated by Student's t test; interitem, mean and item-to-total correlations, by Pearson coefficient; reliability was estimated by Cronbach's alpha. RESULTS: There was 100% agreement among experts concerning the 45 items. On the SPAI-Portuguese 43 items were discriminative (p OBJETIVO: Análise teórica e empírica dos itens e da consistência interna da versão em português do Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI-Português e subescalas. MÉTODOS: Peritos em fobia social conduziram análise de conteúdo dos 45 itens do SPAI-Português, administrado a 1.014 estudantes universitários. A discriminação dos itens foi avaliada por teste t de Student; correlações interitens, médias e item/total por coeficientes de Pearson; fidedignidade pelo alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS: Concordância plena entre os peritos para os 45 itens. SPAI-Português com 43 itens discriminativos (p < 0,05. Alguns itens, entre as subescalas, apresentaram coeficientes abaixo de 0,2. As médias das correlações interitens foram: 0,41 na subescala fobia social; 0,32 na subescala agorafobia; e 0,32 no SPAI-Português. As correlações item/total foram maiores do que 0,3 (p < 0,001. Alfas de Cronbach foram: 0,95 no SPAI-Português; 0,96 na subescala de fobia social; 0,85 na subescala de agorafobia. CONCLUSÃO: O conteúdo dos itens foi relacionado aos constructos subjacentes (agorafobia e fobia social, com discriminabilidade de 43 itens do SPAI-Português. As correlações médias interitens e alfas revelaram consistência interna de SPAI-Português e subescalas, além de multidimensionalidade das mesmas. Nenhum item foi suprimido

  3. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  4. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  5. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  6. On the internal consistency of holographic dark energy models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, R

    2008-01-01

    Holographic dark energy (HDE) models, underpinned by an effective quantum field theory (QFT) with a manifest UV/IR connection, have become convincing candidates for providing an explanation of the dark energy in the universe. On the other hand, the maximum number of quantum states that a conventional QFT for a box of size L is capable of describing relates to those boxes which are on the brink of experiencing a sudden collapse to a black hole. Another restriction on the underlying QFT is that the UV cut-off, which cannot be chosen independently of the IR cut-off and therefore becomes a function of time in a cosmological setting, should stay the largest energy scale even in the standard cosmological epochs preceding a dark energy dominated one. We show that, irrespective of whether one deals with the saturated form of HDE or takes a certain degree of non-saturation in the past, the above restrictions cannot be met in a radiation dominated universe, an epoch in the history of the universe which is expected to be perfectly describable within conventional QFT

  7. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  8. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  9. Towards General Temporal Aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehlen, Michael H.; Gamper, Johann; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    associated with the management of temporal data. Indeed, temporal aggregation is complex and among the most difficult, and thus interesting, temporal functionality to support. This paper presents a general framework for temporal aggregation that accommodates existing kinds of aggregation, and it identifies...

  10. Internal Consistency in Components of International Management/International Business Syllabi: Roadmaps with Mixed Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliyath, Rajaram; Adams, Janet S.

    2005-01-01

    The course syllabus is a contract between instructor and students, a schedule of course assignments and activities, and a roadmap delineating objectives and checkpoints in the course. It is also a planning and reference tool for both students and instructor, and it models professors' expectations for their students. This study investigated whether…

  11. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  12. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  13. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  14. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  15. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  16. Mapping the Most Significant Computer Hacking Events to a Temporal Computer Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Heerden , Renier ,; Pieterse , Heloise; Irwin , Barry

    2012-01-01

    Part 4: Section 3: ICT for Peace and War; International audience; This paper presents eight of the most significant computer hacking events (also known as computer attacks). These events were selected because of their unique impact, methodology, or other properties. A temporal computer attack model is presented that can be used to model computer based attacks. This model consists of the following stages: Target Identification, Reconnaissance, Attack, and Post-Attack Reconnaissance stages. The...

  17. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  18. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  19. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that are controlled foreign corporations. (6) Stock consistency. This section limits the application of... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a) Introduction—(1...

  20. A spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection approach using hyper-temporal satellite data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Melbourne, Australia 21-26 July 2013 A SPATIO-TEMPORAL AUTOCORRELATION CHANGE DETECTION APPROACH USING HYPER-TEMPORAL SATELLITE DATA yzW. Kleynhans, yz,B.P Salmon,zK. J. Wessels...

  1. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  2. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  3. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  4. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  5. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  6. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  7. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  8. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  9. Microsurgical techniques in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso Vanegas, Mario A; Lew, Sean M; Morino, Michiharu; Sarmento, Stenio A

    2017-04-01

    Temporal lobe resection is the most prevalent epilepsy surgery procedure. However, there is no consensus on the best surgical approach to treat temporal lobe epilepsy. Complication rates are low and efficacy is very high regarding seizures after such procedures. However, there is still ample controversy regarding the best surgical approach to warrant maximum seizure control with minimal functional deficits. We describe the most frequently used microsurgical techniques for removal of both the lateral and mesial temporal lobe structures in the treatment of medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to mesial temporal sclerosis (corticoamygdalohippocampectomy and selective amygdalohippocampectomy). The choice of surgical technique appears to remain a surgeon's preference for the near future. Meticulous surgical technique and thorough three-dimensional microsurgical knowledge are essentials for obtaining the best results. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  11. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  12. Consistent probabilities in loop quantum cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, David A; Singh, Parampreet

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental issue for any quantum cosmological theory is to specify how probabilities can be assigned to various quantum events or sequences of events such as the occurrence of singularities or bounces. In previous work, we have demonstrated how this issue can be successfully addressed within the consistent histories approach to quantum theory for Wheeler–DeWitt-quantized cosmological models. In this work, we generalize that analysis to the exactly solvable loop quantization of a spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic cosmology sourced with a massless, minimally coupled scalar field known as sLQC. We provide an explicit, rigorous and complete decoherent-histories formulation for this model and compute the probabilities for the occurrence of a quantum bounce versus a singularity. Using the scalar field as an emergent internal time, we show for generic states that the probability for a singularity to occur in this model is zero, and that of a bounce is unity, complementing earlier studies of the expectation values of the volume and matter density in this theory. We also show from the consistent histories point of view that all states in this model, whether quantum or classical, achieve arbitrarily large volume in the limit of infinite ‘past’ or ‘future’ scalar ‘time’, in the sense that the wave function evaluated at any arbitrary fixed value of the volume vanishes in that limit. Finally, we briefly discuss certain misconceptions concerning the utility of the consistent histories approach in these models. (paper)

  13. Putting humans in ecology: consistency in science and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Larry; Fowler, Charles W

    2008-03-01

    Normal and abnormal levels of human participation in ecosystems can be revealed through the use of macro-ecological patterns. Such patterns also provide consistent and objective guidance that will lead to achieving and maintaining ecosystem health and sustainability. This paper focuses on the consistency of this type of guidance and management. Such management, in sharp contrast to current management practices, ensures that our actions as individuals, institutions, political groups, societies, and as a species are applied consistently across all temporal, spatial, and organizational scales. This approach supplants management of today, where inconsistency results from debate, politics, and legal and religious polarity. Consistency is achieved when human endeavors are guided by natural patterns. Pattern-based management meets long-standing demands for enlightened management that requires humans to participate in complex systems in consistent and sustainable ways.

  14. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  15. Temporal summation of heat pain modulated by isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltyn, K F; Knauf, M T; Brellenthin, A G

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of isometric exercise on temporal summation of heat pain. Thus, the purposes of study 1 and study 2 were to examine the influence of exhaustive and non-exhaustive isometric exercise on temporal summation of heat pain in men and women. Forty-four men and 44 women (mean age = 20 years) completed an informed consent document and a packet of questionnaires. Ten heat pulses were applied to the thenar eminence of the dominant hand using a standardized temporal summation protocol. Participants rated the intensity of the heat pulses using a 0-100 pain rating scale before and following isometric exercise consisting of squeezing a hand dynamometer at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) to exhaustion (exhaustive exercise, study 1) and at 25% MVC for 3 min (non-exhaustive exercise, study 2). Muscle pain and perceived exertion were rated every 30 s during exercise using validated rating scales. The data were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance. The results indicated there were no sex differences (p > 0.05) in time to exhaustion (study 1), muscle pain or perceived exertion (studies 1 and 2). There was a significant reduction (p heat pain in men and women. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  16. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion

  17. Indeterministic Temporal Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trzęsicki Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The questions od determinism, causality, and freedom have been the main philosophical problems debated since the beginning of temporal logic. The issue of the logical value of sentences about the future was stated by Aristotle in the famous tomorrow sea-battle passage. The question has inspired Łukasiewicz’s idea of many-valued logics and was a motive of A. N. Prior’s considerations about the logic of tenses. In the scheme of temporal logic there are different solutions to the problem. In the paper we consider indeterministic temporal logic based on the idea of temporal worlds and the relation of accessibility between them.

  18. Consistent biokinetic models for the actinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, R.W.

    2001-01-01

    The biokinetic models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) were developed within a generic framework that depicts gradual burial of skeletal activity in bone volume, depicts recycling of activity released to blood and links excretion to retention and translocation of activity. For other actinide elements such as Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es, the ICRP still uses simplistic retention models that assign all skeletal activity to bone surface and depicts one-directional flow of activity from blood to long-term depositories to excreta. This mixture of updated and older models in ICRP documents has led to inconsistencies in dose estimates and interpretation of bioassay for radionuclides with reasonably similar biokinetics. This paper proposes new biokinetic models for Ac, Pa, Bk, Cf and Es that are consistent with the updated models for Th, Np, Pu, Am and Cm. The proposed models are developed within the ICRP's generic model framework for bone-surface-seeking radionuclides, and an effort has been made to develop parameter values that are consistent with results of comparative biokinetic data on the different actinide elements. (author)

  19. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    . Interestingly, after imposing a simple lag in GRACE data to account for delayed surface runoff or baseflow components, an improved match in terms of degree correlation was observed in the Niger River basin. Significant improvements to the degree correlations (from  ∼  0 to about 0.6) were also found in the Colorado River basin for both the CSIRO-PML and GLEAM products, while MOD16 showed only half of that improvement. In other basins, the variability in the temporal pattern of degree correlations remained considerable and hindered any clear differentiation between the evaporation products. Even so, it was found that a constant lag of 2 months provided a better fit compared to other alternatives, including a zero lag. From a product assessment perspective, no significant or persistent advantage could be discerned across any of the three evaporation products in terms of a sustained hydrological consistency with precipitation and water storage anomaly data. As a result, our analysis has implications in terms of the confidence that can be placed in independent retrievals of the hydrological cycle, raises questions on inter-product quality, and highlights the need for additional techniques to evaluate large-scale products.

  20. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    . Interestingly, after imposing a simple lag in GRACE data to account for delayed surface runoff or baseflow components, an improved match in terms of degree correlation was observed in the Niger River basin. Significant improvements to the degree correlations (from  ∼  0 to about 0.6) were also found in the Colorado River basin for both the CSIRO-PML and GLEAM products, while MOD16 showed only half of that improvement. In other basins, the variability in the temporal pattern of degree correlations remained considerable and hindered any clear differentiation between the evaporation products. Even so, it was found that a constant lag of 2 months provided a better fit compared to other alternatives, including a zero lag. From a product assessment perspective, no significant or persistent advantage could be discerned across any of the three evaporation products in terms of a sustained hydrological consistency with precipitation and water storage anomaly data. As a result, our analysis has implications in terms of the confidence that can be placed in independent retrievals of the hydrological cycle, raises questions on inter-product quality, and highlights the need for additional techniques to evaluate large-scale products.

  1. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-07-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor.

  2. Chondroblastoma of temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanohta, K.; Noda, M.; Katoh, H.; Okazaki, A.; Sugiyama, S.; Maehara, T.; Onishi, S.; Tanida, T.

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 55-year-old female with chondroblastoma arising from the left temporal bone is presented. Although 10 cases of temporal chondroblastoma have been reported, this is the first in which plain radiography, pluridirectional tomography, computed tomography (CT) and angiography were performed. We discuss the clinical and radiological aspects of this rare tumor. (orig.)

  3. Temporal context and the organisational impairment of memory search in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyn, Sean M; McCluey, Joshua D; Morton, Neal W; Woolard, Austin A; Luksik, Andrew S; Heckers, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    An influential theory of schizophrenic deficits in executive function suggests that patients have difficulty maintaining and utilising an internal contextual representation, whose function is to ensure that stimuli are processed in a task-appropriate manner. In basic research on episodic memory, retrieved-context theories propose that an internal contextual representation is critically involved in memory search, facilitating the retrieval of task-appropriate memories. This contextual machinery is thought to give rise to temporal organisation during free recall: the tendency for successive recall responses to correspond to items from nearby positions on the study list. If patients with schizophrenia have a generalised contextual deficit, then this leads to the prediction that these patients will exhibit reduced temporal organisation in free recall. Using a combination of classic and recently developed organisational measures, we characterised recall organisation in 75 patients with schizophrenia and 72 nondisordered control participants performing a multi-trial free-recall task. Patients with schizophrenia showed diminished temporal organisation, as well as diminished subjective organisation of their recall sequences relative to control participants. The two groups showed similar amounts of semantic organisation during recall. The observation of reduced temporal organisation in the patient group is consistent with the proposal that the memory deficit in schizophrenia can be characterised as a deficit in contextual processing.

  4. Markup of temporal information in electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Sookyung; Bakken, Suzanne; Johnson, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Temporal information plays a critical role in the understanding of clinical narrative (i.e., free text). We developed a representation for marking up temporal information in a narrative, consisting of five elements: 1) reference point, 2) direction, 3) number, 4) time unit, and 5) pattern. We identified 254 temporal expressions from 50 discharge summaries and represented them using our scheme. The overall inter-rater reliability among raters applying the representation model was 75 percent agreement. The model can contribute to temporal reasoning in computer systems for decision support, data mining, and process and outcomes analyses by providing structured temporal information.

  5. ACHIEVING CONSISTENT DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS FROM SDO /HMI VECTOR FIELD INVERSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Antiochos, S. K.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham

    2016-01-01

    NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory is delivering vector magnetic field observations of the full solar disk with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution; however, the satellite is in a highly inclined geosynchronous orbit. The relative spacecraft–Sun velocity varies by ±3 km s −1 over a day, which introduces major orbital artifacts in the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. We demonstrate that the orbital artifacts contaminate all spatial and temporal scales in the data. We describe a newly developed three-stage procedure for mitigating these artifacts in the Doppler data obtained from the Milne–Eddington inversions in the HMI pipeline. The procedure ultimately uses 32 velocity-dependent coefficients to adjust 10 million pixels—a remarkably sparse correction model given the complexity of the orbital artifacts. This procedure was applied to full-disk images of AR 11084 to produce consistent Dopplergrams. The data adjustments reduce the power in the orbital artifacts by 31 dB. Furthermore, we analyze in detail the corrected images and show that our procedure greatly improves the temporal and spectral properties of the data without adding any new artifacts. We conclude that this new procedure makes a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the HMI data and in its usefulness for precision scientific studies.

  6. Robust Visual Tracking Via Consistent Low-Rank Sparse Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-06-19

    Object tracking is the process of determining the states of a target in consecutive video frames based on properties of motion and appearance consistency. In this paper, we propose a consistent low-rank sparse tracker (CLRST) that builds upon the particle filter framework for tracking. By exploiting temporal consistency, the proposed CLRST algorithm adaptively prunes and selects candidate particles. By using linear sparse combinations of dictionary templates, the proposed method learns the sparse representations of image regions corresponding to candidate particles jointly by exploiting the underlying low-rank constraints. In addition, the proposed CLRST algorithm is computationally attractive since temporal consistency property helps prune particles and the low-rank minimization problem for learning joint sparse representations can be efficiently solved by a sequence of closed form update operations. We evaluate the proposed CLRST algorithm against 14 state-of-the-art tracking methods on a set of 25 challenging image sequences. Experimental results show that the CLRST algorithm performs favorably against state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of accuracy and execution time.

  7. Evaluating temporal consistency of long-term global NDVI datasets for trend analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Fensholt, Rasmus; Verbesselt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    -sensor NDVI time series by analyzing the co-occurrence between breaks in the NDVI time series and sensor shifts from GIMMS3g (Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies 3rd generation), VIP3 (Vegetation Index and Phenology version 3), LTDR4 (Long Term Data Record version 4) and SPOT-VGT (Système Pour l......, potentially introducing uncertainties in NDVI trend analysis. Platform/sensor change from VGT-1 to VGT-2 is found to cause a significant positive break in the SPOT-VGT NDVI time series. Potential artifacts exist in humid, dry-subhumid, semi-arid and hyper-arid regions of GIMMS3g NDVI, whereas no signs...

  8. Statistical Process Control Charts for Measuring and Monitoring Temporal Consistency of Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. Hafidz

    2010-01-01

    Methods of statistical process control were briefly investigated in the field of educational measurement as early as 1999. However, only the use of a cumulative sum chart was explored. In this article other methods of statistical quality control are introduced and explored. In particular, methods in the form of Shewhart mean and standard deviation…

  9. Intraspinal serotonergic neurons consist of two, temporally distinct populations in developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacob E; Wiggin, Timothy D; Rivera-Perez, Luis M; Lillesaar, Christina; Masino, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Zebrafish intraspinal serotonergic neuron (ISN) morphology and distribution have been examined in detail at different ages; however, some aspects of the development of these cells remain unclear. Although antibodies to serotonin (5-HT) have detected ISNs in the ventral spinal cord of embryos, larvae, and adults, the only tryptophan hydroxylase (tph) transcript that has been described in the spinal cord is tph1a. Paradoxically, spinal tph1a is only expressed transiently in embryos, which brings the source of 5-HT in the ISNs of larvae and adults into question. Because the pet1 and tph2 promoters drive transgene expression in the spinal cord, we hypothesized that tph2 is expressed in spinal cords of zebrafish larvae. We confirmed this hypothesis through in situ hybridization. Next, we used 5-HT antibody labeling and transgenic markers of tph2-expressing neurons to identify a transient population of ISNs in embryos that was distinct from ISNs that appeared later in development. The existence of separate ISN populations may not have been recognized previously due to their shared location in the ventral spinal cord. Finally, we used transgenic markers and immunohistochemical labeling to identify the transient ISN population as GABAergic Kolmer-Agduhr double-prime (KA″) neurons. Altogether, this study revealed a novel developmental paradigm in which KA″ neurons are transiently serotonergic before the appearance of a stable population of tph2-expressing ISNs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Otosclerosis: Temporal Bone Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Alicia M; Ishai, Reuven; McKenna, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Otosclerosis is pathologically characterized by abnormal bony remodeling, which includes bone resorption, new bone deposition, and vascular proliferation in the temporal bone. Sensorineural hearing loss in otosclerosis is associated with extension of otosclerosis to the cochlear endosteum and deposition of collagen throughout the spiral ligament. Persistent or recurrent conductive hearing loss after stapedectomy has been associated with incomplete footplate fenestration, poor incus-prosthesis connection, and incus resorption in temporal bone specimens. Human temporal bone pathology has helped to define the role of computed tomography imaging for otosclerosis, confirming that computed tomography is highly sensitive for diagnosis, yet limited in assessing cochlear endosteal involvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Face and content validation of a virtual reality temporal bone simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Asit; Khemani, Sam; Tolley, Neil; Singh, Arvind; Budge, James; Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Francis, Howard W; Darzi, Ara; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2012-03-01

    To validate the VOXEL-MAN TempoSurg simulator for temporal bone dissection. Prospective international study. Otolaryngology departments of 2 academic health care institutions in the United Kingdom and United States. Eighty-five subjects were recruited consisting of an experienced and referent group. Participants performed a standardized familiarization session and temporal bone dissection task. Realism, training effectiveness, and global impressions were evaluated across 21 domains using a 5-point Likert-type scale. A score of 4 was the minimum threshold for acceptability. The experienced group comprised 25 otolaryngology trainers who had performed 150 mastoid operations. The referent group comprised 60 trainees (mean otolaryngology experience of 2.9 years). Familiarization took longer in the experienced group (P = .01). User-friendliness was positively rated (mean score 4.1). Seventy percent of participants rated anatomical appearance as acceptable. Trainers rated drill ergonomics worse than did trainees (P = .01). Simulation temporal bone training scored highly (mean score 4.3). Surgical anatomy, drill navigation, and hand-eye coordination accounted for this. Trainees were more likely to recommend temporal bone simulation to a colleague than were trainers (P = .01). Transferability of skills to the operating room was undecided (mean score 3.5). Realism of the VOXEL-MAN virtual reality temporal bone simulator is suboptimal in its current version. Nonetheless, it represents a useful adjunct to existing training methods and is particularly beneficial for novice surgeons before performing cadaveric temporal bone dissection. Improvements in realism, specifically drill ergonomics and visual-spatial perception during deeper temporal bone dissection, are warranted.

  12. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  13. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  14. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  15. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  16. Nontraumatic temporal subcortical hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.; Shamsnia, M.; Elliott, D.; Charity Hospital, New Orleans, LA

    1990-01-01

    Thirty patients with temporal hematomas were analyzed. Four with frontal extension survived. Of 6 with ganglionic extension, three had residual deficit. Of 8 with parietal extension, 4 had delayed deterioration and died, two patients recovered, and two with peritumoral hemorrhage due to glioblastoma multiforme died. Five patients with posterior temporal hematomas recovered. In 7 patients with basal-inferior temporal hematomas, angiography showed aneurysms in 3 cases, angiomas in 2 cases and no vascular lesion in 2 cases. Of 23 cases with negative angiography and no systemic cause for temporal hematoma, 12 patients were hypertensive and 11 were normotensive. Ten hypertensive patients without evidence of chronic vascular disease had the largest hematomas, extending into the parietal or ganglionic regions. Seven of these patients died; 3 had residual deficit. Eleven normotensive and two hypertensive patients with evidence of chronic vascular change had smaller hematomas. They survived with good functional recovery. (orig.)

  17. Temporal Lobe Seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... functions, including having odd feelings — such as euphoria, deja vu or fear. Temporal lobe seizures are sometimes called ... sudden sense of unprovoked fear or joy A deja vu experience — a feeling that what's happening has happened ...

  18. Spectro-temporal modulation masking patterns reveal frequency selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetjen, Arne; Verhey, Jesko L

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the possibility that the human auditory system demonstrates frequency selectivity to spectro-temporal amplitude modulations. Threshold modulation depth for detecting sinusoidal spectro-temporal modulations was measured using a generalized masked threshold pattern paradigm with narrowband masker modulations. Four target spectro-temporal modulations were examined, differing in their temporal and spectral modulation frequencies: a temporal modulation of -8, 8, or 16 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 1 cycle/octave and a temporal modulation of 4 Hz combined with a spectral modulation of 0.5 cycles/octave. The temporal center frequencies of the masker modulation ranged from 0.25 to 4 times the target temporal modulation. The spectral masker-modulation center-frequencies were 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times the target spectral modulation. For all target modulations, the pattern of average thresholds for the eight normal-hearing listeners was consistent with the hypothesis of a spectro-temporal modulation filter. Such a pattern of modulation-frequency sensitivity was predicted on the basis of psychoacoustical data for purely temporal amplitude modulations and purely spectral amplitude modulations. An analysis of separability indicates that, for the present data set, selectivity in the spectro-temporal modulation domain can be described by a combination of a purely spectral and a purely temporal modulation filter function.

  19. SHEEP TEMPORAL BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesavan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Human temporal bones are difficult to procure now a days due to various ethical issues. Sheep temporal bone is a good alternative due to morphological similarities, easy to procure and less cost. Many middle ear exercises can be done easily and handling of instruments is done in the procedures like myringoplasty, tympanoplasty, stapedotomy, facial nerve dissection and some middle ear implants. This is useful for resident training programme.

  20. Management of Temporal Constraints for Factory Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    consistency of scheduling decisions were implemented in both the ISIS [Fox 84] and SOJA [LePape 85a] scheduling systems. More recent work with the...kinds of time propagation systems: the symbolic and the numeric ones. Symbolic systems combine relationships with a temporal logic a la Allen [Allen 81...maintains consistency by narrowing time windows associated with activities as decisions are made, and SOJA [LePape 85b] guarantees a schedule’s

  1. Is There a Future for Education Consistent with Agenda 21?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses recent experiences in developing and implementing strategies for education consistent with the concept of sustainable development at two different levels: (1) the international level characterized by Agenda 21 along with the efforts of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development to foster its progress; and (2) the national…

  2. Development of Temporal Macrostructure in Life Narratives across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-01-01

    In Western cultures, life narratives are typically expected to recount the narrator's life from birth to the present. Disparate autobiographical memories need to be integrated into a more or less coherent story, which is facilitated by an overarching temporal macrostructure. The temporal macrostructure consists of elaborated beginnings that…

  3. Role of temporal processing stages by inferior temporal neurons in facial recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko eSugase-Miyamoto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus on the role of temporal stages of encoded facial information in the visual system, which might enable the efficient determination of species, identity, and expression. Facial recognition is an important function of our brain and is known to be processed in the ventral visual pathway, where visual signals are processed through areas V1, V2, V4, and the inferior temporal (IT cortex. In the IT cortex, neurons show selective responses to complex visual images such as faces, and at each stage along the pathway the stimulus selectivity of the neural responses becomes sharper, particularly in the later portion of the responses.In the IT cortex of the monkey, facial information is represented by different temporal stages of neural responses, as shown in our previous study: the initial transient response of face-responsive neurons represents information about global categories, i.e., human vs. monkey vs. simple shapes, whilst the later portion of these responses represents information about detailed facial categories, i.e., expression and/or identity. This suggests that the temporal stages of the neuronal firing pattern play an important role in the coding of visual stimuli, including faces. This type of coding may be a plausible mechanism underlying the temporal dynamics of recognition, including the process of detection/categorization followed by the identification of objects. Recent single-unit studies in monkeys have also provided evidence consistent with the important role of the temporal stages of encoded facial information. For example, view-invariant facial identity information is represented in the response at a later period within a region of face-selective neurons. Consistent with these findings, temporally modulated neural activity has also been observed in human studies. These results suggest a close correlation between the temporal processing stages of facial information by IT neurons and the temporal dynamics of

  4. The role of auditory spectro-temporal modulation filtering and the decision metric for speech intelligibility prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Speech intelligibility models typically consist of a preprocessing part that transforms stimuli into some internal (auditory) representation and a decision metric that relates the internal representation to speech intelligibility. The present study analyzed the role of modulation filtering...... in the preprocessing of different speech intelligibility models by comparing predictions from models that either assume a spectro-temporal (i.e., two-dimensional) or a temporal-only (i.e., one-dimensional) modulation filterbank. Furthermore, the role of the decision metric for speech intelligibility was investigated...... subtraction. The results suggested that a decision metric based on the SNRenv may provide a more general basis for predicting speech intelligibility than a metric based on the MTF. Moreover, the one-dimensional modulation filtering process was found to be sufficient to account for the data when combined...

  5. Dreams and the temporality of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuffie, Katherine; Mashour, George A

    2010-01-01

    Understanding dreams has long been considered fundamental to the development of a theory of consciousness. Evidence from neurobiology and neuroimaging research has paved the way for new theories of dreaming that are empirically supported. In this article we argue that dreaming is a unique state of consciousness that incorporates 3 temporal dimensions: experience of the present, processing of the past, and preparation for the future. The temporal complexity of dreams is made possible in part by the unique neurobiological environment of sleep, in which stimuli are internally generated and many of the restrictions associated with waking thought are absent. Because dream consciousness is not determined by sensory stimuli, a flexible integration of past experiences and the forging of novel connections are possible. We argue that disparate dream theories may not be mutually exclusive but rather relate to different temporal domains of the dream state.

  6. Temporal network epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Holme, Petter

    2017-01-01

    This book covers recent developments in epidemic process models and related data on temporally varying networks. It is widely recognized that contact networks are indispensable for describing, understanding, and intervening to stop the spread of infectious diseases in human and animal populations; “network epidemiology” is an umbrella term to describe this research field. More recently, contact networks have been recognized as being highly dynamic. This observation, also supported by an increasing amount of new data, has led to research on temporal networks, a rapidly growing area. Changes in network structure are often informed by epidemic (or other) dynamics, in which case they are referred to as adaptive networks. This volume gathers contributions by prominent authors working in temporal and adaptive network epidemiology, a field essential to understanding infectious diseases in real society.

  7. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... temporal ccp by developing a process calculus called ntcc. The ntcc calculus generalizes the tcc model, the latter being a temporal ccp model for deterministic and synchronouss timed reactive systems. The calculus is built upon few basic ideas but it captures several aspects of timed systems. As tcc, ntcc...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  8. Deficits in Visuo-Motor Temporal Integration Impacts Manual Dexterity in Probable Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobusako, Satoshi; Sakai, Ayami; Tsujimoto, Taeko; Shuto, Takashi; Nishi, Yuki; Asano, Daiki; Furukawa, Emi; Zama, Takuro; Osumi, Michihiro; Shimada, Sotaro; Morioka, Shu; Nakai, Akio

    2018-01-01

    The neurological basis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is thought to be deficits in the internal model and mirror-neuron system (MNS) in the parietal lobe and cerebellum. However, it is not clear if the visuo-motor temporal integration in the internal model and automatic-imitation function in the MNS differs between children with DCD and those with typical development (TD). The current study aimed to investigate these differences. Using the manual dexterity test of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (second edition), the participants were either assigned to the probable DCD (pDCD) group or TD group. The former was comprised of 29 children with clumsy manual dexterity, while the latter consisted of 42 children with normal manual dexterity. Visuo-motor temporal integration ability and automatic-imitation function were measured using the delayed visual feedback detection task and motor interference task, respectively. Further, the current study investigated whether autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) traits, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits, and depressive symptoms differed among the two groups, since these symptoms are frequent comorbidities of DCD. In addition, correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to extract factors affecting clumsy manual dexterity. In the results, the delay-detection threshold (DDT) and steepness of the delay-detection probability curve, which indicated visuo-motor temporal integration ability, were significantly prolonged and decreased, respectively, in children with pDCD. The interference effect, which indicated automatic-imitation function, was also significantly reduced in this group. These results highlighted that children with clumsy manual dexterity have deficits in visuo-motor temporal integration and automatic-imitation function. There was a significant correlation between manual dexterity, and measures of visuo-motor temporal integration, and ASD traits and ADHD traits and

  9. Empresas de trabajo temporal

    OpenAIRE

    Chico Abad, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Las empresas de trabajo temporal han ido tomando mayor relevancia debido a la estructura de la sociedad y de la economía. La entrada en vigor de la ley 14/1994 por la que se regulan las empresas de trabajo temporal suposo la incorporación al ordenamiento jurífico español de un tipo de empresas cuya actuación se habia extendido en otros países del entorno europeo. La idea general gira en torno a la flexibilidad de un nuevo marco económico y organizativo y exige a las empresas una capa...

  10. Medial temporal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, A.J.; Cross, D.T.; Friedman, D.P.; Bello, J.A.; Hilal, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    To better define the MR appearance of hippocampal sclerosis, the authors have reviewed over 500 MR coronal images of the temporal lobes. Many cysts were noted that analysis showed were of choroid-fissure (arachnoid) origin. Their association with seizures was low. A few nontumorous, static, medial temporal lesions, noted on T2-weighted coronal images, were poorly visualized on T1-weighted images and did not enhance with gadolinium. The margins were irregular, involved the hippocampus, and were often associated with focal atrophy. The lesions usually were associated with seizure disorders and specific electroencephalographic changes, and the authors believe they represented hippocampal sclerosis

  11. Consistency Anchor Formalization and Correctness Proofs

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Correia; Bessani, Alysson

    2014-01-01

    This is report contains the formal proofs for the techniques for increasing the consistency of cloud storage as presented in "Bessani et al. SCFS: A Cloud-backed File System. Proc. of the 2014 USENIX Annual Technical Conference. June 2014." The consistency anchor technique allows one to increase the consistency provided by eventually consistent cloud storage services like Amazon S3. This technique has been used in the SCFS (Shared Cloud File System) cloud-backed file system for solving rea...

  12. Are there meaningful individual differences in temporal inconsistency in self-reported personality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubelet, Andrea; Salthouse, Timothy A; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-11-01

    The current project had three goals. The first was to examine whether it is meaningful to refer to across-time variability in self-reported personality as an individual differences characteristic. The second was to investigate whether negative affect was associated with variability in self-reported personality, while controlling for mean levels, and correcting for measurement errors. The third goal was to examine whether variability in self-reported personality would be larger among young adults than among older adults, and whether the relation of variability with negative affect would be stronger at older ages than at younger ages. Two moderately large samples of participants completed the International Item Pool Personality questionnaire assessing the Big Five personality dimensions either twice or thrice, in addition to several measures of negative affect. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that within-person variability in self-reported personality is a meaningful individual difference characteristic. Some people exhibited greater across-time variability than others after removing measurement error, and people who showed temporal instability in one trait also exhibited temporal instability across the other four traits. However, temporal variability was not related to negative affect, and there was no evidence that either temporal variability or its association with negative affect varied with age.

  13. High frequency repetitive sensory stimulation improves temporal discrimination in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erro, Roberto; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Antelmi, Elena; Palladino, Raffaele; Tinazzi, Michele; Rothwell, John; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2016-01-01

    High frequency electrical stimulation of an area of skin on a finger improves two-point spatial discrimination in the stimulated area, likely depending on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex. However, it is unknown whether improvement also applies to temporal discrimination. Twelve young and ten elderly volunteers underwent the stimulation protocol onto the palmar skin of the right index finger. Somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT) was evaluated before and immediately after stimulation as well as 2.5h and 24h later. There was a significant reduction in somatosensory temporal threshold only on the stimulated finger. The effect was reversible, with STDT returning to the baseline values within 24h, and was smaller in the elderly than in the young participants. High frequency stimulation of the skin focally improves temporal discrimination in the area of stimulation. Given previous suggestions that the perceptual effects rely on plastic changes in the somatosensory cortex, our results are consistent with the idea that the timing of sensory stimuli is, at least partially, encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex. Such a protocol could potentially be used as a therapeutic intervention to ameliorate physiological decline in the elderly or in other disorders of sensorimotor integration. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Added clinical value of the inferior temporal EEG electrode chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Justesen, Anders; Eskelund Johansen, Ann Berit; Martinussen, Noomi Ida; Wasserman, Danielle; Terney, Daniella; Meritam, Pirgit; Gardella, Elena; Beniczky, Sándor

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic added value of supplementing the 10-20 EEG array with six electrodes in the inferior temporal chain. EEGs were recorded with 25 electrodes: 19 positions of the 10-20 system, and six additional electrodes in the inferior temporal chain (F9/10, T9/10, P9/10). Five-hundred consecutive standard and sleep EEG recordings were reviewed using the 10-20 array and the extended array. We identified the recordings with EEG abnormalities that had peak negativities at the inferior temporal electrodes, and those that only were visible at the inferior temporal electrodes. From the 286 abnormal recordings, the peak negativity was at the inferior temporal electrodes in 81 cases (28.3%) and only visible at the inferior temporal electrodes in eight cases (2.8%). In the sub-group of patients with temporal abnormalities (n = 134), these represented 59% (peak in the inferior chain) and 6% (only seen at the inferior chain). Adding six electrodes in the inferior temporal electrode chain to the 10-20 array improves the localization and identification of EEG abnormalities, especially those located in the temporal region. Our results suggest that inferior temporal electrodes should be added to the EEG array, to increase the diagnostic yield of the recordings. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  16. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Recent research in the area of temporal databases has proposed a number of query languages that vary in their expressive power and the semantics they provide to users. These query languages represent a spectrum of solutions to the tension between clean semantics and efficient evaluation. Often, t...

  17. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  18. Temporal Photon Differentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively...

  19. Temporal compressive sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W.

    2017-12-12

    Methods and systems for temporal compressive sensing are disclosed, where within each of one or more sensor array data acquisition periods, one or more sensor array measurement datasets comprising distinct linear combinations of time slice data are acquired, and where mathematical reconstruction allows for calculation of accurate representations of the individual time slice datasets.

  20. Information and Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Flender

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Being able to give reasons for what the world is and how it works is one of the defining characteristics of modernity. Mathematical reason and empirical observation brought science and engineering to unprecedented success. However, modernity has reached a post-state where an instrumental view of technology needs revision with reasonable arguments and evidence, i.e. without falling back to superstition and mysticism. Instrumentally, technology bears the potential to ease and to harm. Easing and harming can't be controlled like the initial development of technology is a controlled exercise for a specific, mostly easing purpose. Therefore, a revised understanding of information technology is proposed based upon mathematical concepts and intuitions as developed in quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics offers unequaled opportunities because it raises foundational questions in a precise form. Beyond instrumentalism it enables to raise the question of essences as that what remains through time what it is. The essence of information technology is acausality. The time of acausality is temporality. Temporality is not a concept or a category. It is not epistemological. As an existential and thus more comprehensive and fundamental than a concept or a category temporality is ontological; it does not simply have ontic properties. Rather it exhibits general essences. Datability, significance, spannedness and openness are general essences of equiprimordial time (temporality.

  1. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  2. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  3. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  4. Multiscale spatial and temporal estimation of the b-value

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, R.; D'Auria, L.; Barrancos, J.; Padilla, G.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of the spatial and temporal variations of the Gutenberg-Richter b-value is of great importance in different seismological applications. One of the problems affecting its estimation is the heterogeneous distribution of the seismicity which makes its estimate strongly dependent upon the selected spatial and/or temporal scale. This is especially important in volcanoes where dense clusters of earthquakes often overlap the background seismicity. Proposed solutions for estimating temporal variations of the b-value include considering equally spaced time intervals or variable intervals having an equal number of earthquakes. Similar approaches have been proposed to image the spatial variations of this parameter as well.We propose a novel multiscale approach, based on the method of Ogata and Katsura (1993), allowing a consistent estimation of the b-value regardless of the considered spatial and/or temporal scales. Our method, named MUST-B (MUltiscale Spatial and Temporal characterization of the B-value), basically consists in computing estimates of the b-value at multiple temporal and spatial scales, extracting for a give spatio-temporal point a statistical estimator of the value, as well as and indication of the characteristic spatio-temporal scale. This approach includes also a consistent estimation of the completeness magnitude (Mc) and of the uncertainties over both b and Mc.We applied this method to example datasets for volcanic (Tenerife, El Hierro) and tectonic areas (Central Italy) as well as an example application at global scale.

  5. Memory for temporally dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ryan; Homa, Donald; Ellis, Derek

    2017-07-01

    Recognition memory was investigated for individual frames extracted from temporally continuous, visually rich film segments of 5-15 min. Participants viewed a short clip from a film in either a coherent or a jumbled order, followed by a recognition test of studied frames. Foils came either from an earlier or a later part of the film (Experiment 1) or from deleted segments selected from random cuts of varying duration (0.5 to 30 s) within the film itself (Experiment 2). When the foils came from an earlier or later part of the film (Experiment 1), recognition was excellent, with the hit rate far exceeding the false-alarm rate (.78 vs. 18). In Experiment 2, recognition was far worse, with the hit rate (.76) exceeding the false-alarm rate only for foils drawn from the longest cuts (15 and 30 s) and matching the false-alarm rate for the 5 s segments. When the foils were drawn from the briefest cuts (0.5 and 1.0 s), the false-alarm rate exceeded the hit rate. Unexpectedly, jumbling had no effect on recognition in either experiment. These results are consistent with the view that memory for complex visually temporal events is excellent, with the integrity unperturbed by disruption of the global structure of the visual stream. Disruption of memory was observed only when foils were drawn from embedded segments of duration less than 5 s, an outcome consistent with the view that memory at these shortest durations are consolidated with expectations drawn from the previous stream.

  6. Temporal correlation coefficient for directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies dealing with network theory focused mainly on the static aggregation of edges over specific time window lengths. Thus, most of the dynamic information gets lost. To assess the quality of such a static aggregation the temporal correlation coefficient can be calculated. It measures the overall possibility for an edge to persist between two consecutive snapshots. Up to now, this measure is only defined for undirected networks. Therefore, we introduce the adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient to directed networks. This new methodology enables the distinction between ingoing and outgoing edges. Besides a small example network presenting the single calculation steps, we also calculated the proposed measurements for a real pig trade network to emphasize the importance of considering the edge direction. The farm types at the beginning of the pork supply chain showed clearly higher values for the outgoing temporal correlation coefficient compared to the farm types at the end of the pork supply chain. These farm types showed higher values for the ingoing temporal correlation coefficient. The temporal correlation coefficient is a valuable tool to understand the structural dynamics of these systems, as it assesses the consistency of the edge configuration. The adaption of this measure for directed networks may help to preserve meaningful additional information about the investigated network that might get lost if the edge directions are ignored.

  7. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. STEIN, Alison M. BELL

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior. For example, individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics. A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior. In sticklebacks, fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fitness. In this study, we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior. We recorded visits to nest, total time fanning, and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch, and then allowed the males to breed again. Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the first clutch, and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch. We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch: for example, total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching, then decreased to approximately zero. Despite these temporal changes, males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass. Moreover, individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time. Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels. Altogether, these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1: 45–52, 2012].

  8. Consistent individual differences in fathering in threespined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura R. STEIN; Alison M. BELL

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence that individual animals show consistent differences in behavior.For example,individual threespined stickleback fish differ in how they react to predators and how aggressive they are during social interactions with conspecifics.A relatively unexplored but potentially important axis of variation is parental behavior.In sticklebacks,fathers provide all of the parental care that is necessary for offspring survival; therefore paternal care is directly tied to fimess.In this study,we assessed whether individual male sticklebacks differ consistently from each other in parental behavior.We recorded visits to nest,total time fanning,and activity levels of 11 individual males every day throughout one clutch,and then allowed the males to breed again.Half of the males were exposed to predation risk while parenting during the fast clutch,and the other half of the males experienced predation risk during the second clutch.We detected dramatic temporal changes in parental behaviors over the course of the clutch:for example,total time fanning increased six-fold prior to eggs hatching,then decreased to approximately zero.Despite these temporal changes,males retained their individually-distinctive parenting styles within a clutch that could not be explained by differences in body size or egg mass.Moreover,individual differences in parenting were maintained when males reproduced for a second time.Males that were exposed to simulated predation risk briefly decreased fanning and increased activity levels.Altogether,these results show that individual sticklebacks consistently differ from each other in how they behave as parents [Current Zoology 58 (1):45-52,2012].

  9. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  10. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  11. Kantian fractionalization predicts the conflict propensity of the international system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmer, Skyler J; Menninga, Elizabeth J; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-09-22

    Network science has spurred a reexamination of relational phenomena in political science, including the study of international conflict. We introduce a new direction to the study of conflict by showing that the multiplex fractionalization of the international system along three key dimensions is a powerful predictor of the propensity for violent interstate conflict. Even after controlling for well-established conflict indicators, our new measure contributes more to model fit for interstate conflict than all of the previously established measures combined. Moreover, joint democracy plays little, if any, role in predicting system stability, thus challenging perhaps the major empirical finding of the international relations literature. Lastly, the temporal variability of our measure with conflict is consistent with a causal relationship. Our results have real-world policy implications as changes in our fractionalization measure substantially aid the prediction of conflict up to 10 years into the future, allowing it to serve as an early warning sign of international instability.

  12. Spatial discontinuity and temporal evolution of channel morphology along a mixed bedrock-alluvial river, upper Drôme River, southeast France: Contingent responses to external and internal controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toone, J.; Rice, S. P.; Piégay, H.

    2014-01-01

    The rehabilitation of degraded river channels is often guided by assumptions of continuity, yet in response to spatial and temporal variations in controlling conditions rivers typically display discontinuous response in space and time. This study examines the development of a 5 km reach of the Drôme River, S.E. France, characterised by alternating alluvial and bedrock zones that are separated by abrupt downstream transitions. This reach is representative of the Drôme River as a whole, and other rivers in the European Alps where braided channel planforms have been replaced by more complex, discontinuous morphologies. The primary aims are to understand how this spatial complexity has developed on the Drôme; evaluate how temporal channel changes have been affected by local factors, particularly bedrock exposures, and by long-term, catchment-scale changes in sediment supply and the flood activity; and consider the implications of this discontinuous geomorphology for reach management. The development of geomorphological zonation is examined by documenting sequential changes in channel planform between seven periods, using aerial photography (1948-2006) and by analysing change in bed elevation from profiles surveyed in 1928, 2003 and 2005. Between 1948 and 2001 bedrock exposed in the channel bed and along the floodplain margins defined discontinuities in sediment connectivity that were largely responsible for the configuration of channel zones. The impact of floods on this system was not proportional to flood magnitude. A modest flood in 1978 was an important event that, by incision and avulsion at key locations, defined a pattern of zonation that persisted until the end of the study in 2006. During the final 5 years of the study, alluvial zones that previously responded to large floods by widening underwent narrowing, despite the occurrence of a large flood, and led to an overall reduction in width variance. This resulted from progressive incision beneath and

  13. An energetically consistent vertical mixing parameterization in CCSM4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Borg; Jochum, Markus; Eden, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    An energetically consistent stratification-dependent vertical mixing parameterization is implemented in the Community Climate System Model 4 and forced with energy conversion from the barotropic tides to internal waves. The structures of the resulting dissipation and diffusivity fields are compared......, however, depends greatly on the details of the vertical mixing parameterizations, where the new energetically consistent parameterization results in low thermocline diffusivities and a sharper and shallower thermocline. It is also investigated if the ocean state is more sensitive to a change in forcing...

  14. ADHD and temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological difference...... in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological experience...

  15. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  16. Translationally invariant self-consistent field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Weiss, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    We present a self-consistent field theory which is translationally invariant. The equations obtained go over to the usual Hartree-Fock equations in the limit of large particle number. In addition to deriving the dynamic equations for the self-consistent amplitudes we discuss the calculation of form factors and various other observables

  17. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under...

  18. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals.

  19. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  20. Consistent spectroscopy for a extended gauge model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, G. de.

    1990-11-01

    The consistent spectroscopy was obtained with a Lagrangian constructed with vector fields with a U(1) group extended symmetry. As consistent spectroscopy is understood the determination of quantum physical properties described by the model in an manner independent from the possible parametrizations adopted in their description. (L.C.J.A.)

  1. Consistency of Vegetation Index Seasonality Across the Amazon Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jerome; Mottus, Matti; Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  2. Consistency of vegetation index seasonality across the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo Eiji; Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Wagner, Fabien; Hilker, Thomas; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Chave, Jérôme; Mõttus, Matti; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2016-10-01

    Vegetation indices (VIs) calculated from remotely sensed reflectance are widely used tools for characterizing the extent and status of vegetated areas. Recently, however, their capability to monitor the Amazon forest phenology has been intensely scrutinized. In this study, we analyze the consistency of VIs seasonal patterns obtained from two MODIS products: the Collection 5 BRDF product (MCD43) and the Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction algorithm (MAIAC). The spatio-temporal patterns of the VIs were also compared with field measured leaf litterfall, gross ecosystem productivity and active microwave data. Our results show that significant seasonal patterns are observed in all VIs after the removal of view-illumination effects and cloud contamination. However, we demonstrate inconsistencies in the characteristics of seasonal patterns between different VIs and MODIS products. We demonstrate that differences in the original reflectance band values form a major source of discrepancy between MODIS VI products. The MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm significantly reduces noise signals in the red and blue bands. Another important source of discrepancy is caused by differences in the availability of clear-sky data, as the MAIAC product allows increased availability of valid pixels in the equatorial Amazon. Finally, differences in VIs seasonal patterns were also caused by MODIS collection 5 calibration degradation. The correlation of remote sensing and field data also varied spatially, leading to different temporal offsets between VIs, active microwave and field measured data. We conclude that recent improvements in the MAIAC product have led to changes in the characteristics of spatio-temporal patterns of VIs seasonality across the Amazon forest, when compared to the MCD43 product. Nevertheless, despite improved quality and reduced uncertainties in the MAIAC product, a robust biophysical interpretation of VIs seasonality is still missing.

  3. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  4. Right fronto-limbic atrophy is associated with reduced empathy in refractory unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Rankin, Katherine P; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Kurthen, Martin; Jokeit, Hennric

    2015-11-01

    Refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most frequent focal epilepsy and is often accompanied by deficits in social cognition including emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy. Consistent with the neuronal networks that are crucial for normal social-cognitive processing, these impairments have been associated with functional changes in fronto-temporal regions. However, although atrophy in unilateral MTLE also affects regions of the temporal and frontal lobes that underlie social cognition, little is known about the structural correlates of social-cognitive deficits in refractory MTLE. In the present study, a psychometrically validated empathy questionnaire was combined with whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate the relationship between self-reported affective and cognitive empathy and gray matter volume in 55 subjects (13 patients with right MTLE, 9 patients with left MTLE, and 33 healthy controls). Consistent with the brain regions underlying social cognition, our results show that lower affective and cognitive empathy was associated with smaller volume in predominantly right fronto-limbic regions, including the right hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, fusiform gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, and in the bilateral midbrain. The only region that was associated with both affective and cognitive empathy was the right mesial temporal lobe. These findings indicate that patients with right MTLE are at increased risk for reduced empathy towards others' internal states and they shed new light on the structural correlates of impaired social cognition frequently accompanying refractory MTLE. In line with previous evidence from patients with neurodegenerative disease and stroke, the present study suggests that empathy depends upon the integrity of right fronto-limbic and brainstem regions and highlights the importance of the right mesial temporal lobe and midbrain

  5. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  6. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar; Rahul Kala

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Tem...

  7. Topologically Consistent Models for Efficient Big Geo-Spatio Data Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, M. W.; Bradley, P. E.; Doori, M. Al; Breunig, M.

    2017-10-01

    Geo-spatio-temporal topology models are likely to become a key concept to check the consistency of 3D (spatial space) and 4D (spatial + temporal space) models for emerging GIS applications such as subsurface reservoir modelling or the simulation of energy and water supply of mega or smart cities. Furthermore, the data management for complex models consisting of big geo-spatial data is a challenge for GIS and geo-database research. General challenges, concepts, and techniques of big geo-spatial data management are presented. In this paper we introduce a sound mathematical approach for a topologically consistent geo-spatio-temporal model based on the concept of the incidence graph. We redesign DB4GeO, our service-based geo-spatio-temporal database architecture, on the way to the parallel management of massive geo-spatial data. Approaches for a new geo-spatio-temporal and object model of DB4GeO meeting the requirements of big geo-spatial data are discussed in detail. Finally, a conclusion and outlook on our future research are given on the way to support the processing of geo-analytics and -simulations in a parallel and distributed system environment.

  8. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  9. Consistent histories and operational quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolph, O.

    1996-01-01

    In this work a generalization of the consistent histories approach to quantum mechanics is presented. We first critically review the consistent histories approach to nonrelativistic quantum mechanics in a mathematically rigorous way and give some general comments about it. We investigate to what extent the consistent histories scheme is compatible with the results of the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. According to the operational approach, nonrelativistic quantum mechanics is most generally formulated in terms of effects, states, and operations. We formulate a generalized consistent histories theory using the concepts and the terminology which have proven useful in the operational formulation of quantum mechanics. The logical rule of the logical interpretation of quantum mechanics is generalized to the present context. The algebraic structure of the generalized theory is studied in detail

  10. Self-consistent areas law in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.M.; Migdal, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the self-consistent areas law in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is considered from the point of view of the quark confinement. The exact equation for the loop average in multicolor QCD is reduced to a bootstrap form. Its iterations yield new manifestly gauge invariant perturbation theory in the loop space, reproducing asymptotic freedom. For large loops, the areas law apprears to be a self-consistent solution

  11. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  12. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy via trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mathon , Bertrand; Clemenceau , Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundHippocampal sclerosis is the most common cause of drug-resistant epilepsy amenable for surgical treatment and seizure control. The rationale of the selective amygdalohippocampectomy is to spare cerebral tissue not included in the seizure generator.MethodDescribe the selective amygdalohippocampectomy through the trans-superior temporal gyrus keyhole approach.ConclusionSelective amygdalohippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy is performed when the data (semi...

  13. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  14. Distinct brain mechanisms support spatial vs temporal filtering of nociceptive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahman-Averbuch, Hadas; Martucci, Katherine T; Granovsky, Yelena; Weissman-Fogel, Irit; Yarnitsky, David; Coghill, Robert C

    2014-12-01

    The role of endogenous analgesic mechanisms has largely been viewed in the context of gain modulation during nociceptive processing. However, these analgesic mechanisms may play critical roles in the extraction and subsequent utilization of information related to spatial and temporal features of nociceptive input. To date, it remains unknown if spatial and temporal filtering of nociceptive information is supported by similar analgesic mechanisms. To address this question, human volunteers were recruited to assess brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging during conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and offset analgesia (OA). CPM provides one paradigm for assessing spatial filtering of nociceptive information while OA provides a paradigm for assessing temporal filtering of nociceptive information. CPM and OA both produced statistically significant reductions in pain intensity. However, the magnitude of pain reduction elicited by CPM was not correlated with that elicited by OA across different individuals. Different patterns of brain activation were consistent with the psychophysical findings. CPM elicited widespread reductions in regions engaged in nociceptive processing such as the thalamus, insula, and secondary somatosensory cortex. OA produced reduced activity in the primary somatosensory cortex but was associated with greater activation in the anterior insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule relative to CPM. In the brain stem, CPM consistently produced reductions in activity, while OA produced increases in activity. Conjunction analysis confirmed that CPM-related activity did not overlap with that of OA. Thus, dissociable mechanisms support inhibitory processes engaged during spatial vs temporal filtering of nociceptive information. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  16. Biotransformation in the zebrafish embryo -temporal gene transcription changes of cytochrome P450 enzymes and internal exposure dynamics of the AhR binding xenobiotic benz[a]anthracene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnert, Agnes; Vogs, Carolina; Seiwert, Bettina; Aulhorn, Silke; Altenburger, Rolf; Hollert, Henner; Küster, Eberhard; Busch, Wibke

    2017-11-01

    Not much is known about the biotransformation capability of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. For understanding possible toxicity differences to adult fish, it might be crucial to understand the biotransformation of chemicals in zebrafish embryos i.e. as part of toxicokinetics. The biotransformation capabilities were analysed for two different stages of zebrafish embryos in conjunction with the internal concentrations of a xenobiotic. Zebrafish embryos of the late cleavage/early blastula period (2-26 hpf) and the early pharyngula period (26-50 hpf) were exposed for 24 h to the AhR binding compound benz[a]anthracene (BaA). Time dependent changes in cyp transcription (cyp1a, cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2) as well as concentration & time-dependent courses of BaA in the fish embryo and the exposure medium were analysed. Additionally, the CYP mediated formation of biotransformation products was investigated. We found correlations between transcriptional responses and the internal concentration for both exposure types. These correlations were depending on the start of the exposure i.e. the age of the exposed embryo. While no significant induction of the examined gene transcripts was observed in the first 12 h of exposure beginning in the blastula period a correlation was apparent when exposure started later i.e. in the pharyngula period. A significant induction of cyp1a was detected already after 1.5 h of BaA exposure. Gene transcripts for cyp1b1, cyp1c1 and cyp1c2 showed expressions distinctly different from cyp1a and were, in general, less inducible by BaA in both exposure windows. The toxicokinetic analysis showed that the biotransformation capability was fivefold higher in the older fish embryos. Biotransformation products of phase I reactions were found between 32 hpf and 50 hpf and were tentatively identified as benz[a]anthracene-phenol and benz[a]anthracene-dihydrodiol-epoxide. In conclusion, not only duration but also onset of exposure in relation to the

  17. Towards thermodynamical consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru

  18. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  19. Toward a consistent RHA-RPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors examine the RPA based on a relativistic Hartree approximation description for nuclear ground states. This model includes contributions from the negative energy sea at the 1-loop level. They emphasize consistency between the treatment of the ground state and the RPA. This consistency is important in the description of low-lying collective levels but less important for the longitudinal (e, e') quasi-elastic response. They also study the effect of imposing a 3-momentum cutoff on negative energy sea contributions. A cutoff of twice the nucleon mass improves agreement with observed spin orbit splittings in nuclei compared to the standard infinite cutoff results, an effect traceable to the fact that imposing the cutoff reduces m*/m. The cutoff is much less important than consistency in the description of low-lying collective levels. The cutoff model provides excellent agreement with quasi-elastic (e, e') data

  20. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  1. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  2. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  3. Financial model calibration using consistency hints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Y S

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a technique for forcing the calibration of a financial model to produce valid parameters. The technique is based on learning from hints. It converts simple curve fitting into genuine calibration, where broad conclusions can be inferred from parameter values. The technique augments the error function of curve fitting with consistency hint error functions based on the Kullback-Leibler distance. We introduce an efficient EM-type optimization algorithm tailored to this technique. We also introduce other consistency hints, and balance their weights using canonical errors. We calibrate the correlated multifactor Vasicek model of interest rates, and apply it successfully to Japanese Yen swaps market and US dollar yield market.

  4. Temporal bone radiography using the orthopantomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatezawa, T.

    1981-01-01

    Temporal bone radiographs obtained with an Orthopantomograph were compared with conventional radiographs. In acoustic neurinoma, cholesteatoma, otitis media, and middle fossa tumors, both methods demonstrated the abnormalities well. In two cases with lesions extending beyond the range of conventional projections, the broad orthopantomographic coverage was very valuable. Mastoid air cells, the mastoid process, petrous ridge, and internal auditory meatus were well demonstrated by both techniques. Orthopantomography was found to be superior in the demonstration of the petrous apex, while the superior semicircular canal was better demonstrated on the conventional views. Bilateral symmetry was particularly good and because of fewer films, radiation exposure was considerably less with orthopantomography. For many applications, orthopantomography is an adequate convenient substitute for conventional methods of examining the temporal bones

  5. It's about time: revisiting temporal processing deficits in dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, Laurence; Pech-Georgel, Catherine; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2018-03-01

    Temporal processing in French children with dyslexia was evaluated in three tasks: a word identification task requiring implicit temporal processing, and two explicit temporal bisection tasks, one in the auditory and one in the visual modality. Normally developing children matched on chronological age and reading level served as a control group. Children with dyslexia exhibited robust deficits in temporal tasks whether they were explicit or implicit and whether they involved the auditory or the visual modality. First, they presented larger perceptual variability when performing temporal tasks, whereas they showed no such difficulties when performing the same task on a non-temporal dimension (intensity). This dissociation suggests that their difficulties were specific to temporal processing and could not be attributed to lapses of attention, reduced alertness, faulty anchoring, or overall noisy processing. In the framework of cognitive models of time perception, these data point to a dysfunction of the 'internal clock' of dyslexic children. These results are broadly compatible with the recent temporal sampling theory of dyslexia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Action Recognition by Joint Spatial-Temporal Motion Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for human action recognition based on optical flow motion features extraction. Automatic spatial and temporal alignments are combined together in order to encourage the temporal consistence on each action by an enhanced dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm. At the same time, a fast method based on coarse-to-fine DTW constraint to improve computational performance without reducing accuracy is induced. The main contributions of this study include (1 a joint spatial-temporal multiresolution optical flow computation method which can keep encoding more informative motion information than recent proposed methods, (2 an enhanced DTW method to improve temporal consistence of motion in action recognition, and (3 coarse-to-fine DTW constraint on motion features pyramids to speed up recognition performance. Using this method, high recognition accuracy is achieved on different action databases like Weizmann database and KTH database.

  7. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  8. Image recognition and consistency of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image. Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize. Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  9. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  10. Guided color consistency optimization for image mosaicking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Renping; Xia, Menghan; Yao, Jian; Li, Li

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of color consistency correction for sequential images with diverse color characteristics. Existing algorithms try to adjust all images to minimize color differences among images under a unified energy framework, however, the results are prone to presenting a consistent but unnatural appearance when the color difference between images is large and diverse. In our approach, this problem is addressed effectively by providing a guided initial solution for the global consistency optimization, which avoids converging to a meaningless integrated solution. First of all, to obtain the reliable intensity correspondences in overlapping regions between image pairs, we creatively propose the histogram extreme point matching algorithm which is robust to image geometrical misalignment to some extents. In the absence of the extra reference information, the guided initial solution is learned from the major tone of the original images by searching some image subset as the reference, whose color characteristics will be transferred to the others via the paths of graph analysis. Thus, the final results via global adjustment will take on a consistent color similar to the appearance of the reference image subset. Several groups of convincing experiments on both the synthetic dataset and the challenging real ones sufficiently demonstrate that the proposed approach can achieve as good or even better results compared with the state-of-the-art approaches.

  11. Consistent application of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in the US Department of Energy, General Design Criteria (DOE 6430.1A), and the Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subject to Natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL-15910) provide a consistent and well defined approach to determine the natural phenomena hazards loads for US Department of Energy site facilities. The guidelines for the application of loads combinations and allowables criteria are not as well defined and are more flexible in interpretation. This flexibility in the interpretation of load combinations can lead to conflict between the designer and overseer. The establishment of an efficient set of acceptable design criteria, based on US Department of Energy guidelines, provides a consistent baseline for analysis, design, and review. Additionally, the proposed method should not limit the design and analytical innovation necessary to analyze or qualify the unique structure. This paper investigates the consistent application of load combinations, analytical methods, and load allowables and suggests a reference path consistent with the US Department of Energy guidelines

  12. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  13. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  14. Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Consistent stochastic models of metocean design parameters and their directional dependencies are essential for reliability assessment of offshore structures. In this paper a stochastic model for the annual maximum values of the significant wave height, and the associated wind velocity, current...

  15. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  16. Dynamic phonon exchange requires consistent dressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.W.; Engelbrecht, C.A.; Heiss, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that states with undersirable properties (such as ghosts, states with complex eigenenergies and states with unrestricted normalization) emerge from two-body calculations using dynamic effective interactions if one is not careful in introducing single-particle self-energy insertions in a consistent manner

  17. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  18. Consistency of the postulates of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gron, O.; Nicola, M.

    1976-01-01

    In a recent article in this journal, Kingsley has tried to show that the postulates of special relativity contradict each other. It is shown that the arguments of Kingsley are invalid because of an erroneous appeal to symmetry in a nonsymmetric situation. The consistency of the postulates of special relativity and the relativistic kinematics deduced from them is restated

  19. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  20. Consistency analysis of network traffic repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Lastdrager, E.E.H.; Pras, Aiko

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for

  1. 26 CFR 301.6222(a)-1 - Consistent treatment of partnership items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent treatment of partnership items. 301... Consistent treatment of partnership items. (a) In general. The treatment of a partnership item on the partner's return must be consistent with the treatment of that item by the partnership on the partnership...

  2. Time-translation noninvariance of temporal gauge propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1992-07-01

    We show that within the framework of stochastic mechanics, the quantization of a free electromagnetic or Yang-Mills field in the temporal gauge can be consistently carried out. The resulting longitudinal component of the photon or gluon propagator is time-translation noninvariant. The exact form of the propagator depends on the additional boundary condition which fully fixes the temporal gauge. (author). 11 refs

  3. Remote infarct of the temporal lobe with coexistent hippocampal sclerosis in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gales, Jordan M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    In patients undergoing surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis remains the most commonly observed pathology. In addition to hippocampal sclerosis, 5% to 30% of these resections on magnetic resonance imaging contain a second independently epileptogenic lesion, commonly referred to as dual pathology. A second etiology of seizure activity, as seen in dual pathology, may serve as an important cause of treatment failure in striving for post-operative seizure control. Dual pathology, consisting of hippocampal sclerosis and a remote infarct of the adjacent cortex, has been rarely reported. Cases of pathologically confirmed hippocampal sclerosis diagnosed between January 2000 and December 2012 (n = 349) were reviewed, and 7 cases of coexistent infarct (2%) formed the study group. Seven individuals (mean age, 29years; range, 5-47 years) with a mean epilepsy duration of 12.5years (3.3-25 years) and a mean pre-surgery frequency of 15 seizures per week (range, 0.5-56 seizures/week) were followed up postoperatively for a mean duration of 64months (range, 3-137 months). Pathologically, the most common form of hippocampal sclerosis observed was International League against Epilepsy type Ib or severe variant (n = 4). Four of the six individuals with post-surgery follow-up were seizure free at last encounter. The reported incidence of dual pathology, including hippocampal sclerosis and remote infarct, is low (2% in the present study) but may indicate a slightly increased risk of developing hippocampal sclerosis in the setting of a remote infarct. Surgical intervention for such cases anecdotally appears effective in achieving seizure control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Model Based Temporal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Marla J.; Spinrad, Paul R.; Fall, Thomas C.

    1988-03-01

    Systems that assess the real world must cope with evidence that is uncertain, ambiguous, and spread over time. Typically, the most important function of an assessment system is to identify when activities are occurring that are unusual or unanticipated. Model based temporal reasoning addresses both of these requirements. The differences among temporal reasoning schemes lies in the methods used to avoid computational intractability. If we had n pieces of data and we wanted to examine how they were related, the worst case would be where we had to examine every subset of these points to see if that subset satisfied the relations. This would be 2n, which is intractable. Models compress this; if several data points are all compatible with a model, then that model represents all those data points. Data points are then considered related if they lie within the same model or if they lie in models that are related. Models thus address the intractability problem. They also address the problem of determining unusual activities if the data do not agree with models that are indicated by earlier data then something out of the norm is taking place. The models can summarize what we know up to that time, so when they are not predicting correctly, either something unusual is happening or we need to revise our models. The model based reasoner developed at Advanced Decision Systems is thus both intuitive and powerful. It is currently being used on one operational system and several prototype systems. It has enough power to be used in domains spanning the spectrum from manufacturing engineering and project management to low-intensity conflict and strategic assessment.

  5. Multiple Temporalities, Layered Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Pearson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In Quotational Practices: Repeating the Future in Contemporary Art, Patrick Greaney asserts, “the past matters not only because of what actually happened but also because of the possibilities that were not realized and that still could be. Quotation evokes those possibilities. By repeating the past, artists and writers may be attempting to repeat that past’s unrealized futures.”[1]  In the information age, the Internet, for instance, provides us an expanded collection of visual information—quite literally available at our fingertips—summoning together aspects of the past and possibilities of the future into a boundless present. Sketchbook Revisions (2014–2015, a series of mixed-media paintings, represents my attempt to communicate the ways in which I experience my contemporary moment constructed from multiple temporalities excavated from my past. This body of work combines fragments of representational paintings created between 1995 and 2003 and nonrepresentational renderings produced between 2003 and 2014. Using traditional tracing paper and graphic color, I randomly select moments of my previous work to transfer and layer over selected areas of already-filled pages of a sketchbook I used from 2003 to 2004. These sketches depict objects I encountered in studio art classrooms and iconic architecture on the campus of McDaniel College, and often incorporate teaching notes. The final renditions of fragmented and layered histories enact the ways that we collectively experience multiple temporalities in the present. Quoting my various bodies of work, Sketchbook Revisions challenges both material and conceptual boundaries that determine fixed notions of artistic identity.

  6. Join Operations in Temporal Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, D.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Joins are arguably the most important relational operators. Poor implementations are tantamount to computing the Cartesian product of the input relations. In a temporal database, the problem is more acute for two reasons. First, conventional techniques are designed for the evaluation of joins...... with equality predicates rather than the inequality predicates prevalent in valid-time queries. Second, the presence of temporally varying data dramatically increases the size of a database. These factors indicate that specialized techniques are needed to efficiently evaluate temporal joins. We address...... this need for efficient join evaluation in temporal databases. Our purpose is twofold. We first survey all previously proposed temporal join operators. While many temporal join operators have been defined in previous work, this work has been done largely in isolation from competing proposals, with little...

  7. Knowledge acquisition for temporal abstraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, A; Musen, M A; Shahar, Y

    1996-01-01

    Temporal abstraction is the task of detecting relevant patterns in data over time. The knowledge-based temporal-abstraction method uses knowledge about a clinical domain's contexts, external events, and parameters to create meaningful interval-based abstractions from raw time-stamped clinical data. In this paper, we describe the acquisition and maintenance of domain-specific temporal-abstraction knowledge. Using the PROTEGE-II framework, we have designed a graphical tool for acquiring temporal knowledge directly from expert physicians, maintaining the knowledge in a sharable form, and converting the knowledge into a suitable format for use by an appropriate problem-solving method. In initial tests, the tool offered significant gains in our ability to rapidly acquire temporal knowledge and to use that knowledge to perform automated temporal reasoning.

  8. A consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, Roland

    1990-01-01

    Some mostly recent theoretical and mathematical advances can be linked together to yield a new consistent interpretation of quantum mechanics. It relies upon a unique and universal interpretative rule of a logical character which is based upon Griffiths consistent history. Some new results in semi-classical physics allow classical physics to be derived from this rule, including its logical aspects, and to prove accordingly the existence of determinism within the quantum framework. Together with decoherence, this can be used to retrieve the existence of facts, despite the probabilistic character of the theory. Measurement theory can then be made entirely deductive. It is accordingly found that wave packet reduction is a logical property, whereas one can always choose to avoid using it. The practical consequences of this interpretation are most often in agreement with the Copenhagen formulation but they can be proved never to give rise to any logical inconsistency or paradox. (author)

  9. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  10. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  11. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve......Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  12. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  13. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  14. Self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hideo; Kammuri, Tetsuo; Kishimoto, Teruo.

    1993-09-01

    The field coupling method is extended to a system with a velocity dependent mean potential. By means of this method, we can derive the effective interactions which are consistent with the mean potential. The self-consistent velocity dependent effective interactions are applied to the microscopic analysis of the structures of giant dipole resonances (GDR) of 148,154 Sm, of the first excited 2 + states of Sn isotopes and of the first excited 3 - states of Mo isotopes. It is clarified that the interactions play crucial roles in describing the splitting of the resonant structure of GDR peaks, in restoring the energy weighted sum rule values, and in reducing B (Eλ) values. (author)

  15. Temporal Representation in Semantic Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levandoski, J J; Abdulla, G M

    2007-08-07

    A wide range of knowledge discovery and analysis applications, ranging from business to biological, make use of semantic graphs when modeling relationships and concepts. Most of the semantic graphs used in these applications are assumed to be static pieces of information, meaning temporal evolution of concepts and relationships are not taken into account. Guided by the need for more advanced semantic graph queries involving temporal concepts, this paper surveys the existing work involving temporal representations in semantic graphs.

  16. Temporal Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-03

    and the convergence cannot be guaranteed. Maybank [68] investigated alternative incremental schemes for the estimation of feature locations from a...depth from image sequences. International Journal of Computer Vision, 3, 1989. [68] S. J. Maybank . Filter based estimates of depth. In Proceedings of the

  17. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  18. Consistency Analysis of Nearest Subspace Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Nearest subspace classifier (NSS) finds an estimation of the underlying subspace within each class and assigns data points to the class that corresponds to its nearest subspace. This paper mainly studies how well NSS can be generalized to new samples. It is proved that NSS is strongly consistent under certain assumptions. For completeness, NSS is evaluated through experiments on various simulated and real data sets, in comparison with some other linear model based classifiers. It is also ...

  19. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  20. Orthology and paralogy constraints: satisfiability and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Manuel; El-Mabrouk, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    A variety of methods based on sequence similarity, reconciliation, synteny or functional characteristics, can be used to infer orthology and paralogy relations between genes of a given gene family  G. But is a given set  C of orthology/paralogy constraints possible, i.e., can they simultaneously co-exist in an evolutionary history for  G? While previous studies have focused on full sets of constraints, here we consider the general case where  C does not necessarily involve a constraint for each pair of genes. The problem is subdivided in two parts: (1) Is  C satisfiable, i.e. can we find an event-labeled gene tree G inducing  C? (2) Is there such a G which is consistent, i.e., such that all displayed triplet phylogenies are included in a species tree? Previous results on the Graph sandwich problem can be used to answer to (1), and we provide polynomial-time algorithms for satisfiability and consistency with a given species tree. We also describe a new polynomial-time algorithm for the case of consistency with an unknown species tree and full knowledge of pairwise orthology/paralogy relationships, as well as a branch-and-bound algorithm in the case when unknown relations are present. We show that our algorithms can be used in combination with ProteinOrtho, a sequence similarity-based orthology detection tool, to extract a set of robust orthology/paralogy relationships.

  1. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  2. Do Health Systems Have Consistent Performance Across Locations and Is Consistency Associated With Higher Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespin, Daniel J; Christianson, Jon B; McCullough, Jeffrey S; Finch, Michael D

    This study addresses whether health systems have consistent diabetes care performance across their ambulatory clinics and whether increasing consistency is associated with improvements in clinic performance. Study data included 2007 to 2013 diabetes care intermediate outcome measures for 661 ambulatory clinics in Minnesota and bordering states. Health systems provided more consistent performance, as measured by the standard deviation of performance for clinics in a system, relative to propensity score-matched proxy systems created for comparison purposes. No evidence was found that improvements in consistency were associated with higher clinic performance. The combination of high performance and consistent care is likely to enhance a health system's brand reputation, allowing it to better mitigate the financial risks of consumers seeking care outside the organization. These results suggest that larger health systems are most likely to deliver the combination of consistent and high-performance care. Future research should explore the mechanisms that drive consistent care within health systems.

  3. Quantification of 18F-FDG PET images using probabilistic brain atlas: clinical application in temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Cho, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Lee, Sang Gun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probability Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). After calculating the counts in volume of interest (VOI) using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indexes(AI) were calculated and used for finding epileptogenic zones in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). FDG PET images from 28 surgically confirmed TLE patients and 12 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the averaged brain MRI atlas of ICBM. The counts from normalized PET images were multiplied with the probability of 12 VOIs (superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala in each hemisphere) of SPAM images of Montreal Neurological Institute. Finally AI was calculated on each pair of VOI, and compared with visual assessment. If AI was deviated more than 2 standard deviation of normal controls, we considered epileptogenic zones were found successfully. The counts of VOIs in normal controls were symmetric (AI 0.05) except those of inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.01). AIs in 5 pairs of VOI excluding inferior temporal gyrus were deviated to one side in TLE (p<0.05). Lateralization was correct in 23/28 of patients by AI, but all of 28 were consistent with visual inspection. In 3 patients with normal AI was symmetric on visual inspection. In 2 patients falsely lateralized using AI, metabolism was also decreased visually on contra-lateral side. Asymmetric index obtained by the product of statistical probability anatomical map and FDG PET correlated well with visual assessment in TLE patients. SPAM is useful for quantification of VOIs in functional images

  4. Quantification of {sup 18}F-FDG PET images using probabilistic brain atlas: clinical application in temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Cho, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Lee, Sang Gun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    A probabilistic atlas of the human brain (Statistical Probability Anatomical Maps: SPAM) was developed by the international consortium for brain mapping (ICBM). After calculating the counts in volume of interest (VOI) using the product of probability of SPAM images and counts in FDG images, asymmetric indexes(AI) were calculated and used for finding epileptogenic zones in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). FDG PET images from 28 surgically confirmed TLE patients and 12 age-matched controls were spatially normalized to the averaged brain MRI atlas of ICBM. The counts from normalized PET images were multiplied with the probability of 12 VOIs (superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala in each hemisphere) of SPAM images of Montreal Neurological Institute. Finally AI was calculated on each pair of VOI, and compared with visual assessment. If AI was deviated more than 2 standard deviation of normal controls, we considered epileptogenic zones were found successfully. The counts of VOIs in normal controls were symmetric (AI <6%, paired t-test p>0.05) except those of inferior temporal gyrus (p<0.01). AIs in 5 pairs of VOI excluding inferior temporal gyrus were deviated to one side in TLE (p<0.05). Lateralization was correct in 23/28 of patients by AI, but all of 28 were consistent with visual inspection. In 3 patients with normal AI was symmetric on visual inspection. In 2 patients falsely lateralized using AI, metabolism was also decreased visually on contra-lateral side. Asymmetric index obtained by the product of statistical probability anatomical map and FDG PET correlated well with visual assessment in TLE patients. SPAM is useful for quantification of VOIs in functional images.

  5. Quantitative verification of ab initio self-consistent laser theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li; Tandy, Robert J; Stone, A D; Türeci, Hakan E

    2008-10-13

    We generalize and test the recent "ab initio" self-consistent (AISC) time-independent semiclassical laser theory. This self-consistent formalism generates all the stationary lasing properties in the multimode regime (frequencies, thresholds, internal and external fields, output power and emission pattern) from simple inputs: the dielectric function of the passive cavity, the atomic transition frequency, and the transverse relaxation time of the lasing transition.We find that the theory gives excellent quantitative agreement with full time-dependent simulations of the Maxwell-Bloch equations after it has been generalized to drop the slowly-varying envelope approximation. The theory is infinite order in the non-linear hole-burning interaction; the widely used third order approximation is shown to fail badly.

  6. Nonlinear and self-consistent treatment of ECRH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsironis, C.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-07-01

    A self-consistent formulation for the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves with relativistic magnetized electrons is applied for the description of the ECRH. In general, electron-cyclotron absorption is the result of resonances between the cyclotron harmonics and the Doppler-shifted waver frequency. The resonant interaction results to an intense wave-particle energy exchange and an electron acceleration, and for that reason it is widely applied in fusion experiments for plasma heating and current drive. The linear theory, for the wave absorption, as well as the quasilinear theory for the electron distribution function, are the most frequently-used tools for the study of wave-particle interactions. However, in many cases the validity of these theories is violated, namely cases where nonlinear effects, like, e. g. particle trapping in the wave field, are dominant in the particle phase-space. Our model consists of electrons streaming and gyrating in a tokamak plasma slab, which is finite in the directions perpendicular to the main magnetic field. The particles interact with an electromagnetic electron-cyclotron wave of the ordinary (O-) or the extraordinary (X-) mode. A set of nonlinear and relativistic equations is derived, which take into account the effects of the charged particle motions on the wave. These consist of the equations of motion for the plasma electrons in the slab, as well as the wave equation in terms of the vector potential. The effect of the electron motions on the temporal evolution of the wave is reflected in the current density source term. (Author)

  7. Nonlinear and self-consistent treatment of ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsironis, C.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-01-01

    A self-consistent formulation for the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves with relativistic magnetized electrons is applied for the description of the ECRH. In general, electron-cyclotron absorption is the result of resonances between the cyclotron harmonics and the Doppler-shifted waver frequency. The resonant interaction results to an intense wave-particle energy exchange and an electron acceleration, and for that reason it is widely applied in fusion experiments for plasma heating and current drive. The linear theory, for the wave absorption, as well as the quasilinear theory for the electron distribution function, are the most frequently-used tools for the study of wave-particle interactions. However, in many cases the validity of these theories is violated, namely cases where nonlinear effects, like, e. g. particle trapping in the wave field, are dominant in the particle phase-space. Our model consists of electrons streaming and gyrating in a tokamak plasma slab, which is finite in the directions perpendicular to the main magnetic field. The particles interact with an electromagnetic electron-cyclotron wave of the ordinary (O-) or the extraordinary (X-) mode. A set of nonlinear and relativistic equations is derived, which take into account the effects of the charged particle motions on the wave. These consist of the equations of motion for the plasma electrons in the slab, as well as the wave equation in terms of the vector potential. The effect of the electron motions on the temporal evolution of the wave is reflected in the current density source term. (Author)

  8. Auditory temporal processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavasani, Azam Navaei; Mohammadkhani, Ghassem; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Karimi, Leyla Jalilvand; Jalaei, Shohreh; Shojaei, Fereshteh Sadat; Danesh, Ali; Azimi, Hadi

    2016-07-01

    Auditory temporal processing is the main feature of speech processing ability. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, despite their normal hearing sensitivity, may present speech recognition disorders. The present study was carried out to evaluate the auditory temporal processing in patients with unilateral TLE. The present study was carried out on 25 patients with epilepsy: 11 patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy and 14 with left temporal lobe epilepsy with a mean age of 31.1years and 18 control participants with a mean age of 29.4years. The two experimental and control groups were evaluated via gap-in-noise and duration pattern sequence tests. One-way ANOVA was run to analyze the data. The mean of the threshold of the GIN test in the control group was observed to be better than that in participants with LTLE and RTLE. Also, it was observed that the percentage of correct responses on the DPS test in the control group and in participants with RTLE was better than that in participants with LTLE. Patients with TLE have difficulties in temporal processing. Difficulties are more significant in patients with LTLE, likely because the left temporal lobe is specialized for the processing of temporal information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sex & vision I: Spatio-temporal resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramov Israel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems

  10. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body's past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  11. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  12. A method for consistent precision radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, J.

    1985-01-01

    Using a meticulous setup procedure in which repeated portal films were taken before each treatment until satisfactory portal verifications were obtained, a high degree of precision in patient positioning was achieved. A fluctuation from treatment to treatment, over 11 treatments, of less than +-0.10 cm (S.D.) for anatomical points inside the treatment field was obtained. This, however, only applies to specific anatomical points selected for this positioning procedure and does not apply to all points within the portal. We have generalized this procedure and have suggested a means by which any target volume can be consistently positioned which may approach this degree of precision. (orig.)

  13. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  14. Two consistent calculations of the Weinberg angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory is reformulated as a pure Yang-Mills theory in a six-dimensional space, the Higgs field being interpreted as gauge potentials in the additional dimensions. Viewed in this way, the condition that the Higgs field transforms as a U(1) representation of charge one is equivalent to requiring a value of 30 0 C for the Weinberg angle. A second consistent determination comes from the idea borrowed from monopole theory that the electromagnetic field is in the direction of the Higgs field. (Author)

  15. Prabowo and the shortcomings of international justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Nikolas Feith

    2015-01-01

    under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...... the aims of international criminal justice....

  16. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics

  17. Self-consistent model of confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the large-spatial-distance, zero--three-momentum, limit of QCD is developed from the hypothesis that there is an infrared singularity. Single quarks and gluons do not propagate because they have infinite energy after renormalization. The Hamiltonian formulation of the path integral is used to quantize QCD with physical, nonpropagating fields. Perturbation theory in the infrared limit is simplified by the absence of self-energy insertions and by the suppression of large classes of diagrams due to vanishing propagators. Remaining terms in the perturbation series are resummed to produce a set of nonlinear, renormalizable integral equations which fix both the confining interaction and the physical propagators. Solutions demonstrate the self-consistency of the concepts of an infrared singularity and nonpropagating fields. The Wilson loop is calculated to provide a general proof of confinement. Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark pairs and for two gluons have finite-energy solutions in the color-singlet channel. The choice of gauge is addressed in detail. Large classes of corrections to the model are discussed and shown to support self-consistency

  18. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  19. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  20. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  1. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  2. Multi-Temporal Land Cover Classification with Sequential Recurrent Encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rußwurm, Marc; Körner, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Earth observation (EO) sensors deliver data with daily or weekly temporal resolution. Most land use and land cover (LULC) approaches, however, expect cloud-free and mono-temporal observations. The increasing temporal capabilities of today's sensors enables the use of temporal, along with spectral and spatial features. Domains, such as speech recognition or neural machine translation, work with inherently temporal data and, today, achieve impressive results using sequential encoder-decoder structures. Inspired by these sequence-to-sequence models, we adapt an encoder structure with convolutional recurrent layers in order to approximate a phenological model for vegetation classes based on a temporal sequence of Sentinel 2 (S2) images. In our experiments, we visualize internal activations over a sequence of cloudy and non-cloudy images and find several recurrent cells, which reduce the input activity for cloudy observations. Hence, we assume that our network has learned cloud-filtering schemes solely from input data, which could alleviate the need for tedious cloud-filtering as a preprocessing step for many EO approaches. Moreover, using unfiltered temporal series of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data, we achieved in our experiments state-of-the-art classification accuracies on a large number of crop classes with minimal preprocessing compared to other classification approaches.

  3. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961–969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception–action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  4. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    2005-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  5. Model Checking Discounted Temporal Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alfaro, Luca; Faella, Marco; Henzinger, Thomas A.; Majumdar, Rupak; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; Jensen, K; Podelski, A.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal logic is two-valued: a property is either true or false. When applied to the analysis of stochastic systems, or systems with imprecise formal models, temporal logic is therefore fragile: even small changes in the model can lead to opposite truth values for a specification. We present a

  6. Temporal Cyber Attack Detection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, Joey Burton [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Draelos, Timothy J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Galiardi, Meghan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doak, Justin E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous characterization of the performance and generalization ability of cyber defense systems is extremely difficult, making it hard to gauge uncertainty, and thus, confidence. This difficulty largely stems from a lack of labeled attack data that fully explores the potential adversarial space. Currently, performance of cyber defense systems is typically evaluated in a qualitative manner by manually inspecting the results of the system on live data and adjusting as needed. Additionally, machine learning has shown promise in deriving models that automatically learn indicators of compromise that are more robust than analyst-derived detectors. However, to generate these models, most algorithms require large amounts of labeled data (i.e., examples of attacks). Algorithms that do not require annotated data to derive models are similarly at a disadvantage, because labeled data is still necessary when evaluating performance. In this work, we explore the use of temporal generative models to learn cyber attack graph representations and automatically generate data for experimentation and evaluation. Training and evaluating cyber systems and machine learning models requires significant, annotated data, which is typically collected and labeled by hand for one-off experiments. Automatically generating such data helps derive/evaluate detection models and ensures reproducibility of results. Experimentally, we demonstrate the efficacy of generative sequence analysis techniques on learning the structure of attack graphs, based on a realistic example. These derived models can then be used to generate more data. Additionally, we provide a roadmap for future research efforts in this area.

  7. A model for cytoplasmic rheology consistent with magnetic twisting cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J P; Kelly, S M

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic twisting cytometry is gaining wide applicability as a tool for the investigation of the rheological properties of cells and the mechanical properties of receptor-cytoskeletal interactions. Current technology involves the application and release of magnetically induced torques on small magnetic particles bound to or inside cells, with measurements of the resulting angular rotation of the particles. The properties of purely elastic or purely viscous materials can be determined by the angular strain and strain rate, respectively. However, the cytoskeleton and its linkage to cell surface receptors display elastic, viscous, and even plastic deformation, and the simultaneous characterization of these properties using only elastic or viscous models is internally inconsistent. Data interpretation is complicated by the fact that in current technology, the applied torques are not constant in time, but decrease as the particles rotate. This paper describes an internally consistent model consisting of a parallel viscoelastic element in series with a parallel viscoelastic element, and one approach to quantitative parameter evaluation. The unified model reproduces all essential features seen in data obtained from a wide variety of cell populations, and contains the pure elastic, viscoelastic, and viscous cases as subsets.

  8. Definition of the concept of «social temporality»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana S. Cherkun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is realized the theoretical analysis of the concepts of «temporality», «social» and «social temporality». Include such attributes of temporality: temporality as an internal time; temporality as a sequence; temporality as temporary; temporality as the length of time a certain point; temporality as a current event. Demarcation with similar concepts and definitions of the semantic aspects of the concept of «social temporality» had conducted. The author notes, that there are many definitions of «temporality», each of which has a right to exist, but the integration of existing social senses to determine temporality as a concept which indicates the rate of turnover in the time of the events that occur in the vital functions of humans in society. It is emphasized that in the presented interpretation of the concept of «social temporality» integrated internalization and exteriorization, and combined the discreteness and integrity. The author analyzes the relationship of the concept of «social temporality» with the concepts «social time», «social space» and «chronotops». The relationship of these concepts is represented by the fact that social time-space trajectory is represented by the flow of events that occur in the social space and move in social time and social temporality stress determines the speed of events. Thus, in the article the connection between the semantic aspects of social temporality and the definition of temporary and spatial specificity of global conflicts had established.

  9. Temporal Ventriloquism Reveals Intact Audiovisual Temporal Integration in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Michael D; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-02-01

    We have shown previously that amblyopia involves impaired detection of asynchrony between auditory and visual events. To distinguish whether this impairment represents a defect in temporal integration or nonintegrative multisensory processing (e.g., cross-modal matching), we used the temporal ventriloquism effect in which visual temporal order judgment (TOJ) is normally enhanced by a lagging auditory click. Participants with amblyopia (n = 9) and normally sighted controls (n = 9) performed a visual TOJ task. Pairs of clicks accompanied the two lights such that the first click preceded the first light, or second click lagged the second light by 100, 200, or 450 ms. Baseline audiovisual synchrony and visual-only conditions also were tested. Within both groups, just noticeable differences for the visual TOJ task were significantly reduced compared with baseline in the 100- and 200-ms click lag conditions. Within the amblyopia group, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye were significantly associated with greater enhancement in visual TOJ performance in the 200-ms click lag condition. Audiovisual temporal integration is intact in amblyopia, as indicated by perceptual enhancement in the temporal ventriloquism effect. Furthermore, poorer stereo acuity and poorer visual acuity in the amblyopic eye are associated with a widened temporal binding window for the effect. These findings suggest that previously reported abnormalities in audiovisual multisensory processing may result from impaired cross-modal matching rather than a diminished capacity for temporal audiovisual integration.

  10. Providing Consistent (A)ATSR Solar Channel Radiometry for Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Latter, B. G.; Poulsen, C.

    2012-04-01

    Data from the solar reflectance channels of the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) series of instruments are being used in applications for monitoring trends in clouds and aerosols. In order to provide quantitative information, the radiometric calibrations of the sensors must be consistent, stable and ideally traced to international standards. This paper describes the methods used to monitor the calibrations of the ATSR instruments to provide consistent Level 1b radiometric data sets. Comparisons of the in-orbit calibrations are made by reference to data from quasi stable sites such as DOME-C in Antarctica or Saharan Desert sites. Comparisons are performed either by time coincident match-ups of the radiometric data for sensors having similar spectral bands and view/solar geometry and overpass times as for AATSR and MERIS; or via a reference BRDF model derived from averages of measurements over the site from a reference sensor where there is limited or no temporal overlap (e.g. MODIS-Aqua, ATSR-1 and ATSR-2). The results of the intercomparisons provide values of the long term calibration drift and systematic biases between the sensors. Look-up tables based on smoothed averages of the drift measurements are used to provide the corrections to Level 1b data. The uncertainty budgets for the comparisons are provided. It is also possible to perform comparisons of measurements against high spectral resolution instruments that are co-located on the same platform, i.e. AATSR/SCIA on ENVISAT and ATSR-2/GOME on ERS-2. The comparisons are performed by averaging the spectrometer data to the spectral response of the filter radiometer, and averaging the radiometer data to the spatial resolution of the spectrometer. In this paper, the authors present the results of the inter-comparisons to achieve a consistent calibration for the solar channels of the complete ATSR dataset. An assessment of the uncertainties associated with the techniques will be discussed. The impacts of the

  11. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Chopin

    2011-01-01

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  12. Consistency of canonical formulation of Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2011-09-22

    Both the non-projectable and projectable version of Horava gravity face serious challenges. In the non-projectable version, the constraint algebra is seemingly inconsistent. The projectable version lacks a local Hamiltonian constraint, thus allowing for an extra graviton mode which can be problematic. A new formulation (based on arXiv:1007.1563) of Horava gravity which is naturally realized as a representation of the master constraint algebra (instead of the Dirac algebra) studied by loop quantum gravity researchers is presented. This formulation yields a consistent canonical theory with first class constraints; and captures the essence of Horava gravity in retaining only spatial diffeomorphisms as the physically relevant non-trivial gauge symmetry. At the same time the local Hamiltonian constraint is equivalently enforced by the master constraint.

  13. A consistent thermodynamic database for cement minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Claret, F.; Burnol, A.; Marty, N.; Gaboreau, S.; Tournassat, C.; Gaucher, E.C.; Giffault, E.; Bourbon, X.

    2010-01-01

    work - the formation enthalpy and the Cp(T) function are taken from the literature or estimated - finally, the Log K(T) function is calculated, based on the selected dataset and it is compared to experimental data gathered at different temperatures. Each experimental point is extracted from solution compositions by using PHREEQC with a selection of aqueous complexes, consistent with the Thermochimie database. The selection was tested namely by drawing activity diagrams, allowing to assess phases relations. An example of such a diagram, drawn in the CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -H 2 O system is displayed. It can be seen that low pH concrete alteration proceeds essentially in decreasing the C/S ratio in C-S-H phases to the point where C-S-H are no longer stable and replaced by zeolite, then clay minerals. This evolution corresponds to a decrease in silica activity, which is consistent with the pH decrease, as silica concentration depends essentially on pH. Some rather consistent phase relations have been obtained for the SO 3 -Al 2 O 3 -CaO-CO 2 -H 2 O system. Addition of iron III enlarges the AFm-SO 4 stability field to the low temperature domain, whereas it decreases the pH domain where ettringite is stable. On the other hand, the stability field of katoite remains largely ambiguous, namely with respect to a hydro-garnet/grossular solid solution. With respect to other databases this work was made in consistency with a larger mineral selection, so that it can be used for modelling works in the cement clay interaction context

  14. Self-consistent modelling of ICRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.; Hedin, J.; Johnson, T.; Laxaaback, M.; Tennfors, E.

    2001-01-01

    The performance of ICRH is often sensitive to the shape of the high energy part of the distribution functions of the resonating species. This requires self-consistent calculations of the distribution functions and the wave-field. In addition to the wave-particle interactions and Coulomb collisions the effects of the finite orbit width and the RF-induced spatial transport are found to be important. The inward drift dominates in general even for a symmetric toroidal wave spectrum in the centre of the plasma. An inward drift does not necessarily produce a more peaked heating profile. On the contrary, for low concentrations of hydrogen minority in deuterium plasmas it can even give rise to broader profiles. (author)

  15. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  16. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  17. Thermodynamically consistent model calibration in chemical kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of biochemical reaction systems are constrained by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, which impose well-defined relationships among the reaction rate constants characterizing these systems. Constructing biochemical reaction systems from experimental observations often leads to parameter values that do not satisfy the necessary thermodynamic constraints. This can result in models that are not physically realizable and may lead to inaccurate, or even erroneous, descriptions of cellular function. Results We introduce a thermodynamically consistent model calibration (TCMC method that can be effectively used to provide thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of an open biochemical reaction system. The proposed method formulates the model calibration problem as a constrained optimization problem that takes thermodynamic constraints (and, if desired, additional non-thermodynamic constraints into account. By calculating thermodynamically feasible values for the kinetic parameters of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling cascade, we demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative significance of imposing thermodynamic constraints on these parameters and the effectiveness of our method for accomplishing this important task. MATLAB software, using the Systems Biology Toolbox 2.1, can be accessed from http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS lab/software.html. An SBML file containing the thermodynamically feasible EGF/ERK signaling cascade model can be found in the BioModels database. Conclusions TCMC is a simple and flexible method for obtaining physically plausible values for the kinetic parameters of open biochemical reaction systems. It can be effectively used to recalculate a thermodynamically consistent set of parameter values for existing thermodynamically infeasible biochemical reaction models of cellular function as well as to estimate thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of new

  18. Conformal consistency relations for single-field inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creminelli, Paolo; Noreña, Jorge; Simonović, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We generalize the single-field consistency relations to capture not only the leading term in the squeezed limit — going as 1/q 3 , where q is the small wavevector — but also the subleading one, going as 1/q 2 . This term, for an (n+1)-point function, is fixed in terms of the variation of the n-point function under a special conformal transformation; this parallels the fact that the 1/q 3 term is related with the scale dependence of the n-point function. For the squeezed limit of the 3-point function, this conformal consistency relation implies that there are no terms going as 1/q 2 . We verify that the squeezed limit of the 4-point function is related to the conformal variation of the 3-point function both in the case of canonical slow-roll inflation and in models with reduced speed of sound. In the second case the conformal consistency conditions capture, at the level of observables, the relation among operators induced by the non-linear realization of Lorentz invariance in the Lagrangian. These results mean that, in any single-field model, primordial correlation functions of ζ are endowed with an SO(4,1) symmetry, with dilations and special conformal transformations non-linearly realized by ζ. We also verify the conformal consistency relations for any n-point function in models with a modulation of the inflaton potential, where the scale dependence is not negligible. Finally, we generalize (some of) the consistency relations involving tensors and soft internal momenta

  19. Correlation between temporal pole MRI abnormalities and surface ictal EEG patterns in patients with unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, Luís Otávio S F; Garzon, Eliana; Oliveira, Pedro A L; Carrete, Henrique; Centeno, Ricardo S; Bianchin, Marino M; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T; Sakamoto, Américo C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study is to analyze ictal patterns observed during continuous Video-EEG monitoring in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS), and to correlate these EEG patterns to temporal pole abnormalities observed on magnetic resonance imaging exams. We analyzed 147 seizures from 35 patients with TLE and unilateral HS. Ictal patterns were classified and correlated to signal abnormalities and volumetric measures of the temporal poles. Volume differences over 10% were considered abnormal. The most frequent type of ictal pattern was rhythmic theta activity (RTA), encountered in 65.5% of the seizures. Rhythmic beta activity (RBA) was observed in 11% of the seizures, localized attenuation in 8%, interruption of epileptiform discharges in 6%, repetitive discharges in 5.5%, and rhythmic delta activity (RDA) in 4%. Sixty-six percent of the patients presented signal abnormalities in the temporal pole that were always ipsilateral to the HS. Sixty percent presented significant asymmetry of the temporal poles consisting of reduced volume that was also always ipsilateral to HS. Although patients with RTA as the predominant ictal pattern tended to present asymmetry of temporal poles (p=0.305), the ictal EEG pattern did not correlate with temporal pole asymmetry or signal abnormalities. RTA is the most frequent initial ictal pattern in patients with TLE due to unilateral HS. Temporal pole signal changes and volumetric reduction were commonly found in this group of patients, both abnormalities appearing always ipsilateral to the HS. However, neither temporal pole volume reduction nor signal abnormalities correlated with the predominant ictal pattern, suggesting that the temporal poles are not crucially involved in the process of epileptogenesis.

  20. Spatial and temporal distribution of geophysical disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters of all kinds (meteorological, hydrological, geophysical, climatological and biological are increasingly becoming part of everyday life of modern human. The consequences are often devastating, to the life, health and property of people, as well to the security of states and the entire international regions. In this regard, we noted the need for a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenology of natural disasters. In addition, it is particularly important to pay attention to the different factors that might correlate with each other to indicate more dubious and more original facts about their characteristics. However, as the issue of natural disasters is very wide, the subject of this paper will be forms, consequences, temporal and spatial distribution of geophysical natural disasters, while analysis of other disasters will be the subject of our future research. Using an international database on natural disasters of the centre for research on the epidemiology of disasters (CRED based in Brussels, with the support of the statistical analysis (SPSS, we tried to point out the number, trends, consequences, the spatial and temporal distribution of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and dry mass movements in the world, from 1900 to 2013.

  1. Consistency of parametric registration in serial MRI studies of brain tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mang, Andreas; Buzug, Thorsten M.; Schnabel, Julia A.; Crum, William R.; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J.; Camara-Rey, Oscar; Palm, Christoph; Caseiras, Gisele Brasil; Jaeger, H.R.

    2008-01-01

    The consistency of parametric registration in multi-temporal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies was evaluated. Serial MRI scans of adult patients with a brain tumor (glioma) were aligned by parametric registration. The performance of low-order spatial alignment (6/9/12 degrees of freedom) of different 3D serial MR-weighted images is evaluated. A registration protocol for the alignment of all images to one reference coordinate system at baseline is presented. Registration results were evaluated for both, multimodal intra-timepoint and mono-modal multi-temporal registration. The latter case might present a challenge to automatic intensity-based registration algorithms due to ill-defined correspondences. The performance of our algorithm was assessed by testing the inverse registration consistency. Four different similarity measures were evaluated to assess consistency. Careful visual inspection suggests that images are well aligned, but their consistency may be imperfect. Sub-voxel inconsistency within the brain was found for allsimilarity measures used for parametric multi-temporal registration. T1-weighted images were most reliable for establishing spatial correspondence between different timepoints. The parametric registration algorithm is feasible for use in this application. The sub-voxel resolution mean displacement error of registration transformations demonstrates that the algorithm converges to an almost identical solution for forward and reverse registration. (orig.)

  2. A self-consistent upward leader propagation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Marley; Cooray, Vernon

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge of the initiation and propagation of an upward moving connecting leader in the presence of a downward moving lightning stepped leader is a must in the determination of the lateral attraction distance of a lightning flash by any grounded structure. Even though different models that simulate this phenomenon are available in the literature, they do not take into account the latest developments in the physics of leader discharges. The leader model proposed here simulates the advancement of positive upward leaders by appealing to the presently understood physics of that process. The model properly simulates the upward continuous progression of the positive connecting leaders from its inception to the final connection with the downward stepped leader (final jump). Thus, the main physical properties of upward leaders, namely the charge per unit length, the injected current, the channel gradient and the leader velocity are self-consistently obtained. The obtained results are compared with an altitude triggered lightning experiment and there is good agreement between the model predictions and the measured leader current and the experimentally inferred spatial and temporal location of the final jump. It is also found that the usual assumption of constant charge per unit length, based on laboratory experiments, is not valid for lightning upward connecting leaders

  3. Temporal compression in episodic memory for real-life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunehomme, Olivier; Folville, Adrien; Stawarczyk, David; Van der Linden, Martial; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2018-07-01

    Remembering an event typically takes less time than experiencing it, suggesting that episodic memory represents past experience in a temporally compressed way. Little is known, however, about how the continuous flow of real-life events is summarised in memory. Here we investigated the nature and determinants of temporal compression by directly comparing memory contents with the objective timing of events as measured by a wearable camera. We found that episodic memories consist of a succession of moments of prior experience that represent events with varying compression rates, such that the density of retrieved information is modulated by goal processing and perceptual changes. Furthermore, the results showed that temporal compression rates remain relatively stable over one week and increase after a one-month delay, particularly for goal-related events. These data shed new light on temporal compression in episodic memory and suggest that compression rates are adaptively modulated to maintain current goal-relevant information.

  4. Temporal Bone Fracture Causing Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD is a third window lesion of the inner ear causing symptoms of vertigo, autophony, tinnitus, and hearing loss. A “two-hit” hypothesis has traditionally been proposed, whereby thinly developed bone overlying the superior canal is disrupted by a sudden change in intracranial pressure. Although the symptoms of SCD may be precipitated by head injury, no previous reports have described a temporal bone fracture directly causing SCD. Observations. Two patients sustained temporal bone fractures after closed head trauma, and developed unilateral otologic symptoms consistent with SCD. In each instance, computed tomography imaging revealed fractures extending through the bony roof of the superior semicircular canal. Conclusions and Relevance. Temporal bone fractures, which are largely treated nonoperatively, have not previously been reported to cause SCD. As it is a potentially treatable entity, SCD resulting from temporal bone fracture must be recognized as a possibility and diagnosed promptly if present.

  5. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  6. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  7. [Consistent Declarative Memory with Depressive Symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho de Oliveira, Silvia; Flórez, Ruth Natalia Suárez; Caballero, Diego Andrés Vásquez

    2012-12-01

    Some studies have suggested that potentiated remembrance of negative events on people with depressive disorders seems to be an important factor in the etiology, course and maintenance of depression. Evaluate the emotional memory in people with and without depressive symptomatology by means of an audio-visual test. 73 university students were evaluated, male and female, between 18 and 40 years old, distributed in two groups: with depressive symptomatology (32) and without depressive symptomatology (40), using the Scale from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D, English Abbreviation) and a cutting point of 20. There were not meaningful differences between free and voluntary recalls, with and without depressive symptomatology, in spite of the fact that both groups had granted a higher emotional value to the audio-visual test and that they had associated it with emotional sadness. People with depressive symptomatology did not exhibit the effect of mnemonic potentiation generally associated to the content of the emotional version of the test; therefore, the hypothesis of emotional consistency was not validated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Self consistent field theory of virus assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyu; Orland, Henri; Zandi, Roya

    2018-04-01

    The ground state dominance approximation (GSDA) has been extensively used to study the assembly of viral shells. In this work we employ the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) to investigate the adsorption of RNA onto positively charged spherical viral shells and examine the conditions when GSDA does not apply and SCFT has to be used to obtain a reliable solution. We find that there are two regimes in which GSDA does work. First, when the genomic RNA length is long enough compared to the capsid radius, and second, when the interaction between the genome and capsid is so strong that the genome is basically localized next to the wall. We find that for the case in which RNA is more or less distributed uniformly in the shell, regardless of the length of RNA, GSDA is not a good approximation. We observe that as the polymer-shell interaction becomes stronger, the energy gap between the ground state and first excited state increases and thus GSDA becomes a better approximation. We also present our results corresponding to the genome persistence length obtained through the tangent-tangent correlation length and show that it is zero in case of GSDA but is equal to the inverse of the energy gap when using SCFT.

  9. Consistency based correlations for tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, S.; Paul, A.C. [Regina Univ., Regina, SK (Canada). Environmental Systems Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The extraction of oil, uranium, metals and mineral resources from the earth generates significant amounts of tailings slurry. The tailings are contained in a disposal area with perimeter dykes constructed from the coarser fraction of the slurry. There are many unique challenges pertaining to the management of the containment facilities for several decades beyond mine closure that are a result of the slow settling rates of the fines and the high standing toxic waters. Many tailings dam failures in different parts of the world have been reported to result in significant contaminant releases causing public concern over the conventional practice of tailings disposal. Therefore, in order to reduce and minimize the environmental footprint, the fluid tailings need to undergo efficient consolidation. This paper presented an investigation into the consolidation behaviour of tailings in conjunction with soil consistency that captured physicochemical interactions. The paper discussed the large strain consolidation behaviour (volume compressibility and hydraulic conductivity) of six fine-grained soil slurries based on published data. The paper provided background information on the study and presented the research methodology. The geotechnical index properties of the selected materials were also presented. The large strain consolidation, volume compressibility correlations, and hydraulic conductivity correlations were provided. It was concluded that the normalized void ratio best described volume compressibility whereas liquidity index best explained the hydraulic conductivity. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Consistency between GRUAN sondes, LBLRTM and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Calbet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiosonde soundings from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN data record are shown to be consistent with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI-measured radiances via LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model in the part of the spectrum that is mostly affected by water vapour absorption in the upper troposphere (from 700 hPa up. This result is key for climate data records, since GRUAN, IASI and LBLRTM constitute reference measurements or a reference radiative transfer model in each of their fields. This is specially the case for night-time radiosonde measurements. Although the sample size is small (16 cases, daytime GRUAN radiosonde measurements seem to have a small dry bias of 2.5 % in absolute terms of relative humidity, located mainly in the upper troposphere, with respect to LBLRTM and IASI. Full metrological closure is not yet possible and will not be until collocation uncertainties are better characterized and a full uncertainty covariance matrix is clarified for GRUAN.

  11. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  12. Consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations via exceptional field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Samtleben, Henning [Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique, UMR 5672, CNRS,École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46, allée d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon cedex 07 (France)

    2015-01-26

    We present the generalized Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz for the full supersymmetric exceptional field theory in terms of group valued twist matrices subject to consistency equations. With this ansatz the field equations precisely reduce to those of lower-dimensional gauged supergravity parametrized by an embedding tensor. We explicitly construct a family of twist matrices as solutions of the consistency equations. They induce gauged supergravities with gauge groups SO(p,q) and CSO(p,q,r). Geometrically, they describe compactifications on internal spaces given by spheres and (warped) hyperboloides H{sup p,q}, thus extending the applicability of generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions beyond homogeneous spaces. Together with the dictionary that relates exceptional field theory to D=11 and IIB supergravity, respectively, the construction defines an entire new family of consistent truncations of the original theories. These include not only compactifications on spheres of different dimensions (such as AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}), but also various hyperboloid compactifications giving rise to a higher-dimensional embedding of supergravities with non-compact and non-semisimple gauge groups.

  13. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  14. The Consistency Between Clinical and Electrophysiological Diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra E. Okuyucu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the impact of electrophysiological tests in the clinical management and diagnosis of patients, and to evaluate the consistency between referring clinical diagnoses and electrophysiological diagnoses. METHODS: The study included 957 patients referred to the electroneuromyography (ENMG laboratory from different clinics with different clinical diagnoses in 2008. Demographic data, referring clinical diagnoses, the clinics where the requests wanted, and diagnoses after ENMG testing were recorded and statistically evaluated. RESULTS: In all, 957 patients [644 (67.3% female and 313 (32.7% male] were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 45.40 ± 14.54 years. ENMG requests were made by different specialists; 578 (60.4% patients were referred by neurologists, 122 (12.8% by orthopedics, 140 (14.6% by neurosurgeons, and 117 (12.2% by physical treatment and rehabilitation departments. According to the results of ENMG testing, 513 (53.6% patients’ referrals were related to their referral diagnosis, whereas 397 (41.5% patients had normal ENMG test results, and 47 (4.9% patients had a diagnosis that differed from the referring diagnosis. Among the relation between the referral diagnosis and electrophysiological diagnosis according to the clinics where the requests were made, there was no statistical difference (p= 0.794, but there were statistically significant differences between the support of different clinical diagnoses, such as carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, radiculopathy-plexopathy, entrapment neuropathy, and myopathy based on ENMG test results (p< 0.001. CONCLUSION: ENMG is a frequently used neurological examination. As such, referrals for ENMG can be made to either support the referring diagnosis or to exclude other diagnoses. This may explain the inconsistency between clinical referring diagnoses and diagnoses following ENMG

  15. Self-consistent meson mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, L.A.P.

    1982-01-01

    A dual-topological-unitarization (or dual-fragmentation) approach to the calculation of hadron masses is presented, in which the effect of planar ''sea''-quark loops is taken into account from the beginning. Using techniques based on analyticity and generalized ladder-graph dynamics, we first derive the approximate ''generic'' Regge-trajectory formula α(t) = max (S 1 +S 2 , S 3 +S 4 )-(1/2) +2alpha-circumflex'[s/sub a/ +(1/2)(t-summationm/sub i/ 2 )] for any given hadronic process 1+2→3+4, where S/sub i/ and m/sub i/ are the spins and masses of i = 1,2,3,4, and √s/sub a/ is the effective mass of the lowest nonvanishing contribution (a) exchanged in the crossed channel. By requiring a minimization of secondary (background, etc.) contributions to a, and demanding simultaneous consistency for entire sets of such processes, we are then able to calculate the masses of all the lowest pseudoscalar and vector qq-bar states with q = u,d,s and the Regge trajectories on which they lie. By making certain additional assumptions we are also able to do this with q = u,d,c and q = u,d,b. Our only arbitrary parameters are m/sub rho/, m/sub K/*, m/sub psi/, and m/sub Upsilon/, one of which merely serves to fix the energy scale. In contrast to many other approaches, a small m/sub π/ 2 /m/sub rho/ 2 ratio arises quite naturally in the present scheme

  16. Speed Consistency in the Smart Tachograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borio, Daniele; Cano, Eduardo; Baldini, Gianmarco

    2018-05-16

    In the transportation sector, safety risks can be significantly reduced by monitoring the behaviour of drivers and by discouraging possible misconducts that entail fatigue and can increase the possibility of accidents. The Smart Tachograph (ST), the new revision of the Digital Tachograph (DT), has been designed with this purpose: to verify that speed limits and compulsory rest periods are respected by drivers. In order to operate properly, the ST periodically checks the consistency of data from different sensors, which can be potentially manipulated to avoid the monitoring of the driver behaviour. In this respect, the ST regulation specifies a test procedure to detect motion conflicts originating from inconsistencies between Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and odometry data. This paper provides an experimental evaluation of the speed verification procedure specified by the ST regulation. Several hours of data were collected using three vehicles and considering light urban and highway environments. The vehicles were equipped with an On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) data reader and a GPS/Galileo receiver. The tests prescribed by the regulation were implemented with specific focus on synchronization aspects. The experimental analysis also considered aspects such as the impact of tunnels and the presence of data gaps. The analysis shows that the metrics selected for the tests are resilient to data gaps, latencies between GNSS and odometry data and simplistic manipulations such as data scaling. The new ST forces an attacker to falsify data from both sensors at the same time and in a coherent way. This makes more difficult the implementation of frauds in comparison to the current version of the DT.

  17. Validation of consistency of Mendelian sampling variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrisevä, A-M; Fikse, W F; Mäntysaari, E A; Jakobsen, J; Aamand, G P; Dürr, J; Lidauer, M H

    2018-03-01

    Experiences from international sire evaluation indicate that the multiple-trait across-country evaluation method is sensitive to changes in genetic variance over time. Top bulls from birth year classes with inflated genetic variance will benefit, hampering reliable ranking of bulls. However, none of the methods available today enable countries to validate their national evaluation models for heterogeneity of genetic variance. We describe a new validation method to fill this gap comprising the following steps: estimating within-year genetic variances using Mendelian sampling and its prediction error variance, fitting a weighted linear regression between the estimates and the years under study, identifying possible outliers, and defining a 95% empirical confidence interval for a possible trend in the estimates. We tested the specificity and sensitivity of the proposed validation method with simulated data using a real data structure. Moderate (M) and small (S) size populations were simulated under 3 scenarios: a control with homogeneous variance and 2 scenarios with yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 and 10%, respectively. Results showed that the new method was able to estimate genetic variance accurately enough to detect bias in genetic variance. Under the control scenario, the trend in genetic variance was practically zero in setting M. Testing cows with an average birth year class size of more than 43,000 in setting M showed that tolerance values are needed for both the trend and the outlier tests to detect only cases with a practical effect in larger data sets. Regardless of the magnitude (yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 or 10%) of the generated trend, it deviated statistically significantly from zero in all data replicates for both cows and bulls in setting M. In setting S with a mean of 27 bulls in a year class, the sampling error and thus the probability of a false-positive result clearly increased. Still, overall estimated genetic

  18. Temporal bone trauma and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turetschek, K.; Czerny, C.; Wunderbaldinger, P.; Steiner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Fractures of the temporal bone result from direct trauma to the temporal bone or occur as one component of a severe craniocerebral injury. Complications of temporal trauma are hemotympanon, facial nerve paralysis, conductive or sensorineur hearing loss, and leakage of cerebrospinal fluid. Erly recognition and an appropiate therapy may improve or prevent permanent deficits related to such complications. Only 20-30% of temporal bone fractures can be visualized by plain films. CT has displaced plain radiography in the investigation of the otological trauma because subtle bony details are best evaluated by CT which even can be reformatted in multiple projections, regardless of the original plane of scanning. Associated epidural, subdural, and intracerebral hemorrhagic lesions are better defined by MRI. (orig.) [de

  19. Temporal dimension in cognitive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decortis, F.; Cacciabue, P.C.

    1988-01-01

    Increased attention has been given to the role of humans in nuclear power plant safety, but one aspect seldom considered is the temporal dimension of human reasoning. Time is recognized as crucial in human reasoning and has been the subject of empirical studies where cognitive mechanisms and strategies to face the temporal dimension have been studied. The present study shows why temporal reasoning is essential in Human Reliability Analysis and how it could be introduced in a human model. Accounting for the time dimension in human behaviour is discussed first, with reference to proven field studies. Then, theoretical modelling of the temporal dimension in human reasoning and its relevance in simulation of cognitive activities of plant operator is discussed. Finally a Time Experience Model is presented

  20. Temporal modulations in speech and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Patel, Aniruddh D; Chen, Lin; Butler, Henry; Luo, Cheng; Poeppel, David

    2017-10-01

    Speech and music have structured rhythms. Here we discuss a major acoustic correlate of spoken and musical rhythms, the slow (0.25-32Hz) temporal modulations in sound intensity and compare the modulation properties of speech and music. We analyze these modulations using over 25h of speech and over 39h of recordings of Western music. We show that the speech modulation spectrum is highly consistent across 9 languages (including languages with typologically different rhythmic characteristics). A different, but similarly consistent modulation spectrum is observed for music, including classical music played by single instruments of different types, symphonic, jazz, and rock. The temporal modulations of speech and music show broad but well-separated peaks around 5 and 2Hz, respectively. These acoustically dominant time scales may be intrinsic features of speech and music, a possibility which should be investigated using more culturally diverse samples in each domain. Distinct modulation timescales for speech and music could facilitate their perceptual analysis and its neural processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sclerosteosis involving the temporal bone: histopathologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, G T; Hamersma, H

    1986-01-01

    Sclerosteosis is a rare, potentially lethal, autosomal recessive, progressive craniotubular sclerosing bone dysplasia with characteristic facial and skeletal features. The temporal bone changes include a marked increase in overall size, extensive sclerosis, narrowing of the external auditory canal, and severe constriction of the internal auditory meatus, fallopian canal, eustachian tube, and middle ear cleft. Attenuation of the bony canals of the 9th, 10th, and 11th cranial nerves, reduction in size of the internal carotid artery, and severe obliteration of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb also occur. Loss of hearing, generally bilateral, is a frequent symptom. It often manifests in early childhood and initially is expressed as sound conduction impairment. Later, a sensorineural hearing loss and loss of vestibular nerve function often develop. Impairment of facial nerve function is another feature occasionally present at birth. In the beginning, a unilateral intermittent facial weakness may occur which eventually progresses to a bilateral permanent facial paresis. The histologic examination of the temporal bones from a patient with sclerosteosis explains the mechanisms involved in the progressive impairment of sound conduction and loss of cochlear, vestibular, and facial nerve function. There is a decrease of the arterial blood supply to the brain and an obstruction of the venous drainage from it. The histopathology reveals the obstacles to decompression of the middle ear cleft, ossicular chain, internal auditory and facial canals, and the risks, and in many instances the contraindications, to such procedures. On the other hand, decompression of the sigmoid sinus and jugular bulb should be considered as an additional life-saving procedure in conjunction with the prophylactic craniotomy recommended in all adult patients.

  2. Imaging Agonist-Induced D2/D3 Receptor Desensitization and Internalization In Vivo with PET/fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Christin Y; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian; Rosen, Bruce R; Mandeville, Joseph B

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the dynamics of dopamine receptor desensitization and internalization, thereby proposing a new technique for non-invasive, in vivo measurements of receptor adaptations. The D2/D3 agonist quinpirole, which induces receptor internalization in vitro, was administered at graded doses in non-human primates while imaging with simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A pronounced temporal divergence between receptor occupancy and fMRI signal was observed: occupancy remained elevated while fMRI responded transiently. Analogous experiments with an antagonist (prochlorperazine) and a lower-affinity agonist (ropinirole) exhibited reduced temporal dissociation between occupancy and function, consistent with a mechanism of desensitization and internalization that depends upon drug efficacy and affinity. We postulated a model that incorporates internalization into a neurovascular-coupling relationship. This model yielded in vivo desensitization/internalization rates (0.2/min for quinpirole) consistent with published in vitro measurements. Overall, these results suggest that simultaneous PET/fMRI enables characterization of dynamic neuroreceptor adaptations in vivo, and may offer a first non-invasive method for assessing receptor desensitization and internalization.

  3. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2006-01-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  4. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semah, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DSV-CEA, 91 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  5. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on dierent instrument technologies, with feeds...... in the HFI channels would result in shifts in the posterior distributions of parameters of less than 0.3σ except for As, the amplitude of the primordial curvature perturbations at 0.05 Mpc-1, which changes by about 1.We extend these comparisons to include the sky maps from the complete nine-year mission...... located dierently in the focal plane, analysed independently by dierent teams using dierent software, and near∫ the minimum of diuse foreground emission, these channels are in eect two dierent experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved...

  6. Temporal validation for landsat-based volume estimation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaldo J. Arroyo; Emily B. Schultz; Thomas G. Matney; David L. Evans; Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Satellite imagery can potentially reduce the costs and time associated with ground-based forest inventories; however, for satellite imagery to provide reliable forest inventory data, it must produce consistent results from one time period to the next. The objective of this study was to temporally validate a Landsat-based volume estimation model in a four county study...

  7. Theoretical foundations: Formalized temporal models for hyperlinked multimedia documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Meixner (Britta)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractConsistent linking and accurate synchronization of multimedia elements in hypervideos or multimedia documents are essential to provide a good quality of experience to viewers. Temporal models are needed to define relationships and constraints between multimedia elements and create an

  8. Usefulness of StereoEEG-based tailored surgery for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Preliminary results in 11 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yuichi; Ochiai, Taku; Hori, Tomokatsu; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2017-07-01

    Surgical options for medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) include anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Optimal criteria for choosing the appropriate surgical approach remain uncertain. This article reports 11 consecutive cases in which electrophysiological findings of stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) were used to determine the optimal surgical approach. Eleven consecutive patients with MTLE underwent SEEG evaluation and were placed in either the medial or the medial+lateral group based on the findings. Patients in the medial group underwent SAH using the subtemporal approach, and patients in the medial+lateral group underwent SEEG-guided anterior temporal lobectomy. SEEG findings were also compared with other examinations including flumazenil (FMZ)-positron emission tomography (PET), fluorine-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET, and magnetoencephalography (MEG). Results were evaluated to determine which examinations most consistently identified the epileptogenic zone. Of the 11 cases, 4 patients were placed in the medial group, and 7 patients in the medial+lateral group. Of patients, 90.9% were classified in class I of the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale, while 72.7% were classified in class I by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) system. Analyzed by group, 100% of the medial group experienced an Engel class I outcome in the medial group, compared to 85.7% in the medial+lateral group. SEEG findings were comparable with FDG-PET results (10 of 11, 91%). Tailored surgery guided by SEEG is an electrophysiologically feasible treatment for MTLE that can result in favorable outcomes. Although seizures are thought to originate in the medial temporal lobe in MTLE, it is important for involvement of the lateral temporal cortex to be also considered in some cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Segment-Tube: Spatio-Temporal Action Localization in Untrimmed Videos with Per-Frame Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Le Wang; Xuhuan Duan; Qilin Zhang; Zhenxing Niu; Gang Hua; Nanning Zheng

    2018-01-01

    Inspired by the recent spatio-temporal action localization efforts with tubelets (sequences of bounding boxes), we present a new spatio-temporal action localization detector Segment-tube, which consists of sequences of per-frame segmentation masks. The proposed Segment-tube detector can temporally pinpoint the starting/ending frame of each action category in the presence of preceding/subsequent interference actions in untrimmed videos. Simultaneously, the Segment-tube detector produces per-fr...

  10. Consistency assessment of rating curve data in various locations using Bidirectional Reach (BReach)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Katrien; Van Hoey, Stijn; Coxon, Gemma; Freer, Jim; Verhoest, Niko E. C.

    2017-10-01

    When estimating discharges through rating curves, temporal data consistency is a critical issue. In this research, consistency in stage-discharge data is investigated using a methodology called Bidirectional Reach (BReach), which departs from a (in operational hydrology) commonly used definition of consistency. A period is considered to be consistent if no consecutive and systematic deviations from a current situation occur that exceed observational uncertainty. Therefore, the capability of a rating curve model to describe a subset of the (chronologically sorted) data is assessed in each observation by indicating the outermost data points for which the rating curve model behaves satisfactorily. These points are called the maximum left or right reach, depending on the direction of the investigation. This temporal reach should not be confused with a spatial reach (indicating a part of a river). Changes in these reaches throughout the data series indicate possible changes in data consistency and if not resolved could introduce additional errors and biases. In this research, various measurement stations in the UK, New Zealand and Belgium are selected based on their significant historical ratings information and their specific characteristics related to data consistency. For each country, regional information is maximally used to estimate observational uncertainty. Based on this uncertainty, a BReach analysis is performed and, subsequently, results are validated against available knowledge about the history and behavior of the site. For all investigated cases, the methodology provides results that appear to be consistent with this knowledge of historical changes and thus facilitates a reliable assessment of (in)consistent periods in stage-discharge measurements. This assessment is not only useful for the analysis and determination of discharge time series, but also to enhance applications based on these data (e.g., by informing hydrological and hydraulic model

  11. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  12. Parton Distributions based on a Maximally Consistent Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Juan

    2016-04-01

    The choice of data that enters a global QCD analysis can have a substantial impact on the resulting parton distributions and their predictions for collider observables. One of the main reasons for this has to do with the possible presence of inconsistencies, either internal within an experiment or external between different experiments. In order to assess the robustness of the global fit, different definitions of a conservative PDF set, that is, a PDF set based on a maximally consistent dataset, have been introduced. However, these approaches are typically affected by theory biases in the selection of the dataset. In this contribution, after a brief overview of recent NNPDF developments, we propose a new, fully objective, definition of a conservative PDF set, based on the Bayesian reweighting approach. Using the new NNPDF3.0 framework, we produce various conservative sets, which turn out to be mutually in agreement within the respective PDF uncertainties, as well as with the global fit. We explore some of their implications for LHC phenomenology, finding also good consistency with the global fit result. These results provide a non-trivial validation test of the new NNPDF3.0 fitting methodology, and indicate that possible inconsistencies in the fitted dataset do not affect substantially the global fit PDFs.

  13. Planck 2013 results. XXXI. Consistency of the Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P A R; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A.J; Barreiro, R.B; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J.P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bond, J.R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F.R; Burigana, C; Cardoso, J.F; Catalano, A; Challinor, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H.C; Christensen, P.R; Clements, D.L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L.P.L; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B.P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R.D; Davis, R.J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Desert, F.X; Dickinson, C; Diego, J.M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Ensslin, T.A; Eriksen, H.K; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Galeotta, S; Ganga, K; Giard, M; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F.K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versille, S; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S.R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M; Jaffe, T.R; Jaffe, A.H; Jones, W.C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lahteenmaki, A; Lamarre, J.M; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C.R; Leonardi, R; Leon-Tavares, J; Lesgourgues, J; Liguori, M; Lilje, P.B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P.M; Macias-Perez, J.F; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Martin, P.G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Meinhold, P.R; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Mitra, S; Miville-Deschenes, M.A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Moss, A; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Nati, F; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U; Noviello, F; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C.A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Partridge, B; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, D; Pearson, T.J; Perdereau, O; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Pierpaoli, E; Pietrobon, D; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G.W; Prunet, S; Puget, J.L; Rachen, J.P; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S.; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G.; Roudier, G; Rubino-Martin, J.A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Scott, D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A.S; Sygnet, J.F; Tauber, J.A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L.A; Wandelt, B.D; Wehus, I K; White, S D M; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2014-01-01

    The Planck design and scanning strategy provide many levels of redundancy that can be exploited to provide tests of internal consistency. One of the most important is the comparison of the 70 GHz (amplifier) and 100 GHz (bolometer) channels. Based on different instrument technologies, with feeds located differently in the focal plane, analysed independently by different teams using different software, and near the minimum of diffuse foreground emission, these channels are in effect two different experiments. The 143 GHz channel has the lowest noise level on Planck, and is near the minimum of unresolved foreground emission. In this paper, we analyse the level of consistency achieved in the 2013 Planck data. We concentrate on comparisons between the 70, 100, and 143 GHz channel maps and power spectra, particularly over the angular scales of the first and second acoustic peaks, on maps masked for diffuse Galactic emission and for strong unresolved sources. Difference maps covering angular scales from 8°...

  14. Performance Analysis of Live-Virtual-Constructive and Distributed Virtual Simulations: Defining Requirements in Terms of Temporal Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    of generating audio , video, or motion cues. Responses that affect hardware assets come in many forms. It can not be over-emphasized that if these...and Educational Visualisation . PhD thesis, Chalmers University of Technology and Göteborg University, Sweden, March 2003. KS97. C.M. Krishna and K.G

  15. The associations between multisensory temporal processing and symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Park, Sohee; Cochran, Channing; McIntosh, Lindsey G; Noel, Jean-Paul; Barense, Morgan D; Ferber, Susanne; Wallace, Mark T

    2017-01-01

    Recent neurobiological accounts of schizophrenia have included an emphasis on changes in sensory processing. These sensory and perceptual deficits can have a cascading effect onto higher-level cognitive processes and clinical symptoms. One form of sensory dysfunction that has been consistently observed in schizophrenia is altered temporal processing. In this study, we investigated temporal processing within and across the auditory and visual modalities in individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) and age-matched healthy controls. Individuals with SCZ showed auditory and visual temporal processing abnormalities, as well as multisensory temporal processing dysfunction that extended beyond that attributable to unisensory processing dysfunction. Most importantly, these multisensory temporal deficits were associated with the severity of hallucinations. This link between atypical multisensory temporal perception and clinical symptomatology suggests that clinical symptoms of schizophrenia may be at least partly a result of cascading effects from (multi)sensory disturbances. These results are discussed in terms of underlying neural bases and the possible implications for remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  17. Suboptimal choice, reward-predictive signals, and temporal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paul J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2018-01-01

    Suboptimal choice refers to preference for an alternative offering a low probability of food (suboptimal alternative) over an alternative offering a higher probability of food (optimal alternative). Numerous studies have found that stimuli signaling probabilistic food play a critical role in the development and maintenance of suboptimal choice. However, there is still much debate about how to characterize how these stimuli influence suboptimal choice. There is substantial evidence that the temporal information conveyed by a food-predictive signal governs its function as both a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus and as an instrumental conditioned reinforcer. Thus, we explore the possibility that food-predictive signals influence suboptimal choice via the temporal information they convey. Application of this temporal information-theoretic approach to suboptimal choice provides a formal, quantitative framework that describes how food-predictive signals influence suboptimal choice in a manner consistent with related phenomena in Pavlovian conditioning and conditioned reinforcement. Our reanalysis of previous data on suboptimal choice suggests that, generally speaking, preference in the suboptimal choice procedure tracks relative temporal information conveyed by food-predictive signals for the suboptimal and optimal alternatives. The model suggests that suboptimal choice develops when the food-predictive signal for the suboptimal alternative conveys more temporal information than that for the optimal alternative. Finally, incorporating a role for competition between temporal information provided by food-predictive signals and relative primary reinforcement rate provides a reasonable account of existing data on suboptimal choice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Temporal anteroinferior encephalocele: An underrecognized etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavalainen, Taavi; Jutila, Leena; Mervaala, Esa; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Vanninen, Ritva; Immonen, Arto

    2015-10-27

    To report the increasing frequency with which temporal anteroinferior encephalocele is a cause of adult temporal lobe epilepsy, to illustrate the clinical and imaging characteristics of this condition, and to report its surgical treatment in a series of 23 adult patients. Epilepsy patients diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele from January 2006 to December 2013 in a national epilepsy reference center were included in this noninterventional study. Twenty-three epilepsy patients (14 female, mean age 43.8 years) were diagnosed with temporal anteroinferior encephalocele in our institute. Thirteen patients had ≥2 encephaloceles; 7 cases presented bilaterally. The estimated frequency of this condition was 0.3% among MRI examinations performed due to newly diagnosed epilepsy (n = 6) and 1.9% among drug-resistant patients referred to our center (n = 17). Nine patients with local encephalocele disconnection (n = 4) or anterior temporal lobectomy and amygdalohippocampectomy (n = 5) have become seizure-free (Engel 1) for a mean 2.8 years (range 3 months-6.2 years) of follow-up. Three patients with local encephalocele disconnection were almost seizure-free or exhibited worthwhile improvement. Histologically, all 12 surgical patients had gliosis at the base of the encephalocele; some had cortical laminar disorganization (n = 5) or mild hippocampal degeneration (n = 1). The possibility of a temporal encephalocele should be considered when interpreting MRI examinations of patients with medically intractable focal epilepsy. These patients can significantly benefit from unitemporal epilepsy surgery, even in cases with bilateral encephaloceles. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Valli, I; Stone, J; Mechelli, A; Bhattacharyya, S; Raffin, M; Allen, P; Fusar-Poli, P; Lythgoe, D; O'Gorman, R; Seal, M; McGuire, P

    2011-01-01

    In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis.

  20. The Temporality of Power and the Power of Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Grey, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends existing understandings of power, resistance and subjectivity in professional service organizations by developing an analysis of how these relate to temporality. Drawing in particular on Hoy’s reading of the Foucauldian account of temporality, we conceive of disciplinary power...... regimes and resistance as inherently future-oriented, or, to use Ybema’s term, postalgic. In moving beyond the extant research focus on self-disciplined and/or counter-resistant professional selves, we draw attention to the imaginary future self as an employee response to disciplinary power. In contrast...

  1. The economics of international coal markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-07-13

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  2. The economics of international coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    In the scope of four related essays this thesis analyses the Chinese domestic coal sector and coal trade policies and their respective impact on international steam coal trade economics. In particular, the thesis investigates the role of domestic transport infrastructure investment policies as well as Chinese coal export and import controls and the potential exertion of market power through such trade instruments. For this purpose, several spatial equilibrium models have been developed that enable simulation runs to compare different policy scenarios. These models also permit ex-post analyses to empirically test hypotheses of non-competitive market conduct of individual players under the assumption of Cournot behaviour. These model-based analyses yield, among others, the following findings: If coal is converted into electricity early in the Chinese energy supply chain, worldwide marginal costs of supply are substantially lower than if coal is transported via railway. This can reduce China's dependence on international imports significantly. Allocation of welfare changes, particularly in favour of Chinese consumers while rents of international producers decrease. If not only seaborne trade but also interactions and feedbacks between domestic coal markets and international trade markets are accounted for, trade volumes and prices of a China - Indonesia duopoly fit the real market outcome best in 2008. Real Chinese export quotas have been consistent with simulated exports under a Cournot-Nash strategy. Uncertainties with regard to future Chinese coal demand and coal sector policies generate significant costs for international investors and lead to a spatial and temporal reallocation of mining and infrastructure investments. The potential exertion of Chinese demand side market power would further reduce the overall investment activity of exporters.

  3. Temporal auditory processing in elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzolini, Vanuza Conceição

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the trial of aging all the structures of the organism are modified, generating intercurrences in the quality of the hearing and of the comprehension. The hearing loss that occurs in consequence of this trial occasion a reduction of the communicative function, causing, also, a distance of the social relationship. Objective: Comparing the performance of the temporal auditory processing between elderly individuals with and without hearing loss. Method: The present study is characterized for to be a prospective, transversal and of diagnosis character field work. They were analyzed 21 elders (16 women and 5 men, with ages between 60 to 81 years divided in two groups, a group "without hearing loss"; (n = 13 with normal auditive thresholds or restricted hearing loss to the isolated frequencies and a group "with hearing loss" (n = 8 with neurosensory hearing loss of variable degree between light to moderately severe. Both the groups performed the tests of frequency (PPS and duration (DPS, for evaluate the ability of temporal sequencing, and the test Randon Gap Detection Test (RGDT, for evaluate the temporal resolution ability. Results: It had not difference statistically significant between the groups, evaluated by the tests DPS and RGDT. The ability of temporal sequencing was significantly major in the group without hearing loss, when evaluated by the test PPS in the condition "muttering". This result presented a growing one significant in parallel with the increase of the age group. Conclusion: It had not difference in the temporal auditory processing in the comparison between the groups.

  4. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of satellite based water cycle components

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2016-06-15

    Advances in multi-satellite based observations of the earth system have provided the capacity to retrieve information across a wide-range of land surface hydrological components and provided an opportunity to characterize terrestrial processes from a completely new perspective. Given the spatial advantage that space-based observations offer, several regional-to-global scale products have been developed, offering insights into the multi-scale behaviour and variability of hydrological states and fluxes. However, one of the key challenges in the use of satellite-based products is characterizing the degree to which they provide realistic and representative estimates of the underlying retrieval: that is, how accurate are the hydrological components derived from satellite observations? The challenge is intrinsically linked to issues of scale, since the availability of high-quality in-situ data is limited, and even where it does exist, is generally not commensurate to the resolution of the satellite observation. Basin-scale studies have shown considerable variability in achieving water budget closure with any degree of accuracy using satellite estimates of the water cycle. In order to assess the suitability of this type of approach for evaluating hydrological observations, it makes sense to first test it over environments with restricted hydrological inputs, before applying it to more hydrological complex basins. Here we explore the concept of hydrological consistency, i.e. the physical considerations that the water budget impose on the hydrologic fluxes and states to be temporally and spatially linked, to evaluate the reproduction of a set of large-scale evaporation (E) products by using a combination of satellite rainfall (P) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations of storage change, focusing on arid and semi-arid environments, where the hydrological flows can be more realistically described. Our results indicate no persistent hydrological

  5. Temporal Change of Seismic Earth's Inner Core Phases: Inner Core Differential Rotation Or Temporal Change of Inner Core Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J.; Tian, D.; Sun, L.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    Since Song and Richards [1996] first reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKIKP wave (a compressional wave refracted in the inner core) and proposed inner core differential rotation as its explanation, it has generated enormous interests in the scientific community and the public, and has motivated many studies on the implications of the inner core differential rotation. However, since Wen [2006] reported seismic evidence for temporal change of PKiKP wave (a compressional wave reflected from the inner core boundary) that requires temporal change of inner core surface, both interpretations for the temporal change of inner core phases have existed, i.e., inner core rotation and temporal change of inner core surface. In this study, we discuss the issue of the interpretation of the observed temporal changes of those inner core phases and conclude that inner core differential rotation is not only not required but also in contradiction with three lines of seismic evidence from global repeating earthquakes. Firstly, inner core differential rotation provides an implausible explanation for a disappearing inner core scatterer between a doublet in South Sandwich Islands (SSI), which is located to be beneath northern Brazil based on PKIKP and PKiKP coda waves of the earlier event of the doublet. Secondly, temporal change of PKIKP and its coda waves among a cluster in SSI is inconsistent with the interpretation of inner core differential rotation, with one set of the data requiring inner core rotation and the other requiring non-rotation. Thirdly, it's not reasonable to invoke inner core differential rotation to explain travel time change of PKiKP waves in a very small time scale (several months), which is observed for repeating earthquakes in Middle America subduction zone. On the other hand, temporal change of inner core surface could provide a consistent explanation for all the observed temporal changes of PKIKP and PKiKP and their coda waves. We conclude that

  6. The international spinal cord injury pain basic data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerström-Noga, E; Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryce, T; Cardenas, D D; Finnerup, N B; Jensen, M P; Richards, J S; Siddall, P J

    2008-12-01

    To develop a basic pain data set (International Spinal Cord Injury Basic Pain Data Set, ISCIPDS:B) within the framework of the International spinal cord injury (SCI) data sets that would facilitate consistent collection and reporting of pain in the SCI population. International. The ISCIPDS:B was developed by a working group consisting of individuals with published evidence of expertise in SCI-related pain regarding taxonomy, psychophysics, psychology, epidemiology and assessment, and one representative of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The members were appointed by four major organizations with an interest in SCI-related pain (International Spinal Cord Society, ISCoS; American Spinal Injury Association, ASIA; American Pain Society, APS and International Association for the Study of Pain, IASP). The initial ISCIPDS:B was revised based on suggestions from members of the Executive Committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS Scientific Committee, ASIA and APS Boards, and the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the IASP, individual reviewers and societies and the ISCoS Council. The final ISCIPDS:B contains core questions about clinically relevant information concerning SCI-related pain that can be collected by health-care professionals with expertise in SCI in various clinical settings. The questions concern pain severity, physical and emotional function and include a pain-intensity rating, a pain classification and questions related to the temporal pattern of pain for each specific pain problem. The impact of pain on physical, social and emotional function, and sleep is evaluated for each pain.

  7. Cross-cultural caregiving and the temporal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escandon, Socorro

    2013-11-01

    The caregiving research literature has explored and documented findings from psychological, clinical, and policy/program perspectives, but little is known regarding the contextual perspectives of caregiving. Temporal factors influence the structure and functioning of the caregiving family. The proposed paradigm adaptation extends a contextual perspective that addresses the exploration of the caregiving process as a temporal, dynamic, progressive process over time, in which decisions made by caregivers may not always be based on observable tasks but, nevertheless, may have important consequences. When cultures cross, attitudes and behaviors are modified, resulting from contact with a different set of values and beliefs. Cross-cultural research aims to explore these changes that take place over time. Future research should consider the inclusion of measures that assess the temporal aspect of caregiving and the acculturation considerations of family caregivers. These measures are especially needed because of the increased influence of international migration, economic globalization, and political conflicts in today's multicultural societies.

  8. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  9. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Katherine C.; Wong-Kisiel, Lily C.; Moseley, Brian D.; Wirrell, Elaine C.

    2012-01-01

    The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome. PMID:22957247

  10. Male Music Frogs Compete Vocally on the Basis of Temporal Sequence Rather Than Spatial Cues of Rival Calls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan JIANG; Guangzhan FANG; Fei XUE; Jianguo CUI; Steven E BRAUTH; Yezhong TANG

    2015-01-01

    Male-male vocal competition in anuran species may be influenced by cues related to the temporal sequence of male calls as well by internal temporal, spectral and spatial ones. Nevertheless, the conditions under which each type of cue is important remain unclear. Since the salience of different cues could be reflected by dynamic properties of male-male competition under certain experimental manipulation, we investigated the effects of repeating playbacks of conspecific calls on male call production in the Emei music frog (Babina daunchina). In Babina, most males produce calls from nest burrows which modify the spectral features of the cues. Females prefer calls produced from inside burrows which are defined as highly sexually attractive (HSA) while those produced outside burrows as low sexual attractiveness (LSA). In this study HSA and LSA calls were broadcasted either antiphonally or stereophonically through spatially separated speakers in which the temporal sequence and/or spatial position of the playbacks was either predictable or random. Results showed that most males consistently avoided producing advertisement calls overlapping the playback stimuli and generally produced calls competitively in advance of the playbacks. Furthermore males preferentially competed with the HSA calls when the sequence was predictable but competed equally with HSA and LSA calls if the sequence was random regardless of the availability of spatial cues, implying that males relied more on available sequence cues than spatial ones to remain competitive.

  11. Measuring attitude towards Buddhism and Sikhism : internal consistency reliability for two new instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses the development and empirical properties of two new\\ud 24-item scales – one measuring attitude toward Buddhism and the other measuring attitude\\ud toward Sikhism. The scale is designed to facilitate inter-faith comparisons within the\\ud psychology of religion alongside the well-established Francis Scale of Attitude toward\\ud Christianity. Data were obtained from a multi-religious sample of 369 school pupils aged\\ud between 13 and 15 in London. Application of...

  12. Internal Consistency of General Outcome Measures in Grades 1-8. Technical Report # 0915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel; Tindal, Gerald; Alonzo, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We developed alternate forms of a math test for use in both screening students at risk of failure and monitoring their progress over time. In this technical report, we present results of the screener, used in the fall of 2009. The 48-item test was aligned to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) Curriculum Focal Point Standards…

  13. Forging internationally consistent energy and coal policies; Wykuwanie spojnej miedzynarodowej polityki energetyczno-weglowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens, L. [European Association for Coal and Lignite (EURACOAL), Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The paper argues that coal has a future as a sustainable energy source in combination with modern technology. It has the potential to meet forecast growth in consumption and to support a robust energy supply strategy. Improved utilisation of fossil fuels is demanded both in countries which are signatories to the Kyoto Protocol and in developing countries. There is still room for more research and development in advanced cleaner coal technologies. The role of coal in the labour market and industrial development policies should be maintained in government policies. Financing methods are needed to enable construction of state-of-the-art power plants in developing and developed countries. 6 figs.

  14. Monitoring temporal and spatial variability in sandeel (Ammodytes hexapterus) abundance with pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzow, Michael A.; Piatt, John F.; Abookire, Alisa A.; Prichard, A.K.; Robards, Martin D.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) as monitors of nearshore fish abundance and community composition during 1995-1999 at Kachemak Bay, Alaska. We studied the composition of chick diets at 10 colonies and simultaneously measured fish abundance around colonies with beach seines and bottom trawls. Sandeels (Ammodytes hexapterus) formed the majority of the diet at one group of colonies. Temporal variability in sandeel abundance explained 74% of inter-annual variability in diet composition at these colonies and 93% of seasonal variability. Diets at other colonies were dominated by demersal fish. Among these colonies, 81% of the variability in the proportion of sandeels in diets was explained by spatial differences in sanded abundance. Pigeon guillemots exhibited a non-linear functional response to sandeel abundance in the area where these fish were most abundant. Temporal and spatial variability in demersal fish abundance was not consistently reflected in diets. Spatial differences in the proportion of different demersal fishes in the diet may have been driven by differences in guillemot prey preference. Prey specialization by individual pigeon guillemots was common, and may operate at the colony level. Inter-annual variability in sandeel abundance may have been tracked more accurately because the magnitude of change (11-fold) was greater than that of demersal fish (three-fold). (C) 2000 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  15. Hyper-temporal c-band SAR for baseline woody structural assessments in deciduous savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathieu, Renaud SA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available deciduous savanna environment. Results showed that: the temporal filter reduced image variance; the random forest model out-performed the linear model; while the TCV metric consistently showed marginally higher accuracies than the TCC metric. Combinations...

  16. Bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weon, Young Cheol; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Choi, Sung Kyu; Koo, Ja-Won

    2007-01-01

    Duplication of the internal auditory canal is an extremely rare temporal bone anomaly that is believed to result from aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. We report bilateral duplication of the internal auditory canal in a 28-month-old boy with developmental delay and sensorineural hearing loss. (orig.)

  17. [Children's oppositional behaviour, practice of parental authority and temporal anomie].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeau, L

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the relationship between children's oppositional behaviour and the exercise of parental authority. It seeks to explore the value of a heuristic approach to psychic temporality in exercising parental authority. The study aims to better understand the role of psychic temporality in operations producing symbolic law. It goes on to describe a disorder of temporality, known as temporal anomie, which may be involved in a child's oppositional disorders. Psychiatric or psychological consultations motivated by oppositional disorders in children have increased steadily in the past fifteen years in France. The primary reason for consultation is in the form of difficulties for children in accepting the social rules or constraints, but also the difficulties of parenting while coping with the opposition of their children. This increase is made in connection with the works analysing the social and psychological effects imposed by modernity and its acceleration. Correspondingly, we find that some parents do not prioritize their educational requirements, do not know when or how to frustrate their child, or even if it is legitimate to expect from him/her a certain type of behaviour. They seem more preoccupied with the fear of not being loved by their child more than their duty to educate. A general trend suggests an alteration of psychological time, characterized by: a) a disinvestment of links between present and past for the enjoyment of the moment and its extension in the immediate future ; b) a difficulty in supporting educational responses causing frustration for the child ; c) a lack of continuity and constancy in educational requirements. The author proposes to define temporal anomie as the psychical time that weakens the consistency of educational responses. A link between psychological temporality and the symbolic law is discussed. Specifically, the study notes that: in intersubjective relations, mastery of psychological time by parents is an

  18. Cortical Correlates of Binaural Temporal Processing Deficits in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddins, Ann Clock; Eddins, David A

    -Hz dichotic conditions, consistent with similar use of binaural temporal envelope cues across age in these conditions. For all groups, thresholds and derived BMLD values obtained using the behavioral and CAEP methods were strongly correlated, supporting the notion that CAEP measures may be useful as an objective index of age-related changes in binaural temporal processing. These results demonstrate an age-related decline in the processing of binaural temporal fine-structure cues with preserved temporal envelope coding that was similar with and without mild-to-moderate peripheral hearing loss. Such age-related changes can be reliably indexed by both behavioral and CAEP measures in young and older adults.

  19. Are coping styles consistent in the teleost fish Sparus aurata through sexual maturation and sex reversal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Martínez Páramo, Sonia; Figueiredo, F; Cerqueira, Marco; Millot, Sandie; Oliveira, Catarina C V; Martins, Catarina I M; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-10-01

    Individual differences in behaviour and physiological responses to stress are associated with evolutionary adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, i.e. coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years. However, one of limitations of the available knowledge, regarding the temporal consistency, is that it refers always to short-term consistency (usually few weeks). The present study used an escape response during a net restraining test, previously shown to be an indicative of coping styles in seabream, to investigate long-term consistency of coping styles both over time and during different life history stages. Results showed both short-term (14 days) consistency and long-term (8 months) consistency of escape response. However, we did not found consistency in the same behaviour after sexual maturation when the restraining test was repeated 16, 22 and 23 months after the first test was performed. In conclusion, this study showed consistent behaviour traits in seabream when juveniles, and a loss of this behavioural traits when adults. Therefore, these results underline that adding a life story approach to data interpretation as an essential step forward towards coping styles foreground. Furthermore, a fine-tuning of aquaculture rearing strategies to adapt to different coping strategies may need to be adjusted differently at early stages of development and adults to improve the welfare of farmed fish.

  20. Temporal hypometabolism at the onset of cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheja, P.; Kuwert, T.; Weckesser, M.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Luedemann, P.; Kellinghaus, C.; Diehl, B.; Ringelstein, E.B. [Dept. of Neurology, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Schuierer, G. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2001-05-01

    Most patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit temporal glucose hypometabolism. The reasons for the development of this abnormality are as yet unclear. The current notion is that an initial injury causes seizures, which in turn give rise to hypometabolism. The aim of this study was to assess whether temporal reductions in glucose metabolism in non-lesional TLE are the result of repeated seizures or whether hypometabolism represents an initial disturbance at the onset of disease. Glucose consumption was assessed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG PET) in 62 patients with cryptogenic non-refractory TLE in different stages of disease. Twelve subjects without neurological illness served as controls. Patients with onset of epilepsy at least 3 years prior to the PET scan were defined as having chronic TLE. Using this criterion, the whole patient cohort included 27 patients with de novo TLE and 35 patients with chronic TLE. The groups were matched for age and sex. The appearance of high-resolution magnetic resonance images of the brain was unremarkable in all patients. In the total cohort, number, duration and frequency of seizures had a significant relation to the magnitude of hypometabolism. Temporal hypometabolism was exhibited by 26 of the 62 patients (42%), including 8 out of 27 (30%) with newly diagnosed TLE and 18 out of 35 (51%) with chronic TLE. The disturbances were more extensive and more severe in patients with chronic TLE. It is concluded that temporal hypometabolism may already be present at the onset of TLE, but is less frequent and less severe in newly diagnosed than in chronic TLE. The metabolic disturbance correlates with the number of seizures. These findings suggest that an initial dysfunction is present in a considerable number of patients and that hypometabolism is worsened by continuing epileptic activity. (orig.)

  1. TEMPORAL QUERY PROCESSIG USING SQL SERVER

    OpenAIRE

    Vali Shaik, Mastan; Sujatha, P

    2017-01-01

    Most data sources in real-life are not static but change their information in time. This evolution of data in time can give valuable insights to business analysts. Temporal data refers to data, where changes over time or temporal aspects play a central role. Temporal data denotes the evaluation of object characteristics over time. One of the main unresolved problems that arise during the data mining process is treating data that contains temporal information. Temporal queries on time evolving...

  2. Achieving Consistent Doppler Measurements from SDO/HMI Vector Field Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Peter W.; Antiochos, S. K.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory is delivering vector magnetic field observations of the full solar disk with unprecedented temporal and spatial resolution; however, the satellite is in a highly inclined geosynchronous orbit. The relative spacecraft-Sun velocity varies by +/-3 kms-1 over a day, which introduces major orbital artifacts in the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. We demonstrate that the orbital artifacts contaminate all spatial and temporal scales in the data. We describe a newly developed three-stage procedure for mitigating these artifacts in the Doppler data obtained from the Milne-Eddington inversions in the HMI pipeline. The procedure ultimately uses 32 velocity-dependent coefficients to adjust 10 million pixels-a remarkably sparse correction model given the complexity of the orbital artifacts. This procedure was applied to full-disk images of AR 11084 to produce consistent Dopplergrams. The data adjustments reduce the power in the orbital artifacts by 31 dB. Furthermore, we analyze in detail the corrected images and show that our procedure greatly improves the temporal and spectral properties of the data without adding any new artifacts. We conclude that this new procedure makes a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the HMI data and in its usefulness for precision scientific studies.

  3. Linear Temporal Logic-based Mission Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Linear Temporal Logic-based reactive motion planning. We address the problem of motion planning for mobile robots, wherein the goal specification of planning is given in complex environments. The desired task specification may consist of complex behaviors of the robot, including specifications for environment constraints, need of task optimality, obstacle avoidance, rescue specifications, surveillance specifications, safety specifications, etc. We use Linear Temporal Logic to give a representation for such complex task specification and constraints. The specifications are used by a verification engine to judge the feasibility and suitability of plans. The planner gives a motion strategy as output. Finally a controller is used to generate the desired trajectory to achieve such a goal. The approach is tested using simulations on the LTLMoP mission planning tool, operating over the Robot Operating System. Simulation results generated using high level planners and low level controllers work simultaneously for mission planning and controlling the physical behavior of the robot.

  4. Temporal discrimination, a cervical dystonia endophenotype: penetrance and functional correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmich, Okka; Molloy, Anna; Whelan, Robert; Williams, Laura; Bradley, David; Balsters, Joshua; Molloy, Fiona; Lynch, Tim; Healy, Daniel G; Walsh, Cathal; O'Riordan, Seán; Reilly, Richard B; Hutchinson, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenesis of adult-onset primary dystonia remains poorly understood. There is variable age-related and gender-related expression of the phenotype, the commonest of which is cervical dystonia. Endophenotypes may provide insight into underlying genetic and pathophysiological mechanisms of dystonia. The temporal discrimination threshold (TDT)-the shortest time interval at which two separate stimuli can be detected as being asynchronous-is abnormal both in patients with cervical dystonia and in their unaffected first-degree relatives. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that putaminal activation positively correlates with the ease of temporal discrimination between two stimuli in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination would exhibit similar age-related and gender-related penetrance as cervical dystonia and that unaffected relatives with an abnormal TDT would have reduced putaminal activation during a temporal discrimination task. TDTs were examined in a group of 192 healthy controls and in 158 unaffected first-degree relatives of 84 patients with cervical dystonia. In 24 unaffected first-degree relatives, fMRI scanning was performed during a temporal discrimination task. The prevalence of abnormal TDTs in unaffected female relatives reached 50% after age 48 years; whereas, in male relatives, penetrance of the endophenotype was reduced. By fMRI, relatives who had abnormal TDTs, compared with relatives who had normal TDTs, had significantly less activation in the putamina and in the middle frontal and precentral gyri. Only the degree of reduction of putaminal activity correlated significantly with worsening of temporal discrimination. These findings further support abnormal temporal discrimination as an endophenotype of cervical dystonia involving disordered basal ganglia circuits. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  5. Epilepsy with temporal encephalocele: Characteristics of electrocorticography and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, Fedor; Li, Yi; Chang, Edward F; Knowlton, Robert; Cornes, Susannah B

    2016-02-01

    Temporal lobe encephaloceles (TEs) are increasingly identified in patients with epilepsy due to advances in neuroimaging. Select patients become seizure-free with lesionectomy. In practice, however, many of these patients will undergo standard anterior temporal lobectomy. Herein we report on the first series of patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with encephalocele to undergo chronic or intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) in order to characterize the putative epileptogenic nature of these lesions and help guide surgical planning. This retrospective study includes nine adult patients with magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography (MRI/CT)-defined temporal encephalocele treated between 2007 and 2014 at University of California San Francisco (UCSF). Clinical features, ECoG, imaging, and surgical outcomes are reviewed. Six patients underwent resective epilepsy surgery. Each case demonstrated abnormal epileptiform discharges around the cortical area of the encephalocele. Two underwent tailored lesionectomy and four underwent lesionectomy plus anterior medial temporal resection. Postoperatively, five patients, including both with lesionectomy only, had Engel class Ia surgical outcome, and one had a class IIb surgical outcome. The role of TE in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is uncertain. ECoG can confirm the presence of interictal epileptiform discharges and seizures arising from these lesions. Patients overall had a very good surgical prognosis, even with selective surgical approaches. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  6. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  7. Temporal structures in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, F.

    2001-01-01

    The intermittent dynamics of the turbulent Gledzer, Ohkitani, and Yamada shell-model is completely characterized by a single type of burstlike structure, which moves through the shells like a front. This temporal structure is described by the dynamics of the instantaneous configuration of the shell...

  8. Temporal form in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Winther, Morten Trøstrup; Mørch, Nina

    2015-01-01

    temporal forms by letting a series of expert designers reflect upon them. We borrow a framework from Boorstin’s film theory in which he distinguishes between the voyeuristic, the vicarious, and the visceral experience. We show how to use rhythms, complexity, gentle or forceful behavior, etc., to create...

  9. Temporal factors in resource dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, L; Poortinga, W; van der Kooij, R

    The conflict between present and future consumption lies at the heart of resource dilemmas (RDs), yet the role of time has received little attention in this research area. Emphasis was on factors related to the social rather than the temporal conflict inherent in an RD. We propose a model that deals

  10. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  11. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimori, Masato; Koyama, Yukiko; Enomoto, Fuyuki; Ichikawa, Ginichiro [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-08-01

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  12. Transition constraints for temporal attributes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ongoma, EAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Representing temporal data in conceptual data models and ontologies is required by various application domains. For it to be useful for modellers to represent the information precisely and reason over it, it is essential to have a language...

  13. Temporal integration of loudness as a function of level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florentine, Mary; Buus, Søren; Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Absolute thresholds were measured for 5-, 30-, and 200-ms stimuli using an adaptive, forced choice procedure. Temporal integration of loudness for these durations was also measured for a 1-kHz tone and for broadband noises over a range of 5-80 dB SL (noise) and 5-90 dB SL (tones). Results show...... that temporal integration (defined as the level difference between equally loud 5- and 200-ms stimuli) varies non-monotonically with level. The temporal integration is about 10-12 dB near threshold, increases to 18-19 dB when the 5-ms signal is about 56 dB SPL (tone) and 76 dB SPL (noise), decreases again...... that the growth of loudness may, at least in part, be consistent with the nonlinear input/output function of the basilar membrane....

  14. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorina Negreanu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment’s evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  15. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  16. Temporal Coding of Volumetric Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llull, Patrick Ryan

    'Image volumes' refer to realizations of images in other dimensions such as time, spectrum, and focus. Recent advances in scientific, medical, and consumer applications demand improvements in image volume capture. Though image volume acquisition continues to advance, it maintains the same sampling mechanisms that have been used for decades; every voxel must be scanned and is presumed independent of its neighbors. Under these conditions, improving performance comes at the cost of increased system complexity, data rates, and power consumption. This dissertation explores systems and methods capable of efficiently improving sensitivity and performance for image volume cameras, and specifically proposes several sampling strategies that utilize temporal coding to improve imaging system performance and enhance our awareness for a variety of dynamic applications. Video cameras and camcorders sample the video volume (x,y,t) at fixed intervals to gain understanding of the volume's temporal evolution. Conventionally, one must reduce the spatial resolution to increase the framerate of such cameras. Using temporal coding via physical translation of an optical element known as a coded aperture, the compressive temporal imaging (CACTI) camera emonstrates a method which which to embed the temporal dimension of the video volume into spatial (x,y) measurements, thereby greatly improving temporal resolution with minimal loss of spatial resolution. This technique, which is among a family of compressive sampling strategies developed at Duke University, temporally codes the exposure readout functions at the pixel level. Since video cameras nominally integrate the remaining image volume dimensions (e.g. spectrum and focus) at capture time, spectral (x,y,t,lambda) and focal (x,y,t,z) image volumes are traditionally captured via sequential changes to the spectral and focal state of the system, respectively. The CACTI camera's ability to embed video volumes into images leads to exploration

  17. European status on temporal bone training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frithioff, Andreas; Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Andersen, Steven Arild Wuyts

    2018-01-01

    laboratory facilities for training seems to be decreasing. Alternatives to traditional training can consist of drilling artificial models made of plaster or plastic but also virtual reality (VR) simulation. Nevertheless, the integration and availability of these alternatives into specialist training programs...... training modality. CONCLUSIONS: VR simulation and artificial models are reported to be used at many leading training departments already. Decreasing availability of cadavers, lower costs of VR simulation and artificial models, in addition to established evidence for a positive effect on the trainees......' competency, were reported as the main reasons. Most remaining departments expect to implement VR simulation and artificial models for temporal bone training into their residency programs in the near future....

  18. Temporality of couple conflict and relationship perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Horne, Rebecca M; Hardy, Nathan R; Anderson, Jared R

    2018-05-03

    Using 5 waves of longitudinal survey data gathered from 3,405 couples, the present study investigates the temporal associations between self-reported couple conflict (frequency and each partner's constructive and withdrawing behaviors) and relationship perceptions (satisfaction and perceived instability). Autoregressive cross-lagged model results revealed couple conflict consistently predicted future relationship perceptions: More frequent conflict and withdrawing behaviors and fewer constructive behaviors foretold reduced satisfaction and conflict frequency and withdrawal heightened perceived instability. Relationship perceptions also shaped future conflict, but in surprising ways: Perceptions of instability were linked with less frequent conflict, and male partner instability predicted fewer withdrawing behaviors for female partners. Higher satisfaction from male partners also predicted more frequent and less constructive conflict behavior in the future. These findings illustrate complex bidirectional linkages between relationship perceptions and couple conflict behaviors in the development of couple relations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Temporal motifs in time-dependent networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovanen, Lauri; Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2011-01-01

    Temporal networks are commonly used to represent systems where connections between elements are active only for restricted periods of time, such as telecommunication, neural signal processing, biochemical reaction and human social interaction networks. We introduce the framework of temporal motifs to study the mesoscale topological–temporal structure of temporal networks in which the events of nodes do not overlap in time. Temporal motifs are classes of similar event sequences, where the similarity refers not only to topology but also to the temporal order of the events. We provide a mapping from event sequences to coloured directed graphs that enables an efficient algorithm for identifying temporal motifs. We discuss some aspects of temporal motifs, including causality and null models, and present basic statistics of temporal motifs in a large mobile call network

  20. Temporal changes of the inner core from waveform doublets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Song, X.

    2017-12-01

    Temporal changes of the Earth's inner core have been detected from earthquake waveform doublets (repeating sources with similar waveforms at the same station). Using doublets from events up to the present in the South Sandwich Island (SSI) region recorded by the station COLA (Alaska), we confirmed systematic temporal variations in the travel time of the inner-core-refracted phase (PKIKP, the DF branch). The DF phase arrives increasingly earlier than outer core phases (BC and AB) by rate of approximately 0.07 s per decade since 1970s. If we assume that the temporal change is caused by a shift of the lateral gradient from the inner core rotation as in previous studies, we estimate the rotation rate of 0.2-0.4 degree per year. We also analyzed the topography of the inner core boundary (ICB) using SSI waveform doublets recorded by seismic stations in Eurasia and North America with reflected phase (PKiKP) and refracted phases. There are clear temporal changes in the waveforms of doublets for PKiKP under Africa and Central America. In addition, for doublets recorded by three nearby stations (AAK, AML, and UCH), we observed systematic change in the relative travel time of PKiKP and PKIKP. The temporal change of the (PKiKP - PKIKP) differential time is always negative for the event pairs if both events are before 2007, while it fluctuates to positive if the later event occurs after 2007. The rapid temporal changes in space and time may indicate localized processes (e.g., freezing and melting) of the ICB in the recent decades under Africa. We are exploring 4D models consistent with the temporal changes.