WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal conductivity distribution

  1. US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    Did the Bush administration fundamentally harm the international human rights system through its rejection of human rights norms? This is the central question explored within US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy, which analyses the practices of legitimacy between the Bush...... nations have followed in America's footsteps, and that the Bush administration's deviation from international norms has served to reaffirm worldwide commitment to human rights....... administration, states, and international organizations in cases of torture, habeas corpus, and rendition. Vincent Keating argues that despite the material power of the United States, there is little evidence that the Bush administration gravely damaged international norms on torture and habeas corpus as few...

  2. US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keating, Vincent Charles

    Did the Bush administration fundamentally harm the international human rights system through its rejection of human rights norms? This is the central question explored within US Human Rights Conduct and International Legitimacy, which analyses the practices of legitimacy between the Bush...... nations have followed in America's footsteps, and that the Bush administration's deviation from international norms has served to reaffirm worldwide commitment to human rights....

  3. Temperature distributions of a conductively heated filament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    1999-07-01

    Temperature distributions of a heated filament were measured. A W-Re(5%) filament (0.25 mm in diameter, 24.7 mm in length) was conductively heated by currents between 5A and 7A with a DC power supply, and the surface of the filament was imaged with a charge coupled device (CCD) camera through a monochromatic filter. The spectral radiation intensity at the filament center region was almost uniform. Since the temperature distribution was also uniform and the energy loss by thermal conduction was negligible, temperature in this region was determined from the energy balance between applied power and radiation loss. Temperature distribution of the filament was determined based on the Planck's law of radiation from the spectral radiation intensity ratio of the filament surface using obtained temperature as a reference. It was found that temperature distribution of a filament was easily measured by this method. (author)

  4. Current distribution in conducting nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ankush; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.; Kulkarni, Giridhar U.

    2017-07-01

    Conducting nanowire networks find diverse applications in solar cells, touch-screens, transparent heaters, sensors, and various related transparent conducting electrode (TCE) devices. The performances of these devices depend on effective resistance, transmittance, and local current distribution in these networks. Although, there have been rigorous studies addressing resistance and transmittance in TCE, not much attention is paid on studying the distribution of current. Present work addresses this compelling issue of understanding current distribution in TCE networks using analytical as well as Monte-Carlo approaches. We quantified the current carrying backbone region against isolated and dangling regions as a function of wire density (ranging from percolation threshold to many multiples of threshold) and compared the wired connectivity with those obtained from template-based methods. Further, the current distribution in the obtained backbone is studied using Kirchhoff's law, which reveals that a significant fraction of the backbone (which is believed to be an active current component) may not be active for end-to-end current transport due to the formation of intervening circular loops. The study shows that conducting wire based networks possess hot spots (extremely high current carrying regions) which can be potential sources of failure. The fraction of these hot spots is found to decrease with increase in wire density, while they are completely absent in template based networks. Thus, the present work discusses unexplored issues related to current distribution in conducting networks, which are necessary to choose the optimum network for best TCE applications.

  5. Inverse anisotropic conductivity from internal current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, Guillaume; Guo, Chenxi; Monard, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the reconstruction of a fully anisotropic conductivity tensor γ from internal current densities of the form J = γ∇u, where u solves a second-order elliptic equation ∇ · (γ∇u) = 0 on a bounded domain X with prescribed boundary conditions. A minimum number of n + 2 such functionals known on Y⊂X, where n is the spatial dimension, is sufficient to guarantee a unique and explicit reconstruction of γ locally on Y. Moreover, we show that γ is reconstructed with a loss of one derivative compared to errors in the measurement of J in the general case and no loss of derivatives in the special case where γ is scalar. We also describe linear combinations of mixed partial derivatives of γ that exhibit better stability properties and hence can be reconstructed with better resolution in practice. (paper)

  6. 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    1978-01-01

    Once again, it gives me a great pleasure to pen the Foreword to the Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Thermal Conductivity. As in the past, these now biannual conferences pro­ vide a broadly based forum for those researchers actively working on this important property of matter to convene on a regular basis to exchange their experiences and report their findings. As it is apparent from the Table of Contents, the 15th Conference represents perhaps the broadest coverage of subject areas to date. This is indicative of the times as the boundaries between disciplines be­ come increasingly diffused. I am sure the time has come when Con­ ference Chairmen in coming years will be soliciting contributions not only in the physical sciences and engineering', but will actively seek contributions from the earth sciences and life sciences as well. Indeed, the thermal conductivity and related properties of geological and biological materials are becoming of increasing im­ portance to our way of life. As...

  7. Electrical Conductivity Distributions in Discrete Fluid-Filled Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, S. C.; Ahmmed, B.; Knox, H. A.; Johnson, T.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    It is commonly asserted that hydraulic fracturing enhances permeability by generating new fractures in the reservoir. Furthermore, it is assumed that in the fractured system predominant flow occurs in these newly formed and pre-existing fractures. Among the phenomenology that remains enigmatic are fluid distributions inside fractures. Therefore, determining fluid distribution and their associated temporal and spatial evolution in fractures is critical for safe and efficient hydraulic fracturing. Previous studies have used both forward modeling and inversion of electrical data to show that a geologic system consisting of fluid filled fractures has a conductivity distribution, where fractures act as electrically conductive bodies when the fluids are more conductive than the host material. We will use electrical inversion for estimating electrical conductivity distribution within multiple fractures from synthetic and measured data. Specifically, we will use data and well geometries from an experiment performed at Blue Canyon Dome in Socorro, NM, which was used as a study site for subsurface technology, engineering, and research (SubTER) funded by DOE. This project used a central borehole for energetically stimulating the system and four monitoring boreholes, emplaced in the cardinal directions. The electrical data taken during this project used 16 temporary electrodes deployed in the stimulation borehole and 64 permanent electrodes in the monitoring wells (16 each). We present results derived using E4D from scenarios with two discrete fractures, thereby discovering the electric potential response of both spatially and temporarily variant fluid distribution and the resolution of fluid and fracture boundaries. These two fractures have dimensions of 3m × 0.01m × 7m and are separated by 1m. These results can be used to develop stimulation and flow tests at the meso-scale that will be important for model validation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi

  8. Bayesian Prior Probability Distributions for Internal Dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.; Inkret, W.C.; Little, T.T.; Martz, H.F.; Schillaci, M.E

    2001-07-01

    The problem of choosing a prior distribution for the Bayesian interpretation of measurements (specifically internal dosimetry measurements) is considered using a theoretical analysis and by examining historical tritium and plutonium urine bioassay data from Los Alamos. Two models for the prior probability distribution are proposed: (1) the log-normal distribution, when there is some additional information to determine the scale of the true result, and (2) the 'alpha' distribution (a simplified variant of the gamma distribution) when there is not. These models have been incorporated into version 3 of the Bayesian internal dosimetric code in use at Los Alamos (downloadable from our web site). Plutonium internal dosimetry at Los Alamos is now being done using prior probability distribution parameters determined self-consistently from population averages of Los Alamos data. (author)

  9. The impact of international codes of conduct on employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined how international codes of conduct address employment conditions and gender issues in the Chinese flower industry. A sample of 20 companies was purposively selected and 200 workers from these companies were interviewed. The adoption of international codes did not improve workers conditions ...

  10. The pressure, internal energy, and conductivity of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, E.M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Department of Computational Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-11-15

    The pressure, internal energy, and conductivity of a tantalum plasma were calculated at the temperatures 10-100 kK and densities less than 3 g/cm{sup 3}. The plasma composition, pressure, and internal energy were obtained by means of the corresponding system of the coupled mass action law equations. We have considered atom ionization up to +3. The conductivity was calculated within the relaxation time approximation. Comparisons of our results with available measurements and calculation data show good agreement in the area of correct applicability of the present model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Distributions of Conductance and Shot Noise and Associated Phase Transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N.; Bohigas, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    For a chaotic cavity with two identical leads each supporting N channels, we compute analytically, for large N, the full distribution of the conductance and the shot noise power and show that in both cases there is a central Gaussian region flanked on both sides by non-Gaussian tails. The distribution is weakly singular at the junction of Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, a direct consequence of two phase transitions in an associated Coulomb gas problem

  12. Method of imaging the electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Timothy C.

    2017-09-26

    A method of imaging electrical conductivity distribution of a subsurface containing metallic structures with known locations and dimensions is disclosed. Current is injected into the subsurface to measure electrical potentials using multiple sets of electrodes, thus generating electrical resistivity tomography measurements. A numeric code is applied to simulate the measured potentials in the presence of the metallic structures. An inversion code is applied that utilizes the electrical resistivity tomography measurements and the simulated measured potentials to image the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution and remove effects of the subsurface metallic structures with known locations and dimensions.

  13. Analysis of temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber is computed using the Galerkin Finite Element Method in the present study. The weak form of the governing differential equation is obtained and nodal temperatures for linear and quadratic interpolation functions for different mesh densities are calculated for Neumann ...

  14. Effects of conductive fillers on temperature distribution of asphalt pavements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingyu; Wu Shaopeng; Zhang Yuan; Wang Hong

    2010-01-01

    The sun provides a cheap and abundant source of clean and renewable energy. Solar cells have been used to capture this energy and generate electricity. A more useful form of the solar cell would be asphalt pavements, which get heated up by solar radiation. Graphite powders are utilized as thermal conductive fillers to make an asphalt collector conductive so as to improve the efficiency of the asphalt collector. Accounting for the important application conditions and evaluating the effects of the heat conductive materials and the solar energy absorbability of the conductive asphalt collector, a finite element model has been developed to predict temperature distributions in the conductive asphalt solar collector. In this study, an experimental validation exercise was conducted using the measured data taken from full-depth asphalt slabs. Validation results showed that the model can satisfactorily predict the temperature distributions in asphalt concrete slabs. The optimal depth is 25-50 mm for placing pipes that serve as the heat exchanger. Meanwhile, the effect of the surroundings on the solar energy potential of the asphalt collector was noticeable.

  15. Barriers and Solutions to Conducting Large International, Interdisciplinary Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Erin C.; Knowlton, Jessie L.; Phifer, Colin C.; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S.; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R.; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.

  16. Barriers and Solutions to Conducting Large International, Interdisciplinary Research Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischke, Erin C; Knowlton, Jessie L; Phifer, Colin C; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose; Propato, Tamara S; Eastmond, Amarella; de Souza, Tatiana Martins; Kuhlberg, Mark; Picasso Risso, Valentin; Veron, Santiago R; Garcia, Carlos; Chiappe, Marta; Halvorsen, Kathleen E

    2017-12-01

    Global environmental problems such as climate change are not bounded by national borders or scientific disciplines, and therefore require international, interdisciplinary teamwork to develop understandings of their causes and solutions. Interdisciplinary scientific work is difficult enough, but these challenges are often magnified when teams also work across national boundaries. The literature on the challenges of interdisciplinary research is extensive. However, research on international, interdisciplinary teams is nearly non-existent. Our objective is to fill this gap by reporting on results from a study of a large interdisciplinary, international National Science Foundation Partnerships for International Research and Education (NSF-PIRE) research project across the Americas. We administered a structured questionnaire to team members about challenges they faced while working together across disciplines and outside of their home countries in Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico. Analysis of the responses indicated five major types of barriers to conducting interdisciplinary, international research: integration, language, fieldwork logistics, personnel and relationships, and time commitment. We discuss the causes and recommended solutions to the most common barriers. Our findings can help other interdisciplinary, international research teams anticipate challenges, and develop effective solutions to minimize the negative impacts of these barriers to their research.

  17. Dose distribution following selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.A.; Klemp, P.F.; Egan, G.; Mina, L.L.; Burton, M.A.; Gray, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy is the intrahepatic arterial injection of microspheres labelled with 90Y. The microspheres lodge in the precapillary circulation of tumor resulting in internal radiation therapy. The activity of the 90Y injected is managed by successive administrations of labelled microspheres and after each injection probing the liver with a calibrated beta probe to assess the dose to the superficial layers of normal tissue. Predicted doses of 75 Gy have been delivered without subsequent evidence of radiation damage to normal cells. This contrasts with the complications resulting from doses in excess of 30 Gy delivered from external beam radiotherapy. Detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in a cubic centimeter of normal liver and the calculation of dose to a 3-dimensional fine grid has shown that the radiation distribution created by the finite size and distribution of the microspheres results in an highly heterogeneous dose pattern. It has been shown that a third of normal liver will receive less than 33.7% of the dose predicted by assuming an homogeneous distribution of 90Y

  18. Current distribution tomography for determination of internal current density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailey, P.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for determination of current densities inside a cylindrical object using measurements of the magnetic fields outside the object. The cross section of the object is discretized with the current assumed constant over each defined region. Magnetic fields outside the object are related to the internal current densities through a geometry matrix which can be inverted to yield a solution for the current densities in terms of the measured fields. The primary limitation of this technique results from singularities in the geometry matrix that arise due to cylindrical symmetry of the problem. Methods for circumventing the singularities to obtain information about the distribution of current densities are discussed. This process of current distribution tomography is designed to determine internal body current densities using measurements of the external magnetic field distribution. It is non-invasive, and relatively simple to implement. Although related to a more general study of magnetic imaging which has been used to investigate endogenous currents in the brain and other parts of the body, it is restricted to currents either applied directly or induced by exposure to an external field. The research is related to public concern about the possibility of health effects resulting from exposure to power frequency electric and magnetic fields

  19. Magnetoacoustic microscopic imaging of conductive objects and nanoparticles distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siyu; Zhang, Ruochong; Luo, Yunqi; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2017-09-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography has been demonstrated as a powerful and low-cost multi-wave imaging modality. However, due to limited spatial resolution and detection efficiency of magnetoacoustic signal, full potential of the magnetoacoustic imaging remains to be tapped. Here we report a high-resolution magnetoacoustic microscopy method, where magnetic stimulation is provided by a compact solenoid resonance coil connected with a matching network, and acoustic reception is realized by using a high-frequency focused ultrasound transducer. Scanning the magnetoacoustic microscopy system perpendicularly to the acoustic axis of the focused transducer would generate a two-dimensional microscopic image with acoustically determined lateral resolution. It is analyzed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally that magnetoacoustic generation in this microscopic system depends on the conductivity profile of conductive objects and localized distribution of superparamagnetic iron magnetic nanoparticles, based on two different but related implementations. The lateral resolution is characterized. Directional nature of magnetoacoustic vibration and imaging sensitivity for mapping magnetic nanoparticles are also discussed. The proposed microscopy system offers a high-resolution method that could potentially map intrinsic conductivity distribution in biological tissue and extraneous magnetic nanoparticles.

  20. Spatial distribution of conduction disorders during sinus rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanters, Eva A H; Yaksh, Ameeta; Teuwen, Christophe P; van der Does, Lisette J M E; Kik, Charles; Knops, Paul; van Marion, Denise M S; Brundel, Bianca J J M; Bogers, Ad J J C; Allessie, Maurits A; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2017-12-15

    Length of lines of conduction block (CB) during sinus rhythm (SR) at Bachmann's bundle (BB) is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unknown whether extensiveness of CB at BB represents CB elsewhere in the atria. We aim to investigate during SR 1) the spatial distribution and extensiveness of CB 2) whether there is a predilection site for CB and 3) the association between CB and incidence of post-operative AF. During SR, epicardial mapping of the right atrium (RA), BB and left atrium was performed in 209 patients with coronary artery disease. The amount of conduction delay (CD, Δlocal activation time ≥7ms) and CB (Δ≥12ms) was quantified as % of the mapping area. Atrial regions were compared to identify potential predilection sites for CD/CB. Correlations between CD/CB and clinical characteristics were tested. Areas with CD or CB were present in all patients, overall prevalence was respectively 1.4(0.2-4.0) % and 1.3(0.1-4.3) %. Extensiveness and spatial distribution of CD/CB varied considerably, however occurred mainly at the superior intercaval RA. Of all clinicalcharacteristics, CD/CB only correlated weakly with age and diabetes (P<0.05). A 1% increase in CD or CB caused a 1.1-1.5ms prolongation of the activation time (P<0.001). There was no correlation between CD/CB and post-operative AF. CD/CB during SR in CABG patients with electrically non-remodeled atria show considerable intra-atrial, but also inter-individual variation. Despite these differences, a predilection site is present at the superior intercaval RA. Extensiveness of CB at the superior intercaval RA or BB does not reflect CB elsewhere in the atria and is not associated with post-operative AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Business Ethics: International Analysis of Codes of Ethics and Conduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josmar Andrade

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Codes of ethics and code of conduct formalize an ideal of expected behavior patterns to managers and employees of organizations, providing standards and orientation that states companies interactions with the community, through products /services, sales force, marketing communications, investments, and relationships with other stakeholders, influencing company reputation and overall Marketing performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the differences in codes of ethics of the largest companies based in Brazil and in Portugal, given their cultural and linguistic similarities. Findings show that the use of codes of ethics are more common in Brazil than in Portugal and that codes of ethics are substantially more extensive and cover a larger number of categories in Brazilian companies, reflecting the organizations’ mission and perception of stakeholders concerns and priorities. We conclude that ethical issues severely impact company reputation and, in a comprehensive sense, overall Marketing performance. Marketing professionals should be systematically aware of how company core values are transmitted to different audiences, including the use of code of ethics to communicate both with internal and external publics. 0 0 1 171 966 CASA DOS ANDRADES 23 14 1123 14.0 96 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE  

  2. The Development of International Law Through the Unauthorised Conduct of International Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan D van der Vyver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The law, including international law, is subject to continuous change. It can be adapted to changing circumstances through formal amendments of or additions to existing norms and practices. It can also be changed through the conduct of international institutions that is not within their legally defined competencies, provided - it will be argued - that the unauthorised conduct (a is not expressly forbidden by existing rules of international law, and (b is accepted or condoned by a cross-section of the international community of states. The creation by the Security Council of the United Nations of ad hoc international criminal tribunals, for example, cannot even with a stretch of the imagination be justified on the basis of the powers of the Council stipulated in the UN Charter. However, their creation was applauded by the nations of the world as a feasible and practical way of responding to the atrocities of the early 1990's in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The creation of international criminal tribunals by the Security Council has thus come to be accepted as a new rule of international law. The same reasoning is applied to the newly acquired competence of NATO forces to intervene militarily on humanitarian grounds as exemplified by the NATO bombing campaign of 1999 in Serbia, while not one of the NATO countries was being attacked or under threat of an attack, and the competence of States to attack terrorist groups in a foreign country if the government of that country is either unwilling or unable to prevent the ongoing acts of terror violence.

  3. 76 FR 2711 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,357] Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center, Including On-Site Leased... of Cinram Distribution, LLC, a subsidiary of Cinram International, Simi Valley Distribution Center...

  4. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR CONDUCTING INTERNAL FIELD AUDITS AND QUALITY CONTROL (SOP-2.25)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the method for conducting internal field audits and quality control procedures. Internal field audits will be conducted to ensure the collection of high quality data. Internal field audits will be conducted by Field Auditors (the Field QA Officer and the Field...

  5. 10th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Seghrouchni, Amal; Beynier, Aurélie; Camacho, David; Herpson, Cédric; Hindriks, Koen; Novais, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the tenth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing (IDC’2016), which was held in Paris, France from October 10th to 12th, 2016. The 23 contributions address a range of topics related to theory and application of intelligent distributed computing, including: Intelligent Distributed Agent-Based Systems, Ambient Intelligence and Social Networks, Computational Sustainability, Intelligent Distributed Knowledge Representation and Processing, Smart Networks, Networked Intelligence and Intelligent Distributed Applications, amongst others.

  6. Review of The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McArthur, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Book reviews in this journal usually proceed by considering the value of the book in question for Dewey scholarship. In this case I would rather say that this book is of interest to Dewey Scholars. Jackson's general project is heavily informed by Dewey's pluralistic brand of pragmatism. As Jackson notes “Dewey's Logic... stand[s] firmly in the tradition leading to this book” (216). Dewey scholars will greet Jackson's extension of this approach to the study of international relations warmly.

  7. Effects of electric field and charge distribution on nanoelectronic processes involving conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marta M.D.; Correia, Helena M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The injection of charge carriers in conducting polymer layers gives rise to local electric fields which should have serious implications on the charge transport through the polymer layer. The charge distribution and the related electric field inside the ensemble of polymer molecules, with different molecular arrangements at nanoscale, determine whether or not intra-molecular charge transport takes place and the preferential direction for charge hopping between neighbouring molecules. Consequently, these factors play a significant role in the competition between current flow, charge trapping and recombination in polymer-based electronic devices. By suitable Monte Carlo calculations, we simulated the continuous injection of electrons and holes into polymer layers with different microstructures and followed their transport through those polymer networks. Results of these simulations provided a detailed picture of charge and electric field distribution in the polymer layer and allowed us to assess the consequences for current transport and recombination efficiency as well as the distribution of recombination events within the polymer film. In the steady state we found an accumulation of electrons and holes near the collecting electrodes giving rise to an internal electric field which is greater than the external applied field close to the electrodes and lower than the one in the central region of the polymer layer. We also found that a strong variation of electric field inside the polymer layer leads to an increase of recombination events in regions inside the polymer layer where the values of the internal electric field are lower

  8. Analytical and numerical treatment of the heat conduction equation obtained via time-fractional distributed-order heat conduction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Želi, Velibor; Zorica, Dušan

    2018-02-01

    Generalization of the heat conduction equation is obtained by considering the system of equations consisting of the energy balance equation and fractional-order constitutive heat conduction law, assumed in the form of the distributed-order Cattaneo type. The Cauchy problem for system of energy balance equation and constitutive heat conduction law is treated analytically through Fourier and Laplace integral transform methods, as well as numerically by the method of finite differences through Adams-Bashforth and Grünwald-Letnikov schemes for approximation derivatives in temporal domain and leap frog scheme for spatial derivatives. Numerical examples, showing time evolution of temperature and heat flux spatial profiles, demonstrate applicability and good agreement of both methods in cases of multi-term and power-type distributed-order heat conduction laws.

  9. Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Distribution and diversity of flora and fauna in International Institute Of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) forest and nature reserve, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... was also sighted in the study site and several other birds which normally winter around the lake. Key words: Ecology, Distribution, Diversity, Forest, Nature Reserve, IITA, ...

  10. Ion thermal conductivity and ion distribution function in the banana regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Masayoshi

    1988-01-01

    A method for calculating the ion thermal conductivity and the ion distribution function in the banana regime is formulated for an axisymmetric toroidal plasma of arbitrary aspect ratio. A simple expression for this conductivity is also derived. (author)

  11. 9th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, David; Analide, Cesar; Seghrouchni, Amal; Badica, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the ninth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing – IDC’2015, of the Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems – WSRL’2015, and of the International Workshop on Future Internet and Smart Networks – FI&SN’2015. All the events were held in Guimarães, Portugal during October 7th-9th, 2015. The 46 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing, including: Intelligent Distributed Agent-Based Systems, Ambient Intelligence and Social Networks, Computational Sustainability, Intelligent Distributed Knowledge Representation and Processing, Smart Networks, Networked Intelligence and Intelligent Distributed Applications, amongst others.

  12. Effects of active conductance distribution over dendrites on the synaptic integration in an identified nonspiking interneuron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Takashima

    Full Text Available The synaptic integration in individual central neuron is critically affected by how active conductances are distributed over dendrites. It has been well known that the dendrites of central neurons are richly endowed with voltage- and ligand-regulated ion conductances. Nonspiking interneurons (NSIs, almost exclusively characteristic to arthropod central nervous systems, do not generate action potentials and hence lack voltage-regulated sodium channels, yet having a variety of voltage-regulated potassium conductances on their dendritic membrane including the one similar to the delayed-rectifier type potassium conductance. It remains unknown, however, how the active conductances are distributed over dendrites and how the synaptic integration is affected by those conductances in NSIs and other invertebrate neurons where the cell body is not included in the signal pathway from input synapses to output sites. In the present study, we quantitatively investigated the functional significance of active conductance distribution pattern in the spatio-temporal spread of synaptic potentials over dendrites of an identified NSI in the crayfish central nervous system by computer simulation. We systematically changed the distribution pattern of active conductances in the neuron's multicompartment model and examined how the synaptic potential waveform was affected by each distribution pattern. It was revealed that specific patterns of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances were consistent, while other patterns were not, with the waveform of compound synaptic potentials recorded physiologically in the major input-output pathway of the cell, suggesting that the possibility of nonuniform distribution of potassium conductances over the dendrite cannot be excluded as well as the possibility of uniform distribution. Local synaptic circuits involving input and output synapses on the same branch or on the same side were found to be potentially affected under

  13. 7th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Jason; Badica, Costin

    2014-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC-2013, of the Second Workshop on Agents for Clouds - A4C-2013, of the Fifth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics - MASTS-2013, and of the International Workshop on Intelligent Robots - iR-2013. All the events were held in Prague, Czech Republic during September 4-6, 2013. The 41 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: agent-based data processing, ambient intelligence, bio-informatics, collaborative systems, cryptography and security, distributed algorithms, grid and cloud computing, information extraction, intelligent robotics, knowledge management, linked data, mobile agents, ontologies, pervasive computing, self-organizing systems, peer-to-peer computing, social networks and trust, and swarm intelligence.  .

  14. Trade and the distributional politics of international labour standards

    OpenAIRE

    Oslington, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This paper constructs a simple general equilibrium model of the trade and distributional effects of spreading advanced country international labour standards to developing countries. Labour standards (including minimum safety requirements, prohibition of prison and child labour, and rights to unionise) are represented as a floor to the cost of employing labour. The model shows how the spread of standards affects the terms of trade and pattern of international specialisation, and can shift ...

  15. Intelligent Distributed Computing VI : Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Badica, Costin; Malgeri, Michele; Unland, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing -- IDC~2012, of the International Workshop on Agents for Cloud -- A4C~2012 and of the Fourth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics -- MASTS~2012. All the events were held in Calabria, Italy during September 24-26, 2012. The 37 contributions published in this book address many topics related to theory and applications of intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: adaptive and autonomous distributed systems, agent programming, ambient assisted living systems, business process modeling and verification, cloud computing, coalition formation, decision support systems, distributed optimization and constraint satisfaction, gesture recognition, intelligent energy management in WSNs, intelligent logistics, machine learning, mobile agents, parallel and distributed computational intelligence, parallel evolutionary computing, trus...

  16. Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems : the 12th International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Young-Jo

    2016-01-01

    This volume of proceedings includes 32 original contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS 2014), held in November 2014. The selected papers in this volume are authored by leading researchers from Asia, Europe, and the Americas, thereby providing a broad coverage and perspective of the state-of-the-art technologies, algorithms, system architectures, and applications in distributed robotic systems. .

  17. International Review of Standards and Labeling Programs for Distribution Transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scholand, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Carreño, Ana María [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hernandez, Carolina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Transmission and distribution (T&D) losses in electricity networks represent 8.5% of final energy consumption in the world. In Latin America, T&D losses range between 6% and 20% of final energy consumption, and represent 7% in Chile. Because approximately one-third of T&D losses take place in distribution transformers alone, there is significant potential to save energy and reduce costs and carbon emissions through policy intervention to increase distribution transformer efficiency. A large number of economies around the world have recognized the significant impact of addressing distribution losses and have implemented policies to support market transformation towards more efficient distribution transformers. As a result, there is considerable international experience to be shared and leveraged to inform countries interested in reducing distribution losses through policy intervention. The report builds upon past international studies of standards and labeling (S&L) programs for distribution transformers to present the current energy efficiency programs for distribution transformers around the world.

  18. DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION FOR ANNULAR FINS WITH TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY BY HPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Domairry Ganji

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, homotopy perturbation method has been used to evaluate the temperature distribution of annular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and to determine the temperature distribution within the fin. This method is useful and practical for solving the nonlinear heat transfer equation, which is associated with variable thermal conductivity condition. The homotopy perturbation method provides an approximate analytical solution in the form of an infinite power series. The annular fin heat transfer rate with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity has been obtained as a function of thermo-geometric fin parameter and the thermal conductivity parameter describing the variation of the thermal conductivity.

  19. Improvements and artifact analysis in conductivity images using multiple internal electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Adnan; McEwan, Alistair Lee; Woo, Eung Je; Oh, Tong In; Tehrani, Joubin Nasehi

    2014-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography is an attractive functional imaging method. It is currently limited in resolution and sensitivity due to the complexity of the inverse problem and the safety limits of introducing current. Recently, internal electrodes have been proposed for some clinical situations such as intensive care or RF ablation. This paper addresses the research question related to the benefit of one or more internal electrodes usage since these are invasive. Internal electrodes would be able to reduce the effect of insulating boundaries such as fat and bone and provide improved internal sensitivity. We found there was a measurable benefit with increased numbers of internal electrodes in saline tanks of a cylindrical and complex shape with up to two insulating boundary gel layers modeling fat and muscle. The internal electrodes provide increased sensitivity to internal changes, thereby increasing the amplitude response and improving resolution. However, they also present an additional challenge of increasing sensitivity to position and modeling errors. In comparison with previous work that used point sources for the internal electrodes, we found that it is important to use a detailed mesh of the internal electrodes with these voxels assigned to the conductivity of the internal electrode and its associated holder. A study of different internal electrode materials found that it is optimal to use a conductivity similar to the background. In the tank with a complex shape, the additional internal electrodes provided more robustness in a ventilation model of the lungs via air filled balloons. (paper)

  20. 11th International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chirikjian, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Distributed robotics is a rapidly growing and maturing interdisciplinary research area lying at the intersection of computer science, network science, control theory, and electrical and mechanical engineering. The goal of the Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS) is to exchange and stimulate research ideas to realize advanced distributed robotic systems. This volume of proceedings includes 31 original contributions presented at the 2012 International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS 2012) held in November 2012 at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD USA. The selected papers in this volume are authored by leading researchers from Asia, Europa, and the Americas, thereby providing a broad coverage and perspective of the state-of-the-art technologies, algorithms, system architectures, and applications in distributed robotic systems. The book is organized into five parts, representative of critical long-term and emerging research thrusts in the multi-robot com...

  1. A least squares method for a longitudinal fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation and thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.; Bouaziz, M.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Analytical solutions for a rectangular fin with temperature dependent heat generation and thermal conductivity. → Graphs give temperature distributions and fin efficiency. → Comparison of analytical and numerical solutions. → Method of least squares used for the analytical solutions. - Abstract: Approximate but highly accurate solutions for the temperature distribution, fin efficiency, and optimum fin parameter for a constant area longitudinal fin with temperature dependent internal heat generation and thermal conductivity are derived analytically. The method of least squares recently used by the authors is applied to treat the two nonlinearities, one associated with the temperature dependent internal heat generation and the other due to temperature dependent thermal conductivity. The solution is built from the classical solution for a fin with uniform internal heat generation and constant thermal conductivity. The results are presented graphically and compared with the direct numerical solutions. The analytical solutions retain their accuracy (within 1% of the numerical solution) even when there is a 60% increase in thermal conductivity and internal heat generation at the base temperature from their corresponding values at the sink temperature. The present solution is simple (involves hyperbolic functions only) compared with the fairly complex approximate solutions based on the homotopy perturbation method, variational iteration method, and the double series regular perturbation method and offers high accuracy. The simple analytical expressions for the temperature distribution, the fin efficiency and the optimum fin parameter are convenient for use by engineers dealing with the design and analysis of heat generating fins operating with a large temperature difference between the base and the environment.

  2. The Apparel Industry and Codes of Conduct: A Solution to the International Child Labor Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of International Labor Affairs (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Corporate codes of conduct prohibiting the use of child labor are becoming more common as consumers are increasingly calling upon companies to take responsibility for the conditions under which the goods they sell are manufactured. This report (the third volume in the Bureau of International Labor Affairs' international child labor series) details…

  3. Conductance fluctuations and distribution at metal-insulator transition induced by electric field in disordered chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, Khaled

    2000-08-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with δ peak potentials is used to study numerically the influence of a constant electric field on the conductance fluctuations and distribution at the transition. We found that the conductance probability distribution has a system-size independent form with large fluctuations in good agreement with the previous works in 2D and 3D systems. (author)

  4. 9th International conference on distributed computing and artificial intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Santana, Juan; González, Sara; Molina, Jose; Bernardos, Ana; Rodríguez, Juan; DCAI 2012; International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2012 (DCAI 2012) is a stimulating and productive forum where the scientific community can work towards future cooperation in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence areas. This conference is a forum in which  applications of innovative techniques for solving complex problems will be presented. Artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the internet, electronic commerce, environment monitoring, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing, to mention only a few, is continuously increasing, becoming an element of high added value with social and economic potential, in industry, quality of life, and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and indus...

  5. Distributed computing and artificial intelligence : 10th International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, José; Rodriguez, Juan; Santana, Juan; Gonzalez, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2013 (DCAI 2013) is a forum in which applications of innovative techniques for solving complex problems are presented. Artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the internet, electronic commerce, environment monitoring, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing, to mention only a few, is continuously increasing, becoming an element of high added value with social and economic potential, in industry, quality of life, and research. This conference is a stimulating and productive forum where the scientific community can work towards future cooperation in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence areas. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industry se...

  6. Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence, 12th International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Malluhi, Qutaibah; Gonzalez, Sara; Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Bucciarelli, Edgardo; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Iqba, Farkhund

    2015-01-01

    The 12th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2015 (DCAI 2015) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This symposium is organized by the Osaka Institute of Technology, Qatar University and the University of Salamanca.

  7. Characterization of electrical conductivity of carbon fiber reinforced plastic using surface potential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikunaga, Kazuya; Terasaki, Nao

    2018-04-01

    A new method of evaluating electrical conductivity in a structural material such as carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using surface potential is proposed. After the CFRP was charged by corona discharge, the surface potential distribution was measured by scanning a vibrating linear array sensor along the object surface with a high spatial resolution over a short duration. A correlation between the weave pattern of the CFRP and the surface potential distribution was observed. This result indicates that it is possible to evaluate the electrical conductivity of a material comprising conducting and insulating regions.

  8. Distribution of internal mammary lymphadenopathy in breast carcinoma: CT appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scatarige, J.C.; Fishman, E.K.; Zinreich, E.S.; Almaraz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the anatomic distribution of enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes in breast carcinoma by reviewing thoracic CT examinations in 219 women with operable, advanced or recurrent disease. Enlarged internal mammary lymph nodes were observed in 45 patients (20.5%); they were unilateral in 32 and bilateral in 13. Lymphadenopathy was limited to one anterior intercostal space in 43%, two spaces in 26%, and three or more species in 31%. Dominant modal disease was centered at the first anterior intercostal space in 14%, the second space in 60%, and the third space in 26%. Isolated adenopathy in the fourth intercostal space was not observed. The authors' data concur with current surgical practice when internal mammary lymph nodes are sampled. Implications for preoperative imaging strategy are discussed

  9. Co-optimal distribution of leaf nitrogen and hydraulic conductance in plant canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko S; Duursma, Remko A; Medlyn, Belinda E

    2012-05-01

    Leaf properties vary significantly within plant canopies, due to the strong gradient in light availability through the canopy, and the need for plants to use resources efficiently. At high light, photosynthesis is maximized when leaves have a high nitrogen content and water supply, whereas at low light leaves have a lower requirement for both nitrogen and water. Studies of the distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) within canopies have shown that, if water supply is ignored, the optimal distribution is that where N is proportional to light, but that the gradient of N in real canopies is shallower than the optimal distribution. We extend this work by considering the optimal co-allocation of nitrogen and water supply within plant canopies. We developed a simple 'toy' two-leaf canopy model and optimized the distribution of N and hydraulic conductance (K) between the two leaves. We asked whether hydraulic constraints to water supply can explain shallow N gradients in canopies. We found that the optimal N distribution within plant canopies is proportional to the light distribution only if hydraulic conductance, K, is also optimally distributed. The optimal distribution of K is that where K and N are both proportional to incident light, such that optimal K is highest to the upper canopy. If the plant is constrained in its ability to construct higher K to sun-exposed leaves, the optimal N distribution does not follow the gradient in light within canopies, but instead follows a shallower gradient. We therefore hypothesize that measured deviations from the predicted optimal distribution of N could be explained by constraints on the distribution of K within canopies. Further empirical research is required on the extent to which plants can construct optimal K distributions, and whether shallow within-canopy N distributions can be explained by sub-optimal K distributions.

  10. Electron-beam-charged dielectrics: Internal charge distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, B. L.; Pine, V. W.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of an electron transport model of the charging of dielectrics due to electron bombardment are compared to measurements of internal charge distributions. The emphasis is on the distribution of Teflon. The position of the charge centroid as a function of time is not monotonic. It first moves deeper into the material and then moves back near to the surface. In most time regimes of interest, the charge distribution is not unimodal, but instead has two peaks. The location of the centroid near saturation is a function of the incident current density. While the qualitative comparison of theory and experiment are reasonable, quantitative comparison shows discrepancies of as much as a factor of two.

  11. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-12-03

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries.

  12. The Future of Electricity Distribution Regulation. Lessons from International Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nillesen, P.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on the regulation of electricity distribution networks, each presenting a different point of view. Two essays use US data to demonstrate that incentive-based regulation has valuable application within a management setting and can lead to gaming behaviour within a regulatory setting. One essay discusses the lessons that can be drawn from the failed first electricity distribution price control review in the Netherlands. One essay presents the views of 75 international regulation managers and gives recommendations on ways to improve the regulatory quality and process. The final essay analyses the economic consequences of the forced ownership unbundling of the electricity distribution networks in 1998 in New Zealand, and draws lessons for future structural remedies that may be sought in other countries

  13. The conduct of inquiry in international relations: The view from graduate school

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, David; O'Mahoney, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Jackson’s book, The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations, is most likely to be assigned or recommended in graduate classes addressing the philosophy of science, qualitative methodology, and research design. It might then be useful to ask two graduate students whether this is a good idea. How helpful is yet another book on the meta-theoretical status of International Relations? Our answer to this question has four parts. First, we ask whether and how Jackson’s ordering scheme clarifie...

  14. Composition and conductance distributions of single GeSi quantum rings studied by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y; Cui, J; Jiang, Z M; Yang, X J

    2013-02-15

    Atomic force microscopy imaging combined with selective chemical etching is employed to quantitatively investigate three-dimensional (3D) composition distributions of single GeSi quantum rings (QRs). In addition, the 3D quantitative composition distributions and the corresponding conductance distributions are simultaneously obtained on the same single GeSi QRs by conductive atomic force microscopy combined with selective chemical etching, allowing us to investigate the correlations between the conductance and composition distributions of single QRs. The results show that the QRs' central holes have higher Ge content, but exhibit lower conductance, indicating that the QRs' conductance distribution is not consistent with their composition distribution. By comparing the topography, composition and conductance profiles of the same single QRs before and after different etching processes, it is found that the conductance distributions of GeSi QRs do not vary with the change of composition distribution. Instead, the QRs' conductance distributions are found to be consistent with their topographic shapes, which can be supposed to be due to the shape determined electronic structures.

  15. Fractal analysis of the effect of particle aggregation distribution on thermal conductivity of nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Wei, E-mail: weiw2015@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cai, Jianchao, E-mail: caijc@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Hu, Xiangyun, E-mail: xyhu@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Han, Qi, E-mail: hanqi426@gmail.com [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Shuang, E-mail: lius@cug.edu.cn [Hubei Subsurface Multi-scale Imaging Key Laboratory, Institute of Geophysics and Geomatics, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou, Yingfang, E-mail: yingfang.zhou@abdn.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Aberdeen, FN 264, King' s College, Aberdeen, AB24 3UE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-26

    A theoretical effective thermal conductivity model for nanofluids is derived based on fractal distribution characteristics of nanoparticle aggregation. Considering two different mechanisms of heat conduction including particle aggregation and convention, the model is expressed as a function of the fractal dimension and concentration. In the model, the change of fractal dimension is related to the variation of aggregation shape. The theoretical computations of the developed model provide a good agreement with the experimental results, which may serve as an effective approach for quantitatively estimating the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids. - Highlights: • A thermal conductivity model is derived based on fractal aggregation distribution. • The relationship between aggregation shape and fractal dimension is analyzed. • Predictions of the proposed model show good agreement with experimental data.

  16. 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Silvestri, Marcello; González, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The special session Decision Economics (DECON) 2016 is a scientific forum by which to share ideas, projects, researches results, models and experiences associated with the complexity of behavioral decision processes aiming at explaining socio-economic phenomena. DECON 2016 held in the University of Seville, Spain, as part of the 13th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence (DCAI) 2016. In the tradition of Herbert A. Simon’s interdisciplinary legacy, this book dedicates itself to the interdisciplinary study of decision-making in the recognition that relevant decision-making takes place in a range of critical subject areas and research fields, including economics, finance, information systems, small and international business, management, operations, and production. Decision-making issues are of crucial importance in economics. Not surprisingly, the study of decision-making has received a growing empirical research efforts in the applied economic literature over the last ...

  17. Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions: An International Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Lew, Debra; Milligan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Wind power forecasting is essential for greater penetration of wind power into electricity systems. Because no wind forecasting system is perfect, a thorough understanding of the errors that may occur is a critical factor for system operation functions, such as the setting of operating reserve...... levels. This paper provides an international comparison of the distribution of wind power forecasting errors from operational systems, based on real forecast data. The paper concludes with an assessment of similarities and differences between the errors observed in different locations....

  18. 11th International Conference on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Bersini, Hugues; Corchado, Juan; Rodríguez, Sara; Pawlewski, Paweł; Bucciarelli, Edgardo

    2014-01-01

    The 11th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2014 (DCAI 2014) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This year’s technical program presents both high quality and diversity, with contributions in well-established and evolving areas of research (Algeria, Brazil, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Spain, Taiwan, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom), representing ...

  19. Manipulating dispersion and distribution of graphene in PLA through Novel Interface Engineering for improved conductive properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to enhance the conductive properties of PLA nanocomposite by controlling the dispersion and distribution of graphene within the minor phase of the polymer blend. Functionalized graphene (f-GO) was achieved by reacting graphene oxide (GO) with various silanes under the aid of an ioni...

  20. Tuning Nanocrystal Surface Depletion by Controlling Dopant Distribution as a Route Toward Enhanced Film Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Corey M.; Robinson, Zachary L.; Agrawal, Ankit; Gibbs, Stephen L.; Greenberg, Benjamin L.; Lounis, Sebastien D.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Milliron, Delia J.

    2018-05-01

    Electron conduction through bare metal oxide nanocrystal (NC) films is hindered by surface depletion regions resulting from the presence of surface states. We control the radial dopant distribution in tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) NCs as a means to manipulate the NC depletion width. We find in films of ITO NCs of equal overall dopant concentration that those with dopant-enriched surfaces show decreased depletion width and increased conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity data shows electron localization length increases and associated depletion width decreases monotonically with increased density of dopants near the NC surface. We calculate band profiles for NCs of differing radial dopant distributions and, in agreement with variable temperature conductivity fits, find NCs with dopant-enriched surfaces have narrower depletion widths and longer localization lengths than those with dopant-enriched cores. Following amelioration of NC surface depletion by atomic layer deposition of alumina, all films of equal overall dopant concentration have similar conductivity. Variable temperature conductivity measurements on alumina-capped films indicate all films behave as granular metals. Herein, we conclude that dopant-enriched surfaces decrease the near-surface depletion region, which directly increases the electron localization length and conductivity of NC films.

  1. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2013-06-06

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Determination of hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution for different depositional environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Missimer, Thomas M.; Coulibaly, Kapo M.; Dehwah, Abdullah; Sesler, Kathryn; Rodri­ guez, Luis R. Lujan; Mantilla, David

    2013-01-01

    Over 400 unlithified sediment samples were collected from four different depositional environments in global locations and the grain-size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured using standard methods. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations (e.g., Hazen, Carman-Kozeny) commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain-size distribution. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values with errors ranging to over 500%. To improve the empirical estimation methodology, the samples were grouped by depositional environment and subdivided into subgroups based on lithology and mud percentage. The empirical methods were then analyzed to assess which methods best estimated the measured values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and addition of offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, offshore marine, and river sediments. Estimated hydraulic conductivity errors were reduced to 6 to 7.1m/day for the beach subgroups, 3.4 to 7.1m/day for dune subgroups, and 2.2 to 11m/day for offshore sediments subgroups. Improvements were made for river environments, but still produced high errors between 13 and 23m/day. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Conductance fluctuations and distribution in disordered chains in presence of an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, K.

    1995-07-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with disordered δ-peak and finite width potentials under an electric field is used to study the conductance fluctuations and distributions in different phase states. The electric field allows us to obtain the insulating, transition and metallic regimes. In the superlocalized electron states found previously near the Brillouin zone edges of the corresponding periodic system the conductance fluctuations are smaller than those of the insulating regime corresponding to the vanishing field, but the conductance probability distribution has a similar behaviour. Extensive results are compared to the previous works on higher dimensions and quasi-1D mesoscopic systems in each regime and found to be in good agreement. Further discussions are also included. (author). 33 refs, 11 figs

  4. Grading Practices and Distributions Across Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Sara B; Torre, Dario M; DeFer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Clerkship evaluation and grading practices vary widely between U.S. medical schools. Grade inflation continues to exist, and grade distribution is likely to be different among U.S. medical schools. Increasing the number of available grades curtails "grade inflation." A national survey of all Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine members was administered in 2011. The authors assessed key aspects of grading. Response rate was 76%. Among clerkship directors (CDs), 61% of respondents agreed that grade inflation existed in the internal medicine clerkship at their school, and 43% believed that it helped students obtain better residency positions. With respect to grading practices, 79% of CDs define specific behaviors needed to achieve each grade, and 36% specify an ideal grade distribution. In addition, 44% have a trained core faculty responsible for evaluating students, 35% describe formal grading meetings, and 39% use the Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (RIME) scheme. Grading scales were described as follows: 4% utilize a pass/fail system, 13% a 3-tier (e.g., Honors/Pass/Fail), 45% 4-tier, 35% 5-tier, and 4% 6+-tier system. There was a trend to higher grades with more tiers available. Grade inflation continues in the internal medicine clerkship. Almost half of CDs feel that this practice assists students to obtain better residency positions. A minority of programs have a trained core faculty who are responsible for evaluation. About one third have formal grading meetings and use the RIME system; both have been associated with more robust and balanced grading practices. In particular, there is a wide variation between schools in the percentage of students who are awarded the highest grade, which has implications for residency applications. Downstream users of clinical clerkship grades must be fully aware of these variations in grading in order to appropriately judge medical student performance.

  5. Formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Korol

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Properties of geographical space that are of key importance for international tourism, as length and discreteness, are analyzed in the article. Length makes tourists cover distances, whereas discreteness manifests itself in spatial heterogeneity. Tourism in conditions of homogeneous space is vain. That is, heterogeneity brings sense to travels as well as determines their direction. So, the effect of geographical space’s length and spatial heterogeneity on formation and distribution of tourism flows is assessed, international tourism’s geographical essence is disclosed also. Apperception of geographical space in usual environment and its effect on tourist’s original motives are described. Following the bases of behaviorism, the tourism original motives, in particular those for migration, comfort, contrast and aesthetics are substantiated. The motive for migration is a kind of “pushing” tourists outside their usual environment. To stop all fears that may cause anxiety in destination, the latter should guarantee satisfaction of those human needs which A. Maslow refers to as basic needs. The necessity to satisfy these needs forms in tourists the motive for comfort. Closely located destinations in neighboring countries can be of little difference form usual environment. Driven by the motive for contrast, tourists aspire to visit places that totally differ from their usual environment, and contrast (are exotic to it. Thus, the motive for contrast seemingly “pulls” the tourists up to certain (exotic destinations. Finally, following the considered spatial specificities of land surface and tourist-driving original motives, a conceptual model of formation and distribution of international tourism flows in geographical space is developed.

  6. Multishot echo-planar MREIT for fast imaging of conductivity, current density, and electric field distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Munish; Vidya Shankar, Rohini; Ashok Kumar, Neeta; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Sadleir, Rosalind

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) sequences typically use conventional spin or gradient echo-based acquisition methods for reconstruction of conductivity and current density maps. Use of MREIT in functional and electroporation studies requires higher temporal resolution and faster sequences. Here, single and multishot echo planar imaging (EPI) based MREIT sequences were evaluated to see whether high-quality MREIT phase data could be obtained for rapid reconstruction of current density, conductivity, and electric fields. A gel phantom with an insulating inclusion was used as a test object. Ghost artifact, geometric distortion, and MREIT correction algorithms were applied to the data. The EPI-MREIT-derived phase-projected current density and conductivity images were compared with simulations and spin-echo images as a function of EPI shot number. Good agreement among measures in simulated, spin echo, and EPI data was achieved. Current density errors were stable and below 9% as the shot number decreased from 64 to 2, but increased for single-shot images. Conductivity reconstruction relative contrast ratios were stable as the shot number decreased. The derived electric fields also agreed with the simulated data. The EPI methods can be combined successfully with MREIT reconstruction algorithms to achieve fast imaging of current density, conductivity, and electric field. Magn Reson Med 79:71-82, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. New empirical relationship between grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity for ephemeral streambed sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge

    2014-07-19

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were determined for 39 sediment samples collected from ephemeral streams (wadis) in western Saudi Arabia. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly with the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improved the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for wadi sediments. The Chapuis, Hazen, Kozeny, Slichter, Terzaghi, and Barr equations produced the best correlations, but still had relatively high predictive errors. The Chapius equation was modified for wadi sediments by incorporating mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into a new equation that reduced the predicted hydraulic conductivity error to ±14.1 m/day. The equation is best applied to ephemeral stream samples that have hydraulic conductive values greater than 2 m/day.

  8. New empirical relationship between grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity for ephemeral streambed sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas, Jorge; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were determined for 39 sediment samples collected from ephemeral streams (wadis) in western Saudi Arabia. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly with the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical offsets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improved the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for wadi sediments. The Chapuis, Hazen, Kozeny, Slichter, Terzaghi, and Barr equations produced the best correlations, but still had relatively high predictive errors. The Chapius equation was modified for wadi sediments by incorporating mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into a new equation that reduced the predicted hydraulic conductivity error to ±14.1 m/day. The equation is best applied to ephemeral stream samples that have hydraulic conductive values greater than 2 m/day.

  9. A heat conduction simulator to estimate lung temperature distribution during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)

  10. Geomechanical/Geochemical Modeling Studies Conducted within the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Rutqvist, J.; Sonnenthal, E.L.; Barr, D.; Chijimatsu, M.; Kolditz, O.; Liu, Q.; Oda, Y.; Wang, W.; Xie, M.; Zhang, C.

    2005-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status

  11. Geomechanical/Geochemical Modeling Studies Conducted Within the International DECOVALEX Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Birkholzer; J. Rutqvist; E.L. Sonnenthal; D. Barr; M.Chijimatsu; O. Kolditz; Q. Liu; Y. Oda; W. Wang; M. Xie; C. Zhang

    2006-01-01

    The DECOVALEX project is an international cooperative project initiated by SKI, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, with participation of about 10 international organizations. The general goal of this project is to encourage multidisciplinary interactive and cooperative research on modeling coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in geologic formations in support of the performance assessment for underground storage of radioactive waste. One of the research tasks, initiated in 2004 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), addresses the long-term impact of geomechanical and geochemical processes on the flow conditions near waste emplacement tunnels. Within this task, four international research teams conduct predictive analysis of the coupled processes in two generic repositories, using multiple approaches and different computer codes. Below, we give an overview of the research task and report its current status

  12. Spatial distribution of absorbed dose onboard of International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spumy, F.; Tateyama, R.; Yasuda, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kurano, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Akatov, Yu.; Shurshakov, V.; Kobayashi, I.; Ohguchi, H.; Koguchi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The passive detectors (LD and PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module Qn the International Space Station (ISS) from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days). The detectors were located at 6 different positions inside the Service Module and also in 32 pockets on the surface of the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom located in crew cabin. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of fluences of registered particles, are presented as the function of detectors' location. The variation of dose characteristics for different locations can be up to factor of 2. In some cases, data measured with passive detectors are also compared with the data obtained by means of active instruments. (authors)

  13. Quantification and distribution of big conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels in kidney epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Klaerke, Dan A

    2005-01-01

    and immunohistochemical studies. In cortical collecting ducts, BK channels were exclusively located in principal cells while no channels could be found in intercalated cells. The abundant and distinct distribution in kidney epithelia talks in favor for BK channels being important contributors in maintaining salt......Big conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (BK channels) is an abundant channel present in almost all kind of tissue. The accurate quantity and especially the precise distribution of this channel in kidney epithelia are, however, still debated. The aim of the present study has therefore been...... to examine the presence of BK channels in kidney epithelia and determine the actual number and distribution of these channels. For this purpose, a selective peptidyl ligand for BK channels called iberiotoxin or the radiolabeled double mutant analog 125I-IbTX-D19Y/Y36F has been employed. The presence of BK...

  14. Distributed Control of Heat Conduction in Thermal Inductive Materials with 2D Geometrical Isomorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yu Chou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we provided analytical and experimental evidence that some materials are able to store entropy-flow, of which the heat-conduction behaves as standing waves in a bounded region small enough in practice. In this paper we continue to develop distributed control of heat conduction in these thermal-inductive materials. The control objective is to achieve subtle temperature distribution in space and simultaneously to suppress its transient overshoots in time. This technology concerns safe and accurate heating/cooling treatments in medical operations, polymer processing, and other prevailing modern day practices. Serving for distributed feedback, spatiotemporal H ∞ /μ control is developed by expansion of the conventional 1D-H ∞ /μ control to a 2D version. Therein 2D geometrical isomorphism is constructed with the Laplace-Galerkin transform, which extends the small-gain theorem into the mode-frequency domain, wherein 2D transfer-function controllers are synthesized with graphical methods. Finally, 2D digital-signal processing is programmed to implement 2D transfer-function controllers, possibly of spatial fraction-orders, into DSP-engine embedded microcontrollers.

  15. Nuclear energy - the century's principles of law and good conduct in international nuclear trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coimbra, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the object and nature of the models of nuclear co-operation between Brazil and developed countries, with regard to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As an observer, the author analyses some of the juridicial and ethical aspects of the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. She examines some of the realities to be faced, and points out how important it is to anticipate and take necessary steps in order that difficulties, which are easily identifiable, may be reversed in the near future. The author also calls into question the means for reversal of the current situation, so as to satisfy the parties concerned: Brazil and her potential partners. Finally, the paper aims at complying with the conclusions reached by Working Group number 3 of the International Law Association on ''The Principles of Good Conduct in the International Nuclear Trade''. (author)

  16. Analysis of Grain Size Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity for a Variety of Sediment Types with Application to Wadi Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas Aguilar, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity from over 400 unlithified sediment samples were analized. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations

  17. Current distribution and conductance quantization in the integer quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Farchioni, Riccardo; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2003-01-01

    Charge transport of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by means of the Keldysh-Green function formalism and the tight-binding method. We evaluate the spatial distributions of persistent (equilibrium) and transport (nonequilibrium) currents, and give a vivid picture of their profiles. In the quantum Hall regime, we find exact conductance quantization both for persistent currents and for transport currents, even in the presence of impurity scattering centres and moderate disorder. (letter to the editor)

  18. Current distribution and conductance quantization in the integer quantum Hall regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresti, Alessandro [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, via F Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Farchioni, Riccardo [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, via F Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Grosso, Giuseppe [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E Fermi' , Universita di Pisa, via F Buonarroti 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori [NEST-INFM and Dipartimento di Fisica ' A Volta' , Universita di Pavia, via A Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2003-06-25

    Charge transport of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by means of the Keldysh-Green function formalism and the tight-binding method. We evaluate the spatial distributions of persistent (equilibrium) and transport (nonequilibrium) currents, and give a vivid picture of their profiles. In the quantum Hall regime, we find exact conductance quantization both for persistent currents and for transport currents, even in the presence of impurity scattering centres and moderate disorder. (letter to the editor)

  19. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  20. Global auroral conductance distribution due to electron and proton precipitation from IMAGE-FUV observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Coumans

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The Far Ultraviolet (FUV imaging system on board the IMAGE satellite provides a global view of the north auroral region in three spectral channels, including the SI12 camera sensitive to Doppler shifted Lyman-α emission. FUV images are used to produce instantaneous maps of electron mean energy and energy fluxes for precipitated protons and electrons. We describe a method to calculate ionospheric Hall and Pedersen conductivities induced by auroral proton and electron ionization based on a model of interaction of auroral particles with the atmosphere. Different assumptions on the energy spectral distribution for electrons and protons are compared. Global maps of ionospheric conductances due to instantaneous observation of precipitating protons are calculated. The contribution of auroral protons in the total conductance induced by both types of auroral particles is also evaluated and the importance of proton precipitation is evaluated. This method is well adapted to analyze the time evolution of ionospheric conductances due to precipitating particles over the auroral region or in particular sectors. Results are illustrated with conductance maps of the north polar region obtained during four periods with different activity levels. It is found that the proton contribution to conductance is relatively higher during quiet periods than during substorms. The proton contribution is higher in the period before the onset and strongly decreases during the expansion phase of substorms. During a substorm which occurred on 28 April 2001, a region of strong proton precipitation is observed with SI12 around 14:00MLT at ~75° MLAT. Calculation of conductances in this sector shows that neglecting the protons contribution would produce a large error. We discuss possible effects of the proton precipitation on electron precipitation in auroral arcs. The increase in the ionospheric conductivity, induced by a former proton precipitation can reduce the potential drop

  1. Rod internal pressure quantification and distribution analysis using Frapcon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL; Wieselquist, William A [ORNL; Ivanov, Kostadin [Pennsylvania State University, University Park

    2015-09-01

    This report documents work performed supporting the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies Used Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) under work breakdown structure element 1.02.08.10, ST Analysis. In particular, this report fulfills the M4 milestone M4FT- 15OR0810036, Quantify effects of power uncertainty on fuel assembly characteristics, within work package FT-15OR081003 ST Analysis-ORNL. This research was also supported by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (http://www.casl.gov), an Energy Innovation Hub (http://www.energy.gov/hubs) for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors under U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. The discharge rod internal pressure (RIP) and cladding hoop stress (CHS) distributions are quantified for Watts Bar Nuclear Unit 1 (WBN1) fuel rods by modeling core cycle design data, operation data (including modeling significant trips and downpowers), and as-built fuel enrichments and densities of each fuel rod in FRAPCON-3.5. A methodology is developed which tracks inter-cycle assembly movements and assembly batch fabrication information to build individual FRAPCON inputs for each evaluated WBN1 fuel rod. An alternate model for the amount of helium released from the zirconium diboride (ZrB2) integral fuel burnable absorber (IFBA) layer is derived and applied to FRAPCON output data to quantify the RIP and CHS for these types of fuel rods. SCALE/Polaris is used to quantify fuel rodspecific spectral quantities and the amount of gaseous fission products produced in the fuel for use in FRAPCON inputs. Fuel rods with ZrB2 IFBA layers (i.e., IFBA rods) are determined to have RIP predictions that are elevated when compared to fuel rod without IFBA layers (i.e., standard rods) despite the fact that IFBA rods often have reduced fill pressures and annular fuel pellets. The primary contributor to elevated RIP predictions at burnups less than and greater than 30 GWd

  2. Income Distribution Determinants and Inequality – International Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Škare, Marinko; Stjepanovic, Saša

    2014-01-01

    This study shows the relationship between income distribution and other relevant economic variables and their impact on income distribution. Panel data analysis is used to study 200 world economies and identify main income determinants. Using such a large panel to study income distribution and inequality of household income make empirical results of this study significant. Paper results show there is a large discrepancy of income distribution measured by household consumption for different cl...

  3. Summary of the Fourth International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-4). Exercise Conduct and Evaluation Questionnaires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, Jean Patrice; Duchesne, David; Caamano, Delphine; Cessac, Bruno; Mehl-auget, Isabelle; Gering, Florian; Macsuga, Geza; Fukumoto, Masahiro; Holo, Eldri Naadland; Ugletveit, Finn; Griffiths, Mike; Breitinger, Mark; Heinrich, Ann; Mcclelland, Vincent; Ahier, Brian; Lazo, Ted; Mcinturff, Sandi; Kawabata, Masanori; Lazo, Ted; Okyar, Halil Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The INEX-4 consequence management exercise, part of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's ongoing series of International Nuclear Emergency Exercises (INEX), was developed under the auspices of the NEA/CRPPH Working Party on Nuclear Emergency Matters (WPNEM) in response to members desire to better prepare for the longer-term response to a nuclear or radiological emergency. The INEX-4 exercise was designed to allow participants to investigate the national and, in some cases, international arrangements for responding to widespread radiological contamination of the urban environment from a radiological dispersal devise (or dirty bomb) and the consequence management issues likely to be raised in the medium to longer term after such an event. The experiences of participating countries were gathered through an evaluation questionnaire and are summarised in this report. The INEX-4 series was developed in 2008, and conducted throughout 2010 and 2011 with 17 participating countries using the INEX-4 scenario for an event involving a radiological dispersal device. An INEX-4 evaluation questionnaire was developed to document the process and results of the exercise, which was designed mainly to test emergency responses/actions related to consequence management and transition to recovery. The conclusions drawn from the INEX-4 experiences varied greatly, but this was to be expected given the nature of the scenario and the involvement of organisations outside of the nuclear community. The evaluation questionnaires completed by each participating country provided detailed information on the national approaches taken with respect to each of the exercise objectives and on issues relating to the international interfaces between countries. In collaboration with the NEA Secretariat, staff from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) reviewed each completed questionnaire to identify and summarise the essential information derived from the exercise for consideration by WPNEM members

  4. Income Distribution Determinants and Inequality – International Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the relationship between income distribution and other relevant economic variables and their impact on income distribution. Panel data analysis is used to study 200 world economies and identify main income determinants. Using such a large panel to study income distribution and inequality of household income make empirical results of this study significant. Paper results show there is a large discrepancy of income distribution measured by household consumption for different classes (income deciles. Inflation, unemployment, export, labour force, population and unemployment however are the main determinants between income distribution dynamics according to the result of this study.

  5. ATTRIBUTION OF CONDUCT TO A STATE-THE SUBJECTIVE ELEMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY OT THE STATE FOR INTERNATIONALLY WRONGFUL ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA MAXIM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish responsibility of states for internationally wrongful act, two elements are identified. First, the conduct in question must be attributable to the State under international law. Secondly, for responsibility to attach to the act of the State, the conduct must constitute a breach of an international legal obligation in force for that State at that time. For particular conduct to be characterized as an internationally wrongful act, it must first be attributable to the State. The State is a real organized entity, a legal person with full authority to act under international law. But to recognize this is not to deny the elementary fact that the State cannot act of itself. States can act only by and through their agents and representatives. In determining what constitutes an organ of a State for the purposes of responsibility, the internal law and practice of each State are of prime importance. The structure of the State and the functions of its organs are not, in general, governed by international law. It is a matter for each State to decide how its administration is to be structured and which functions are to be assumed by government. But while the State remains free to determine its internal structure and functions through its own law and practice, international law has a distinct role. Conduct is thereby attributed to the State as a subject of international law and not as a subject of internal law. The State as a subject of international law is held responsible for the conduct of all the organs, instrumentalities and officials which form part of its organization and act in that capacity, whether or not they have separate legal personality under its internal law.

  6. Internal contamination measurements conducted in Europe after the Chernobyl accident, bibliographical revue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, A.

    1990-01-01

    When the radioactivity levels actually ingested by the populations of various European countries were being assessed, it was decided to conduct many in vivo measurements and measurements on excreta. The data acquired in this way for a wide range of different populations are reviewed in this report. Caesium ( 137 Cs and 134 Cs) and iodine-131, were the only radionuclides to be studied systematically. It is shown in this report that the levels of radioactivity ingested, calculated on the basis of measurements in the food chain, were constantly overestimated by up to one order of magnitude. It is also shown that there is a good correlation between the geographical distribution of the quantities ingested and the charted radionuclide deposits

  7. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Dae; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J. [and others

    2003-07-01

    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries.

  8. A new model for heat conduction of nanofluids based on fractal distributions of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jie; Yu Boming; Zou Mingqing; Xu Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report a new model for predicting the thermal conductivity of nanofluids by taking into account the fractal distribution of nanoparticle sizes and heat convection between nanoparticles and liquids due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles in fluids. The proposed model is expressed as a function of the average size of nanoparticles, fractal dimension, concentration of nanoparticles, temperature and properties of fluids. The model shows the reasonable dependences of the thermal conductivity on the temperature of nanofluids, nanoparticle size and concentration. The parameter c introduced in thermal boundary layer depends on fluids, but is independent of nanoparticles added in the fluids. The model predictions are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The model also reveals that there is a critical concentration of 12.6% of nanoparticles at which the contribution from heat convection due to the Brownian movement of nanoparticles reaches the maximum value, below which the contribution from heat convection decreases with the decrease in concentration and above which the contribution from heat convection decreases with the increase in concentration

  9. Fluid Distribution in Synthetic Wet Halite Rocks : Inference from Measured Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Kitano, M.

    2011-12-01

    Intercrystalline fluid can significantly affect rheological and transport properties of rocks. Its influences are strongly dependent on its distribution. The dihedral angle between solid and liquid phases has been widely accepted as a key parameter that controls solid-liquid textures. The liquid phase is not expected to be interconnected if the dihedral angle is larger than 60 degree. However, observations contradictory to dihedral angle values have been reported. Watanabe (2010) suggested the coexistence of grain boundary fluid with a positive dihedral angle. For good understanding of fluid distribution, it is thus critical to study the nature of grain boundary fluid. We have developed a high pressure and temperature apparatus for study of intercrystalline fluid distribution. It was specially designed for measurements of elastic wave velocities and electrical conductivity. The apparatus mainly consists of a conventional cold-seal vessel with an external heater. The pressure medium is silicon oil of the viscosity of 0.1 Pa s. The pressure and temperature can be controlled from 0 to 200 MPa and from 20 to 200 C, respectively. Dimensions of a sample are 9 mm in diameter, and 15 mm in length. Halite-water system is used as an analog for crustal rocks. The dihedral angle has been studied systematically at various pressure and temperature conditions [Lewis and Holness, 1996]. The dihedral angle is larger than 60 degree at lower pressure and temperature. It decreases to be smaller than 60 degree with increasing pressure and temperature. A sample is prepared by cold-pressing and annealing of wet NaCl powder. Optical examination has shown that synthesized samples are microstructurally homogeneous. Grains are polygonal and equidimensional with a mean diameter of 100 micrometer. Grain boundaries vary from straight to bowed and 120 degree triple junctions are common. Gas and fluid bearing inclusions are visible on the grain boundaries. There are spherical inclusions or

  10. Network integration of distributed generation: international research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides information on privately and publicly funded research and development programmes in distributed generation (DG) in the USA, the European Union and Japan. Protection systems for the installation of DG, power electronics for the connection of DG to electricity distribution systems, reliability modelling, power quality issues, connection standards, and simulation and computer modelling are examined. The relevance of the programmes to the UK is considered.

  11. Thermodynamic analysis of direct internal reforming of methane and butane in proton and oxygen conducting fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Geerlings, J.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    We present results of a thermodynamic analysis of direct internal reforming fuel cells, based on either a proton conducting fuel cell (FC-H+) or an oxygen ion conducting fuel cell (FC-O2-). We analyze the option of methane as fuel as well as butane. The model self-consistently combines all chemical

  12. Photoelastic Studies of Internal Stress Distributions of Unidirectional Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    34 verre a, If t nece, e.ry and Identify by block number) ..... ’Io-dimensional phutoelastli, models were used to determine internal taading-. and...Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, le Pe, ,tagon,, Uashington, D.C. 10301 ]2 Commandr, T)efens. lecn, ical Information Center, Cameron

  13. An Analysis of Freight Forwarder Operations in an International Distribution Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    44 3. International Marketing Mix ....................... 45 4. Security Assistance Distribution Channel .......... 69 5...an item is ultimately derived from the interaction of variables in the marketing mix . Of those variables, the distribution functions seem to allow the...Component of the Marketing Mix ,"Proceedings, NCPDM Fall Meeting, National council of Physical Distribution Management, San Francisco, CA., 1982. 7

  14. 76 FR 43726 - Solicitation for a Cooperative Agreement: Developing a Method for Conducting an Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... advance internal quality assurance. The awardee will work closely with designated NIC staff on all aspects... services, and (3) provide sufficient guidance for an organization to begin to strategize desired internal... technical assistance, additional funding, or enhancing internal quality assurance. Purpose: This methodology...

  15. Fluid moderator control system reactor internals distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensterer, H.F.; Klassen, W.E.; Veronesi, L.; Boyle, D.E.; Salton, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a spectral shift pressurized water nuclear reactor employing a low neutron moderating fluid for the spectral shift including a reactor pressure vessel, a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies, a core support plate, apparatus comprising means for penetrating the reactor vessel for introducing the moderating fluid into the reactor vessel. Means associated with the core support plate for directly distributing the moderating fluid to and from the fuel assemblies comprises at least one inlet flow channel in the core plate; branch inlet feed lines connect to the inlet flow channel in the core plate; vertical inlet flow lines flow connected to the branch inlet feed lines; each vertical flow line communicates with a fuel assembly; the distribution means further comprise lines serving as return flow lines, each of which is connected to one of the fuel assemblies; branch exit flow lines in the core plate flow connected to the return flow lines of the fuel assembly; and at least one outlet flow channel flow connected to the branch exit flow lines; and a flow port interposed between the penetration means and the distribution means for flow connecting the penetration means with the distribution means

  16. A prediction model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids considering agglomeration and the radial distribution function of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Z. M.; Wang, B.

    2018-06-01

    Conventional heat transfer fluids usually have low thermal conductivity, limiting their efficiency in many applications. Many experiments have shown that adding nanosize solid particles to conventional fluids can greatly enhance their thermal conductivity. To explain this anomalous phenomenon, many theoretical investigations have been conducted in recent years. Some of this research has indicated that the particle agglomeration effect that commonly occurs in nanofluids should play an important role in such enhancement of the thermal conductivity, while some have shown that the enhancement of the effective thermal conductivity might be accounted for by the structure of nanofluids, which can be described using the radial distribution function of particles. However, theoretical predictions from these studies are not in very good agreement with experimental results. This paper proposes a prediction model for the effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids, considering both the agglomeration effect and the radial distribution function of nanoparticles. The resulting theoretical predictions for several sets of nanofluids are highly consistent with experimental data.

  17. Measurement of probability distributions for internal stresses in dislocated crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, Angus J.; Tarleton, Edmund; Vilalta-Clemente, Arantxa; Collins, David M. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Jiang, Jun; Britton, T. Benjamin [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, Royal School of Mines, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Here, we analyse residual stress distributions obtained from various crystal systems using high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Histograms showing stress probability distributions exhibit tails extending to very high stress levels. We demonstrate that these extreme stress values are consistent with the functional form that should be expected for dislocated crystals. Analysis initially developed by Groma and co-workers for X-ray line profile analysis and based on the so-called “restricted second moment of the probability distribution” can be used to estimate the total dislocation density. The generality of the results are illustrated by application to three quite different systems, namely, face centred cubic Cu deformed in uniaxial tension, a body centred cubic steel deformed to larger strain by cold rolling, and hexagonal InAlN layers grown on misfitting sapphire and silicon carbide substrates.

  18. The empirical relationship between the managerial conduct and internal control activities in South African small, medium and micro enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Pierre Bruwer

    2017-07-01

    Aim: Since a system of internal control comprises five inter-related elements, while also taking into consideration that management is ultimately responsible for the internal control in their respective business entities, which is greatly influenced by their managerial conduct, this research study placed focus on determining the relationship which exist between the managerial conduct and the internal control activities evident in South African SMMEs. Setting: This study was conducted in the Cape Metropole, South Africa by obtaining responses from 240 stakeholders of SMMEs: 120 members of management and 120 employees. Methods: In order to achieve the latter, quantitative data were collected through a questionnaire and analysed accordingly through both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results: From the results, a very weak negative statistically significant relationship was identified between the managerial conduct and the internal control activities evident in South African SMMEs. Conclusion: Essentially, management and employees should revisit the internal control activities evident in their respective SMMEs through placing emphasis on those internal control activities which can be built on their control environment.

  19. Analysis of Grain Size Distribution and Hydraulic Conductivity for a Variety of Sediment Types with Application to Wadi Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Rosas Aguilar, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    Grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity from over 400 unlithified sediment samples were analized. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were then compared to values calculated using 20 different empirical equations commonly used to estimate hydraulic conductivity from grain size analyses. It was found that most of the hydraulic conductivity values estimated from the empirical equations correlated very poorly to the measured hydraulic conductivity values. Modifications of the empirical equations, including changes to special coefficients and statistical off sets, were made to produce modified equations that considerably improve the hydraulic conductivity estimates from grain size data for beach, dune, off shore marine, and wadi sediments. Expected hydraulic conductivity estimation errors were reduced. Correction factors were proposed for wadi sediments, taking mud percentage and the standard deviation (in phi units) into account.

  20. Radionuclides distribution in internal organs of wild animals in alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatova, T.A.; Kudryashov, V.P.; Mironov, V.P.

    2002-01-01

    Activities of caesium 137, strontium 90, plutonium isotopes and americium 241 are experimentally defined in the internal organs of bearer and wolf alienation zone of Chernobyl NPP. Radionuclides distribution in the internal organs of wild animals is defined by destruction of nuclear fuel particles

  1. Selective Internal Heat Distribution in Modified Trombe Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Jerzy; Kogut, Janusz; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda

    2017-12-01

    At present, the requirements for thermal insulation of the external walls in buildings are being increased. There is a need to reduce energy consumption for heating rooms during the winter season. This may be achieved by increasing the thermal resistance of the outer partitions, using solutions that utilize either recuperation or solar radiation. The most popular systems include either solar collectors, or heat pump links or ground exchangers. Trombe walls (TW) are a very promising passive heating system, which requires little or no effort to operate, and may be very convenient in different climate conditions. A typical TW consists of a masonry wall painted a dark, heat absorbing paint colour and faced with a single or double layer of glass. The principle of operation is based on the photothermal conversion of solar radiation. There are various modifications of TW. They may improve the energy efficiency in relation to the climate conditions in which they operate. The hybrid solutions are also known. The efficiency of walls is related to the use of proper materials. In TW, the compromise should be sought between the thermal resistance and the ability to distribute heat from the absorbed energy of solar radiation. The paper presents an overview of the most commonly used solutions and discusses its own concept dedicated to the climate conditions of Central Europe.

  2. Simultaneous reconstruction of outer boundary shape and conductivity distribution in electrical impedance tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hyvö nen, Nuutti

    2016-01-01

    The simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model

  3. Assessment of effective thermal conductivity in U–Mo metallic fuels with distributed gas bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shenyang; Casella, Andrew M.; Lavender, Curt A.; Senor, David J.; Burkes, Douglas E.

    2015-07-15

    This work presents a numerical method to assess the relative impact of various microstructural features including grain sizes, nanometer scale intragranular gas bubbles, and larger intergranular gas bubbles in irradiated U–Mo metallic fuels on the effective thermal conductivity. A phase-field model was employed to construct a three-dimensional polycrystalline U–Mo fuel alloy with a given crystal morphology and gas bubble microstructures. An effective thermal conductivity “concept” was taken to capture the effect of polycrystalline structures and gas bubble microstructures with significant size differences on the thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of inhomogeneous materials was calculated by solving the heat transport equation. The obtained results are in reasonably good agreement with experimental measurements made on irradiated U–Mo fuel samples containing similar microstructural features. The developed method can be used to predict the thermal conductivity degradation in operating nuclear fuels if the evolution of microstructures is known during operation of the fuel.

  4. Internal and external control of net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of mature eastern white pine (Pinus strobus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris A. Maier; R.O. Teskey

    1992-01-01

    Leaf gas exchange and water relations were monitored in the upper canopy of two 25 m tall eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) trees over two consecutive growing seasons (1986 and 1987). Examination of the seasonal and diurnal patterns of net photosynthesis and leaf conductance showed that both internal and external (environmental) factors were...

  5. Heat transfer and thermodynamic performance of convective–radiative cooling double layer walls with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torabi, Mohsen; Zhang, Kaili

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • First and second laws of thermodynamics have been investigated in a composite wall. • Convective–radiative heat transfer is assumed on both surfaces. • Optimum interface location is calculated to minimize the total entropy generation rate. • Thermal conductivities ratio has great effects on the temperature and entropy generation. - Abstract: Composite geometries have numerous applications in industry and scientific researches. This work investigates the temperature distribution, and local and total entropy generation rates within two-layer composite walls using conjugate convection and radiation boundary conditions. Thermal conductivities of the materials of walls are assumed temperature-dependent. Temperature-dependent internal heat generations are also incorporated into the modeling. The differential transformation method (DTM) is used as an analytical technique to tackle the highly nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations. Thereafter, the local and total entropy generation rates are calculated using the DTM formulated temperature distribution. An exact analytical solution, for the temperature-independent model without radiation effect, is also derived. The correctness and accuracy of the DTM solution are checked against the exact solution. After verification, effects of thermophysical parameters such as location of the interface, convection–conduction parameters, radiation–conduction parameters, and internal heat generations, on the temperature distribution, and both local and total entropy generation rates are examined. To deliver the minimum total entropy generation rate, optimum values for some parameters are also found. Since composite walls are widely used in many fields, the abovementioned investigation is a beneficial tool for many engineering industries and scientific fields to minimize the entropy generation, which is the exergy destruction, of the system

  6. Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Juan Antonio; Padilla, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The concept of polarization is linked to the extent that a given distribution leads to the formation of homogeneous groups with opposing interests. This concept, which is basically different from the traditional one of inequality, is related to the level of inherent potential conflict in a distribution. The polarization approach has been widely applied in the analysis of income distribution. The extension of this approach to the analysis of international distribution of CO 2 emissions is quite useful as it gives a potent informative instrument for characterizing the state and evolution of the international distribution of emissions and its possible political consequences in terms of tensions and the probability of achieving agreements. In this paper we analyze the international distribution of per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 2001 through the adaptation of the polarization concept and measures. We find that the most interesting grouped description deriving from the analysis is a two groups' one, which broadly coincide with Annex B and non-Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol, which shows the power of polarization analysis for explaining the generation of groups in the real world. The analysis also shows a significant reduction in international polarization in per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 1995, but not much change since 1995, which might indicate that polarized distribution of emission is still one of the important factors leading to difficulties in achieving agreements for reducing global emissions. (author)

  7. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen was fully analyzed considering the steady state and the transient state of DC. Consequently, it was possible to determine the electric field distribution characteristics considering different DC applying stages including DC switching on, DC switching off and polarity reversal conditions.

  8. Recently aspects regarding International Auditing Standard 200 „Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Botez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the financial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. The International Standard on Auditing 200 (ISA 200 deals with the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with International Standards on Auditing (ISAs.

  9. Prediction of spatially variable unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using scaled particle-size distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasta, P.; Romano, N.; Assouline, S; Vrugt, J.A.; Hopmans, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous scaling of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions provides an effective means to characterize the heterogeneity and spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties in a given study area. The statistical significance of this approach largely depends on the number of

  10. Association between Parental Involvement in School and Child Conduct, Social, and Internalizing Problems: Teacher Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Klockner, Christian A.; Morch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Teacher Involvement Questionnaire (Involve-T) by means of exploratory factor analysis and examined the association between children's socio-emotional and behavioural problems and teacher-reported parental involvement in school, using structural equation modelling. The study was conducted with…

  11. Child labor and multinational conduct : a comparison of international business and stakeholder codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; van Tulder, R.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing attention to the issue of child labor has been reflected in codes of conduct that emerged in the past decade in particular. This paper examines the way in which multinationals, business associations, governmental and non-governmental organizations deal with child labor in their codes.

  12. Thermal conductivity of nanofluids and size distribution of nanoparticles by Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yongjin; Yu Boming; Feng Kaiming; Xu Peng; Zou Mingqing

    2008-01-01

    Nanofluids, a class of solid-liquid suspensions, have received an increasing attention and studied intensively because of their anomalously high thermal conductivites at low nanoparticle concentration. Based on the fractal character of nanoparticles in nanofluids, the probability model for nanoparticle's sizes and the effective thermal conductivity model are derived, in which the effect of the microconvection due to the Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the fluids is taken into account. The proposed model is expressed as a function of the thermal conductivities of the base fluid and the nanoparticles, the volume fraction, fractal dimension for particles, the size of nanoparticles, and the temperature, as well as random number. This model has the characters of both analytical and numerical solutions. The Monte Carlo simulations combined with the fractal geometry theory are performed. The predictions by the present Monte Carlo simulations are shown in good accord with the existing experimental data.

  13. Simultaneous reconstruction of outer boundary shape and conductivity distribution in electrical impedance tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Hyvönen, Nuutti

    2016-01-05

    The simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model and it is based on the Frechet derivative of the corresponding current-to-voltage map with respect to the body shape. The reconstruction problem is cast into the Bayesian framework, and maximum a posteriori estimates for the admittivity and the boundary geometry are computed. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements.

  14. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN 2 ). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN 2 were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric field distribution of

  15. Proceedings of the international workshop on conduct of inspections and inspector qualification and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, B.K.

    1993-02-01

    In the Fall of 1991, the OECD Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) approved the proposal of the Working Group (WGIP) on Inspection Practices to hold a workshop on the conduct of inspections, inspector qualification and training, and shutdown inspections at the Technical Training Center of the USNRC in Chattanooga, Tennessee. The workshop was held from August 29 to September 4, 1992. The workshop was preceded by an orientation briefing for facilitators and a get-acquainted reception for participants. The workshop began with a plenary introductory session and ended with a plenary conclusion and evaluation session. Individual discussion sessions have been cataloged separately

  16. 40 CFR Table E-2 to Subpart E of... - Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Permitted Tolerance for Conducting Radiative Tests E Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods and Class I and Class II Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 or PM10â2.5 Pt. 53, Subpt. E, Table E-2 Table E-2 to Subpart E of Part 53—Spectral Energy Distribution and Permitted Tolerance for...

  17. International assessment of application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokr, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Abouzabal (Egypt). Egypt Second Research Reactor

    2015-11-15

    The self-assessments performed by thirty-eight countries on application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors were analyzed and discussed. The results of this analysis were used to identify areas of satisfactory application of the Code and area needing improvements, and therefore require more attention worldwide. The results showed improvement in application of the Code provisions; notably in aging management, regulatory supervision, and consideration of human factors. However, there is a continuing need for further improvement in these areas, as well as in operational radiation protection, emergency preparedness and decommissioning planning. Additionally, increased attention needs to be given to periodic safety reviews, evaluation of site-specific hazards, and assessment of extreme external events. The results showed consistency with the feedback from other sources of information on generic safety issues for research reactors.

  18. International assessment of application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokr, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The self-assessments performed by thirty-eight countries on application of the Code of Conduct on the Safety of Research Reactors were analyzed and discussed. The results of this analysis were used to identify areas of satisfactory application of the Code and area needing improvements, and therefore require more attention worldwide. The results showed improvement in application of the Code provisions; notably in aging management, regulatory supervision, and consideration of human factors. However, there is a continuing need for further improvement in these areas, as well as in operational radiation protection, emergency preparedness and decommissioning planning. Additionally, increased attention needs to be given to periodic safety reviews, evaluation of site-specific hazards, and assessment of extreme external events. The results showed consistency with the feedback from other sources of information on generic safety issues for research reactors.

  19. A 201-MHz Normal Conducting RF Cavity for the International MICE Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.J.; Virostek, Steve; Zisman, Michael S.; Rimmer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    MICE is a demonstration experiment for the ionization cooling of muon beams. Eight RF cavities are proposed to be used in the MICE cooling channel. These cavities will be operated in a strong magnetic field; therefore, they must be normal conducting. The cavity design and construction are based on the successful experience and techniques developed for a 201-MHz prototype cavity for the US MUCOOL program. Taking advantage of a muon beamΛ s penetration property, the cavity employs a pair of curved thin beryllium windows to terminate conventional beam irises and achieve higher cavity shunt impedance. The cavity resembles a round, closed pillbox cavity. Two half-shells spun from copper sheets are joined by e-beam welding to form the cavity body. There are four ports on the cavity equator for RF couplers, vacuum pumping and field probes. The ports are formed by means of an extruding technique.

  20. Preparing of Highly Conductive Patterns on Flexible Substrates by Screen Printing of Silver Nanoparticles with Different Size Distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jin; Liu, Jun; Tian, Qingyong; Wu, Zhaohui; Yao, Weijing; Dai, Zhigao; Liu, Li; Wu, Wei

    2016-12-01

    A facile one-step polyol method is employed to synthesize the Ag nanoparticles (NPs) in large scale. The Ag NPs with different average diameter (from 52 to 120 nm) and particle size distribution are prepared by changing the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP. Furthermore, the as-obtained Ag NPs are prepared as conductive inks, which could be screen printed on various flexible substrates and formed as conductive patterns after sintering treatment. During the reaction process, PVP is used as the capping reagent for preventing the agglomeration of Ag NPs, and the influence of the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP to the size distribution of Ag NPs is investigated. The results of electronic properties reveal that the conductivity of printed patterns is highly dependent on the size distribution of as-obtained Ag NPs. Among all the samples, the optimal conductivity is obtained when the mass ratio of AgNO3 and PVP is 1:0.4. Subsequently, the sintering time and temperature are further investigated for obtaining the best conductivity; the optimal electrical resistivity value of 3.83 μΩ · cm is achieved at 160 °C for 75 min, which is close to the resistivity value of the bulk silver (1.58 μΩ · cm). Significantly, there are many potential advantages in printed electronics applications because of the as-synthesized Ag NPs with a low sintering temperature and low electrical resistivity.

  1. The approximate analytical solution of the internal problem of conductive and laminar free convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Popov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The approximate analytical solution of a problem about nonstationary free convection in the conductive and laminar mode of the Newtonian liquid in square area at the instantaneous change of temperature of a sidewall and lack of heat fluxes is submitted on top and bottom the bases. The equations of free convection in an approximation of Oberbeka-Bussinesk are linearized due to neglect by convective items. For reduction of number of hydrothermal parameters the system is given to the dimensionless look by introduction of scales for effect and explanatory variables. Transition from classical variables to the variables "whirlwind-a flow function" allowed to reduce system to a nonstationary heat conduction equation and a nonstationary nonuniform biharmonic equation, and the first is not dependent on the second. The decision in the form of a flow function is received by application integral a sine - Fourier transforms with terminating limits to a biharmonic equation at first on a variable x, and then on a variable y. The flow function has an appearance of a double series of Fourier on sine with coefficients in an integral form. Coefficients of a row represent integrals from unknown functions. On the basis of a hypothesis of an express type of integrals coefficients are calculated from the linear equation system received from boundary conditions on partial derivatives of function. Dependence of structure of a current on Prandtl's number is investigated. The cards of streamlines and isolines of components of speed describing development of a current from the moment of emergence before transition to a stationary state are received. The schedules of a field of vectors of speeds in various time illustrating dynamics of a current are provided. Reliability of a hypothesis of an express type of integral coefficients is confirmed by adequacy to physical sense and coherence of the received results with the numerical solution of a problem.

  2. Analysis of internal network requirements for the distributed Nordic Tier-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, G.; Fischer, L.; Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: It is not located at one or a few locations but instead distributed throughout the Nordic, it is not under the governance of a single organisation but but is instead...... build from resources under the control of a number of different national organisations. Being physically distributed makes the design and implementation of the networking infrastructure a challenge. NDGF has its own internal OPN connecting the sites participating in the distributed Tier-1. To assess...

  3. Conducting Research on the International Space Station using the EXPRESS Rack Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sean W.; Lake, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Eight "Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station" (EXPRESS) Rack facilities are located within the International Space Station (ISS) laboratories to provide standard resources and interfaces for the simultaneous and independent operation of multiple experiments within each rack. Each EXPRESS Rack provides eight Middeck Locker Equivalent locations and two drawer locations for powered experiment equipment, also referred to as sub-rack payloads. Payload developers may provide their own structure to occupy the equivalent volume of one, two, or four lockers as a single unit. Resources provided for each location include power (28 Vdc, 0-500 W), command and data handling (Ethernet, RS-422, 5 Vdc discrete, +/- 5 Vdc analog), video (NTSC/RS 170A), and air cooling (0-200 W). Each rack also provides water cooling for two locations (500W ea.), one vacuum exhaust interface, and one gaseous nitrogen interface. Standard interfacing cables and hoses are provided on-orbit. One laptop computer is provided with each rack to control the rack and to accommodate payload application software. Four of the racks are equipped with the Active Rack Isolation System to reduce vibration between the ISS and the rack. EXPRESS Racks are operated by the Payload Operations Integration Center at Marshall Space Flight Center and the sub-rack experiments are operated remotely by the investigating organization. Payload Integration Managers serve as a focal to assist organizations developing payloads for an EXPRESS Rack. NASA provides EXPRESS Rack simulator software for payload developers to checkout payload command and data handling at the development site before integrating the payload with the EXPRESS Functional Checkout Unit for an end-to-end test before flight. EXPRESS Racks began supporting investigations onboard ISS on April 24, 2001 and will continue through the life of the ISS.

  4. The Effect of Internal Salary Increment Distributions on Retention Behaviors of Western New York Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of district internal salary distribution practices and its effect on retention. The study is a replication study as recommended by Jacobson (1986) and Lankford and Wyckoff (1997) whereby their research shows the prevalence of "back loading" and ineffectiveness relative to retention. In the case of this study, the…

  5. 76 FR 32231 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... for the workers and former workers of International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution... reconsideration alleges that IBM outsourced to India and China. During the reconsideration investigation, it was..., Armonk, New York. The subject worker group supply computer software development and maintenance services...

  6. A distributed control algorithm for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, C. De; Jessen, J.J.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, R.; Schiøler, H.

    2008-01-01

    We examine a distributed control problem for internal flow management in a multi-zone climate unit. The problem consists of guaranteeing prescribed indoor climate conditions in a cascade connection of an arbitrarily large number of communicating zones, in which air masses are exchanged to redirect

  7. 76 FR 21033 - International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,364] International Business Machines (IBM), Sales and Distribution Business Unit, Global Sales Solution Department, Off-Site Teleworker in Centerport, New York; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated November 29, 2011,...

  8. Hydrostratigraphy and recharge distributions from direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity using the UFA trademark method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J.; Conca, J.L.; Chen, X.

    1994-03-01

    The simulation of contaminant migration and movement through subsurface materials surrounding hazardous and mixed waste sties requires knowledge of the transport characteristics of the soils, sediments, and rocks of the site under unsaturated and saturated conditions. The hydraulic conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and retardation factor must be known in order to use existing and developing models of contaminant release from subsurface systems. The new Unsaturated Flow Apparatus (UFA) method makes it possible to measure transport parameters in a very short time while replicating the wide range of conditions that exist in the field. The chemical, physical, and mineralogical properties of each soil sample are compared to transport parameters measured by the UFA method to determine the primary physical parameter/hydrologic characteristic relationships for predicting volatile organic compound (VOC) and water migration in arid soils and sediments. The Plutonium Finishing Plant in the 200-West Area at the Hanford Site is the site of a mixed-waste contaminant plume. The plume contains carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) as the primary VOC, Pu and Am as the primary radionuclides, water, aqueous sodium nitrate solutions, and other organics (lard oil, tributylphoshate, chloroform). An estimated 3.5 million gal of liquid waste was discharged to three unlined cribs (similar to septic tanks drain fields) between 1955 and 1973. This project investigated unsaturated transport phenomena using the new UFA method to optimize long-term experimental and demonstration strategies for site remediation. Three unexpected benefits resulted from the UFA method in FY 1993: hydrostratigraphic mapping, subsurface flux and recharge mapping, and pore water extraction from vadose zone samples for chemical analysis. 54 refs

  9. Computational modelling of internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes for radiofrequency ablation: impact of rehydration, thermal convection and electrical conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Macarena; Bon, Jose; Berjano, Enrique

    2017-09-01

    (1) To analyse rehydration, thermal convection and increased electrical conductivity as the three phenomena which distinguish the performance of internally cooled electrodes (IC) and internally cooled wet (ICW) electrodes during radiofrequency ablation (RFA), (2) Implement a RFA computer model with an ICW which includes these phenomena and (3) Assess their relative influence on the thermal and electrical tissue response and on the coagulation zone size. A 12-min RFA in liver was modelled using an ICW electrode (17 G, 3 cm tip) by an impedance-control pulsing protocol with a constant current of 1.5 A. A model of an IC electrode was used to compare the ICW electrode performance and the computational results with the experimental results. Rehydration and increased electrical conductivity were responsible for an increase in coagulation zone size and a delay (or absence) in the occurrence of abrupt increases in electrical impedance (roll-off). While the increased electrical conductivity had a remarkable effect on enlarging the coagulation zone (an increase of 0.74 cm for differences in electrical conductivity of 0.31 S/m), rehydration considerably affected the delay in roll-off, which, in fact, was absent with a sufficiently high rehydration level. In contrast, thermal convection had an insignificant effect for the flow rates considered (0.05 and 1 mL/min). Computer results suggest that rehydration and increased electrical conductivity were mainly responsible for the absence of roll-off and increased size of the coagulation zone, respectively, and in combination allow the thermal and electrical performance of ICW electrodes to be modelled during RFA.

  10. IPERS guidelines for the international peer review service. Second edition. Procedures for conducting independent peer reviews of probabilistic safety assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This publication describes the purposes and the objectives of an International Peer Review Service (IPERS) review. The main objective is first to assess whether important technological and methodological issues in the PSA are treated in an adequate manner and, second, whether specific conclusions and applications of the PSA are supported by the underlying technical analysis in an appropriate way. An important aspect for an IPERS review is the communication and exchange of views between the international experts carrying out the review and the members of the PSA team. This TECDOC is intended to give guidance on how an IPERS review is organized and conducted, it describes the steps needed to prepare the review and it highlights the PSA aspects which should be covered in detail. 30 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. IPERS guidelines for the international peer review service. Second edition. Procedures for conducting independent peer reviews of probabilistic safety assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication describes the purposes and the objectives of an International Peer Review Service (IPERS) review. The main objective is first to assess whether important technological and methodological issues in the PSA are treated in an adequate manner and, second, whether specific conclusions and applications of the PSA are supported by the underlying technical analysis in an appropriate way. An important aspect for an IPERS review is the communication and exchange of views between the international experts carrying out the review and the members of the PSA team. This TECDOC is intended to give guidance on how an IPERS review is organized and conducted, it describes the steps needed to prepare the review and it highlights the PSA aspects which should be covered in detail. 30 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Spatial models to predict ash pH and Electrical Conductivity distribution after a grassland fire in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Fire mineralizes the organic matter, increasing the pH level and the amount of dissolved ions (Pereira et al., 2014). The degree of mineralization depends among other factors on fire temperature, burned specie, moisture content, and contact time. The impact of wildland fires it is assessed using the fire severity, an index used in the absence of direct measures (e.g temperature), important to estimate the fire effects in the ecosystems. This impact is observed through the loss of soil organic matter, crown volume, twig diameter, ash colour, among others (Keeley et al., 2009). The effects of fire are highly variable, especially at short spatial scales (Pereira et al., in press), due the different fuel conditions (e.g. moisture, specie distribution, flammability, connectivity, arrangement, etc). This variability poses important challenges to identify the best spatial predictor and have the most accurate spatial visualization of the data. Considering this, the test of several interpolation methods it is assumed to be relevant to have the most reliable map. The aims of this work are I) study the ash pH and Electrical Conductivity (EC) after a grassland fire according to ash colour and II) test several interpolation methods in order to identify the best spatial predictor of pH and EC distribution. The study area is located near Vilnius at 54.42° N and 25.26°E and 154 ma.s.l. After the fire it was designed a plot with a 27 x 9 m space grid. Samples were taken every 3 meters for a total of 40 (Pereira et al., 2013). Ash color was classified according to Úbeda et al. (2009). Ash pH and EC laboratory analysis were carried out according to Pereira et al. (2014). Previous to data comparison and modelling, normality and homogeneity were assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Levene test. pH data respected the normality and homogeneity, while EC only followed the Gaussian distribution and the homogeneity criteria after a logarithmic transformation. Data spatial correlation was

  13. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development, and Initial Analysis of Experiments Conducted Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2003-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMl investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMl uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMl is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station.

  14. Surges in low voltage distribution networks: some of conducted studies; Surtos em redes de baixa tensao: alguns estudos realizados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This article presents an experience conducted by the Brazilian CELESC - Centrais Electricas de Santa Catarina, by installing two low voltage Si C lightning rods, one near of a batch of distribution transformers, and the other in the protection and measurement cabinet. That installation considered the high number of damages in transformers and meters in a region where 118 days of storm are detected. For the study, two regions presented similar climate characteristics and high number of damaged equipment. The low voltage lightning rods were installed only in one of the regions.

  15. Distribution of conductive minerals as associated with uranium minerals at Dendang Arai sector by induced polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurdin, M.; Nikijuluw, N.; Subardjo; Sudarto, S.

    2000-01-01

    Based on previous investigation results, a favourable zone of 20-80 meters in wide, 80-240 meters in length and in the direction of East-West to Northwest-Southeast was found. The favourable zone is conductor, associated with sulfide. Induced polarization method has been applied to find vertical and horizontal sulfide distribution. The measurement was conducted in perpendicular to lateral direction of the conductive zone in an interval of 20 meters. Properties measured are apparent resistivity and charge ability. Measurement results indicated the presence of sulfide zone with the position and dip are sub-vertical. Sulfide zones were found on the fault cross-point with the directions being East-West to East South East-West North West by fault is North-South. This anomalies were then represented in 3 (three) dimension tomographic model. (author)

  16. Distribution of heavy metals in internal organs and tissues of Korean molluscan shellfish and potential risk to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Poong Ho; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2015-09-01

    Molluscan shellfish (gastropods and bivalves) were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury by direct Hg analyzer and for other metals, such as cadmium, lead, chromium, silver, nickel, copper and zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs and whole tissues were determined and a potential risk assessment was conducted to evaluate their hazard for human consumption. Heavy metals were accumulated significantly higher (P hazardous metals (Cd, Pb, and Hg) in all internal-organ samples were above the regulatory limit of Korea and the mean level in whole tissue samples of the selected gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell, exceeded the limit (except in a few cases). The sum of the estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb and Hg for each part of all tested species accounted for 1.59-16.94, 0.02-0.36, and 0.07-0.16% respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. The hazard index for each part of gastropods and bivalves was below 1.0, however, the maximum HI for internal organs of all analysed species was quite high (0.71). These results suggest that consumption of flesh after removing the internal organs of some molluscan shellfish (all gastropod species, bay scallop and comb pen shell) is a suitable way for reducing Cd exposure.

  17. Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Keiji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Orihara, Hideto; Sakai, Yusuke; Ohya, Shin-Ichi; Suzuki, Tamaki; Shobu, Takahisa; Akita, Koichi; Ishiyama, Kazushi

    2015-01-01

    Internal stress distribution for generating closure domains occurring in laser-irradiated Fe–3%Si(110) steels was investigated using high-energy X-ray analysis and domain theory based on the variational principle. The measured triaxial stresses inside the specimen were compressive and the stress in the rolling direction became more dominant than stresses in the other directions. The calculations based on the variational principle of magnetic energy for closure domains showed that the measured triaxial stresses made the closure domains more stable than the basic domain without closure domains. The experimental and calculation results reveal that the laser-introduced internal stresses result in the occurrence of the closure domains

  18. Waiting time distribution revealing the internal spin dynamics in a double quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptaszyński, Krzysztof

    2017-07-01

    Waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics of unidirectional electron transport through a double quantum dot molecule attached to spin-polarized leads are analyzed using the quantum master equation. The waiting time distribution exhibits a nontrivial dependence on the value of the exchange coupling between the dots and the gradient of the applied magnetic field, which reveals the oscillations between the spin states of the molecule. The zero-frequency full counting statistics, on the other hand, is independent of the aforementioned quantities, thus giving no insight into the internal dynamics. The fact that the waiting time distribution and the zero-frequency full counting statistics give a nonequivalent information is associated with two factors. Firstly, it can be explained by the sensitivity to different timescales of the dynamics of the system. Secondly, it is associated with the presence of the correlation between subsequent waiting times, which makes the renewal theory, relating the full counting statistics and the waiting time distribution, no longer applicable. The study highlights the particular usefulness of the waiting time distribution for the analysis of the internal dynamics of mesoscopic systems.

  19. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles and internal organs of Korean cephalopods and crustaceans: risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-12-01

    Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.

  20. Irritable and Defiant Sub-Dimensions of ODD: Their Stability and Prediction of Internalizing Symptoms and Conduct Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research has identified sub-dimensions of oppositional defiant disorder – irritability and defiance -that differentially predict internalizing and externalizing symptoms in preschoolers, children, and adolescents. Using a theoretical approach and confirmatory factor analyses to distinguish between irritability and defiance, we investigate the associations among these dimensions and internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing problems (conduct problems) within and across time in a community-based sample of 662 youth (342 females) spanning ages 12 to 18 years old at baseline. On average, irritability was stable across assessment points and defiance declined. Within time, associations of irritability with internalizing were consistently stronger than associations of irritability with conduct problems. Defiance was similarly associated within time with both internalizing and conduct problems in mid-adolescence, but was more highly related to internalizing than to conduct problems by early adulthood (ages 18 to 25). Over time, increasing irritability was related to changes in both internalizing and conduct problems; whereas increases in defiance predicted increases in conduct problems more strongly than internalizing symptoms. Increases in both internalizing and conduct problems were also associated with subsequent increases in both irritability and defiance. Sex differences in these associations were not significant. PMID:25028284

  1. Ongoing nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Agona associated with internationally distributed infant milk products, France, December 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan-da Silva, Nathalie; Fabre, Laetitia; Robinson, Eve; Fournet, Nelly; Nisavanh, Athinna; Bruyand, Mathias; Mailles, Alexandra; Serre, Estelle; Ravel, Magali; Guibert, Véronique; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Renaudat, Charlotte; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Septfons, Alexandra; de Valk, Henriette; Le Hello, Simon

    2018-01-01

    On 1 December 2017, an outbreak of Salmonella Agona infections among infants was identified in France. To date, 37 cases (median age: 4 months) and two further international cases have been confirmed. Five different infant milk products manufactured at one facility were implicated. On 2 and 10 December, the company recalled the implicated products; on 22 December, all products processed at the facility since February 2017. Trace-forward investigations indicated product distribution to 66 countries.

  2. Exchange rate pass-through and the role of international distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Desiraju, Ramarao; Shrikhande, Milind

    1996-01-01

    Manufacturers selling in foreign markets often do not completely pass on the effects of fluctuations in exchange rates to the prices of their products. Our paper addresses this puzzle and studies the effects of the international distribution channel on exchange rate pass-through. We develop an exchange rate pass-through model that takes into account the role of an intermediary between a domestic manufacturer and its consumers in a foreign market. We find that the magnitude of the pass-through...

  3. Tungsten heavy metal alloys relations between the crystallographic texture and the internal stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Voltz, M.

    2001-01-01

    Quite often the W-Ni-Fe-Co heavy alloys are subjected to a thermomechanical processing of swaging and aging in order to obtain the highest possible level of resistance. Within the framework of this plastic deformation on cylindrical parts, the swaging leads to the distribution of morphological and crystallographic texture as well as specific internal stresses. The resulting mechanical characteristics are correlated to structural and sub-structural variations. (author)

  4. Preliminary study of internal wave effects to chlorophyll distribution in the Lombok Strait and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelyna, Yessy; Oshima, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of internal wave in the Lombok Strait to chlorophyll distribution in the surrounded areas using ERS SAR, ASTER, SeaWiFS and AVHRR-NOAA images data during 1996-2004 periods. The observation results shows that the internal waves were propagated to the south and the north of strait and mostly occurred during transitional season from dry to wet and wet season (rainy season) between September to December when the layers are strongly stratified. Wavelet transform of image using Meyer wavelet analysis is applied for internal wave detection in ERS SAR and ASTER images, for symmetric extension of data at the image boundaries, to prevent discontinuities by a periodic wrapping of data in fast algorithm and space-saving code. Internal wave created elongated pattern in detail and approximation of image from level 2 to 5 and retained value between 2-4.59 times compared to sea surface, provided accuracy in classification over than 80%. In segmentation process, the Canny edge detector is applied on the approximation image at level two to derive internal wave signature in image. The proposed method can extract the internal wave signature, maintain the continuity of crest line while reduce small strikes from noise. The segmentation result, i.e. the length between crest and trough, is used to compute the internal wave induced current using Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. On ERS SAR data contains surface signature of internal wave (2001/8/20), we calculated that internal wave propagation speed was 1.2 m/s and internal wave induced current was 0.56 m/s, respectively. From the observation of ERS SAR and SeaWiFS images data, we found out that the distribution of maximum chlorophyll area at southern coastline off Bali Island when strong internal wave induced current occurred in south of the Lombok Strait was distributed further to westward, i.e. from 9.25°-10.25°LS, 115°-116.25°SE to 8.8°-10.7°LS, 114.5°-116°SE, and surface chlorophyll concentration

  5. Using internal discharge data in a distributed conceptual model to reduce uncertainty in streamflow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, J.; Halldin, S.; Xu, C.; Lundin, L.

    2011-12-01

    Distributed hydrological models are important tools in water management as they account for the spatial variability of the hydrological data, as well as being able to produce spatially distributed outputs. They can directly incorporate and assess potential changes in the characteristics of our basins. A recognized problem for models in general is equifinality, which is only exacerbated for distributed models who tend to have a large number of parameters. We need to deal with the fundamentally ill-posed nature of the problem that such models force us to face, i.e. a large number of parameters and very few variables that can be used to constrain them, often only the catchment discharge. There is a growing but yet limited literature showing how the internal states of a distributed model can be used to calibrate/validate its predictions. In this paper, a distributed version of WASMOD, a conceptual rainfall runoff model with only three parameters, combined with a routing algorithm based on the high-resolution HydroSHEDS data was used to simulate the discharge in the Paso La Ceiba basin in Honduras. The parameter space was explored using Monte-Carlo simulations and the region of space containing the parameter-sets that were considered behavioral according to two different criteria was delimited using the geometric concept of alpha-shapes. The discharge data from five internal sub-basins was used to aid in the calibration of the model and to answer the following questions: Can this information improve the simulations at the outlet of the catchment, or decrease their uncertainty? Also, after reducing the number of model parameters needing calibration through sensitivity analysis: Is it possible to relate them to basin characteristics? The analysis revealed that in most cases the internal discharge data can be used to reduce the uncertainty in the discharge at the outlet, albeit with little improvement in the overall simulation results.

  6. 77 FR 17525 - Cinram Distribution, LLC, a Subsidiary of Cinram International Income Fund, Including On-Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... International Income Fund had their wages reported through a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account..., a Subsidiary of Cinram International Income Fund, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Good People..., 2012, applicable to workers of Cinram Distribution, LLC, a subsidiary of Cinram International Income...

  7. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. Aims: This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Results: Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73% were male and 1738 (8.27% were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15% followed by O (34.73%, A (22.09%, and AB (8.03% in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46% donors were Rh +ve and (3.54% donors were Rh −ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. Conclusions: The knowledge of

  8. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group system are most important for blood transfusion purposes, parental testing, legal medicine, and in population genetic study. This study was conducted to determine and compare the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among voluntary blood donors attending blood donation camps in Jharkhand organized by RIMS. The aim is to know the demand and supply ratio of a particular blood group in light of their distribution in the society so that no patient dies due to the deficient supply of blood. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted at Blood bank, RIMS, Ranchi, Jharkhand, over a period of 4 years from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2015. Blood group of the blood donors was determined by commercially available standard monoclonal antisera by test tube agglutination technique accompanied by reverse grouping. Out of 20,455 subjects, 18,717 (91.73%) were male and 1738 (8.27%) were female subjects. The ABO blood group present was B (35.15%) followed by O (34.73%), A (22.09%), and AB (8.03%) in blood donors while in Rh system, (96.46%) donors were Rh +ve and (3.54%) donors were Rh -ve. The study has a significant implication regarding the inventory management of blood bank and transfusion services for the indoor patients of RIMS and for emergency supply to other hospitals of Jharkhand in dire need of blood. The knowledge of distribution of blood group is very important for blood banks and transfusion services

  9. Case-Control Studies of Sporadic Enteric Infections: A Review and Discussion of Studies Conducted Internationally from 1990 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Kathleen E.; Scallan, Elaine; Kirk, Martyn D.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Angulo, Frederick J.; de Valk, Henriette; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Gauci, Charmaine; Hauri, Anja M.; Majowicz, Shannon; O’Brien, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologists have used case-control studies to investigate enteric disease outbreaks for many decades. Increasingly, case-control studies are also used to investigate risk factors for sporadic (not outbreak-associated) disease. While the same basic approach is used, there are important differences between outbreak and sporadic disease settings that need to be considered in the design and implementation of the case-control study for sporadic disease. Through the International Collaboration on Enteric Disease “Burden of Illness” Studies (the International Collaboration), we reviewed 79 case-control studies of sporadic enteric infections caused by nine pathogens that were conducted in 22 countries and published from 1990 through to 2009. We highlight important methodological and study design issues (including case definition, control selection, and exposure assessment) and discuss how approaches to the study of sporadic enteric disease have changed over the last 20 years (e.g., making use of more sensitive case definitions, databases of controls, and computer-assisted interviewing). As our understanding of sporadic enteric infections grows, methods and topics for case-control studies are expected to continue to evolve; for example, advances in understanding of the role of immunity can be used to improve control selection, the apparent protective effects of certain foods can be further explored, and case-control studies can be used to provide population-based measures of the burden of disease. PMID:22443481

  10. The lay concept of conduct disorder: do nonprofessionals use syndromal symptoms or internal dysfunction to distinguish disorder from delinquency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jerome C; Kirk, Stuart A; Pottick, Kathleen J; Hsieh, Derek K; Tian, Xin

    2006-03-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) must be distinguished from nondisordered delinquent behaviour to avoid false positives, especially when diagnosing youth from difficult environments. However, the nature of this distinction remains controversial. The DSM-IV observes that its own syndromal CD diagnostic criteria conflict with its definition of mental disorder, which requires that symptoms be considered a manifestation of internal dysfunction to warrant disorder diagnosis. Previous research indicates that professional judgments tend to be guided by the dysfunction requirement, not syndromal symptoms alone. However, there are almost no data on lay conceptualizations. Thus it remains unknown whether judgments about CD are anchored in a broadly shared understanding of mental disorder that provides a basis for professional-lay consensus. The present study tests which conception of CD, syndromal-symptoms or dysfunction-requirement, corresponds most closely to lay judgments of disorder or nondisorder and compares lay and professional judgments. We hypothesized that lay disorder judgments, like professional judgments, tend to presuppose the dysfunction requirement. Three lay samples (nonclinical social workers, nonpsychiatric nurses, and undergraduates) rated their agreement that youths described in clinical vignettes have a mental disorder. All vignettes satisfied DSM-IV CD diagnostic criteria. Vignettes were varied to present syndromal symptoms only, symptoms suggesting internal dysfunction, and symptoms resulting from reactions to negative circumstances, without dysfunction. All lay samples attributed disorder more often to youths whose symptoms suggested internal dysfunction than to youths with similar symptoms but without a likely dysfunction. The dysfunction requirement appears to reflect a widely shared lay and professional concept of disorder.

  11. Method to determine the thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide and the surface conductance at the cladding-core interface from internal reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsykanov, V A; Samsonov, B F; Spiridonov, Yu G; Fomin, N A

    1975-01-01

    A method is given for determining the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide and the contact conductance of the gas gap between the core and cladding of a fuel element. These quantities should be determined on various samples with different diameters. A method is described for determining the heat-production rate of a fuel element to within 1.5 to 2.5 percent. The method is based on using a calibrated electric heater and a sensor to measure the specific energy evolution from reactor gamma-radiation. The total errors in determining the thermal conductivity and the contact conductance do not exceed 4.5 and 8 percent, respectively.

  12. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  13. 13th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Semalat, Ali; Bocewicz, Grzegorz; Sitek, Paweł; Nielsen, Izabela; García, Julián; Bajo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The 13th International Symposium on Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence 2016 (DCAI 2016) is a forum to present applications of innovative techniques for studying and solving complex problems. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both the academic and industrial sector is essential to facilitate the development of systems that can meet the ever-increasing demands of today’s society. The present edition brings together past experience, current work and promising future trends associated with distributed computing, artificial intelligence and their application in order to provide efficient solutions to real problems. This symposium is organized by the University of Sevilla (Spain), Osaka Institute of Technology (Japan), and the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (Malaysia).

  14. Vertical distribution of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity and its influencing factors in a small karst catchment in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tonggang; Chen, Hongsong; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Yunpeng; Wang, Kelin

    2015-03-01

    Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important soil hydraulic parameters influencing hydrological processes. This paper aims to investigate the vertical distribution of Ks and to analyze its influencing factors in a small karst catchment in Southwest China. Ks was measured in 23 soil profiles for six soil horizons using a constant head method. These profiles were chosen in different topographical locations (upslope, downslope, and depression) and different land-use types (forestland, shrubland, shrub-grassland, and farmland). The influencing factors of Ks, including rock fragment content (RC), bulk density (BD), capillary porosity (CP), non-capillary porosity (NCP), and soil organic carbon (SOC), were analyzed by partial correlation analysis. The mean Ks value was higher in the entire profile in the upslope and downslope, but lower value, acting as a water-resisting layer, was found in the 10-20 cm soil depth in the depression. Higher mean Ks values were found in the soil profiles in the forestland, shrubland, and shrub-grassland, but lower in the farmland. These results indicated that saturation-excess runoff could occur primarily in the hillslopes but infiltration-excess runoff in the depression. Compared with other land-use types, surface runoff is more likely to occur in the farmlands. RC had higher correlation coefficients with Ks in all categories concerned except in the forestland and farmland with little or no rock fragments, indicating that RC was the dominant influencing factor of Ks. These results suggested that the vertical distributions of Ks and RC should be considered for hydrological modeling in karst areas.

  15. [Attractiveness of France for international clinical research: 8th survey conducted by Leem (French association for pharmaceutical companies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaup, Ariane; Barthélémy, Philippe; Pouletty-Lefebvre, Brigitte; Béhier, Jehan-Michel; Zetlaoui, Jean; Borel, Thomas

    2018-04-18

    The Leem (French association of pharmaceutical companies) has conducted the eighth survey on attractiveness of France for clinical research. It serves to measure France's global competitiveness for international clinical trials and assess its strengths and areas of excellence. It also highlights the potential for progress and emerging trends at a time when the regulatory environment in France and Europe is undergoing change. This survey has been updated every two years since 2002 using the same methodology. It assesses the current status of research undertaken in France by the pharmaceutical industry between January 1st 2014 and December 31st 2015. Thirty companies (62% of the French market) have participated in this 8th survey which involved 3474 centers (versus 2860 in 2014) and 16,622 patients (versus 14,634 in 2014) enrolled in France across 586 clinical trials (versus 613 in 2014). This survey shows a reduction in the number of phase I and phase II trials. It also confirms that the studies conducted in France are primarily concerned with oncology (45%). Despite improvements across hospital contracts times (due to the adoption of the sole agreement) and performance indicators in trials (such as the number of patients enrolled by center), trial setup times in France are still overly lengthy (with stable times by French authorities). Ensuring that clinical research remains a priority issue for country is crucial for patients because of rapid access to innovation but also for the vitality of the French economy. Constructive dialogue with stakeholders on the subject of clinical research is essential to enhance the attractiveness of France and to improve the continuum between research, innovation and care. Copyright © 2018 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat Conductivity Resistance of Concrete Wall Panel by Water Flowing in Different Orientations of Internal PVC pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umi, N. N.; Norazman, M. N.; Daud, N. M.; Yusof, M. A.; Yahya, M. A.; Othman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Green building technology and sustainability development is current focus in the world nowadays. In Malaysia and most tropical countries the maximum temperature recorded typically at 35°C. Air-conditioning system has become a necessity in occupied buildings, thereby increasing the cost of electric consumption. The aim of this study is to find out the solution in minimizing heat transfer from the external environment and intentions towards going green. In this study, the experimental work includes testing three types of concrete wall panels. The main heat intervention material in this research is 2 inch diameter Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe embedded at the center of the concrete wall panel, while the EPS foam beads were added to the cement content in the concrete mix forming the outer layer of the wall panel. Water from the rainwater harvesting system is regulated in the PVC pipe to intervene with the heat conductivity through the wall panel. Results from the experimental works show that the internal surface temperature of these heat resistance wall panels is to 3□C lower than control wall panel from plain interlocking bricks.

  17. Distribution system choice in a service industry: An analysis of international insurance firms operating in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parente, R.; Choi, B.P.; Slangen, A.H.L.; Ketkar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Service firms play an increasingly important role in the global economy. However, the internationalization strategies of such firms, and especially their distribution system choices, have been underexplored in the international management literature. One specific service industry that has

  18. Distribution of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR Mutations in a Cohort of Patients Residing in Palestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Siryani

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is an autosomal recessive inherited life-threatening disorder that causes severe damage to the lungs and the digestive system. In Palestine, mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator gene (CFTR that contributes to the clinical presentation of CF are ill defined. A cohort of thirty three clinically diagnosed CF patients from twenty one different Palestinian families residing in the central and southern part of Palestine were incorporated in this study. Sweat chloride testing was performed using the Sweat Chek Conductivity Analyzer (ELITECH Group, France to confirm the clinical diagnosis of CF. In addition, nucleic acid from the patients' blood samples was extracted and the CFTR mutation profiles were assessed by direct sequencing of the CFTR 27 exons and the intron-exon boundaries. For patient's DNA samples where no homozygous or two heterozygous CFTR mutations were identified by exon sequencing, DNA samples were tested for deletions or duplications using SALSA MLPA probemix P091-D1 CFTR assay. Sweat chloride testing confirmed the clinical diagnosis of CF in those patients. All patients had NaCl conductivity >60 mmol/l. In addition, nine different CFTR mutations were identified in all 21 different families evaluated. These mutations were c.1393-1G>A, F508del, W1282X, G85E, c.313delA, N1303K, deletion exons 17a-17b-18, deletion exons 17a-17b and Q1100P. c.1393-1G>A was shown to be the most frequent occurring mutation among tested families. We have profiled the underling mutations in the CFTR gene of a cohort of 21 different families affected by CF. Unlike other studies from the Arab countries where F508del was reported to be the most common mutation, in southern/central Palestine, the c.1393-1G>A appeared to be the most common. Further studies are needed per sample size and geographic distribution to account for other possible CFTR genetic alterations and their frequencies. Genotype

  19. Influence of Transformation Plasticity on the Distribution of Internal Stress in Three Water-Quenched Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Qin, Shengwei; Zhang, Jiazhi; Wang, Ying; Rong, Yonghua; Zuo, Xunwei; Chen, Nailu

    2017-10-01

    Based on the hardenability of three medium carbon steels, cylinders with the same 60-mm diameter and 240-mm length were designed for quenching in water to obtain microstructures, including a pearlite matrix (Chinese steel mark: 45), a bainite matrix (42CrMo), and a martensite matrix (40CrNiMo). Through the combination of normalized functions describing transformation plasticity (TP), the thermo-elasto-plastic constitutive equation was deduced. The results indicate that the finite element simulation (FES) of the internal stress distribution in the three kinds of hardenable steel cylinders based on the proposed exponent-modified (Ex-Modified) normalized function is more consistent with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements than those based on the normalized functions proposed by Abrassart, Desalos, and Leblond, which is attributed to the fact that the Ex-Modified normalized function better describes the TP kinetics. In addition, there was no significant difference between the calculated and measured stress distributions, even though TP was taken into account for the 45 carbon steel; that is, TP can be ignored in FES. In contrast, in the 42CrMo and 40CrNiMo alloyed steels, the significant effect of TP on the residual stress distributions was demonstrated, meaning that TP must be included in the FES. The rationality of the preceding conclusions was analyzed. The complex quenching stress is a consequence of interactions between the thermal and phase transformation stresses. The separated calculations indicate that the three steels exhibit similar thermal stress distributions for the same water-quenching condition, but different phase transformation stresses between 45 carbon steel and alloyed steels, leading to different distributions of their axial and tangential stresses.

  20. Distribution of internal pressure around bony prominences: implications to deep tissue injury and effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Leandro R; Liggins, Adrian; Uwiera, Richard R E; Poppe, Niek; Pehowich, Enid; Seres, Peter; Thompson, Richard B; Mushahwar, Vivian K

    2012-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to develop interventions for the prevention of deep tissue injury (DTI), a form of pressure ulcers that originates in deep tissue around bony prominences. The present study focused on: (1) obtaining detailed measures of the distribution of pressure experienced by tissue around the ischial tuberosities, and (2) investigating the effectiveness of intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), a novel strategy for the prevention of DTI, in alleviating pressure in regions at risk of breakdown due to sustained loading. The experiments were conducted in adult pigs. Five animals had intact spinal cords and healthy muscles and one had a spinal cord injury that led to substantial muscle atrophy at the time of the experiment. A force-controlled servomotor was used to load the region of the buttocks to levels corresponding to 25%, 50% or 75% of each animal's body weight. A pressure transducer embedded in a catheter was advanced into the tissue to measure pressure along a three dimensional grid around the ischial tuberosity of one hind leg. For all levels of external loading in intact animals, average peak internal pressure was 2.01 ± 0.08 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure measured at the level of the skin. In the animal with spinal cord injury, similar absolute values of internal pressure as that in intact animals were recorded, but the substantial muscle atrophy produced larger maximal interfacial pressures. Average peak internal pressure in this animal was 1.43 ± 0.055 times larger than the maximal interfacial pressure. Peak internal pressure was localized within a ±2 cm region medio-laterally and dorso-ventrally from the bone in intact animals and ±1 cm in the animal with spinal cord injury. IES significantly redistributed internal pressure, shifting the peak values away from the bone in spinally intact and injured animals. These findings provide critical information regarding the relationship between internal and

  1. preparation and distribution of microfiche in International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiro, Tadashi; Habara, Tadashi

    1981-01-01

    INIS started the activity in 1970 aiming at the unified treatment of atomic energy literatures in the world. At present, 66 countries and 13 international organs participate in it, and the INIS Section in IAEA supervises the system. The participants treat the atomic energy literatures published in respective countries and send to the INIS Section in the form of magnetic tapes and others. These informations are returned to respective countries through the publication of ''INIS Atomindex'' and the distribution of the magnetic tapes for mechanized retrieval. Recently, the number of abstracted papers reached about 80000/year. One of the features of this system is to utilize microfiche as the medium of literature distribution, and the literatures which cannot be bought through bookstores are available in the form of microfiche from the INIS Clearing House. The microfiche before the establishment of INIS, the troubles concerning the equipment and the problems of the originals to make microfiche, the change of duplicating films and the conversion of frame number, the adoption of the standard for microfiche production and quality inspection, the second change of duplicating films, the recent improvement of microfiche, and the present state of the production and distribution of microfiche in the INIS Section are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Methodological issues for designing and conducting a multicenter, international clinical trial in Acute Stroke: Experience from ARTSS-2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad H; Dickerson, Aisha S; Cai, Chunyan; Pedroza, Claudia; Hessabi, Manouchehr; Shen, Loren; Pandurengan, Renganayaki; Jacobs, Amber Nicole M; Indupuru, Hari; Sline, Melvin R; Delgado, Rigoberto I; Macdonald, Claire; Ford, Gary A; Grotta, James C; Barreto, Andrew D

    2015-09-01

    We describe innovations in the study design and the efficient data coordination of a randomized multicenter trial of Argatroban in Combination with Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Stroke (ARTSS-2). ARTSS-2 is a 3-arm, multisite/multiregional randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of two doses of Argatroban injection (low, high) in combination with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in acute ischemic stroke patients and rt-PA alone. We developed a covariate adaptive randomization program that balanced the study arms with respect to study site as well as hemorrhage after thrombolysis (HAT) score and presence of distal internal carotid artery occlusion (DICAO). We used simulation studies to validate performance of the randomization program before making any adaptations during the trial. For the first 90 patients enrolled in ARTSS-2, we evaluated performance of our randomization program using chi-square tests of homogeneity or extended Fisher's exact test. We also designed a four-step partly Bayesian safety stopping rule for low and high dose Argatroban arms. Homogeneity of the study arms was confirmed with respect to distribution of study site (UK sites vs. US sites, P=0.98), HAT score (0-2 vs. 3-5, P=1.0), and DICAO (N/A vs. No vs. Yes, P=0.97). Our stopping thresholds for safety of low and high dose Argatroban were not crossed. Despite challenges, data quality was assured. We recommend adaptive designs for randomization and Bayesian safety stopping rules for multisite Phase I/II RCTs for maintaining additional flexibility. Efficient data coordination could lead to improved data quality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Using Distributed Operations to Enable Science Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathew, Ann S.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Lochmaier, Geoff D.; Rodriquez, Rick C.; Simpson, Donna

    2011-01-01

    In the early days of the International Space Station (ISS) program, and as the organization structure was being internationally agreed upon and documented, one of the principal tenets of the science program was to allow customer-friendly operations. One important aspect of this was to allow payload developers and principle investigators the flexibility to operate their experiments from either their home sites or distributed telescience centers. This telescience concept was developed such that investigators had several options for ISS utilization support. They could operate from their home site, the closest telescience center, or use the payload operations facilities at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) processes and structures were put into place to allow these different options to its customers, while at the same time maintain its centralized authority over NASA payload operations and integration. For a long duration space program with many scientists, researchers, and universities expected to participate, it was imperative that the program structure be in place to successfully facilitate this concept of telescience support. From a payload control center perspective, payload science operations require two major elements in order to make telescience successful within the scope of the ISS program. The first element is decentralized control which allows the remote participants the freedom and flexibility to operate their payloads within their scope of authority. The second element is a strong ground infrastructure, which includes voice communications, video, telemetry, and commanding between the POIC and the payload remote site. Both of these elements are important to telescience success, and both must be balanced by the ISS program s documented requirements for POIC to maintain its authority as an integration and control center. This paper describes both elements of distributed payload

  4. The role of the international Chornobyl Center in coordinating and conducting the work related to Chornobyl NPP closure and creation the new employment opportunities in Slavutych

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The Slavutych division of the international Chornobyl Center (ICC) actively conducts its work in Slavutych from 1997. The following work was conducted during the last years: Documentation on the ChNPP 1-st Unit and 2-nd Unit decommissioning was developed. Comprehensive engineering and radiation survey of the 1-st Unit was conducted. Decommissioning database was created. On demand of Chornobyl NPP, the work on development the following documents was conducted: The 3-rd Unit shutdown program. Comprehensive program on ChNPP decommissioning. ChNPP personnel and Slavutych residents social protection program

  5. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  6. Tissue distribution patterns of solubilized metals from internalized tungsten alloy in the F344 rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernieda B. Vergara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of its unique physical and chemical properties, tungsten has been increasingly utilized in a variety of civilian and military applications. This expanded use also raises the risk of human exposure through internalization by various routes. In most cases the toxicological and carcinogenic properties of these tungsten-based compounds are not known nor are the dissolution biokinetics and ultimate fate of the associated metals. Using a laboratory rodent model system designed to assess the health effects of embedded metals, and a tungsten alloy comprised of tungsten (91.1%, nickel (6.0%, and cobalt (2.9%, we investigated the tissue distribution patterns of the metals over a six month period. Despite its perceived insolubility, tungsten rapidly solubilized from the implanted metal fragments, as did nickel and cobalt. All three metals distributed systemically over time with extremely elevated levels of all three metals found in kidney, liver, and spleen. Unexpectedly, tungsten was found to cross the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and localize in those tissues. These results, along with recent reports suggesting that tungsten is a tumor promoter, raises serious concerns as to the long-term health effects of exposure to tungsten and tungsten-based compounds.

  7. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  8. Preparation of ring-shaped composite bonded magnets with continuously controlled anisotropy distribution for internal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, F; Yamada, O; Ohya, S; Kobayashi, O; Nakano, M; Fukunaga, H

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported an advanced method for producing a radially-anisotropic rare earth composite bonded magnet with continuously controlled direction of anisotropy. The magnet has been applied to an inner rotor as a practical usage. In this study, the outstanding preparation method was adopted into the preparation of a magnet applied for an outer rotor. An optimized condition of extrusion and compaction at an elevated temperature could be obtained. In addition, a low pressure configuration to the ring-shaped magnet from plural preformed magnets was carried out, which had specific distribution of magnetic anisotropy for internal space for a small motor, by using self recoverability based on the viscous deformation without an alignment field. No deterioration of magnetic properties was detected through the process even if those magnets were miniaturized. Resultantly, the (BH) max of a ring-shaped magnet with the continuously controlled direction of magnetic anisotropy attained the value of 186 kJ/m 3 , and we obtained sine-wave magnetic anisotropy distribution, even if those magnets were miniaturized.

  9. Accelerated Electromechanical Modeling of a Distributed Internal Combustion Engine Generator Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhiy V. Bozhko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation with a combustion engine prime mover is still widely used to supply electric power in a variety of applications. These applications range from backup power supply systems and combined wind-diesel generation to providing power in places where grid connection is either technically impractical or financially uneconomic. Modelling of such systems as a whole is extremely difficult due to the long-time load profiles needed and the computational difficulty of including small time-constant electrical dynamics with large time-constant mechanical dynamics. This paper presents the development of accelerated, reduced-order models of a distributed internal combustions engine generator unit. Overall these models are shown to achieve a massive improvement in the computational time required for long-time simulations while also achieving an extremely high level of dynamic accuracy. It is demonstrated how these models are derived, used and verified against benchmark models created using established techniques. Throughout the paper the modelling set as a whole, including multi level detail, is presented, detailed and finally summarised into a crucial tool for general system investigation and multiple target optimisation.

  10. Internal electric-field-lines distribution in CdZnTe detectors measured using X-ray mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; Yao, H.W.; James, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The ideal operation of CdZnTe devices entails having a uniformly distributed internal electric field. Such uniformity especially is critical for thick long-drift-length detectors, such as large-volume CPG and 3-D multi-pixel devices. Using a high-spatial resolution X-ray mapping technique, we investigated the distribution of the electric field in real devices. Our measurements demonstrate that in thin detectors, 1 cm, with a large aspect ratio (thickness-to-width ratio), we observed two effects: the electric field lines bending away from or towards the side surfaces, which we called, respectively, the focusing field-line distribution and the defocusing field-line distribution. In addition to these large-scale variations, the field-line distributions were locally perturbed by the presence of extended defects and residual strains existing inside the crystals. We present our data clearly demonstrating the non-uniformity of the internal electric field

  11. Effect of internal tides in the distribution and abundance of microzooplankton in Todos Santos Bay (Ensenada, B.C.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, A.; Ibañez Tejero, L.; Ladah, L. B.; Sanchez Velasco, L.; Barton, E. D.

    2016-02-01

    Microzooplankton trophically connects phytoplankton and zooplanktonic adults. Their distribution and abundance can be directly related to the inherent physical processes in the marine environment. In coastal waters, the distribution and transport of zooplankton, including microzooplankton, can be influenced by high frequency effects such as internal tides. To date, most of the work on planktonic organisms and their interaction with the internal tide has been focused on a few species, such as barnacles, bryozoans and crabs. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of internal tide on the vertical distribution and abundance of microzooplankton, with an emphasis on copepod nauplii, during the evolution of the internal tide in a summer period of strong thermal stratification. Samples were obtained by vertical plankton net (150 micron mesh) hauls at three depth strata (surface, mid-water and bottom in 25 m depth), independently, with a sampling frequency of every hour. The internal tide was detected by rapid changes in temperature and currents observed with thermistor chains and a bottom-mounted upward looking ADCP. Preliminary results shows a strong mode-1 baroclinic tidal signal. The highest abundance of copepod nauplii and microzooplankton biomass occurred at depth, associated with a strong tidal current. The abundance of copepod nauplii and the abundance of microzooplankton biomass in the surface and intermediate strata showed strong vertical displacements between both strata. Data suggest the vertical distribution of microzooplankton can be dependent on the internal tide.

  12. The empirical relationship between the managerial conduct and internal control activities in South African small, medium and micro enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Pierre Bruwer; Philna Coetzee; Jacolize Meiring

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although South African small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) play an imperative role in the stimulation of the national economy, previous research studies show that these business entities have severe sustainability problems as approximately 75% of them fail after being in operation for only 3 years. The latter dispensation is pinned on the belief that South African SMMEs make use of inadequate and ineffective internal control systems. Aim: Since a system of internal cont...

  13. Defining a Communications Satellite Policy System for the 21st Century: A Model for a International Legal Framework and A New _Code of Conduct_

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Joseph N.

    1996-02-01

    This paper addresses the changing international communications environment and explores the key elements of a new policy framework for the 21st Century. It addresses the issues related to changing markets, trade considerations, standards, regulatory changes and international institutions and law. The most important aspects will related to new international policy and regulatory frameworks and in particular to a new international code of ethics and behavior in the field of satellite communications. A new communications satellite policy framework requires systematically addressing the following points: • Multi-lateral agreements at the nation state and the operating entity level • Systematic means to access both private and public capital • Meshing ITU regulations with regional and national policy guidelines including • landing rights" and national allocation procedures. • Systematic approach to local partnerships • Resolving the issue of the relative standing of various satellite systems (i.e. GEO, MEO, and LEO systems) • Resolving the rights, duties, and priorities of satellite facility providers versus types of service prviders. Beyond this policy framework and generalized legal infrastructure there is also another need. This is a need that arises from both increased globalism and competitive international markets. This is what might quite simply be called a "code of reasonable conduct:" To provide global and international communications services effectively and well in the 21st Century will require more than meeting minimum international legal requirements. A new "code of conduct" for global satellite communications will thus likely need to address: • Privacy and surveillance • Ethics of transborder data flow • Censorship and moral values • Cultural and linguistic sensitivity • Freedom of the press and respect for journalistic standards As expanding global information and telecommunications systems grow and impact every aspect of modern

  14. Distribution of 137Cs in Meat and Internal Organs of Wild Boar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babic, D.; Marovic, G.; Skoko, B.; Vickovic, I.

    2013-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the most common species of game on the territory of Croatia. Similarly to other game, it can accumulate fission products more effectively than domestic animals. Therefore, it is a good biondicator for radioactive contamination of ecosystems. The purpose of our research has been to investigate current radioactive contamination of wild boars by 137Cs and its distribution inside the animal body. Therefore, during the winter of 2009 and summer of 2010, we collected samples of meat, internal organs (heart, lungs, spleen, kidney and liver) and bones from 11 animals. All the animals were from the area of the research locality S umbar . The average activity concentration of 137Cs found in meat samples was (1.47 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , and in bones (0.12 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 . Activity concentration found in organs was (in ascending order): lungs (1.63 ± 0.01) Bqkg -1 , spleen (2.29 ± 0.04) Bqkg -1 , liver (2.54 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , heart (2.70 ± 0.02) Bqkg -1 , and kidney (3.18 ± 0.06) Bqkg -1 . We also calculated the values of the ratio of activity concentrations in internal organs and meat. Comparison of the obtained values with those for samples collected after the Chernobyl accident shows that the present ones are higher for liver and kidney, while those for heart are almost the same. Since vital organs of wild boars are more loaded than meat and bones, the impact of radioactive contamination on health of these animals should be more closely investigated. Also, these results imply that kidney is the most accumulating organ for 137Cs.(author)

  15. Collection and presentation of animal data relating to internally distributed radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained from laboratory animals on the distribution of an internally administered radionuclide may be put to use by various people in ways quite different from the one for which the original observations were made. Consideration for these other scientists, sometimes in unrelated fields, can be shown by attention to a few details in the method of data collection and reporting that may improve the author's credibility, the reader's comprehension, and the value of the data. Briefly stated, two rules should be followed: Account for 100% of the administered radioactivity; and report data as fraction of administered activity per organ. The first rule serves as an internal check on the proper functioning of counting equipment, and may disclose excretion, contamination of counting tubes, or failure to inject the desired amount of activity. The second rule allows anyone to make use of the raw data. Presentation of the data only in complicated, manipulated form either totally prevents reconstruction of the raw data, or demands tedious, uncertain conversions. Examples of such manipulated data include percent dose per gram per 1% body weight and percent kilogram dose per gram. At the other extreme in reporting data for radioactivity, and to be equally avoided, are completely unprocessed values, such as counts per minute, with no reference made to the number of counts injected or to the time lapse between counts. Adherence to these two principles will permit the reader to follow through on any permutations of the data that the author may make, and to apply the data in unrelated situations

  16. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver M. Lopez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness. The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  17. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2015-11-12

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size distribution data by employing some type of empirical equation. Over 50 samples from the Wadi Khulays dune field in Western Saudi Arabia were collected and the grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity were measured. An evaluation of 20 existing empirical equations showed a generally high degree of error in the predicted compared to the measured hydraulic conductivity values of these samples. Statistical analyses comparing estimated versus measured hydraulic conductivity demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between hydraulic conductivity and mud percentage (and skewness). The modified Beyer equation, which showed a generally low prediction error, was modified by adding a second term fitting parameter related to the mud concentration based on 25 of the 50 samples analyzed. An inverse optimization process was conducted to quantify the fitting parameter and a new empirical equation was developed. This equation was tested against the remaining 25 samples analyzed and produced an estimated saturated hydraulic conductivity with the lowest error of any empirical equation. This methodology can be used for large dune field hydraulic conductivity estimation and reduce planning costs for MAR systems.

  18. Homogenized thermal conduction model for particulate foods

    OpenAIRE

    Chinesta , Francisco; Torres , Rafael; Ramón , Antonio; Rodrigo , Mari Carmen; Rodrigo , Miguel

    2002-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the definition of an equivalent thermal conductivity for particulate foods. An homogenized thermal model is used to asses the effect of particulate spatial distribution and differences in thermal conductivities. We prove that the spatial average of the conductivity can be used in an homogenized heat transfer model if the conductivity differences among the food components are not very large, usually the highest conductivity ratio between the foods ...

  19. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L I; Terzer-Wassmuth, S; Douence, C; Araguas-Araguas, L; Aggarwal, P K; Coplen, T B

    2018-03-15

    Water stable isotope ratios (δ 2 H and δ 18 O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test. Eight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies. For the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ 18 O and δ 2 H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ 18 O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ 2 H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected. Analysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that laboratories include 1-2 'known

  20. Seeking excellence: An evaluation of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses by isotope-ratio and laser-absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenaar, L. I.; Terzer-Wassmuth, S.; Douence, C.; Araguas-Araguas, L.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2018-01-01

    RationaleWater stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O values) are widely used tracers in environmental studies; hence, accurate and precise assays are required for providing sound scientific information. We tested the analytical performance of 235 international laboratories conducting water isotope analyses using dual-inlet and continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometers and laser spectrometers through a water isotope inter-comparison test.MethodsEight test water samples were distributed by the IAEA to international stable isotope laboratories. These consisted of a core set of five samples spanning the common δ-range of natural waters, and three optional samples (highly depleted, enriched, and saline). The fifth core sample contained unrevealed trace methanol to assess analyst vigilance to the impact of organic contamination on water isotopic measurements made by all instrument technologies.ResultsFor the core and optional samples ~73 % of laboratories gave acceptable results within 0.2 ‰ and 1.5 ‰ of the reference values for δ18O and δ2H, respectively; ~27 % produced unacceptable results. Top performance for δ18O values was dominated by dual-inlet IRMS laboratories; top performance for δ2H values was led by laser spectrometer laboratories. Continuous-flow instruments yielded comparatively intermediate results. Trace methanol contamination of water resulted in extreme outlier δ-values for laser instruments, but also affected reactor-based continuous-flow IRMS systems; however, dual-inlet IRMS δ-values were unaffected.ConclusionsAnalysis of the laboratory results and their metadata suggested inaccurate or imprecise performance stemmed mainly from skill- and knowledge-based errors including: calculation mistakes, inappropriate or compromised laboratory calibration standards, poorly performing instrumentation, lack of vigilance to contamination, or inattention to unreasonable isotopic outcomes. To counteract common errors, we recommend that

  1. INTERNAL CONTROL AND AUDIT OF ENTERPRISES’ COMPLIANCE WITH CUSTOMS REQUIREMENTS WHILE CON-DUCTING FOREIGN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Vakulchyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the reliability of enterprises engaged in the foreign economic activity and simplifying of Customs procedures have become a relevant issue in the context of globalization. The capabilities and preferences of the “Authorized Economic Operator” status are the cause of a new challenge for managers of enterprises – creation of an internal control system to ensure a systematic monitoring of the conditions of Customs compliance standards of reliability and safety, which would allow identifying risks of loss of the “Authorized Economic Operator” status. The purpose of the scientific paper is to improve the internal control system of an enterprise engaged in foreign economic activity in the process of obtaining and saving the “Authorized Economic Operator” status in accordance with the international Custom requirements for safety and reliability. Methodology. The research is based on the methods of logical and analytical modelling of the impact assessment of individual factors on the value of the generalization indicator. The results are tested on the internal accounting data of the existing machine-building enterprises. Results. The paper shows the results of adapting the concept of COSO to the system of internal control of the foreign economic activity of the enterprise in the process of obtaining or retaining the “Authorized Economic Operator” status. The internal control system within the concept of COSO should ensure the achievement of the objectives – operations, reporting, and compliance. The criteria for estimating the objective “compliance” for an enterprise engaged in foreign economic activity can be an integral indicator of compliance. Value/originality. It is suggested to perform internal control of an enterprise’s compliance with Customs requirements based on the analysis of deviations of the compliance integral indicator. Practical implications. The result of control is to perform a steady in

  2. Small and intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A.; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J. Paul; Michel, Martin C.; Tate, Simon N.; Trezise, Derek J.

    2004-01-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in

  3. Distribution of ABO and Rh types in voluntary Blood donors in Jharkhand area as a study conducted by RIMS, Ranchi

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anu; Srivastava, Ramesh Kumar; Deogharia, Kabita S.; Singh, Kranti Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was done to know the distribution and frequencies of blood groups among blood donors attending voluntary blood donation camps organized by the Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Ranchi, Jharkhand so that demand and supply ratio of the four blood groups can be maintained so that no patient dies due to lack of a particular blood group. Context: Up till now about 400 red cells antigen have been identified. The majority follow Mendelian inheritance. The ABO and ...

  4. Assessing Faculty Experiences with and Perceptions of an Internal Quality Assurance Process for Undergraduate Distributed Learning Courses: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Ryan; Edwards, Karen; Frass, Lydia R.

    2015-01-01

    To ensure that online courses match traditional classes' quality, some institutions are implementing internal standards for online course design and quality review. The University of South Carolina created the Distributed Learning Quality Review program, based on "Quality Matters'" standards. It was designed to be faculty-guided, as…

  5. Receptor activation and 2 distinct COOH-terminal motifs control G-CSF receptor distribution and internalization kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.J. Aarts (Bart); O. Roovers (Onno); A.C. Ward (Alister); I.P. Touw (Ivo)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe have studied the intracellular distribution and internalization kinetics of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSF-R) in living cells using fusion constructs of wild-type or mutant G-CSF-R and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Under

  6. International Conference on Conducting Materials (ICoCom2010) Held in Sousse, Tunisia on November 3-7, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    dimensional organic superconductors: new aspects from experiments to theory - New quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems Distribution A: Approved...electric motors (e.g. for vehicle propulsion, or maglev trains), magnetic levitation devices, fault current limiters and superconducting magnetic...Netherlands) Spin-charge-density wave instability in 2D tight-binding models Cano-Cotes (Spain) Quantum criticality in quarter-filled layered organic

  7. Regulation of distributed generation. A European Policy Paper on the Integration of Distributed Generation in the Internal Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2004-06-01

    In the SUSTELNET project criteria and guidelines have been developed that can create a level playing field in electricity markets between distributed generation (DG) and large scale power generation and will improve the network and market access of DG and electricity supply from renewable energy resources (RES). This report focuses on the European dimensions of DG regulation. The key findings of the SUSTELNET project are compared with the EU legislation, i.e. the current Electricity, Renewables and CHP Directives. Additional EU policy, regulation and initiatives are identified that can help Member States in developing future economically efficient and sustainable electricity supply systems

  8. Evaluation of DC electric field distribution of PPLP specimen based on the measurement of electrical conductivity in LN{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeon-Wook; Ryoo, Hee-Suk [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, Gyungnam 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr [Hanyang University, 408-2, 4th Engineering Bldg, Sa 3-dong, Sangrok-gu, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} was successfully measured. •Based on the measured value of PPLP, DC field analysis was performed. •The electric field distribution was altered according to the DC applying stages. •The maximum electric field was observed during polarity reversal situation. •DC field analysis is important to determine the optimum design of DC HTS devices. -- Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable has been paid much attention due to its high efficiency and high current transportation capability, and it is also regarded as eco-friendly power cable for the next generation. Especially for DC HTS cable, it has more sustainable and stable properties compared to AC HTS cable due to the absence of AC loss in DC HTS cable. Recently, DC HTS cable has been investigated competitively all over the world, and one of the key components of DC HTS cable to be developed is a cable joint box considering HVDC environment. In order to achieve the optimum insulation design of the joint box, analysis of DC electric field distribution of the joint box is a fundamental process to develop DC HTS cable. Generally, AC electric field distribution depends on relative permittivity of dielectric materials but in case of DC, electrical conductivity of dielectric material is a dominant factor which determines electric field distribution. In this study, in order to evaluate DC electric field characteristics of the joint box for DC HTS cable, polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) specimen has been prepared and its DC electric field distribution was analyzed based on the measurement of electrical conductivity of PPLP in liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}). Electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} has not been reported yet but it should be measured for DC electric field analysis. The experimental works for measuring electrical conductivity of PPLP in LN{sub 2} were presented in this paper. Based on the experimental works, DC electric

  9. Correlation of carrier localization with relaxation time distribution and electrical conductivity relaxation in silver-nanoparticle-embedded moderately doped polypyrrole nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu

    2014-02-01

    The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.

  10. One-dimensional time-dependent conduction states and temperature distribution along a normal zone during a quench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, G.

    1991-01-01

    The quench simulations of a superconducting (s.c.) magnet requires some assumptions about the evolution of the normal zone and its temperature profile. The axial evolution of the normal zone is considered through the longitudinal quench velocity. However, the transversal quench propagation may be considered through the transversal quench velocity or with the turn-to-turn time delay quench propagation. The temperature distribution has been assumed adiabatic-like or cosine-like in two different computer programs. Although both profiles are different, they bring about more or less the same qualitative quench results differing only in about 8%. Unfortunately, there are not experimental data for the temperature profile along the conductor in a quench event to have a realistic comparison. Little attention has received the temperature profile, mainly because it is not so critical parameter in the quench analysis. Nonetheless, a confident quench analysis requires that the temperature distribution along the normal zone be taken into account with good approximation. In this paper, an analytical study is made about the temperature profile

  11. Distribution, expression and functional effects of small conductance Ca-activated potassium (SK) channels in rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Karen; Floyd, Rachel; Shmygol, Andre; Shmygol, Anatoly; Mobasheri, A; Wray, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-activated potassium channels are important in a variety of smooth muscles, contributing to excitability and contractility. In the myometrium previous work has focussed on the large conductance channels (BK), and the role of small conductance channels (SK) has received scant attention, despite the finding that over-expression of an SK channel isoform (SK3) results in uterine dysfunction and delayed parturition. This study therefore characterises the expression of the three SK channel isoforms (SK1-3) in rat myometrium throughout pregnancy and investigates their effect on cytosolic [Ca] and force and compares this with that of BK channels. Consistent expression of all SK isoform transcripts and clear immunostaining of SK1-3 was found. Inhibition of SK1-3 channels (apamin, scyllatoxin) significantly inhibited outward current, caused membrane depolarisation and elicited action potentials in previously quiescent cells. Apamin or scyllatoxin increased the amplitude of [Ca] and force in spontaneously contracting myometrial strips throughout gestation. The functional effect of SK inhibition was larger than that of BK channel inhibition. Thus we show for the first time that SK1-3 channels are expressed and translated throughout pregnancy and contribute to outward current, regulate membrane potential and hence Ca signals in pregnant rat myometrium. They contribute more to quiescence that BK channels. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  13. Survey indicated that core outcome set development is increasingly including patients, being conducted internationally and using Delphi surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggane, Alice M; Brading, Lucy; Ravaud, Philippe; Young, Bridget; Williamson, Paula R

    2018-02-17

    There are numerous challenges in including patients in a core outcome set (COS) study, these can vary depending on the patient group. This study describes current efforts to include patients in the development of COS, with the aim of identifying areas for further improvement and study. Using the COMET database, corresponding authors of COS projects registered or published from 1 January 2013 to 2 February 2017 were invited via a personalised email to participate in a short online survey. The survey and emails were constructed to maximise the response rate by following the academic literature on enhancing survey responses. Personalised reminder emails were sent to non-responders. This survey explored the frequency of patient input in COS studies, who was involved, what methods were used and whether or not the COS development was international. One hundred and ninety-two COS developers were sent the survey. Responses were collected from 21 February 2017 until 7 May 2017. One hundred and forty-six unique developers responded, yielding a 76% response rate and data in relation to 195 unique COSs (as some developers had worked on multiple COSs). Of focus here are their responses regarding 162 COSs at the published, completed or ongoing stages of development. Inclusion of patient participants was indicated in 87% (141/162) of COSs in the published completed or ongoing stages and over 94% (65/69) of ongoing COS projects. Nearly half (65/135) of COSs included patient participants from two or more countries and 22% (30/135) included patient participants from five or more countries. The Delphi survey was reported as being used singularly or in combination with other methods in 85% (119/140) of projects. Almost a quarter (16/65) of ongoing studies reported using a combination of qualitative interviews, Delphi survey and consensus meeting. These findings indicated that the Delphi survey is the most popular method of facilitating patient participation, while the combination of

  14. Characterization of ion heat conduction in JET and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas with and without internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, R C [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Association EURATOM/FZJ, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Baranov, Y [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Garbet, X [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Hawkes, N [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Peeters, A G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Challis, C [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Baar, M de [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafyisica Rijnhuizen, Association EURATO-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Giroud, C [FOM Instituut voor Plasmafyisica Rijnhuizen, Association EURATO-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Joffrin, E [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Mantsinen, M [Helsinki University of Technology, Association-EURATOM Tekes, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Mazon, D [Association EURATOM-CEA sur la fusion, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Meister, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Suttrop, W [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Zastrow, K-D [UKAEA/EURATOM Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2003-09-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade and JET, the ion temperature profiles can be described by R/L{sub Ti} which exhibits only little variations, both locally, when comparing different discharges, and radially over a wide range of the poloidal cross-section. Considering a change of the local ion heat flux of more than a factor of two, this behaviour indicates some degree of profile stiffness. In JET, covering a large ion temperature range from 1 to 25 keV, the normalized ion temperature gradient, R/L{sub Ti}, shows a dependence on the electron to ion temperature ratio or toroidal rotational shear. In particular, in hot ion plasmas, produced predominantly by neutral beam heating at low densities, in which large T{sub i}/T{sub e} is coupled to strong toroidal rotation, the effect of the two quantities cannot be distinguished. Both in ASDEX Upgrade and JET, plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs), including the PEP mode in JET, are characterized by a significant increase of R/L{sub Ti} above the value of L- and H-mode plasmas. In agreement with previous ASDEX Upgrade results, no increase of the ion heat transport in reversed magnetic shear ITB plasmas is found in JET when raising the electron heating. Evidence is presented that magnetic shear directly influences R/L{sub Ti}, namely decreasing the ion heat transport when going from weakly positive to negative magnetic shear.

  15. International Conference on Harmonisation; Guidance on M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals; availability. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance entitled "M3(R2) Nonclinical Safety Studies for the Conduct of Human Clinical Trials and Marketing Authorization for Pharmaceuticals.'' The guidance was prepared under the auspices of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The guidance, which is a revision of an existing guidance, discusses the types of nonclinical studies, their scope and duration, and their relation to the conduct of human clinical trials and marketing authorization for pharmaceuticals. The guidance is intended to facilitate the timely conduct of clinical trials and reduce the unnecessary use of animals and other drug development resources.

  16. By-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuk, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to calculate by-pass flows and temperature distribution in a hot gas duct internally insulated by carbon stone rings. The equations of conservation of mass and momentum are solved for a piping system to obtain axial and radial by-pass velocities. The energy equation is solved next by a marching method to obtain the radial temperature distribution along the duct. The results, although qualitative due to simplifications in the model, are useful to study the effects of duct geometry on its performance. (Author) [pt

  17. A mixed-methods approach to conducting Internal Revenue Service-compliant community health needs assessments: a case example for nonprofit hospital leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oglesby WH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Willie H Oglesby, Ken Slenkovich Department of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA Background: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act created new requirements for nonprofit hospitals to conduct a Community Health Needs Assessment (CHNA at least once every 3 years, with a significant tax penalty for noncompliance. While some resources exist to help nonprofit hospital leaders conduct various aspects of a CHNA, few reflect the new Internal Revenue Service requirements. Methods: Many different models of CHNAs have emerged over the years. Although each has its unique features, the essential elements of a CHNA include engaging stakeholders, defining the community, gathering sufficient representative data, prioritizing information, and reporting results. In this paper, we expand upon this basic approach by offering a practical step-by-step guide to conducting CHNAs that meets new Internal Revenue Service regulations. Results: We developed and tested this methodology in partnership with several nonprofit hospital systems in Northeast Ohio, USA. In this paper, we discuss our use of the methodology and identify recommendations for other nonprofit hospital leaders. Conclusion: The methodology presented in this paper is a cost-effective approach to satisfying new CHNA requirements and nonprofit hospital leaders should consider using it or modifying it to fit their unique needs. Keywords: Affordable Care Act, CHNA, community benefit, community hospital

  18. A Spectral Active Material Interference in the Electrical Conductivity of the Internal Electrolyte and the Potential Shift of the Ag/AgCl Electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Myung Hee; Yeon, Jei Won; Hwang, Jae Sik; Song, Kyu Seok

    2009-01-01

    The Ag/AgCl electrode is a type of reference electrode, commonly used in electrochemical measurements, because it is simple and stable. For these reasons, the Ag/AgCl electrode has long been used to provide a reliable potential monitoring of ions in a solution. However, when a reference electrode is used in an aqueous solution containing a very low electrolyte for a long period of time, this could cause a considerable potential shift of the reference electrode due to a dilution of the internal electrolyte. If the potential of the reference electrode shifts, undesirable conditions may occur. Therefore, many studies have been applied to improve the long-term performance of the reference electrode. However, these attempts have not completely resolved the problem of an electrolyte dilution by the test solution. In the present study, we developed a creative technique to correct the concentration change of the internal electrolyte by a long-term exposure of the Ag/AgCl electrode in very dilute solutions. We measured the electrical conductivity and UV/VIS absorbance of the internal electrolyte. From these measurements, we observed the linear relationship between KCl concentration and the potential of the Ag/AgCl electrode. In order to accelerate the diffusion of the internal electrolyte into the test solution, an Ag/AgCl electrode with a tiny perforation was used. We confirmed the feasibility of the creative calibration technique

  19. Modeling of a Pouch Lithium Ion Battery Using a Distributed Parameter Equivalent Circuit for Internal Non-Uniformity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.

  20. Internal stress distribution of X-ring using photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Lim, Hyun Seok [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Sealing elements are essential parts of many machines, and are used to prevent the loss of a fluid or gas. When such fluids are not properly sealed, catastrophic failures may result. Many different types of rings have been developed to suit various industrial needs. Considerable research has been done on the O-ring. We analyze the internal stresses developed in an X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate of 20%, which is suitable for static applications, using a photoelastic experimental hybrid method. The internal pressures applied were 0.98, 1.96, 2.94, 3.92, 4.90, and 5.88 MPa. We show that sealing rings with X geometry have considerably higher internal stresses than O-ring seals. In addition, we demonstrate that after extrusion, for an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merge, thereby increasing the contact length of the upper side significantly. Extrusion in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 4.90 MPa.

  1. Experimental study of humidity distribution inside electronic enclosure and effect of internal heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2016-01-01

    on the humidity and temperature profile inside typical electronic enclosures. Defined parameters include external temperature and humidity conditions, temperature and time of the internal heat cycle, thermal mass, and ports/openings size. The effect of the internal humidity on electronic reliability has been......Corrosion reliability of electronic products is a key factor for electronics industry, and today there is a large demand for performance reliability in a wide range of temperature and humidity during day and night time periods. Corrosion failures are still a challenge due to the combined effects...... of temperature, humidity and corrosion accelerating species in the atmosphere. Moreover the surface region of printed circuit board assemblies is often contaminated by various aggressive chemical species.This study describes the overall effect of the exposure to severe climate conditions and internal heat cycles...

  2. [Profound meaning of acupuncture taboos in Internal Classic based on the fault of reinforcing and reducing technique by mind conduction of acupuncture therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuge; Wang, Feng; Qin, Yuheng; Li, Li; Li, Mei

    2016-05-01

    By analyzing the acupuncture taboos in Neijing (Internal Classic) on clinical application of mind conduction of acupuncture therapy in going against the actual situation, astronomy and others, it is found that the relevant acupuncture taboo implies many subtle mysteries of human body, qi, mind and astronomy, which have not been discovered yet in modern science and are very significant in qi protection. In Neijing, the acupuncture physicians have been highly required in the mind treatment, in which, accurately regulating qi circulation is the target in the treatment. The mind conduction is used for qi circulation to accomplish accurately the reinforcing or reducing in the deficiency or excess condition. All of the taboos are provided to normalize the accuracy of reinforcing and reducing technique of acupuncture therapy and avoid the damage of qi in human body. Hence, those taboos must be obeyed so as to prevent from serious consequence and ensure the safety of this acupuncture therapy.

  3. Simulation Model of Microsphere Distribution for Selective Internal Radiation Therapy Agrees With Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Högberg, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.hogberg@radfys.gu.se [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Rizell, Magnus [Department of Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hultborn, Ragnar; Svensson, Johanna [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Henrikson, Olof [Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Mölne, Johan [Department of Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gjertsson, Peter [Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bernhardt, Peter [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-10-01

    Purpose: To perform a detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in biopsy material from a patient treated with {sup 90}Y-labeled resin spheres and characterize microsphere distribution in the hepatic artery tree, and to construct a novel dichotomous bifurcation model for microsphere deposits and evaluate its accuracy in simulating the observed microsphere deposits. Methods and Materials: Our virtual model consisted of arteries that successively branched into 2 new generations of arteries at 20 nodes. The artery diameter exponentially decreased from the lowest generation to the highest generation. Three variable parameters were optimized to obtain concordance between simulations and measure microsphere distributions: an artery coefficient of variation (ACV) for the diameter of all artery generations and the microsphere flow distribution at the nodes; a hepatic tree distribution volume (HDV) for the artery tree; and an artery diameter reduction (ADR) parameter. The model was tested against previously measured activity concentrations in 84 biopsies from the liver of 1 patient. In 16 of 84 biopsies, the microsphere distribution regarding cluster size and localization in the artery tree was determined via light microscopy of 30-μm sections (mean concentration, 14 microspheres/mg; distributions divided into 3 groups with mean microsphere concentrations of 4.6, 14, and 28 microspheres/mg). Results: Single spheres and small clusters were observed in terminal arterioles, whereas large clusters, up to 450 microspheres, were observed in larger arterioles. For 14 microspheres/mg, the optimized parameter values were ACV=0.35, HDV = 50 cm{sup 3}, and ADR=6 μm. For 4.6 microspheres/mg, ACV and ADR decreased to 0.26 and 0 μm, respectively, whereas HDV increased to 130 cm{sup 3}. The opposite trend was observed for 28 microspheres/mg: ACV = 0.49, HDV = 20 cm{sup 3}, and ADR = 8 μm. Conclusion: Simulations and measurements reveal that microsphere clusters are

  4. Conducted and radiated emission tests for fault tolerant power distribution system ECPS-100 developed for PHWR700MW C and I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shantanu; Yadav, Ramnayan

    2016-01-01

    Electronics devices when designed to meet specific requirements, the designers do not generally envisage the amount of electromagnetic interference that this particular device may give as power line conducted noise and radiated noise. After the product is developed, the quantification of the same is carried out in certified EMI-EMC set-up to get these figures of conducted emissions (CE) and radiated emissions (RE), and its mitigation as per limits of the chosen standard. In the latest TM embodiment of Fault Tolerant Power Distribution System ECPS"T"M (Electronics Corporation Power Supply) developed for NPCIL (PHWR700MW plant) we carried out CE and RE tests and quantified the spectrum obtained for CE and RE, and mitigated them as per CISPR22 standards. In this short article we bring out the CE and RE results of the latest product ECPS, done at EMI-EMC Centre of ECIL Hyderabad. (author)

  5. Inventory management and control at the central distribution center for Univar Products International B.V.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pholnukulkit, Pimara

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the outcome of the Logistics Design Project carried out for Univar Products International B.V. The goal of this project is to design an inventory control system and implement an inventory control tool that supports decisions in managing inventory of all products in the central

  6. International finance, Lévy distributions, and the econophysics of exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul; Gleria, Iram; Figueiredo, Annibal; Rathie, Pushpa

    2005-06-01

    This paper surveys the developments in the field of international finance, in particular the research of economists on foreign exchange rates. That might be of interest to physicists working on the econophysics of exchange rates. We show how the econophysics agenda might follow naturally from the economists' research. We also present our own work on the econophysics of exchange rates.

  7. The Distribution of Talent and the Pattern and Consequences of International Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Gene M.

    2004-01-01

    The author studies the interaction between imperfect labor contracts and international trade in a setting in which workers have private information about their own abilities. When an individual's contribution to firm output can be measured accurately in some activities but not in others, the most able workers select occupations in which their pay…

  8. Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones

    1985-01-01

    Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree species (Little 1971, Sargent 1890). It grows in a great diversity of regions, environments, and communities (Harshberger 1911). Only one deciduous tree species in the world, the closely related Eurasian aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911)....

  9. Analysis of internal radiation and radiotoxicity source base on aerosol distribution in RMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuwono, I.

    2000-01-01

    Destructive testing of nuclear fuel element during post irradiation examination in radio metallurgy installation may cause air contamination in the working area in the form of radioactive aerosol. Inhalation of the radioactive aerosol by worker will to become internal radiation source. Potential hazard of radioactive particle in the body also depends on the particle size. Analysis of internal radiation source and radiotoxicity showed that in the normal operation only natural radioactive materials are found with high radiotoxicity, i.e. Pb-212 and Ac-228. High deposit in the alveolar instersial (Ai) is 95 % and lower in the bronchial area (BB) is 1 % for particle size 11.7 nm and 350 nm respectively. (author)

  10. Rendimentos crescentes e a distribuição internacional de renda Increasing returns and the international distribution of income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Zagottis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of increasing returns in high technology industries assigns a path dependent character to the international division of labor. Rich countries, first entrants in these industries, enjoy permanent advantages that prevent, in a free market environment, the development of such industries in middle-income countries. This dynamics allows the former group of countries to experience a higher growth rate of labor productivity than the latter, and, as a result, increases the gap between the workers' standard of living in these countries. It is up to the States of middle-income countries the task of devising development strategies capable of breaking such pattern and improving the international distribution of income.

  11. Fluctuations of Internal Transmittance in Security of Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with an Untrusted Source*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Chen Rui-Ke; Zhou Chun; Jiang Mu-Sheng; Li Hong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) is immune to detector side channel attacks, which is a crucial security loophole problem in traditional QKD. In order to relax a key assumption that the sources are trusted in MDI-QKD, an MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source has been proposed. For the security of MDI-QKD with an untrusted source, imperfections in the practical experiment should also be taken into account. In this paper, we analyze the effects of fluctuations of internal transmittance on the security of a decoy-state MDI-QKD protocol with an untrusted source. Our numerical results show that both the secret key rate and the maximum secure transmission distance decrease when taken fluctuations of internal transmittance into consideration. Especially, they are more sensitive when Charlie’s mean photon number per pulse is smaller. Our results emphasize that the stability of correlative optical devices is important for practical implementations . (paper)

  12. Thermionic nuclear reactor with internal heat distribution and multiple duct cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, C.R.; Perry, L.W. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    A Thermionic Nuclear Reactor is described having multiple ribbon-like coolant ducts passing through the core, intertwined among the thermionic fuel elements to provide independent cooling paths. Heat pipes are disposed in the core between and adjacent to the thermionic fuel elements and the ribbon ducting, for the purpose of more uniformly distributing the heat of fission among the thermionic fuel elements and the ducts.

  13. Internal Stress Distribution Measurement of TIG Welded SUS304 Samples Using Neutron Diffraction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, M. Refai; Sumirat, I.; Sairun; Purwanta

    2008-03-01

    The distribution of residual stress of SUS304 samples that were undergone TIG welding process with four different electric currents has been measured. The welding has been done in the middle part of the samples that was previously grooved by milling machine. Before they were welded the samples were annealed at 650 degree Celsius for one hour. The annealing process was done to eliminate residual stress generated by grooving process so that the residual stress within the samples was merely produced from welding process. The calculation of distribution of residual stress was carried out by measuring the strains within crystal planes of Fe(220) SUS304. Strain, Young modulus, and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 were measured using DN1-M neutron diffractometer. Young modulus and Poisson ratio of Fe(220) SUS304 sample were measured in-situ. The result of calculations showed that distribution of residual stress of SUS304 in the vicinity of welded area is influenced both by treatments given at the samples-making process and by the electric current used during welding process.

  14. 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Studies in Computational Intelligence : Volume 492

    2013-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th ACIS/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2013), held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA on July 1-3, 2013. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 17 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.  

  15. 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of 15th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2014) held on June 30 – July 2, 2014 in Las Vegas Nevada, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas, research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. The conference organizers selected the 13 outstanding papers from those papers accepted for presentation at the conference.

  16. Human resources for health in southeast Asia: shortages, distributional challenges, and international trade in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanachitra, Churnrurtai; Lindelow, Magnus; Johnston, Timothy; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lorenzo, Fely Marilyn; Huong, Nguyen Lan; Wilopo, Siswanto Agus; dela Rosa, Jennifer Frances

    2011-02-26

    In this paper, we address the issues of shortage and maldistribution of health personnel in southeast Asia in the context of the international trade in health services. Although there is no shortage of health workers in the region overall, when analysed separately, five low-income countries have some deficit. All countries in southeast Asia face problems of maldistribution of health workers, and rural areas are often understaffed. Despite a high capacity for medical and nursing training in both public and private facilities, there is weak coordination between production of health workers and capacity for employment. Regional experiences and policy responses to address these challenges can be used to inform future policy in the region and elsewhere. A distinctive feature of southeast Asia is its engagement in international trade in health services. Singapore and Malaysia import health workers to meet domestic demand and to provide services to international patients. Thailand attracts many foreign patients for health services. This situation has resulted in the so-called brain drain of highly specialised staff from public medical schools to the private hospitals. The Philippines and Indonesia are the main exporters of doctors and nurses in the region. Agreements about mutual recognition of professional qualifications for three groups of health workers under the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Framework Agreement on Services could result in increased movement within the region in the future. To ensure that vital human resources for health are available to meet the needs of the populations that they serve, migration management and retention strategies need to be integrated into ongoing efforts to strengthen health systems in southeast Asia. There is also a need for improved dialogue between the health and trade sectors on how to balance economic opportunities associated with trade in health services with domestic health needs and equity issues. Copyright © 2011

  17. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Stress Distribution at the Internal Implant-Abutment Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yong; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated stress distribution in four different implant-abutment interface conditions in the internal tapered connection implant system. Four different implant diameters (3.5 mm, 4.0 mm, 4.5 mm, and 5.0 mm) and two abutment types (hexagonal and conical) were simulated. Four unique implant-abutment interface conditions were assumed based on wall thickness, mating surface length, distance to the vertical stop, and abutment shape. Axial and oblique loading was applied during abutment screw preload, and the Von Mises stresses were measured at the implant-abutment and abutment-screw interfaces. The implant-abutment interface stress decreased as the wall thickness increased. As the mating surface increased, the stress distribution trended downward, and when the distance to the implant vertical stop was 0 μm, the Von Mises stress was extremely high at the vertical stop. Despite their different shapes, the abutments showed similar stress distributions. However, the maximum Von Mises stress was higher in the conical connection than in the hexagonal connection, particularly at the contralateral side to loading. To decrease the stress distribution at the implant-abutment interface, the implant wall thickness, mating surface contact length, distance to the vertical stop, and abutment shape should be carefully considered.

  18. Design of internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC): Uniform heat transfer area versus uniform heat distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suphanit, B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Pracha Utit Rd., Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-03-15

    The internally heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC) is a complex column configuration which is more energy efficient than the equivalent conventional column or the distillation column with direct vapor recompression scheme (VRC). Exploiting the heat integration between two diabatic sections operating at different pressures of the HIDiC can greatly enhance the energy performance of the system. On the other hand, the design and optimization of HIDiC is more difficult than those of the conventional distillation column or the column with VRC. The former involves many design parameters, and the most critical one is the pressure ratio between both diabatic sections. However, the heat distribution along the diabatic sections is also another significant factor not yet thoroughly investigated. In this work, two typical distribution schemes, i.e. uniform heat transfer area and uniform heat distribution, are studied by applying a novel approach to solve the simulation problem in Aspen Plus 2004.1. The comparison of both distributing schemes is discussed via two widely-used case studies, namely benzene-toluene separation and propylene-propane splitter. (author)

  19. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) detection or hot atom reaction product internal energy distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quick, C.R. Jr.; Moore, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is being utilized to investigate the rovibrational energy distributions produced by reactive and nonreactive collisions of translationally hot atoms with simple molecules. Translationally hot H atoms are produced by ArF laser photolysis of HBr. Using CARS we have monitored, in a state-specific and time-resolved manner, rotational excitation of HBr (v = 0), vibrational excitation of HBr and H 2 , rovibrational excitation of H 2 produced by the reaction H + HBr → H 2 + Br, and Br atom production by photolysis of HBr

  20. Dependable Distributed Computing for the International Telecommunication Union Regional Radio Conference RRC06

    CERN Document Server

    Moscicki, Jakub T; Lamanna, Massimo; Méndez, Patricia; Muraru, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Regional Radio Conference (RRC06) established in 2006 a new frequency plan for the introduction of digital broadcasting in European, African, Arab, CIS countries and Iran. The preparation of the plan involved complex calculations under short deadline and required dependable and efficient computing capability. The ITU designed and deployed in-situ a dedicated PC farm, in parallel to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) which provided and supported a system based on the EGEE Grid. The planning cycle at the RRC06 required a periodic execution in the order of 200,000 short jobs, using several hundreds of CPU hours, in a period of less than 12 hours. The nature of the problem required dynamic workload-balancing and low-latency access to the computing resources. We present the strategy and key technical choices that delivered a reliable service to the RRC06.

  1. Examining Practice Across International Policy Contexts: Organizational Roles and Distributed Leadership in the US and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornskov, Søren; Bjerg, Helle; Kelley, Carolyn

    nations (Lingard et al., 2016). The similarities in policy content include an increased focus on accountability for school teachers and leaders, augmented testing programs for students, and changes to the working or professional culture for teachers, leaders and other professions often achieved through...... are having on their respective contexts. In Denmark, the Ministry of Education introduced a major school reform in Fall 2014. The reform was the latest initiative in more than a decade of national educational policy marked by the increased focus on accountability, international ranking systems...... the policies that the Ministry of Education has recently issued, and promoting the necessary changes in their school. This policy-driven focus on school leadership aims to realize a scenario in which school principals are expected not only to work closely within the team of formally designated leaders...

  2. Internal conductance does not scale with photosynthetic capacity: implications for carbon isotope discrimination and the economics of water and nitrogen use in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles R; Adams, Mark A

    2006-02-01

    Central paradigms of ecophysiology are that there are recognizable and even explicit and predictable patterns among species, genera, and life forms in the economics of water and nitrogen use in photosynthesis and in carbon isotope discrimination (delta). However most previous examinations have implicitly assumed an infinite internal conductance (gi) and/or that internal conductance scales with the biochemical capacity for photosynthesis. Examination of published data for 54 species and a detailed examination for three well-characterized species--Eucalyptus globulus, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Phaseolus vulgaris--show these assumptions to be incorrect. The reduction in concentration of CO2 between the substomatal cavity (Ci) and the site of carbon fixation (Cc) varies greatly among species. Photosynthesis does not scale perfectly with gi and there is a general trend for plants with low gi to have a larger draw-down from Ci to Cc, further confounding efforts to scale photosynthesis and other attributes with gi. Variation in the gi-photosynthesis relationship contributes to variation in photosynthetic 'use' efficiency of N (PNUE) and water (WUE). Delta is an information-rich signal, but for many species only about two-thirds of this information relates to A/gs with the remaining one-third related to A/gi. Using data for three well-studied species we demonstrate that at common WUE, delta may vary by up to 3 per thousand. This is as large or larger than is commonly reported in many interspecific comparisons of delta, and adds to previous warnings about simplistic interpretations of WUE based on delta. A priority for future research should be elucidation of relationships between gi and gs and how these vary in response to environmental conditions (e.g. soil water, leaf-to-air vapour pressure deficit, temperature) and among species.

  3. The Distribution and Environmental Impacts of Noise Pollution Sadouqi Martyr Yazd International Airport Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Zarei Mahmoud Abadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Persecutors of aircraft noise at an airport has a close relationship with the alternate of landing and take-off weight of the aircraft and operations planning during the night. Now aircraft that spill in Yazd airport and take-off of aircraft is of jet engines or so-turbofan mean that the resulting sound will be very high. Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional  measurement of noise from aircraft traffic noise measuring station 7,The completed questionnaires to assess the effects of noise pollution in Yazd International Airport and the surrounding noise sensitive areas in 2014 by a portable audio device measurement is done. Results: The most amount of noise caused by aircraft traffic in the airport area and in adjacent areas with average noise level 84.8 dB at station No. 5 Regional Airport, located south of the airport, with an average noise level which was 75.5 dB. The results of analysis of questionnaires showed that 75 percent of people living in residential areas around the airport are being harassed by aircraft noise. Results indicate that, sleep disorders, nervousness, stress and mental illness and interfere with speech, regardless of the priority of different factors in the study area, are of the highest impact of aircraft noise. Conclusion: Aircraft noise is the strongest negative environmental factors that affect employees and residents around Yazd International Airport and can be harmful to health. The noise for health personnel, particularly those of daily tasks, are daily exposed to aircraft intense noise , are highly undesirable. So, essentially preventive severe conditions such as mandatory use of protective devices and soundproof acoustic shortening service personnel are needed for these people.

  4. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-01-01

    Background The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. Objective This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. Methods We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Findings Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities

  5. The distribution of cigarette prices under different tax structures: findings from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation (ITC) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Zahra, Nahleen; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2014-03-01

    The distribution of cigarette prices has rarely been studied and compared under different tax structures. Descriptive evidence on price distributions by countries can shed light on opportunities for tax avoidance and brand switching under different tobacco tax structures, which could impact the effectiveness of increased taxation in reducing smoking. This paper aims to describe the distribution of cigarette prices by countries and to compare these distributions based on the tobacco tax structure in these countries. We employed data for 16 countries taken from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project to construct survey-derived cigarette prices for each country. Self-reported prices were weighted by cigarette consumption and described using a comprehensive set of statistics. We then compared these statistics for cigarette prices under different tax structures. In particular, countries of similar income levels and countries that impose similar total excise taxes using different tax structures were paired and compared in mean and variance using a two-sample comparison test. Our investigation illustrates that, compared with specific uniform taxation, other tax structures, such as ad valorem uniform taxation, mixed (a tax system using ad valorem and specific taxes) uniform taxation, and tiered tax structures of specific, ad valorem and mixed taxation tend to have price distributions with greater variability. Countries that rely heavily on ad valorem and tiered taxes also tend to have greater price variability around the median. Among mixed taxation systems, countries that rely more heavily on the ad valorem component tend to have greater price variability than countries that rely more heavily on the specific component. In countries with tiered tax systems, cigarette prices are skewed more towards lower prices than are prices under uniform tax systems. The analyses presented here demonstrate that more opportunities exist for tax avoidance and brand

  6. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis on Stress Distribution of Internal Implant-Abutment Engagement Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-Yong; Huh, Yun-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    To investigate the stress distribution in an implant-abutment complex with a preloaded abutment screw by comparing implant-abutment engagement features using three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). For FEA modeling, two implants-one with a single (S) engagement system and the other with a double (D) engagement system-were placed in the human mandibular molar region. Two types of abutments (hexagonal, conical) were connected to the implants. Different implant models (a single implant, two parallel implants, and mesial and tilted distal implants with 1-mm bone loss) were assumed. A static axial force and a 45-degree oblique force of 200 N were applied as the sum of vectors to the top of the prosthetic occlusal surface with a preload of 30 Ncm in the abutment screw. The von Mises stresses at the implant-abutment and abutment-screw interfaces were measured. In the single implant model, the S-conical abutment type exhibited broader stress distribution than the S-hexagonal abutment. In the double engagement system, the stress concentration was high in the lower contact area of the implant-abutment engagement. In the tilted implant model, the stress concentration point was different from that in the parallel implant model because of the difference in the bone level. The double engagement system demonstrated a high stress concentration at the lower contact area of the implant-abutment interface. To decrease the stress concentration, the type of engagement features of the implant-abutment connection should be carefully considered.

  7. Compartmentalized beta subunit distribution determines characteristics and ethanol sensitivity of somatic, dendritic, and terminal large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the rat central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, P M; Puig, S I; Martin, G E; Treistman, S N

    2009-06-01

    Neurons are highly differentiated and polarized cells, whose various functions depend upon the compartmentalization of ion channels. The rat hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS), in which cell bodies and dendrites reside in the hypothalamus, physically separated from their nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis, provides a particularly powerful preparation in which to study the distribution and regional properties of ion channel proteins. Using electrophysiological and immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in each of the three primary compartments (soma, dendrite, and terminal) of HNS neurons. We found that dendritic BK channels, in common with somatic channels but in contrast to nerve terminal channels, are insensitive to iberiotoxin. Furthermore, analysis of dendritic BK channel gating kinetics indicates that they, like somatic channels, have fast activation kinetics, in contrast to the slow gating of terminal channels. Dendritic and somatic channels are also more sensitive to calcium and have a greater conductance than terminal channels. Finally, although terminal BK channels are highly potentiated by ethanol, somatic and dendritic channels are insensitive to the drug. The biophysical and pharmacological properties of somatic and dendritic versus nerve terminal channels are consistent with the characteristics of exogenously expressed alphabeta1 versus alphabeta4 channels, respectively. Therefore, one possible explanation for our findings is a selective distribution of auxiliary beta1 subunits to the somatic and dendritic compartments and beta4 to the terminal compartment. This hypothesis is supported immunohistochemically by the appearance of distinct punctate beta1 or beta4 channel clusters in the membrane of somatic and dendritic or nerve terminal compartments, respectively.

  8. Hydraulic Conductivity Distributions for Anisotropic Systems and Application to Tc Transport at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, A. G.

    2006-01-01

    At the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site a spill of radioactive Technetium has been migrating horizontally in the vadose zone rather than flowing vertically to the water table. This result has been interpreted as being due to horizontal anisotropy in the hydraulic conductivity, K, (a tendency for fluids to migrate more easily in the horizontal direction) due to high horizontal connectivity of sedimentary deposits with a tendency for larger values of K. Such layers have larger components of silt and clay than the predominantly sandy soils at the Hanford site. It is generally accepted that effects of such anisotropy tend to be greater at smaller length scales, probably because of the lack of perfect correlations at large length scales. It has also been suggested that this anisotropy in K is maximized under relatively dry conditions when finer soils (with smaller pores) trap moisture more effectively than sands and gravels. The random component of the distribution of the Hanford flood deposits requires a probabilistic framework for the calculation of K. The work on this project had two main components: (1) to use continuum percolation theory applied to random fractal models to produce a general framework for calculating distributions of K under anisotropic conditions and as a function of system scale, (2) to apply the scheme for calculation to the Hanford site. The results of the general calculation (submitted for publication in Philosophical Magazine) are that the mean horizontal and vertical K values become equal in the limit of large system size (in agreement with general perception above) while the distributions of K values cause significant overlap of expected experimental values of K in the vertical and horizontal directions already at intermediate length scales. In order to make these calculation specific to the Hanford site, however, values of the appropriate length scales to describe the Hanford subsurface as well as to describe the maximum

  9. Distribution of steady state temperatures and thermoelastic stresses in a cylindrical shell with internal heat generation and cooled on both sides or only on one side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melese d'Hospital, G.B.

    1979-10-01

    General expressions for steady state temperatures and elastic thermal stress distributions are derived for a hollow fuel element cooled on both sides. The main simplifying assumptions consist of one dimensional heat transfer and a single medium. Dimensionless numerical results are plotted in the case of uniform internal heat generation and for constant thermal conductivity. Solid rods and flat plates are treated as special cases. As could be expected, cooling on both sides rather than on only one side, leads to significant reduction in maximum fuel temperature and thermal stresses for a given power density, or to a significant increase in power density for either given maximum temperature drop in the fuel or for maximum tensile thermal stress. Typically, for a rod diameter ratio of 2, the power density could be increased by a factor of 3 to 4 without increasing the maximum stress. Similarly, for the same power density, replacing internal cooling of a hollow fuel element by external cooling reduces the maximum fuel temperature drop by a factor of 1.5 and the average fuel temperature drop (or maximum tensile stress) by a factor of 2, with the same maximum compressive stress

  10. Proposing an International Collaboration on Lightweight Autonomous Vehicles to Conduct Scientific Traverses and Surveys over Antarctica and the Surrounding Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, Frank; Behar, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We have continued to develop a concept for use of autonomous rovers, originally developed for use in planetary exploration, in polar science on Earth; the concept was the subject of a workshop, and this report summarizes and extends that workshop. The workshop on Antarctic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society on February 14 and 15, 2001 to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of autonomous rovers. The participants enthusiastically viewed rovers as being uniquely valuable for such tasks as data taking on tedious or repetitive routes, traverses in polar night, difficult or hazardous routes, extremely remote regions, routes requiring only simple instrumentation, traverses that must be conducted at low speed, augments of manned traverses, and scientific procedures not compatible with human presence or combustion engines. The workshop has concluded that instrumented autonomous vehicles, of the type being developed for planetary exploration, have the potential to contribute significantly to the way science in conducted in Antarctica while also aiding planetary technology development, and engaging the public's interest. Specific objectives can be supported in understanding ice sheet mass balance, sea ice heat and momentum exchange, and surface air chemistry processes. In the interval since the workshop, we have concluded that organized program to employ such rovers to perform scientific tasks in the Fourth International Polar Year would serve the objectives of that program well.

  11. Small and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels confer distinctive patterns of distribution in human tissues and differential cellular localisation in the colon and corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao Xiang; Gorman, Shelby A; Benson, Bill; Singh, Kuljit; Hieble, J Paul; Michel, Martin C; Tate, Simon N; Trezise, Derek J

    2004-06-01

    The SK/IK family of small and intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channels contains four members, SK1, SK2, SK3 and IK1, and is important for the regulation of a variety of neuronal and non-neuronal functions. In this study we have analysed the distribution of these channels in human tissues and their cellular localisation in samples of colon and corpus cavernosum. SK1 mRNA was detected almost exclusively in neuronal tissues. SK2 mRNA distribution was restricted but more widespread than SK1, and was detected in adrenal gland, brain, prostate, bladder, liver and heart. SK3 mRNA was detected in almost every tissue examined. It was highly expressed in brain and in smooth muscle-rich tissues including the clitoris and the corpus cavernosum, and expression in the corpus cavernosum was upregulated up to 5-fold in patients undergoing sex-change operations. IK1 mRNA was present in surface-rich, secretory and inflammatory cell-rich tissues, highest in the trachea, prostate, placenta and salivary glands. In detailed immunohistochemical studies of the colon and the corpus cavernosum, SK1-like immunoreactivity was observed in the enteric neurons. SK3-like immunoreactivity was observed strongly in smooth muscle and vascular endothelium. IK1-like immunoreactivity was mainly observed in inflammatory cells and enteric neurons of the colon, but absent in corpus cavernosum. These distinctive patterns of distribution suggest that these channels are likely to have different biological functions and could be specifically targeted for a number of human diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome, hypertension and erectile dysfunction.

  12. International variations in the gestational age distribution of births: an ecological study in 34 high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnord, Marie; Mortensen, Laust; Hindori-Mohangoo, Ashna D; Blondel, Béatrice; Gissler, Mika; Kramer, Michael R; Richards, Jennifer L; Deb-Rinker, Paromita; Rouleau, Jocelyn; Morisaki, Naho; Nassar, Natasha; Bolumar, Francisco; Berrut, Sylvie; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Kramer, Michael S; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-04-01

    Few studies have investigated international variations in the gestational age (GA) distribution of births. While preterm births (22-36 weeks GA) and early term births (37-38 weeks) are at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared to full term births (39-40 weeks), it is not known if countries with high preterm birth rates also have high early term birth rates. We examined rate associations between preterm and early term births and mean term GA by mode of delivery onset. We used routine aggregate data on the GA distribution of singleton live births from up to 34 high-income countries/regions in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2010 to study preterm and early term births overall and by spontaneous or indicated onset. Pearson correlation coefficients were adjusted for clustering in time trend analyses. Preterm and early term births ranged from 4.1% to 8.2% (median 5.5%) and 15.6% to 30.8% (median 22.2%) of live births in 2010, respectively. Countries with higher preterm birth rates in 2004-2010 had higher early term birth rates (r > 0.50, P birth rates suggest that common risk factors could underpin shifts in the GA distribution. Targeting modifiable population risk factors for delivery before 39 weeks GA may provide a useful preterm birth prevention paradigm.

  13. The role of the State Security Service (Stasi) in the context of international clinical trials conducted by western pharmaceutical companies in Eastern Germany (1961-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erices, Rainer; Frewer, Andreas; Gumz, Antje

    2018-01-01

    After the building of the Berlin Wall in the 1960s, a number of international pharmaceutical manufacturers from the West had their drugs tested in Eastern Germany (GDR). So far, the extensive collection of documents on the subject stored in the archives of the GDR State Security Service (Stasi, MfS) has not been systematically analysed. Until now, the role of the Stasi with respect to the surveillance of the trials has been unclear. A keyword search within the database of the Stasi files was conducted. All available files were screened in order to identify institutions, companies and personnel involved in the clinical trials. On this basis, further files were requested. A total of 259 files were available for analysis. Relevant data was derived from 160 of these files. A contextualised approach was applied, which critically explored the origin, content, and impact of the data. In addition, an approach guided by the central steps of document analysis was applied. At least 400 clinical trials were conducted during the GDR period. The exact number remains speculative. According to references found in the Stasi files, it might have been considerably higher. Initially, the main goal of the trials was for the GDR authorities to decide whether to import certain Western drugs. By 1983, this intention had changed. Now, the primary aim of the trials was the procurement of foreign currency. The Stasi feared that the pharmaceutical companies could have a significant influence on GDR Health System. Stasi spies were holding positions in the responsible medical committees, universities, and hospitals. Constant surveillance by the Stasi served the purpose of monitoring any contact between people from the West and the East. Unknowingly, representatives of Western companies were surveilled by the Stasi. The studied documents also point to the fact that a number of clinical trials conducted during the GDR period did not comply with GDR regulations, and were therefore deemed illegal

  14. Homogeneous distribution of large-conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels on soma and apical dendrite of rat neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhassine, Narimane; Berger, Thomas

    2005-02-01

    Voltage-gated conductances on dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons participate in synaptic integration and output generation. We investigated the properties and the distribution of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) in this cell type using excised patches in acute slice preparations of rat somatosensory cortex. BK channels were characterized by their large conductance and sensitivity to the specific blockers paxilline and iberiotoxin. BK channels showed a pronounced calcium-dependence with a maximal opening probability of 0.69 at 10 microm and 0.42 at 3 microm free calcium. Their opening probability and transition time constants between open and closed states are voltage-dependent. At depolarized potentials, BK channel gating is described by two open and one closed states. Depolarization increases the opening probability due to a prolongation of the open time constant and a shortening of the closed time constant. Calcium-dependence and biophysical properties of somatic and dendritic BK channels were identical. The presence of BK channels on the apical dendrite of layer 5 pyramidal neurons was shown by immunofluorescence. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a homogeneous density of BK channels on the soma and along the apical dendrite up to 850 microm with a mean density of 1.9 channels per microm(2). BK channels are expressed either isolated or in clusters containing up to four channels. This study shows the presence of BK channels on dendrites. Their activation might modulate the shape of sodium and calcium action potentials, their propagation along the dendrite, and thereby the electrotonic distance between the somatic and dendritic action potential initiation zones.

  15. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  16. Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Acinetobacter baumannii International Clone II Lineage in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Masato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Watahiki, Masanori; Hiraki, Yoichi; Kawano, Fumio; Tsutsui, Atsuko; Shibayama, Keigo; Suzuki, Satowa

    2018-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter spp. have been globally disseminated in association with the successful clonal lineage Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II (IC II). Because the prevalence of MDR Acinetobacter spp. in Japan remains very low, we characterized all Acinetobacter spp. ( n = 866) from 76 hospitals between October 2012 and March 2013 to describe the entire molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter spp. The most prevalent species was A. baumannii ( n = 645; 74.5%), with A. baumannii IC II ( n = 245) accounting for 28.3% of the total. Meropenem-resistant isolates accounted for 2.0% ( n = 17) and carried IS Aba1-bla OXA-23-like ( n = 10), bla IMP ( n = 4), or IS Aba1-bla OXA-51-like ( n = 3). Multilocus sequence typing of 110 representative A. baumannii isolates revealed the considerable prevalence of domestic sequence types (STs). A. baumannii IC II isolates were divided into the domestic sequence type 469 (ST469) ( n = 18) and the globally disseminated STs ST208 ( n = 14) and ST219 ( n = 4). ST469 isolates were susceptible to more antimicrobial agents, while ST208 and ST219 overproduced the intrinsic AmpC β-lactamase. A. baumannii IC II and some A. baumannii non-IC II STs (e.g., ST149 and ST246) were associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. This study revealed that carbapenem-susceptible A. baumannii IC II was moderately disseminated in Japan. The low prevalence of acquired carbapenemase genes and presence of domestic STs could contribute to the low prevalence of MDR A. baumannii A similar epidemiology might have appeared before the global dissemination of MDR epidemic lineages. In addition, fluoroquinolone resistance associated with A. baumannii IC II may provide insight into the significance of A. baumannii epidemic clones. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. The international distribution of authorship in the Nuclear Medicine literature: a bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannigan, G.G.; Bartold, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: This study profiles the increasingly diverse international contributions to the specialty of Nuclear Medicine as measured by publication in the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Springer) and the Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine). These are the leading journals in the field, with 2001 impact factor scores of 3.617 and 3.772 respectively.1 Materials and Methods: We searched the MEDLINE database from 1988-2001, using the Limits (Journal) feature. 1988 is the first year that author affiliation information is reliably included on the MEDLINE record. The retrieved set of articles from the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and the Journal of Nuclear Medicine was limited to articles with abstracts, the goal being to count only substantive articles and to eliminate editorials, letters, and other brief communications. Since author affiliation information is neither standardized nor can it be sorted in MEDLINE, we manually counted and categorized publications by country of the first author as listed in the article. Microsoft Excel was used to tabulate and analyze the data. Results: 2,634 articles were analyzed for six years (1988, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 2001). Authors from 40 countries published in these two journals. In 1988, authors from seven countries (US, Japan, UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Canada) contributed ten or more articles, accounting for 80% of the articles . In 2001, authors from eleven countries contributed ten or more articles, accounting for 86% of the total (US, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Italy, Belgium, Australia, France, UK, Spain, Finland); Conclusions: A previous study showed that, from 1980-97, seven countries accounted for 86% of the research articles in the Journal of Nuclear Medicine: US 60.2%, Japan 8.6%, and Canada, France, Germany, UK, Netherlands each 3.4%.2. In this study, for the six years included, authors from ten countries accounted for 86% of the research articles in the European Journal of

  18. Modeling and control of fuel distribution in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine leveraging late intake valve closings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassa, Mateos [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Hall, Carrie [Mechanical, Materials, and Aerospace Engineering Department, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA; Ickes, Andrew [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA; Wallner, Thomas [Fuels, Engine and Aftertreatment Research, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA

    2016-10-07

    Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process encountered across cylinders and between cycles. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), a variable geometry turbocharger, and a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production and the underlying uneven fuel distribution that causes these variations. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode in which a high reactivity fuel is directly injected into the cylinders and a low reactivity fuel is port injected into the cylinders. Both dual fuel implementation and late intake valve closing (IVC) timings have been shown to improve thermal efficiency. However, experimental data from this study reveal that when late IVC timings are used on a multi-cylinder dual fuel engine a significant variation in IMEP across cylinders results and as such, leads to efficiency losses. The difference in IMEP between the different cylinders ranges from 9% at an IVC of 570°ATDC to 38% at an IVC of 610°ATDC and indicates an increasingly uneven fuel distribution. These experimental observations along with engine simulation models developed using GT-Power have been used to better understand the distribution of the port injected fuel across cylinders under various operating conditions on such dual fuel engines. This study revealed that the fuel distribution across cylinders in this dual fuel application is significantly affected by changes in the effective compression ratio as determined by the intake valve close timing as well as the design of the intake system (specifically the length of the intake runners). Late intake valve closures allow a portion of the trapped air

  19. Research on the internal pressure behavior of metal gas distribution pipelines with different types of tubing defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Stefan Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to approach an important subject related to natural gas distribution networks which, depending on the expansion of the localities, are composed of intercommunicating pipes, pressure reducing stations and branch connections fittings. The urban networks are the most complex ones and the rural areas networks are the simplest. However, irrespective of their installation, they must meet the safety operating requirements as much as possible. According to standards, all these components must be tight and pressure resistant. In this regard, we intend to approach a very important issue related to the behavior of the tubular steel material showing corrosion and/or material defects, and to the internal stress caused by the gas pressure on the walls of the tubing material.

  20. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 16th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2015) which was held on June 1 – 3, 2015 in Takamatsu, Japan. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  1. 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing

    CERN Document Server

    SNPD 2016

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 17th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD 2016) which was held on May 30 - June 1, 2016 in Shanghai, China. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  2. Fluorescence characteristics of the fuel tracers triethylamine and trimethylamine for the investigation of fuel distribution in internal combustion engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Susanne; Aßmann, Simon; Zigan, Lars; Will, Stefan

    2016-03-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence based on fuel tracers like amines is a suitable measurement technique for mixing studies in internal combustion (IC) engines. Triethylamine has often been used in gasoline IC engines; however, no detailed fluorescence characterization for excitation at 263 or 266 nm is available. Trimethylamine (TMA) exhibits high potential as a gaseous fuel tracer but little information about TMA fluorescence is currently available. A picosecond laser source combined with a streak camera equipped with a spectrograph was used to determine the spectral fluorescence emission and fluorescence decay time of both tracers. The tracers were investigated at various temperatures and pressures in a calibration cell with nitrogen as bath gas. The results provide an in-depth understanding of the fluorescence characteristics of both tracers and allow assessment of their application to the investigation of fuel distribution in IC engines.

  3. Presence of renewable sources of energy, cogeneration, energy efficiency and distributed generation in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pares Ferrer, Marianela; Oviedo Rivero, Irayda; Gonzalez Garcia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The International Nuclear Information System (INIS) it was created in 1970 by the International Atomic Energy Agency (OIEA) with the objective of propitiating the exchange of scientific information and technique on the peaceful uses of the energy atomic. INIS processes most of scientific literature and technique in engineering matters nuclear, safeguard and non proliferation and applications in agriculture and health that it generates in the world and it contributes to create a repository of nuclear information for present and future generations. Additionally it includes economic aspects and environmental of other energy sources that facilitate comparative studies for the taking of decisions. The database INIS, is its main informative product and it counts with more than 3 million registrations. One of the services that lends the Center of Administration of the Information and Development of the Energy (CUBAENERGIA), like center INIS in Cuba, is the search of information on the peaceful use of the science and nuclear technology in the Countries Members and the registration of information on their applications in Cuba. More recently, it extends this service to the Renewable Sources application of Energy in the country; as part of the works of administration of the information that it carries out for the National Group of Renewable Energy, Cogeneration, Saving and Energy Efficiency, created in the 2007 and coordinated by the MINBAS with the participation of institutions belonging to Organisms of the Administration Central of the State. In this work the results of a preliminary study are presented on the witnesses in the INIS of the Renewable Sources of Energy, the Cogeneration, Energy Efficiency, and the Distributed Generation. As well as of the application of metric tools to the opposing registrations for the case of the Distributed generation, that which allowed to characterize their historical evolution, the participation for countries in their development and

  4. A review of trends in the distribution of vector-borne diseases: is international trade contributing to their spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rocque, S; Balenghien, T; Halos, L; Dietze, K; Claes, F; Ferrari, G; Guberti, V; Slingenbergh, J

    2011-04-01

    It is difficult to determine the part that international trade has played in the expansion of vector-borne diseases, because of the multitude of factors that affect the transformation of habitats and the interfaces between vectors and hosts. The introduction of pathogens through trade in live animals or products of animal origin, as well as the arrival of arthropod vectors, is probably quite frequent but the establishment of an efficient transmission system that develops into a disease outbreak remains the exception. In this paper, based on well-documented examples, the authors review the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of vector-borne diseases that may have been affected in their spread and change of distribution by international trade. In addition, they provide a detailed analysis of the risks associated with specific trade routes and recent expansions of vector populations. Finally, the authors highlight the importance, as well as the challenges, of preventive surveillance and regulation. The need for improved monitoring of vector populations and a readiness to face unpredictable epidemiological events are also emphasised, since this will require rapid reaction, not least in the regulatory context.

  5. Stomatal Conductance, Plant Species Distribution, and an Exploration of Rhizosphere Microbes and Mycorrhizae at a Deliberately Leakimg Experimental Carbon Sequestration Field (ZERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, B.; Apple, M. E.; Morales, S.; Zhou, X.; Holben, B.; Olson, J.; Prince, J.; Dobeck, L.; Cunningham, A. B.; Spangler, L.

    2010-12-01

    . Dandelion leaves near hot spots undergo rapid color change from green to red before senescing to a desiccated brown, while xeromorphic grass leaves do not. Species-specific differences in leaf survival following exposure to CO2 may be linked to species-specific differences in stomatal conductance, and to rhizosphere and mycorrhizal responses. Initial survey results of plant species distribution suggest a shift from a dandelion-grass to a grass-dominated community over hot spots. Sudden and long-term shifts in species composition have important ecological implications and may provide a means of surface detection of upwelling CO2.

  6. Applying distributions of hydraulic conductivity for anisotropic systems and applications to Tc Transport at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    43Tc99 is spreading mostly laterally through the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site sediments. At higher tensions in the unsaturated zone, the hydraulic conductivity may be strongly anisotropic as a consequence of finer soils to retain more water than coarser ones, and for these soils to have been deposited primarily in horizontal structures. We have tried to develop a consistent modeling procedure that could predict the behavior of Tc plumes. Our procedure consists of: (1) Adapting existing numerical recipes based on critical path analysis to calculate the hydraulic conductivity, K, as a function of tension, h, (2) Statistically correlating the predicted K at various values of the tension with fine content, (3) Seeking a tension value, for which the anisotropy and the horizontal K values are both sufficiently large to accommodate multi-kilometer spreading, (4) Predicting the distribution of K values for vertical flow as a function of system support volume, (5) Comparing the largest likely K value in the vertical direction with the expected K in the horizontal direction, (6) Finding the length scale at which the two K values are roughly equal, (7) Comparing that length scale with the horizontal spreading of the plume. We find that our predictions of the value of the tension at which the principle spreading is likely occurring compares very well with experiment. However, we seem to underestimate the physical length scale at which the predominantly horizontal spreading begins to take on significant vertical characteristics. Our data and predictions would seem to indicate that this should happen after horizontal transport of somewhat over a km, but the chiefly horizontal transport appears to continue out to scales of 10km or so.

  7. Development of integrated damage detection system for international America's Cup class yacht structures using a fiber optic distributed sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyoshi, Shimada; Naruse, Hiroshi; Uzawa, Kyoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro

    2000-06-01

    We constructed a new health monitoring system to detect damage using a fiber optic distributed sensor, namely a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR), and installed it in International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts, the Japanese entry in America's Cup 2000. IACC yachts are designed to be as fast as possible, so it is essential that they are lightweight and encounter minimum water resistance. Advanced composite sandwich structures, made with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins and a honeycomb core, are used to achieve the lightweight structure. Yacht structure designs push the strength of the materials to their limit and so it is important to detect highly stressed or damaged regions that might cause a catastrophic fracture. The BOTDR measures changes in the Brillouin frequency shift caused by distributed strain along one optical fiber. We undertook two experiments: a pulling test and a four point bending test on a composite beam. The former showed that no slippage occurred between the optical fiber glass and its coating. The latter confirmed that a debonding between the skin and the core of 300 mm length could be found with the BOTDR. Next we examined the effectiveness with which this system can assess the structural integrity of IACC yachts. The results show that our system has the potential for use as a damage detection system for smart structures.

  8. Epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidemia among Internal Medicine Wards of community hospitals of Udine province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Silvestri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Candidemia is an emerging problem among patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Wards (IMW. We performed a retrospective study to assess the epidemiology, species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and outcome of candidaemia recorded over a 3-year period (2010-2012 among IMW of community hospitals of Udine province in Italy: forty-eight patients were identified, with an overall incidence of 1.44 cases/1000 hospital admissions/year. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by Candida parapsilosis that accounted for 42.9% of Tolmezzo cases. All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin and caspofungin, while 11.4% of strains were not-susceptible to voriconazole and 14.3% to fluconazole. Crude mortality was 41.7%. In conclusion, in community hospitals overall incidence of candidemia is similar to tertiary care hospitals, but 80% of cases are detected in IMW. Candida species distribution is overlapping, but differences in local epidemiology were found and should be taken into consideration. No resistance to amphotericin and caspofungin was found while resistance to azoles was observed. Knowledge of this data might be useful when planning the best therapeutic strategy.

  9. Fast spatially resolved exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) distribution measurements in an internal combustion engine using absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jihyung; Prikhodko, Vitaly; Parks, James E; Perfetto, Anthony; Geckler, Sam; Partridge, William P

    2015-09-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines is an effective method of reducing NOx emissions while improving efficiency. However, insufficient mixing between fresh air and exhaust gas can lead to cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder non-uniform charge gas mixtures of a multi-cylinder engine, which can in turn reduce engine performance and efficiency. A sensor packaged into a compact probe was designed, built and applied to measure spatiotemporal EGR distributions in the intake manifold of an operating engine. The probe promotes the development of more efficient and higher-performance engines by resolving high-speed in situ CO2 concentration at various locations in the intake manifold. The study employed mid-infrared light sources tuned to an absorption band of CO2 near 4.3 μm, an industry standard species for determining EGR fraction. The calibrated probe was used to map spatial EGR distributions in an intake manifold with high accuracy and monitor cycle-resolved cylinder-specific EGR fluctuations at a rate of up to 1 kHz.

  10. Fuselage and nozzle pressure distributions on a 1/12-scale F-15 propulsion model at transonic speeds. [conducted in langley 16 foot transonic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Static pressure coefficient distributions on the forebody, afterbody, and nozzles of a 1/12 scale F-15 propulsion model were determined. The effects of nozzle power setting and horizontal tail deflection angle on the pressure coefficient distributions were investigated.

  11. Distribution of muscle fibre conduction velocity for representative samples of motor units in the full recruitment range of the tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, A; Negro, F; Felici, F; Farina, D

    2018-02-01

    Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner according to the size of motor neurones. Moreover, because larger motor neurones innervate fibres with larger diameters than smaller motor neurones, motor units should be recruited orderly according to their conduction velocity (MUCV). Because of technical limitations, these relations have been previously tested either indirectly or in small motor unit samples that revealed weak associations between motor unit recruitment threshold (RT) and MUCV. Here, we analyse the relation between MUCV and RT for large samples of motor units. Ten healthy volunteers completed a series of isometric ankle dorsiflexions at forces up to 70% of the maximum. Multi-channel surface electromyographic signals recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle were decomposed into single motor unit action potentials, from which the corresponding motor unit RT, MUCV and action potential amplitude were estimated. Established relations between muscle fibre diameter and CV were used to estimate the fibre size. Within individual subjects, the distributions of MUCV and fibre diameters were unimodal and did not show distinct populations. MUCV was strongly correlated with RT (mean (SD) R 2  = 0.7 (0.09), P motor units), which supported the hypothesis that fibre diameter is associated with RT. The results provide further evidence for the relations between motor neurone and muscle fibre properties for large samples of motor units. The proposed methodology for motor unit analysis has also the potential to open new perspectives in the study of chronic and acute neuromuscular adaptations to ageing, training and pathology. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part: 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark)] Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The present report documents the efforts to develop an impedance method for determining the distribution of the water saturation in a chalk core sample. Measurement of this distribution during a displacement process will make it possible to make numerical simulations of the process which may in turn reveal important rock parameters. The impedance method is one among other methods to determine saturation profiles in a research programme on rock parameters with participants from Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, and Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, GEUS. The other methods investigated are nmr-scanning and {gamma}-logging. (au)

  13. Controlled Operation of the Islanded Portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghullam Mustafa Bhutto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In islanding, a portion of the power network, comprised of the loads and distributed generation (DG units, is isolated from the rest of the power grid and forms a micro grid (MG. In this condition, it becomes essential for the islanded MG to operate in a stable and controlled manner by providing ancillary services. When the MG is cut off from the main grid, the islanding must be detected by the DG units. In this condition it is essential that one of the controllers should be switched to the voltage-frequency (VF control mode. In islanding, the network loses it slack reference and this reference is established by a VF controller. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG deviate when disconnected from the transmission grid and these deviations are caused by the load-generation imbalance. The voltage and the frequency of the islanded MG can be restored to the permissible limits if the desired/exceeded amount of active and reactive power is injected/absorbed by the locally available sources in islanded MG. This paper proposes a control strategy which can compensate the voltage and the frequency deviations in the islanded portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE low voltage distribution network by using advanced power electronics devices such as STATCOMs for Photovoltaic (PV Units and Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS STATCOMs (for battery units. The selection of the VF controller for the most suitable DG unit of this test network is also presented in this paper, and the effectiveness of the controllers is verified by presenting simulation results using DIgSILENT (DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen, Germany power factory software version 15.0.

  14. The effect of channel flow pattern on internal properties distribution of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell for cathode starvation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Dong Soo; Kang, Young Min; Yang, Jang Sik; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Choi, Gyung Min; Kim, Duck Jool

    2010-01-01

    The effect of channel flow pattern on the internal properties distribution of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) for cathode starvation conditions in a unit cell was investigated through numerical studies and experiments. The polarization curves of a lab-scale mixed serpentine PEMFC were measured with increasing current loads for different cell temperatures (40, 50, and 60 .deg. C) at a relative humidity of 100%. To study the local temperature on the membrane, the water content in the MEA, and the gas velocity in terms of the channel type of the PEMFC with operating characteristics, numerical studies using the es-pemfc module of STAR-CD, which have been matched to the experimental data, were conducted in detail. The water content and velocity at the cathode channel bend of the mixed serpentine channel were relatively higher than those at the single and double channels. Conversely, the local temperature and mean temperature on the membrane of a single serpentine channel were the highest among all channels. These results can be used to design the PEMFC system, the channel flow field, and the cooling device

  15. Interactive Distributed Multimedia Systems and Telecommunication Services : 7th International Workshop, IDMS 2000 Enschede, The Netherlands, October 17–20, 2000 Proceedings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Hans; van Sinderen, Marten J.

    2000-01-01

    The first International Workshop on Interactive Distributed Multimedia Systems and Telecommunication Services (IDMS) was organized by Prof. K. Rothermel and Prof. W. Effelsberg, and took place in Stuttgart in 1992. It had the form of a national forum for discussion on multimedia issues related to

  16. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  17. 8th International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing & Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems & 6th International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Braubach, Lars; Venticinque, Salvatore; Badica, Costin

    2015-01-01

    This book represents the combined peer-reviewed proceedings of the Eight International Symposium on Intelligent Distributed Computing - IDC'2014, of the Workshop on Cyber Security and Resilience of Large-Scale Systems - WSRL-2014, and of the Sixth International Workshop on Multi-Agent Systems Technology and Semantics- MASTS-2014. All the events were held in Madrid, Spain, during September 3-5, 2014. The 47 contributions published in this book address several topics related to theory and applications of the intelligent distributed computing and multi-agent systems, including: agent-based data processing, ambient intelligence, collaborative systems, cryptography and security, distributed algorithms, grid and cloud computing, information extraction, knowledge management, big data and ontologies, social networks, swarm intelligence or videogames amongst others.

  18. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  19. Method of Relating Grain Size Distribution to Hydraulic Conductivity in Dune Sands to Assist in Assessing Managed Aquifer Recharge Projects: Wadi Khulays Dune Field, Western Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Jadoon, Khan; Missimer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Planning for use of a dune field aquifer for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) requires that hydraulic properties need to be estimated over a large geographic area. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of dune sands is commonly estimated from grain size

  20. Internal friction in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selle, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of studies conducted to relate internal friction measurements in U to allotropic transformations. It was found that several internal friction peaks occur in α-uranium whose magnitude changed drastically after annealing in the β phase. All of the allotropic transformations in uranium are diffusional in nature under slow heating and cooling conditions. Creep at regions of high stress concentration appears to be responsible for high temperature internal friction in α-uranium. The activation energy for grain boundary relaxation in α-uranium was found to be 65.1 +- 4 kcal/mole. Impurity atoms interfere with the basic mechanism for grain boundary relaxation resulting in a distribution in activation energies. A considerable distribution in ln tau 0 was also found which is a measure of the distribution in local order and in the Debye frequency around a grain boundary

  1. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  2. Influence of forced internal air circulation on airflow distribution and heat transfer in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongzhang; Qin, Lanzhi; Li, Hongqiang

    2014-02-01

    Internal air circulation affects the temperature field distribution in a gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation bioreactor (GDSFB). To enhance heat transfer through strengthening internal air circulation in a GDSFB, we put an air distribution plate (ADP) into the bioreactor and studied the effects of forced internal air circulation on airflow, heat transfer, and cellulase activity of Trichoderma viride L3. Results showed that ADP could help form a steady and uniform airflow distribution, and with gas-guide tubes, air reversal was formed inside the bioreactor, thus resulting in a smaller temperature difference between medium and air by enhancing convective heat transfer inside the bioreactor. Using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio caused a 1 °C decrease in the average temperature difference during the solid-state fermentation process of T. viride L3. Meanwhile, the cellulase activity of T. viride L3 increased by 13.5 %. The best heat-transfer effect was attained when using an ADP of 5.35 % aperture ratio and setting the fan power to 125 V (4.81 W) in the gas double-dynamic solid-state fermentation (GDSF) process. An option of suitable aperture ratio and fan power may be conducive to ADPs' industrial amplification.

  3. Organizing and conducting career guidance and crime prevention among young people by means of physical culture and sports specialized university departments Internal Affairs of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakorko I.P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of social development takes on special urgency the problem of finding new means and methods of crime prevention among youth in the context of strengthening the nation's health. In our opinion, employees of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry must take a decisive role in solving these problems. One of the most effective ways to solve them is to organize youth sports schools and clubs to professionally-applied sports at the bases of relevant departments of higher educational institutions of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the involvement of the best specialists and trainers.

  4. Exergy applied to the heat conduction analysis in glass covers of a solar cooker box-type with internal and external reflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S; López, R; Vaca, M

    2017-01-01

    In this work, an exergy evaluation to determine the energy availability across to glass covers, place where the solar radiation enters toward a solar cooker box-type is done. Considering the heating process of water, the energy not used is quantified by means of exergy. The results allow identifying the glasses in the cover as the zone where the solar cooker could be improved. The conduction heat transfer losses for the glasses is most big than 75%. Because the values for the conduction heat losses are around 90%, which are very important, this allows to identify the cover glass as the area where improvements could be made in this type of solar cookers. (paper)

  5. NODC Standard Product: International ocean atlas Volume 4 - Atlas of temperature / salinity frequency distributions (2 disc set) (NCEI Accession 0101473)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas presents more than 80,000 plots of the empirical frequency distributions of temperature and salinity for each 5-degree square area of the North Atlantic...

  6. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  7. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  8. CHALLENGES TO ILLEGAL MIGRATION POLICIES AND NATIONAL SECURITY OF MEXICO: ANALYSIS FROM THE MANAGEMENT CONDUCTED BETWEEN 2001 AND 2014 AND THE CASE CONCERNING INTERNATIONAL REFERENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO RODRÍGUEZ MORENO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of political-legal, social and human rights challenges imposed by irregular migration to Mexico, a nation that has been converted into an important area of destination and transit to the United States. The criminalization of the phenomenon and, therefore, the securitization of immigration policy, endorsed by the National Security Policy, has led to social and humanitarian conditions that are deplorable for undocumented migrants most of the times. It then examines the situation of Mexico between 2001 and 2014 and the reality of international benchmarks in the field. One of the challenges recognized for Immigration and National Security policies on the social level is the stigmatization suffered by irregular migrants both adults and children. In the political-legal arena to challenge the institutionalization of irregular migration as a threat that affects national security and overcomes the disjunction between the established regulations and their implementation. Key

  9. On-Going International Research Program on Irradiated Concrete Conducted by DOE, EPRI and Japan Research Institutions. Roadmap, Achievements and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pape, Yann [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rosseel, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program (Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program–Material Pathway–Concrete and Long-Term Operation (LTO) Program) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research studies aim at understanding the most prominent degradation modes and their effects on the long-term operation of concrete structures to nuclear power generation. Based on the results of the Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), (NUREG/CR-7153, ORNL/TM-2011/545), irradiated concrete and alkali-silica reaction (ASR)-affected concrete structures are the two prioritized topics of on-going research. This report focuses specifically on the topic of irradiated concrete and summarizes the main accomplishments obtained by this joint program, but also provides an overview of current relevant activities domestically and internationally. Possible paths forward are also suggested to help near-future orientation of this program.

  10. On-Going International Research Program on Irradiated Concrete Conducted by DOE, EPRI and Japan Research Institutions. Roadmap, Achievements and Path Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Yann; Rosseel, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    The Joint Department of Energy (DOE)-Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Program (Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Material Pathway Concrete and Long-Term Operation (LTO) Program) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) research studies aim at understanding the most prominent degradation modes and their effects on the long-term operation of concrete structures to nuclear power generation. Based on the results of the Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), (NUREG/CR-7153, ORNL/TM-2011/545), irradiated concrete and alkali-silica reaction (ASR)-affected concrete structures are the two prioritized topics of on-going research. This report focuses specifically on the topic of irradiated concrete and summarizes the main accomplishments obtained by this joint program, but also provides an overview of current relevant activities domestically and internationally. Possible paths forward are also suggested to help near-future orientation of this program.

  11. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective: The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method: A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results: The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion: There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal

  12. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, H; Hashemi, B; Mahdavi, S R; Hejazi, P

    2015-03-01

    Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs) and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs) estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external radiotherapy practices.

  13. Conventional Wisdom versus Actual Outcomes: Challenges in the Conduct of an Ebola Vaccine Trial in Liberia during the International Public Health Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Gregg S; Baseler, Beth R; Hoover, Marie L; Pierson, Jerome F; Tegli, Jemee K; Johnson, Melvin P; Kieh, Mark W S; McNay, Laura A; Njoh, Wissedi Sio

    2017-07-01

    Clinical trials are challenging endeavors. Planning and implementing an investigational vaccine trial in Liberia, in the midst of an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that World Health Organization classified a public health emergency of international concern, presented extraordinary challenges. Normally, years of preparation and a litany of tasks lay the groundwork for a successful, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial focused on safety and efficacy. Difficult research settings, unpredictable events, and other unique circumstances can add complexity. The setting in Liberia was especially problematic due to an infrastructure still badly damaged following a lengthy civil war and a very fragile health-care system that was further devastated by the EVD outbreak. The Partnership for Research on Vaccines in Liberia I EVD vaccine trial was planned and implemented in less than 3 months by a Liberian and U.S. research partnership, and its Phase II substudy was fully enrolled 3 months later. Contrasting conventional wisdom with trial outcomes offers an opportunity to compare early assumptions, barriers encountered, and adaptive strategies used, with end results. Understanding what was learned can inform future trial responses when disease outbreaks, especially in resource-poor locations with minimal infrastructure, pose a significant threat to public health.

  14. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  15. Nucleon internal structure: a new set of quark, gluon momentum, angular momentum operators and parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Sun Weimin; Chen Xiangsong; Lu Xiaofu; Goldman, T.

    2009-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed. (authors)

  16. Engaging actively with issues in the responsible conduct of science: lessons from international efforts are relevant for undergraduate education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, John D; Connell, Nancy D; Dirks, Clarissa; El-Faham, Mohamed; Hay, Alastair; Heitman, Elizabeth; Stith, James H; Bond, Enriqueta C; Colwell, Rita R; Anestidou, Lida; Husbands, Jo L; Labov, Jay B

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies are demonstrating that engaging undergraduate students in original research can improve their achievement in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields and increase the likelihood that some of them will decide to pursue careers in these disciplines. Associated with this increased prominence of research in the undergraduate curriculum are greater expectations from funders, colleges, and universities that faculty mentors will help those students, along with their graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, develop an understanding and sense of personal and collective obligation for responsible conduct of science (RCS). This Feature describes an ongoing National Research Council (NRC) project and a recent report about educating faculty members in culturally diverse settings (Middle East/North Africa and Asia) to employ active-learning strategies to engage their students and colleagues deeply in issues related to RCS. The NRC report describes the first phase of this project, which took place in Aqaba and Amman, Jordan, in September 2012 and April 2013, respectively. Here we highlight the findings from that report and our subsequent experience with a similar interactive institute in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our work provides insights and perspectives for faculty members in the United States as they engage undergraduate and graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows, to help them better understand the intricacies of and connections among various components of RCS. Further, our experiences can provide insights for those who may wish to establish "train-the-trainer" programs at their home institutions.

  17. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou; Richardson, Douglas; Liu, Yu; Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M.; Dvorak, Harold F.; Jaminet, Shou-Ching S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy

  18. Intracellular distribution of TM4SF1 and internalization of TM4SF1-antibody complex in vascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuto, Tracey E.; Merley, Anne; Lin, Chi-Iou [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States); Richardson, Douglas [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University (United States); Liu, Yu [Department of Pharmacology, Shanxi Medical University, Xinjiannanlu 56, Shanxi Province, Taiyuan 030001 (China); Li, Dan; Dvorak, Ann M. [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States); Dvorak, Harold F., E-mail: hdvorak@bidmc.harvard.edu [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States); Jaminet, Shou-Ching S., E-mail: sjaminet@bidmc.harvard.edu [Center for Vascular Biology Research and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School (United States)

    2015-09-25

    Transmembrane-4 L-six family member-1 (TM4SF1) is a small plasma membrane-associated glycoprotein that is highly and selectively expressed on the plasma membranes of tumor cells, cultured endothelial cells, and, in vivo, on tumor-associated endothelium. Immunofluorescence microscopy also demonstrated TM4SF1 in cytoplasm and, tentatively, within nuclei. With monoclonal antibody 8G4, and the finer resolution afforded by immuno-nanogold transmission electron microscopy, we now demonstrate TM4SF1 in uncoated cytoplasmic vesicles, nuclear pores and nucleoplasm. Because of its prominent surface location on tumor cells and tumor-associated endothelium, TM4SF1 has potential as a dual therapeutic target using an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) approach. For ADC to be successful, antibodies reacting with cell surface antigens must be internalized for delivery of associated toxins to intracellular targets. We now report that 8G4 is efficiently taken up into cultured endothelial cells by uncoated vesicles in a dynamin-dependent, clathrin-independent manner. It is then transported along microtubules through the cytoplasm and passes through nuclear pores into the nucleus. These findings validate TM4SF1 as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy with antibody-bound toxins that have the capacity to react with either cytoplasmic or nuclear targets in tumor cells or tumor-associated vascular endothelium. - Highlights: • Anti-TM4SF1 antibody 8G4 was efficiently taken up by cultured endothelial cells. • TM4SF1–8G4 internalization is dynamin-dependent but clathrin-independent. • TM4SF1–8G4 complexes internalize along microtubules to reach the perinuclear region. • Internalized TM4SF1–8G4 complexes pass through nuclear pores into the nucleus. • TM4SF1 is an attractive candidate for ADC cancer therapy.

  19. The relation between pre-eruptive bubble size distribution, ash particle morphology, and their internal density: Implications to volcanic ash transport and dispersion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proussevitch, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Parameterization of volcanic ash transport and dispersion (VATD) models strongly depends on particle morphology and their internal properties. Shape of ash particles affects terminal fall velocities (TFV) and, mostly, dispersion. Internal density combined with particle size has a very strong impact on TFV and ultimately on the rate of ash cloud thinning and particle sedimentation on the ground. Unlike other parameters, internal particle density cannot be measured directly because of the micron scale sizes of fine ash particles, but we demonstrate that it varies greatly depending on the particle size. Small simple type ash particles (fragments of bubble walls, 5-20 micron size) do not contain whole large magmatic bubbles inside and their internal density is almost the same as that of volcanic glass matrix. On the other side, the larger compound type ash particles (>40 microns for silicic fine ashes) always contain some bubbles or the whole spectra of bubble size distribution (BSD), i.e. bubbles of all sizes, bringing their internal density down as compared to simple ash. So, density of the larger ash particles is a function of the void fraction inside them (magmatic bubbles) which, in turn, is controlled by BSD. Volcanic ash is a product of the fragmentation of magmatic foam formed by pre-eruptive bubble population and characterized by BSD. The latter can now be measured from bubble imprints on ash particle surfaces using stereo-scanning electron microscopy (SSEM) and BubbleMaker software developed at UNH, or using traditional high-resolution X-Ray tomography. In this work we present the mathematical and statistical formulation for this problem connecting internal ash density with particle size and BSD, and demonstrate how the TFV of the ash population is affected by variation of particle density.

  20. Distribución de las transformaciones lineales de los residuos mínimos cuadrados studentizados internamente = Distribution of linear transformations of internally studentized least squares residuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Pynnönem

    2012-03-01

    that the resulting ratio, U/S, has a distribution that is free of from the nuisance unknown scale parameter. External Studentization refers to a ratio in which the nominator and denominator are independent, while internal Studentization refers to a ratio in which these are dependent. The advantage of the internal Studentization is that typically one can use a single common scale estimator, while in the external Studentization every single residual is scaled by different scale estimator to gain the independence. With normal regression errors the joint distribution of an arbitrary (linearly independent subset of internally Studentized residuals is well documented. However, in some applications a linear combination of internally Studentized residuals may be useful. The boundedness of them is well documented, but the distribution seems not be derived in the literature. This paper contributes to the existing literature by deriving the joint distribution of an arbitrary linear transformation of internally Studentized residuals from ordinary least squares regression with spherical error distribution. All major versions of commonly utilized internally Studentized regression residuals in literature are obtained as special cases of the linear transformation

  1. Stress State of Elastic Thick-Walled Ring With Self-Balanced Pressures Distributed on Its Internal and External Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk Aleksandr Stepanovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available For the first time with the help of the theory of analytic functions and Kolosov-Muskhelishvili formulas the problem of the two-dimensional theory of elasticity for a thickwalled ring with the uneven pressures, acting on its borders, was solved. The pressure on the inner and outer boundaries is represented by Fourier series. The authors represent the two complex functions which solve boundary problem in the form of Laurent series. The logarithmic terms in these series are absent because the boundary problem has the self-balancing loads on each boundary of ring. The coefficients in the Laurent series are calculated by the boundary conditions. Firstly, the equations were obtained in the general form. But the hypothesis about even distributions of pressures at borders of ring was used for constructing an example. It leads to the fact that all coefficients of analytic functions represented in Laurent series have to be only real. As a solving example, the representation of pressures in equivalent hypotrochoids was used. The application of the computer algebra system Mathematica greatly simplifies the calculation of the distribution of stresses and displacements in ring. It does not require manual formal separation of real and imaginary parts in terms of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili to display the distribution of the physical parameters. It separates them only for calculated numbers with the help of built-in functions.

  2. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1999-01-01

    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  3. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Controlled Operation of the Islanded Portion of the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak, Claus Leth; Ali, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    In islanding, a portion of the power network, comprised of the loads and distributed generation (DG) units, is isolated from the rest of the power grid and forms a micro grid (MG). In this condition, it becomes essential for the islanded MG to operate in a stable and controlled manner by providing...... ancillary services. When the MG is cut off from the main grid, the islanding must be detected by the DG units. In this condition it is essential that one of the controllers should be switched to the voltage-frequency (VF) control mode. In islanding, the network loses it slack reference and this reference...

  5. Competitive effects and instruments of power sector reforms. International reform concepts blockade structures, risk distribution. A political economy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebchen, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Power sectors with weak or inadequate competition structures are the rule, despite numerous attempts at reform. But can afford modern economies this defect for a long time? Why can the implementation of competition are blocked so effectively? The author studied international reform experiences and opens up interesting insights that can also reflect on problems of the German energy turnaround: The difficulty of timing and coordination of the reform components, the development of resistance levels of individual interest groups, breach of contract as a rational alternative, causes unwanted price effects, shifting interest situations of major stakeholders, change dynamics impending regulatory risks, pending financing risks, stranded cost-conflict situations for power stations disconnected from the grid and facilities and instruments of a political and regulatory risk management for reforms. With numerous examples, background analyzes and instruments to reform analysis, this book is aimed at investors, policy planners and analysts. [de

  6. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode Florin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  7. A Numerical Analysis of the Air Distribution System for the Ventilation of the Crew Quarters on board of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Florin; Nastase, Ilinca; Croitoru, Cristiana Verona; Sandu, Mihnea; Dogeanu, Angel

    2018-02-01

    Quality of life on the International Space Station (ISS) has become more and more important, since the time spent by astronauts outside the terrestrial atmosphere has increased in the last years. The actual concept for the Crew Quarters (CQ) have demonstrated the possibility of a personal space for sleep and free time activities in which the noise levels are lower, but not enough, compared to the noisy ISS isle way. However, there are several issues that needs to be improved to increase the performance of CQ. Our project QUEST is intended to propose a new concept of CQ in which we will correct these issues, like the noise levels will be lower, more space for astronaut, increased thermal comfort, reduce the CQ total weight, higher efficiency for the air distribution, personalized ventilation system in CQ for the crew members in order to remove CO2 from the breathing zone. This paper presents a CFD study in which we are comparing the actual and a proposed ventilation solution for introducing the air in CQ. A preliminary numerical model of the present configuration of the air distribution system of the Crew Quarters on board of the ISS, shows the need for an improved air distribution inside these enclosures. Lower velocity values at the inlet diffuser, distributed over a larger surface, as well as diffusers with improved induction would appear to be a better choice. This was confirmed through the development of a new model including linear diffusers with a larger discharge surface. In this new configuration, the regions of possible draught are dramatically reduced. The overall distributions of the velocity magnitudes displaying more uniform, lower values, in the same time with more uniform temperatures. All these observations allow us to consider a better mixing of the air inside the enclosure.

  8. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system

  9. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamical modeling, and explicit internal force control when two manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-04-20

    The paper reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restrict the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  10. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  11. Optical conductivity of metal nanoshells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomchuk, P.M.; Kulish, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    The expression for optical conductivity of spherical metal nanoshell as a function of internal and external radii of nanoshell and photon energy - Fermi energy ratio is obtained. Quantization of electron energy in nanoshells is shown to lead to the appearance of an oscillating dependence of optical conductivity on the light frequency. An explicit expression of oscillating addends for optical conductivity is obtained

  12. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

  13. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Wijnhoven, Sander; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels

  14. The multi-layered ring under parabolic distribution of radial stresses combined with uniform internal and external pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos F. Markides

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A recently introduced solution for the stress- and displacement-fields, developed in a multi-layered circular ring, composed of a finite number of linearly elastic concentric layers, subjected to a parabolic distribution of ra-dial stresses, is here extended to encompass a more general loading scheme, closer to actual conditions. The loading scheme includes, besides the para¬-bolic radial stresses, a combination of uniform pressures acting along the outer- and inner- most boundaries of the layered ring. The analytic solution of the problem is achieved by adopting Savin’s pioneering approach for an infinite plate with a hole strengthened by rings. Taking advantage of the results provided by the ana¬lytic solution, a numerical model, simulating the configuration of a three-layered ring (quite commonly encountered in practic¬al applications is validated. The numerical model is then used for a parametric analysis enlightening some crucial aspects of the overall response of the ring.

  15. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  16. Internal combustion engine control for series hybrid electric vehicles by parallel and distributed genetic programming/multiobjective genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, D.; Stewart, P.; Stewart, J.

    2011-02-01

    This article addresses the problem of maintaining a stable rectified DC output from the three-phase AC generator in a series-hybrid vehicle powertrain. The series-hybrid prime power source generally comprises an internal combustion (IC) engine driving a three-phase permanent magnet generator whose output is rectified to DC. A recent development has been to control the engine/generator combination by an electronically actuated throttle. This system can be represented as a nonlinear system with significant time delay. Previously, voltage control of the generator output has been achieved by model predictive methods such as the Smith Predictor. These methods rely on the incorporation of an accurate system model and time delay into the control algorithm, with a consequent increase in computational complexity in the real-time controller, and as a necessity relies to some extent on the accuracy of the models. Two complementary performance objectives exist for the control system. Firstly, to maintain the IC engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly, to supply a stable DC supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the IC engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. In order to achieve these objectives, and reduce the complexity of implementation, in this article a controller is designed by the use of Genetic Programming methods in the Simulink modelling environment, with the aim of obtaining a relatively simple controller for the time-delay system which does not rely on the implementation of real time system models or time delay approximations in the controller. A methodology is presented to utilise the miriad of existing control blocks in the Simulink libraries to automatically evolve optimal control

  17. Current and potential distributions on positive plates with conductive Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4} and BaPbO{sub 3} in their formation and discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yonglang; Liu, Huan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2008-08-15

    The positive plates with conductive materials, Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4} and BaPbO{sub 3}, in automotive lead-acid batteries were investigated by measuring their current and potential distributions in the course of formation and discharge. It is found that these two conductive materials, especially Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, enhance the formation in the initial stage greatly and that they make the current and potential distributions more uniform. In the discharge, the addition of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4} increases the capacity of the positive plate, but it is unfavorable to the paste curing and causes poor contact between active mass (AM) particles so that the polarization increases greatly at 3 C discharge rate. The BaPbO{sub 3} additive improves not only the formation but also the discharge performance because of its stability in acidic media and at high polarization. The violent charge at high polarization around the plates in the initial formation can lead to poor AM contact and high polarization resistance. (author)

  18. Regional absolute conductivity reconstruction using projected current density in MREIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajib, Saurav Z K; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je; Kwon, Oh In

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a non-invasive technique for imaging the internal conductivity distribution in tissue within an MRI scanner, utilizing the magnetic flux density, which is introduced when a current is injected into the tissue from external electrodes. This magnetic flux alters the MRI signal, so that appropriate reconstruction can provide a map of the additional z-component of the magnetic field (B z ) as well as the internal current density distribution that created it. To extract the internal electrical properties of the subject, including the conductivity and/or the current density distribution, MREIT techniques use the relationship between the external injection current and the z-component of the magnetic flux density B = (B x , B y , B z ). The tissue studied typically contains defective regions, regions with a low MRI signal and/or low MRI signal-to-noise-ratio, due to the low density of nuclear magnetic resonance spins, short T 2 or T* 2 relaxation times, as well as regions with very low electrical conductivity, through which very little current traverses. These defective regions provide noisy B z data, which can severely degrade the overall reconstructed conductivity distribution. Injecting two independent currents through surface electrodes, this paper proposes a new direct method to reconstruct a regional absolute isotropic conductivity distribution in a region of interest (ROI) while avoiding the defective regions. First, the proposed method reconstructs the contrast of conductivity using the transversal J-substitution algorithm, which blocks the propagation of severe accumulated noise from the defective region to the ROI. Second, the proposed method reconstructs the regional projected current density using the relationships between the internal current density, which stems from a current injection on the surface, and the measured B z data. Combining the contrast conductivity distribution in the entire imaging

  19. Evaluation of dual energy quantitative CT for determining the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone for dosimetry in internal emitter radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Shenoy, Apeksha; Howard, David; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Dewaraja, Yuni K.; Shen, Jincheng; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wilderman, Scott; Chun, Se Young

    2014-01-01

    for external calibrations exhibited much larger RMS errors than size matched internal calibration. Use of an average body size external-to-internal calibration correction factor reduced the errors to closer to those for internal calibration. RMS errors of less than 30% or about 0.01 for the bone and 0.1 for the red marrow volume fractions would likely be satisfactory for human studies. Such accuracies were achieved for 3 × 3 segmentation of 5 mm slice images for: (a) internal calibration with 4 times dose for all size body phantoms, (b) internal calibration with 2 times dose for the small and medium size body phantoms, and (c) corrected external calibration with 4 times dose and all size body phantoms. Conclusions: Phantom studies are promising and demonstrate the potential to use dual energy quantitative CT to estimate the spatial distributions of red marrow and bone within the vertebral spongiosa

  20. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  1. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  2. Investigation of the internal electric field distribution under in situ x-ray irradiation and under low temperature conditions by the means of the Pockels effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prekas, G; Sellin, P J; Veeramani, P; Davies, A W; Lohstroh, A; Oezsan, M E; Veale, M C

    2010-01-01

    The internal electric field distribution in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) x-ray and γ-ray detectors strongly affects their performance in terms of charge transport and charge collection properties. In CdZnTe detectors the electric field distribution is sensitively dependent on not only the nature of the metal contacts but also on the working conditions of the devices such as the temperature and the rate of external irradiation. Here we present direct measurements of the electric field profiles in CdZnTe detectors obtained using the Pockels electo-optic effect whilst under in situ x-ray irradiation. These data are also compared with alpha particle induced current pulses obtained by the transient current technique, and we discuss the influence of both low temperature and x-ray irradiation on the electric field evolution. Results from these studies reveal strong distortion of the electric field consistent with the build-up of space charge at temperatures below 250 K, even in the absence of external irradiation. Also, in the presence of x-ray irradiation levels a significant distortion in the electric field is observed even at room temperature which matches well the predicted theoretical model.

  3. In vitro pressure manifolding distribution evaluation of ABThera™ Active Abdominal Therapy System, V.A.C.® Abdominal Dressing System, and Barker’s vacuum packing technique conducted under dynamic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Temporary abdominal closure methods allow for management of open abdomens where immediate primary closure is not possible and/or where repeat abdominal entries are necessary. We assessed pressure mapping and fluid extraction efficiency of three open abdomen dressing systems: ABThera™ Active Abdominal Therapy System, V.A.C.® Abdominal Dressing System, and Barker’s vacuum packing technique. Methods: An in vitro test model was designed to simulate physical conditions present in an open abdomen. The model consisted of a rigid rest platform with elevated central region and a flexible outer layer with centrally located incision. Constant −125 mmHg negative pressure was applied according to the type of system, under simulated dynamic conditions, using albumin-based solution with a viscosity of 14 cP. Data were collected by pressure sensors located circumferentially into three concentric zones: Zone 1 (closest to negative pressure source, Zone 2 (immediately outside of manifolding material edge, and Zone 3 (area most distal from negative pressure source. Each value was the result of approximately 100 pressure readings/zone/experiment with a total of three experiments for each system. Results: Pressure distribution of ABThera Therapy was significantly (p < 0.05 superior to Barker’s vacuum packing technique in all three evaluated zones. Similarly, V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System pressure distribution was significantly (p < 0.05 improved compared to Barker’s vacuum packing technique in all zones. There were no pressure distribution differences in Zone 1 between ABThera Therapy and V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System; however, in Zones 2 and 3, ABThera Therapy was significantly (p < 0.05 superior to V.A.C. Abdominal Dressing System. Conclusions: These data suggest that all approaches to negative pressure therapy for open abdomen treatment are not equal. Additional research should be conducted to elucidate clinical

  4. Seven rules of international distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, D

    2000-01-01

    A multinational entering a new market in a developing country knows that on its own, it cannot master local business practices, meet regulatory requirements, hire and manage local personnel, and gain access to potential customers. So it partners with a local distributor. At first, sales take off, revenues grow, and the entry seems like a smart move. But when sales plateau, the corporation begins blaming the distributor for not investing sufficiently in business growth or expanding markets, and the distributor claims that it hasn't received enough support and that the corporation's expectations are too high. The key to solving such problems lies in recognizing that the phases are predictable and can be planned for. As a new business grows in an emerging market, its marketing strategy needs to evolve, and each sequential phase requires different skills, financial investments, and management resources. The author offers seven strategies to manage the multinational-distributor partnership. He discusses what to consider when choosing a distributor, how to structure the relationship between the two partners, what resources the multinational should commit, and what can be expected in return. He states that a successful distributor must risk investing in training, information services, and advertising and promotion in order to implement the company's marketing strategy and grow the business. Paying attention at the start of a partnership can result in a better working relationship between a multinational and a distributor, along with more consistent sales and growth for the corporation.

  5. The Role of External Inputs and Internal Cycling in Shaping the Global Ocean Cobalt Distribution: Insights From the First Cobalt Biogeochemical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Alessandro; Hawco, Nicholas J.; Bundy, Randelle M.; Landing, William M.; Milne, Angela; Morton, Peter L.; Saito, Mak A.

    2018-04-01

    Cobalt is an important micronutrient for ocean microbes as it is present in vitamin B12 and is a co-factor in various metalloenzymes that catalyze cellular processes. Moreover, when seawater availability of cobalt is compared to biological demands, cobalt emerges as being depleted in seawater, pointing to a potentially important limiting role. To properly account for the potential biological role for cobalt, there is therefore a need to understand the processes driving the biogeochemical cycling of cobalt and, in particular, the balance between external inputs and internal cycling. To do so, we developed the first cobalt model within a state-of-the-art three-dimensional global ocean biogeochemical model. Overall, our model does a good job in reproducing measurements with a correlation coefficient of >0.7 in the surface and >0.5 at depth. We find that continental margins are the dominant source of cobalt, with a crucial role played by supply under low bottom-water oxygen conditions. The basin-scale distribution of cobalt supplied from margins is facilitated by the activity of manganese-oxidizing bacteria being suppressed under low oxygen and low temperatures, which extends the residence time of cobalt. Overall, we find a residence time of 7 and 250 years in the upper 250 m and global ocean, respectively. Importantly, we find that the dominant internal resupply process switches from regeneration and recycling of particulate cobalt to dissolution of scavenged cobalt between the upper ocean and the ocean interior. Our model highlights key regions of the ocean where biological activity may be most sensitive to cobalt availability.

  6. Quantitative studies of the distribution pattern for Salmonella Enteritidis in the internal organs of chicken after oral challenge by a real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, G Z; Tian, W Y; Qian, N; Cheng, A C; Deng, S X

    2010-12-01

    This research was undertaken to identify and understand the regular distribution pattern for Salmonella Enteritidis (S. enteritidis) in the internal organs of chicken after oral challenge over a 3 wk period. We used a real-time, fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) to detect genomic DNA of S. enteritidis in the blood and the internal organs, including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder, from chicken after oral challenge at different time points. The results showed that the spleen was positive at 12 h post inoculation (PI), and the blood was at 14 h PI. The organism was detected in the liver and heart at 16 h PI, pancrea was positive at 20 h PI, and the final organ to show a positive results were the kidney and gallbladder at 22 h PI. The copy number of S. enteritidis DNA in each tissue reached a peak at 24 h-36 h PI, with the liver and spleen containing high concentrations of S. enteritidis, whereas the blood, heart, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder had low concentrations. S. enteritidis populations began to decrease and were not detectable at 3 d PI, but were still present up to 12 d PI in the gallbladder, 2 wk for the liver, and 3 wk for the spleen without causing apparent symptoms. The results showed that the liver and spleen may be the primary sites for S. enteritidis setting itself up as a commensa over a long time after oral challenge. Interestingly, it may be the first time reported that the gallbladder is a site of carriage for S. enteritidis over a 12 d period. This study will help to understand the mechanisms of action of S. enteritidis infection in vivo.

  7. Improvement of personalized Monte Carlo-aided direct internal contamination monitoring: optimization of calculation times and measurement methodology for the establishment of activity distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farah, Jad

    2011-01-01

    To optimize the monitoring of female workers using in vivo spectrometry measurements, it is necessary to correct the typical calibration coefficients obtained with the Livermore male physical phantom. To do so, numerical calibrations based on the use of Monte Carlo simulations combined with anthropomorphic 3D phantoms were used. Such computational calibrations require on the one hand the development of representative female phantoms of different size and morphologies and on the other hand rapid and reliable Monte Carlo calculations. A library of female torso models was hence developed by fitting the weight of internal organs and breasts according to the body height and to relevant plastic surgery recommendations. This library was next used to realize a numerical calibration of the AREVA NC La Hague in vivo counting installation. Moreover, the morphology-induced counting efficiency variations with energy were put into equation and recommendations were given to correct the typical calibration coefficients for any monitored female worker as a function of body height and breast size. Meanwhile, variance reduction techniques and geometry simplification operations were considered to accelerate simulations. Furthermore, to determine the activity mapping in the case of complex contaminations, a method that combines Monte Carlo simulations with in vivo measurements was developed. This method consists of realizing several spectrometry measurements with different detector positioning. Next, the contribution of each contaminated organ to the count is assessed from Monte Carlo calculations. The in vivo measurements realized at LEDI, CIEMAT and KIT have demonstrated the effectiveness of the method and highlighted the valuable contribution of Monte Carlo simulations for a more detailed analysis of spectrometry measurements. Thus, a more precise estimate of the activity distribution is given in the case of an internal contamination. (author)

  8. [Measures of occupational exposure to time-varying low frequency magnetic fields of non-uniform spatial distribution in the light of international guidelines and electrodynamic exposure effects in the human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Zradziński, Patryk; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The aim of study was to analyze by computer simulations the electrodynamic effects of magnetic field (MF) on workers, to harmonize the principles of occupational hazards assessment with international guidelines. Simulations involved 50 Hz MF of various spatial distributions, representing workers' exposure in enterprises. Homogeneous models of sigma = 0.2 S/m conductivity and dimensions of body parts - palm, head and trunk - were located at 50 cm ("hand-distance") or 5 cm (adjacent) from the source (circle conductor of 20 cm or 200 cm in diameter). Parameters of magnetic flux density (B(i)) affecting the models were the exposure measures, and the induced electric field strength (E(in)) was the measure of MF exposure effects. The ratio E(in)/B(i) in the analyzed cases ranged from 2.59 to 479 (V/m)/T. The strongest correlation (p assessing the effects of non-uniform fields exposure, resulting from a strong dependence of the E(in)/B(i) ratio on the conditions of exposure and its applied measures, requires special caution when defining the permissible MF levels and the principles of exposure assessment at workplace.

  9. Experimental optimization of temperature distribution in the hot-gas duct through the installation of internals in the hot-gas plenum of a high-temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henssen, J.; Mauersberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    The flow conditions in the hot-gas plenum and in the adjacent hot-gas ducts and hot-gas pipes for the high-temperature reactor project PNP-1000 (nuclear process heat project for 1000 MW thermal output) have been examined experimentally. The experiments were performed in a closed loop in which the flow model to be analyzed, representing a 60deg sector of the core bottom of the PNP-1000 with connecting hot-gas piping and diverting arrangements, was installed. The model scale was approx. 1:5.6. The temperature and flow velocity distribution in the hot-gas duct was registered by means of 14 dual hot-wire flowmeters. Through structural changes and/or the installation of internals into the hot-gas plenum of the core bottom offering little flow resistance coolant gas temperature differentials produced in the core could be reduced to such an extent that a degree of mixture amounting to over 80% was achieved at the entrance of the connected heat exchanger systems. Thereby the desired goal of an adequate degree of mixture of the hot gas involving an acceptable pressure loss was reached. (orig.)

  10. Integrated Logistics Support Analysis of the International Space Station Alpha, Background and Summary of Mathematical Modeling and Failure Density Distributions Pertaining to Maintenance Time Dependent Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehry-Fard, F.; Coulthard, Maurice H.

    1995-01-01

    The process of predicting the values of maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as mean time between failures (MTBF) over time must be one that will not in turn introduce uncontrolled deviation in the results of the ILS analysis such as life cycle costs, spares calculation, etc. A minor deviation in the values of the maintenance time dependent variable parameters such as MTBF over time will have a significant impact on the logistics resources demands, International Space Station availability and maintenance support costs. There are two types of parameters in the logistics and maintenance world: a. Fixed; b. Variable Fixed parameters, such as cost per man hour, are relatively easy to predict and forecast. These parameters normally follow a linear path and they do not change randomly. However, the variable parameters subject to the study in this report such as MTBF do not follow a linear path and they normally fall within the distribution curves which are discussed in this publication. The very challenging task then becomes the utilization of statistical techniques to accurately forecast the future non-linear time dependent variable arisings and events with a high confidence level. This, in turn, shall translate in tremendous cost savings and improved availability all around.

  11. 2012 best practices for repositories collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of biological materials for research international society for biological and environmental repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Third Edition [Formula: see text] [Box: see text] Printed with permission from the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER) © 2011 ISBER All Rights Reserved Editor-in-Chief Lori D. Campbell, PhD Associate Editors Fay Betsou, PhD Debra Leiolani Garcia, MPA Judith G. Giri, PhD Karen E. Pitt, PhD Rebecca S. Pugh, MS Katherine C. Sexton, MBA Amy P.N. Skubitz, PhD Stella B. Somiari, PhD Individual Contributors to the Third Edition Jonas Astrin, Susan Baker, Thomas J. Barr, Erica Benson, Mark Cada, Lori Campbell, Antonio Hugo Jose Froes Marques Campos, David Carpentieri, Omoshile Clement, Domenico Coppola, Yvonne De Souza, Paul Fearn, Kelly Feil, Debra Garcia, Judith Giri, William E. Grizzle, Kathleen Groover, Keith Harding, Edward Kaercher, Joseph Kessler, Sarah Loud, Hannah Maynor, Kevin McCluskey, Kevin Meagher, Cheryl Michels, Lisa Miranda, Judy Muller-Cohn, Rolf Muller, James O'Sullivan, Karen Pitt, Rebecca Pugh, Rivka Ravid, Katherine Sexton, Ricardo Luis A. Silva, Frank Simione, Amy Skubitz, Stella Somiari, Frans van der Horst, Gavin Welch, Andy Zaayenga 2012 Best Practices for Repositories: Collection, Storage, Retrieval and Distribution of Biological Materials for Research INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPOSITORIES (ISBER) INTRODUCTION T he availability of high quality biological and environmental specimens for research purposes requires the development of standardized methods for collection, long-term storage, retrieval and distribution of specimens that will enable their future use. Sharing successful strategies for accomplishing this goal is one of the driving forces for the International Society for Biological and Environmental Repositories (ISBER). For more information about ISBER see www.isber.org . ISBER's Best Practices for Repositories (Best Practices) reflect the collective experience of its members and has received broad input from other repository professionals. Throughout this document

  12. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  13. Developing a survey instrument to assess the readiness of primary care data, genetic and disease registries to conduct linked research: TRANSFoRm International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Leppenwell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Clinical data are collected for routine care in family practice; there are also a growing number of genetic and cancer registry data repositories. The Translational Research and Patient Safety in Europe (TRANSFoRm project seeks to facilitate research using linked data from more than one source. We performed a requirements analysis which identified a wide range of data and business process requirements that need to be met before linking primary care and either genetic or disease registry data.Objectives To develop a survey to assess the readiness of data repositories to participate in linked research – the Transform International Research Readiness (TIRRE survey.Method We develop the questionnaire based on our requirement analysis; with questions at micro-, meso- and macro levels of granularity, study-specific questions about diabetes and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD, and research track record. The scope of the data required was extensive. We piloted this instrument, conducting ten preliminary telephone interviews to evaluate the response to the questionnaire.Results Using feedback gained from these interviews we revised the questionnaire; clarifying questions that were difficult to answer and utilising skip logic to create different series of questions for the various types of data repository. We simplified the questionnaire replacing free-text responses with yes/no or picking list options, wherever possible. We placed the final questionnaire online and encouraged its use (www.clininf.eu/jointirre/info.html.Conclusion Limited field testing suggests that TIRRE is capable of collecting comprehensive and relevant data about the suitability and readiness of data repositories to participate in linked data research.

  14. Thermal conductivity of granular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buyevich, Yu A

    1974-01-01

    Stationary heat transfer in a granular material consisting of a continuous medium containing spherical granules of other substances is considered under the assumption that the spatial distribution of granules is random. The effective thermal conductivity characterizing macroscopic heat transfer in such a material is expressed as a certain function of the conductivities and volume fractions of the medium and dispersed substances. For reasons of mathematical analogy, all the results obtained for the thermal conductivity are valid while computing the effective diffusivity of some admixture in granular materials as well as for evaluation of the effective electric conductivity or the mean dielectric and magnetic permeabilities of granular conductors and dielectrics. (23 refs.)

  15. Remarks on the radiological situation in the vicinity of the uranium mines operated by SOMAIR and COMINAK (subsidiaries of AREVA) in northern Niger. Study conducted on behalf of Greenpeace International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The companies SOMAIR and COMINAK, subsidiaries of the AREVA group, are mining uranium deposits in northern Niger near the towns of Arlit and Akokan. In the course of a mission carried out in November 2009, a Greenpeace International team took radiation measurements in situ, collected samples, and amassed a number of documents provided by the companies. The aim of this mission was to evaluate how the radiological situation has developed in the vicinity of the industrial sites operated by SOMAIR and COMINAK. The CRIIRAD laboratory, which carried out earlier missions and studies at Arlit between 2003 and 2009 (list at Annex 1) helped to accomplish this mission by drawing up a list of documents to be requested from AREVA (Annex 2) and devising a sampling and analysis strategy. The sampling procedures and radioprotection instructions were discussed during a preliminary meeting at the CRIIRAD laboratory on 7 October 2009, between Dr Rianne Teule (chemist, Greenpeace International) and Dr. Bruno Chareyron (nuclear physics engineer in charge of the CRIIRAD laboratory). The analysis at the CRIIRAD laboratory of the samples brought back by Greenpeace in November 2009 is discussed in CRIIRAD reports nos. 10-05 (soil analysis) and 10-07 (analysis of radon in the air). The results of the radiological and chemical analysis of five water samples taken by Greenpeace in the Arlit-Akokan district and, as a control, one sample taken in the Imouraren district are reproduced in Annex 4 and discussed in the present report. The present report represents a summary of the CRIIRAD laboratory's preliminary observations and recommendations on the basis of the analysis conducted and of a preliminary examination of the documents listed in Annex 3. Three subjects are addressed: the presence of radioactive material in the environment; air contamination by a radioactive gas, radon 222; and contamination of groundwater which supplies the local population. A more in-depth analysis of the available

  16. Influence factors of sand-bentonite mixtures on hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonggui; Ye Weimin; Chen Bao; Wan Min; Wang Qiong

    2008-01-01

    Buffer material is a very important part of the engineering barrier for geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Compacted bentonite is attracting greater attention as buffer and backfill material because it offer impermeability and swelling properties, but the pure compacted bentonite strength decreases with increasing hydration and these will reduce the buffer capability. To solve this problem, sand is often used to form compacted sand-bentonite mixtures (SBMs) providing high thermal conductivity, excellent compaction capacity, long-time stability, and low engineering cost. As to SBMs, hydraulic conductivity is a important index for evaluation barrier capability. Based on the review of research results, the factors affecting the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs were put forward including bentonite content, grain size distribution, moisture content, dry density, compacting method and energy, and bentonite type. The studies show that the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs is controlled by the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite, it also decreases as dry density and bentonite content increase, but when the bentonite content reach a critical point, the influence of increasing bentonite to decrease the hydraulic conductivity is limited. A fine and well-graded SBMs is likely to have a lower hydraulic conductivity than a coarse and poorly graded material. The internal erosion or erodibility based on the grain size distribution of the SBMs has a negative effect on the final hydraulic conductivity. The lowest hydraulic conductivity is gained when the mixtures are compacted close to optimum moisture content. Also, the mixtures compacted at moisture contents slightly above optimum values give lower hydraulic conductivity than when compacted at slightly under the optimum moisture content. Finally, discussion was brought to importance of compaction method, compacting energy, and bentonite type to the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs. (authors)

  17. International Occupational Therapy Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Coppola, Susan; Alvarez, Liliana; Cibule, Lolita; Maltsev, Sergey; Loh, Siew Yim; Mlambo, Tecla; Ikiugu, Moses N; Pihlar, Zdenka; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Baptiste, Sue; Ledgerd, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally.

  18. Preliminary report on the geographical distribution of the species of Carinariidae and Pterotracheidae (Heteropoda, Mollusca) from the International Indian Ocean Expedition

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aravindakshan, P.N.

    This is a description of the distribution in the Indian Ocean of species belonging to two families of the Heteropoda, the Carinariidae and Pterotracheidae The observations are based on plankton collected by Anton Brunn, Argo, Pionner and Vityaz...

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle: international market, international constraints and international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the constraints on the nuclear fuel cycle are ones arising from economic and financial reasons, those caused by uranium resources and their distribution, those arising from technical reasons, issues of public acceptance, and those quite independent of normal industrial considerations, but caused by elements of international politics. The nuclear fuel cycle and the international market, matters of nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation are discussed

  20. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  1. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  2. Distribution of electron density and internal rotation in phospha-alkenes according to data from quantum-chemical calculations by the MNDO method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldeskul, I.E.; Pen'kovskii, V.V.; Povolotskii, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    A quantum-chemical investigation of the characteristics of the phosphorus-carbon bond and the internal rotation around it in phospha-alkenes has been carried out in the MNDO approximation. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental dynamic 1 H NMR data

  3. Exploring Differences in the Distribution of Teacher Qualifications across Mexico and South Korea: Evidence from the Teaching and Learning International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Chudgar, Amita; Rew, W. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Although substantial evidence from the United States indicates that more qualified teachers are disproportionately concentrated among academically and economically advantaged children, little cross-national research has examined the distribution of teacher qualifications across schools and students. As a result, we know little…

  4. The Mediating Roles of Internal Context Variables in the Relationship between Distributed Leadership Perceptions and Continuous Change Behaviours of Public School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakci, Yasar; Zayim, Merve; Beycioglu, Kadir; Sincar, Mehmet; Ugurlu, Celal T

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at building a theoretical base for continuous change in education and using this base to test the mediating roles of two key contextual variables, knowledge sharing and trust, in the relationship between the distributed leadership perceptions and continuous change behaviours of teachers. Data were collected from 687 public school…

  5. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  6. A Causal Model of Linkages between Environment and Organizational Structure, and Its Performance Implications in International Service Distribution: An Empirical Study of Restaurant and Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seehyung

    2005-01-01

    This research develops and tests a model of the service unit ownership and control patterns used by international service companies. The main purpose of this study is to investigate trivariate causal relationships among environmental factors, organizational structure, and perceived performance in the internationalization process of service firms. A service firm operating in foreign soil has a choice of three general entry mode strategies offering different degrees of ownership and control of ...

  7. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: A tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knudsen, L.V.; Laplante-Levesque, A.; Jones, L.; Preminger, J.E.; Nielsen, C.; Lunner, T.; Hickson, L.; Naylor, G.; Kramer, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. Design:

  8. Flight and full-scale wind-tunnel comparison of pressure distributions from an F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. [Conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Lanser, Wendy R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure distributions were obtained at nearly identical fuselage stations and wing chord butt lines in flight on the F-18 HARV at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and in the NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft. The static pressures were measured at the identical five stations on the forebody, three stations on the left and right leading-edge extensions, and three spanwise stations on the wing. Comparisons of the flight and wind-tunnel pressure distributions were made at alpha = 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg/59 deg. In general, very good agreement was found. Minor differences were noted at the forebody at alpha = 45 deg and 60 deg in the magnitude of the vortex footprints and a Mach number effect was noted at the leading-edge extension at alpha = 30 deg. The inboard leading edge flap data from the wind tunnel at alpha = 59 deg showed a suction peak that did not appear in the flight data. This was the result of a vortex from the corner of the leading edge flap whose path was altered by the lack of an engine simulation in the wind tunnel.

  9. Development and use of a fifteen year-old equivalent mathematical phantom for internal dose calculations. [Radiation dose distributions from /sup 99m/Tc-labeled compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.M.; Poston, J.W.; Hwang, J.L.; Jones, T.D.; Warner, G.G.

    1976-06-01

    The existence of a phantom based on anatomical data for the average fifteen-year-old provides for a proficient means of obtaining estimates of absorbed dose for children of that age. Dimensions representative of an average fifteen-year-old human, obtained from various biological and medical research, were transformed into a mathematical construct of idealized shapes of the exterior, skeletal system, and internal organs of a human. The idealization for an average adult presently in use by the International Commission on Radiological Protection was used as a basis for design. The mathematical equations describing the phantom were developed to be readily adaptable to present-day methods of dose estimation. Typical exposure situations in nuclear medicine have previously been modeled for existing phantoms. With no further development of the exposure model necessary, adaptation to the fifteen-year-old phantom demonstrated the utility of the design. Estimates of absorbed dose were obtained for the administration of two radiopharmaceuticals, /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA. (auth)

  10. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  11. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  12. Identification of internal variation in the pseudoautosomal VNTR DXYS17, with nonrandom distribution of the alleles on the X and the Y chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decorte, R.; Wu, R.; Marynen, P.; Cassiman, J.J.

    1994-03-01

    The PCR technique was used to analyze the DXYS17 locus in the pseudoautosomal region of the X and the Y chromosomes. Analysis on an automated DNA sequencer allowed for sensitive and highly accurate typing of 16 different alleles with a size between 480 and 1,100 bp. Two DXYS17 alleles migrated with the same size on agarose or denaturing polyacrylamide gels but with different mobilities on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. Sequence analysis showed that, while an identical number of repeats were present in both alleles, differences in the composition of the units were observed. The origin of these differences was found in the 28- and 33-bp units, which only had a specific repeat pattern at the 5' and 3' ends of the region. The genotype distribution for DXYS17 in a Caucasian population did not deviate from the values expected under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. However, the frequency of one allele and one genotype was significantly different between males and females. Segregation analysis showed that this difference was the result of a nonrandom distribution of certain alleles on the sex chromosomes in males. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Technology to prevent deposition of marine organisms by means of electrically conductive coating. Discussions on current and potential distribution by using experiments; Doden tomaku ni yoru kaiyo seibutsu fuchaku boshi gijutsu. Denryu den`i bunpu ni kansuru jikken ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, M; Masaki, T [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ueda, K

    1996-04-10

    Steel structures in sea water and surface of hulls are deposited with such marine organisms as microorganisms, algae and shellfish. The deposition causes a large problem such as occurrence of abnormal local corrosion in the structures, and increase in cruising resistance in ocean vessels. The present study has introduced a simplified equation of estimation for current and potential distribution in parts coated with an electrically conductive film, and verified its reasonability by an experiment. The equation of estimation was introduced by following a model of current flow in the electrically conductive coating. The experiment has the conductive coating applied to the interior of a concrete water tank with a length of 10.8 m, a width of 5 m and a depth of 3 m to measure potential at different locations. The conductive coating was energized from copper foils attached on each applied face, whereas the current was applied to two faces between the conductive films as a pair among the four coating applied faces to measure potential in each location. A simulated calculation revealed that the potential range in the depth direction is made smaller if specific resistance of the conductive film is decreased, and made greater if increased. Effectiveness of the equation of estimation was verified by an experiment. This method has provided a prospect of achieving optimization of the specification for application of the conductive film. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Documentation of the heat conduction code TRANCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    A transient heat conduction code used for thermal, thermoelastic, thermoelastic/plastic, and thermo/viscoelastic analyses is presented. The code can solve two-dimensional X-Y and axially symmetric R-theta-z thermal problems with the following conditions: constant temperature, constant flux, convective, or adiabatic boundary conditions; time-dependent or constant internal heat generation; and anisotropic thermal conductivities

  15. High-frequency conductivity of photoionized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anakhov, M. V.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The tensor of the high-frequency conductivity of a plasma created via tunnel ionization of atoms in the field of linearly or circularly polarized radiation is derived. It is shown that the real part of the conductivity tensor is highly anisotropic. In the case of a toroidal velocity distribution of photoelectrons, the possibility of amplification of a weak high-frequency field polarized at a sufficiently large angle to the anisotropy axis of the initial nonequilibrium distribution is revealed.

  16. COEVOLUTION BETWEEN SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND BULGES IS NOT VIA INTERNAL FEEDBACK REGULATION BUT BY RATIONED GAS SUPPLY DUE TO ANGULAR MOMENTUM DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cen, Renyue, E-mail: cen@astro.princeton.edu [Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We reason that without physical fine-tuning, neither the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) nor the stellar bulges can self-regulate or inter-regulate by driving away already fallen cold gas to produce the observed correlation between them. We suggest an alternative scenario where the observed mass ratios of the SMBHs to bulges reflect the angular momentum distribution of infallen gas such that the mass reaching the stable accretion disk is a small fraction of that reaching the bulge region, averaged over the cosmological timescales. We test this scenario using high-resolution, large-scale cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, without active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, assuming the angular momentum distribution of gas landing in the bulge region yields a Mestel disk that is supported by independent simulations resolving the Bondi radii of SMBHs. A mass ratio of 0.1%–0.3% between the very low angular momentum gas that free falls to the subparsec region to accrete to the SMBH and the overall star formation rate is found. This ratio is found to increase with increasing redshift to within a factor of ∼2, suggesting that the SMBH-to-bulge ratio is nearly redshift independent, with a modest increase with redshift, which is a testable prediction. Furthermore, the duty cycle of AGNs with high Eddington ratios is expected to increase significantly with redshift. Finally, while SMBHs and bulges are found to coevolve on ∼30–150 Myr timescales or longer, there is indication that on still smaller timescales, the SMBH accretion and star formation may be less correlated.

  17. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamic modeling, and explicit internal force control when two serial link manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system

  18. A review of a method for dynamic load distribution, dynamic modeling, and explicit internal force control when two serial link manipulators mutually lift and transport a rigid body object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseren, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    The report reviews a method for modeling and controlling two serial link manipulators which mutually lift and transport a rigid body object in a three dimensional workspace. A new vector variable is introduced which parameterizes the internal contact force controlled degrees of freedom. A technique for dynamically distributing the payload between the manipulators is suggested which yields a family of solutions for the contact forces and torques the manipulators impart to the object. A set of rigid body kinematic constraints which restricts the values of the joint velocities of both manipulators is derived. A rigid body dynamical model for the closed chain system is first developed in the joint space. The model is obtained by generalizing the previous methods for deriving the model. The joint velocity and acceleration variables in the model are expressed in terms of independent pseudovariables. The pseudospace model is transformed to obtain reduced order equations of motion and a separate set of equations governing the internal components of the contact forces and torques. A theoretic control architecture is suggested which explicitly decouples the two sets of equations comprising the model. The controller enables the designer to develop independent, non-interacting control laws for the position control and internal force control of the system.

  19. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Eric N [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-08-03

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  20. Hyperfinite representation of distributions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nonstandard treatment of the theory of distributions in terms of a hyperfinite representa- ... is an (internal) hyperfinite set of hyperreal numbers with internal cardinality 2. ..... The factor space ΠgI ΠDIauI is a C-vector space which may be.

  1. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  2. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  3. Full-field mapping of internal strain distribution in red sandstone specimen under compression using digital volumetric speckle photography and X-ray computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Mao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is always desirable to know the interior deformation pattern when a rock is subjected to mechanical load. Few experimental techniques exist that can represent full-field three-dimensional (3D strain distribution inside a rock specimen. And yet it is crucial that this information is available for fully understanding the failure mechanism of rocks or other geomaterials. In this study, by using the newly developed digital volumetric speckle photography (DVSP technique in conjunction with X-ray computed tomography (CT and taking advantage of natural 3D speckles formed inside the rock due to material impurities and voids, we can probe the interior of a rock to map its deformation pattern under load and shed light on its failure mechanism. We apply this technique to the analysis of a red sandstone specimen under increasing uniaxial compressive load applied incrementally. The full-field 3D displacement fields are obtained in the specimen as a function of the load, from which both the volumetric and the deviatoric strain fields are calculated. Strain localization zones which lead to the eventual failure of the rock are identified. The results indicate that both shear and tension are contributing factors to the failure mechanism.

  4. International Trade and Protectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit is designed to investigate the reasons for international trade and the issue of trade protectionism by focusing on the case study of the U.S. trade relationship with Taiwan. The unit begins with a simulation that highlights the concepts of global interdependence, the need for international trade, and the distribution of the world's…

  5. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  6. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  7. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4889

  8. Conductivities from attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Goulart, Prieslei [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, São Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Witkowski, Piotr [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-28

    In the context of applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter physics, we compute conductivities for field theory duals of dyonic planar black holes in 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories at zero temperature. We combine the near-horizon data obtained via Sen’s entropy function formalism with known expressions for conductivities. In this way we express the conductivities in terms of the extremal black hole charges. We apply our approach to three different examples for dilaton theories for which the background geometry is not known explicitly. For a constant scalar potential, the thermoelectric conductivity explicitly scales as α{sub xy}∼N{sup 3/2}, as expected. For the same model, our approach yields a finite result for the heat conductivity κ/T∝N{sup 3/2} even for T→0.

  9. Thermal conductivity of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.; Fukuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of technetium was measured on a disk sample of 5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness by the laser flash method from room temperature to 1173 K, and the thermal conductivity was determined by the measured thermal diffusivity and density, and the reported specific heat capacity. The thermal diffusivity of technetium decreases with increasing temperature though it is almost constant above 600 K. The thermal conductivity of technetium shows a minimum around 400 K, above which the thermal conductivity increases with temperature. The electronic and phonon components of the thermal conductivity were evaluated approximately. The increase in the thermal conductivity of technetium with temperature is due to the increase in the electronic component. (orig.)

  10. Director, Risk Management and Internal Audit | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Directs the establishment of an IDRC strategy for Internal Audit that outlines the ... process and are developed with an understanding of IDRC context and business model; ... Planning, Conduct and Reporting of Internal Audit Engagements:.

  11. Complete Biological Evaluation of Therapeutical Radiopharmaceuticals in Rodents, Laboratory Beagles and Veterinary Patients - Preclinical Distribution-, Kinetic-, Excretion-, Internal Dosimetry-, Radiotoxicological-, Radiation Safety- and Efficacy Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, L.; Domokos, M.; Polyak, A.; Thuroczy, J.; Janoki, G.

    2009-01-01

    The research and development of various novel therapeutical radiopharmaceuticals is a huge demand in many laboratories world-wide. Beside of multiple bone metastases pain-palliation and radiosynovectomy agents a number of specific radiopharmaceutical applicants mainly for oncological applications are in the pipeline. Numerous in vitro methods are available in the first line to test the radiolabelling efficiency, the possible radioactive and non-labelled impurities, the stability of the label at different conditions and mediums, and some specific characteristics of radiopharmaceutical applicants eg.: receptor binding assays, antigen-antibody assays. But, still before human clinical trials there are several questions to be solved in regards of toxicology, radiotoxicology, radiation safety and maybe most importantly the efficacy tasks. All these issues cannot be answered without animal tests. Several decades back animal tests in radiopharmacy meant only standard bioassays in a large number of healthy rodents. Later on pathological models eg.: human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient animals came-out and through them radiopharmaceutical tumor-uptake by the targets were available to evaluate in vivo as well. Xenografts are still popular and widely used models in the field but instead of wide-scaled bioassays nowadays repeated scintiscans or hybrid images (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) are more and more often used to answer kinetic-, excretion-, tumor uptake, internal dosimetry (Minimum Effective Dose, Maximum Tolerable Dose, critical organ doses, tumor doses) questions. Greater animals like laboratory Beagles are more closely in size, clinical and metabolic parameters to the human objects so playing a more perfect role of human medical doctor and especially veterinary patients. Easy to understand that many of the spontaneously occurring companion animal diseases are a good model of human pathological diseases. The need of a better diagnosis and treatment of that animals meets with

  12. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  13. International Benchmark on Pressurised Water Reactor Sub-channel and Bundle Tests. Volume II: Benchmark Results of Phase I: Void Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, Adam; Avramova, Maria; Velazquez-Lozada, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    This report summarised the first phase of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Benchmark based on NUPEC PWR Sub-channel and Bundle Tests (PSBT), which was intended to provide data for the verification of void distribution models in participants' codes. This phase was composed of four exercises; Exercise 1: steady-state single sub-channel benchmark, Exercise 2: steady-state rod bundle benchmark, Exercise 3: transient rod bundle benchmark and Exercise 4: a pressure drop benchmark. The experimental data provided to the participants of this benchmark is from a series of void measurement tests using full-size mock-up tests for both Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs). These tests were performed from 1987 to 1995 by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) in Japan and made available by the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organisation (JNES) for the purposes of this benchmark, which was organised by Pennsylvania State University. Twenty-one institutions from nine countries participated in this benchmark. Seventeen different computer codes were used in Exercises 1, 2, 3 and 4. Among the computer codes were porous media, sub-channel, systems thermal-hydraulic code and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. It was observed that the codes tended to overpredict the thermal equilibrium quality at lower elevations and under predict it at higher elevations. There was also a tendency to overpredict void fraction at lower elevations and underpredict it at high elevations for the bundle test cases. The overprediction of void fraction at low elevations is likely caused by the x-ray densitometer measurement method used. Under sub-cooled boiling conditions, the voids accumulate at heated surfaces (and are therefore not seen in the centre of the sub-channel, where the measurements are being taken), so the experimentally-determined void fractions will be lower than the actual void fraction. Some of the best

  14. Distributed SLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binns, Lewis A.; Valachis, Dimitris; Anderson, Sean; Gough, David W.; Nicholson, David; Greenway, Phil

    2002-07-01

    Previously, we have developed techniques for Simultaneous Localization and Map Building based on the augmented state Kalman filter. Here we report the results of experiments conducted over multiple vehicles each equipped with a laser range finder for sensing the external environment, and a laser tracking system to provide highly accurate ground truth. The goal is simultaneously to build a map of an unknown environment and to use that map to navigate a vehicle that otherwise would have no way of knowing its location, and to distribute this process over several vehicles. We have constructed an on-line, distributed implementation to demonstrate the principle. In this paper we describe the system architecture, the nature of the experimental set up, and the results obtained. These are compared with the estimated ground truth. We show that distributed SLAM has a clear advantage in the sense that it offers a potential super-linear speed-up over single vehicle SLAM. In particular, we explore the time taken to achieve a given quality of map, and consider the repeatability and accuracy of the method. Finally, we discuss some practical implementation issues.

  15. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  16. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sandra Blanchard

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... ... conduct internal audits to assess that the corporation's accounts and records; financial and management controls; information systems and management .... o Information for decision making is accurate, relevant and timely; ...

  17. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  19. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the senate, authorizing the approval of the agreement between the French government and the preliminary commission of the organization of the nuclear test ban treaty, about the conduct of the activities relative to the international control facilities, including the post-certification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, R.

    2003-12-01

    France and the preliminary commission of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty organization (CTBTO) concluded on July 13, 2001, an agreement about the conduct of the activities relative to the international surveillance facilities. This agreement aims at organizing the modalities of implementation of the surveillance activities carried out by the technical secretariat of the preliminary committee of CTBTO in the French territory. This document is the report of the French national assembly about the project of law for the approval of this agreement. It presents the difficult implementation of an international test ban system, the French commitment in the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), and the main dispositions of the agreement of July 13, 2001. (J.S.)

  20. In Silico Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion, and Pharmacokinetics (ADME-PK): Utility and Best Practices. An Industry Perspective from the International Consortium for Innovation through Quality in Pharmaceutical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Franco; Desai, Prashant V; Arimoto, Rieko; Desino, Kelly E; Fischer, Holger; Keefer, Christopher E; Petersson, Carl; Winiwarter, Susanne; Broccatelli, Fabio

    2017-11-22

    In silico tools to investigate absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and pharmacokinetics (ADME-PK) properties of new chemical entities are an integral part of the current industrial drug discovery paradigm. While many companies are active in the field, scientists engaged in this area do not necessarily share the same background and have limited resources when seeking guidance on how to initiate and maintain an in silico ADME-PK infrastructure in an industrial setting. This work summarizes the views of a group of industrial in silico and experimental ADME scientists, participating in the In Silico ADME Working Group, a subgroup of the International Consortium for Innovation through Quality in Pharmaceutical Development (IQ) Drug Metabolism Leadership Group. This overview on the benefits, caveats, and impact of in silico ADME-PK should serve as a resource for medicinal chemists, computational chemists, and DMPK scientists working in drug design to increase their knowledge in the area.

  1. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  2. Conductive open frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2018-05-22

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  3. Conductive polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszkul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of studies on polypropylene composites with three sorts of Polish-made carbon blacks were presented. It was found that composite of 20% black content had properties of an electrically conducting material

  4. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  5. OCRWM international procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    These international procedures provide guidance and assistance for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) and for OCRWM Project Offices, contractors and subcontractors in conducting international activities. They supplement the relevant Department of Energy (DOE) orders (which are referenced), not supplant them

  6. High-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction room-temperature studies of an H-FABP–oleic acid complex: study of the internal water cluster and ligand binding by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Howard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystal diffraction data of heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP in complex with oleic acid were measured at room temperature with high-resolution X-ray and neutron protein crystallography (0.98 and 1.90 Å resolution, respectively. These data provided very detailed information about the cluster of water molecules and the bound oleic acid in the H-FABP large internal cavity. The jointly refined X-ray/neutron structure of H-FABP was complemented by a transferred multipolar electron-density distribution using the parameters of the ELMAMII library. The resulting electron density allowed a precise determination of the electrostatic potential in the fatty acid (FA binding pocket. Bader's quantum theory of atoms in molecules was then used to study interactions involving the internal water molecules, the FA and the protein. This approach showed H...H contacts of the FA with highly conserved hydrophobic residues known to play a role in the stabilization of long-chain FAs in the binding cavity. The determination of water hydrogen (deuterium positions allowed the analysis of the orientation and electrostatic properties of the water molecules in the very ordered cluster. As a result, a significant alignment of the permanent dipoles of the water molecules with the protein electrostatic field was observed. This can be related to the dielectric properties of hydration layers around proteins, where the shielding of electrostatic interactions depends directly on the rotational degrees of freedom of the water molecules in the interface.

  7. Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT): conductivity and current density imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jin Keun; Kwon, Ohin; Woo, Eung Je

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest impedance imaging technique called Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) providing information on electrical conductivity and current density distributions inside an electrically conducting domain such as the human body. The motivation for this research is explained by discussing conductivity changes related with physiological and pathological events, electromagnetic source imaging and electromagnetic stimulations. We briefly summarize the related technique of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) that deals with cross-sectional image reconstructions of conductivity distributions from boundary measurements of current-voltage data. Noting that EIT suffers from the ill-posed nature of the corresponding inverse problem, we introduce MREIT as a new conductivity imaging modality providing images with better spatial resolution and accuracy. MREIT utilizes internal information on the induced magnetic field in addition to the boundary current-voltage measurements to produce three-dimensional images of conductivity and current density distributions. Mathematical theory, algorithms, and experimental methods of current MREIT research are described. With numerous potential applications in mind, future research directions in MREIT are proposed

  8. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  9. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  10. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  11. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  12. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  13. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  14. Quantized Majorana conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-04-01

    Majorana zero-modes—a type of localized quasiparticle—hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

  15. Planning Systems for Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph representation presents an overview of the mission planning process involving distributed operations (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) and the computer hardware and software systems needed to support such an effort. Topics considered include: evolution of distributed planning systems, ISS distributed planning, the Payload Planning System (PPS), future developments in distributed planning systems, Request Oriented Scheduling Engine (ROSE) and Next Generation distributed planning systems.

  16. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  17. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  18. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    The electronic conductance of metal nanocontacts is analyzed in terms of eigenchannels for the transmission. The transmission through individual eigenchannels is calculated numerically for realistic models of gold point contacts based on molecular-dynamics simulation of the elongation of a contac...

  19. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  20. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  1. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  2. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  3. Quantized Majorana conductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; Van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D.S.; De Moor, Michiel W.A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L.M.; Van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-01-01

    Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The

  4. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  5. 77 FR 25678 - International Trade Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order..., International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. Background Every five years, pursuant to section 751...'') and the International Trade Commission automatically initiate and conduct a review to determine...

  6. The impact of international codes of conduct on employment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-15

    Oct 15, 2010 ... employment conditions and gender issues in Chinese ... Key Laboratory for Biology of Horticultural Plants, Ministry of Education, College of Horticulture & Forestry Sciences, ... paper provided the basis for the need to gender audit, mainstream .... flower protection and Greenhouse where you work daily. 12.

  7. Anisotropic conductivity imaging with MREIT using equipotential projection algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degirmenci, Evren [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey); Eyueboglu, B Murat [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-12-21

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) combines magnetic flux or current density measurements obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surface potential measurements to reconstruct images of true conductivity with high spatial resolution. Most of the biological tissues have anisotropic conductivity; therefore, anisotropy should be taken into account in conductivity image reconstruction. Almost all of the MREIT reconstruction algorithms proposed to date assume isotropic conductivity distribution. In this study, a novel MREIT image reconstruction algorithm is proposed to image anisotropic conductivity. Relative anisotropic conductivity values are reconstructed iteratively, using only current density measurements without any potential measurement. In order to obtain true conductivity values, only either one potential or conductivity measurement is sufficient to determine a scaling factor. The proposed technique is evaluated on simulated data for isotropic and anisotropic conductivity distributions, with and without measurement noise. Simulation results show that the images of both anisotropic and isotropic conductivity distributions can be reconstructed successfully.

  8. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  9. Lattice thermal conductivity in layered BiCuSeO

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    structure of the phonon dispersion. For example, at room temperature the optical phonons account for an enormous 42% of the lattice thermal conductivity. We also quantify the anisotropy of the lattice thermal conductivity and determine the distribution

  10. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  11. Super ionic conductive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  12. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  13. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. 26 CFR 1.996-1 - Rules for actual distributions and certain deemed distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules for actual distributions and certain deemed distributions. 1.996-1 Section 1.996-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations...

  15. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  16. Conductivity of rf-heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-05-01

    The electron velocity distribution of rf-heated plasma may be so far from Maxwellian that Spitzer conductivity no longer holds. A new conductivity for such plasmas is derived and the result can be put in a remarkably general form. The new expression should be of great practical value in examining schemes for current ramp-up in tokamaks by means of lower-hybrid or other waves

  17. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  18. Hysteresis in conducting ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Carl S.; Winchell, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Maxwell's magnetic diffusion equation is solved for conducting ferromagnetic cylinders to predict a magnetic wave velocity, a time delay for flux penetration and an eddy current field, one of five fields in the linear unified field model of hysteresis. Measured Faraday voltages for a thin steel toroid are shown to be proportional to magnetic field step amplitude and decrease exponentially in time due to maximum rather than average permeability. Dynamic permeabilities are a field convolution of quasistatic permeability and the delay function from which we derive and observe square root dependence of coercivity on rate of field change

  19. Performance and Internal Control

    OpenAIRE

    Mifti, Sri; Lestariyo, Nugroho Budi; Kowanda, Anacostia

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the influence of internal auditing on performance. Research object is Inspectorate General Department of Home Affairs staffs. As research instrument, questionnaire was developed and distributed to respondents. Closed type questionnaire was developed with five (5) choices to measure the two (2) research variables. Internal auditing is measured using six (6) dimensions, and performance is measured using three (3) dimensions. As the two variables are lat...

  20. International trade and inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Urata, Sh¯ujir¯o; Narjoko, Dionisius A.

    2017-01-01

    The impact of globalization on equality has become a serious concern for many countries. More evidence that challenges the theoretical prediction of positive impact of international trade on income distribution has increasingly become available recently. This paper addresses this subject, surveying the empirical findings on the impact of international trade on inequalities from various perspectives. The survey reveals that an increase in trade openness by developing countries appears to have ...

  1. Intelligent distributed computing

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers of the Intelligent Distributed Computing Track originally presented at the third International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI-2014), September 24-27, 2014, Delhi, India.  The papers selected for this Track cover several Distributed Computing and related topics including Peer-to-Peer Networks, Cloud Computing, Mobile Clouds, Wireless Sensor Networks, and their applications.

  2. Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Min; Yang , Le; Zhao , Huizhong; Zhang , Leijie; Zhong , Zhiyou; Liu , Yanling; Chen , Jianhua

    2009-01-01

    International audience; A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature dis...

  3. The international safeguards profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has established a staff of safeguards professionals who are responsible for carrying out on-site inspections to determine compliance with international safeguards agreements. By IAEA Statute, the paramount consideration in recruiting IAEA staff is to secure employees of the highest standards of efficiency, technical competence, and integrity. An analysis of the distribution of professionals in the IAEA Department of Safeguards has revealed some interesting observations regarding the distribution of grade levels, age, time in service, gender, and geographical origin. Following several earlier studies performed by contractors for ACDA, U.S. efforts have been undertaken to attract and better prepare candidates for working at the IAEA

  4. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  5. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  6. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  7. Analyse comparative entre la distribution des fréquences de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Mots clés: Hydrogéochimie, conductivité électrique, diagramme de Piper, socle cristallin et cristallophyllien, Côte d'Ivoire. English Title: Comparative analysis of electrical conductivity frequencies distribution and geochemical facies of hard rock aquifers waters (Ivory ...

  8. Modeling and Mapping Personal Learning Environment of Thai International Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun

    2018-01-01

    This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…

  9. Computer-Aided Design System Development of Fixed Water Distribution of Pipe Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou , Mingyao; Wang , Susheng; Zhang , Zhen; Chen , Lidong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; It is necessary to research a cheap and simple fixed water distribution device according to the current situation of the technology of low-pressure pipe irrigation. This article proposed a fixed water distribution device with round table based on the analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of low-pressure pipe irrigation systems. The simulation of FLUENT and GAMBIT software conducted that the flow of this structure was steady with a low head loss comparing to other t...

  10. Conducting polyamine nanocomposites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, R.C.; Maciel, T.C.G.L.; Guimaraes, M.J.O.C.; Garcia, M.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are hybrid materials formed by the combination of inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in a polymeric matrix with, at least, one dimension in the nanometer range. It was used as nanoparticles layered and tubular clay minerals, and its insertion and dispersion were conducted through the in situ polymerization technique. As the polymer matrix, it was utilized a polyamine, which, later, will be inserted in a polyacrylamide gel for the development of a compound that aggregates both main characteristics. The nanocomposites were prepared in different polymerization conditions (temperature, concentration and nanoparticle type) and characterized by XRD and FTIR. It was observed that regarding the polymerization conditions, the temperature had influence on the kind of material obtained and on the reaction speed; the type of nanoparticle affected its interaction with the polymer matrix, predominantly providing the formation of nanocomposites by the intercalation mechanism in the layered clay. (author)

  11. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  12. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  13. Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...

  14. Theoretical models for electron conduction in polymer systems—I. Macroscopic calculations of d.c. transient conductivity after pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, Witold M.; Kroh, Jerzy

    The simulation of the transient d.c. conductivity in a quasi one-dimensional system of charges produced by a pulse of ionizing radiation in a solid sample has been performed. The simulation is based on the macroscopic conductivity equations and can provide physical insight into d.c. conductivity measurements, particularly for the case of transient currents in samples with internal space charge. We consider the system of mobile (negative) and immobile (positive) charges produced by a pulse of ionizing radiation in the sample under a fixed external voltage V0. The presence of space charge results in an electric field which is a function of both the spatial and the time variable: E( z, t). Given the space charge density, the electric field can be calculated from the Poisson equation. However, for an arbitrary space charge distribution, the corresponding equations can only be solved numerically. The two non-trivial cases for which approximate analytical solutions can be provided are: (i) The density of the current carriers n( z, t) is negligible in comparison with the density of immobile space charge N( z). A general analytical solution has been found for this case using Green's functions. The solutions for two cases, viz. the homogeneous distribution of space charge N( z) = N, and the non-homogeneous exponential distribution N( z) = A exp(- Bz), have been separately discussed. (ii) The space charge created in the pulse without any space charge present prior to the irradiation.

  15. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  16. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  17. Field determined variation of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity functions using simplified analysis of internal drainage experiments Variação da condutividade hidráulica do solo não saturado determinada em condições de campo utilizando análises simplificadas de experimentos de drenagem interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Villagra

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally determined values of unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity are presented for an Alfisol of the county of Piracicaba, S.P., Brazil. Simultaneous measurements of soil water content and pressure head are made along a 125 m transect within an irrigated field during the internal drainage process. Calculations of the soil hydraulic conductivity were made using the instantaneous profile method (Watson, 1966 and the unit gradient method (LIBARDI et al., 1980. The spatial variability of the soil hydraulic conductivity manifested along the transect indicates the need to develop a field method to measure K(theta within prescribed fiducial limits, taking into account quantitative evaluation of spatial and temporal variances associated with the mathematical model, instrument calibration and soil properties.São apresentados dados experimentais de condutividade hidráulica do solo, para uní Alfisol (terra roxa estruturada do Município de Piracicaba,SP - Brasil. Medidas simultâneas de umidade do solo e de potencial total da água no solo foram realizadas ao longo de uma transeção de 125 m, dentro de um campo irrigado, durante o processo de drenagem interna. Os cálculos de condutividade hidráulica foram feitos utilizando o método do perfil instantâneo (WATSON, 1966 e o método do gradiente unitário (LIBARDI et al., 1980. A variabilidade espacial da condutividade hidráulica do solo observada ao longo da transeção aponta a necessidade do desenvolvimento de método de campo para a medida de K (teta dentro de limites preestabelecidos de precisão, levando em conta a medida quantitativa das variâncias temporal e espacial associadas ao modelo matemático, a calibração dos instrumentos e as propriedades do solo.

  18. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  19. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-06-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE-PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ˜6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE-PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE-PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation.

  20. Rigidity-tuning conductive elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Wanliang; Diller, Stuart; Tutcuoglu, Abbas; Majidi, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a conductive propylene-based elastomer (cPBE) that rapidly and reversibly changes its mechanical rigidity when powered with electrical current. The elastomer is rigid in its natural state, with an elastic (Young’s) modulus of 175.5 MPa, and softens when electrically activated. By embedding the cPBE in an electrically insulating sheet of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), we create a cPBE–PDMS composite that can reversibly change its tensile modulus between 37 and 1.5 MPa. The rigidity change takes ∼6 s and is initiated when a 100 V voltage drop is applied across the two ends of the cPBE film. This magnitude of change in elastic rigidity is similar to that observed in natural skeletal muscle and catch connective tissue. We characterize the tunable load-bearing capability of the cPBE–PDMS composite with a motorized tensile test and deadweight experiment. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to control the routing of internal forces by embedding several cPBE–PDMS ‘active tendons’ into a soft robotic pneumatic bending actuator. Selectively activating the artificial tendons controls the neutral axis and direction of bending during inflation. (paper)

  1. The Binomial Distribution in Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikias, Miltiadis S.

    2009-01-01

    The binomial distribution is used to predict the winner of the 49th International Shooting Sport Federation World Championship in double trap shooting held in 2006 in Zagreb, Croatia. The outcome of the competition was definitely unexpected.

  2. Distributional Inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, A.H.; van der Meulen, E.A.; Poortema, Klaas; Schaafsma, W.

    1995-01-01

    The making of statistical inferences in distributional form is conceptionally complicated because the epistemic 'probabilities' assigned are mixtures of fact and fiction. In this respect they are essentially different from 'physical' or 'frequency-theoretic' probabilities. The distributional form is

  3. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  4. Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The publication of the Bulletin of International Simultaneous Observations, began July 1, 1875, with daily maps added in 1877. It was published for distribution...

  5. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  6. The International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1985-04-01

    This document describes the contents of the second version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF-85), distributed by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This library superseded IRDF-82. (author)

  7. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Jamil A.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 (97% TD). This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  8. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil A. Khan

    2009-11-21

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  9. Complex conductivity of organic-rich shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, W. F.; Revil, A.; Torres-Verdin, C.

    2013-12-01

    We can accurately determine the intrinsic anisotropy and material properties in the laboratory, providing empirical evidence of transverse isotropy and the polarization of the organic and metallic fractions in saturated and unsaturated shales. We develop two distinct approaches to obtain the complex conductivity tensor from spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements. Experimental results indicate clear anisotropy, and characterize the effects of thermal maturation, TOC, and pyrite, aiding in the calibration and interpretation of geophysical data. SIP is a non-intrusive measurement, sensitive to the surface conductance of mineral grains, frequency-dependent polarization of the electrical double layer, and bulk conductivity of the pore water. The in-phase and quadrature components depend upon parameters of principal importance in unconventional shale formation evaluation (e.g., the distribution of pore throat sizes, formation factor, permeability, salinity and cation exchange capacity (CEC), fluid saturation and wettability). In addition to the contribution of the electrical double layer of non-conducting minerals to surface conductivity, we have observed a clear relaxation associated with kerogen pyrolysis, pyrite distribution, and evidence that the CEC of the kerogen fraction may also contribute, depending on thermal maturation history. We utilize a recent model for anisotropic complex conductivity, and rigorous experimental protocols to quantify the role of kerogen and pyrolysis on surface and quadrature conductivity in mudrocks. The complex conductivity tensor σ* describes the directional dependence of electrical conduction in a porous medium, and accounts for both conduction and polarization. The complex-valued tensor components are given as σ*ij , where σ'ij represents in-phase and σ"ij denotes quadrature conductivities. The directional dependence of the complex conductivity tensor is relegated to the textural properties of the material. The

  10. Conducting qualitative research in audiology: a tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Line V; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Jones, Lesley; Preminger, Jill E; Nielsen, Claus; Lunner, Thomas; Hickson, Louise; Naylor, Graham; Kramer, Sophia E

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative research methodologies are being used more frequently in audiology as it allows for a better understanding of the perspectives of people with hearing impairment. This article describes why and how international interdisciplinary qualitative research can be conducted. This paper is based on a literature review and our recent experience with the conduction of an international interdisciplinary qualitative study in audiology. We describe some available qualitative methods for sampling, data collection, and analysis and we discuss the rationale for choosing particular methods. The focus is on four approaches which have all previously been applied to audiologic research: grounded theory, interpretative phenomenological analysis, conversational analysis, and qualitative content analysis. This article provides a review of methodological issues useful for those designing qualitative research projects in audiology or needing assistance in the interpretation of qualitative literature.

  11. Thermal properties of conducting polypyrrole nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajevová, A.; Varga, M.; Prokeš, J.; Kopecká, J.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 4 (2015), s. 730-736 ISSN 0587-4246. [ISPMA 13 - International Symposium on Physics of Materials /13./. Praha, 31.08.2014-04.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * polypyrrole Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.525, year: 2015

  12. Normal Conducting RF Cavity for MICE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; DeMello, A.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Summers, D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal conducting RF cavities must be used for the cooling section of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), currently under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the UK. Eight 201-MHz cavities are needed for the MICE cooling section; fabrication of the first five cavities is complete. We report the cavity fabrication status including cavity design, fabrication techniques and preliminary low power RF measurements.

  13. Features of Internal Audit in Pharmaceutical Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsvetanova, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    The review highlights the main features of internal audit by focus on distribution of medicinal products. Recent data suggest internal audit as an antidote to effects of economic recession. The present review reveals internal audit as a tool for competitiveness through implementation of good practices. The purpose of the review is to describe the advantages of internal audit in new institutional frame. The object of analysis is the distribution practice, and more concrete, the wholesale di...

  14. Controlling Thermal Conduction by Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qin; Huang, Ji-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Manipulating thermal conductivities are fundamentally important for controlling the conduction of heat at will. Thermal cloaks and concentrators, which have been extensively studied recently, are actually graded materials designed according to coordinate transformation approaches, and their effective thermal conductivity is equal to that of the host medium outside the cloak or concentrator. Here we attempt to investigate a more general problem: what is the effective thermal conductivity of graded materials? In particular, we perform a first-principles approach to the analytic exact results of effective thermal conductivities of materials possessing either power-law or linear gradation profiles. On the other hand, by solving Laplace’s equation, we derive a differential equation for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of a material whose thermal conductivity varies along the radius with arbitrary gradation profiles. The two methods agree with each other for both external and internal heat sources, as confirmed by simulation and experiment. This work provides different methods for designing new thermal metamaterials (including thermal cloaks and concentrators), in order to control or manipulate the transfer of heat. Support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11725521, by the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality under Grant No. 16ZR1445100

  15. Agile distributed software development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Mathiassen, Lars; Aaen, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    While face-to-face interaction is fundamental in agile software development, distributed environments must rely extensively on mediated interactions. Practicing agile principles in distributed environments therefore poses particular control challenges related to balancing fixed vs. evolving quality...... requirements and people vs. process-based collaboration. To investigate these challenges, we conducted an in-depth case study of a successful agile distributed software project with participants from a Russian firm and a Danish firm. Applying Kirsch’s elements of control framework, we offer an analysis of how...

  16. Integration of conducting polymer network in non-conductive polymer substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; West, Keld; Hassager, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Anew method for integration ofconjugated, inherently conducting polymers into non-conductive polymer substrates has been developed. Alayer of the conducting polymer is polymerised by chemical oxidation, e.g. using Fe(ID) p-toluene sulfonate (ferri tosylate) followed by washing with a solvent which...... simultaneously removes residual and spent oxidant and at the same time dissolves the top layer of the polymer substrate. This results in an integration of the conducting polymer into the surface layers of the polymer substrate. Several combinations of conducting polymers and substrates have been tested...... absorption during sequential reactive ion etching has allowed for analysis of the PEDOT distribution within the surface layer of thePMMA substrate. The surface resistance ofthe conducting polymer layer remains low while the surface layer at the same time adapts some of the mechanical properties...

  17. INTERNAL AUDIT CHARTER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    sblanchard

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... Assurance and Advice to Support Innovating for Development ... IDRC's Board of Governors approves the Internal Audit Charter which outlines the ... the principles of integrity, objectivity, confidentiality, and competency, and IDRC's Code of. Conduct and the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Service;.

  18. Detecting Kondo Entanglement by Electron Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Gwangsu; Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2018-04-01

    Quantum entanglement between an impurity spin and electrons nearby is a key property of the single-channel Kondo effects. We show that the entanglement can be detected by measuring electron conductance through a double quantum dot in an orbital Kondo regime. We derive a relation between the entanglement and the conductance, when the SU(2) spin symmetry of the regime is weakly broken. The relation reflects the universal form of many-body states near the Kondo fixed point. Using it, the spatial distribution of the entanglement—hence, the Kondo cloud—can be detected, with breaking of the symmetry spatially nonuniformly by electrical means.

  19. Operational Control of Internal Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. van der Meer (Robert)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOperational Control of Internal Transport considers the control of guided vehicles in vehicle-based internal transport systems found in facilities such as warehouses, production plants, distribution centers and transshipment terminals. The author's interest of research having direct use

  20. Financing Distributed Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.

    2001-06-29

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market.

  1. Financing Distributed Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the engineer who is undertaking distributed generation projects to a wide range of financing options. Distributed generation systems (such as internal combustion engines, small gas turbines, fuel cells and photovoltaics) all require an initial investment, which is recovered over time through revenues or savings. An understanding of the cost of capital and financing structures helps the engineer develop realistic expectations and not be offended by the common requirements of financing organizations. This paper discusses several mechanisms for financing distributed generation projects: appropriations; debt (commercial bank loan); mortgage; home equity loan; limited partnership; vendor financing; general obligation bond; revenue bond; lease; Energy Savings Performance Contract; utility programs; chauffage (end-use purchase); and grants. The paper also discusses financial strategies for businesses focusing on distributed generation: venture capital; informal investors (''business angels''); bank and debt financing; and the stock market

  2. 29 CFR 95.42 - Codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... JURISDICTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, AND INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement... interest is not substantial or the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value. The standards of conduct...

  3. Poisson distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The random variable X taking values 0,1,2,…,x,… with probabilities pλ(x) = e−λλx/x!, where λ∈R0+ is called a Poisson variable, and its distribution a Poisson distribution, with parameter λ. The Poisson distribution with parameter λ can be obtained as the limit, as n → ∞ and p → 0 in such a way that

  4. A techno-economic & environmental analysis of a novel technology utilizing an internal combustion engine as a compact, inexpensive micro-reformer for a distributed gas-to-liquids system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Joshua B.

    converts natural gas to synthesis gas (syngas) in a reciprocating internal combustion engine and then converts the syngas into methanol in a small-scale reactor. With methanol as the product, this research aims to show that such a system can not only address current and future natural gas flaring regulation, but eventually can compete economically with historically large-scale, centralized methanol production infrastructure. If successful, such systems could contribute to a shift away from large, multi-billion dollar capital cost chemical plants towards smaller systems with shorter lifetimes that may decrease the time to transition to more sustainable forms of energy and chemical conversion technologies. This research also quantifies the potential for such a system to contribute to mitigating GHG emissions, not only by addressing flared gas in the near-term, but also supporting future natural gas infrastructure ideas that may help to redefine the way the current natural gas pipeline system is used. The introduction of new, small-scale, distributed energy and chemical conversion systems located closer to the point of extraction may contribute to reducing methane leakage throughout the natural gas distribution system by reducing the reliance and risks associated with the aging natural gas pipeline infrastructure. The outcome of this thesis will result in several areas for future work. From an economic perspective, factors that contribute to overall system cost, such as operation and maintenance (O&M) and capital cost multiplier (referred to as the Lang Factor for large-scale petro-chemical plants), are not yet known for novel systems such as the technology presented here. From a technical perspective, commercialization of small-scale, distributed chemical conversion systems may create a demand for economical compression and air-separation technologies at this scale that do not currently exist. Further, new business cases may arise aimed at utilizing small, remote sources of

  5. Distributed Visualization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Distributed Visualization allows anyone, anywhere, to see any simulation, at any time. Development focuses on algorithms, software, data formats, data systems and...

  6. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  7. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  8. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  9. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    -predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  10. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  11. Securing Distributed Research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Global science calls for global infrastructure. A typical large-scale research group will use a suite of international services and involve hundreds of collaborating institutes and users from around the world. How can these users access those services securely? How can their digital identities be established, verified and maintained? We will explore the motivation for distributed authentication and the ways in which research communities are addressing the challenges. We will discuss security incident response in distributed environments - a particular challenge for the operators of these infrastructures. Through this course you should gain an overview of federated identity technologies and protocols, including x509 certificates, SAML and OIDC.

  12. 26 CFR 1.995-3 - Distributions upon disqualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distributions upon disqualification. 1.995-3 Section 1.995-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.995-3 Distributions upon...

  13. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  14. Program Integration for International Technology Exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, New Mexico, supports the International Technology Exchange Division (ITED) through the integration of all international activities conducted within the DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM)

  15. Smart Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhou Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. A comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD, is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.

  16. Ultrahigh thermal conductivity of isotopically enriched silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyushkin, Alexander V.; Taldenkov, Alexander N.; Ager, Joel W.; Haller, Eugene E.; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolay V.; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Becker, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Most of the stable elements have two and more stable isotopes. The physical properties of materials composed of such elements depend on the isotopic abundance to some extent. A remarkably strong isotope effect is observed in the phonon thermal conductivity, the principal mechanism of heat conduction in nonmetallic crystals. An isotopic disorder due to random distribution of the isotopes in the crystal lattice sites results in a rather strong phonon scattering and, consequently, in a reduction of thermal conductivity. In this paper, we present new results of accurate and precise measurements of thermal conductivity κ(T) for silicon single crystals having three different isotopic compositions at temperatures T from 2.4 to 420 K. The highly enriched crystal containing 99.995% of 28Si, which is one of the most perfect crystals ever synthesized, demonstrates a thermal conductivity of about 450 ± 10 W cm-1 K-1 at 24 K, the highest measured value among bulk dielectrics, which is ten times greater than the one for its counterpart natSi with the natural isotopic constitution. For highly enriched crystal 28Si and crystal natSi, the measurements were performed for two orientations [001] and [011], a magnitude of the phonon focusing effect on thermal conductivity was determined accurately at low temperatures. The anisotropy of thermal conductivity disappears above 31 K. The influence of the boundary scattering on thermal conductivity persists sizable up to much higher temperatures (˜80 K). The κ(T) measured in this work gives the most accurate approximation of the intrinsic thermal conductivity of single crystal silicon which is determined solely by the anharmonic phonon processes and diffusive boundary scattering over a wide temperature range.

  17. 3D electrical conductivity tomography of volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soueid Ahmed, A.; Revil, A.; Byrdina, S.; Coperey, A.; Gailler, L.; Grobbe, N.; Viveiros, F.; Silva, C.; Jougnot, D.; Ghorbani, A.; Hogg, C.; Kiyan, D.; Rath, V.; Heap, M. J.; Grandis, H.; Humaida, H.

    2018-05-01

    Electrical conductivity tomography is a well-established galvanometric method for imaging the subsurface electrical conductivity distribution. We characterize the conductivity distribution of a set of volcanic structures that are different in terms of activity and morphology. For that purpose, we developed a large-scale inversion code named ECT-3D aimed at handling complex topographical effects like those encountered in volcanic areas. In addition, ECT-3D offers the possibility of using as input data the two components of the electrical field recorded at independent stations. Without prior information, a Gauss-Newton method with roughness constraints is used to solve the inverse problem. The roughening operator used to impose constraints is computed on unstructured tetrahedral elements to map complex geometries. We first benchmark ECT-3D on two synthetic tests. A first test using the topography of Mt. St Helens volcano (Washington, USA) demonstrates that we can successfully reconstruct the electrical conductivity field of an edifice marked by a strong topography and strong variations in the resistivity distribution. A second case study is used to demonstrate the versatility of the code in using the two components of the electrical field recorded on independent stations along the ground surface. Then, we apply our code to real data sets recorded at (i) a thermally active area of Yellowstone caldera (Wyoming, USA), (ii) a monogenetic dome on Furnas volcano (the Azores, Portugal), and (iii) the upper portion of the caldera of Kīlauea (Hawai'i, USA). The tomographies reveal some of the major structures of these volcanoes as well as identifying alteration associated with high surface conductivities. We also review the petrophysics underlying the interpretation of the electrical conductivity of fresh and altered volcanic rocks and molten rocks to show that electrical conductivity tomography cannot be used as a stand-alone technique due to the non-uniqueness in

  18. Dyadic distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubov, B I

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of pointwise dyadic derivative dyadic distributions are introduced as continuous linear functionals on the linear space D d (R + ) of infinitely differentiable functions compactly supported by the positive half-axis R + together with all dyadic derivatives. The completeness of the space D' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions is established. It is shown that a locally integrable function on R + generates a dyadic distribution. In addition, the space S d (R + ) of infinitely dyadically differentiable functions on R + rapidly decreasing in the neighbourhood of +∞ is defined. The space S' d (R + ) of dyadic distributions of slow growth is introduced as the space of continuous linear functionals on S d (R + ). The completeness of the space S' d (R + ) is established; it is proved that each integrable function on R + with polynomial growth at +∞ generates a dyadic distribution of slow growth. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  19. Civil-military relations : enhancing international security

    OpenAIRE

    Fekete, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The thesis describes how civil-military relations at the international level enhance international security, in particular, the way of development of international society in trying to orient its progress towards international peace, security and sustainable development. It focuses upon civil-military relationships in the League of Nations and the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The International Committee of Re...

  20. Application of Conductive Materials to Asphalt Pavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Viet Vo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Snow-melting pavement technique is an advanced preservation method, which can prevent the forming of snow or ice on the pavement surface by increasing the temperature using an embedded heating system. The main scope of this study is to evaluate the impact of conductive additives on the heating efficiency. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity were considered to investigate effects of conductive additives, graphite, and carbon fibers on the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixtures. Also, the distribution of the conductive additives within the asphalt concrete body was investigated by microstructural imaging. An actual test was applied to simulate realistic heating for an asphalt concrete mixture. Thermal testing indicated that graphite and carbon fibers improve the snow-melting ability of asphalt mixes and their combination is more effective than when used alone. As observed in the microstructural image, carbon fibers show a long-range connecting effect among graphite conductive clusters and gather in bundles when added excessively. According to the actual test, adding the conductive additives helps improve snow-melting efficiency by shortening processing time and raising the surface temperature.

  1. Nonlinear dynamics in cardiac conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. T.; Smith, J. M.; Saxberg, B. E.; Cohen, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical conduction in the heart shows many phenomena familiar from nonlinear dynamics. Among these phenomena are multiple basins of attraction, phase locking, and perhaps period-doubling bifurcations and chaos. We describe a simple cellular-automation model of electrical conduction which simulates normal conduction patterns in the heart as well as a wide range of disturbances of heart rhythm. In addition, we review the application of percolation theory to the analysis of the development of complex, self-sustaining conduction patterns.

  2. Conduction quantization in monolayer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study the ballistic conduction of a monolayer MoS2 subject to a spatially modulated magnetic field by using the Landauer-Buttiker formalism. The band structure depends sensitively on the field strength, and its change has profound influence on the electron conduction. The conductance is found to demonstrate multi-step behavior due to the discrete number of conduction channels. The sharp peak and rectangular structures of the conductance are stretched out as temperature increases, due to the thermal broadening of the derivative of the Fermi-Dirac distribution function. Finally, quantum behavior in the conductance of MoS2 can be observed at temperatures below 10 K.

  3. Active Bone Conduction Prosthesis: BonebridgeTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zernotti, Mario E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bone conduction implants are indicated for patients with conductive and mixed hearing loss, as well as for patients with single-sided deafness (SSD. The transcutaneous technology avoids several complications of the percutaneous bone conduction implants including skin reaction, skin growth over the abutment, and wound infection. The Bonebridge (MED-EL, Austria prosthesis is a semi-implantable hearing system: the BCI (Bone Conduction Implant is the implantable part that contains the Bone Conduction-Floating Mass Transducer (BC-FMT, which applies the vibrations directly to the bone; the external component is the audio processor Amadé BB (MED-EL, Austria, which digitally processes the sound and sends the information through the coil to the internal part. Bonebridge may be implanted through three different approaches: the transmastoid, the retrosigmoid, or the middle fossa approach. Objective This systematic review aims to describe the world́s first active bone conduction implant system, Bonebridge, as well as describe the surgical techniques in the three possible approaches, showing results from implant centers in the world in terms of functional gain, speech reception thresholds and word recognition scores. Data Synthesis The authors searched the MEDLINE database using the key term Bonebridge. They selected only five publications to include in this systematic review. The review analyzes 20 patients that received Bonebridge implants with different approaches and pathologies. Conclusion Bonebridge is a solution for patients with conductive/mixed hearing loss and SSD with different surgical approaches, depending on their anatomy. The system imparts fewer complications than percutaneous bone conduction implants and shows proven benefits in speech discrimination and functional gain.

  4. Robust mixed conducting membrane structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    circuited. The present invention further provides a method of producing the above membrane structure, comprising the steps of : providing a ionically conducting layer; applying at least one layer of electronically conducting material on each side of said ionically conducting layer; sintering the multilayer...

  5. A pore water conductivity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The electrical permittivity and conductivity of the bulk soil are a function of the permittivity and conductivity of the pore water. For soil water contents higher than 0.10 both functions are equal, facilitating in situ conductivity measurements of the pore water. A novel method is described, based

  6. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang

    2014-04-04

    Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new 'learning organization' and using effective internal marketing. A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a 'learning organization', internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses.

  7. International survey of living PSA and safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.; Laakso, K.; Lehtinen, E.; Bjoere, S.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains an international overview of applications of living probabilistic assessment and development of operational safety indicators. Features of an ideal living PSA tool are summarized as well as a limited survey of code systems for managing a living probabilistic safety assessment (living PSA) is included. The international survey is used as an input for planning and performance of related tasks within the nordic NKS/SIK-1 project conducted in 1990-93. The research notes are distributed to the Nordic organizations involved or interested in the subject. The report includes an overview and conclusions from technical reports and articles available and presentations and discussions related to development and use of above methods for the evaluation and management of the operational safety of nuclear power plants. A large part of this material is based on material collected and discussed in connection to international specialist meetings relating to the subject

  8. Transparent conductive oxide films embedded with plasmonic nanostructure for light-emitting diode applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shih-Hao; Tsung, Cheng-Sheng; Chen, Ching-Ho; Ou, Sin-Liang; Horng, Ray-Hua; Lin, Cheng-Yi; Wuu, Dong-Sing

    2015-02-04

    In this study, a spin coating process in which the grating structure comprises an Ag nanoparticle layer coated on a p-GaN top layer of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diode (LED) was developed. Various sizes of plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in a transparent conductive layer were clearly observed after the deposition of indium tin oxide (ITO). The plasmonic nanostructure enhanced the light extraction efficiency of blue LED. Output power was 1.8 times the magnitude of that of conventional LEDs operating at 350 mA, but retained nearly the same current-voltage characteristic. Unlike in previous research on surface-plasmon-enhanced LEDs, the metallic nanoparticles were consistently deposited over the surface area. However, according to microstructural observation, ITO layer mixed with Ag-based nanoparticles was distributed at a distance of approximately 150 nm from the interface of ITO/p-GaN. Device performance can be improved substantially by using the three-dimensional distribution of Ag-based nanoparticles in the transparent conductive layer, which scatters the propagating light randomly and is coupled between the localized surface plasmon and incident light internally trapped in the LED structure through total internal reflection.

  9. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  10. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  11. Code of conduct for scientists (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of advanced technologies in the last three decades and extraordinary progress in our knowledge on the basic Physical, Chemical and Biological properties of living matter has offered tremendous benefits to human beings but simultaneously highlighted the need of higher awareness and responsibility by the scientists of 21 century. Scientist is not born with ethics, nor science is ethically neutral, but there are ethical dimensions to scientific work. There is need to evolve an appropriate Code of Conduct for scientist particularly working in every field of Science. However, while considering the contents, promulgation and adaptation of Codes of Conduct for Scientists, a balance is needed to be maintained between freedom of scientists and at the same time some binding on them in the form of Code of Conducts. The use of good and safe laboratory procedures, whether, codified by law or by common practice must also be considered as part of the moral duties of scientists. It is internationally agreed that a general Code of Conduct can't be formulated for all the scientists universally, but there should be a set of 'building blocks' aimed at establishing the Code of Conduct for Scientists either as individual researcher or responsible for direction, evaluation, monitoring of scientific activities at the institutional or organizational level. (author)

  12. Modeling liver electrical conductivity during hypertonic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Quim; Sánchez-Velázquez, Patricia; Moll, Xavier; Berjano, Enrique; Andaluz, Anna; Burdío, Fernando; Bijnens, Bart; Ivorra, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    Metastases in the liver frequently grow as scattered tumor nodules that neither can be removed by surgical resection nor focally ablated. Previously, we have proposed a novel technique based on irreversible electroporation that may be able to simultaneously treat all nodules in the liver while sparing healthy tissue. The proposed technique requires increasing the electrical conductivity of healthy liver by injecting a hypersaline solution through the portal vein. Aiming to assess the capability of increasing the global conductivity of the liver by means of hypersaline fluids, here, it is presented a mathematical model that estimates the NaCl distribution within the liver and the resulting conductivity change. The model fuses well-established compartmental pharmacokinetic models of the organ with saline injection models used for resuscitation treatments, and it considers changes in sinusoidal blood viscosity because of the hypertonicity of the solution. Here, it is also described a pilot experimental study in pigs in which different volumes of NaCl 20% (from 100 to 200 mL) were injected through the portal vein at different flow rates (from 53 to 171 mL/minute). The in vivo conductivity results fit those obtained by the model, both quantitatively and qualitatively, being able to predict the maximum conductivity with a 14.6% average relative error. The maximum conductivity value was 0.44 second/m, which corresponds to increasing 4 times the mean basal conductivity (0.11 second/m). The results suggest that the presented model is well suited for predicting on liver conductivity changes during hypertonic saline injection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  14. Conductivity in insulators due to implantation of conducting species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawer, S.; Kalish, R.

    1993-01-01

    Control of the surface conductivity of insulators can be accomplished by high dose ion implantation of conductive species. The use of C + as the implant species is particularly interesting because C can either form electrically insulating sp 3 bonds or electrically conducting sp 2 bonds. In the present work, fused quartz plates have been irradiated with 100 keV C + ions to doses up to 1 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 at room temperature and at 200 deg C. The ion beam induced conductivity was monitored in-situ and was found to increase by up to 8 orders to magnitude for the ion dose range studied. Xe implantations over a similar range did not induce any changes in the conductivity showing that the increase in conductivity is caused by the presence of the C in the fused quartz matrix and not by damage. The dependence of the conductivity on implantation temperature and on post implantation annealing sheds light on the clustering of the C implants. The temperature dependence of the conductivity for the highest doses employed (1 x 10 17 C + /cm 2 ) can be described very well by lnσ α T. This is considered to be a peculiar dependence which does not comply with any of the standard models for conduction. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  15. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    , depending on the nature of intraspecific interactions between them: while the individuals of some species repel each other and partition the available area, others form groups of varying size, determined by the fitness of each group member. The spatial distribution pattern of individuals again strongly......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  16. Distribution automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenemeyer, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a Distribution Automation (DA) System enhances the efficiency and productivity of a utility. It also provides intangible benefits such as improved public image and market advantages. A utility should evaluate the benefits and costs of such a system before committing funds. The expenditure for distribution automation is economical when justified by the deferral of a capacity increase, a decrease in peak power demand, or a reduction in O and M requirements

  17. An Intelligent Four-Electrode Conductivity Sensor for Aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Jiaran; Li , Daoliang; Wang , Cong; Ding , Qisheng

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Conductivity is regard as a key technical parameter in modern intensive fish farming management. The water conductivity sensors are sophisticated devices used in the aquaculture monitoring field to understand the effects of climate changes on fish ponds. In this paper a new four-electrode smart sensor is proposed for water conductivity measurements of aquaculture monitoring.The main advantages of these sensors include a high precision, a good stability and an intrinsic...

  18. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function. Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  19. Ionospheric control of the magnetosphere: conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ridley

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the ionosphere plays a role in determining the global state of the magnetosphere. The ionosphere allows magnetospheric currents to close, thereby allowing magnetospheric convection to occur. The amount of current which can be carried through the ionosphere is mainly determined by the ionospheric conductivity. This paper starts to quantify the nonlinear relationship between the ionospheric conductivity and the global state of the magnetosphere. It is found that the steady-state magnetosphere acts neither as a current nor as a voltage generator; a uniform Hall conductance can influence the potential pattern at low latitudes, but not at high latitude; the EUV generated conductance forces the currents to close in the sunlight, while the potential is large on the nightside; the solar generated Hall conductances cause a large asymmetry between the dawn and dusk potential, which effects the pressure distribution in the magnetosphere; a uniform polar cap potential removes some of this asymmetry; the potential difference between solar minimum and maximum is ∼11%; and the auroral precipitation can be related to the local field-aligned current through an exponential function.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; modelling and forecasting; polar ionosphere

  20. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  1. International reference reagents: antihuman globulin. An ISBT/ICSH joint working party report. International Society of Blood Transfusion. International Committee for Standardization in Haematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, J; Ford, D S; Chung, A; Collins, R; Kochman, S; Mazda, T; Overbeeke, M; Perera, R; Sakuldamrongpanich, T; Scott, M; Voak, D; Zupańska, B

    1999-01-01

    An international working party has conducted a study designed to select a suitable reference reagent for antihuman globulin, to replace those first made available in 1987. The chosen preparation contains levels of anti-IgG and anti-C3 (anti-C3c and anti-C3d) potency that are considered suitable to serve for reference when evaluating either polyspecific antihuman globulin reagents or those containing their separate monospecific components. The reference material is available in 2-ml freeze-dried aliquots from seven assigned distribution centres.

  2. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  3. Tritium conductivity and isotope effect in proton-conducting perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukundan, R.; Brosha, E.L.; Birdsell, S.A.; Costello, A.L.; Garzon, F.H.; Willms, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The tritium ion conductivities of SrZr 0.9 Yb 0.1 O 2.95 and BaCe 0.9 Yb 0.1 O 2.95 have been measured by ac impedance analysis. The high tritium conductivity of these perovskites could potentially lead to their application as an electrochemical membrane for the recovery of tritium from tritiated gas streams. The conductivities of these perovskites, along with SrCe 0.95 Yb 0.05 O 2.975 , were also measured in hydrogen- and deuterium-containing atmospheres to illustrate the isotope effect. For the strontium zirconate and barium cerate samples, the impedance plot consists of two clearly resolved arcs, a bulk and a grain boundary arc, in the temperature range 50--350 C. However, for the strontium cerate sample, the clear resolution of the bulk conductivity was not possible and only the total conductivity was measurable. Thus, the isotope effect was clearly established only for the strontium zirconate and barium cerate samples. The decrease in bulk conductivity with increasing isotope mass was found to be a result of an increase in the activation energy for conduction accompanied by a decrease in the pre-exponential factor. Since the concentration of the mobile species (H+, D+, or T+) should remain relatively constant at T < 350 C, this increase in activation energy is directly attributable to the increased activation energy for the isotope mobility

  4. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  5. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  6. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  7. Does the atrioventricular node conduct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Fisch, C.

    1989-01-01

    It is difficult to be certain wh en the term "conduction" was first applied to the transfer of atrial activation to the ventricles .' In 1894, Engelmann used the word "Leitung", which can be translated as "connection" or as "conduction" .2 In 1906, Tawara described the atrioventricular node,

  8. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  9. Thermal conductivity of supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, John W; Holten, Vincent; Sengers, Jan V; Anisimov, Mikhail A

    2013-04-01

    The heat capacity of supercooled water, measured down to -37°C, shows an anomalous increase as temperature decreases. The thermal diffusivity, i.e., the ratio of the thermal conductivity and the heat capacity per unit volume, shows a decrease. These anomalies may be associated with a hypothesized liquid-liquid critical point in supercooled water below the line of homogeneous nucleation. However, while the thermal conductivity is known to diverge at the vapor-liquid critical point due to critical density fluctuations, the thermal conductivity of supercooled water, calculated as the product of thermal diffusivity and heat capacity, does not show any sign of such an anomaly. We have used mode-coupling theory to investigate the possible effect of critical fluctuations on the thermal conductivity of supercooled water and found that indeed any critical thermal-conductivity enhancement would be too small to be measurable at experimentally accessible temperatures. Moreover, the behavior of thermal conductivity can be explained by the observed anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. In particular, we show that thermal conductivity should go through a minimum when temperature is decreased, as Kumar and Stanley observed in the TIP5P model of water. We discuss physical reasons for the striking difference between the behavior of thermal conductivity in water near the vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid critical points.

  10. Conductive properties of methanogenic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2018-02-01

    Extracellular electron transfer between syntrophic partners needs to be efficiently maintained in methanogenic environments. Direct extracellular electron transfer via electrical current is an alternative to indirect hydrogen transfer but requires construction of conductive extracellular structures. Conductive mechanisms and relationship between conductivity and the community composition in mixed-species methanogenic biofilms are not well understood. The present study investigated conductive behaviors of methanogenic biofilms and examined the correlation between biofilm conductivity and community composition between different anaerobic biofilms enriched from the same inoculum. Highest conductivity observed in methanogenic biofilms was 71.8±4.0μS/cm. Peak-manner response of conductivity upon changes over a range of electrochemical potentials suggests that electron transfer in methanogenic biofilms occurs through redox driven super-exchange. The strong correlation observed between biofilm conductivity and Geobacter spp. in the metabolically diverse anaerobic communities suggests that the efficiency of DEET may provide pressure for microbial communities to select for species that can produce electrical conduits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, C.G.S.; George, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of uranium dioxide of composition UO 2.015 was measured from 300 to 1400 K. The phonon component of the conductivity is found to be quantitatively accounted for by the theoretical expression of Slack derived by modifying the Leibfried-Schlomann equation. (orig.)

  12. Bone-Conduction ABR Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone-Wesson, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the accuracy of bone-conduction auditory brainstem response (BC-ABR) tests to determine the presence and severity of conductive hearing impairment. It provides warnings about technical pitfalls and recommends incorporating BC-ABR protocols for routine clinical use. It concludes that the method allows estimating cochlear…

  13. Conduction cooling: multicrate fastbus hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowiecki, D.; Sims, W.; Larsen, R.

    1980-11-01

    Described is a new and novel approach for cooling nuclear instrumentation modules via heat conduction. The simplicity of liquid cooled crates and ease of thermal management with conduction cooled modules are described. While this system was developed primarily for the higher power levels expected with Fastbus electronics, it has many general applications

  14. The organization and conducting of paratriathlon competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Vodlozerov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze the system of the organization and conducting of competitions among paratriathletes concerning compliance with specifics of this sport – the consecutive overcoming of the combined distance by means of different types of physical activity. Material & Methods: the analysis of conditions of the organization and conducting of competitions of paratriathletes in six competitive categories was made on the basis of studying of articles of the UNO Convention on the Rights of physically disabled people, the regulatory base of the international federations of triathlon and Federation of triathlon of Ukraine. Results: the compliance of the organization and conducting of paratriathlon competitions concerning specifics of continuous triathlon with certain modifications of passing of stages of the combined distance by sportsmen with limited physical capacities is revealed. Conclusions: competition rules on paratriathlon, which allow conducting the fair competitive competition in the spirit of fair, competitive and safe rivalry to athletes with different physical deviations, are developed for more active attraction to sports activities, and also for the purpose of removal of discrimination barriers from physically disabled people.

  15. Distributed creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This book challenges the standard view that creativity comes only from within an individual by arguing that creativity also exists ‘outside’ of the mind or more precisely, that the human mind extends through the means of action into the world. The notion of ‘distributed creativity’ is not commonly...... used within the literature and yet it has the potential to revolutionise the way we think about creativity, from how we define and measure it to what we can practically do to foster and develop creativity. Drawing on cultural psychology, ecological psychology and advances in cognitive science......, this book offers a basic framework for the study of distributed creativity that considers three main dimensions of creative work: sociality, materiality and temporality. Starting from the premise that creativity is distributed between people, between people and objects and across time, the book reviews...

  16. The global household: toward a feminist postcapitalist international political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safri, Maliha; Graham, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to introduce a new category into international political economy-the global household-and to begin to widen the focus of international political economy to include nonmarket transactions and noncapitalist production. As an economic institution composed of transnational extended families and codwellers (including international migrants and family members left behind in countries of origin), the global household is engaged in coordinating international migration, sending and receiving billions of dollars in remittances, and organizing and conducting market- and non-market-oriented production on an international scale. We first trace the discursive antecedents of the global household concept to theories of the household as a site of noncapitalist production and to feminist ethnographies of transnational families. In order to demonstrate the potential significance and effect of this newly recognized institution, we estimate the aggregate population of global households, the size and distribution of remittances, and the magnitude and sectoral scope of global household production. We then examine the implications of the global household concept for three areas of inquiry: globalization, economic development, and the household politics of economic transformation. Finally, we briefly explore the possibilities for research and activism opened up by a feminist, postcapitalist international political economy centered on the global household.

  17. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Rubio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCl single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 deg C. The radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 deg C respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. Howewer, it has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that small radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (auth)

  18. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Rubio, J.

    1979-01-01

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCL single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 degree centigree. the radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 degree centigree respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. However. It has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that, samples radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (Author)

  19. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, Anders; Johannesson, L.E.

    1994-11-01

    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  20. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.