WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal co2 levels

  1. Meteorological and small scale internal ecosystem variability characterize the uncertainty of ecosystem level responses to elevated CO2. Insights from the Duke Forest FACE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, A.; Katul, G. G.; Fatichi, S.; Palmroth, S.; Way, D.

    2017-12-01

    One of the open questions in climate change research is the pathway by which elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration impacts the biogeochemical and hydrological cycles at the ecosystem scale. This impact leads to significant changes in long-term carbon stocks and the potential of ecosystems to sequester CO2, partially mitigating anthropogenic emissions. While the significance of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on instantaneous leaf-level processes such as photosynthesis and transpiration is rarely disputed, its integrated effect at the ecosystem level and at long-time scales remains a subject of debate. This debate has taken on some urgency as illustrated by differences arising between ecosystem modelling studies, and data-model comparisons using Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) sites around the world. Inherent leaf-to-leaf variability in gas exchange rates can generate such inconsistencies. This inherent variability arises from the combined effect of meteorological "temporal" variability and the "spatial" variability of the biochemical parameters regulating vegetation carbon uptake. This combined variability leads to a non-straightforward scaling of ecosystem fluxes from the leaf to ecosystems. To illustrate this scaling behaviour, we used 10 years of leaf gas exchange measurements collected at the Duke Forest FACE experiment. The internal variability of the ecosystem parameters are first quantified and then combined with three different leaf-scale stomatal conductance models and an ecosystem model. The main results are: (a) Variability of the leaf level fluxes is dependent on both the meteorological drivers and differences in leaf age, position within the canopy, nitrogen and CO2 fertilization, which can be accommodated in model parameters; (b) Meteorological variability plays the dominant role at short temporal scales while parameter variability is significant at longer temporal scales. (c) Leaf level results do not necessarily translate to similar ecosystem

  2. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David

    2016-01-01

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  3. CO2 emissions embodied in international trade: evidence for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the sectoral impacts that Spanish international trade relations have on present levels of atmospheric pollution using an input-output model. We try to evaluate the exports and imports of the Spanish economy in terms of the direct and indirect CO 2 emissions (CO 2 embodied) generated in Spain and abroad. The results show a slightly exporting behaviour in the Spanish economy which, nevertheless, hides important pollution interchanges. Moreover, the sectors transport material, mining and energy, non-metallic industries, chemical and metals are the most relevant CO 2 exporters and other services, construction, transport material and food the biggest CO 2 importers, and those whose final demands also embody more than 70% of the CO 2 emissions

  4. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, O.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1992-01-01

    According to most scientists, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to current trends to avoid dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that it is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the 'tradeable quotas' type tends to imply higher producer prices and a larger efficiency loss than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. The oil market and international agreements on CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, K.; Fimreite, Oe.; Golombek, R.; Hoel, M.

    1991-01-01

    In order to avoid a relatively large risk of dramatic adverse climatic changes during the next century, greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced significantly relative to present emissions. CO 2 is the most important greenhouse gas, so any international agreement will certainly cover CO 2 emissions. Any international agreement to reduce emissions of CO 2 is going to have a significant impact on the markets for fossil fuels. The analysis shows that is not only the amount of CO 2 emissions permitted in an agreement which matters for fossil fuel prices, but also the type of agreement. Two obvious forms of agreements, which under certain assumptions both are cost efficient, are (a) tradeable emission permits, and (b) an international CO 2 tax. If the fossil fuel markets were perfectly competitive, these two types of agreements would have the same effect on the producer price of fossil fuels. However, fossil fuel markets are not completely competitive. It is shown that, under imperfect competition, direct regulation of the ''tradeable quotas'' type tends to imply higher producer prices than an international CO 2 tax giving the same total CO 2 emissions. A numerical illustration of the oil market indicates that the difference in producer prices for the two types of CO 2 agreements is quite significant. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. International Collaboration on CO2 Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter H. Israelsson; E. Eric Adams

    2007-06-30

    On December 4, 1997, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization of Japan (NEDO), and the Norwegian Research Council (NRC) entered into a Project Agreement for International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration. Government organizations from Japan, Canada, and Australia, and a Swiss/Swedish engineering firm later joined the agreement, which outlined a research strategy for ocean carbon sequestration via direct injection. The members agreed to an initial field experiment, with the hope that if the initial experiment was successful, there would be subsequent field evaluations of increasingly larger scale to evaluate environmental impacts of sequestration and the potential for commercialization. The evolution of the collaborative effort, the supporting research, and results for the International Collaboration on CO{sub 2} Ocean Sequestration were documented in almost 100 papers and reports, including 18 peer-reviewed journal articles, 46 papers, 28 reports, and 4 graduate theses. These efforts were summarized in our project report issued January 2005 and covering the period August 23, 1998-October 23, 2004. An accompanying CD contained electronic copies of all the papers and reports. This report focuses on results of a two-year sub-task to update an environmental assessment of acute marine impacts resulting from direct ocean sequestration. The approach is based on the work of Auerbach et al. [6] and Caulfield et al. [20] to assess mortality to zooplankton, but uses updated information concerning bioassays, an updated modeling approach and three modified injection scenarios: a point release of negatively buoyant solid CO{sub 2} hydrate particles from a moving ship; a long, bottom-mounted diffuser discharging buoyant liquid CO{sub 2} droplets; and a stationary point release of hydrate particles forming a sinking plume. Results suggest that in particular the first two discharge modes could be

  7. CO2 emissions: a peak level in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    After a reduction of CO 2 emissions in 2009 due to the financial crisis, these emissions have again reached a peak in 2010: 30.6 Gt, it means an increase by 5% compared to the previous peak. According to IEA (International Energy Agency): 44% of the emissions come from coal, 36% from oil and 20% from natural gas, and OECD countries are responsible of 40% of the CO 2 global emissions but only of 25% of their increase since 2009. For China and India the emissions of CO 2 have increased sharply due to their strong economic growth. (A.C.)

  8. Possibility of reducing CO2 emissions from internal combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dawid; Mamala, Jarosław; Śmieja, Michał; Prażnowski, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Article defines on the possibility of reduction CO2 of the internal combustion engine and presents the analysis based on originally conducted studies. The increase in overall engine efficiency is sought after by all engineers dealing with engine construction, one of the major ways to reduce CO2 emissions is to increase the compression ratio. The application of the compression ratio that has been increased constructional in the engine will, on one hand, bring about the increase in the theoretical efficiency, but, on the other hand, require a system for pressure control at a higher engine load in order to prevent engine knocking. For the purposes of the article there was carried out a number of studies and compiled results, and on their basis determined what have a major impact on the reducing CO2.

  9. Effects of tillage practice and atmospheric CO2 level on soil CO2 efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) affects both the quantity and quality of plant tissues, which impacts the cycling and storage of carbon (C) within plant/soil systems and thus the rate of CO2 release back to the atmosphere. Research to accurately quantify the effects of elevated CO2 and as...

  10. Modelling Energy Systems and International Trade in CO2 Emission Quotas - The Kyoto Protocol and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Tobias A.

    2002-01-01

    A transformation of the energy system in the 21st century is required if the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere should be stabilized at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. The industrialized countries have emitted most of the anthropogenic CO 2 released to the atmosphere since the beginning of the industrial era and still account for roughly two thirds of global fossil fuel related CO 2 emissions. Industrial country CO 2 emissions on a per capita basis are roughly five to ten times higher than those of developing countries. However, a global atmospheric CO 2 concentration target of 450 ppm, if adopted would require that global average per capita CO 2 emissions by the end of this century have to be comparable to those of developing countries today. The industrialized countries would have to reduce their emissions substantially and the emissions in developing countries could not follow a business-as-usual scenario. The transformation of the energy system and abatement of CO 2 emissions would need to occur in industrialized and developing countries. Energy-economy models have been developed to analyze of international trading in CO 2 emission permits. The thesis consists of three papers. The cost of meeting the Kyoto Protocol is estimated in the first paper. The Kyoto Protocol, which defines quantitative greenhouse gas emission commitments for industrialized countries over the period 2008-2012, is the first international agreement setting quantitative goals for abatement of CO 2 emissions from energy systems. The Protocol allows the creation of systems for trade in emission permits whereby countries exceeding their target levels can remain in compliance by purchasing surplus permits from other developed countries. However, a huge carbon surplus, which has been christened hot air, has been created in Russia and Ukraine since 1990 primarily because of the contraction of their economies. The current Unites States

  11. Internal respiration of Amazon tree stems greatly exceeds external CO2 efflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Q. Chambers

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respiration in tree stems is an important component of forest carbon balance. The rate of CO2 efflux from the stem has often been assumed to be a measure of stem respiration. However, recent work in temperate forests has demonstrated that stem CO2 efflux can either overestimate or underestimate respiration rate because of emission or removal of CO2 by transport in xylem water. Here, we studied gas exchange from stems of tropical forest trees using a new approach to better understand respiration in an ecosystem that plays a key role in the global carbon cycle. Our main questions were (1 is internal CO2 transport important in tropical trees, and, if so, (2 does this transport result in net release of CO2 respired in the roots at the stem, or does it cause the opposite effect of net removal of stem-respired CO2? To answer these questions, we measured the ratio of stem CO2 efflux to O2 influx. This ratio, defined here as apparent respiratory quotient (ARQ, is expected to equal 1.0 if carbohydrates are the substrate for respiration, and the net transport of CO2 in the xylem water is negligible. Using a stem chamber approach to quantifying ARQ, we found values of 0.66 ± 0.18. These low ARQ values indicate that a large portion of respired CO2 (~ 35% is not emitted locally, and is probably transported upward in the stem. ARQ values of 0.21 ± 0.10 were found for the steady-state gas concentration within the stem, sampled by in-stem equilibration probes. These lower values may result from the proximity to the xylem water stream. In contrast, we found ARQ values of 1.00 ± 0.13 for soil respiration. Our results indicate the existence of a considerable internal flux of CO2 in the stems of tropical trees. If the transported CO2 is used in the canopy as a substrate for photosynthesis, it could account for up to 10% of the C fixed by the tree, and perhaps serve as a mechanism that buffers the response of the tree to changing CO2 levels. Our results also

  12. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine formations or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2 capture and related p...

  13. The urgent need to internalize CO2 emission costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodland, R.; El Serafy, S.

    1998-01-01

    Despite growing manifestations of global warming and the commitment of most nations to move towards reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a simple device that can be effective in reducing GHG emissions continues to be overlooked or even rejected. This is to acknowledge the fact that carbon emissions inflict global costs that are not borne by emitters. This paper advocates that all activities emitting or saving carbon emissions should internalize the carbon cost inflicted or avoided by new projects involving CO 2 . Considering the current wide range of carbon cost estimates, the paper recommends that a two-stage approach be adopted. Firstly, incorporate carbon costs in project analysis only theoretically in order to differentiate objectively among alternative designs involving carbon emissions of varying degrees. Different estimates of the costs of a ton of carbon would be used in order to test the sensitivity of rates of return to alternative carbon costs. While this process would have the effect of screening the allocation of scarce investment funds among projects that affect global warming in different degrees, it should be viewed as only a first step. Secondly, we advocate a rigorous process of passing through estimated carbon costs to the ultimate users of the services of carbon-emitting projects and processes. It is this ultimate process that will secure the urgently needed transition from the current dependence on fossil fuels to more benign sources of energy that would reduce climate-change risks. Since the time available is limited, the paper points out the urgency of these proposals that are crucial for sustainability

  14. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  15. Analysis of the international distribution of per capita CO2 emissions using the polarization concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, Juan Antonio; Padilla, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    The concept of polarization is linked to the extent that a given distribution leads to the formation of homogeneous groups with opposing interests. This concept, which is basically different from the traditional one of inequality, is related to the level of inherent potential conflict in a distribution. The polarization approach has been widely applied in the analysis of income distribution. The extension of this approach to the analysis of international distribution of CO 2 emissions is quite useful as it gives a potent informative instrument for characterizing the state and evolution of the international distribution of emissions and its possible political consequences in terms of tensions and the probability of achieving agreements. In this paper we analyze the international distribution of per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 2001 through the adaptation of the polarization concept and measures. We find that the most interesting grouped description deriving from the analysis is a two groups' one, which broadly coincide with Annex B and non-Annex B countries of the Kyoto Protocol, which shows the power of polarization analysis for explaining the generation of groups in the real world. The analysis also shows a significant reduction in international polarization in per capita CO 2 emissions between 1971 and 1995, but not much change since 1995, which might indicate that polarized distribution of emission is still one of the important factors leading to difficulties in achieving agreements for reducing global emissions. (author)

  16. International inequalities in per capita CO2 emissions: a decomposition methodology by Kaya factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, J.A.; Universitat de Barcelona; Padilla, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a methodology for decomposing international inequalities in per capita CO 2 emissions into Kaya (multiplicative) factors and two interaction terms. We use the Theil index of inequality and show that this decomposition methodology can be extended for analyzing between- and within-group inequality components. We can thus analyze the factors behind inequalities in per capita CO 2 emissions across countries, between groups of countries and within groups of countries. The empirical illustration for international data suggests some points. Firstly, international inequality in per capita CO 2 emissions is mainly attributable to inequalities in per capita income levels, which helps to explain its recent reduction, while differences in carbon intensity of energy and energy intensity have made a less significant contribution. This result is strongly influenced by the performance of China and India. Secondly, the between-group inequality component, which is the biggest component, is also largely explained by the income factor. Thirdly, the within-group inequality component increased slightly during the period, something mainly due to the change in the income factor and the interaction terms in a few regions. (author)

  17. China’s provincial CO2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ju’e; Zhang Zengkai; Meng Lei

    2012-01-01

    Trades create a mechanism of embodied CO 2 emissions transfer among regions, causing distortion on the total emissions. As the world’s second largest economy, China has a large scale of trade, which results in the serious problem of embodied CO 2 emissions transfer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of China’s CO 2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade from the provincial perspective. The multi-regional Input–Output Model is used to clarify provincial CO 2 emissions from geographical and sectoral dimensions, including 30 provinces and 28 sectors. Two calculating principles (production accounting principle and consumption accounting principle, ) are applied. The results show that for international trade, the eastern area accounts for a large proportion in China’s embodied CO 2 emissions. The sectors as net exporters and importers of embodied CO 2 emissions belong to labor-intensive and energy-intensive industries, respectively. For interprovincial trade, the net transfer of embodied CO 2 emissions is from the eastern area to the central area, and energy-intensive industries are the main contributors. With the largest amount of direct CO 2 emissions, the eastern area plays an important role in CO 2 emissions reduction. The central and western areas need supportive policies to avoid the transfer of industries with high emissions. - Highlights: ► China’s embodied CO 2 emissions are analyzed from the provincial perspective. ► Eastern provinces have larger CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade. ► Embodied CO 2 emissions are mainly transferred from eastern area to central area. ► Coastal provinces play important roles in CO 2 emissions reduction. ► Inland provinces need supportive policies on emissions reduction.

  18. International and European legal aspects on underground geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, C.; Olvstam, M.-L.; Bernstone, C.

    2005-01-01

    The often disconnected international and European legal rules regarding carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage in geological formations create legal uncertainty and a slow down in investments. Existing rules for waste dumping, such as the OSPAR and London Conventions implies that CO 2 storage in sub seabed geological formations is not permitted for climate change mitigating purposes. This paper emphasized that even in cases when complete certainty about the exact application of a legal rule is not possible, it is necessary to know if an activity is lawful. It also emphasized that CO 2 storage should be a priority in the international agenda. The current gaps in knowledge concerning the relevant international and European legislation directly related to CO 2 storage were identified in this paper, including long-term liability for risk of damages caused during the injection phase of the well. The current relevant legislation that is not directly concerned with CO 2 storage but which might have an impact on future legislation was also discussed along with relevant legal principles that might influence future legislation. Some of the many ongoing projects concerning CO 2 storage were reviewed along with papers and reports on regulating CO 2 storage. It was concluded that if CO 2 capture and storage is going to be a large-scale concept for mitigating climate change, the legal issues and requirements need to be an area of priority. 16 refs

  19. Uncovering China’s transport CO2 emission patterns at the regional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bin; Geng, Yong; Franke, Bernd; Hao, Han; Liu, Yaxuan; Chiu, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With China’s rapid economic development, its transport sector has experienced a dramatic growth, leading to a large amount of related CO 2 emission. This paper aims to uncover China’s transport CO 2 emission patterns at the regional and provincial level. We first present the CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces, including per capita emissions, emission intensities, and historical evolution of annual CO 2 emission. We then quantify the related driving forces by adopting both period-wise and time-series LMDI analysis. Results indicate that significant regional CO 2 emission disparities exist in China’s transport sector. The eastern region had higher total CO 2 emissions and per capita CO 2 emissions, but lower CO 2 emission intensities in its transport sector. The western region had higher CO 2 emission intensities and experienced a rapid CO 2 emission increase. The CO 2 emission increments in the eastern provinces were mainly contributed by both economic activity effect and population effect, while energy intensity partially offset the emission growth and energy structure had a marginal effect. However, in the central and western provinces, both economic activity effect and energy intensity effect induced the CO 2 emission increases, while the effects from population and energy structure change were limited. - Highlights: • The CO 2 emission features from transport sector in 30 Chinese provinces were presented. • The driving forces of CO 2 emissions from transport sector were quantified. • Regional disparities on China’s transport sector CO 2 emission exist. • Region-specific mitigation policies on transport sector CO 2 emission are needed

  20. Meta-analysis reveals profound responses of plant traits to glacial CO2 levels

    OpenAIRE

    Temme, A A; Cornwell, W K; Cornelissen, J H C; Aerts, R

    2013-01-01

    A general understanding of the links between atmospheric CO2 concentration and the functioning of the terrestrial biosphere requires not only an understanding of plant trait responses to the ongoing transition to higher CO2 but also the legacy effects of past low CO2. An interesting question is whether the transition from current to higher CO2 can be thought of as a continuation of the past trajectory of low to current CO2 levels. Determining this trajectory requires quantifying the effect si...

  1. Effects of high CO2 levels on dynamic photosynthesis: carbon gain, mechanisms, and environmental interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Hajime; Tang, Yanhong

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the photosynthetic responses of terrestrial plants to environments with high levels of CO2 is essential to address the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric CO2. Most photosynthetic models used for global carbon issues are based on steady-state photosynthesis, whereby photosynthesis is measured under constant environmental conditions; however, terrestrial plant photosynthesis under natural conditions is highly dynamic, and photosynthetic rates change in response to rapid changes in environmental factors. To predict future contributions of photosynthesis to the global carbon cycle, it is necessary to understand the dynamic nature of photosynthesis in relation to high CO2 levels. In this review, we summarize the current body of knowledge on the photosynthetic response to changes in light intensity under experimentally elevated CO2 conditions. We found that short-term exposure to high CO2 enhances photosynthetic rate, reduces photosynthetic induction time, and reduces post-illumination CO2 burst, resulting in increased leaf carbon gain during dynamic photosynthesis. However, long-term exposure to high CO2 during plant growth has varying effects on dynamic photosynthesis. High levels of CO2 increase the carbon gain in photosynthetic induction in some species, but have no significant effects in other species. Some studies have shown that high CO2 levels reduce the biochemical limitation on RuBP regeneration and Rubisco activation during photosynthetic induction, whereas the effects of high levels of CO2 on stomatal conductance differ among species. Few studies have examined the influence of environmental factors on effects of high levels of CO2 on dynamic photosynthesis. We identified several knowledge gaps that should be addressed to aid future predictions of photosynthesis in high-CO2 environments.

  2. Rising CO2 levels will intensify phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda M H Verspagen

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1 dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2 rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3 above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked

  3. Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspagen, Jolanda M. H.; Van de Waal, Dedmer B.; Finke, Jan F.; Visser, Petra M.; Van Donk, Ellen; Huisman, Jef

    2014-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH and alkalinity during phytoplankton bloom development. We tested the model in chemostat experiments with the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa at different CO2 levels. The experiments showed that dense blooms sequestered large amounts of atmospheric CO2, not only by their own biomass production but also by inducing a high pH and alkalinity that enhanced the capacity for DIC storage in the system. We used the model to explore how phytoplankton blooms of eutrophic waters will respond to rising CO2 levels. The model predicts that (1) dense phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters can deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration to limiting levels and raise the pH over a relatively wide range of atmospheric CO2 conditions, (2) rising atmospheric CO2 levels will enhance phytoplankton blooms in low- and moderately alkaline waters with high nutrient loads, and (3) above some threshold, rising atmospheric CO2 will alleviate phytoplankton blooms from carbon limitation, resulting in less intense CO2 depletion and a lesser increase in pH. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the model predictions were qualitatively robust. Quantitatively, the predictions were sensitive to variation in lake depth, DIC input and CO2 gas transfer across the air-water interface, but relatively robust to variation in the carbon uptake mechanisms of phytoplankton. In total, these findings warn that rising CO2 levels may result in a marked intensification of

  4. Efficiencies of subcritical and transcritical CO2 inverse cycles with and without an internal heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.Z.; Jiang, P.X.; Lin, Y.S.; Zhang, Y.W.

    2011-01-01

    An internal heat exchanger (IHX) is often used to improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of CO 2 inverse cycles. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the IHX's effect in CO 2 inverse cycles and finds suitable operating conditions for the IHX from a thermodynamic performance point of view. The results indicate that the COP is slightly reduced by an IHX in a CO 2 subcritical inverse cycle, so an IHX is not justified. However, for transcritical CO 2 inverse cycles, the compressor discharge pressures and CO 2 gas cooler outlet temperatures both have significant impacts on system performance. The analysis results for transcritical CO 2 inverse cycles show that a transition discharge pressure and a transition CO 2 gas cooler outlet temperature are objective existence above which the IHX improves the cycle performance. - Research highlights: → Find suitable operating conditions for the IHX. → Above transition CO2 gas cooler outlet temperature IHX improves cycle performance. → The IHX is not very useful for optimized space heating and refrigerating cycles.

  5. Responses of Four Rice Varieties to Elevated CO2 and Different Salinity Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheidollah Kazemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:: This study was carried out in 2014 at Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, to evaluate the responses of four rice varieties (Neda, Deylamani, Shiroudi and Domsorkh to ambient (360 ± 50 μmol/mol and elevated (700 ± 50 μmol/mol air carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations under four salinity levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 mmol/L NaCl. There was significant variation among rice varieties in response to elevated CO2 concentration under the four salinity levels. Under non-saline condition, elevated CO2 increased the dry weight of Neda, Deylamani and Domsorkh by 8%, 50% and 8%, respectively, but reversely decreased that of Shiroudi by 34%. Increasing CO2 concentration significantly reduced the negative effects of salinity on Shiroudi, but these effects were even increased in Deylamani and Domsorkh under all the salinity levels and in Neda only under 30 and 60 mmol/L NaCl. Significant correlations were established between plant dry weight, SPAD value and leaf area under both CO2 levels. However, this trend was observed only at ambient CO2 concentration in the presence of soluble carbohydrates. The results revealed the genotype and salinity dependence of the effects of CO2 concentrations on the rice traits investigated. Key words: CO2 concentration, genetic diversity, salt tolerance, water soluble carbohydrate

  6. Enhanced abundance of tintinnids under elevated CO2 level from coastal Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Gadi, S.D.; Venkataramana, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Priyan, R.K.; Manjari, D.T.; DileepKumar, M.

    of marine plankton to increasing CO2 concentrations. Natural water samples from the coastal Bay of Bengal were incubated under the ambient condition and high CO2 levels (703-711 latm) for 5 days in May and June 2010. A significant negative correlation...

  7. Interactive effects of high CO2 and SO2 on growth and antioxidant levels in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, M.V.; De Kok, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of elevated CO2 and/or SO2 on the growth and antioxidant levels of wheat {Triticum aestivum L. cv. Urban) plants has been studied. High CO2 (0.7 ml I-1) significantly enhanced shoot biomass and photosynthetic capacity, while exposure to SO2 (0.14 ul I-1) resulted in a decreased shoot

  8. Evidence that an internal carbonic anhydrase is present in 5% CO2-grown and air-grown Chlamydomonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroney, J.V.; Togasaki, R.K.; Husic, H.D.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) uptake was measured in wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and in cia-3, a mutant strain of C. reinhardtii that cannot grow with air levels of CO 2 . Both air-grown cells, that have a CO 2 concentrating system, and 5% CO 2 -grown cells that do not have this system, were used. When the external pH was 5.1 or 7.3, air-grown, wild-type cells accumulated inorganic carbon (C/sub i/) and this accumulation was enhanced when the permeant carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, ethoxyzolamide, was added. When the external pH was 5.1, 5% CO 2 -grown cells also accumulated some C/sub i/, although not as much as air-grown cells and this accumulation was stimulated by the addition of ethoxyzolamide. At the same time, ethoxyzolamide inhibited CO 2 fixation by high CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells at both pH 5.1 and 7.3. These observations imply that 5% CO 2 -grown, wild-type cells, have a physiologically important internal carbonic anhydrase, although the major carbonic anhydrase located in the periplasmic space is only present in air-grown cells. Inorganic carbon uptake by cia-3 cells supported this conclusion. This mutant strain, which is thought to lack an internal carbonic anhydrase, was unaffected by ethoxyzolamide at pH 5.1. Other physiological characteristics of cia-3 resemble those of wild-type cells that have been treated with ethoxyzolamide. It is concluded that an internal carbonic anhydrase is under different regulatory control than the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase

  9. Trends in CO2 Emissions from China-Oriented International Marine Transportation Activities and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualong Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The demand for marine transportation and its associated CO2 emissions are growing rapidly as a result of increasing international trade and economic growth. An activity-based approach is developed for forecasting CO2 emissions from the China-oriented international seaborne trade sector. To accurately estimate the aggregated emissions, CO2 emissions are calculated individually for five categories of vessels: crude oil tanker, product tanker, chemical tanker, bulk carrier, and container. A business-as-usual (BAU scenario was developed to describe the current situation without additional mitigation policies, whilst three alternative scenarios were developed to describe scenarios with various accelerated improvements of the key factors. The aggregated CO2 emissions are predicted to reach 419.97 Mt under the BAU scenario, and 258.47 Mt under the optimal case, AD3. These predictions are 4.5 times and 2.8 times that of the aggregated emissions in 2007. Our analysis suggests that regulations for monitoring, reporting, and verifying the activities of vessels should be proposed, in order to quantify the CO2 emissions of marine transportation activities in Chinese territorial waters. In the long-term future, mitigation policies should be employed to reduce CO2 emissions from the marine trade sector and to address the climatic impact of shipping.

  10. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2 storage in gas reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2007-01-01

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from industrial sources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers or depleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improve understanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO 2 storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health, safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost of CO 2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis to date on system-level analyses of geological CO 2 storage that consider geological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailed process models to representations of engineering components and associated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model for geological CO 2 storage, including CO 2 capture and separation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO 2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailed reservoir simulations of CO 2 injection into a gas reservoir and related enhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associated environmental impacts are also considered. The platform for the system-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim Technology Group; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system model focuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO 2 . Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits of CO 2 injection

  11. Dip in the atmospheric CO2 level during the mid-1960's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacastow, R.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of the southern oscillation effect from the CO 2 records at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and the South Pole reveals corresponding decreases following the Agung eruption in 1963. The period of the decreases roughly corresponds to the period of reduced solar transmittance, as measured at Mauna Loa. It is suggested that the decrease in CO 2 level is due to reduced sea surface temperatures, for which there is some direct evidence. The temperature anomaly required to produce the CO 2 level dip is calculated on the basis of several simple models and found to be close to that observed

  12. Community-level sensitivity of a calcifying ecosystem to acute in situ CO2 enrichment

    KAUST Repository

    Burdett, HL

    2017-11-23

    The rate of change in ocean carbonate chemistry is a vital determinant in the magnitude of effects observed. Benthic marine ecosystems are facing an increasing risk of acute CO2 exposure that may be natural or anthropogenically derived (e.g. engineering and industrial activities). However, our understanding of how acute CO2 events impact marine life is restricted to individual organisms, with little understanding for how this manifests at the community level. Here, we investigated in situ the effect of acute CO2 enrichment on the coralline algal ecosystem—a globally ubiquitous, ecologically and economically important habitat, but one which is likely to be sensitive to CO2 enrichment due to its highly calcified reef-like structures engineered by coralline algae. Most notably, we observed a rapid community-level shift to favour net dissolution rather than net calcification. Smaller changes from net respiration to net photosynthesis were also observed. There was no effect on the net flux of DMS/DMSP (algal secondary metabolites), nor on the nutrients nitrate and phosphate. Following return to ambient CO2 levels, only a partial recovery was seen within the monitoring timeframe. This study highlights the sensitivity of biogenic carbonate marine communities to acute CO2 enrichment and raises concerns over the capacity for the system to ‘bounce back’ if subjected to repeated acute high-CO2 events.

  13. CO2 and nutrient-driven changes across multiple levels of organization in Zostera noltii ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Crego, B.; Olivé, I.; Santos, R.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing evidence emphasizes that the effects of human impacts on ecosystems must be investigated using designs that incorporate the responses across levels of biological organization as well as the effects of multiple stressors. Here we implemented a mesocosm experiment to investigate how the individual and interactive effects of CO2 enrichment and eutrophication scale-up from changes in primary producers at the individual (biochemistry) or population level (production, reproduction, and/or abundance) to higher levels of community (macroalgae abundance, herbivory, and global metabolism), and ecosystem organization (detritus release and carbon sink capacity). The responses of Zostera noltii seagrass meadows growing in low- and high-nutrient field conditions were compared. In both meadows, the expected CO2 benefits on Z. noltii leaf production were suppressed by epiphyte overgrowth, with no direct CO2 effect on plant biochemistry or population-level traits. Multi-level meadow response to nutrients was faster and stronger than to CO2. Nutrient enrichment promoted the nutritional quality of Z. noltii (high N, low C : N and phenolics), the growth of epiphytic pennate diatoms and purple bacteria, and shoot mortality. In the low-nutrient meadow, individual effects of CO2 and nutrients separately resulted in reduced carbon storage in the sediment, probably due to enhanced microbial degradation of more labile organic matter. These changes, however, had no effect on herbivory or on community metabolism. Interestingly, individual effects of CO2 or nutrient addition on epiphytes, shoot mortality, and carbon storage were attenuated when nutrients and CO2 acted simultaneously. This suggests CO2-induced benefits on eutrophic meadows. In the high-nutrient meadow, a striking shoot decline caused by amphipod overgrazing masked the response to CO2 and nutrient additions. Our results reveal that under future scenarios of CO2, the responses of seagrass ecosystems will be complex and

  14. Increase of Internal CO2 of Cotton Plants by Methanol Application to Increase Yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badron Zakaria; Darmawan; Nurlina Kasim; Joseph Saepuddin

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment has been conducted to increase internal CO 2 and Rubisco activity detected by 14 C and to determinate which factors influence this activities. Plant material used was cotton plants which internal CO 2 concentrations and Rubisco activity was observed at 35, 50, 65, 80 days after planting (DAP). Treatments applied were methanol with concentrations of 0%, 10%,20% and 30% at available water (AW) at 25-50% AW, 50-75% AW, 75-100% AW. Results obtained showed that application of methanol at concentration of 20% at 75-100% AW, increase internal CO 2 from 266.60 ppm to 295.10 ppm (11 % increase) and this will also increase Rubisco activity from 3.81 to 14.28 (μmol. CO 2 menit -1 (μmol. Rubisco -1 ). This increase is expected to push photosynthesis rate and result in increase cotton yield. The use of 14 C was satisfactorily detected the amount of carbon. (author)

  15. Relationship between sea level and climate forcing by CO2 on geological timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gavin L; Rohling, Eelco J

    2013-01-22

    On 10(3)- to 10(6)-year timescales, global sea level is determined largely by the volume of ice stored on land, which in turn largely reflects the thermal state of the Earth system. Here we use observations from five well-studied time slices covering the last 40 My to identify a well-defined and clearly sigmoidal relationship between atmospheric CO(2) and sea level on geological (near-equilibrium) timescales. This strongly supports the dominant role of CO(2) in determining Earth's climate on these timescales and suggests that other variables that influence long-term global climate (e.g., topography, ocean circulation) play a secondary role. The relationship between CO(2) and sea level we describe portrays the "likely" (68% probability) long-term sea-level response after Earth system adjustment over many centuries. Because it appears largely independent of other boundary condition changes, it also may provide useful long-range predictions of future sea level. For instance, with CO(2) stabilized at 400-450 ppm (as required for the frequently quoted "acceptable warming" of 2 °C), or even at AD 2011 levels of 392 ppm, we infer a likely (68% confidence) long-term sea-level rise of more than 9 m above the present. Therefore, our results imply that to avoid significantly elevated sea level in the long term, atmospheric CO(2) should be reduced to levels similar to those of preindustrial times.

  16. Gas Exchange Characteristics in Tectona grandis L. Clones under Varying Concentrations of CO2 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saravanan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Coimbatore, India functioning under the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, Dehara Dun, has a long term systematic tree improvement program for Tectona grandis aimed to enhancing productivity and screening of clones for site specific. In the process, twenty clones of T. grandis L. were studied for the physiological parameters and water use efficiency with reference to the elevated CO2 levels. CO2 enrichment studies in special chambers help in understanding the changes at individual level, and also at physiological, biochemical and genetic level. It also provides valuable information for establishing plantations at different geographic locations. Considerable variations were observed when the selected 20 clones of T. grandis were subjected to physiological studies under elevated CO2 conditions (600 and 900 mol mol-1. Eight clones exhibited superior growth coupled with favorable physiological characteristics including high photosynthetic rate, carboxylation and water use efficiency under elevated CO2 levels. Clones with minimal variation in physiological characteristics under elevated levels of CO2 suggest their ability to overcome physiological stresses and adapt to varying climatic conditions.

  17. Austria's CO2 responsibility and the carbon content of its international trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Pablo; Steininger, Karl W.

    2010-01-01

    Seeking to limit global warming to 2 C puts narrow restrictions on the remaining carbon budget. While the prevalent accounting framework for carbon emissions is production based (Production-Based Principle, PBP), we here quantify the CO 2 emissions on the basis of the Consumption-Based Principle (CBP) for Austria. At a methodological level, a Multi-Regional Input-Output model with full linkages is used to account for Austria's CO 2 responsibility on a global scale. Estimates are carried out for the years 1997 and 2004. Results show that during 1997 CO 2 responsibility based on CBP were 36% larger than those based on PBP. This relation has increased through time. The CBP indicator of 2004 was 44% larger than the PBP. In terms of carbon emission location, for each Euro spent on Austrian final demand in 2004, it is estimated that two-thirds of the CO 2 emissions occur outside Austrian borders. Regarding the origin of the emissions embodied in imports, it is estimated that about one-fourth originated in non-Annex I countries in 1997. This proportion increased to one-third by 2004. Due to this divergence between CBP and PBP indicators, there is a need to re-think current accounting bases in order to properly assign CO 2 responsibilities. (author)

  18. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  19. The effect of light level, CO2 flow rate, and anesthesia on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Karin; Ethun, Kelly; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-09-21

    Euthanasia protocols are designed to mitigate the stress experienced by animals, and an environment that induces minimal stress helps achieve that goal. A protocol that is efficient and practical in a typical animal research facility is also important. Light intensity, isoflurane, and CO2 flow rate were studied for their impact on the stress response of mice during CO2 euthanasia. Behavior was observed and scored during euthanasia and serum corticosterone was measured immediately after death. Unsurprisingly, animals euthanized with a high-flow rate of CO2 became unconscious in the least amount of time, while animals euthanized with a low-flow rate required the most time to reach unconsciousness. There was a significant increase in anxious behaviors in animals in the isoflurane group (F1,12 = 6.67, P = 0.024), the high-flow rate CO2 group (F1,12 = 10.24, P = 0.007), and bright chamber group (F1,12 = 7.27, P = 0.019). Serum corticosterone was highest in the isoflurane group (124.72 ± 83.98 ng/ml), however there was no significant difference in corticosterone levels observed for the other study variables of light and flow-rate. A darkened chamber and low CO2 flow rates help to decrease stress experienced during CO2 euthanasia, while the use of isoflurane was observed to increase the stress response during euthanasia.

  20. Effects of ERV Filter Degradation on Indoor CO2 Levels of a Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sol Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovery ventilators (ERVs are widely used to reduce energy losses caused by ventilation and improve indoor air quality for recently-constructed buildings. It is important for spaces with high occupancy density and longer residence times, such as classrooms. In classrooms, the ERV size is typically estimated by the target number of students in the design phase, but the design air volume flow rates (m3/h of the ERV can decrease over time owing to filter degradation such as increased dust loading. In this study, field tests are conducted in a classroom to investigate filter degradation through a visual inspection and by measuring the air volume flow rates at the diffusers connected to the ERV. In addition, variations in carbon dioxide (CO2 concentrations are also measured to verify the effects of filter degradation on the indoor CO2 levels over the entire test period, which includes filter replacement, as well. As the tests are conducted during classes, several adjusting methodologies are proposed to match the different test conditions. The results show that the total air volume flow rate of the ERV increases after the filter replacement (546 to 766 m3/h, but it again decreases as time elapses (659 m3/h. Accordingly, the indoor CO2 concentration decreases after the filter replacement by more than 300 ppm (1404 to 1085 ppm, clearly showing the effect of filter degradation. However, this CO2 concentration remains similar for four months after the replacement, and the total air volume rate decreases again. An interpretation is made using computational fluid dynamics analysis that the measured CO2 concentrations are affected by airflow patterns. The airflow in the cooling system may dilute CO2 concentrations at the measuring location. Thus, periodic filter replacement and management are important to ensure the desired ERV air volume rates and consequently the desired indoor CO2 concentrations.

  1. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  2. Enhanced photosynthetic efficiency in trees world-wide by rising atmospheric CO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ina; Wieloch, Thomas; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Robertson, Iain; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric CO2 concentration is increasing rapidly due to anthropogenic emissions but the effect on the Earth's biosphere is poorly understood. The ability of the biosphere to fix CO2 through photosynthesis will determine future atmospheric CO2 concentrations as well as future productivity of crops and forests. Manipulative CO2 enrichment experiments (e.g. FACE) are limited to (i) short time spans, (ii) few locations and (iii) large step increases in [CO2]. Here, we apply new stable isotope methodology to tree-ring archives, to study the effect of increasing CO2 concentrations retrospectively during the past centuries. We cover the whole [CO2] increase since industrialization, and sample trees with global distribution. Instead of isotope ratios of whole molecules, we use intramolecular isotope distributions, a new tool for tree-ring analysis with decisive advantages. In experiments on annual plants, we have found that the intramolecular distribution of deuterium (equivalent to ratios of isotopomer abundances) in photosynthetic glucose depends on growth [CO2] and reflects the metabolic flux ratio of photosynthesis to photorespiration. By applying this isotopomer methodology to trees from Oak Ridge FACE experiment, we show that this CO2 response is present in trees on the leaf level. This CO2 dependence constitutes a physiological signal, which is transferred to the wood of the tree rings. In trees from 13 locations on all continents the isotopomer ratio of tree-ring cellulose is correlated to atmospheric [CO2] during the past 200 years. The shift of the isotopomer ratio is universal for all 12 species analyzed, including both broad-leafed trees and conifers. Because the trees originate from sites with widely differing D/H ratios of precipitation, the generality of the response demonstrates that the signal is independent of the source isotope ratio, because it is encoded in an isotopomer abundance ratio. This decoupling of climate signals and physiological

  3. Can Increased CO2 Levels Trigger a Runaway Greenhouse on the Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, R.

    2014-04-01

    Recent one-dimensional (globally averaged) climate model calculations suggest that increased atmospheric CO2 could conceivably trigger a runaway greenhouse if CO2 concentrations were approximately 100 times higher than today. The new prediction runs contrary to previous calculations, which indicated that CO2 increases could not trigger a runaway, even at Venus-like CO2 concentrations. Goldblatt et al. argue that this different behavior is a consequence of updated absorption coefficients for H2O that make a runaway more likely. Here, we use a 1-D cloud-free climate model with similar, up-to-date absorption coefficients, but with a self-consistent methodology, to demonstrate that CO2 increases cannot induce a runaway greenhouse on the modern Earth. However, these initial calculations do not include cloud feedback, which may be positive at higher temperatures, destabilizing Earth's climate. We then show new calculations demonstrating that cirrus clouds cannot trigger a runaway, even in the complete absence of low clouds. Thus, the habitability of an Earth-like planet at Earth's distance appears to be ensured, irrespective of the sign of cloud feedback. Our results are of importance to Earth-like planets that receive similar insolation levels as does the Earth and to the ongoing question about cloud response at higher temperatures.

  4. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  5. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  6. Infrared radiation and inversion population of CO2 laser levels in Venusian and Martian atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordiyets, B. F.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Formation mechanisms of nonequilibrium 10 micron CO2 molecule radiation and the possible existence of a natural laser effect in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars are theoretically studied. An analysis is made of the excitation process of CO2 molecule vibrational-band levels (with natural isotropic content) induced by direct solar radiation in bands 10.6, 9.4, 4.3, 2.7 and 2.0 microns. The model of partial vibrational-band temperatures was used in the case. The problem of IR radiation transfer in vibrational-rotational bands was solved in the radiation escape approximation.

  7. The decrease of CO2 emission intensity is decarbonization at national and global levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    This viewpoint proposes the definition: 'Decarbonization refers to a decrease of CO 2 emission intensity in a trend'. This viewpoint then argues that an analysis of decarbonization at national and global levels based on that definition would lead to the correct calculation of decarbonization

  8. Assessment of CO 2 emission level in urban transport of Mekelle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transport plays a crucial role in accelerating development and improving quality of life by allowing ease transfer of people, goods and services. It is also one of the important preconditions for achieving developmental goals. This study therefore intends to assess the level of CO2 emissions in urban transport of Mekelle city.

  9. CO2 Fluxes Monitoring at the Level of Field Agroecosystem in Moscow Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Samardzic, Miljan; Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Valentini, Riccardo; Vasenev, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    The Central Russia is still one of the less GHG-investigated European areas especially in case of agroecosystem-level carbon dioxide fluxes monitoring by eddy covariance method. The eddy covariance technique is a statistical method to measure and calculate vertical turbulent fluxes within atmospheric boundary layers. The major assumption of the metod is that measurements at a point can represent an entire upwind area. Eddy covariance researches, which could be considered as repeated for the same area, are very rare. The research has been carried out on the Precision Farming Experimental Field of the Russian Timiryazev State Agricultural University (Moscow, Russia) in 2013 under the support of RF Government grant No. 11.G34.31.0079. Arable derno-podzoluvisls have around 1 The results have shown high daily and seasonal dynamic of agroecosystem CO2 emission. Sowing activates soil microbiological activity and the average soil CO2 emission and adsorption are rising at the same time. CO2 streams are intensified after crop emerging from values of 3 to 7 μmol/s-m2 for emission, and from values of 5 to 20 μmol/s-m2 for adsorption. Stabilization of the flow has come at achieving plants height of 10-12 cm. The vegetation period is characterized by high average soil CO2 emission and adsorption at the same time, but the adsorption is significantly higher. The resulted CO2 absorption during the day is approximately 2-5 times higher than emissions at night. For example, in mid-June, the absorption value was about 0.45 mol/m2 during the day-time, and the emission value was about 0.1 mol/m2 at night. After harvesting CO2 emission is becoming essentially higher than adsorption. Autumn and winter data are fluctuate around zero, but for some periods a small predominance of CO2 emissions over the absorption may be observed. The daily dynamics of CO2 emissions depends on the air temperature with the correlation coefficient changes between 0.4 and 0.8. Crop stage, agrotechnological

  10. Tidal marsh plant responses to elevated CO2 , nitrogen fertilization, and sea level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam Langley, J; Mozdzer, Thomas J; Shepard, Katherine A; Hagerty, Shannon B; Patrick Megonigal, J

    2013-05-01

    Elevated CO2 and nitrogen (N) addition directly affect plant productivity and the mechanisms that allow tidal marshes to maintain a constant elevation relative to sea level, but it remains unknown how these global change drivers modify marsh plant response to sea level rise. Here we manipulated factorial combinations of CO2 concentration (two levels), N availability (two levels) and relative sea level (six levels) using in situ mesocosms containing a tidal marsh community composed of a sedge, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a grass, Spartina patens. Our objective is to determine, if elevated CO2 and N alter the growth and persistence of these plants in coastal ecosystems facing rising sea levels. After two growing seasons, we found that N addition enhanced plant growth particularly at sea levels where plants were most stressed by flooding (114% stimulation in the + 10 cm treatment), and N effects were generally larger in combination with elevated CO2 (288% stimulation). N fertilization shifted the optimal productivity of S. patens to a higher sea level, but did not confer S. patens an enhanced ability to tolerate sea level rise. S. americanus responded strongly to N only in the higher sea level treatments that excluded S. patens. Interestingly, addition of N, which has been suggested to accelerate marsh loss, may afford some marsh plants, such as the widespread sedge, S. americanus, the enhanced ability to tolerate inundation. However, if chronic N pollution reduces the availability of propagules of S. americanus or other flood-tolerant species on the landscape scale, this shift in species dominance could render tidal marshes more susceptible to marsh collapse. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The international race for CO2 capture and storage. And the winner is ...?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coninck, H.C.

    2008-06-01

    Ever since CO2 capture and storage (CCS) has gained prominence among greenhouse gas reduction alternatives, researchers, policymakers, and industry have speculated about who would become the technology leader in this field. Will it be a technology that follows in the footsteps of solar and wind energy and sees European companies as market leaders benefiting from an early mover advantage, strengthened by a favorable internal market? Will the enormous investments of the U.S. government in R and D combined with its greater entrepreneurial power and better investment climate pay off? Or will other countries - like Australia which is very active in this area, or maybe China - become the world's market leader in CO2 capture installations, a highly capital-intensive technology? Given exploding world energy demand, climate-friendly technologies will be indispensable for stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, countries being able to develop and maintain themselves as technology leaders are likely to benefit from the deep reductions in CO2 emissions that we will need to achieve in the near future

  12. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jamali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the

  13. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but

  14. Behavioural disturbances in a temperate fish exposed to sustained high-CO2 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Jutfelt

    Full Text Available As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, the CO2 concentration in ocean surface waters increases through a process commonly referred to as ocean acidification. Recently, surprising behavioural modifications has been detected in the early life stages of tropical coral reef fish exposed to ocean acidification-relevant CO2 concentrations, but it has been unclear if this effect could occur in temperate waters. Here we show several severe behavioural disturbances, including effects on boldness, exploratory behaviour, lateralisation, and learning in a temperate fish, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. The behavioural effects were consistent throughout the exposure period and increased in effect size with exposure time. We observed the effects on adult sticklebacks, a species known to be tolerant to other environmental stressors. Our findings suggest that behavioural abnormalities that stem from CO2 exposure are not restricted to sensitive tropical species or early life stages and may therefore affect fish on a global scale. The severity of disturbances and the possibility of a serious behavioural problem for fish across the globe is cause for concern.

  15. Statistical Evaluation of the Emissions Level Of CO, CO2 and HC Generated by Passenger Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ursu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to make an evaluation of differences emission level of CO, CO2 and HC generated by passenger cars in different walking regimes and times, to identify measures of reducing pollution. Was analyzed a sample of Dacia Logan passenger cars (n = 515, made during the period 2004-2007, equipped with spark ignition engines, assigned to emission standards EURO 3 (E3 and EURO4 (E4. These cars were evaluated at periodical technical inspection (ITP by two times in the two walk regimes (slow idle and accelerated idle. Using the t test for paired samples (Paired Samples T Test, the results showed that there are significant differences between emissions levels (CO, CO2, HC generated by Dacia Logan passenger cars at both assessments, and regression analysis showed that these differences are not significantly influenced by turnover differences.

  16. Carbon inequality at the sub-national scale: A case study of provincial-level inequality in CO2 emissions in China 1997-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke-Sather, Afton; Qu Jiansheng; Wang Qin; Zeng Jingjing; Li Yan

    2011-01-01

    This study asks whether sub-national inequalities in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions mirror international patterns in carbon inequality using the case study of China. Several studies have examined global-level carbon inequality; however, such approaches have not been used on a sub-national scale. This study examines inter-provincial inequality in CO 2 emissions within China using common measures of inequality (coefficient of variation, Gini Index, Theil Index) to analyze provincial-level data derived from the IPCC reference approach for the years 1997-2007. It decomposes CO 2 emissions inequality into its inter-regional and intra-regional components. Patterns of per capita CO 2 emissions inequality in China appear superficially similar to, though slightly lower than, per capita income inequality. However, decomposing these inequalities reveals different patterns. While inter-provincial income inequality is highly regional in character, inter-provincial CO 2 emissions inequality is primarily intra-regional. While apparently similar, global patterns in CO 2 emissions are not mirrored at the sub-national scale. - Highlights: → Carbon inequality is different in character within China than at global scale. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is slightly lower than income inequality. → Interprovincial GDP inequality in China is regional in character. → Interprovincial CO 2 emissions inequality in China is not regional in character.

  17. Stomatal and pavement cell density linked to leaf internal CO2 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrůček, Jiří; Vráblová, Martina; Simková, Marie; Hronková, Marie; Drtinová, Martina; Květoň, Jiří; Vrábl, Daniel; Kubásek, Jiří; Macková, Jana; Wiesnerová, Dana; Neuwithová, Jitka; Schreiber, Lukas

    2014-08-01

    Stomatal density (SD) generally decreases with rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, Ca. However, SD is also affected by light, air humidity and drought, all under systemic signalling from older leaves. This makes our understanding of how Ca controls SD incomplete. This study tested the hypotheses that SD is affected by the internal CO2 concentration of the leaf, Ci, rather than Ca, and that cotyledons, as the first plant assimilation organs, lack the systemic signal. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), beech (Fagus sylvatica), arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum) were grown under contrasting environmental conditions that affected Ci while Ca was kept constant. The SD, pavement cell density (PCD) and stomatal index (SI) responses to Ci in cotyledons and the first leaves of garden cress were compared. (13)C abundance (δ(13)C) in leaf dry matter was used to estimate the effective Ci during leaf development. The SD was estimated from leaf imprints. SD correlated negatively with Ci in leaves of all four species and under three different treatments (irradiance, abscisic acid and osmotic stress). PCD in arabidopsis and garden cress responded similarly, so that SI was largely unaffected. However, SD and PCD of cotyledons were insensitive to Ci, indicating an essential role for systemic signalling. It is proposed that Ci or a Ci-linked factor plays an important role in modulating SD and PCD during epidermis development and leaf expansion. The absence of a Ci-SD relationship in the cotyledons of garden cress indicates the key role of lower-insertion CO2 assimilation organs in signal perception and its long-distance transport. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Changing noise levels in a high CO2/lower pH ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Hester, K. C.; Peltzer, E. T.; Kirkwood, W. J.

    2008-12-01

    We show that ocean acidification from fossil fuel CO2 invasion and from increased respiration/reduced ventilation, has significantly reduced ocean sound absorption and thus increased ocean noise levels in the kHz frequency range. Below 10 kHz, sound absorption occurs due to well known chemical relaxations in the B(OH)3/B(OH)4- and HCO3-/CO32- systems. The pH dependence of these chemical relaxations results in decreased sound absorption (α = dB/km) as the ocean becomes more acidic from increased CO2 levels. The scale of surface ocean pH change today from the +105 ppmv change in atmospheric CO2 is about - 0.12 pH, resulting in frequency dependent decreases in sound absorption that now exceed 12% over pre- industrial. Under reasonable projections of future fossil fuel CO2 emissions and other sources a pH change of 0.3 units or more can be anticipated by mid-century, resulting in a decrease in α by almost 40%. Increases in water temperature have a smaller effect but also contribute to decreased sound absorption. Combining a lowering of 0.3 pH units with an increase of 3°C, α will decrease further to almost 45%. Ambient noise levels in the ocean within the auditory range critical for environmental, military, and economic interests are set to increase significantly due to the combined effects of decreased absorption and increasing sources from mankind's activities. Incorporation of sound absorption in modeling future ocean scenarios (R. Zeebe, personal communication) and long-term monitoring possibly with the aid of modern cabled observatories can give insights in how ocean noise will continue to change and its effect on groups such as marine mammals which communicate in the affected frequency range.

  19. CO2-level Dependent Effects of Ocean Acidification on Squid, Doryteuthis pealeii, Early Life History

    KAUST Repository

    Zakroff, Casey J.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to lead to global oceanic decreases in pH of up to 0.3 units within the next 100 years. However, those levels are already being reached currently in coastal regions due to natural CO2 variability. Squid are a vital component of the pelagic ecosystem, holding a unique niche as a highly active predatory invertebrate and major prey stock for upper trophic levels. This study examined the effects of a range of ocean acidification regimes on the early life history of a coastal squid species, the Atlantic longfin squid, Doryteuthis pealeii. Eggs were raised in a flow-through ocean acidification system at CO2 levels ranging from ambient (400ppm) to 2200ppm. Time to hatching, hatching efficiency, and hatchling mantle lengths, yolk sac sizes, and statoliths were all examined to elucidate stress effects. Delays in hatching time of at least a day were seen at exposures above 1300ppm in all trials under controlled conditions. Mantle lengths were significantly reduced at exposures above 1300 ppm. Yolk sac sizes varied between CO2 treatments, but no distinct pattern emerged. Statoliths were increasingly porous and malformed as CO2 exposures increased, and were significantly reduced in surface area at exposures above 1300ppm. Doryteuthis pealeii appears to be able to withstand acidosis stress without major effects up to 1300ppm, but is strongly impacted past that threshold. Since yolk consumption did not vary among treatments, it appears that during its early life stages, D. pealeii reallocates its available energy budget away from somatic growth and system development in order to mitigate the stress of acidosis.

  20. The relationship between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    1. We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. 2. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. 3. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux, however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. 4. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for CH4 and 3-fold for CO2. 5. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a~mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but these relationships vary greatly among termite species. Consequently, there is no generic relationship that will allow for the prediction of CH4 fluxes from termite mounds of all species.

  1. Light-Triggered CO2 Breathing Foam via Nonsurfactant High Internal Phase Emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiming; Wang, Dingguan; Pan, Qianhao; Gui, Qinyuan; Liao, Shenglong; Wang, Yapei

    2017-10-04

    Solid materials for CO 2 capture and storage have attracted enormous attention for gaseous separation, environmental protection, and climate governance. However, their preparation and recovery meet the problems of high energy and financial cost. Herein, a controllable CO 2 capture and storage process is accomplished in an emulsion-templated polymer foam, in which CO 2 is breathed-in under dark and breathed-out under light illumination. Such a process is likely to become a relay of natural CO 2 capture by plants that on the contrary breathe out CO 2 at night. Recyclable CO 2 capture at room temperature and release under light irradiation guarantee its convenient and cost-effective regeneration in industry. Furthermore, CO 2 mixed with CH 4 is successfully separated through this reversible breathing in and out system, which offers great promise for CO 2 enrichment and practical methane purification.

  2. Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 at the building/street level for large US cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Razlivanov, I. N.; Song, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Quantification of fossil fuel CO2 emissions from the bottom-up perspective is a critical element in emerging plans on a global, integrated, carbon monitoring system (CMS). A space/time explicit emissions data product can act as both a verification and planning system. It can verify atmospheric CO2 measurements (in situ and remote) and offer detailed mitigation information to management authorities in order to optimize the mix of mitigation efforts. Here, we present the Hestia Project, an effort aimed at building a high resolution (eg. building and road link-specific, hourly) fossil fuel CO2 emissions data product for the urban domain as a pilot effort to a CMS. A complete data product has been built for the city of Indianapolis and preliminary quantification has been completed for Los Angeles and Phoenix (see figure). The effort in Indianapolis is now part of a larger effort aimed at a convergent top-down/bottom-up assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, called INFLUX. Our urban-level quantification relies on a mixture of data and modeling structures. We start with the sector-specific Vulcan Project estimate at the mix of geocoded and county-wide levels. The Hestia aim is to distribute the Vulcan result in space and time. Two components take the majority of effort: buildings and onroad emissions. In collaboration with our INFLUX colleagues, we are transporting these high resolution emissions through an atmospheric transport model for a forward comparison of the Hestia data product with atmospheric measurements, collected on aircraft and cell towers. In preparation for a formal urban-scale inversion, these forward comparisons offer insights into both improving our emissions data product and measurement strategies. A key benefit of the approach taken in this study is the tracking and archiving of fuel and process-level detail (eg. combustion process, other pollutants), allowing for a more thorough understanding and analysis of energy throughputs in the urban

  3. Carbon Balance at Landscape Level inferred fromTower CO2 Concentration Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Chen, B.; Higuchi, K.; Chan, D.; Shashkov, A.; Lin, H.; Liu, J.

    2003-04-01

    Terrestrial carbon sinks are considerable in the global carbon budget, but the accumulation of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems is very small (~0.2% per year) relative to the total carbon stocks in forests. Currently, eddy-covariance instruments mounted on towers are the only reliable means to measure carbon balance of a land surface, albeit limited to small areas and not free of caveats. In our quest of understanding the collective performance of ecosystems under the changing climate, it is highly desirable to have the ability to acquire carbon cycle information for large areas (landscape) consisting of patches of different ecosystems. For this purpose we explored methodologies of inferring carbon cycle information from tower CO2 concentration measurements affected by large areas (100-10000 km2). An ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is coupled with a carbon-specific Vertical Diffusion Scheme (VDS) in order to decipher temporal variations in CO2 for landscape-level photosynthesis and respiration information. The coupled BEPS-VDS is applied to a unique 9-year (1990-2000 with 1997-8 missing data) 5-minute CO2 record measured on a 40-m tower over boreal forests near Fraserdale, Ontario, Canada. Over the period, the mean diurnal amplitude of the measured CO2 at 40 m increased by 5.58 ppmv, or 28% in the growing season. The increase in nighttime ecosystem respiration, causing the increase in the daily maximum CO2 concentration, was responsible for 65% of the increase in the diurnal amplitude, i.e., 3.61 ppmv, corresponding to an increase in the mean daily air temperature by about 2.77 degC and precipitation by 5% over the same period. The rest (35%) is explained by the increase in ecosystem daytime photosynthesis, causing the decrease in the daily minimum CO2 concentration. As the nighttime stable boundary layer (SBL) (270-560 m) was much shallower than the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) (1000-1600 m), the increase in

  4. Time series pCO2 at a coastal mooring: Internal consistency, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Xue, Liang; Vargas, Rodrigo; Noakes, Scott; Hu, Xinping; Signorini, Sergio R.; Mathis, Jeremy T.; Feely, Richard A.; Sutton, Adrienne J.; Sabine, Christopher; Musielewicz, Sylvia; Chen, Baoshan; Wanninkhof, Rik

    2017-08-01

    Marine carbonate system monitoring programs often consist of multiple observational methods that include underway cruise data, moored autonomous time series, and discrete water bottle samples. Monitored parameters include all, or some of the following: partial pressure of CO2 of the water (pCO2w) and air, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH. Any combination of at least two of the aforementioned parameters can be used to calculate the others. In this study at the Gray's Reef (GR) mooring in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) we: examine the internal consistency of pCO2w from underway cruise, moored autonomous time series, and calculated from bottle samples (DIC-TA pairing); describe the seasonal to interannual pCO2w time series variability and air-sea flux (FCO2), as well as describe the potential sources of pCO2w variability; and determine the source/sink for atmospheric pCO2. Over the 8.5 years of GR mooring time series, mooring-underway and mooring-bottle calculated-pCO2w strongly correlate with r-values > 0.90. pCO2w and FCO2 time series follow seasonal thermal patterns; however, seasonal non-thermal processes, such as terrestrial export, net biological production, and air-sea exchange also influence variability. The linear slope of time series pCO2w increases by 5.2 ± 1.4 μatm y-1 with FCO2 increasing 51-70 mmol m-2 y-1. The net FCO2 sign can switch interannually with the magnitude varying greatly. Non-thermal pCO2w is also increasing over the time series, likely indicating that terrestrial export and net biological processes drive the long term pCO2w increase.

  5. Carbon dioxide sensing in the social context: Leaf-cutting ants prefer elevated CO2 levels to tend their brood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römer, Daniela; Bollazzi, Martin; Roces, Flavio

    2018-05-18

    Social insects show temperature and humidity preferences inside their nests to successfully rear brood. In underground nests, ants also encounter rising CO 2 concentrations with increasing depth. It is an open question whether they use CO 2 as a cue to decide where to place and tend the brood. Leaf-cutting ants do show CO 2 preferences for the culturing of their symbiotic fungus. We evaluated their CO 2 choices for brood placement in laboratory experiments. Workers of Acromyrmex lundii in the process of relocating brood were offered a binary choice consisting of two interconnected chambers with different CO 2 concentrations. Values ranged from atmospheric to high concentrations of 4% CO 2 . The CO 2 preferences shown by workers for themselves and for brood placement were assessed by quantifying the number of workers and relocated brood in each chamber. Ants showed clear CO 2 preferences for brood placement. They avoided atmospheric levels, 1% and 4% CO 2 , and showed a preference for levels of 3%. This is the first report of CO 2 preferences for the maintenance of brood in social insects. The observed preferences for brood location were independent of the workers' own CO 2 preferences, since they showed no clear-cut pattern. Workers' CO 2 preferences for brood maintenance were slightly higher than those reported for fungus culturing, although brood is reared in the same chambers as the fungus in leaf-cutting ant nests. Workers' choices for brood placement in natural nests are likely the result of competing preferences for other environmental factors more crucial for brood survival, aside from those for CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ion Internal Excitation and Co++ 2 Reactivity: Effect On The Titan, Mars and Venus Ionospheric Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, C.; Zabka, J.; Thissen, R.; Dutuit, O.; Alcaraz, C.

    In planetary ionospheres, primary molecular and atomic photoions can be produced with substantial electronic and vibrational internal energy. In some cases, this is known to strongly affect both the rate constants and the branching ratio between the reac- tion products. A previous experimental study (Nicolas et al.) made at the Orsay syn- chrotron radiation facility has shown that many endothermic charge transfer reactions which were not considered in the ionospheric chemistry models of Mars, Venus and Earth have to be included because they are driven by electronic excitation of the parent ions. New measurements on two important reactions for Titan and Mars ionospheres, N+ + CH4 and O+ + CO2, will be presented. Branching ratios between products are very different when the parent atomic ions are prepared in their ground states, N+(3P) and O+(4S), or in their first electronic metastable states N+(1D) and O+(2D or P). 2 As the lifetime of these states are long enough, they survive during the mean time be- tween two collisions in the ionospheric conditions. So, the reactions of these excited states must be included in the ionospheric models. Absolute cross section measurements of the reactivity of stable doubly charged molec- ular ions CO++ and their implications for the Martian ionosphere will also be pre- 2 sented. The molecular dication CO++ production by VUV photoionisation and elec- 2 tron impact in the upper ionosphere of Mars is far from being negligible. However, to determine its concentration, it was necessary to evaluate the major loss channels of these ions. For this purpose, we measured the absolute reaction cross section of the sta- ble dications with CO2, the major neutral species of the Mars ionosphere. CO++ ions 2 were produced either by photoionisation or by electron impact, and a reaction cross section of 45 Å2 with 13CO2 was measured. The reaction leads to charge transfer or to collision induced dissociation. These results were integrated in a model

  7. Microzooplankton grazing and phytoplankton growth in marine mesocosms with increased CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Carotenuto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Microzooplankton grazing and algae growth responses to increasing pCO2 levels (350, 700 and 1050 μatm were investigated in nitrate and phosphate fertilized mesocosms during the PeECE III experiment 2005. Grazing and growth rates were estimated by the dilution technique combined with taxon specific HPLC pigment analysis. Microzooplankton composition was determined by light microscopy. Despite a range of up to 3 times the present CO2 levels, there were no clear differences in any measured parameter between the different CO2 treatments. During days 3–9 of the experiment the algae community standing stock, measured as chlorophyll a (Chl-a, showed the highest instantaneous grow rates (k=0.37–0.99 d−1 and increased from ca. 2–3 to 6–12 μg l−1, in all mesocosms. Afterwards the phytoplankton standing stock decreased in all mesocosms until the end of the experiment. The microzooplankton standing stock, that was mainly constituted by dinoflagellates and ciliates, varied between 23 and 130 μg C l−1 (corresponding to 1.9 and 10.8 μmol C l−1, peaking on day 13–15, apparently responding to the phytoplankton development. Instantaneous Chl-a growth rates were generally higher than the grazing rates, indicating only a limited overall effect of microzooplankton grazing on the most dominant phytoplankton. Diatoms and prymnesiophytes were significantly grazed (12–43% of the standing stock d−1 only in the pre-bloom phase when they were in low numbers, and in the post-bloom phase when they were already affected by low nutrients and/or viral lysis. The cyanobacteria populations appeared more affected by microzooplankton grazing which generally removed 20–65% of the standing stock per day.

  8. Incentive-based regulation of CO2 emissions from international aviation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, F.; Hammar, H.

    2002-01-01

    We explore the possibilities of using incentive-based environmental regulations of CO 2 emissions from international civil aviation. In theory incentive-based instruments such as an emission charge or a tradable emission permit system are better regulations than so-called command-and-control regulations such as emission limits or technology standards. However, the implementation of these instruments is a complex issue. We therefore describe and discuss how an emission charge and a tradable emission permit system for international aviation should be designed in order to improve efficiency. We also compare these two types of regulations. In brief, we find that an emission charge and a tradable emission permit system in which the permits are auctioned have more or less the same characteristics. The main advantage of a tradable emission permit system is that the effect, in terms of emission reductions, is known. On the other hand, we show that under uncertainty an emission charge is preferred. The choice of regulation is a political decision and it does not seem likely that an environmental charge or a tradable emission permit system would be implemented without consideration of the costs of the regulation. Revenue-neutral charges or gratis distribution of permits would, for this reason, be realistic choices of regulations. However, such actions are likely to result in less stringent regulations and other negative welfare effects.(author)

  9. Application of conifer needles in the reconstruction of Holocene CO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, L.L.R.

    1973-01-01

    To clarify the nature of the link between CO2 and climate on relatively short time-scales, precise, high-resolution reconstructions of the pre-industrial evolution of atmospheric CO2 are required. Adjustment of stomatal frequency to changes in atmospheric CO2 allows plants of many species to retain

  10. Pursuing air pollutant co-benefits of CO2 mitigation in China: A provincial leveled analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Huijuan; Dai, Hancheng; Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Klimont, Zbigniew; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Bunya, Shintaro; Fujii, Minoru; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • China’s future CO 2 reduction and its co-benefits on air pollutants were projected. • GAINS-China and AIM/CGE models were combined for emission and cost estimation. • High GDP regions tended to have higher emission, reduction potential and co-benefit. • Coal ratio and coal quality were also key factors to affect reduction and co-benefit. • Mitigation investment to less developed western regions was more effective. - Abstract: With fast economic development, industrialization and urbanization, China faces increasing pressures on carbon emission reduction, and especially on air pollutants (SO 2 , NOx, PM) reduction, particularly the notorious haze issue caused by air pollution in recent years. Pursuing co-benefits is an effective approach to simultaneously respond to both carbon and air pollutant problems. In this paper, the AIM/CGE (Asia–Pacific Integrated Assessment Model/Computational General Equilibrium) model and GAINS (Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies)-China model are combined together to project future CO 2 and air pollutants emissions in China, as well as reduction costs and co-benefit effects. Considering implementation of carbon mitigation policy and air pollutant mitigation technologies, four scenarios (S1, S2, S3 and S4) are analyzed. Results indicate that by implementing both carbon and air pollutant mitigation (S4), CO 2 emission per GDP can be reduced by 41% by 2020, compared with the 2005 level, and SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 emissions would change by a factor 0.8, 1.26 and 1.0 of the 2005 level, respectively in 2030. The real co-benefits of emission reductions (S2 minus S4) for SO 2 , NOx and PM2.5 are 2.4 Mt, 2.1 Mt and 0.3 Mt in 2020, and the corresponding cost reduction co-benefits are 4, 0.11, and 0.8 billion €, respectively. Provincial disparity analysis reveals that regions with higher co-benefits are those with higher GDP such as Guangdong, Shandong and Jiangsu, energy production bases such as

  11. Carbon isotopic evidence for the associations of decreasing atmospheric CO2 level with the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Gu, Zhaoyan; Wang, Chengyuan; Hao, Qingzhen; Han, Jingtai; Liu, Qiang; Wang, Luo; Lu, Yanwu

    2012-03-01

    A perturbation of the global carbon cycle has often been used for interpreting the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction. However, the changes of atmospheric CO2 level (pCO2) during this interval are much debatable. To illustrate the carbon cycle during F-F transition, paired inorganic (δ13Ccarb) and organic (δ13Corg) carbon isotope analyses were carried out on two late Devonian carbonate sequences (Dongcun and Yangdi) from south China. The larger amplitude shift of δ13Corg compared to δ13Ccarb and its resultant Δ13C (Δ13C = δ13Ccarb - δ13Corg) decrease indicate decreased atmospheric CO2level around the F-F boundary. The onset ofpCO2 level decrease predates that of marine regressions, which coincide with the beginning of conodont extinctions, suggesting that temperature decrease induced by decreased greenhouse effect of atmospheric CO2might have contributed to the F-F mass extinction.

  12. Water stress, CO2 and photoperiod influence hormone levels in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Rubin; Carman, John G.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    'Super Dwarf' wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants have been grown from seed to maturity in the Mir space station where they were periodically exposed, because of microgravity and other constraints, to water deficit, waterlogging, high CO2 levels, and low light intensities. The plants produced many tillers, but none of them produced viable seed. Studies have been initiated to determine why the plants responded in these ways. In the present study, effects of the listed stresses on abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and isopentenyl adenosine ([9R]iP) levels in roots and leaves of plants grown under otherwise near optimal conditions on earth were measured. Hormones were extracted, purified by HPLC, and quantified by noncompetitive indirect ELISA. In response to water deficit, ABA levels increased in roots and leaves, IAA levels decreased in roots and leaves, and [9R]iP levels increased in leaves but decreased in roots. In response to waterlogging, ABA, IAA and [9R]iP levels briefly increased in roots and leaves and then decreased. When portions of the root system were exposed to waterlogging and/or water deficit, ABA levels in leaves increased while [9R]iP and IAA levels decreased. These responses were correlated with the percentage of the root system stressed. At a low photosynthetic photon flux (100 micromoles m-2 s-1), plants grown in continuous light had higher leaf ABA levels than plants grown using an 18 or 21 h photoperiod.

  13. Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA. Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck, at pCO2 levels of 469 (ambient, 807, 1164, and 1599 μatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO2 level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO2 groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO2 level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO2 group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15%, respectively, when pCO2 increased from ambient to 1599 μatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO2 levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO2 level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO2 levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the

  14. Attribution of CO2 emissions from Brazilian deforestation to domestic and international drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Peters, G.

    2011-12-01

    Efforts to address extensive deforestation to reduce climate change and save primary forests are taking place on a global scale. Whilst several studies have estimated the emissions occurring from deforestation in large rainforests, few studies have investigated the domestic and international drivers sustaining and increasing the deforestation rates. Brazil, having the largest rainforest in the world and one of the highest deforestation rates, is also currently one of the world's largest exporters of soybeans and beef. In this case study we establish the link between Brazilian deforestation and cattle and soybean production, and further attribute emissions to countries and economic sectors through export and import of Brazilian commodities. The emissions from deforestation can therefore be allocated to the countries and sectors consuming goods and services produced on deforested land in Brazil. A land-use change model and deforestation data is coupled with a carbon cycle model to create yearly emission estimates and different emission allocation schemes, depending on emission amortizations and discounting functions for past deforestation. We use an economic multi-regional input-output model (with 112 regions and 57 sectors) to distribute these emissions along agricultural trade routes, through domestic and international consumption in 2004. With our implementation we find that around 80 % of emissions from deforested land is due to cattle grazing, while agricultural transition effects suggests soy beans are responsible for about 20 % of the emissions occurring in 2004. Nearly tree quarters of the soy beans are consumed outside Brazil, of which China, Germany and France are the biggest consumers. Soy beans are consumed by a variety of sectors in the food industry. Brazil exports about 30 % of the cattle it produces, where Russia, USA and Germany are among the largest consumers. Cattle consumption mainly occurs in the meat sectors. In this study we estimate the CO2

  15. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  16. An inorganic carbon transport system responsible for acclimation specific to air levels of CO2 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingjun; Spalding, Martin H

    2006-06-27

    Many photosynthetic microorganisms acclimate to CO(2) limited environments by induction and operation of CO(2)-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs). Despite their central role in CCM function, inorganic carbon (Ci) transport systems never have been identified in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms. In the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a mutant, pmp1, was described in 1983 with deficiencies in Ci transport, and a Pmp1 protein-associated Ci uptake system has been proposed to be responsible for Ci uptake in low CO(2) (air level)-acclimated cells. However, even though pmp1 represents the only clear genetic link to Ci transport in microalgae and is one of only a very few mutants directly affecting the CCM itself, the identity of Pmp1 has remained unknown. Physiological analyses indicate that C. reinhardtii possesses multiple Ci transport systems responsible for acclimation to different levels of limiting CO(2) and that the Pmp1-associated transport system is required specifically for low (air level) CO(2) acclimation. In the current study, we identified and characterized a pmp1 allelic mutant, air dier 1 (ad1) that, like pmp1, cannot grow in low CO(2) (350 ppm) but can grow either in high CO(2) (5% CO(2)) or in very low CO(2) (<200 ppm). Molecular analyses revealed that the Ad1/Pmp1 protein is encoded by LciB, a gene previously identified as a CO(2)-responsive gene. LciB and three related genes in C. reinhardtii compose a unique gene family that encode four closely related, apparently soluble plastid proteins with no clearly identifiable conserved motifs.

  17. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS and AMSU instruments on board of Aqua satellite. It is a...

  18. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Monthly CO2 in the free troposphere (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the AIRS mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Level 3 Monthly Gridded Retrieval, from the AIRS instrument on board of Aqua satellite. It is a monthly...

  19. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Effects of elevated CO2 levels on eggs and larvae of a North Pacific flatfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a laboratory study that examined the growth responses of northern rock sole eggs and larvae across a range of CO2 levels to evaluate the...

  20. Direct Measurements of Leaf Level CH4 and CO2 Exchange in a Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, P.; Lindroth, A.; Vestin, P.; Båth, A.

    2008-12-01

    Reports of aerobic CH4 sources from leaves and litter of a variety of forests and plant functional types have added a potential mystery to our understanding of CH4 dynamics especially if these sources contribute enough to have a significant impact on the global budget. We have made direct measurements of leaf level CH4 and CO2 exchange using a quartz branch cuvette in a boreal forest in Norunda, Sweden since August of this year. The cuvette was temperature controlled and was designed to close for 5 minutes every 30 minutes. Air was circulated to a Los Gatos CH4/CO2 infrared absorption laser spectrometer. Air and cuvette temperatures, PAR and UV radiation (Kipp and Zonen, CUV4; spectral range 300-380 nm) were measured at the branch chamber. The study was made in the Norunda 100 years old stand consisting of a mixture of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) , Birch (Betula sp.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The cuvette was moved between trees at roughly 5 day intervals. A null empty cuvette period was included in the rotation. The initial data show the expected CO2 uptake correlated with incident PAR and low rates of emission at night. However, there was no clear pattern of emissions detectable in the CH4. We estimate that we should be able to resolve a change of 0.5 ppbv CH4 min- 1 with our analytical setup. Both the daytime (1000-1600) and nighttime (2200-0400) averages were less than our detection. Even on very sunny days with high PAR and UV flux values, no consistent pattern was detectable. The lack of a distinct signal may be due to the fact that the past month has been very rainy, it is late in the growth season at these latitudes and sun angles are increasing quickly. The trees were at the northern edge of a clearing and we were also measuring mid height (2-3 m) leaves and branches of young trees. The branch cuvette design can also be optimized to improve its sensitivity.

  1. Late Cretaceous climate simulations with different CO2 levels and subarctic gateway configurations: A model-data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgodzki, Igor; Knorr, Gregor; Lohmann, Gerrit; Tyszka, Jarosław; Markwick, Paul J.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the impact of different CO2 levels and different subarctic gateway configurations on the surface temperatures during the latest Cretaceous using the Earth System Model COSMOS. The simulated temperatures are compared with the surface temperature reconstructions based on a recent compilation of the latest Cretaceous proxies. In our numerical experiments, the CO2 level ranges from 1 to 6 times the preindustrial (PI) CO2 level of 280 ppm. On a global scale, the most reasonable match between modeling and proxy data is obtained for the experiments with 3 to 5 × PI CO2 concentrations. However, the simulated low- (high-) latitude temperatures are too high (low) as compared to the proxy data. The moderate CO2 levels scenarios might be more realistic, if we take into account proxy data and the dead zone effect criterion. Furthermore, we test if the model-data discrepancies can be caused by too simplistic proxy-data interpretations. This is distinctly seen at high latitudes, where most proxies are biased toward summer temperatures. Additional sensitivity experiments with different ocean gateway configurations and constant CO2 level indicate only minor surface temperatures changes (greenhouse worlds is best constrained by temperatures in the midlatitudes.

  2. Secondary scintillation yield of xenon with sub-percent levels of CO2 additive for rare-event detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, C. A. O.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; González-Díaz, D.; Mano, R. D. P.; Jorge, M. R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; Álvarez, V.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carríon, J. V.; Cebrían, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Hauptman, J.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Jones, B. J. P.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; McDonald, A. D.; Monrabal, F.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Renner, J.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Xe-CO2 mixtures are important alternatives to pure xenon in Time Projection Chambers (TPC) based on secondary scintillation (electroluminescence) signal amplification with applications in the important field of rare event detection such as directional dark matter, double electron capture and double beta decay detection. The addition of CO2 to pure xenon at the level of 0.05-0.1% can reduce significantly the scale of electron diffusion from 10 mm /√{m} to 2.5 mm /√{m}, with high impact on the discrimination efficiency of the events through pattern recognition of the topology of primary ionization trails. We have measured the electroluminescence (EL) yield of Xe-CO2 mixtures, with sub-percent CO2 concentrations. We demonstrate that the EL production is still high in these mixtures, 70% and 35% relative to that produced in pure xenon, for CO2 concentrations around 0.05% and 0.1%, respectively. The contribution of the statistical fluctuations in EL production to the energy resolution increases with increasing CO2 concentration, being smaller than the contribution of the Fano factor for concentrations below 0.1% CO2.

  3. Future concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CFC and CH4 - an assessment on the educational level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoppenau, S.

    1992-01-01

    A model on the educational level is described to estimate effective future atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. The effects of chlorofluorocarbon and methane emission and deforestation are taken into account. The influence of different emission scenarios on the time evolution of greenhouse-gas concentration are illustrated. Future global energy policies are discussed both under the aspects of rising world population and the reduction in global CO 2 emissions. The model can be handled on a PC or even on a pocket calculator

  4. Response of marine viral populations to a nutrient induced phytoplankton bloom at different pCO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-A. Sandaa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available During the PeECE III mesocosm experiment in 2005 we investigated how the virioplankton community responded to increased levels of nutrients (N and P and CO2. We applied a combination of flow cytometry, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and degenerate PCR primers to categorize and quantify individual viral populations, and to investigate their temporal dynamics. Species specific and degenerate primers enabled us to identify two specific large dsDNA viruses, EhV and CeV, infecting the haptophytes Emiliania huxleyi and Crysochromulina ericina, respectively. Some of the viral populations detected and enumerated by flow cytometry did not respond to altered CO2-levels, but the abundance of EhV and an unidentified dsDNA virus decreased with increasing CO2 levels. Our results thus indicate that CO2 conditions, or the related change in pH, may affect the marine pelagic food web at the viral level. Our results also demonstrate that in order to unravel ecological problems as how CO2 and nutrient levels affect the relationship between marine algal viruses and their hosts, we need to continue the effort to develop molecular markers used to identify both hosts and viruses.

  5. The relative roles of external and internal CO(2) versus H(+) in eliciting the cardiorespiratory responses of Salmo salar and Squalus acanthias to hypercarbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S F; McKendry, J E

    2001-11-01

    Fish breathing hypercarbic water encounter externally elevated P(CO(2)) and proton levels ([H(+)]) and experience an associated internal respiratory acidosis, an elevation of blood P(CO(2)) and [H(+)]. The objective of the present study was to assess the potential relative contributions of CO(2) versus H(+) in promoting the cardiorespiratory responses of dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to hypercarbia and to evaluate the relative contributions of externally versus internally oriented receptors in dogfish. In dogfish, the preferential stimulation of externally oriented branchial chemoreceptors using bolus injections (50 ml kg(-1)) of CO(2)-enriched (4 % CO(2)) sea water into the buccal cavity caused marked cardiorespiratory responses including bradycardia (-4.1+/-0.9 min(-1)), a reduction in cardiac output (-3.2+/-0.6 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), an increase in systemic vascular resistance (+0.3+/-0.2 mmHg ml min(-1) kg(-1)), arterial hypotension (-1.6+/-0.2 mmHg) and an increase in breathing amplitude (+0.3+/-0.09 mmHg) (means +/- S.E.M., N=9-11). Similar injections of CO(2)-free sea water acidified to the corresponding pH of the hypercarbic water (pH 6.3) did not significantly affect any of the measured cardiorespiratory variables (when compared with control injections). To preferentially stimulate putative internal CO(2)/H(+) chemoreceptors, hypercarbic saline (4 % CO(2)) was injected (2 ml kg(-1)) into the caudal vein. Apart from an increase in arterial blood pressure caused by volume loading, internally injected CO(2) was without effect on any measured variable. In salmon, injection of hypercarbic water into the buccal cavity caused a bradycardia (-13.9+/-3.8 min(-1)), a decrease in cardiac output (-5.3+/-1.2 ml min(-1) kg(-1)), an increase in systemic resistance (0.33+/-0.08 mmHg ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and increases in breathing frequency (9.7+/-2.2 min(-1)) and amplitude (1.2+/-0.2 mmHg) (means +/- S.E.M., N=8-12). Apart from a small increase

  6. International comparison of CO2 emission trends in the iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeonbae, Kim; Worrell, E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present an in-depth decomposition analysis of trends in CO 2 emissions in the iron and steel industry using physical indicators. Physical indicators allow a detailed analysis of intra- sectoral trends, in contrast to the mostly used monetary indicators. Detailed decomposition analysis makes it possible to link developments in energy intensity to technology change and (indirectly) to policy. We present an analysis for the iron and steel industry in seven countries, i.e. Brazil, China, India (developing countries), Mexico and South Korea (newly industrialized countries) and the United States (industrialized country). We found substantial differences in energy efficiency among these countries. In most countries the increased (or decreased) production was the main contributor to changes in CO 2 emissions, while energy-efficiency was the main factor reducing emission intensities of steel production in almost all countries. Changes in power generation contributed to a reduction of specific emissions in the case of South Korea only. (Author)

  7. Projected near-future levels of temperature and pCO2 reduce coral fertilization success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Albright

    Full Text Available Increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (pCO2 are projected to contribute to a 1.1-6.4°C rise in global average surface temperatures and a 0.14-0.35 reduction in the average pH of the global surface ocean by 2100. If realized, these changes are expected to have negative consequences for reef-building corals including increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching and reduced rates of calcification and reef accretion. Much less is known regarding the independent and combined effects of temperature and pCO2 on critical early life history processes such as fertilization. Here we show that increases in temperature (+3°C and pCO2 (+400 µatm projected for this century negatively impact fertilization success of a common Indo-Pacific coral species, Acropora tenuis. While maximum fertilization did not differ among treatments, the sperm concentration required to obtain 50% of maximum fertilization increased 6- to 8- fold with the addition of a single factor (temperature or CO2 and nearly 50- fold when both factors interact. Our results indicate that near-future changes in temperature and pCO2 narrow the range of sperm concentrations that are capable of yielding high fertilization success in A. tenuis. Increased sperm limitation, in conjunction with adult population decline, may have severe consequences for coral reproductive success. Impaired sexual reproduction will further challenge corals by inhibiting population recovery and adaptation potential.

  8. Impact of global warming and rising CO2 levels on coral reef fishes: what hope for the future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I; Nilsson, Göran E

    2012-11-15

    Average sea-surface temperature and the amount of CO(2) dissolved in the ocean are rising as a result of increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO(2). Many coral reef fishes appear to be living close to their thermal optimum, and for some of them, even relatively moderate increases in temperature (2-4°C) lead to significant reductions in aerobic scope. Reduced aerobic capacity could affect population sustainability because less energy can be devoted to feeding and reproduction. Coral reef fishes seem to have limited capacity to acclimate to elevated temperature as adults, but recent research shows that developmental and transgenerational plasticity occur, which might enable some species to adjust to rising ocean temperatures. Predicted increases in P(CO(2)), and associated ocean acidification, can also influence the aerobic scope of coral reef fishes, although there is considerable interspecific variation, with some species exhibiting a decline and others an increase in aerobic scope at near-future CO(2) levels. As with thermal effects, there are transgenerational changes in response to elevated CO(2) that could mitigate impacts of high CO(2) on the growth and survival of reef fishes. An unexpected discovery is that elevated CO(2) has a dramatic effect on a wide range of behaviours and sensory responses of reef fishes, with consequences for the timing of settlement, habitat selection, predator avoidance and individual fitness. The underlying physiological mechanism appears to be the interference of acid-base regulatory processes with brain neurotransmitter function. Differences in the sensitivity of species and populations to global warming and rising CO(2) have been identified that will lead to changes in fish community structure as the oceans warm and becomes more acidic; however, the prospect for acclimation and adaptation of populations to these threats also needs to be considered. Ultimately, it will be the capacity for species to adjust to environmental

  9. Laser plant "Iguana" for transmyocardial revascularization based on kW-level waveguide CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Bockeria, L. A.; Berishvili, I. I.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Ul'yanov, Valery A.

    2001-05-01

    For many years the Institute on Laser and Information Technologies RAN has been developing a concept of high-power industrial CO2 lasers with diffusion cooling of the working medium. The paper gives a description of the laser medical system Iguana for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) as an example of various applications of high-power waveguide CO2 lasers. The clinical results of the TMLR method application in surgical treatment are presented. The methods of determination of the time, when the laser beam passes through the demarcation line between myocardium tissue and blood, are discussed.

  10. Sensitivity of burned area in Europe to climate change, atmospheric CO2 levels, and demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Minchao; Knorr, Wolfgang; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    model. Applying a range of future projections that combine different scenarios for climate changes, enhanced CO2 concentrations, and population growth, we investigated the individual and combined effects of these drivers on the total area and regions affected by fire in the 21st century. The two models...

  11. Δ14C level of annual plants and fossil fuel derived CO2 distribution across different regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, X.T.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P.; Zhou, L.P.; Liu, K.X.

    2013-01-01

    The 14 C level in annual plants is a sensitive tracer for monitoring fossil fuel derived CO 2 in the atmosphere. Corn leave samples were selected from different regions of China, including high mountains in the Tibetan Plateau, grassland in Inner Mongolia, and inland and coastal cities during the summer of 2010. The 14 C/ 12 C ratio of the samples was measured with the NEC compact AMS system at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The fossil fuel derived CO 2 was estimated by comparing the measured Δ 14 C values of corn leave samples to background atmospheric Δ 14 C level. The influences of topography, meteorological conditions and carbon cycling processes on the fossil fuel derived CO 2 concentration are considered when interpreting the data. Our results show a clear association of the low Δ 14 C values with regions where human activities are intensive.

  12. International marine and aviation bunker fuel. Trends, ranking of countries and comparison with national CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises and characterises fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions from international transport based on energy statistics compiled by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Shares in 1990 and 1970-1995 trends in national and global bunker fuel consumption and associated CO2 emissions are analysed for marine and air transport. Also, the global total of international transport emissions are compared with national emissions and domestic transport emissions. During the last 25 years the average global annual increase was for marine bunkers about 0.8% and for aviation emissions about 3.3%. Annual variations per country of marine bunker fuel use larger than of aviation fuel use, sometimes more than 50%. However, the distinction between fuel use for domestic and for international aviation is more difficult to monitor. The dominant fuel in marine bunker fuel consumption is residual fuel oil ('heavy fuel oil'). The share of diesel oil has slowly increased from 11% in 1970 to 20% in 1990. Aviation fuels sold are predominantly jet fuel ('jet kerosene'). The small share of aviation gasoline is slowly decreasing: from about 4% in 1970 to 1.3% in 1990. Carbon dioxide emissions from combustion of international marine bunker fuels and aviation contributed in 1990 globally about 1.8% and 2.4% expressed as percentage of global total anthropogenic emissions (excluding deforestation). However, aviation emissions include an unknown part of domestic aviation. When comparing with total transport emissions, then international transport has a share of 20%. For both marine and aviation bunker fuel, the Top-10 of largest consuming countries account for about 2/3 of the global total; the Top-25 countries cover already 85% or more of global total CO2 emissions

  13. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter in experimental mesocosms maintained under different pCO2 levels

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle-Newall, E.; Delille, B.; Frankignoulle, M.; Gattuso, J.-P.; Jacquet, S.; Riebesell, Ulf; Terbrüggen, A.; Zondervan, I.

    2004-01-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) represents the optically active fraction of the bulk dissolved organic matter (DOM) pool. Recent evidence pointed towards a microbial source of CDOM in the aquatic environment and led to the proposal that phytoplankton is not a direct source of CDOM, but that heterotrophic bacteria, through reprocessing of DOM of algal origin, are an important source of CDOM. In a recent experiment designed at looking at the effects of elevated pCO2 on blooms of th...

  14. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Silyakova, A.; Granskog, M.A.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Engel, A.; Schulz, K.G.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2′N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived

  15. Impact of elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and herbivory on flavonoids of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Bridget F; Zangerl, Arthur R; Dermody, Orla; Bilgin, Damla D; Casteel, Clare L; Zavala, Jorge A; DeLucia, Evan H; Berenbaum, May R

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been increasing steadily over the last century. Plants grown under elevated CO2 conditions experience physiological changes, particularly in phytochemical content, that can influence their suitability as food for insects. Flavonoids are important plant defense compounds and antioxidants that can have a large effect on leaf palatability and herbivore longevity. In this study, flavonoid content was examined in foliage of soybean (Glycine max Linnaeus) grown under ambient and elevated levels of CO2 and subjected to damage by herbivores in three feeding guilds: leaf skeletonizer (Popillia japonica Newman), leaf chewer (Vanessa cardui Linnaeus), and phloem feeder (Aphis glycines Matsumura). Flavonoid content also was examined in foliage of soybean grown under ambient and elevated levels of O3 and subjected to damage by the leaf skeletonizer P. japonica. The presence of the isoflavones genistein and daidzein and the flavonols quercetin and kaempferol was confirmed in all plants examined, as were their glycosides. All compounds significantly increased in concentration as the growing season progressed. Concentrations of quercetin glycosides were higher in plants grown under elevated levels of CO2. The majority of compounds in foliage were induced in response to leaf skeletonization damage but remained unchanged in response to non-skeletonizing feeding or phloem-feeding. Most compounds increased in concentration in plants grown under elevated levels of O3. Insects feeding on G. max foliage growing under elevated levels of CO2 may derive additional antioxidant benefits from their host plants as a consequence of the change in ratios of flavonoid classes. This nutritional benefit could lead to increased herbivore longevity and increased damage to soybean (and perhaps other crop plants) in the future.

  16. Lifetime-based optical sensor for high-level pCO2 detection employing fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueltzingsloewen, Christoph von; McEvoy, Aisling K.; McDonagh, Colette; MacCraith, Brian D.

    2003-01-01

    An optical sensor for the measurement of high levels of carbon dioxide in gas phase has been developed. It is based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between a long-lifetime ruthenium polypyridyl complex and the pH-active disazo dye Sudan III. The donor luminophore and the acceptor dye are both immobilised in a hydrophobic silica sol-gel/ethyl cellulose hybrid matrix material. Tetraoctylammonium hydroxide (TOA-OH) is used as an internal buffering system. Fluorescence lifetime is measured in the frequency domain, using low-cost phase modulation measurement technology. The use of Sudan III as an acceptor dye has enabled the sensor to have a dynamic range up to 100% carbon dioxide. The sensor displays 11.2 deg. phase shift between the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 and 100% CO 2 with a resolution of better than 2%. The encapsulation in the silica/polymer hybrid material has provided the sensor with good mechanical and chemical stability. The effect of molecular oxygen, humidity and temperature on the sensor performance was studied in detail

  17. Change in CO2 emission and its transmissions between Korea and Japan using international input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hae-Chun; Chung, Hyun-Sik

    2006-01-01

    This paper is intended to analyze CO 2 transmission between Japan and South Korea through international trade based on 1990 and 1995 international input-output data. It applied a residual-free structural decomposition method proposed by Chung and Rhee [Chung, H.S., Rhee, H.C., 2001. A residual-free decomposition of the sources of carbon dioxide emissions: a case of the Korean industries. Energy 26 (1), 15-30] to emission-related international input-output analysis for the first time in the decomposition studies. This paper is a case study regarding the manner and the extent to which CO 2 emissions are influenced by international trade between Japan (an Annex I country) and South Korea (a non-Annex I country), which is of particular interest for the carbon leakage issue. In this paper, we attempted to show which factors contributed to the changes in emission of the major greenhouse gas in South Korea and Japan. The changes in emission are analyzed in terms of emission intensity, input techniques, demand composition, and trade structures. According to our analysis, South Korea, a non-Annex I country, has more energy-intensive production structures than Japan, an Annex I country. South Korea's trade pattern with Japan reflects these production features, resulting in the Korea's comparative advantage in emission intensive products, though the degree has somewhat mitigated in 1995 compared to 1990. (author)

  18. International comparison of fossil power efficiency and CO2 intensity. Update 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaassen, E.

    2011-08-15

    This study is an update of the 2010 study and aims to compare fossil-fired power generation efficiency and CO2-intensity (coal, oil and gas) for Australia, China (including Hong Kong), France, Germany, India, Japan, Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway aggregated), South Korea, United Kingdom and Ireland, and United States. This selection of countries and regions is based on discussions with the client. United Kingdom and Ireland, and the Nordic countries are aggregated, because of the interconnection between their electricity grids. Although all electricity grids in Europe are interconnected, there are a number of markets that operate fairly independent. These are the Nordic market (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway), the Iberian market (Spain and Portugal), Central (Eastern European countries) and United Kingdom and Ireland. Only public power plants are taken into account, including public CHP plants. For the latter a correction for heat extraction has been applied. This chapter gives an overview of the fuel mix for power generation for the included countries and of the amount of fossil-fired power generation. The methodology for this study is described in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the efficiency of fossil-fired power generation by fuel source. Chapter 4 gives the conclusions.

  19. Foraminiferal calcification and CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooijer, L. D.; Toyofuku, T.; Reichart, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ongoing burning of fossil fuels increases atmospheric CO2, elevates marine dissolved CO2 and decreases pH and the saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate. Intuitively this should decrease the ability of CaCO3-producing organisms to build their skeletons and shells. Whereas on geological time scales weathering and carbonate deposition removes carbon from the geo-biosphere, on time scales up to thousands of years, carbonate precipitation increases pCO2 because of the associated shift in seawater carbon speciation. Hence reduced calcification provides a potentially important negative feedback on increased pCO2 levels. Here we show that foraminifera form their calcium carbonate by active proton pumping. This elevates the internal pH and acidifies the direct foraminiferal surrounding. This also creates a strong pCO2 gradient and facilitates the uptake of DIC in the form of carbon dioxide. This finding uncouples saturation state from calcification and predicts that the added carbon due to ocean acidification will promote calcification by these organisms. This unknown effect could add substantially to atmospheric pCO2 levels, and might need to be accounted for in future mitigation strategies.

  20. Panorama 2010: CO2 markets and the current status of international climate negotiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberola, E.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere is causing climatic disturbances of increasing severity, representing risks for the entire planet. Existing GHG emissions reduction policies mainly focus on setting up cap and trade systems (carbon markets) geared to achieving such reductions. The Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty established under the auspices of the United Nations, sets forth the guiding principles, objectives and legally binding targets imposed on the parties concerned until 2012. The purpose of the international negotiations underway is to set up a new regulatory framework for the post-2012 period. (author)

  1. The association between use of metformin and change in serum CO_2 level after administration of contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Jung, J.; Jung, J.H.; Kim, K.Y.; Baek, J.-H.; Hahm, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the changes in serum creatinine and total CO_2 levels in patients receiving metformin during administration of contrast medium. Materials and methods: Patient records from January 2012 to December 2012 after the administration of contrast medium were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 924 patients were included for the final analysis. Of them, 105 received metformin during contrast medium administration, 112 were taking other oral hypoglycaemic agents, and 707 patients were not diabetic (controls). Results: No significant change in total CO_2 levels was detected (p=0.678). Metabolic acidosis was present in 33 (31.4%) metformin users, 31 (28.6%) other oral hypoglycaemic agent users, and 153 (21.6%) control patients. In the present logistic regression analysis, age, baseline levels of creatinine, and total CO_2 levels were associated with metabolic acidosis after contrast medium exposure. Conclusion: These data indicate the presence of a coexisting risk factor, other than metformin use, associated with metabolic acidosis after contrast medium exposure. No relationship was found between the use of metformin and metabolic acidosis during contrast medium exposure. - Highlights: • The use of metformin was not associated with metabolic acidosis after contrast exposure. • The coexisting risk factors for metabolic acidosis were present in patient with metabolic acidosis after contrast exposure. • There is a need to consider the maintenance of metformin during a CT scan in patients with a low risk for lactic acidosis.

  2. Report on survey of international cooperation possibility on chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology in FY 1997; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (kagakuteki CO2 koteika yuko riyo gijutsu ni kakawaru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This survey focused on the end of the more promising companion and promoting the international cooperation on chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology. As a result, the way of the carrying-forward of the international cooperation with more than one companion could be arranged beforehand. It led to getting an arrangement about a secrecy agreement respectively with Lurgi company and ABB company in Europe, and to providing a catalyst sample developed by RITE to implement an examination by the other party and to show related technical information. In addition, it concluded a cooperation agreement about a total system of the chemical CO2 fixation and utilization technology and methanol synthesis with ZSW. In Australia, negotiation about international cooperation with CSIRO which is a federal research organization and CRC (Cooperative Research Centre) for renewable energy has been started. The ideal circumstances are being ready for the chemical CO2 fixation project for which the international cooperation with the country where the natural energy is rich like Australia is essential when coming to practical use. To do alternating current with further high density in the following year it is desired to build a concrete study cooperation system. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  3. Acclimation of bloom-forming and perennial seaweeds to elevated pCO2 conserved across levels of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Schaum, Charlotte-Elisa; Lin, Fan; Sun, Ke; Munroe, James R; Zhang, Xiao W; Fan, Xiao; Teng, Lin H; Wang, Yi T; Zhuang, Zhi M; Ye, Naihao

    2017-11-01

    Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO 2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom forming/nonbloom forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an indoor mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO 2 levels ranging from 400 to 2,000 μatm. We find that, across all scales of the experimental setup, ephemeral species of the genus Ulva increase their photosynthesis and growth rates in response to elevated pCO 2 the most, whereas longer-lived perennial species show a smaller increase or a decrease. These differences in short-term growth and photosynthesis rates are likely to give bloom-forming green seaweeds a competitive advantage in mixed communities, and our results thus suggest that coastal seaweed assemblages in eutrophic waters may undergo an initial shift toward communities dominated by bloom-forming, short-lived seaweeds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fluctuating seawater pH/pCO2 regimes are more energetically expensive than static pH/pCO2 levels in the mussel Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Stephanie; Urbina, Mauricio A; Findlay, Helen S; Wilson, Rod W; Lewis, Ceri

    2017-10-25

    Ocean acidification (OA) studies typically use stable open-ocean pH or CO 2 values. However, species living within dynamic coastal environments can naturally experience wide fluctuations in abiotic factors, suggesting their responses to stable pH conditions may not be reflective of either present or near-future conditions. Here we investigate the physiological responses of the mussel Mytilus edulis to variable seawater pH conditions over short- (6 h) and medium-term (2 weeks) exposures under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Mussel haemolymph pH closely mirrored that of seawater pH over short-term changes of 1 pH unit with acidosis or recovery accordingly, highlighting a limited capacity for acid-base regulation. After 2 weeks, mussels under variable pH conditions had significantly higher metabolic rates, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation than those exposed to static pH under both current and near-future OA scenarios. Static near-future pH conditions induced significant acid-base disturbances and lipid peroxidation compared with the static present-day conditions but did not affect the metabolic rate. These results clearly demonstrate that living in naturally variable environments is energetically more expensive than living in static seawater conditions, which has consequences for how we extrapolate future OA responses in coastal species. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Temperature dependence of the photodissociation of CO2 from high vibrational levels: 205-230 nm imaging studies of CO(X1Σ+) and O(3P, 1D) products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutradhar, S.; Samanta, B. R.; Samanta, A. K.; Reisler, H.

    2017-07-01

    The 205-230 nm photodissociation of vibrationally excited CO2 at temperatures up to 1800 K was studied using Resonance Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization (REMPI) and time-sliced Velocity Map Imaging (VMI). CO2 molecules seeded in He were heated in an SiC tube attached to a pulsed valve and supersonically expanded to create a molecular beam of rotationally cooled but vibrationally hot CO2. Photodissociation was observed from vibrationally excited CO2 with internal energies up to about 20 000 cm-1, and CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were detected by REMPI. The large enhancement in the absorption cross section with increasing CO2 vibrational excitation made this investigation feasible. The internal energies of heated CO2 molecules that absorbed 230 nm radiation were estimated from the kinetic energy release (KER) distributions of CO(X1Σ+) products in v″ = 0. At 230 nm, CO2 needs to have at least 4000 cm-1 of rovibrational energy to absorb the UV radiation and produce CO(X1Σ+) + O(3P). CO2 internal energies in excess of 16 000 cm-1 were confirmed by observing O(1D) products. It is likely that initial absorption from levels with high bending excitation accesses both the A1B2 and B1A2 states, explaining the nearly isotropic angular distributions of the products. CO(X1Σ+) product internal energies were estimated from REMPI spectroscopy, and the KER distributions of the CO(X1Σ+), O(3P), and O(1D) products were obtained by VMI. The CO product internal energy distributions change with increasing CO2 temperature, suggesting that more than one dynamical pathway is involved when the internal energy of CO2 (and the corresponding available energy) increases. The KER distributions of O(1D) and O(3P) show broad internal energy distributions in the CO(X1Σ+) cofragment, extending up to the maximum allowed by energy but peaking at low KER values. Although not all the observations can be explained at this time, with the aid of available theoretical studies of CO2 VUV

  6. Fiscal 1996 survey of potential international cooperation for a long-term scenario on CO2 reduction; 1996 nendo CO2 sakugen ni kakawaru choki shinario ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    For the purpose of working out a CO2 reduction scenario and a CO2 policy introduction scenario, a survey was conducted of comparisons between ten and several models which are world-known and models of the New Earth 21, potential international cooperation to be carried out in the future, etc. The survey included organizations which are developing CO2 policy evaluation models, survey reports made in the past, details of literature for the analysis and arrangement. From the result, details of the questionnaire survey and organizations to be surveyed were decided on for the questionnaire survey. Objects for the survey were 7 countries and 22 organizations, and survey items were places for information exchange, sending/receiving of researchers, exchange of input data, comparative calculation based on the common database, joint research work, economy, the carbon tax, impact, renewable energy, how to handle and think of the carbon isolation, etc. As a result of the survey, proposed were a workshop on CO2 reduction, a comparative study of simulation models, etc. 25 refs., 50 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  8. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  9. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion 2011: Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Durban, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: - estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2009; - selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; - CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information. These estimates have been calculated using the IEA energy databases and the default methods and emission factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

  10. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion - 2012 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    How much CO2 are countries emitting? Where is it coming from? In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Doha, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process the IEA is making available for free download the 'Highlights' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion. This annual publication contains: estimates of CO2 emissions by country from 1971 to 2010; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; and CO2 emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, and other relevant information.

  11. Effects of elevated CO2 on the photosynthesis and nitrate reductase activity of Pyropia haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) grown at different nutrient levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxiang; Zou, Dinghui

    2015-03-01

    Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially important species, was cultured at two CO2 concentrations (390×10-6 and 700×10-6 (parts per million)) and at low and high nutrient levels, to explore the effect of elevated CO2 on the species under nutrient enrichment. Results show that in CO2-enriched thalli, relative growth rate (RGR) was enhanced under nutrient enrichment. Elevated CO2 decreased phycobiliprotein (PB) contents, but increased the contents of soluble carbohydrates. Nutrient enrichment increased the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and PB, while soluble carbohydrate content decreased. CO2 enrichment enhanced the relative maximum electronic transport rate and light saturation point. In nutrient-enriched thalli the activity of nitrate reductase (NRA) increased under elevated CO2. An instantaneous pH change in seawater (from 8.1 to 9.6) resulted in reduction of NRA, and the thalli grown under both elevated CO2 and nutrient enrichment exhibited less pronounced reduction than in algae grown at the ambient CO2. The thermal optima of NRA under elevated CO2 and/or nutrient enrichment shifted to a lower temperature (10-15°C) compared to that in ambient conditions (20°C). We propose that accelerated photosynthesis could result in growth increment. N assimilation remained high in acidified seawater and reflected increased temperature sensitivity in response to elevated CO2 and eutrophication.

  12. Marine CDOM accumulation during a coastal Arctic mesocosm experiment: No response to elevated pCO2 levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Silyakova, Anna; Granskog, Mats A.; Bellerby, Richard G. J.; Engel, Anja; Schulz, Kai G.; Brussaard, Corina P. D.

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale multidisciplinary mesocosm experiment in an Arctic fjord (Kongsfjorden, Svalbard; 78°56.2'N) was used to study Arctic marine food webs and biogeochemical elements cycling at natural and elevated future carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. At the start of the experiment, marine-derived chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) dominated the CDOM pool. Thus, this experiment constituted a convenient case to study production of autochthonous CDOM, which is typically masked by high levels of CDOM of terrestrial origin in the Arctic Ocean proper. CDOM accumulated during the experiment in line with an increase in bacterial abundance; however, no response was observed to increased pCO2 levels. Changes in CDOM absorption spectral slopes indicate that bacteria were most likely responsible for the observed CDOM dynamics. Distinct absorption peaks (at 330 and 360 nm) were likely associated with mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). Due to the experimental setup, MAAs were produced in absence of ultraviolet exposure providing evidence for MAAs to be considered as multipurpose metabolites rather than simple photoprotective compounds. We showed that a small increase in CDOM during the experiment made it a major contributor to total absorption in a range of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and, therefore, is important for spectral light availability and may be important for photosynthesis and phytoplankton groups composition in a rapidly changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

  13. Community-level sensitivity of a calcifying ecosystem to acute in situ CO2 enrichment

    KAUST Repository

    Burdett, HL; Perna, Gabriela; McKay, L; Broomhead, G; Kamenos, NA

    2017-01-01

    by coralline algae. Most notably, we observed a rapid community-level shift to favour net dissolution rather than net calcification. Smaller changes from net respiration to net photosynthesis were also observed. There was no effect on the net flux of DMS

  14. Translating crustacean biological responses from CO2 bubbling experiments into population-level predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies of animal responses to ocean acidification focus on uniformly conditioned age cohorts that lack complexities typically found in wild populations. These studies have become the primary data source for predicting higher level ecological effects, but the roles of intras...

  15. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of field-sown meadow fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Field-sown meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis, cv. Kalevi stands were exposed to elevated temperatures (+3°C and elevated CO2, (700 ppm levels in two experiments conducted in 1992-1993 (experiment 1 and in 1994-1995 (experiment 2. Total aboveground yield was, on average, 38% higher at elevated than at ambient temperatures. At ambient temperatures elevated CO2 increased the number of tillers by 63% in 1992, 24% in 1993, 90% in 1994 and 14% in 1995. At elevated temperatures, the increase in tiller number in elevated CO2 was seen only in the first growing seasons after sowing. The total yield in a growing season was about 10% higher in elevated CO2 in experiment 1. In experiment 2 the yield was more than 20% higher in elevated CO2 at elevated temperatures, whereas at ambient temperatures the rise in CO2 level had no effect on the yield; the root biomass, however, increased by more than 30%. In elevated CO2 at ambient temperatures the root biomass also increased in experiment I, but at elevated temperatures there was no consistent change. The soluble carbohydrate content of above-ground biomass was 5-48% higher in elevated CO2 at most of the measuring times during the growing season, but the nitrogen content did not show a clear decrease. The reasons for the lack of a marked increase in biomass in elevated CO2 despite a 40-60% increase in photosynthesis are discussed.

  16. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-bordonaba, Jordi; Pinto de Carvalho, Susana; Vasconcelos, Marta W.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in ‘Rocha’ pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and

  17. Coupling of heterotrophic bacteria to phytoplankton bloom development at different pCO2 levels: a mesocosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thyrhaug

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The predicted rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions will increase CO2 concentrations and decrease seawater pH in the upper ocean. Recent studies have revealed effects of pCO2 induced changes in seawater chemistry on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calcifying organisms. To test whether the predicted increase in pCO2 will directly or indirectly (via changes in phytoplankton dynamics affect abundance, activities, and community composition of heterotrophic bacteria during phytoplankton bloom development, we have aerated mesocosms with CO2 to obtain triplicates with three different partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2: 350 μatm (1×CO2, 700 μatm (2×CO2 and 1050 μatm (3×CO2. The development of a phytoplankton bloom was initiated by the addition of nitrate and phosphate. In accordance to an elevated carbon to nitrogen drawdown at increasing pCO2, bacterial production (BPP of free-living and attached bacteria as well as cell-specific BPP (csBPP of attached bacteria were related to the C:N ratio of suspended matter. These relationships significantly differed among treatments. However, bacterial abundance and activities were not statistically different among treatments. Solely community structure of free-living bacteria changed with pCO2 whereas that of attached bacteria seemed to be independent of pCO2 but tightly coupled to phytoplankton bloom development. Our findings imply that changes in pCO2, although reflected by changes in community structure of free-living bacteria, do not directly affect bacterial activity. Furthermore, bacterial activity and dynamics of heterotrophic bacteria, especially of attached bacteria, were tightly correlated to phytoplankton development and, hence, may also potentially depend on changes in pCO2.

  18. Interactions of radionuclides and CO2 with clays: elucidating mechanisms at nano-scale level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In order to predict and regulate the environmental impact of human activities such as uranium mining and radioactive waste disposal, it is necessary to understand the behavior of actinides in the environment because their interaction with clay mineral is an important factor to control the migration of radionuclide in the environment. The behavior of actinides in the soil is mainly the surface adsorption interactions, which change the forms of radioactive elements and reduces the mobility of actinides in the natural systems. Therefore, it is important to search how the actinides interact with clay mineral such as the fundamental process of surface precipitation. Uranium is the predominant heavy metal content of the final waste in the nuclear fuel cycle (≥95% UO 2 ). In addition, uranium is a major contaminant in the soil, subsurface and groundwater as a result of human activity. Under standard environmental conditions, the most stable chemical form of U(VI) is the uranyl ion UO 2 2+ , which is potentially very mobile and readily complexes with organic and inorganic matter. On the other hand, carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas, warming the earth's surface to a higher temperature by reducing outward radiation. However, problems may occur when the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases increases. Amounts of carbon dioxide were produced since the industrial revolution, which is behind the significant global warming and rising sea level. Clay minerals are of great practical importance here, in storage of carbon dioxide due to its hydraulic permeability and ability to retain mobile species. We have chosen kaolinite and montmorillonite as prototypes of clay minerals of 1:1 and 2:1. Classical Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods have been used in this work in order to understand the adsorption behaviour of radionuclide and carbon dioxide in clays surface. In this thesis, we will investigate first the adsorption of uranyl on kaolinite

  19. Injeção de CO2 e lâminas de irrigação em tomateiro sob estufa CO2 injection and irrigation levels in greenhouse tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cesar Cararo

    2002-09-01

    -se os dados a funções quadráticas, foram de 78,82 t.ha-1 e 86,36 t.ha-1, correspondentes à aplicação de 335,2 mm e 333,6 mm de água para as estufas sem e com aplicação de CO2, respectivamente. Para uma faixa de variação do produto físico marginal de 0 a 1, as lâminas economicamente ótimas variaram de 335,2 mm a 322,4 mm em ausência de CO2 e de 333,6 mm a 323,8 mm com utilização do gás.The application of appropriate amounts of water and the usage of associated techniques improve the yield and quality of tomato fruits, assuring better profits to the farmer. We studied the effect of different water depth applications and carbon dioxide (CO2 injection in the irrigation system of a tomato crop, cv. Débora-Plus. An experiment was conducted in Piracicaba, São Paulo State (Brazil, under two greenhouses, using 40; 60; 80; 100; 120 and 140% of the water depth needed by the crop and C0 = 0 g of CO2.L-1 of water and C1 = 7.73 g.L-1 of CO2 concentrations were applied through irrigation water during 1999. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized blocks, with four replications. The CO2 treatments were applied in separate greenhouses. The irrigation was accomplished by using a drip irrigation system, based on reduced evaporimeters and tensiometers. The gas application was accomplished using a commercial cylinder and a Venturi type injector during the period necessary to reach the minimum water level. The application of CO2 through irrigation water increased the yield by 8.2%, raised the weight of small size fruits by 13% and the dry matter content of fruits by 8.5%. However, CO2 injection was ineffective in increasing the number and weight of medium sized fruits. The soil solution analysis indicated that CO2 possibly contributes to the improvement of the nutritional conditions of the tomato crop. The gas injection was economically feasible. The water depth did not have any significant effect on the yield, on total number of fruits, medium fruit weight

  20. The difference of level CO2 emissions from the transportation sector between weekdays and weekend days on the City Centre of Pemalang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, E.; Hardiman, G.; Buchori, I.

    2017-06-01

    The high growth of human activity potentially increases the number of vehicles and the use of fossil fuels that contribute the increase of CO2 emissions in atmosphere. Controlling CO2 emission that causes greenhouse effect becomes the main agenda of Indonesian Government. The first step control CO2 emissions is by measuring the level of CO2 emissions, especially CO2 emissions from fossil fuel consumption in the transport sector. This research aims to assess the level of CO2 emissions from transportation sector on the main roads in the city centre of Pemalang both in weekdays and weekend days. The methods applied to calculate CO2 emissions using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 method. For this, a survey on the number of vehicles passing through the main roads using hand tally counter is firstly done. The results, CO2 emissions in working day, i.e. 49,006.95 tons/year compared to weekend i.e. 38,865.50 tons/year.

  1. Changes in Air CO2 Concentration Differentially Alter Transcript Levels of NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 Aquaporin Genes in Tobacco Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Secchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aquaporin specific control on water versus carbon pathways in leaves is pivotal in controlling gas exchange and leaf hydraulics. We investigated whether Nicotiana tabacum aquaporin 1 (NtAQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum plasma membrane intrinsic protein 2;1 (NtPIP2;1 gene expression varies in tobacco leaves subjected to treatments with different CO2 concentrations (ranging from 0 to 800 ppm, inducing changes in photosynthesis, stomatal regulation and water evaporation from the leaf. Changes in air CO2 concentration ([CO2] affected net photosynthesis (Pn and leaf substomatal [CO2] (Ci. Pn was slightly negative at 0 ppm air CO2; it was one-third that of ambient controls at 200 ppm, and not different from controls at 800 ppm. Leaves fed with 800 ppm [CO2] showed one-third reduced stomatal conductance (gs and transpiration (E, and their gs was in turn slightly lower than in 200 ppm– and in 0 ppm–treated leaves. The 800 ppm air [CO2] strongly impaired both NtAQP1 and NtPIP2;1 gene expression, whereas 0 ppm air [CO2], a concentration below any in vivo possible conditions and specifically chosen to maximize the gene expression alteration, increased only the NtAQP1 transcript level. We propose that NtAQP1 expression, an aquaporin devoted to CO2 transport, positively responds to CO2 scarcity in the air in the whole range 0–800 ppm. On the contrary, expression of NtPIP2;1, an aquaporin not devoted to CO2 transport, is related to water balance in the leaf, and changes in parallel with gs. These observations fit in a model where upregulation of leaf aquaporins is activated at low Ci, while downregulation occurs when high Ci saturates photosynthesis and causes stomatal closure.

  2. Elevated CO2 levels affects the concentrations of copper and cadmium in crops grown in soil contaminated with heavy metals under fully open-air field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhu, Jianguo; Zhou, Hui; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yin, Ying; Pei, Daping; Ji, Rong; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Xiaorong

    2011-08-15

    Elevated CO(2) levels and the increase in heavy metals in soils through pollution are serious problems worldwide. Whether elevated CO(2) levels will affect plants grown in heavy-metal-polluted soil and thereby influence food quality and safety is not clear. Using a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) system, we investigated the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on the concentrations of copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd) in rice and wheat grown in soil with different concentrations of the metals in the soil. In the two-year study, elevated CO(2) levels led to lower Cu concentrations and higher Cd concentrations in shoots and grain of both rice and wheat grown in the respective contaminated soil. Elevated CO(2) levels slightly but significantly lowered the pH of the soil and led to changes in Cu and Cd fractionation in the soil. Our study indicates that elevated CO(2) alters the distribution of contaminant elements in soil and plants, thereby probably affecting food quality and safety.

  3. Elevated CO_2 levels increase the toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to goldfish (Carassius auratus) in a water-sediment ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ying; Hu, Zhengxue; Du, Wenchao; Ai, Fuxun; Ji, Rong; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.; Guo, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing pH value. • Elevated CO_2 led to higher Zn accumulation in fish tissues. • Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO. - Abstract: Concerns about the environmental safety of metal-based nanoparticles (MNPs) in aquatic ecosystems are increasing. Simultaneously, elevated atmospheric CO_2 levels are a serious problem worldwide, making it possible for the combined exposure of MNPs and elevated CO_2 to the ecosystem. Here we studied the toxicity of nZnO to goldfish in a water-sediment ecosystem using open-top chambers flushed with ambient (400 ± 10 μL/L) or elevated (600 ± 10 μL/L) CO_2 for 30 days. We measured the content of Zn in suspension and fish, and analyzed physiological and biochemical changes in fish tissues. Results showed that elevated CO_2 increased the Zn content in suspension by reducing the pH value of water and consequently enhanced the bioavailability and toxicity of nZnO. Elevated CO_2 led to higher accumulation of Zn in fish tissues (increased by 43.3%, 86.4% and 22.5% in liver, brain and muscle, respectively) when compared to ambient. Elevated CO_2 also intensified the oxidative damage to fish induced by nZnO, resulting in higher ROS intensity, greater contents of MDA and MT and lower GSH content in liver and brain. Our results suggest that more studies in natural ecosystems are needed to better understand the fate and toxicity of nanoparticles in future CO_2 levels.

  4. Impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shoulin; Lu, Yongqing; Dai, Yang; Qian, Lei; Muhammad, Adnan Bodlah; Li, Teng; Wan, Guijun; Parajulee, Megha N.; Chen, Fajun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted great challenges of transgene silencing for transgenic plants facing climate change. In order to understand the impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of N-fertilizer supply, we investigated the biomass, exogenous Bt toxins, Bt-transgene expression and methylation status in Bt rice exposed to two levels of CO2 concentrations and nitrogen (N) supply (1/8, 1/4, 1/2...

  5. Preliminary evidences of CCM operation and its down regulation in relation to increasing CO2 levels in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Rahman Shaik, Aziz Ur; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2014-05-01

    Bay of Bengal (BoB), a low productive part of the North Indian Ocean, often possesses low CO2 levels in its surface water and diatoms dominate the phytoplankton communities. Virtually no studies are available from this area reporting how this diatom dominated phytoplankton community would respond any increase in dissolved CO2 levels either naturally or anthopogenically. In most of the marine phytoplankton, the inefficiency of the sole carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco necessitates the need of concentrating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (mostly as HCO3) inside the cell in excess of the ambient water concentrations in order to maintain high rate of photosynthesis under low CO2 levels through an energy consuming carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs). The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in CCMs by converting HCO3- to CO2 and usually utilizes the trace metal zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. However, it is evident in many marine phytoplankton species that with increasing external CO2 levels, CCMs can be down-regulated leading to energetic savings which can be reallocated to growth; although exceptions occur. Hence, in order to predict their responses to the projected changes, it is imperative to understand their carbon metabolism patterns. We have conducted a series of incubation experiments in microcosms with natural phytoplankton communities from the coastal waters of BoB under different CO2 levels. Our results revealed that the rate of net photosynthetic oxygen evolution and biomass build-up increased in response to increasing CO2 levels. The depletion in δ13CPOM values were more in the high CO2 treatments relative to the low CO2 treated cells (control), indicating that dissolved CO2 uptake was higher when CO2 levels were increased. When additional Zn was added to the low CO2 treated cells, net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate was increased significantly than that of the untreated control. It is likely that upon the supply of Zn under low CO2

  6. Complex interplay of future climate levels of CO2, ozone and temperature on susceptibility to fungal diseases in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bolette Lind; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Lyngkjær, Michael Foged

    2015-01-01

    efficiency of PSII, both at ambient and elevated [CO2], suggesting that photosynthesis was not limited by [CO2] at ambient temperature. When growing under elevated temperature or [O3], infection by the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus decreased, whereas disease symptoms and growth of the toxin......Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was grown in different climatic environments with elevated [CO2] (700 vs 385 ppm), [O3] (60/90 vs 20 ppb) and temperature (24/19 vs 19/12°C day/night) as single factors and in combinations, to evaluate the impact of these climatic factors on photosynthesis...... and susceptibility to powdery mildew and spot blotch disease. No significant increase in net CO2 assimilation rate was observed in barley grown under elevated [CO2] at ambient temperature. However, this rate was positively stimulated under elevated temperature together with a slightly higher potential quantum...

  7. Paleobotanical Evidence for Near Present-Day Levels of Atmospheric CO2 During Part of the Tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Dana L.; Wing, Scott L.; Beerling, David J.; Jolley, David W.; Koch, Paul L.; Hickey, Leo J.; Berner, Robert A.

    2001-06-01

    Understanding the link between the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) and Earth's temperature underpins much of paleoclimatology and our predictions of future global warming. Here, we use the inverse relationship between leaf stomatal indices and the partial pressure of CO2 in modern Ginkgo biloba and Metasequoia glyptostroboides to develop a CO2 reconstruction based on fossil Ginkgo and Metasequoia cuticles for the middle Paleocene to early Eocene and middle Miocene. Our reconstruction indicates that CO2 remained between 300 and 450 parts per million by volume for these intervals with the exception of a single high estimate near the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. These results suggest that factors in addition to CO2 are required to explain these past intervals of global warmth.

  8. Multi-Year Leaf-Level Response to Sub-Ambient and Elevated Experimental CO2 in Betula nana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J C Hincke

    Full Text Available The strong link between stomatal frequency and CO2 in woody plants is key for understanding past CO2 dynamics, predicting future change, and evaluating the significant role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. Experimental validation is required to evaluate the long-term adaptive leaf response of C3 plants to CO2 conditions; however, studies to date have only focused on short-term single-season experiments and may not capture (1 the full ontogeny of leaves to experimental CO2 exposure or (2 the true adjustment of structural stomatal properties to CO2, which we postulate is likely to occur over several growing seasons. We conducted controlled growth chamber experiments at 150 ppmv, 450 ppmv and 800 ppmv CO2 with woody C3 shrub Betula nana (dwarf birch over two successive annual growing seasons and evaluated the structural stomatal response to atmospheric CO2 conditions. We find that while some adjustment of leaf morphological and stomatal parameters occurred in the first growing season where plants are exposed to experimental CO2 conditions, amplified adjustment of non-plastic stomatal properties such as stomatal conductance occurred in the second year of experimental CO2 exposure. We postulate that the species response limit to CO2 of B. nana may occur around 400-450 ppmv. Our findings strongly support the necessity for multi-annual experiments in C3 perennials in order to evaluate the effects of environmental conditions and provide a likely explanation of the contradictory results between historical and palaeobotanical records and experimental data.

  9. Calcifying invertebrates succeed in a naturally CO2-rich coastal habitat but are threatened by high levels of future acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wahl

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions are leading to an acidification of the oceans. Predicting marine community vulnerability towards acidification is difficult, as adaptation processes cannot be accounted for in most experimental studies. Naturally CO2 enriched sites thus can serve as valuable proxies for future changes in community structure. Here we describe a natural analogue site in the Western Baltic Sea. Seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord is elevated for large parts of the year due to upwelling of CO2 rich waters. Peak pCO2 values of >230 Pa (>2300 μatm and pHNBS values of pCO2 values are ~70 Pa (~700 μatm. In contrast to previously described naturally CO2 enriched sites that have suggested a progressive displacement of calcifying auto- and heterotrophic species, the macrobenthic community in Kiel Fjord is dominated by calcifying invertebrates. We show that blue mussels from Kiel Fjord can maintain control rates of somatic and shell growth at a pCO2 of 142 Pa (1400 μatm, pHNBS = 7.7. Juvenile mussel recruitment peaks during the summer months, when high water pCO2 values of ~100 Pa (~1000 μatm prevail. Our findings indicate that calcifying keystone species may be able to cope with surface ocean pHNBS values projected for the end of this century when food supply is sufficient. However, owing to non-linear synergistic effects of future acidification and upwelling of corrosive water, peak seawater pCO2 in Kiel Fjord and many other productive estuarine habitats could increase to values >400 Pa (>4000 μatm. These changes will most likely affect calcification and recruitment, and increase external shell dissolution.

  10. FY 2000 Project of developing international standards for supporting new industries. Standardization of the marine environment analyzers (Analyzers for measuring CO2 in ocean); 2000 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Kaiyo kankyo keisoku kiki (kaiyo CO2 sokutei kanren kikirui) no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the FY 2000 results of the research and development of analyzers and analytical procedures necessary for evaluating CO2 abatement effects and fixed quantities in ocean, for proposing the international standards. The program for studying the analytical procedures makes a literature survey mainly on papers and also on patent publications, to collect the data related to this project and establish the database. The program for measuring CO2 in deep ocean studies a suspension type CO2 profiler with a liquid-liquid leveler and develops a small-size, high-precision device serviceable at a depth of 3,000m, around 1m in length and 40kg in weight. The program for flux meters tests various commercial sensors, to obtain the design requirements for the sensor of improved functions to withstand splashes and rolling/pitching. The program for CO2 flux measurement methods study aims at the eddy correlation method, which is the most direct procedure involving limited number of assumptions, after having investigated various procedures, to improve precision of the sensor. (NEDO)

  11. A 13C labelling study on carbon fluxes in Arctic plankton communities under elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Kluijver

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of CO2 on carbon fluxes (production, consumption, and export in Arctic plankton communities was investigated during the 2010 EPOCA (European project on Ocean Acidification mesocosm study off Ny Ålesund, Svalbard. 13C labelled bicarbonate was added to nine mesocosms with a range in pCO2 (185 to 1420 μatm to follow the transfer of carbon from dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC into phytoplankton, bacterial and zooplankton consumers, and export. A nutrient–phytoplankton–zooplankton–detritus model amended with 13C dynamics was constructed and fitted to the data to quantify uptake rates and carbon fluxes in the plankton community. The plankton community structure was characteristic for a post-bloom situation and retention food web and showed high bacterial production (∼31% of primary production, high abundance of mixotrophic phytoplankton, low mesozooplankton grazing (∼6% of primary production and low export (∼7% of primary production. Zooplankton grazing and export of detritus were sensitive to CO2: grazing decreased and export increased with increasing pCO2. Nutrient addition halfway through the experiment increased the export, but not the production rates. Although mixotrophs showed initially higher production rates with increasing CO2, the overall production of POC (particulate organic carbon after nutrient addition decreased with increasing CO2. Interestingly, and contrary to the low nutrient situation, much more material settled down in the sediment traps at low CO2. The observed CO2 related effects potentially alter future organic carbon flows and export, with possible consequences for the efficiency of the biological pump.

  12. Effective Approach for Increasing the Heteroatom Doping Levels of Porous Carbons for Superior CO2 Capture and Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmoaty, Yomna H; Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Norouzi, Nazgol; El-Kadri, Oussama M; Turner, Joseph B McGee; El-Kaderi, Hani M

    2017-10-18

    Development of efficient sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture from flue gas or its removal from natural gas and landfill gas is very important for environmental protection. A new series of heteroatom-doped porous carbon was synthesized directly from pyrazole/KOH by thermolysis. The resulting pyrazole-derived carbons (PYDCs) are highly doped with nitrogen (14.9-15.5 wt %) as a result of the high nitrogen-to-carbon ratio in pyrazole (43 wt %) and also have a high oxygen content (16.4-18.4 wt %). PYDCs have a high surface area (SA BET = 1266-2013 m 2 g -1 ), high CO 2 Q st (33.2-37.1 kJ mol -1 ), and a combination of mesoporous and microporous pores. PYDCs exhibit significantly high CO 2 uptakes that reach 2.15 and 6.06 mmol g -1 at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively, at 298 K. At 273 K, the CO 2 uptake improves to 3.7 and 8.59 mmol g -1 at 0.15 and 1 bar, respectively. The reported porous carbons also show significantly high adsorption selectivity for CO 2 /N 2 (128) and CO 2 /CH 4 (13.4) according to ideal adsorbed solution theory calculations at 298 K. Gas breakthrough studies of CO 2 /N 2 (10:90) at 298 K showed that PYDCs display excellent separation properties. The ability to tailor the physical properties of PYDCs as well as their chemical composition provides an effective strategy for designing efficient CO 2 sorbents.

  13. Increase in the activity of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in cytosol affects sugar partitioning and increases the lateral shoots in tobacco plants at elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamoi, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Yoshie; Nedachi, Shigeki; Otori, Kumi; Tanabe, Noriaki; Maruta, Takanori; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2011-05-01

    We generated transgenic tobacco plants with high levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase expressing cyanobacterialfructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase in the cytosol. At ambient CO(2) levels (360 ppm), growth, photosynthetic activity, and fresh weight were unchanged but the sucrose/hexose/starch ratio was slightly altered in the transgenic plants compared with wild-type plants. At elevated CO(2) levels (1200 ppm), lateral shoot, leaf number, and fresh weight were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activity was also increased. Hexose accumulated in the upper leaves in the wild-type plants, while sucrose and starch accumulated in the lower leaves and lateral shoots in the transgenic plants. These findings suggest that cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase contributes to the efficient conversion of hexose into sucrose, and that the change in carbon partitioning affects photosynthetic capacity and morphogenesis at elevated CO(2) levels.

  14. The design and development of CO2 medium-level laser power calibration system for industrial and medical applications in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontapot, Kanokwan

    2018-03-01

    The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) is one of the most useful and is the highest CW laser at the present. The laser produces infrared light at 10.6 um. Due to its high power, CO2 lasers are usually used in industrial applications such as cutting and welding, or for engraving at less power. CO2 lasers are also used widely in medical applications, such as laser surgery, skin resurfacing, and removing mold, due to water (biological tissue) absorb light at this wavelength very well. CO2 lasers are also used as LIDAR laser source for military range finding applications because of the transparency of the atmosphere to infrared light. Due to the increasing use of CO2 lasers laser in industrial and medical applications in Thailand, the National Institute of Metrology (Thailand) has set up a CO2 laser power calibration system and provide calibration service to customers this year. The service support calibration of medium-level laser power at wavelength of 10.6 um and at power range 100 mW-10W. The design and development of the calibration system will be presented.

  15. High-flux MFI-alumina hollow fibres: a membrane-based process for on-board CO2 capture from internal combustion vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    This work focuses on the conception and development of a membrane-based process for an on-board CO 2 capture/storage application. In a first part, we simulate an on-board CO 2 capture unit based on a membrane process for the case study of a heavy vehicle (≥3500 kg). This study includes an energy analysis of the impact of gas separation and compression on the required membrane surface and module volume, as well the autonomy of the storage unit and the energy overconsumption involved in the process. In a second part, we study the influence of the hollow-fibre support quality on the final intergrowth level of nano-composite MFI-alumina membranes. Special attention is devoted to the influence of the isomorphic substitution of silica by boron and germanium, and replacement of the counter-cation (proton) by other elements, on the CO 2 /N 2 separation and permeance properties. Next, a complete chapter has been devoted to the evaluation of the thermodynamic (adsorption) and kinetic (diffusion) parameters in the CO 2 /N 2 separation. Finally, we analyze the influence of standard pollutants (water, NO x , hydrocarbons) on the CO 2 separation properties of the synthesized membranes. (author)

  16. Effects of CO2 Concentration on Leaf Photosynthesis and Stomatal Conductance of Potatoes Grown Under Different Irradiance Levels and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Fitzpatrick, A. H.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    2012-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cvs. Russet Burbank, Denali, and Norland, were grown in environmental rooms controlled at approx 350 micro mol/mol (ambient during years 1987/1988) and 1000 micro mol/mol (enriched) CO2 concentrations. Plants and electric lamps were arranged to provide two irradiance zones, 400 and 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and studies were repeated using two photoperiods (12-h light / 12-h dark and continuous light). Leaf photosynthetic rates and leaf stomatal conductance were measured using fully expanded, upper canopy leaves at weekly intervals throughout growth (21 through 84 days after transplanting). Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod increased leaf photosynthetic rates by 39% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 27% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under continuous light decreased leaf photosynthetic rates by 7% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 13% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Increasing the CO2 from approx 350 to 1000 micro mol/mol under the 12-h photoperiod plants decreased stomatal conductance by an average of 26% at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF and 42% at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Under continuous light, CO2 enrichment resulted in a small increase (2%) of stomatal conductance at 400 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF, and a small decrease (3%) at 800 micro mol/mol/square m/S PPF. Results indicate that CO2 enrichment under the 12-h photoperiod showed the expected increase in photosynthesis and decrease in stomatal conductance for a C3 species like potato, but the decreases in leaf photosynthetic rates and minimal effect on conductance from CO2 enrichment under continuous light were not expected. The plant leaves under continuous light showed more chlorosis and some rusty flecking versus plants under the 12-h photoperiod, suggesting the continuous light was more stressful on the plants. The increased

  17. Arrangement of experiments for simulating the effects of elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on field-sown crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental plants: spring wheat, winterwheat, spring barley, meadow fescue, potato, strawberry and black currant were sown or planted directly in the field, part of which was covered by an automatically controlled greenhouse to elevate the temperature by 3°C. The temperature of the other part of the field (open field was not elevated, but the field was covered with the same plastic film as the greenhouse to achieve radiation and rainfall conditions comparable to those in the greenhouse. To elevate the CO2 concentrations, four open top chambers (OTC were built for the greenhouse, and four for the open field. Two of these, both in the greenhouse and in the open field, were supplied with pure CO2 to elevate their CO2 level to 700 ppm. The temperatures inside the greenhouse followed accurately the desired level. The relative humidity was somewhat higher in the greenhouse and in the OTC:s than in the open field, especially after the modifications in the ventilation of the greenhouse and in the OTC:s in 1994. Because the OTC:s were large (3 m in diameter, the temperatures inside them differed very little from the surrounding air temperature. The short-term variation in the CO2 concentrations in the OTC:s with elevated CO2 was, however, quite high. The control of the CO2 concentrations improved each year from 1992 to 1994, as the CO2 supplying system was modified. The effects of the experimental conditions on plant growth and phenology are discussed.

  18. Arrangement of experiments for simulating the effects of elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on field-sown crops in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental plants: spring wheat, winter wheat, spring barley, meadow fescue, potato, strawberry and black currant were sown or planted directly in the field, part of which was covered by an automatically controlled greenhouse to elevate the temperature by 3°C. The temperature of the other part of the field (open field was not elevated, but the field was covered with the same plastic film as the greenhouse to achieve radiation and rainfall conditions comparable to those in the greenhouse. To elevate the CO2 concentrations, four open top chambers (OTC were built for the greenhouse, and four for the open field. Two of these, both in the greenhouse and in the open field, were supplied with pure CO2 to elevate their CO2 level to 700 ppm. The temperatures inside the greenhouse followed accurately the desired level. The relative humidity was somewhat higher in the greenhouse and in the OTC:s than in the open field, especially after the modifications in the ventilation of the greenhouse and in the OTC:s in 1994. Because the OTC:s were large (3 m in diameter, the temperatures inside them differed very little from the surrounding air temperature. The short-term variation in the CO2 concentrations in the OTC:s with elevated CO2 was, however, quite high. The control of the CO2 concentrations improved each year from 1992 to 1994, as the CO2 supplying system was modified. The effects of the experimental conditions on plant growth and phenology are discussed.;

  19. Activity Based Carboning (ABCO2). Automatic calculation of CO2 emission at consignment level; Activity Based Carboning (ABCO2). Automatische berekening van de CO2-uitstoot op zending niveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Boer, L.C.

    2012-11-15

    In a collaborative effort with the CAPE group, CE Delft has developed ABCO2: a tool for calculating the carbon emissions of logistics operations at the level of individual consignments. The tool can be used during order make-up to indicate the CO2 emissions of available alternatives. To this end the user defines a network, providing details on vehicle fleet, logistic characteristics and transhipment locations. By filling in order data over an extended period, the effect of opting for a different modality or bundling shipments can be quantified. CE Delft helped develop the calculation methodology for the tool and provided the emission indices used in the model, in which relevant existing standards have also been incorporated [Dutch] Samen met CAPE groep heeft CE Delft de tool ABCO2 ontwikkeld. Met deze tool is het mogelijk om op orderniveau de emissies van logistieke activiteiten te berekenen. De tool wordt gebruikt tijdens het orderproces, en geeft bij het aanmaken van een order de CO2 uitstoot van verschillende alternatieven weer. De gebruiker richt zelf een netwerk in, en detailleert dit door een wagenpark, logistieke karakteristieken, en locaties voor overslag te definiëren. Met ordergegevens over langere tijd kan ook het effect van keuzes voor een andere modaliteit, of het bundelen van zendingen gekwantificeerd worden. CE Delft heeft meegeholpen om de rekenmethodiek van de tool te ontwikkelen en heeft emissiekentallen aangeleverd, die in het model zijn opgenomen. Bij de ontwikkeling van het model is rekening gehouden met de beschikbare standaarden hiervoor.

  20. Elevated CO2 enhances biological contributions to elevation change in coastal wetlands by offsetting stressors associated with sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J.A.; McKee, K.L.; Grace, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    1. Sea-level rise, one indirect consequence of increasing atmospheric CO2, poses a major challenge to long-term stability of coastal wetlands. An important question is whether direct effects of elevated CO 2 on the capacity of marsh plants to accrete organic material and to maintain surface elevations outweigh indirect negative effects of stressors associated with sea-level rise (salinity and flooding). 2. In this study, we used a mesocosm approach to examine potential direct and indirect effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration, salinity and flooding on elevation change in a brackish marsh community dominated by a C3 species, Schoenoplectus americanus, and a C4 grass, Spartina patens. This experimental design permitted identification of mechanisms and their role in controlling elevation change, and the development of models that can be tested in the field. 3. To test hypotheses related to CO2 and sea-level rise, we used conventional anova procedures in conjunction with structural equation modelling (SEM). SEM explained 78% of the variability in elevation change and showed the direct, positive effect of S. americanus production on elevation. The SEM indicated that C3 plant response was influenced by interactive effects between CO2 and salinity on plant growth, not a direct CO2 fertilization effect. Elevated CO2 ameliorated negative effects of salinity on S. americanus and enhanced biomass contribution to elevation. 4. The positive relationship between S. americanus production and elevation change can be explained by shoot-base expansion under elevated CO 2 conditions, which led to vertical soil displacement. While the response of this species may differ under other environmental conditions, shoot-base expansion and the general contribution of C3 plant production to elevation change may be an important mechanism contributing to soil expansion and elevation gain in other coastal wetlands. 5. Synthesis. Our results revealed previously unrecognized interactions and

  1. Response of Fagus sylvatica and Picea abies to the interactive effect of neighbor identity and enhanced CO2 levels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rolo, V.; Andivia, E.; Pokorný, Radek

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1459-1469 ISSN 0931-1890 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mixed-forest * climate change * root morphology * growth * non-structural carbohydrates * CO2 fumigation * plant-to-plant interactions Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  2. CARBON AND NUTRIENT FLOW THROUGH MULTIPLE TROPHIC LEVELS IN A CO2-ENRICHED SOUTHERN PINE FOREST COMMUNITY - FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to predict the consequences of global change is predicated on our understanding of controls of energy and material flows through ecosystems. Research was conducted at the Forest Atmosphere CO2 Transfer and Storage-1 (FACTS-1) site at Duke University. This is a flagship experiment of the ...

  3. The global pyrogenic carbon cycle and its impact on the level of atmospheric CO2 over past and future centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Jean-Sébastien; Matthews, H Damon

    2017-08-01

    The incomplete combustion of vegetation and dead organic matter by landscape fires creates recalcitrant pyrogenic carbon (PyC), which could be consequential for the global carbon budget if changes in fire regime, climate, and atmospheric CO 2 were to substantially affect gains and losses of PyC on land and in oceans. Here, we included global PyC cycling in a coupled climate-carbon model to assess the role of PyC in historical and future simulations, accounting for uncertainties through five sets of parameter estimates. We obtained year-2000 global stocks of (Central estimate, likely uncertainty range in parentheses) 86 (11-154), 47 (2-64), and 1129 (90-5892) Pg C for terrestrial residual PyC (RPyC), marine dissolved PyC, and marine particulate PyC, respectively. PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 only slightly between 1751 and 2000 (by 0.8 Pg C for the Central estimate) as PyC-related fluxes changed little over the period. For 2000 to 2300, we combined Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 with stable or continuously increasing future fire frequencies. For the increasing future fire regime, the production of new RPyC generally outpaced the warming-induced accelerated loss of existing RPyC, so that PyC cycling decreased atmospheric CO 2 between 2000 and 2300 for most estimates (by 4-8 Pg C for Central). For the stable fire regime, however, PyC cycling usually increased atmospheric CO 2 (by 1-9 Pg C for Central), and only the most extreme choice of parameters maximizing PyC production and minimizing PyC decomposition led to atmospheric CO 2 decreases under RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 (by 5-8 Pg C). Our results suggest that PyC cycling will likely reduce the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 if landscape fires become much more frequent; however, in the absence of a substantial increase in fire frequency, PyC cycling might contribute to, rather than mitigate, the future increase in atmospheric CO 2 . © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reducing oyster-associated bacteria levels using supercritical fluid CO2 as an agent of warm pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meujo, Damaris A F; Kevin, Dion A; Peng, Jiangnan; Bowling, John J; Liu, Jianping; Hamann, Mark T

    2010-03-31

    An innovative approach to Post-Harvest Processing (PHP) of oysters is introduced focusing on the effects of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) on bacterial contaminants trapped in the digestive system of oysters. Oysters were exposed to scCO(2) under two conditions: (1) 100 bar and 37 degrees C for 30 min and (2) 172 bar and 60 degrees C for 60 min. Using FDA standard guidelines for food analysis, variations in the Aerobic Plate Count (APC) were assessed. It was established that exposing oysters to CO(2) at 100 bar and 37 degrees C for 30 min and at 172 bar and 60 degrees C for 60 min induced 2-log and 3-log reductions in the APC respectively. The decrease in the microbial load as a result of treatment with scCO(2) was found to be significant (P=0.002). A release of adductor muscles from the shell was noted in oysters treated at 172 bar and 60 degrees C for 60 min; this was not the case for oysters treated at 100 bar and 37 degrees C for 30 min. A blind study allowing sensory analysis of treated vs. untreated oysters was also completed and no significant change in the physical appearance, smell, or texture was recorded. In this paper, we also report the effect of scCO(2) on several bacterial isolates, including a referenced ATCC strain of a non-pathogenic Vibrio (Vibrio fischeri) as well as several other bacterial isolates cultured from oyster' tissues and found to share biochemical features common to pathogenic Vibrio strains. A complete inactivation (minimum 7-log reduction) was achieved with these latter bacterial isolates. A 6-log reduction was observed with V. fischeri. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitigating CO2 Leakage by Immobilizing CO2 into Solid Reaction Products: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2016. 14 November 2016 through 18 November 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasch, L.J.; Wollenweber, J.; Neele, F.; Fleury, M.

    2017-01-01

    In the unlikely case of CO2 leakage from a storage reservoir, it is desirable to close the leak efficiently and permanently. This could be done by injecting a reactive solution into the leak path, thereby immobilizing migrating CO2 by consuming the gas and forming solid reactants. With regard to

  6. Elevated CO2 plus chronic warming reduce nitrogen uptake and levels or activities of nitrogen-uptake and -assimilatory proteins in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, Dileepa M; Heckathorn, Scott A; Bista, Deepesh R; Mishra, Sasmita; Boldt, Jennifer K; Krause, Charles R

    2017-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment is expected to often benefit plant growth, despite causing global warming and nitrogen (N) dilution in plants. Most plants primarily procure N as inorganic nitrate (NO 3 - ) or ammonium (NH 4 + ), using membrane-localized transport proteins in roots, which are key targets for improving N use. Although interactive effects of elevated CO 2 , chronic warming and N form on N relations are expected, these have not been studied. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants were grown at two levels of CO 2 (400 or 700 ppm) and two temperature regimes (30 or 37°C), with NO 3 - or NH 4 + as the N source. Elevated CO 2 plus chronic warming severely inhibited plant growth, regardless of N form, while individually they had smaller effects on growth. Although %N in roots was similar among all treatments, elevated CO 2 plus warming decreased (1) N-uptake rate by roots, (2) total protein concentration in roots, indicating an inhibition of N assimilation and (3) shoot %N, indicating a potential inhibition of N translocation from roots to shoots. Under elevated CO 2 plus warming, reduced NO 3 - -uptake rate per g root was correlated with a decrease in the concentration of NO 3 - -uptake proteins per g root, reduced NH 4 + uptake was correlated with decreased activity of NH 4 + -uptake proteins and reduced N assimilation was correlated with decreased concentration of N-assimilatory proteins. These results indicate that elevated CO 2 and chronic warming can act synergistically to decrease plant N uptake and assimilation; hence, future global warming may decrease both plant growth and food quality (%N). © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  7. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE and nitrogen (N have marked effects on rice root growth, and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou 63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol− 1 higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low (LN, 125 kg ha− 1 and normal (NN, 250 kg ha− 1. The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number (ARN and adventitious root length (ARL under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application. The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  8. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  9. Millennial-scale changes in atmospheric CO2 levels linked to the Southern Ocean carbon isotope gradient and dust flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Diz, Paula; Hall, Ian R.; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    The rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations observed at the end of glacial periods has, at least in part, been attributed to the upwelling of carbon-rich deep water in the Southern Ocean. The magnitude of outgassing of dissolved CO2, however, is influenced by the biological fixation of upwelled inorganic carbon and its transfer back to the deep sea as organic carbon. The efficiency of this biological pump is controlled by the extent of nutrient utilization, which can be stimulated by the delivery of iron by atmospheric dust particles. Changes in nutrient utilization should be reflected in the δ13C gradient between intermediate and deep waters. Here we use the δ13C values of intermediate- and bottom-dwelling foraminifera to reconstruct the carbon isotope gradient between thermocline and abyssal water in the subantarctic zone of the South Atlantic Ocean over the past 360,000 years. We find millennial-scale oscillations of the carbon isotope gradient that correspond to changes in dust flux and atmospheric CO2 concentrations as reported from Antarctic ice cores. We interpret this correlation as a relationship between the efficiency of the biological pump and fertilization by dust-borne iron. As the correlation is exponential, we suggest that the sensitivity of the biological pump to dust-borne iron fertilization may be increased when the background dust flux is low.

  10. Impacts of elevated CO2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shoulin; Lu, Yongqing; Dai, Yang; Qian, Lei; Muhammad, Adnan Bodlah; Li, Teng; Wan, Guijun; Parajulee, Megha N; Chen, Fajun

    2017-11-07

    Recent studies have highlighted great challenges of transgene silencing for transgenic plants facing climate change. In order to understand the impacts of elevated CO 2 on exogenous Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins and transgene expression in transgenic rice under different levels of N-fertilizer supply, we investigated the biomass, exogenous Bt toxins, Bt-transgene expression and methylation status in Bt rice exposed to two levels of CO 2 concentrations and nitrogen (N) supply (1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1 and 2 N). It is elucidated that the increased levels of global atmospheric CO 2 concentration will trigger up-regulation of Bt toxin expression in transgenic rice, especially with appropriate increase of N fertilizer supply, while, to some extent, the exogenous Bt-transgene expression is reduced at sub-N levels (1/4 and 1/2N), even though the total protein of plant tissues is reduced and the plant growth is restricted. The unpredictable and stochastic occurrence of transgene silencing and epigenetic alternations remains unresolved for most transgenic plants. It is expected that N fertilization supply may promote the expression of transgenic Bt toxin in transgenic Bt rice, particularly under elevated CO 2 .

  11. Calcification in Caribbean reef-building corals at high pCO2 levels in a recirculating ocean acidification exposure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projected increases in ocean pCO2 levels are anticipated to affect calcifying organisms more rapidly and to a greater extent than other marine organisms. The effects of ocean acidification (OA) have been documented in numerous species of corals in laboratory studies, largely test...

  12. Reducing energy consumption and CO2 emissions by energy efficiency measures and international trading: A bottom-up modeling for the U.S. iron and steel sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Use ISEEM to evaluate energy and emission reduction in U.S. Iron and Steel sector. • ISEEM is a new bottom-up optimization model for industry sector energy planning. • Energy and emission reduction includes efficiency measure and international trading. • International trading includes commodity and carbon among U.S., China and India. • Project annual energy use, CO 2 emissions, production, and costs from 2010 to 2050. - Abstract: Using the ISEEM modeling framework, we analyzed the roles of energy efficiency measures, steel commodity and international carbon trading in achieving specific CO 2 emission reduction targets in the U.S iron and steel sector from 2010 to 2050. We modeled how steel demand is balanced under three alternative emission reduction scenarios designed to include national energy efficiency measures, commodity trading, and international carbon trading as key instruments to meet a particular emission restriction target in the U.S. iron and steel sector; and how production, process structure, energy supply, and system costs change with those scenarios. The results advance our understanding of long-term impacts of different energy policy options designed to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions for U.S. iron and steel sector, and generate insight of policy implications for the sector’s environmentally and economically sustainable development. The alternative scenarios associated with 20% emission-reduction target are projected to result in approximately 11–19% annual energy reduction in the medium term (i.e., 2030) and 9–20% annual energy reduction in the long term (i.e., 2050) compared to the Base scenario

  13. International network non-energy use and CO2 emissions (NEU-CO2). An activity within the European Commission's ENRICH programme, DG RTD, 'Environment and Climate'. Final report of the first phase of the network (January 1999 - June 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.; Gielen, D.; Kilde, N.; Simmons, T.

    2000-07-01

    This report concludes the first phase of the NEU-CO 2 network, covering the period from January 1999 to June 2000. Within this period, two workshops were held, one in Paris in September 1999 and the other in Brussels in April 2000. The results of these workshops represent the basis of this report. The workshop papers have also been compiled in workshop proceedings which are publicly available. Due to the success of the NEU-CO 2 network, the partners decided to apply for the continuation of this activity which was recently accepted by the European Commission. The second phase of the of the NEU-CO 2 network will start in Fall 2000 and will continue for 18 months. This will allow the NEU-CO 2 network to improve the methods applied, to close data gaps, to check the preliminary conclusions given in this report and to provide consolidated results and recommendations by mid 2002. The ultimate goal of the NEU-CO 2 network is to contribute to an improvement of the IPCC guidelines in the area of non-energy use and to provide inventorists with tools and methods to estimate more accurately non-energy CO 2 emissions. (orig.)

  14. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  15. Study on excitation of vibrational levels of osmium tetroxide molecule by the continuous CO2 laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kompanets, O.N.; Letokhov, V.S.; Minogin, V.G.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of nonlinear infrared absorption in OsO 4 has been studied using a single-frequence continuous-wave CO 2 laser (10.6 μ). Measured are relationships between the OsO 4 absorption coefficient and the laser radiation intensity, the week beam transmission through a cell filled with OsO 4 and the frequency of the intensity modulation of the strong beam which saturates the absorption. It is indicated that the thermal mechanism prevails in OsO 4 bleaching under pressure (>=) 1mm Hg. A strong infrared fluorescence observed and studied at 5.3 and 10.6 μ in the molecular OsO 4 in the field of the high-power CO 2 laser has supplied another proof of the conclusion. The thermal diffusion rate and the coefficient of thermal conductivity for OsO 4 vapours have been determined. It has been revealed that the hot bands represent a significant part in thermal mechanism of the laser radiation absorption by the molecule

  16. CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre, E.; Jammes, L.; Guyot, F.; Prinzhofer, A.; Le Thiez, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the summary of a conference-debate held at the Academie des Sciences (Paris, France) on the topic of CO 2 sequestration. Five papers are reviewed: problems and solutions for the CO 2 sequestration; observation and surveillance of reservoirs; genesis of carbonates and geological storage of CO 2 ; CO 2 sequestration in volcanic and ultra-basic rocks; CO 2 sequestration, transport and geological storage: scientific and economical perspectives

  17. Does the oil fortune vanish with Kyoto. The effects on energy consumption and emissions from stabilising the CO2 concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses measures for and the consequences of stabilising the CO 2 concentration at various levels on the oil industry, the environment and the energy policies. The structure of an international taxation scenario will depend on which CO 2 level and forecasting model are selected as well as the time profiles and levels of CO 2 emissions in the various countries

  18. Late winter under ice pelagic microbial communities in the high Arctic Ocean and the impact of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eMonier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polar Oceans are natural CO2 sinks because of the enhanced solubility of CO2 in cold water. The Arctic Ocean is at additional risk of accelerated ocean acidification (OA because of freshwater inputs from sea ice and rivers, which influence the carbonate system. Winter conditions in the Arctic are of interest because of both cold temperatures and limited CO2 venting to the atmosphere when sea ice is present. Earlier OA experiments on Arctic microbial communities conducted in the absence of ice cover, hinted at shifts in taxa dominance and diversity under lowered pH. The Catlin Arctic Survey provided an opportunity to conduct in situ, under-ice, OA experiments during late Arctic winter. Seawater was collected from under the sea ice off Ellef Ringnes Island, and communities were exposed to three CO2 levels for 6 days. Phylogenetic diversity was greater in the attached fraction compared to the free-living fraction in situ, in the controls and in the treatments. The dominant taxa in all cases were Gammaproteobacteria but acidification had little effect compared to the effects of containment. Phylogenetic net relatedness indices suggested that acidification may have decreased the diversity within some bacterial orders, but overall there was no clear trend. Within the experimental communities, alkalinity best explained the variance among samples and replicates, suggesting subtle changes in the carbonate system need to be considered in such experiments. We conclude that under ice communities have the capacity to respond either by selection or phenotypic plasticity to heightened CO2 levels over the short term.

  19. Transcriptomics reveal transgenerational effects in purple sea urchin embryos: Adult acclimation to upwelling conditions alters the response of their progeny to differential pCO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Juliet M; Johnson, Kevin M; Kelly, Morgan W; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms with which organisms can respond to a rapidly changing ocean is an important research priority in marine sciences, especially in the light of recent predictions regarding the pace of ocean change in the coming decades. Transgenerational effects, in which the experience of the parental generation can shape the phenotype of their offspring, may serve as such a mechanism. In this study, adult purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were conditioned to regionally and ecologically relevant pCO 2 levels and temperatures representative of upwelling (colder temperature and high pCO 2 ) and nonupwelling (average temperature and low pCO 2 ) conditions typical of coastal upwelling regions in the California Current System. Following 4.5 months of conditioning, adults were spawned and offspring were raised under either high or low pCO 2 levels, to examine the role of maternal effects. Using RNA-seq and comparative transcriptomics, our results indicate that differential conditioning of the adults had an effect on the gene expression patterns of the progeny during the gastrula stage of early development. For example, maternal conditioning under upwelling conditions intensified the transcriptomic response of the progeny when they were raised under high versus low pCO 2 conditions. Additionally, mothers that experienced upwelling conditions produced larger progeny. The overall findings of this study are complex, but do suggest that transgenerational plasticity in situ could act as an important mechanism by which populations might keep pace with rapid environmental change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Low-Computation Strategies for Extracting CO2 Emission Trends from Surface-Level Mixing Ratio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusterman, A.; Kim, J.; Lieschke, K.; Newman, C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Global momentum is building for drastic, regulated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decade. With this increasing regulation comes a clear need for increasingly sophisticated monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) strategies capable of enforcing and optimizing emissions-related policy, particularly as it applies to urban areas. Remote sensing and/or activity-based emission inventories can offer MRV insights for entire sectors or regions, but are not yet sophisticated enough to resolve unexpected trends in specific emitters. Urban surface monitors can offer the desired proximity to individual greenhouse gas sources, but due to the densely-packed nature of typical urban landscapes, surface observations are rarely representative of a single source. Most previous efforts to decompose these complex signals into their contributing emission processes have involved inverse atmospheric modeling techniques, which are computationally intensive and believed to depend heavily on poorly understood a priori estimates of error covariance. Here we present a number of transparent, low-computation approaches for extracting source-specific emissions estimates from signals with a variety of nearfield influences. Using observations from the first several years of the BErkeley Atmospheric CO2 Observation Network (BEACO2N), we demonstrate how to exploit strategic pairings of monitoring "nodes," anomalous wind conditions, and well-understood temporal variations to hone in on specific CO2 sources of interest. When evaluated against conventional, activity-based bottom-up emission inventories, these strategies are seen to generate quantitatively rigorous emission estimates. With continued application as the BEACO2N data set grows in time and space, these approaches offer a promising avenue for optimizing greenhouse gas mitigation strategies into the future.

  1. Elevated CO2 increases Cs uptake and alters microbial communities and biomass in the rhizosphere of Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth) grown on soils spiked with various levels of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ningning; Zhang, Ximei; Wang, Fangli; Zhang, Changbo; Tang, Shirong

    2012-01-01

    General concern about increasing global atmospheric CO 2 levels owing to the ongoing fossil fuel combustion and elevated levels of radionuclides in the environment, has led to growing interest in the responses of plants to interactive effects of elevated CO 2 and radionuclides in terms of phytoremediation and food safety. To assess the combined effects of elevated CO 2 and cesium contamination on plant biomass, microbial activities in the rhizosphere soil and Cs uptake, Phytolacca americana Linn (pokeweed, C3 specie) and Amaranthus cruentus L. (purple amaranth, C4 specie) were grown in pots of soils containing five levels of cesium (0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 ) under two levels of CO 2 (360 and 860 μL L −1 , respectively). Shoot and root biomass of P. americana and Amaranthus crentus was generally higher under elevated CO 2 than under ambient CO 2 for all treatments. Both plant species exhibited higher Cs concentration in the shoots and roots under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . For P. americana grown at 0, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg Cs kg −1 , the increase magnitude of Cs concentration due to elevated CO 2 was 140, 18, 11, 34 and 15% in the shoots, and 150, 20, 14, 15 and 19% in the roots, respectively. For A. cruentus, the corresponding value was 118, 28, 21, 14 and 17% in the shoots, and 126, 6, 11, 17 and 22% in the roots, respectively. Higher bioaccumulation factors were noted for both species grown under elevated CO 2 than ambient CO 2 . The populations of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi, and the microbial C and N in the rhizosphere soils of both species were higher at elevated CO 2 than at ambient CO 2 with the same concentration of Cs. The results suggested that elevated CO 2 significantly affected plant biomass, Cs uptake, soil C and N concentrations, and community composition of soil microbes associated with P. americana and A. cruentus roots. The knowledge gained from this investigation constitutes an important advancement in

  2. Effect of Leaf Water Potential on Internal Humidity and CO2 Dissolution: Reverse Transpiration and Improved Water Use Efficiency under Negative Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesala, Timo; Sevanto, Sanna; Grönholm, Tiia; Salmon, Yann; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hari, Pertti; Hölttä, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    The pull of water from the soil to the leaves causes water in the transpiration stream to be under negative pressure decreasing the water potential below zero. The osmotic concentration also contributes to the decrease in leaf water potential but with much lesser extent. Thus, the surface tension force is approximately balanced by a force induced by negative water potential resulting in concavely curved water-air interfaces in leaves. The lowered water potential causes a reduction in the equilibrium water vapor pressure in internal (sub-stomatal/intercellular) cavities in relation to that over water with the potential of zero, i.e., over the flat surface. The curved surface causes a reduction also in the equilibrium vapor pressure of dissolved CO 2 , thus enhancing its physical solubility to water. Although the water vapor reduction is acknowledged by plant physiologists its consequences for water vapor exchange at low water potential values have received very little attention. Consequences of the enhanced CO 2 solubility to a leaf water-carbon budget have not been considered at all before this study. We use theoretical calculations and modeling to show how the reduction in the vapor pressures affects transpiration and carbon assimilation rates. Our results indicate that the reduction in vapor pressures of water and CO 2 could enhance plant water use efficiency up to about 10% at a leaf water potential of -2 MPa, and much more when water potential decreases further. The low water potential allows for a direct stomatal water vapor uptake from the ambient air even at sub-100% relative humidity values. This alone could explain the observed rates of foliar water uptake by e.g., the coastal redwood in the fog belt region of coastal California provided the stomata are sufficiently open. The omission of the reduction in the water vapor pressure causes a bias in the estimates of the stomatal conductance and leaf internal CO 2 concentration based on leaf gas exchange

  3. CO2 Emissions From Fuel Combustion. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    In the lead-up to the UN climate negotiations in Warsaw, the latest information on the level and growth of CO2 emissions, their source and geographic distribution will be essential to lay the foundation for a global agreement. To provide input to and support for the UN process, the IEA is making available for free download the ''Highlights'' version of CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion now for sale on IEA Bookshop. This annual publication contains, for more than 140 countries and regions: estimates of CO2 emissions from 1971 to 2011; selected indicators such as CO2/GDP, CO2/capita, CO2/TPES and CO2/kWh; a decomposition of CO2 emissions into driving factors; and CO2emissions from international marine and aviation bunkers, key sources, and other relevant information. The nineteenth session of the Conference of the Parties to the Climate Change Convention (COP-19), in conjunction with the ninth meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP 9), met in Warsaw, Poland from 11 to 22 November 2013. This volume of ''Highlights'', drawn from the full-scale study, was specially designed for delegations and observers of the meeting in Warsaw.

  4. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  5. CO2 laser development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The research and development programs on high-energy, short-pulse CO 2 lasers were begun at LASL in 1969. Three large systems are now either operating or are being installed. The Single-Beam System (SBS), a four-stage prototype, was designed in 1971 and has been in operation since 1973 with an output energy of 250 J in a 1-ns pulse with an on-target intensity of 3.5 x 10 14 W/cm 2 . The Dual-Beam System (DBS), now in the final stages of electrical and optical checkout, will provide about ten times more power for two-beam target irradiation experiments. Four such dual-beam modules are being installed in the Laser-Fusion Laboratory to provide an Eight-Beam System (EBS) scheduled for operation at the 5- to 10-TW level in 1977. A fourth system, a 100- to 200-TW CO 2 laser, is being designed for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility (HEGLF) program

  6. International harmonization of intervention levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.

    1994-05-01

    A summary is given on international guidance on intervention levels in circumstances in which remedial actions might be considered in nuclear accident situations. The nature and limitations of international work and their effect on the resulting guidance are discussed. The basic international principles recommended can be expressed in the following compressed form: (1) serious deterministic effects should be avoided by intervention, (2) each protective measure should be justified, i.e. do more good than harm, (3) the level at which the protective measures are to be introduced should be optimized, i.e. do most good, and (4) each protective measure should be optimized separately and independent of all other countermeasures. It is of great importance that decision makers inform the public of all aspects of their decisions in order to make the decisions transparent, especially when the interventions chosen are mainly for political or social reason rather than health protection grounds. Otherwise the public may be misled and the radiological protection community will be mistrusted. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  7. NEOTEC: Negative-CO2-Emissions Marine Energy With Direct Mitigation of Global Warming, Sea-Level Rise and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Baird, J.; Noland, G.

    2016-12-01

    The vertical thermal energy potential in the ocean is a massive renewable energy resource that is growing due to anthropogenic warming of the surface and near-surface ocean. The conversion of this thermal energy to useful forms via Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) has been demonstrated over the past century, albeit at small scales. Because OTEC removes heat from the surface ocean, this could help directly counter ongoing, deleterious ocean/atmosphere warming. The only other climate intervention that could do this is solar radiation "geoengineering". Conventional OTEC requires energy intensive, vertical movement of seawater resulting in ocean and atmospheric chemistry alteration, but this can be avoided via more energy efficient, vertical closed-cycle heating and cooling of working fluid like CO2 or NH3. An energy carrier such as H2 is required to transport energy optimally extracted far offshore, and methods of electrochemically generating H2 while also consuming CO2 and converting it to ocean alkalinity have been demonstrated. The addition of such alkalinity to the ocean would provide vast, stable, carbon storage, while also helping chemically counter the effects of ocean acidification. The process might currently be profitable given the >$100/tonne CO2 credit offered by California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard for transportation fuels like H2. Negative-Emissions OTEC, NEOTEC, thus can potentially provide constant, cost effective, high capacity, negative-emissions energy while: a) reducing surface ocean heat load, b) reducing thermal ocean expansion and sea-level rise, c) utilizing a very large, natural marine carbon storage reservoir, and d) helping mitigate ocean acidification. The technology also avoids the biophysical and land use limitations posed by negative emissions methods that rely on terrestrial biology, such as afforestation and BECCS. NEOTEC and other marine-based, renewable energy and CO2 removal approaches could therefore greatly increase the

  8. CO2NNIE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a system for calculating the personalized annual fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from transportation. The system, named CO2NNIE, estimates the fuel consumption on the fastest route between the frequent destinations of the user. The travel time and fuel consumption estimated are based......% of the actual fuel consumption (4.6% deviation on average). We conclude, that the system provides new detailed information on CO2 emissions and fuel consumption for any make and model....

  9. Highly dissipative Hénon map behavior in the four-level model of the CO 2 laser with modulated losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando L., C. L.; Acosta, G. A. Luna; Meucci, R.; Ciofini, M.

    1995-02-01

    We show that the four-level model for the CO 2 laser with modulated losses behaves in a qualitatively similar way as the highly dissipative Hénon map. The ubiquity of elements of the universal sequence, their related symbolic dynamics, and the presence of reverse bifurcations of chaotic bands in the model are reminiscent of the logistic map which is the limit of the Hénon map when the Jacobian equals zero. The coexistence of attractors, its dynamics related to contraction of volumes in phase space and the associated return maps can be correlated with those of the highly dissipative Hénon map.

  10. Global atmospheric change and herbivory: Effects of elevated levels of UV-B radiation, atmospheric CO2 and temperature on boreal woody plants and their herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteli, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280- 320 nm), atmospheric CO 2 , temperature and soil nitrogen level on the growth and chemical quality of boreal deciduous woody plants and on performance of the herbivorous insects feeding on them. Eggs and larvae of Operophtera brumata (L.) (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) were subjected to elevated UV-B radiation in the laboratory. Two willow species, Salix phylicifolia L. (Salicaceae) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., were grown in an UV-B irradiation field where the responses of both plants and their herbivorous insects were monitored. S. myrsinifolia, Betula pendula Ehrh. (Betulaceae) and B. pubescens Roth. were subjected to elevated CO 2 and temperature and different fertilisation levels in closed-top climatic chambers. To assess the indirect effects of the different treatments, the leaves of experimental willows and birches were fed to larvae of Phratora vitellinae (L.) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and adults of Agellastica alni L. in the laboratory. Elevated UV-B radiation significantly decreased the survival and performance of eggs and larvae of O. brumata. It also increased concentrations of some flavonoids and phenolic acids in S. myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, while the low-UV-B- absorbing phenolics, e. g. condensed tannins, gallic acid derivatives and salicylates, either decreased or remained unaffected. Both the height growth and biomass of one S. phylicifolia clone was sensitive to elevated levels of UV-B radiation. Abundance of adults and larvae of a willow- feeding leaf beetle, P. vitellinae, was increased under elevated UV-B; but this did not lead to increased leaf damage on the host plants. There were no significant differences in performance of the larvae feeding on differentially treated willow leaves, but adult A. alni preferred UV-B-treated leaves to ambient control leaves. Elevated CO 2 and temperature significantly increased the height growth of S

  11. FY 2000 report on the promotion projects by Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth. Proceedings of the international seminar (Reports on photosynthetic CO2-assimilating enzymes by the international workshops); 2000 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kaihatsu suishin jigyo kokusai seminar jigyo shiryo. Kogosei CO2 kotei koso kokusai workshop hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Described herein are the reports on photosynthetic CO2-assimilating enzymes, presented to the international symposium. These enzymes are important for assimilating CO2 in air, maintaining the environments and production of foods. For genes and proteins, the topics include diversification and function evolution of the RuBisCO (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in the natural environments, in particular in microorganisms. For activity regulation of PEPC, the topics include three-dimensional structures of PEPC and phosphorylation mechanisms and activity regulation therefor. For activity regulation of RuBisCO, the topics include post-translational activity of the enzymes (e.g., methylated enzyme); molecular regulation mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and decomposition of RuBisCO; and activity regulation mechanisms in the chloroplast. For leaf photosynthesis and RuBisCO, the topics include importance of enzymes and involved in-vivo reaction steps for leaf photosynthesis CO2 assimilation reactions. For function of PEPC, the topics include the biochemically and molecular biologically necessary and sufficient conditions for the C4 mechanism as the special photosynthesis mechanism. For transgenic approaches, the topics include procedure for allowing the RuBisCO gene of a dissimilar organism to function in the tobacco chloroplast, and introduction of enzymes involved in the C4 photosynthesis pathway in C3 plants. (NEDO)

  12. CO2-laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, E.E. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basic concept of laser fusion is described, with a set of requirements on the laser system. Systems and applications concepts are presented and discussed. The CO 2 laser's characteristics and advantages for laser fusion are described. Finally, technological issues in the development of CO 2 laser systems for fusion applications are discussed

  13. Feasible study of international cooperation on the long-term scenario for reducing CO2. DNE-21 simulation database; CO2 sakugen ni kakawaru choki scenario ni kansuru kokusai kyoryoku kanosei chosa. DNE21 simulation database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes calculation codes of DNE-21 which can simulate the optimization model for reducing CO2. The DNE-21 was modified from the former NE-21. The term was set between 2000 and 2100. Optimization can be conducted across the different time. Non-conventional petroleum was removed from the primary energy. Capacity of nuclear power generation facilities was taken in the model for the optimization. Decision making analysis can be done by considering the uncertainty. The DNE-21 has eleven input files including the model operation, technical property related data, cost related data, data of tax, subsidy and customs, and scenario data of future energy demand and supply, GNP, population and nuclear power. The DNE-21 has fifteen output files including the optimization calculation results for the world, Oceania, the Middle East, North Africa, Central America, South America, former USSR, and OECD countries. 2 figs.

  14. Photosynthetic induction in a C4, Flaveria trinervia. I. Initial products of 14CO2 assimilation and levels of whole leaf C4 metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.D.; Edwards, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Labeling patterns from 14 CO 2 pulses to leaves and whole leaf metabolite contents were examined during photosynthetic induction in Flaveria trinervia, a C 4 dicot of the NADP-malic enzyme subgroup. During the first one to two minutes of illumination, malate was the primary initial product of 14 CO 2 assimilation (about 77% of total 14 C incorporated). After about 5 minutes of illumination, the proportion of initial label to aspartate increased from 16 to 66%, and then gradually declined during the following 7 to 10 minutes of illumination. Nutrition experiments showed that the increase in 14 CO 2 partitioning to aspartate was delayed about 2.5 minutes in plants grown with limiting N, and was highly dampened in plants previously treated 10 to 12 days with ammonia as the sole N source. Measurements of C 4 leaf metabolites revealed several transients in metabolite pools during the first few minutes of illumination, and subsequently, more gradual adjustments in pool sizes. These include a large initial decrease in malate (about 1.6 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll) and a small initial decrease in pyruvate. There was a transient increase in alanine levels after 1 minute of illumination, which was followed by a gradual, prolonged decrease during the remainder of the induction period. Total leaf aspartate decreased initially, but temporarily doubled in amount between 5 and 10 minutes of illumination (after its surge as a primary product). These results are discussed in terms of a plausible sequence of metabolic events which lead to the formation of the intercellular metabolite gradients required in C 4 photosynthesis

  15. Contrasting effects of elevated CO2 on Cu and Cd uptake by different rice varieties grown on contaminated soils with two levels of metals: Implication for phytoextraction and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhongyang; Tang Shirong; Deng Xiaofang; Wang Ruigang; Song Zhengguo

    2010-01-01

    A pot experiment in six open-top chambers with two levels of CO 2 and two multi-metal contaminated soils was conducted to investigate combined effects of elevated CO 2 levels and metals (Cu and Cd) on rice. Elevated CO 2 significantly increased the total dry weight biomass of six Chinese rice by 20-108 and 32-142% for low and high levels of contaminated soils, respectively. We observed dilution/little varied phenomena in grain Cu concentration in six rice varieties grown on both contaminated soils under elevated CO 2 . We found significantly higher Cd concentrations in the parts of three rice varieties under elevated CO 2 , but lower levels for the others. Two major conclusions can be drawn from our study: (1) rice varieties with significantly increased biomass and metal uptake under elevated CO 2 exhibit greater potential for phytoextraction and (2) given expected global increases in CO 2 concentration, CO 2 -induced accumulation of metals in rice might be a component contributing to the potential health risk in the future, with Cd being a more important threat to human health than Cu.

  16. ATOMIC-LEVEL IMAGING OF CO2 DISPOSAL AS A CARBONATE MINERAL: OPTIMIZING REACTION PROCESS DESIGN; A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.J. McKelvy; R. Sharma; A.V.G. Chizmeshya; H. Bearat; R.W. Carpenter

    2001-01-01

    Fossil fuels, especially coal, can support the energy demands of the world for centuries to come, if the environmental problems associated with CO(sub 2) emissions can be overcome. Permanent and safe methods for CO(sub 2) capture and disposal/storage need to be developed. Mineralization of stationary-source CO(sub 2) emissions as carbonates can provide such safe capture and long-term sequestration. Mg-rich lamellar-hydroxide based minerals (e.g., brucite and serpentine) offer a class of widely available, low-cost materials, with intriguing mineral carbonation potential. Carbonation of such materials inherently involves dehydroxylation, which can disrupt the material down to the atomic level. As such, controlled dehydroxylation, before and/or during carbonation, may provide an important parameter for enhancing carbonation reaction processes. Mg(OH)(sub 2) was chosen as the model material for investigating lamellar hydroxide mineral dehydroxylation/carbonation mechanisms due to (i) its structural and chemical simplicity, (ii) interest in Mg(OH)(sub 2) gas-solid carbonation as a potentially cost-effective CO(sub 2) mineral sequestration process component, and (iii) its structural and chemical similarity to other lamellar-hydroxide-based minerals (e.g., serpentine-based minerals) whose carbonation reaction processes are being explored due to their low-cost CO(sub 2) sequestration potential. Fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern dehydroxylation/carbonation processes is essential for minimizing the cost of any lamellar-hydroxide-based mineral carbonation sequestration process. This report covers the third year progress of this grant, as well as providing an integrated overview of the progress in years 1-3, as we have been granted a one-year no-cost extension to wrap up a few studies and publications to optimize project impact

  17. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  18. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) Contribution to CMIP6: Investigation of Sea-Level and Ocean Climate Change in Response to CO2 Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Jonathan M.; Bouttes, Nathaelle; Griffies, Stephen M.; Haak, Helmuth; Hurlin, William J.; Jungclaus, Johann; Kelley, Maxwell; Lee, Warren G.; Marshall, John; Romanou, Anastasia; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP) aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sealevel rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable investigation of the model

  19. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  20. Degradation of kresoxim-methyl in soil: impact of varying moisture, organic matter, soil sterilization, soil type, light and atmospheric CO2 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Gupta, Suman; Gajbhiye, Vijay T; Varghese, Eldho

    2014-09-01

    In the present investigation, persistence of kresoxim-methyl (a broad spectrum strobilurin fungicide) was studied in two different soil types of India namely Inceptisol and Ultisol. Results revealed that kresoxim-methyl readily form acid metabolite in soil. Therefore, residues of kresoxim-methyl were quantified on the basis of parent molecule alone and sum total of kresoxim-methyl and its acid metabolite. Among the two soil types, kresoxim-methyl and total residues dissipated at a faster rate in Inceptisol (T1/2 0.9 and 33.8d) than in Ultisol (T1/2 1.5 and 43.6d). Faster dissipation of kresoxim-methyl and total residues was observed in submerged soil conditions (T1/2 0.5 and 5.2d) followed by field capacity (T1/2 0.9 and 33.8d) and air dry (T1/2 2.3 and 51.0d) conditions. Residues also dissipated faster in 5% sludge amended soil (T1/2 0.7 and 21.1d) and on Xenon-light exposure (T1/2 0.5 and 8.0d). Total residues of kresoxim-methyl dissipated at a faster rate under elevated CO2 condition (∼550μLL(-)(1)) than ambient condition (∼385μLL(-)(1)). The study suggests that kresoxim-methyl alone has low persistence in soil. Because of the slow dissipation of acid metabolite, the total residues (kresoxim-methyl+acid metabolite) persist for a longer period in soil. Statistical analysis using SAS 9.3 software and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) revealed the significant effect of moisture regime, organic matter, microbial population, soil type, light exposure and atmospheric CO2 level on the dissipation of kresoxim-methyl from soil (at 95% confidence level p<0.0001). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The CO2nnect activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenia, Marcu

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges we face today. A first step is the understanding the problem, more exactly what is the challenge and the differences people can make. Pupils need a wide competencies to meet the challenges of sustainable development - including climate change. The CO2nnect activities are designed to support learning which can provide pupils the abilities, skills, attitudes and awareness as well as knowledge and understanding of the issues. The project "Together for a clean and healthy world" is part of "The Global Educational Campaign CO2nnect- CO2 on the way to school" and it was held in our school in the period between February and October 2009. It contained a variety of curricular and extra-curricular activities, adapted to students aged from 11 to 15. These activities aimed to develop in students the necessary skills to understanding man's active role in improving the quality of the environment, putting an end to its degrading process and to reducing the effects of climate changes caused by the human intervention in nature, including transport- a source of CO2 pollution. The activity which I propose can be easily adapted to a wide range of age groups and linked to the curricula of many subjects: - Investigate CO2 emissions from travel to school -Share the findings using an international database -Compare and discuss CO2 emissions -Submit questions to a climate- and transport expert -Partner with other schools -Meet with people in your community to discuss emissions from transport Intended learning outcomes for pupils who participate in the CO2nnect campaign are: Understanding of the interconnected mobility- and climate change issue climate change, its causes and consequences greenhouse-gas emissions from transport and mobility the interlinking of social, environmental, cultural and economic aspects of the local transport system how individual choices and participation can contribute to creating a more sustainable development

  2. Clean Coal: myth or reality? At the heart of the energy-climate equation, capturing and storing CO2 - Proceedings of the 2007 Le Havre's international meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufenacht, Antoine; Brodhag, Christian; Mocilnikar, Antoine-Tristan; Bennaceur, Kamel; Esseid, Ablaziz; Lemoine, Stephane; Prevot, Henri; Diercks, Thorsten; Jaclot, Francois; Fache, Dominique; Coulon, Pierre-Jean; Capris, Renaud; TRANIE, Jean-Pascal; Le Thiez, Pierre; Marliave, Luc de; Perrin, Nicolas; Paelinck, Philippe; Clodic, Denis; Thabussot, Laurent; Alf, Martin; Boon, Gustaaf; Giger, Francois; Bisseaud, Jean-Michel; Michel, Patrick; Poyer, Luc; Biebuyck, Christian; Kalaydjian, Francois; Roulet, Claude; Bonijoly, Didier; Gresillon, Francois Xavier; Bonneville, Alain; Tauziede, Christian; Munier, Gilles; Moncomble, Jean-Eudes; Frois, Bernard; Charmant, Marcel; Thybaud, Nathalie; Fares, Tewfik; Lacave, Jean-Marc; Duret, Benoit; Gerard, Bernard

    2007-03-01

    This document comprises the French and English versions of the executive summary of the RIH 2007 meetings, followed by the available presentations (slides). Content: - Symposium Opening: Government and the Coal Issue; 1 - First Session - Energy, Climate, Coal: - Scenarios for energy technologies and CO 2 emissions: Energy outlooks, CO 2 emissions, Technologies (Kamel BENNACEUR); - The global situation of coal: The situation of the international steam coal market, Change in this market, Total's position in this business, Major challenges for the future (Ablaziz ESSEID); - Coal markets: availability, competitiveness, and growing maturity (Stephane LEMOINE); - Coal in the geopolitics of greenhouse gases (Henri PREVOT); - Questions; 2 - Second Session - Coal Economy: - Opportunities and challenges for coal in the European energy mix: the Commission's energy package: The European situation, The European energy mix, The role of EURACOAL (Thorsten DIERCKS); - The development of a coal bed in Lucenay-les-Aix and Cossaye in the Massif Central (Francois JACLOT); - The Russian view of coal's place in the energy mix (Dominique FACHE); - Coal, a key to development in Niger (Pierre-Jean COULON); - The energy and environmental efficiency of coal-fired power plants associated with heating networks (Renaud CAPRIS); - The Valorca project: efficient and immediate use of coal, and strong outlooks for the future (Jean-Pascal TRANIE); - Questions; 3 - Third and Forth Sessions - Clean Power Plants: - CO 2 capture systems (Pierre LE THIEZ); - CO 2 geological capture and storage in the Lacq basin (Luc de MARLIAVE); - Clean coal: Air Liquide technology developments and industrial solutions (Nicolas PERRIN); - Clean combustion and CO 2 (Philippe PAELINCK); - CO 2 capture by freezing/defrosting at low temperatures (Denis CLODIC); - Questions; - Using the experience of a large corporation (ENDESA), to develop clean energy: coal (Laurent THABUSSOT); - Pathways to reduce CO 2

  3. A STELLA model to estimate soil CO2 emissions from a short-rotation woody crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Jeff Hatten; Prem B. Parajuli

    2012-01-01

    The potential for climatic factors as well as soil–plant–climate interactions to change as a result of rising levels of atmospheric CO2 concentration is an issue of increasing international environmental concern. Agricultural and forest practices and managements may be important contributors to mitigating elevated atmospheric CO2...

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on research and development of high level waste glass utilization system of CO2 emission suppression type; 2000 nendo CO2 haishutsu yokuseigata hai glass kodo riyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (kokaiyo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    With an objective to establish a waste glass recycling system of low cost and requiring less CO2 emission amount and energy consumption, research and development has been made on classification of waste glasses into particle composition that is required in regenerated commercial products. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research of a waste glass reusing and supplying system designed by using LCA, discussions were given on items required in circulating and recycling waste glass resources, and quality control on raw materials and products. Evaluations of product quality control items were made on crystallized glass, sintered glasswool, automotive window glass, electric bulbs, fluorescent lamp glass, and quartz glass. Utilization tests were carried out for Mashiko porcelain china clay with an intention of expanding the application of waste glass, whereas the relationship between waste glass addition amount and optimal sintering temperature range was verified, disclosing that the limit of the waste glass addition is 10%. In the research on multi-functional hybrid materials, discussions were given on light-weight tiles and water permeating blocks with regard to the manufacturing technology, facility specifications, product quality, effects of the functions, and durability. (NEDO)

  5. Assessing methane oxidation under landfill covers and its contribution to the above atmospheric CO2 levels: The added value of the isotope (δ13C and δ18O CO2; δ13C and δD CH4) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widory, D.; Proust, E.; Bellenfant, G.; Bour, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Comparison of the isotope and mass balance approaches to evaluate the level of methane oxidation within a landfill. ► The level of methane oxidation is not homogenous under the landfill cover and is strongly correlated to the methane flux. ► Isotope tracking of the contribution of the methane oxidation to the CO 2 concentrations in the ambient air. - Abstract: We are presenting here a multi-isotope approach (δ 13 C and δ 18 O of CO 2 ; δ 13 C and δD of CH 4 ) to assess (i) the level(s) of methane oxidation during waste biodegradation and its migration through a landfill cover in Sonzay (France), and (ii) its contribution to the atmospheric CO 2 levels above the surface. The isotope approach is compared to the more conventional mass balance approach. Results from the two techniques are comparable and show that the CH 4 oxidation under the landfill cover is heterogenous, with low oxidation percentages in samples showing high biogas fluxes, which was expected in clay covers presenting fissures, through which CH 4 is rapidly transported. At shallow depth, more immobile biogas pockets show a higher level of CH 4 oxidation by the methanotrophic bacteria. δ 13 C of CO 2 samples taken at different heights (from below the cover up to 8 m above the ground level) were also used to identify and assess the relative contributions of its main sources both under the landfill cover and in the surrounding atmosphere.

  6. CO2 chemical valorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlero De Rosbo, Guillaume; Rakotojaona, Loic; Bucy, Jacques de; Clodic, Denis; Roger, Anne-Cecile; El Khamlichi, Aicha; Thybaud, Nathalie; Oeser, Christian; Forti, Laurent; Gimenez, Michel; Savary, David; Amouroux, Jacques

    2014-07-01

    Facing global warming, different technological solutions exist to tackle carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Some inevitable short term emissions can be captured so as to avoid direct emissions into the atmosphere. This CO 2 must then be managed and geological storage seems to currently be the only way of dealing with the large volumes involved. However, this solution faces major economic profitability and societal acceptance challenges. In this context, alternative pathways consisting in using CO 2 instead of storing it do exist and are generating growing interest. This study ordered by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), aims at taking stock of the different technologies used for the chemical conversion of CO 2 in order to have a better understanding of their development potential by 2030, of the conditions in which they could be competitive and of the main actions to be implemented in France to foster their emergence. To do this, the study was broken down into two main areas of focus: The review and characterization of the main CO 2 chemical conversion routes for the synthesis of basic chemical products, energy products and inert materials. This review includes a presentation of the main principles underpinning the studied routes, a preliminary assessment of their performances, advantages and drawbacks, a list of the main R and D projects underway, a focus on emblematic projects as well as a brief analysis of the markets for the main products produced. Based on these elements, 3 routes were selected from among the most promising by 2030 for an in-depth modelling and assessment of their energy, environmental and economic performances. The study shows that the processes modelled do have favorable CO 2 balances (from 1 to 4 t-CO 2 /t-product) and effectively constitute solutions to reduce CO 2 emissions, despite limited volumes of CO 2 in question. Moreover, the profitability of certain solutions will remain difficult to reach, even with an

  7. Growth, reproductive phenology and yield responses of a potential biofuel plant, Jatropha curcas grown under projected 2050 levels of elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Chaitanya, Bharatula S K; Ghatty, Sreenivas; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a non-edible oil producing plant which is being advocated as an alternative biofuel energy resource. Its ability to grow in diverse soil conditions and minimal requirements of essential agronomical inputs compared with other oilseed crops makes it viable for cost-effective advanced biofuel production. We designed a study to investigate the effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration ([CO(2)]) (550 ppm) on the growth, reproductive development, source-sink relationships, fruit and seed yield of J. curcas. We report, for the first time that elevated CO(2) significantly influences reproductive characteristics of Jatropha and improve its fruit and seed yields. Net photosynthetic rate of Jatropha was 50% higher in plants grown in elevated CO(2) compared with field and ambient CO(2) -grown plants. The study also revealed that elevated CO(2) atmosphere significantly increased female to male flower ratio, above ground biomass and carbon sequestration potential in Jatropha (24 kg carbon per tree) after 1 year. Our data demonstrate that J. curcas was able to sustain enhanced rate of photosynthesis in elevated CO(2) conditions as it had sufficient sink strength to balance the increased biomass yields. Our study also elucidates that the economically important traits including fruit and seed yield in elevated CO(2) conditions were significantly high in J. curcas that holds great promise as a potential biofuel tree species for the future high CO(2) world. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Can we relate respiration rates of bark and wood with tissue nitrogen concentrations and branch-level CO2 fluxes across woody species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, A. S.; Wright, I.; Cernusak, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Respiration from above-ground woody tissue is generally responsible for 5-15% of ecosystem respiration (~ 30% of total above-ground respiration). The CO2 respired by branches comes from both the sapwood and the living layers within the bark, but because there is considerable movement of respired CO2 within woody tissues (e.g. in the transpiration stream), and because the bark can present a considerable barrier to CO2 diffusion, it can be difficult to interpret measured CO2 efflux from intact branches in relation to the respiration rates of the component tissues, and to relative mass allocation to each. In this study we investigated these issues in 15 evergreen tree and shrub species native to the Sydney area in eastern Australia. We measured CO2 efflux and light-dependent refixation of respired CO2 in photosynthetic bark from the exterior surfaces of branches (0.5-1.5 cm in diameter), and measured the tissue-specific respiration rates of the bark and wood from those same branches. We also measured the nitrogen content and tissue density of the wood and bark to determine: 1) Among species, what is the relationship between %N and tissue respiration? 2) How is photosynthetic refixation of CO2 related to respiration and %N in the bark and underlying wood? and 3) What is the relationship between branch CO2 efflux and the respiration rates of the underlying wood and bark that make up the branch? Across the 15 species %N was a better predictor of respiration in wood than in bark. CO2 efflux measured from the exterior of the stem in the dark was positively correlated with photosynthetic refixation and explained ~40% of the variation in rates of refixation. Refixation rates were not strongly related to bark or wood %N. Differences among species in CO2 efflux rates were not well explained by differences in bark or wood %N and there was a stronger relationship between bark respiration and CO2 efflux than between wood respiration and CO2 efflux. These results suggest that the

  9. CO2 storage in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, Clas; Andersson, Annika; Kling, Aasa; Bernstone, Christian; Carlsson, Anders; Liljemark, Stefan; Wall, Caroline; Erstedt, Thomas; Lindroth, Maria; Tengborg, Per; Edstroem, Mikael

    2004-07-01

    with the expansions of natural gas networks for Sweden should be looked for. Issues that need more deep studies are how the injection infrastructures for aquifers need to be modified compared to those used for oil fields, successively improved validation of CO 2 handling costs for Europe and Sweden, regarding i.a. ship transport and industrial compression and cooling of large CO 2 flows in connection to CO 2 capture. It is likely that the local environment would be affected by a possible leakage. Many organisms and ecosystems are sensitive to small changes in the CO 2 concentration. Knowledge exists on how humans, animals and plants would be affected by enhanced contents of carbon dioxide in their immediate surroundings, and on how the physical part of soils and water would be influenced by higher CO 2 concentrations. How individual ecosystems would be affected will have to be assessed based on the conditions in each specific system. Further studies are needed on consequences for ecosystems, especially for ecosystems in the ground, particularly those deep in the ground. Severe environmental damages (large short-term emissions that would damage the surrounding environment, i.e. concentrations around 25 % CO 2 ) would be limited to a few tens of meters from the plant and will therefore not need to be considered. No calculations have been performed for any transport means besides pipelines. Two parallels to CO 2 transport and storage are geothermic projects and natural gas pipelines. For geothermic projects there is a basic positive attitude already before the project start and the operations take place deep in the ground, i.e. at a safe distance from those concerned, and no threatening picture has been felt. No overall legal framework applicable to CO 2 transport and storage exist today, neither within the national Swedish law nor within international/European law. There are however adjacent legal frameworks mainly regarding transport. Providing that the construction of

  10. CO2 cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Timothy N.; Byrne, Shane; Colaprete, Anthony; Forget, Francois; Michaels, Timothy I.; Prettyman, Thomas H.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the use of models, observations, and laboratory experiments to understand the cycling of CO2 between the atmosphere and seasonal Martian polar caps. This cycle is primarily controlled by the polar heat budget, and thus the emphasis here is on its components, including solar and infrared radiation, the effect of clouds (water- and CO2-ice), atmospheric transport, and subsurface heat conduction. There is a discussion about cap properties including growth and regression rates, albedos and emissivities, grain sizes and dust and/or water-ice contamination, and curious features like cold gas jets and araneiform (spider-shaped) terrain. The nature of the residual south polar cap is discussed as well as its long-term stability and ability to buffer atmospheric pressures. There is also a discussion of the consequences of the CO2 cycle as revealed by the non-condensable gas enrichment observed by Odyssey and modeled by various groups.

  11. The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP contribution to CMIP6: investigation of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gregory

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Flux-Anomaly-Forced Model Intercomparison Project (FAFMIP aims to investigate the spread in simulations of sea-level and ocean climate change in response to CO2 forcing by atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs. It is particularly motivated by the uncertainties in projections of ocean heat uptake, global-mean sea-level rise due to thermal expansion and the geographical patterns of sea-level change due to ocean density and circulation change. FAFMIP has three tier-1 experiments, in which prescribed surface flux perturbations of momentum, heat and freshwater respectively are applied to the ocean in separate AOGCM simulations. All other conditions are as in the pre-industrial control. The prescribed fields are typical of pattern and magnitude of changes in these fluxes projected by AOGCMs for doubled CO2 concentration. Five groups have tested the experimental design with existing AOGCMs. Their results show diversity in the pattern and magnitude of changes, with some common qualitative features. Heat and water flux perturbation cause the dipole in sea-level change in the North Atlantic, while momentum and heat flux perturbation cause the gradient across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC declines in response to the heat flux perturbation, and there is a strong positive feedback on this effect due to the consequent cooling of sea-surface temperature in the North Atlantic, which enhances the local heat input to the ocean. The momentum and water flux perturbations do not substantially affect the AMOC. Heat is taken up largely as a passive tracer in the Southern Ocean, which is the region of greatest heat input, while the weakening of the AMOC causes redistribution of heat towards lower latitudes. Future analysis of these and other phenomena with the wider range of CMIP6 FAFMIP AOGCMs will benefit from new diagnostics of temperature and salinity tendencies, which will enable

  12. Effects of ambient and elevated CO2 on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidants, and secondary metabolites of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G Don. grown under three different soil N levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aradhana; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2015-03-01

    Catharanthus roseus L. plants were grown under ambient (375 ± 30 ppm) and elevated (560 ± 25 ppm) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 at different rates of N supply (without supplemental N, 0 kg N ha(-1); recommended N, 50 kg N ha(-1); and double recommended N, 100 kg N ha(-1)) in open top chambers under field condition. Elevated CO2 significantly increased photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic efficiency, and organic carbon content in leaves at recommended (RN) and double recommended N (DRN), while significantly decreased total nitrogen content in without supplemental N (WSN). Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase were declined, while glutathione reductase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine-ammonia lyase were stimulated under elevated CO2. However, the responses of the above enzymes were modified with different rates of N supply. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced superoxide production rate, hydrogen peroxide, and malondialdehyde contents in RN and DRN. Compared with ambient, total alkaloids content increased maximally at recommended level of N, while total phenolics in WSN under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 stimulated growth of plants by increasing plant height and numbers of branches and leaves, and the magnitude of increment were maximum in DRN. The study suggests that elevated CO2 has positively affected plants by increasing growth and alkaloids production and reducing the level of oxidative stress. However, the positive effects of elevated CO2 were comparatively lesser in plants grown under limited N availability than in moderate and higher N availability. Furthermore, the excess N supply in DRN has stimulated the growth but not the alkaloids production under elevated CO2.

  13. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-06-01

    The effects of CO(2) enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO(2) concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 microl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO(2) concentration, N concentration, and CO(2)xN interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO(2). However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO(2) had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO(2) concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO(2) concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO(2) condition.

  14. Effect of CO2 enrichment on the glucosinolate contents under different nitrogen levels in bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, Gui-xiao; Fang, Ping; Teng, Yi-bo; Li, Ya-juan; Lin, Xian-yong

    2009-01-01

    The effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and glucosinolate (GS) concentrations in the bolting stem of Chinese kale (Brassica alboglabra L.) treated with three nitrogen (N) concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mmol/L) were investigated. Height, stem thickness, and dry weights of the total aerial parts, bolting stems, and roots, as well as the root to shoot ratio, significantly increased as CO2 concentration was elevated from 350 to 800 μl/L at each N concentration. In the edible part of the bolting stem, 11 individual GSs were identified, including 7 aliphatic and 4 indolyl GSs. GS concentration was affected by the elevated CO2 concentration, N concentration, and CO2×N interaction. At 5 and 10 mmol N/L, the concentrations of aliphatic GSs and total GSs significantly increased, whereas those of indolyl GSs were not affected, by elevated atmospheric CO2. However, at 20 mmol N/L, elevated CO2 had no significant effects on the concentrations of total GSs and total indolyl GSs, but the concentrations of total aliphatic GSs significantly increased. Moreover, the bolting stem carbon (C) content increased, whereas the N and sulfur (S) contents decreased under elevated CO2 concentration in the three N treatments, resulting in changes in the C/N and N/S ratios. Also the C/N ratio is not a reliable predictor of change of GS concentration, while the changes in N and S contents and the N/S ratio at the elevated CO2 concentration may influence the GS concentration in Chinese kale bolting stems. The results demonstrate that high nitrogen supply is beneficial for the growth of Chinese kale, but not for the GS concentration in bolting stems, under elevated CO2 condition. PMID:19489111

  15. CO2-strategier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2008-01-01

    I 2007 henvendte Lyngby-Taarbæk kommunens Agenda 21 koordinator sig til Videnskabsbutikken og spurgte om der var interesse for at samarbejde om CO2-strategier. Da Videnskabsbutikken DTU er en åben dør til DTU for borgerne og deres organisationer, foreslog Videnskabsbutikken DTU at Danmarks...

  16. Explaining CO2 fluctuations observed in snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Laura; Risk, David

    2018-02-01

    Winter soil carbon dioxide (CO2) respiration is a significant and understudied component of the global carbon (C) cycle. Winter soil CO2 fluxes can be surprisingly variable, owing to physical factors such as snowpack properties and wind. This study aimed to quantify the effects of advective transport of CO2 in soil-snow systems on the subdiurnal to diurnal (hours to days) timescale, use an enhanced diffusion model to replicate the effects of CO2 concentration depletions from persistent winds, and use a model-measure pairing to effectively explore what is happening in the field. We took continuous measurements of CO2 concentration gradients and meteorological data at a site in the Cape Breton Highlands of Nova Scotia, Canada, to determine the relationship between wind speeds and CO2 levels in snowpacks. We adapted a soil CO2 diffusion model for the soil-snow system and simulated stepwise changes in transport rate over a broad range of plausible synthetic cases. The goal was to mimic the changes we observed in CO2 snowpack concentration to help elucidate the mechanisms (diffusion, advection) responsible for observed variations. On subdiurnal to diurnal timescales with varying winds and constant snow levels, a strong negative relationship between wind speed and CO2 concentration within the snowpack was often identified. Modelling clearly demonstrated that diffusion alone was unable to replicate the high-frequency CO2 fluctuations, but simulations using above-atmospheric snowpack diffusivities (simulating advective transport within the snowpack) reproduced snow CO2 changes of the observed magnitude and speed. This confirmed that wind-induced ventilation contributed to episodic pulsed emissions from the snow surface and to suppressed snowpack concentrations. This study improves our understanding of winter CO2 dynamics to aid in continued quantification of the annual global C cycle and demonstrates a preference for continuous wintertime CO2 flux measurement systems.

  17. Relationship Between Carbon Dioxide Levels and Reported Congestion and Headaches on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Robert; Wear, Mary; Young, Millennia; Cobel, Christopher; Mason, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Congestion is commonly reported during spaceflight, and most crewmembers have reported using medications for congestion during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Although congestion has been attributed to fluid shifts during spaceflight, fluid status reaches equilibrium during the first week after launch while congestion continues to be reported throughout long duration missions. Congestion complaints have anecdotally been reported in relation to ISS CO2 levels; this evaluation was undertaken to determine whether or not an association exists. METHODS: Reported headaches, congestion symptoms, and CO2 levels were obtained for ISS expeditions 2-31, and time-weighted means and single-point maxima were determined for 24-hour (24hr) and 7-day (7d) periods prior to each weekly private medical conference. Multiple imputation addressed missing data, and logistic regression modeled the relationship between probability of reported event of congestion or headache and CO2 levels, adjusted for possible confounding covariates. The first seven days of spaceflight were not included to control for fluid shifts. Data were evaluated to determine the concentration of CO2 required to maintain the risk of congestion below 1% to allow for direct comparison with a previously published evaluation of CO2 concentrations and headache. RESULTS: This study confirmed a previously identified significant association between CO2 and headache and also found a significant association between CO2 and congestion. For each 1-mm Hg increase in CO2, the odds of a crew member reporting congestion doubled. The average 7-day CO2 would need to be maintained below 1.5 mmHg to keep the risk of congestion below 1%. The predicted probability curves of ISS headache and congestion curves appear parallel when plotted against ppCO2 levels with congestion occurring at approximately 1mmHg lower than a headache would be reported. DISCUSSION: While the cause of congestion is multifactorial, this study showed

  18. Management of uncertainties on parameters elicited by experts - Applications to sea-level rise and to CO2 storage operations risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceau, Jean-Charles; Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy; Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Lary Louis, de; Guénan Thomas, Le; Ken, Hnottavange-Telleen

    2017-04-01

    In a context of high degree of uncertainty, when very few data are available, experts are commonly requested to provide their opinions on input parameters of risk assessment models. Not only might each expert express a certain degree of uncertainty on his/her own statements, but the set of information collected from the pool of experts introduces an additional level of uncertainty. It is indeed very unlikely that all experts agree on exactly the same data, especially regarding parameters needed for natural risk assessments. In some cases, their opinions may differ only slightly (e.g. the most plausible value for a parameter is similar for different experts, and they only disagree on the level of uncertainties that taint the said value) while on other cases they may express incompatible opinions for a same parameter. Dealing with these different kinds of uncertainties remains a challenge for assessing geological hazards or/and risks. Extra-probabilistic approaches (such as the Dempster-Shafer theory or the possibility theory) have shown to offer promising solutions for representing parameters on which the knowledge is limited. It is the case for instance when the available information prevents an expert from identifying a unique probability law to picture the total uncertainty. Moreover, such approaches are known to be particularly flexible when it comes to aggregating several and potentially conflicting opinions. We therefore propose to discuss the opportunity of applying these new theories for managing the uncertainties on parameters elicited by experts, by a comparison with the application of more classical probability approaches. The discussion is based on two different examples. The first example deals with the estimation of the injected CO2 plume extent in a reservoir in the context of CO2 geological storage. This estimation requires information on the effective porosity of the reservoir, which has been estimated by 14 different experts. The Dempster

  19. Photosynthetic response to globally increasing CO2 of co-occurring temperate seagrass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borum, Jens; Pedersen, Ole; Kotula, Lukasz; Fraser, Matthew W; Statton, John; Colmer, Timothy D; Kendrick, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Photosynthesis of most seagrass species seems to be limited by present concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Therefore, the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2 could enhance seagrass photosynthesis and internal O2 supply, and potentially change species competition through differential responses to increasing CO2 availability among species. We used short-term photosynthetic responses of nine seagrass species from the south-west of Australia to test species-specific responses to enhanced CO2 and changes in HCO3 (-) . Net photosynthesis of all species except Zostera polychlamys were limited at pre-industrial compared to saturating CO2 levels at light saturation, suggesting that enhanced CO2 availability will enhance seagrass performance. Seven out of the nine species were efficient HCO3 (-) users through acidification of diffusive boundary layers, production of extracellular carbonic anhydrase, or uptake and internal conversion of HCO3 (-) . Species responded differently to near saturating CO2 implying that increasing atmospheric CO2 may change competition among seagrass species if co-occurring in mixed beds. Increasing CO2 availability also enhanced internal aeration in the one species assessed. We expect that future increases in atmospheric CO2 will have the strongest impact on seagrass recruits and sparsely vegetated beds, because densely vegetated seagrass beds are most often limited by light and not by inorganic carbon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Outsourcing CO2 within China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-07-09

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country's borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world's largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China's emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low-value-added but high-carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China.

  1. Effects of simultaneously elevated temperature and CO2 levels on Nicotiana benthamiana and its infection by different positive-sense RNA viruses are cumulative and virus type-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Toro, Francisco J; Rakhshandehroo, Farshad; Larruy, Beatriz; Aguilar, Emmanuel; Tenllado, Francisco; Canto, Tomás

    2017-11-01

    We have studied how simultaneously elevated temperature and CO 2 levels [climate change-related conditions (CCC) of 30°C, 970 parts-per-million (ppm) of CO 2 vs. standard conditions (SC) of 25°C, ~ 405ppm CO 2 ] affect physiochemical properties of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and also its infection by several positive-sense RNA viruses. In previous works we had studied effects of elevated temperature, CO 2 levels separately. Under CCC, leaves of healthy plants almost doubled their area relative to SC but contained less protein/unit-of-area, similarly to what we had found under conditions of elevated CO 2 alone. CCC also affected the sizes/numbers of different foliar cell types differently. Under CCC, infection outcomes in titers and symptoms were virus type-specific, broadly similar to those observed under elevated temperature alone. Under either condition, infections did not significantly alter the protein content of leaf discs. Therefore, effects of elevated temperature and CO 2 combined on properties of the pathosystems studied were overall cumulative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. CO2 flowrate calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carossi, Jean-Claude

    1969-02-01

    A CO 2 flowrate calculator has been designed for measuring and recording the gas flow in the loops of Pegase reactor. The analog calculator applies, at every moment, Bernoulli's formula to the values that characterize the carbon dioxide flow through a nozzle. The calculator electronics is described (it includes a sampling calculator and a two-variable function generator), with its amplifiers, triggers, interpolator, multiplier, etc. Calculator operation and setting are presented

  3. How Accurately Do Maize Crop Models Simulate the Interactions of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Levels With Limited Water Supply on Water Use and Yield?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Jean-Louis; Delusca, Kenel; Boote, Ken; Lizaso, Jon; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans Johachim; Ruane, Alexander Clark; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, Jim; Ahuja, Laj; hide

    2017-01-01

    This study assesses the ability of 21 crop models to capture the impact of elevated CO2 concentration [CO2] on maize yield and water use as measured in a 2-year Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment experiment conducted at the Thunen Institute in Braunschweig, Germany (Manderscheid et al. 2014). Data for ambient [CO2] and irrigated treatments were provided to the 21 models for calibrating plant traits, including weather, soil and management data as well as yield, grain number, above ground biomass, leaf area index, nitrogen concentration in biomass and grain, water use and soil water content. Models differed in their representation of carbon assimilation and evapotranspiration processes. The models reproduced the absence of yield response to elevated [CO2] under well-watered conditions, as well as the impact of water deficit at ambient [CO2], with 50 percent of models within a range of plus/minus 1 Mg ha(exp. -1) around the mean. The bias of the median of the 21 models was less than 1 Mg ha(exp. -1). However under water deficit in one of the two years, the models captured only 30 percent of the exceptionally high [CO2] enhancement on yield observed. Furthermore the ensemble of models was unable to simulate the very low soil water content at anthesis and the increase of soil water and grain number brought about by the elevated [CO2] under dry conditions. Overall, we found models with explicit stomatal control on transpiration tended to perform better. Our results highlight the need for model improvement with respect to simulating transpirational water use and its impact on water status during the kernel-set phase.

  4. Large CO2 Sinks: Their role in the mitigation of greenhouse gases from an international, national (Canadian) and provincial (Alberta) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, W.D.; Wong, S.; Cheel, D.B.; Sjostrom, G.

    1998-01-01

    Significant reduction of CO 2 emissions on a global scale may be achieved by reduction of energy intensity, by reduction of carbon intensity or by capture and storage of CO 2 . A portfolio of these methods is required to achieve the large reductions required; of which utilization of carbon sinks (i.e. material, geosphere and biosphere) will be an important player. Material sinks will probably only play a minor role as compared to biosphere and geosphere sinks in storage of CO 2 . Biosphere sinks are attractive because they can sequester CO 2 from a diffuse source whereas geosphere sinks require a pure waste stream of CO 2 (obtained by using expensive separation methods). On the other hand, environmental factors and storage time favor geosphere sinks. It is expected that a combination of the two will be used in order to meet emission reduction targets over the next 100 yr.A critical look is taken at capacities, retention/residence times, rates of uptake and relative cost of utilization of biosphere and geosphere sinks at three scales - global, national (Canada) and provincial (Alberta). Biosphere sinks considered are oceans, forests and soils. Geosphere sinks considered are enhanced oil recovery, coal beds, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and deep aquifers. The largest sinks are oceans and deep aquifers. The other biosphere and geosphere sinks have total capacities approximately of an order of lower magnitude. The sinks that will probably be used first are those that are economically viable such as enhanced oil-recovery, agriculture, forestry and possibly enhanced coalbed methane-recovery. The other sinks will be used when these options have been exhausted or are not available or a penalty (e.g. carbon tax) exists. Although the data tabulated for these sinks is only regarded as preliminary, it provides a starting point for assessment of the role of large sinks in meeting greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam

  5. Sensitivity of agricultural runoff loads to rising levels of CO2 and climate change in the San Joaquin Valley watershed of California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficklin, Darren L.; Luo Yuzhou; Luedeling, Eike; Gatzke, Sarah E.; Zhang Minghua

    2010-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to assess the impact of climate change on sediment, nitrate, phosphorus and pesticide (diazinon and chlorpyrifos) runoff in the San Joaquin watershed in California. This study used modeling techniques that include variations of CO 2 , temperature, and precipitation to quantify these responses. Precipitation had a greater impact on agricultural runoff compared to changes in either CO 2 concentration or temperature. Increase of precipitation by ±10% and ±20% generally changed agricultural runoff proportionally. Solely increasing CO 2 concentration resulted in an increase in nitrate, phosphorus, and chlorpyrifos yield by 4.2, 7.8, and 6.4%, respectively, and a decrease in sediment and diazinon yield by 6.3 and 5.3%, respectively, in comparison to the present-day reference scenario. Only increasing temperature reduced yields of all agricultural runoff components. The results suggest that agricultural runoff in the San Joaquin watershed is sensitive to precipitation, temperature, and CO 2 concentration changes. - Agricultural runoff is significantly affected by changes in precipitation, temperature, and atmospheric CO 2 concentration.

  6. Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic effects of Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) insufflation during laparoscopic surgery: changes in pH, arterial partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide (PaCo 2 ) and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide (EtCO 2 ) ... Respiratory adjustments were done for EtCO2 levels above 60mmHg or SPO2 below 92% or adverse haemodynamic changes.

  7. Influence of trade on national CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munksgaard, Jesper; Pade, Lise-Lotte; Minx, Jan; Lenzen, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO 2 emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO 2 reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in internationally traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national 'greenhouse gas responsibility'. By using input-output modelling, we analyse the influence from international trade on national CO 2 emissions. The aim is to show that trade is the key to define CO 2 responsibility on a macroeconomic level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. Finally, the paper concludes on the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating reduction targets and base line scenarios. (Author)

  8. CO2 emission calculations and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO 2 concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO 2 is believed to result from CO 2 releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO 2 concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention's stated objectives was the ''stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. '' Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO 2 as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO 2 emissions and increases in atmospheric CO 2 levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO 2 emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented

  9. Future Expansion of Agriculture and Pasture Acts to Amplify Atmospheric CO2 Levels in Response to Fossil-Fuel and Land-Use Change Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitz, V.; Ciais, P.

    2004-01-01

    The expansion of crop and pastures to the detriment of forests results in an increase in atmospheric CO2. The first obvious cause is the loss of forest biomass and soil carbon during and after conversion. The second, generally ignored cause, is the reduction of the residence time of carbon when, for example, forests or grasslands are converted to cultivated land. This decreases the sink capacity of the global terrestrial biosphere, and thereby may amplify the atmospheric CO2 rise due to fossil and land-use carbon release. For the IPCC A2 future scenario, characterized by high fossil and high land-use emissions, we show that the land-use amplifier effect adds 61 ppm extra CO2 in the atmosphere by 2100 as compared to former treatment of land-use processes in carbon models. Investigating the individual contribution of each of the six land-use transitions (forest crop, forest pasture, grassland crop) to the amplifier effect indicates that the clearing of forest and grasslands to arable lands explains most of the CO2 amplification. The amplification effect is 50% higher than in a previous analysis by the same authors which considered neither the deforestation of pastures nor the ploughing of grasslands. Such an amplification effect is further examined in sensitivity tests where the net primary productivity is considered independent of the atmospheric CO2. We also show that the land-use changes, which have already occurred in the recent past, have a strong inertia at releasing CO2, and will contribute to about 1/3 of the amplification effect by 2100. These results suggest that there is an additional atmospheric benefit of preserving pristine ecosystems with high turnover times

  10. CO2 emissions of nuclear power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, S.; Mayer-Spohn, O.; Fahl, U.; Voss, A.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, supported by the recent reports of the IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change), political, social and scientific institutions call for the use of atomic energy for reducing CO2 emissions. In Germany, the discussion is highly controversial. A life-cycle balance of nuclear power shows that its CO2 emissions are much lower than those of other technologies, even if changes in the nuclear fuel cycle are taken into account. (orig.)

  11. Studies on CO2 removal and reduction. CO2 taisaku kenkyu no genjo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-02-01

    This paper summarizes study trends mainly in CO2 fixing processes. Underground CO2 storage is a most promising method because it can fix a huge amount of CO2 and has low effects on ecological systems. Storing CO2 in ocean includes such methods as storing it in deep oceans; storing it in deep ocean beds; dissolving it into sea water; neutralizing it with calcium carbonates; and precipitating it as dry ice. Japan, disposing CO2 in these ways, may create international problems. Separation of CO2 may use a chemical absorption process as a superior method. Other processes discussed include a physical adsorption method and a membrane separation method. A useful method for CO2 fixation using marine organisms is fixation using coral reefs. This process will require an overall study including circulation of phosphorus and nitrogen. Marine organisms may include planktons and algae. CO2 fixation using land plants may be able to fix one trillion and 8 hundred billion tons of CO2 as converted to carbon. This process would require forest protection, prevention of desertification, and tree planting. Discussions are being given also on improving power generation cycles, recovering CO2 from automotive exhausts, and backfilling carbons into ground by means of photosynthesis. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Combined effects of CO2 enrichment, changes in diurnal light level and water stress on foliar metabolites of potato plants grown in naturally sunlit controlled environment chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Kennebec) were grown in outdoor, naturally sunlit, soil-plant-atmosphere research (SPAR) chambers. Drought treatments were imposed at post-tuber initiation stage to assess water stress effects on leaf metabolites, and interactions with enriched CO2 concentrati...

  13. Intermediate-scale community-level flux of CO2 and CH4 in a Minnesota peatland: putting the SPRUCE project in a global context

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. J. Hanson; A. L. Gill; X. Xu; J. R. Phillips; D. J. Weston; Randy Kolka; J. S. Riggs; L. A. Hook

    2016-01-01

    Peatland measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux were obtained at scales appropriate to the in situ biological community below the tree layer to demonstrate representativeness of the spruce and peatland responses under climatic and environmental change (SPRUCE) experiment. Surface flux measurements were made using dual open-path...

  14. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels this century will significantly deplete the nutritional quality of rice affecting the health of rice-dependent populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, rice is the primary food crop and caloric source for the least economically developed countries, especially in Asia. Although studies have explored the impacts of increased carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2] and climate change on rice production, there is limited quantification of the di...

  15. LIFETIME AND TEMPORAL OCCURRENCE OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ON PONDEROSA PINE (PINUS PONDEROSA LAWS.) SEEDLINGS GROWN UNDER VARIED ATMOSPHERIC CO-2 AND NITROGEN LEVELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change(elevated atmospheric CO-2,and altered air temperatures,precipitation amounts and seasonal patterns)may affect ecosystem processes by altering carbon allocation in plants,and carbon flux from plants to soil.Mycorrhizal fungi,as carbon sinks, are among the first soil...

  16. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysgaard, S.; Glud, R. N.; Lennert, K.; Cooper, M.; Halden, N.; Leakey, R. J. G.; Hawthorne, F. C.; Barber, D.

    2012-08-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air-sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1 or to 3.3 ton km-2 ice floe week-1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3-1.3 mmol m-2 sea ice d-1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  17. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. G. Leakey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air–sea CO2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO3·6H2O in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km2 (0.5–1 m thick drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced the ice floe thickness by 0.2 m per week and resulted in an estimated 3.8 ppm decrease of pCO2 in the ocean surface mixed layer. This corresponds to an air–sea CO2 uptake of 10.6 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1 or to 3.3 ton km−2 ice floe week−1. This is markedly higher than the estimated primary production within the ice floe of 0.3–1.3 mmol m−2 sea ice d−1. Finally, the presence of ikaite in sea ice and the dissolution of the mineral during melting of the sea ice and mixing of the melt water into the surface oceanic mixed layer accounted for half of the estimated pCO2 uptake.

  18. Essential oils (EOs), pressurized liquid extracts (PLE) and carbon dioxide supercritical fluid extracts (SFE-CO2) from Algerian Thymus munbyanus as valuable sources of antioxidants to be used on an industrial level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendif, Hamdi; Adouni, Khaoula; Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Baranauskienė, Renata; Kraujalis, Paulius; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Maggi, Filippo

    2018-09-15

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of extracts from Algerian Thymus munbyanus as a valuable source of antioxidants for use on an industrial level. To this end, a study was conducted on the composition and antioxidant activities of essential oils (EOs), pressurized liquid extracts (PLE) and supercritical fluid extracts (SFE-CO 2 ) obtained from Thymus munbyanus subsp. coloratus (TMC) and subsp. munbyanus (TMM). EOs and SFE-CO 2 extracts were analysed by GC-FID and GC×GC-TOFMS revealing significant differences. A successive extraction of the solid SFE-CO 2 residue by PLE extraction with solvents of increasing polarity such as acetone, ethanol and water, was carried out. The extracts were evaluated for total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu assay, while the antioxidant power was assessed by DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC assays. SFE-CO 2 extracts were also analysed for their tocopherol content. The antioxidant activity of PLE extracts was found to be higher than that of SFE-CO 2 extracts, and this increased with solvent polarity (water > ethanol > acetone). Overall, these results support the use of T. munbyanus as a valuable source of substances to be used on an industrial level as preservative agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Outsourcing CO2 within China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Davis, Steven J.; Sun, Laixiang; Li, Xin; Guan, Dabo; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Zhu; Hubacek, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the high standard of living enjoyed by people in the richest countries often comes at the expense of CO2 emissions produced with technologies of low efficiency in less affluent, developing countries. Less apparent is that this relationship between developed and developing can exist within a single country’s borders, with rich regions consuming and exporting high-value goods and services that depend upon production of low-cost and emission-intensive goods and services from poorer regions in the same country. As the world’s largest emitter of CO2, China is a prominent and important example, struggling to balance rapid economic growth and environmental sustainability across provinces that are in very different stages of development. In this study, we track CO2 emissions embodied in products traded among Chinese provinces and internationally. We find that 57% of China’s emissions are related to goods that are consumed outside of the province where they are produced. For instance, up to 80% of the emissions related to goods consumed in the highly developed coastal provinces are imported from less developed provinces in central and western China where many low–value-added but high–carbon-intensive goods are produced. Without policy attention to this sort of interprovincial carbon leakage, the less developed provinces will struggle to meet their emissions intensity targets, whereas the more developed provinces might achieve their own targets by further outsourcing. Consumption-based accounting of emissions can thus inform effective and equitable climate policy within China. PMID:23754377

  20. CO2 Laser Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  1. Brine migration resulting from CO2 injection into saline aquifers – An approach to risk estimation including various levels of uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Binning, Philip John; Oladyshkin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    resulting from displaced brine. Quantifying risk on the basis of numerical simulations requires consideration of different kinds of uncertainties and this study considers both, scenario uncertainty and statistical uncertainty. Addressing scenario uncertainty involves expert opinion on relevant geological......Comprehensive risk assessment is a major task for large-scale projects such as geological storage of CO2. Basic hazards are damage to the integrity of caprocks, leakage of CO2, or reduction of groundwater quality due to intrusion of fluids. This study focuses on salinization of freshwater aquifers...... for large-scale 3D models including complex physics. Therefore, we apply a model reduction based on arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion combined with probabilistic collocation method. It is shown that, dependent on data availability, both types of uncertainty can be equally significant. The presented study...

  2. CO2 hydrogenation to hydrocarbons over iron nanoparticles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    481–486. c Indian Academy of Sciences. CO2 ... degrees of CO2 conversion shows that reverse water gas shift equilibrium had been ... rise in CO2 emission.1 Additionally, depletion in crude .... detectors (FID) using argon as internal standard.

  3. Geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.

    2005-01-01

    The industrial storage of CO 2 is comprised of three steps: - capture of CO 2 where it is produced (power plants, cement plants, etc.); - transport (pipe lines or boats); - storage, mainly underground, called geological sequestration... Three types of reservoirs are considered: - salted deep aquifers - they offer the biggest storage capacity; - exhausted oil and gas fields; - non-exploited deep coal mine streams. The two latter storage types may allow the recovery of sellable products, which partially or totally offsets the storage costs. This process is largely used in the petroleum industry to improve the productivity of an oil field, and is called FOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery). A similar process is applied in the coal mining industry to recover the imprisoned gas, and is called ECBM (Enhanced Coal Bed methane). Two storage operations have been initiated in Norway and in Canada, as well as research programmes in Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. International organisations to stimulate this technology have been created such as the 'Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum' and 'the Intergovernmental Group for Climate Change'. This technology will be taken into account in the instruments provided by the Tokyo Protocol. (author)

  4. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  5. Evasion of CO2 injected into the ocean in the context of CO2 stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2004-01-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO 2 to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO 2 as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO 2 emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO 2 concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO 2 injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO 2 concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO 2 emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO 2 concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO 2 concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time

  6. Ecophysiology at SPRUCE: Impacts of whole ecosystem warming and elevated CO2 on leaf-level photosynthesis and respiration of two ericaceous shrubs in a boreal peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, E. J.; Dusenge, M. E.; Warren, J.; Murphy, B. K.; Way, D.; King, A. W.; McLennan, D.; Montgomery, R.; Stefanski, A.; Reich, P. B.; Cruz Aguilar, M.; Wullschleger, S.; Bermudez Villanueva, R.; Hanson, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments (SPRUCE) project is a large-scale, long-term experiment investigating the effects of warming and elevated CO2 on an ombrotrophic bog in Minnesota, USA. SPRUCE uses 10 large (12.8-m diameter) enclosures to increase air and soil temperatures to a range of targets (+0 °C, +2.25 °C, +4.5 °C, +6.75 °C, +9 °C) under both ambient and elevated (+500 ppm) CO2 concentrations. Whole-ecosystem-warming treatments began in August 2015 and elevated CO2 treatments began in June 2016. This talk will address the photosynthetic and respiratory responses of vascular plants to the treatments as measured with a variety of in-situ and ex-situ measurements conducted throughout the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. We will focus on the responses of two dominant ericaceous shrubs (Rhododendron groenlandicum and Chamaedaphne calyculata), which account for more 80% of the understory biomass of this open-canopy forest. Such physiological changes are not only leading indicators of changes in plant growth and community structure, but are crucial to understanding carbon cycling of raised bogs and representing boreal peatlands in global dynamic vegetation models. Pre-treatment data collected at this site indicate that the physiologically active season typically begins in late May and extends into the fall until freezing nighttime temperatures are consistently reached, typically in October. Post-treatment measurements made during seasonal transitions indicate a longer active physiological season in warmer treatments. Results from 2016 measurements show some degree of thermal acclimation of photosynthesis in R. groenlandicum and of respiration in both species in the early growing season, but not late season. Late season measurements show a down-regulation of photosynthesis in both shrub species grown under elevated CO2. Taken as a whole, these results indicate complex interactions between phenological changes and treatment effects on

  7. Carbonation and CO2 uptake of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Seo, Eun-A; Tae, Sung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a reliable procedure to assess the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake of concrete by carbonation during the service life of a structure and by the recycling of concrete after demolition. To generalize the amount of absorbable CO 2 per unit volume of concrete, the molar concentration of carbonatable constituents in hardened cement paste was simplified as a function of the unit content of cement, and the degree of hydration of the cement paste was formulated as a function of the water-to-cement ratio. The contribution of the relative humidity, type of finishing material for the concrete surface, and the substitution level of supplementary cementitious materials to the CO 2 diffusion coefficient in concrete was reflected using various correction factors. The following parameters varying with the recycling scenario were also considered: the carbonatable surface area of concrete crusher-runs and underground phenomena of the decreased CO 2 diffusion coefficient and increased CO 2 concentration. Based on the developed procedure, a case study was conducted for an apartment building with a principal wall system and an office building with a Rahmen system, with the aim of examining the CO 2 uptake of each structural element under different exposure environments during the service life and recycling of the building. As input data necessary for the case study, data collected from actual surveys conducted in 2012 in South Korea were used, which included data on the surrounding environments, lifecycle inventory database, life expectancy of structures, and recycling activity scenario. Ultimately, the CO 2 uptake of concrete during a 100-year lifecycle (life expectancy of 40 years and recycling span of 60 years) was estimated to be 15.5%–17% of the CO 2 emissions from concrete production, which roughly corresponds to 18%–21% of the CO 2 emissions from the production of ordinary Portland cement. - Highlights: • CO 2 uptake assessment approach owing to the

  8. Potential and economics of CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J.

    2001-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO 2 . Some techniques could be used to reduced CO 2 emission and stabilize atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO 2 emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO 2 from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO 2 (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO 2 and to review the various options for CO 2 sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO 2 and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO 2 emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO 2 emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO 2 is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon-storing approach to agriculture, forests and land management could

  9. Photosynthetic response to globally increasing CO2 of co-occurring temperate seagrass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Jens; Pedersen, Ole; Kotula, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis of most seagrass species seems to be limited by present concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Therefore, the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2 could enhance seagrass photosynthesis and internal O2 supply, and potentially change species competition through differential...... responses to increasing CO2 availability among species. We used short-term photosynthetic responses of nine seagrass species from the south-west of Australia to test species-specific responses to enhanced CO2 and changes in HCO3 -. Net photosynthesis of all species except Zostera polychlamys were limited...... at pre-industrial compared to saturating CO2 levels at light saturation, suggesting that enhanced CO2 availability will enhance seagrass performance. Seven out of the nine species were efficient HCO3 - users through acidification of diffusive boundary layers, production of extracellular carbonic...

  10. Effect of CO_2 dilution on combustion and emissions characteristics of the hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shuofeng; Ji, Changwei; Zhang, Bo; Cong, Xiaoyu; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    CO_2 (Carbon dioxide) dilution is a feasible way for controlling NOx (Nitrogen oxides) emissions and loads of the internal combustion engines. This paper investigated the effect of CO_2 dilution on the combustion and emissions characteristics of a hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine. The experiment was conducted on a 1.6 L spark-ignition engine with electronically controlled hydrogen and gasoline injection systems. At two hydrogen volume fractions of 0 and 3%, the CO_2 volume fraction in the intake was gradually increased from 0 to 4%. The fuel-air mixtures were kept at the stoichiometric. The experimental results demonstrated that brake mean effective pressure of the gasoline engine was quickly reduced after adopting CO_2 dilution. Comparatively, Bmep (Brake mean effective pressure) of the 3% hydrogen-enriched engine was gently decreased with the increase of CO_2 dilution level. Thermal efficiency of the 3% hydrogen-enriched gasoline engine was raised under properly increased CO_2 dilution levels. However, thermal efficiency of the pure gasoline engine was generally dropped after the CO_2 dilution. The addition of hydrogen could shorten flame development and propagation durations under CO_2 diluent conditions for the gasoline engine. Increasing CO_2 fraction in the intake caused the dropped NOx and raised HC (Hydrocarbon) emissions. Increasing hydrogen fraction in the intake could effectively reduce HC emissions under CO_2 diluent conditions. - Highlights: • CO_2 dilution reduces cooling loss and NOx of H_2-enriched gasoline engines. • H_2-blended gasoline engine gains better efficiency after CO_2 dilution. • CoVimep of H_2-blended gasoline engine is kept at low level after CO_2 addition. • CO_2 dilution has small effect on reducing Bmep of H_2-blended gasoline engine.

  11. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  12. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice – implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, R.N.; Lennert, K.

    2012-01-01

    A major issue of Arctic marine science is to understand whether the Arctic Ocean is, or will be, a source or sink for air-sea CO 2 exchange. This has been complicated by the recent discoveries of ikaite (a polymorph of CaCO 3•6H 2O) in Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, which indicate that multiple...... chemical transformations occur in sea ice with a possible effect on CO 2 and pH conditions in surface waters. Here, we report on biogeochemical conditions, microscopic examinations and x-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals from a melting 1.7 km 2 (0.5-1 m thick) drifting ice floe in the Fram Strait...... during summer. Our findings show that ikaite crystals are present throughout the sea ice but with larger crystals appearing in the upper ice layers. Ikaite crystals placed at elevated temperatures disintegrated into smaller crystallites and dissolved. During our field campaign in late June, melt reduced...

  13. CO2 emissions vs. CO2 responsibility: An input-output approach for the Turkish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipek Tunc, G.; Tueruet-Asik, Serap; Akbostanci, Elif

    2007-01-01

    Recently, global warming (greenhouse effect) and its effects have become one of the hottest topics in the world agenda. There have been several international attempts to reduce the negative effects of global warming. The Kyoto Protocol can be cited as the most important agreement which tries to limit the countries' emissions within a time horizon. For this reason, it becomes important to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions of countries. The aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO 2 -the most important greenhouse gas-emissions, for the Turkish economy. An extended input-output model is estimated by using 1996 data in order to identify the sources of CO 2 emissions and to discuss the share of sectors in total emission. Besides, 'CO 2 responsibility', which takes into account the CO 2 content of imports, is estimated for the Turkish economy. The sectoral CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities are compared and these two notions are linked to foreign trade volume. One of the main conclusions is that the manufacturing industry has the first place in both of the rankings for CO 2 emissions and CO 2 responsibilities, while agriculture and husbandry has the last place

  14. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Pelayo, M.; Recreo, F.

    2007-01-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  15. Spatial variability of co2 emission, temperature and moisture of a bare oxisol submitted to different wetting levels / Variabilidade espacial da emissão de CO2, da temperatura e umidade de um latossolo desprovido de vegetação sob diferentes lâminas de molhamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton La Scala Júnior

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The irrigation application is one of the most useful techniques in tropical environments, especially during dry seasons. In this study, CO2 efflux, temperature and soil moisture were studied in a field sampled with a grid having 48 points distributed in 35 x 25 m, under irrigation promoted by a sprinkler located at the center of the area, provoking different levels of water deposition, with maximum irrigation levels of 44.4 and 62.2 mm in points closer to the sprinkler. The results show that the emissions, temperature and moisture were strongly affected by the two irrigations events, having a total water level added of 106,6 mm for the points next to the sprinkler and zero for the most distant points from it. The maps of space variation of the variables, as well as the linear correlation between them, indicate that the emissions were positively related to the soil moisture and negative correlated to the soil temperature only after the irrigations events. The special variability models of soil CO2 emission changed from exponential to spherical after the irrigations events. Such results indicate that soil moisture is among possible controlling factors of the soil CO2 emission, because even with reductions in soil temperature provoked by the wetness, emissions increased strongly.A aplicação de lâminas de irrigação em solos é uma das práticas mais adotadas em ambientes tropicais, especialmente em épocas de seca. Neste trabalho, investigaram-se as emissões de CO2, temperatura e umidade do solo, em 48 pontos distribuídos numa área de 35 x 25 m, afetados por irrigações, promovidas com um aspersor localizado no centro da área, que provocou um molhamento com perfil triangular com lâminas máximas aplicadas de 44,4 e 62,2 mm nos pontos mais próximos do aspersor, Os resultados indicam que as emissões, temperatura e umidade do solo foram fortemente afetadas pelas duas irrigações na área, cuja lâmina total de água somou 106,6 mm para os

  16. CO2 as a refrigerant

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    A first edition, the IIR guide “CO2 as a Refrigerant” highlights the application of carbon dioxide in supermarkets, industrial freezers, refrigerated transport, and cold stores as well as ice rinks, chillers, air conditioning systems, data centers and heat pumps. This guide is for design and development engineers needing instruction and inspiration as well as non-technical experts seeking background information on a specific topic. Written by Dr A.B. Pearson, a well-known expert in the field who has considerable experience in the use of CO2 as a refrigerant. Main topics: Thermophysical properties of CO2 – Exposure to CO2, safety precautions – CO2 Plant Design – CO2 applications – Future prospects – Standards and regulations – Bibliography.

  17. CO2 production in extruded dry foods for dogs exposed to different moisture levels with and without use of mold inhibitorProdução de CO2 em dietas extrusadas para cães submetidas a diferentes níveis de umidade com e sem utilização de antifúngico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Luis Krabbe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Four extruded dog foods with different moisture contents and ammonium propionate (AP were manufactured with the objective of evaluating CO2 production. The diets were: low moisture (8.1% with no inclusion of ammonium propionate (LMNP, high moisture (10.2% with no inclusion of AP (HMNP, high moisture with inclusion of a low level of AP (0.065% (HMLP, and high moisture with inclusion of a high level of AP (0.130% (HMHP. The diets were stored in a chamber at 75% air relative humidity and 25-28ºC temperature. CO2 was determined on days 0, 30, 60, and 90 by titration with hydrochloric acid (HCl 0.05N to estimate mold growth. A completely randomized splitplot experimental design was applied. The diet HMNP measured in 90 days presented the highest CO2 concentration and mycotoxins production. Dry dog foods with moisture content higher than 10.2% without mold inhibitors may present significant mold growth and mycotoxis production after 90 days storage. Extruded dry foods for dogs with less than 8.1% moisture may not need mold inhibitors.Foram avaliadas quatro dietas extrusadas para cães com diferentes níveis de umidade, com adição ou não de ácido propiônico (PA, com o objetivo de avaliar a produção de CO2 e micotoxinas. As dietas foram: baixa umidade (8,1% sem inclusão de propionato de amônio (BUSP, alta umidade (10,2% sem inclusão de PA (AUSP, alta umidade com inclusão de baixo nível de PA (0,065% (AUBP, e alta umidade com inclusão de alto nível de propionato (0,130% (AUAP. As dietas foram armazenadas em câmara com umidade relativa do ar de 75% e temperatura de 25 a 28 ºC. A produção de CO2 foi determinada nos tempos zero, 30, 60 e 90 dias por meio de titulação com ácido clorídrico (HCl 0,05N. O experimento seguiu delineamento inteiramente casualizado em parcela subdividida no tempo. A dieta AUSP, medida aos 90 dias, apresentou maior concentração de CO2 e produção de micotoxinas. Alimentos secos extrusados para cães com

  18. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  19. CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry: A scenario analysis using system dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Huiquan; He, Peng

    2017-01-01

    China announced its promise on CO_2 emission peak. When and what level of CO_2 emission peak China's primary aluminum industry will reach is in suspense. In this paper, a system dynamic model is established, with five subsystems of economy development, primary aluminum production, secondary aluminum production, CO_2 emission intensity and policies making involved. The model is applied to examine potential CO_2 emission trends of China's primary aluminum industry in next fifteen years with three scenarios of “no new policies”, “13th five-year plan” and “additional policies”. Simulation results imply that: merely relying on rapid expansion of domestic scarps recycling and reuse could not mitigate CO_2 emission continuously. Combination of energy-saving technology application and electrolytic technology innovation, as well as promoting hydropower utilization in primary aluminum industry are necessary for long term low-carbon development. From a global prospective, enhancing international cooperation on new primary aluminum capacity construction in other countries, especially with rich low-carbon energy, could bring about essential CO_2 emission for both China's and global primary aluminum industry. - Highlights: • A system dynamic model is established for future CO_2 emission trend of China's primary aluminum industry. • Three potential policy scenarios are simulated. • The impacts of potential policies implication on the CO_2 emission trend are discussed.

  20. Impacts of CO2 Enrichment on Productivity and Light Requirements of Eelgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. C.; Kohrs, D. G.; Steller, D. L.; Alberte, R. S.

    1997-10-01

    Seagrasses, although well adapted for submerged existence, are CO2-limited and photosynthetically inefficient in seawater. This leads to high light requirements for growth and survival and makes seagrasses vulnerable to light limitation. We explored the long-term impact of increased CO2 availability on light requirements, productivity, and C allocation in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.). Enrichment of seawater CO2 increased photosynthesis 3-fold, but had no long-term impact on respiration. By tripling the rate of light-saturated photosynthesis, CO2 enrichment reduced the daily period of irradiance-saturated photosynthesis (Hsat) that is required for the maintenance of positive whole-plant C balance from 7 to 2.7 h, allowing plants maintained under 4 h of Hsat to perform like plants growing in unenriched seawater with 12 h of Hsat. Eelgrass grown under 4 h of Hsat without added CO2 consumed internal C reserves as photosynthesis rates and chlorophyll levels dropped. Growth ceased after 30 d. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll, and sucrose-phosphate synthase activity of CO2-enriched plants showed no acclimation to prolonged enrichment. Thus, the CO2-stimulated improvement in photosynthesis reduced light requirements in the long term, suggesting that globally increasing CO2 may enhance seagrass survival in eutrophic coastal waters, where populations have been devastated by algal proliferation and reduced water-column light transparency.

  1. CO2 efflux from cleared mangrove peat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E Lovelock

    Full Text Available CO(2 emissions from cleared mangrove areas may be substantial, increasing the costs of continued losses of these ecosystems, particularly in mangroves that have highly organic soils.We measured CO(2 efflux from mangrove soils that had been cleared for up to 20 years on the islands of Twin Cays, Belize. We also disturbed these cleared peat soils to assess what disturbance of soils after clearing may have on CO(2 efflux. CO(2 efflux from soils declines from time of clearing from ∼10,600 tonnes km(-2 year(-1 in the first year to 3000 tonnes km(2 year(-1 after 20 years since clearing. Disturbing peat leads to short term increases in CO(2 efflux (27 umol m(-2 s(-1, but this had returned to baseline levels within 2 days.Deforesting mangroves that grow on peat soils results in CO(2 emissions that are comparable to rates estimated for peat collapse in other tropical ecosystems. Preventing deforestation presents an opportunity for countries to benefit from carbon payments for preservation of threatened carbon stocks.

  2. New era for CO2 as a working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2000-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extensive international activity to find acceptable alternatives to ozone-depleting CFC and HCFC substances that have been widely used as working fluids in refrigerating and heat pump plants. At present, the so-called natural working fluids constitute the most environmentally friendly alternative, and they include first of all ammonia, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide (CO2). NTNU and SINTEF Energy Research, Norway, have been pioneers in the development of refrigerating and heat pump systems that use CO2 as a working fluid. The favourable technical and environmental properties of CO2 as well as the promising results have now led to considerable international interest in CO2 technology for refrigerating and heat pump applications. Two examples are international licensing for Norwegian CO2 technology and co-operation with Indonesia on CO2 for refrigeration

  3. Decoupling of CO2 emissions and GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Rocha de Salles Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this work is to analyze the variation of CO2 emissions and GDP per capita throughout the years and identify the possible interaction between them. For this purpose, data from the International Energy Agency was collected on two countries, Brazil and the one with the highest GDP worldwide, the United States. Thus, the results showed that CO2 emissions have been following the country’s economic growth for many years. However, these two indicators have started to decouple in the US in 2007 while in Brazil the same happened in 2011. Furthermore, projections for CO2 emissions are made until 2040, considering 6 probable scenarios. These projections showed that even if the oil price decreases, the emissions will not be significantly affected as long as the economic growth does not decelerate.

  4. The sequestration of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Thiez, P.

    2004-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO 2 , represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO 2 emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  5. CO2 Sequestration short course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Cole, David R [The Ohio State University; Navrotsky, Alexandra [University of California-Davis; Bourg, Ian C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

    2014-12-08

    Given the public’s interest and concern over the impact of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) on global warming and related climate change patterns, the course is a timely discussion of the underlying geochemical and mineralogical processes associated with gas-water-mineral-interactions encountered during geological sequestration of CO2. The geochemical and mineralogical processes encountered in the subsurface during storage of CO2 will play an important role in facilitating the isolation of anthropogenic CO2 in the subsurface for thousands of years, thus moderating rapid increases in concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and mitigating global warming. Successful implementation of a variety of geological sequestration scenarios will be dependent on our ability to accurately predict, monitor and verify the behavior of CO2 in the subsurface. The course was proposed to and accepted by the Mineralogical Society of America (MSA) and The Geochemical Society (GS).

  6. Enzymes in CO2 Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Gladis, Arne; Thomsen, Kaj

    The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) can accelerate the absorption rate of CO2 into aqueous solutions by several-fold. It exist in almost all living organisms and catalyses different important processes like CO2 transport, respiration and the acid-base balances. A new technology in the field...... of carbon capture is the application of enzymes for acceleration of typically slow ternary amines or inorganic carbonates. There is a hidden potential to revive currently infeasible amines which have an interesting low energy consumption for regeneration but too slow kinetics for viable CO2 capture. The aim...... of this work is to discuss the measurements of kinetic properties for CA promoted CO2 capture solvent systems. The development of a rate-based model for enzymes will be discussed showing the principles of implementation and the results on using a well-known ternary amine for CO2 capture. Conclusions...

  7. Photosynthetic responses of yellow poplar and white oak to long term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, C.A.; Norby, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A critical consideration in evaluating forest response to rising atmospheric CO 2 is whether the enhancement of net photosynthesis (P N ) by elevated CO 2 can be sustained over the long term. There are reports of declining enhancement of P N with duration of exposure to elevated CO 2 , associated with decreases in photosynthetic capacity and carboxylation efficiency. We investigated whether this photosynthetic acclimation occurs in two tree species under field conditions. Seedlings of yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) were planted in the ground within six open-top field chambers in May 1989 and have been exposed continuously to CO 2 enrichment during the last two growing seasons. The three CO 2 treatment levels were: ambient, ambient +150, and ambient +300 μL/L. Throughout the second season, gas exchange of upper, light-saturated leaves was surveyed periodically, and leaves of different ages and canopy positions were measured occasionally. Net photosynthesis remained higher at higher CO 2 levels (28-32% higher in +150 and 49-67% higher in +300 seedlings) in both species throughout the season, regardless of increasing leaf age and duration of exposure to CO 2 enrichment. Stomatal conductance remained unchanged or decreased slightly with increasing CO 2 , but instantaneous water use efficiency (P N /transpiration) increased significantly with CO 2 . Analysis of P N versus internal CO 2 concentration indicated no significant treatment differences in carboxylation efficiency, CO 2 -saturated P N , or CO 2 compensation point. There was no evidence of a downward acclimation of photosynthesis to CO 2 enrichment in this system

  8. Economics show CO2 EOR potential in central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, M.K.; Byrnes, A.P.; Pancake, R.E.; Willhite, G.P.; Schoeling, L.G.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) may be the key to recovering hundreds of millions of bbl of trapped oil from the mature fields in central Kansas. Preliminary economic analysis indicates that CO2 EOR should provide an internal rate of return (IRR) greater than 20%, before income tax, assuming oil sells for \\$20/bbl, CO2 costs \\$1/Mcf, and gross utilization is 10 Mcf of CO2/bbl of oil recovered. If the CO2 cost is reduced to \\$0.75/Mcf, an oil price of $17/bbl yields an IRR of 20%. Reservoir and economic modeling indicates that IRR is most sensitive to oil price and CO2 cost. A project requires a minimum recovery of 1,500 net bbl/acre (about 1 million net bbl/1-mile section) under a best-case scenario. Less important variables to the economics are capital costs and non-CO2 related lease operating expenses.

  9. CO2 pellet blasting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Initial tests with CO 2 pellet blasting as a decontamination technique were completed in 1993 at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). During 1996, a number of additional CO 2 pellet blasting studies with Alpheus Cleaning Technologies, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pennsylvania State University were conducted. After the testing with Alpheus was complete, an SDI-5 shaved CO 2 blasting unit was purchased by the ICPP to test and determine its capabilities before using in ICPP decontamination efforts. Results of the 1996 testing will be presented in this report

  10. CO2: a worldwide myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerondeau, Ch.

    2009-01-01

    In this book, the author demonstrates the paradox that reducing CO 2 emissions leads to no CO 2 abatement at all. This assertion is based on an obvious statement. Everybody knows that oil resources are going to be exhausted in few decades. The oil that industrialized countries will not use will be consumed by emerging countries and the CO 2 emissions will remain the same. Who would believe that the oil, gas or coal still available will remain unused? The Kyoto protocol, the national policies, the European agreements of emissions abatement, the carbon taxes, the emissions abatement requests sent to the rest of the world, all these actions cost a lot and are useless. CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere will inescapably double during the 21. century but, according to the author, without any catastrophic consequence for the Earth. (J.S.)

  11. Connecting CO2. Feasibility study CO2 network Southwest Netherlands; Connecting CO2. Haalbaarheidsstudie CO2-netwerk Zuidwest-Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutten, M.

    2009-06-10

    An overview is given of supply and demand of CO2 in the region Southwest Netherlands and the regions Antwerp and Gent in Belgium. Also attention is paid to possible connections between these regions [Dutch] Een inventarisatie wordt gegeven van vraag en aanbod van CO2 in de regio Zuidwest- Nederland en de regios Antwerpen en Gent in Belgie. Ook worden mogelijke koppelingen tussen de regios besproken.

  12. Techno-economic Issues and Trade-offs for CO2 Purity in CCS Chains: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2016. 14 November 2016 through 18 November 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhoff, C.; Brown, A.; Neele, F.

    2017-01-01

    The IMPACTS project has the objective to develop the knowledge base of CO2 quality required for establishing norms and regulations to ensure safe and reliable design, construction and operation of CO2 pipelines and injection equipment, and safe long-term geological storage of CO2. More specifically

  13. The idea of global CO2 trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    The US has been criticized for wanting to earn a fortune on a global CO 2 market. However, compared to the situation without trade and provided that such a market is designed so that it does not pay to cheat, a global CO 2 market may provide the world with an epoch-making means of cost-effective control which can solve future global environmental problems. The economic gains from 'hot air' distributions of permits and CO 2 trade make the system politically attractive to potential participants. For example, vital financial subsidies from the EU to Eastern Europe are to be expected. It will probably not pay to cheat if quotas are renewed periodically by the UN. Cheating countries are then to be excluded from further profitable trade. Also, a periodical renewal of permits makes it possible to tighten target levels in the future

  14. Assessment of CO2 free energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.; Raseta, D.; Matutinovic, I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the European Union climate and energy targets is to significantly reduce CO 2 emissions, at least 20% by 2020, compared to 1990. In the power industry, most popular solution is use of solar and wind power. Since their production varies significantly during the day, for the purpose of base-load production they can be paired with gas-fired power plant. Other possible CO 2 -free solution is nuclear power plant. This article compared predicted cost of energy production for newly built nuclear power plant and newly built combination of wind or solar and gas-fired power plant. Comparison was done using Levelized Unit of Energy Cost (LUEC). Calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo method. For input parameters that have biggest uncertainty (gas cost, CO 2 emission fee) those uncertainties were addressed not only through probability distribution around predicted value, but also through different scenarios. Power plants were compared based on their economic lifetime. (authors)

  15. Stem girdling affects the quantity of CO2 transported in xylem as well as CO2 efflux from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemen, Jasper; Agneessens, Laura; Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Aubrey, Doug P; McGuire, Mary Anne; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    There is recent clear evidence that an important fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported upward in the transpiration stream in tree stems rather than fluxing to the soil. In this study, we aimed to quantify the contribution of root-respired CO2 to both soil CO2 efflux and xylem CO2 transport by manipulating the autotrophic component of belowground respiration. We compared soil CO2 efflux and the flux of root-respired CO2 transported in the transpiration stream in girdled and nongirdled 9-yr-old oak trees (Quercus robur) to assess the impact of a change in the autotrophic component of belowground respiration on both CO2 fluxes. Stem girdling decreased xylem CO2 concentration, indicating that belowground respiration contributes to the aboveground transport of internal CO2 . Girdling also decreased soil CO2 efflux. These results confirmed that root respiration contributes to xylem CO2 transport and that failure to account for this flux results in inaccurate estimates of belowground respiration when efflux-based methods are used. This research adds to the growing body of evidence that efflux-based measurements of belowground respiration underestimate autotrophic contributions. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Capture and Geological Storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, T.; Brockett, S.; Hegan, L.; Barbucci, P.; Tullius, K.; Scott, J.; Otter, N.; Cook, P.; Hill, G.; Dino, R.; Aimard, N.; Giese, R.; Christensen, N.P.; Munier, G.; Paelinck, Ph.; Rayna, L.; Stromberg, L.; Birat, J.P.; Audigane, P.; Loizzo, M.; Arts, R.; Fabriol, H.; Radgen, P.; Hartwell, J.; Wartmann, S.; Drosin, E.; Willnow, K.; Moisan, F.

    2009-01-01

    To build on the growing success of the first two international symposia on emission reduction and CO 2 capture and geological storage, held in Paris in 2005 and again in 2007, IFP, ADEME and BRGM organised a third event on the same topic the 5-6 November 2009. This time, the focus was on the urgency of industrial deployment. Indeed, the IPCC 4. assessment report indicates that the world must achieve a 50 to 85% reduction in CO 2 emissions by 2050 compared to 2000, in order to limit the global temperature increase to around 2 deg. C. Moreover, IPCC stresses that a 'business as usual' scenario could lead to a temperature increase of between 4 deg. C to 7 deg. C across the planet. The symposium was organized in 4 sessions: Session I - Regulatory framework and strategies for enabling CCS deployment: - CCS: international status of political, regulatory and financing issues (Tom Kerr, IEA); - EC regulatory framework (Scott Brockett, European Commission, DG ENV); - Canada's investments towards implementation of CCS in Canada (Larry Hegan, Office of Energy Research and Development - Government of Canada); - A power company perspective (Pietro Barbucci, ENEL); - EC CCS demonstration network (Kai Tullius, European Commission, DG TREN); - Strategies and policies for accelerating global CCS deployment (Jesse Scott, E3G); - The global CCS Institute, a major initiative to facilitate the rapid deployment of CCS (Nick Otter, GCCSI); Session II - From pilot to demonstration projects: - Otway project, Australia (David Hilditch, CO2 CRC); - US regional partnerships (Gerald Hill, Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership - SECARB); - CCS activities in Brazil (Rodolfo Dino, Petrobras); - Lessons learnt from Ketzin CO2Sink project in Germany (Ruediger Giese, GFZ); - CO 2 storage - from laboratory to reality (Niels-Peter Christensen, Vattenfall); - Valuation and storage of CO 2 : A global project for carbon management in South-East France (Gilles Munier, Geogreen); Session III

  17. State of Energy Consumption and CO2 Emission in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Nashreen, S.W.; Sultana, J.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is one of the most important gases in the atmosphere, and is necessary for sustaining life on Earth. It is also considered to be a major greenhouse gas contributing to global warming and climate change. In this article, energy consumption in Bangladesh is analyzed and estimates are made of CO 2 emission from combustion of fossil fuel (coal, gas, petroleum products) for the period 1977 to 1995. International Panel for Climate Change guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories were used in estimating CO 2 emission. An analysis of energy data shows that the consumption of fossil fuels in Bangladesh is growing by more than 5% per year. The proportion of natural gas in total energy consumption is increasing, while that of petroleum products and coal is decreasing. The estimated total CO 2 release from all primary fossil fuels used in Bangladesh amounted to 5,072 Gg in 1977, and 14,423 Gg in 1995. The total amounts of CO 2 released from petroleum products, natural gas, and coal in the period 1977-1995 were 83,026 Gg (50% of CO 2 emission), 72,541 Gg (44% of CO 2 emission), and 9,545 Gg (6% CO 2 emission), respectively. A trend in CO 2 emission with projections to 2070 is generated. In 2070, total estimated CO 2 emission will be 293,260 Gg with a current growth rate of 6.34%/y. CO 2 emission from fossil fuels is increasing. Petroleum products contribute the majority of CO 2 emission load, and although the use of natural gas is increasing rapidly, its contribution to CO 2 emission is less than that of petroleum products. The use of coal as well as CO 2 emission from coal is expected to gradually decrease

  18. CO2 Capture and Reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambimuthu, K.; Gupta, M.; Davison, J.

    2003-01-01

    CO2 capture and storage including its utilization or reuse presents an opportunity to achieve deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy use. The development and deployment of this option could significantly assist in meeting a future goal of achieving stabilization of the presently rising atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. CO2 capture from process streams is an established concept that has achieved industrial practice. Examples of current applications include the use of primarily, solvent based capture technologies for the recovery of pure CO2 streams for chemical synthesis, for utilization as a food additive, for use as a miscible agent in enhanced oil recovery operations and removal of CO2 as an undesired contaminant from gaseous process streams for the production of fuel gases such as hydrogen and methane. In these applications, the technologies deployed for CO2 capture have focused on gas separation from high purity, high pressure streams and in reducing (or oxygen deficient) environments, where the energy penalties and cost for capture are moderately low. However, application of the same capture technologies for large scale abatement of greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel use poses significant challenges in achieving (at comparably low energy penalty and cost) gas separation in large volume, dilute concentration and/or low pressure flue gas streams. This paper will focus on a review of existing commercial methods of CO2 capture and the technology stretch, process integration and energy system pathways needed for their large scale deployment in fossil fueled processes. The assessment of potential capture technologies for the latter purpose will also be based on published literature data that are both 'transparent' and 'systematic' in their evaluation of the overall cost and energy penalties of CO2 capture. In view of the of the fact that many of the existing commercial processes for CO2 capture have seen applications in

  19. CO2 reduction strategies for the Northern Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, Rene; Moll, Henk; Noorman, Klaas Jan; Wiersma, Gerwin

    2011-01-01

    The concern about global warming initiated ambitious CO2 reduction goals in cities and regions in the Netherlands. This article describes a study of such a local initiative for the Northern Netherlands. The research aimed to develop CO2 reduction scenarios for 2035 with national and international

  20. Natural Analogues of CO2 Geological Storage; Analogos Naturales del Almacenamiento Geologico de CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L; Pelayo, M; Recreo, F

    2007-07-20

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is nowadays, internationally considered as the most effective method for greenhouse gas emission mitigation, in order to minimize the global climate change universally accepted. Nevertheless, the possible risks derived of this long-term storage have a direct influence on its public acceptance. Among the favourable geological formations to store CO2, depleted oil and gas fields, deep saline reservoirs, and unamiable coal seams are highlighted. One of the most important objectives of the R and D projects related to the CO2 geological storage is the evaluation of the CO2 leakage rate through the above mentioned geological formations. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary to increase our knowledge on the interaction among CO2, storage and sealing formations, as well as on the flow paths and the physical resistance of the sealing formation. The quantification of the CO2 leakage rate is essential to evaluate the effects on the human and animal health, as well as for the ecosystem and water quality. To achieve these objectives, the study of the natural analogues is very useful in order to know the natural leakage rate to the atmosphere, its flow paths, the physical, chemical and mineralogical modifications due to the long term interaction processes among the CO2 and the storage and sealing formations, as well as the effects on the groundwaters and ecosystems. In this report, we have tried to summarise the main characteristics of the natural reservoirs and surficial sources of CO2, which are both natural analogues of the geological storage and CO2 leakage, studied in EEUU, Europe and Australia. The main objective of this summary is to find the possible applications for long-term risk prediction and for the performance assessment by means of conceptual and numerical modelling, which will allow to validate the predictive models of the CO2 storage behaviour, to design and develop suitable monitoring techniques to control the CO2 behaviour

  1. Increases in CO2 from past low to future high levels result in “slower” strategies on the leaf economic spectrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, Andries A.; Liu, Jin Chun; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornwell, Will K.; Cornelissen, Johannes (Hans) H.C.; Aerts, Rien

    2017-01-01

    Depending on resource availability plants exhibit a specific suite of traits. At the interspecific level these traits follow the leaf economic spectrum (LES), traits related to slow turnover when resources are poor and fast turnover when resources are plentiful. Limited data shows that within

  2. Capture and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    This dossier about carbon sequestration presents: 1 - the world fossil fuels demand and its environmental impact; 2 - the solutions to answer the climatic change threat: limitation of fossil fuels consumption, development of nuclear and renewable energies, capture and storage of CO 2 (environmental and industrial advantage, cost); 3 - the CO 2 capture: post-combustion smokes treatment, oxi-combustion techniques, pre-combustion techniques; 4 - CO 2 storage: in hydrocarbon deposits (Weyburn site in Canada), in deep saline aquifers (Sleipner and K12B (North Sea)), in non-exploitable coal seams (Recopol European project); 5 - international and national mobilization: IEA R and D program, USA (FutureGen zero-emission coal-fired power plant, Carbon Sequestration Leadership forum), European Union (AZEP, GRACE, GESTCO, CO2STORE, NASCENT, RECOPOL, Castor, ENCAP, CO2sink etc programs), French actions (CO 2 club, network of oil and gas technologies (RTPG)), environmental stake, competitiveness, research stake. (J.S.)

  3. The Carbon Impact of International Tourists to an Island Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Ting Tsai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan, located in the East Asia, is an island country with limited natural resources. To increase economic growth and reduce CO2 emission levels, the Taiwanese government is promoting a sustainable low-carbon tourism industry. This study investigated the CO2 emission coefficient of tourist activities and identified the CO2 emissions (CE patterns of international visitors to Taiwan. The total CO2 emission per visitor without considering international transportation was estimated using a questionnaire. The total CO2 emission comprises the CO2 emission of transportation, the CO2 emission of accommodation, and the CO2 emission of tourist activities. The results suggest that more convenient public transportation might help to reduce the total CO2 emission. Without considering CO2 emission from international air travel, in contrast to many non-island countries where CO2 emission of transportation is the main contributor to total CO2 emission, the CO2 emission of accommodation was the main contributor to total CO2 emission in Taiwan. To reduce the CO2 emission of accommodation, the Taiwanese government should improve the energy-use efficiency of devices in tourist hotels and promote bed-and-breakfast accommodations with low CO2 emission coefficients. Visitors enjoyed culinary journeys and shopping, both of which are activities that contribute highly to the CO2 emission of tourist activities because of their high CO2 emission coefficients.

  4. Membrane-assisted CO2 liquefaction: performance modelling of CO2 capture from flue gas in cement production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, R.H.B.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Os, P.J. van; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Berstad, D.; Anantharaman, R.

    2017-01-01

    CEMCAP is an international R&D project under the Horizon 2020 Programme preparing the ground for the large-scale implementation of CO2 capture in the European cement industry. This paper concerns the performance modeling of membraneassisted CO2 liquefaction as a possible retrofit application for

  5. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard J. Herzog; E. Eric Adams

    2003-04-01

    The main goal of our work during this time period (August 23, 2001-August 23, 2002) was to conduct a field experiment in Norwegian waters. Preparation for the field experiment included building the apparatus, designing and obtaining the measurement systems, planning the logistics (ships, crew, supplies, etc.) and conducting a survey cruise. The survey cruise, conducted in July 2002, is documented in this report. The field experiment, scheduled for August 2002, was postponed when the Norwegian environmental minister revoked our permit under pressure from Greenpeace. Events surrounding the permitting situation are documented in the Appendix.

  6. INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION ON CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.J. Herzog; E.E. Adams

    2000-08-23

    The specific objective of our project on CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration is to investigate its technical feasibility and to improve the understanding of any associated environmental impacts. Our ultimate goal is to minimize any impacts associated with the eventual use of ocean carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The project will continue through March 31, 2002, with a field experiment to take place in the summer of 2001 off the Kona Coast of Hawaii. At GHGT-4 in Interlaken, we presented a paper detailing our plans. The purpose of this paper is to present an update on our progress to date and our plans to complete the project. The co-authors of this paper are members of the project's Technical Committee, which has been formed to supervise the technical aspects and execution of this project.

  7. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  8. Reducing CO2 emissions in Sierra Leone and Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1991-01-01

    With soring population growth rates and minimal economic growth, the nations of Africa are afflicted with innumerable problems. Why then should Africa's developing countries worry about CO 2 emissions? First, because agricultural activities form the backbone of most African economies; thus, these nations may be particularly vulnerable to the negative impacts of climate change. Second, acting to reduce carbon emissions will bring about more efficient energy use. All of Africa could benefit from the improved use of energy. Finally, the accumulation of CO 2 in the atmosphere is a global problem with individual solutions; in order to reduce international emissions, all countries, including those in Africa, must contribute. Typical of many African countries, Ghana and Sierra Leone have among the lowest levels of energy demand per capita across the globe. primary energy demand per capita in these two West African nations equals about one quarter of the world's average and about one twentieth of the US average. This work summarizes the results of two long-term energy use and carbon emissions scenarios for Sierra Leone and Ghana. In the high emissions (HE) scenario for 2025, policy changes focused on galvanizing economic growth lead to significant increases in energy use and carbon emissions in Ghana and Sierra Leone between 1985 and 2025. In the low emissions (LE) scenario, the implementation of policies aimed specifically at curtailing CO 2 emissions significantly limits the increase in carbon in both nations by 2025

  9. Economics of reducing CO2 emissions from China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongxin

    1991-01-01

    Relative to the nations of the industrialized world, developing countries emit far lower levels of CO 2 per capita. In coming years, however, as the developing world experiences more rapid rates of economic and population growth, their carbon emissions per capita inevitably will rise. Therefore, developing countries should be encouraged both to adopt more advanced energy technologies in order to improve the efficiency of energy exploration, transportation, generation and end-use and to replace carbon-intensive fuels sources with less carbon-intensive sources (non-fossil fuels and renewable energy). By incorporating methods aimed at curtailing carbon emissions into their energy development strategies, developing nations can reduce the risks posed by higher CO 2 emissions. However, adopting more advanced energy technologies generally entails high costs. These higher prices serve as a particularly large obstacle for developing nations. In order to serve the common interest of protecting the global environment, international funds should be devoted to cover the high costs of reducing developing world CO 2 emissions

  10. CO2 capture by gas hydrate crystallization: Application on the CO2-N2 mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchemoua, A.

    2012-01-01

    CO 2 capture and sequestration represent a major industrial and scientific challenge of this century. There are different methods of CO 2 separation and capture, such as solid adsorption, amines adsorption and cryogenic fractionation. Although these processes are well developed at industrial level, they are energy intensive. Hydrate formation method is a less energy intensive and has an interesting potential to separate carbon dioxide. Gas hydrates are Document crystalline compounds that consist of hydrogen bonded network of water molecules trapping a gas molecule. Gas hydrate formation is favored by high pressure and low temperature. This study was conducted as a part of the SECOHYA ANR Project. The objective is to study the thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the process to capture CO 2 by gas hydrate crystallization. Firstly, we developed an experimental apparatus to carry out experiments to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic formation conditions of CO 2 -N 2 gas hydrate mixture in water as liquid phase. We showed that the operative pressure may be very important and the temperature very low. For the feasibility of the project, we used TBAB (Tetrabutylammonium Bromide) as thermodynamic additive in the liquid phase. The use of TBAB may reduce considerably the operative pressure. In the second part of this study, we presented a thermodynamic model, based on the van der Waals and Platteeuw model. This model allows the estimation of thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. Experimental equilibrium data of CO 2 -CH 4 and CO 2 -N 2 mixtures are presented and compared to theoretical results. (author)

  11. Hypercarbic cardiorespiratory reflexes in the facultative air-breathing fish jeju (Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus): the role of branchial CO2 chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Boijink, Cheila; Florindo, Luiz Henrique; Leite, Cleo A Costa; Kalinin, Ana Lúcia; Milsom, William K; Rantin, Francisco Tadeu

    2010-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the roles that externally versus internally oriented CO(2)/H(+)-sensitive chemoreceptors might play in promoting cardiorespiratory responses to environmental hypercarbia in the air-breathing fish, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju). Fish were exposed to graded hypercarbia (1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and also to graded levels of environmental acidosis (pH approximately 7.0, 6.0, 5.8, 5.6, 5.3 and 4.7) equal to the pH levels of the hypercarbic water to distinguish the relative roles of CO(2) versus H(+). We also injected boluses of CO(2)-equilibrated solutions (5, 10 and 20% CO(2)) and acid solutions equilibrated to the same pH as the CO(2) boluses into the caudal vein (internal) and buccal cavity (external) to distinguish between internal and external stimuli. The putative location of the chemoreceptors was determined by bilateral denervation of branches of cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) to the gills. The data indicate that the chemoreceptors eliciting bradycardia, hypertension and gill ventilatory responses (increased frequency and amplitude) to hypercarbia are exclusively branchial, externally oriented and respond specifically to changes in CO(2) and not H(+). Those involved in producing the cardiovascular responses appeared to be distributed across all gill arches while those involved in the gill ventilatory responses were located primarily on the first gill arch. Higher levels of aquatic CO(2) depressed gill ventilation and stimulated air breathing. The chemoreceptors involved in producing air breathing in response to hypercarbia also appeared to be branchial, distributed across all gill arches and responded specifically to changes in aquatic CO(2). This would suggest that chemoreceptor groups with different orientations (blood versus water) are involved in eliciting air-breathing responses to hypercarbia in jeju.

  12. CO2 emissions in the World in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecoiffier, Mathieu

    2015-12-01

    This publication presents and comments data of CO 2 emissions in the world and their evolution. It more particularly addresses CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion which represent more than 80 per cent of these emissions or 62 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions, and which increased in 2013 with respect to 2012 (+ 2.2 pc). The distribution of CO 2 emissions due to energy combustion in different continents and regions is indicated (levels in 1990, 2012 and 2013, evolutions). The decrease of the CO 2 emission intensity with respect to the GDP is briefly commented (evolution since 1970), as well as the level of CO 2 emissions per inhabitant in China with respect to that in the EU (evolutions since 1970). The evolution of CO 2 emissions is then analysed with respect to different determining parameters according to the Kaya equation (population, GDP, primary energy consumption and their evolution or relationship one to each other)

  13. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Fahl, Ulrich; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO 2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO 2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO 2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO 2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  14. On a CO2 ration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, P.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 years all the large energy companies in the European Union will have a CO2 ration, including a system to trade a shortage or surplus of emission rights. A cost effective system to reduce emission, provided that the government does not auction the emission rights [nl

  15. Estimation of mesophyll conductance to CO2 flux by three different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loreto, F.; Harley, P.C.; Di Marco, G.; Sharkey, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The resistance to diffusion of CO2 from the intercellular airspaces within the leaf through the mesophyll to the sites of carboxylation during photosynthesis was measured using three different techniques, The three techniques include a method based on discrimination against the heavy stable isotope of carbon, 13C, and two modeling methods. The methods rely upon different assumptions, but the estimates of mesophyll conductance were similar with all three methods. The mesophyll conductance of leaves from a number of species was about 1.4 times the stomatal conductance for CO2 diffusion determined in unstressed plants at high light. The relatively low CO2 partial pressure inside chloroplasts of plants with a low mesophyll conductance did not lead to enhanced O2 sensitivity of photosynthesis because the low conductance caused a significant drop in the chloroplast CO2 Partial pressure upon switching to low O2. We found no correlation between mesophyll conductance and the ratio of internal leaf area to leaf surface area and only a weak correlation between mesophyll conductance and the proportion of leaf volume occupied by air. Mesophyll conductance was independent of CO2 and O2 partial pressure during the measurement, indicating that a true physical parameter, independent of biochemical effects, was being measured. No evidence for accumulating mechanisms was found. Some plants, notably Citrus aurantium and Simmondsia chinensis, had very low conductances that limit the rate of photosynthesis these plants can attain at atmospheric CO2 level

  16. Is carbon / CO2 taxes implementation timely for electricity and heat generation in Romania ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, O.; Fulger, E.D.; Vieru, A.; Feher, M.

    1996-01-01

    Lately, carbon / CO 2 taxes are very much discussed in Europe and in many countries of the world as economic and financial instruments for reducing the CO 2 emissions. Some countries have already introduced such taxes while in other countries or international organisations they are under study, especially concerning the moment, the way of implementation and the amount of taxes. CO 2 emissions in Romania, in absolute and specific values (per capita, per kWh equivalent) are lower than in other countries. This can be justified by the low level of electricity and heat output owing to the recent economic restructuring and by the energy sector characteristics: natural gas major contribution, hydroelectric power, cogeneration and nuclear power implementation. We can also mention, as a positive factor, the CO 2 absorption potential of the Romanian forests. Carbon / CO 2 taxes introduction has severe economic and social impact, such as: domestic coal extraction blockage, increase in the electricity and heat prices, decrease of Romanian export products competitiveness and reduction of population standard of living. Therefore, the authors are considering that carbon / CO 2 taxes introduction is not timely by the year 2000 for the Romanian electricity and heat generation. (author). 3 figs. 2 tabs. 10 refs

  17. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  18. Global energy / CO2 projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1990-09-01

    Section headings are: (1) Social and economic problems of the 21 st century and the role of energy supply systems (2) Energy-environment interactions as a central point of energy research activities (3) New ways of technological progress and its impacts on energy demand and supply (4) Long-term global energy projections (5) Comparative analysis of global long-term energy / CO 2 studies (6) Conclusions. The author shows that, in order to alleviate the negative impacts of energy systems on the climate, it will be necessary to undertake tremendous efforts to improve the energy use efficiency, to drastically change the primary energy mix, and, at the same time, to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions from other sources and increase the CO 2 sink through enhanced reforestation. (Quittner)

  19. CO2 Acquisition Membrane (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.; Way, J. Douglas; Vlasse, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    The objective of CAM is to develop, test, and analyze thin film membrane materials for separation and purification of carbon dioxide (CO2) from mixtures of gases, such as those found in the Martian atmosphere. The membranes are targeted toward In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) applications that will operate in extraterrestrial environments and support future unmanned and human space missions. A primary application is the Sabatier Electrolysis process that uses Mars atmosphere CO2 as raw material for producing water, oxygen, and methane for rocket fuel and habitat support. Other applications include use as an inlet filter to collect and concentrate Mars atmospheric argon and nitrogen gases for habitat pressurization, and to remove CO2 from breathing gases in Closed Environment Life Support Systems (CELSS). CAM membrane materials include crystalline faujasite (FAU) zeolite and rubbery polymers such as silicone rubber (PDMS) that have been shown in the literature and via molecular simulation to favor adsorption and permeation of CO2 over nitrogen and argon. Pure gas permeation tests using commercial PDMS membranes have shown that both CO2 permeance and the separation factor relative to other gases increase as the temperature decreases, and low (Delta)P(Sub CO2) favors higher separation factors. The ideal CO2/N2 separation factor increases from 7.5 to 17.5 as temperature decreases from 22 C to -30 C. For gas mixtures containing CO2, N2, and Ar, plasticization decreased the separation factors from 4.5 to 6 over the same temperature range. We currently synthesize and test our own Na(+) FAU zeolite membranes using standard formulations and secondary growth methods on porous alumina. Preliminary tests with a Na(+) FAU membrane at 22 C show a He/SF6 ideal separation factor of 62, exceeding the Knudsen diffusion selectivity by an order of magnitude. This shows that the membrane is relatively free from large defects and associated non-selective (viscous flow) transport

  20. Fang CO2 med Aminosyrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Benedicte Mai

    2010-01-01

    Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer.......Med såkaldte “carbon capture-teknikker” er det muligt at rense røgen fra kulfyrede kraftværker, således at den er næsten helt fri for drivhusgassen CO2. Kunsten er at gøre processen tilstrækkeligt billig. Et lovende fangstredskab i denne proces er aminosyrer....

  1. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  2. Implications of overestimated anthropogenic CO2 emissions on East Asian and global land CO2 flux inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Tazu; Patra, Prabir K.

    2017-12-01

    Measurement and modelling of regional or country-level carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes are becoming critical for verification of the greenhouse gases emission control. One of the commonly adopted approaches is inverse modelling, where CO2 fluxes (emission: positive flux, sink: negative flux) from the terrestrial ecosystems are estimated by combining atmospheric CO2 measurements with atmospheric transport models. The inverse models assume anthropogenic emissions are known, and thus the uncertainties in the emissions introduce systematic bias in estimation of the terrestrial (residual) fluxes by inverse modelling. Here we show that the CO2 sink increase, estimated by the inverse model, over East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Mongolia), by about 0.26 PgC year-1 (1 Pg = 1012 g) during 2001-2010, is likely to be an artifact of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing too quickly in China by 1.41 PgC year-1. Independent results from methane (CH4) inversion suggested about 41% lower rate of East Asian CH4 emission increase during 2002-2012. We apply a scaling factor of 0.59, based on CH4 inversion, to the rate of anthropogenic CO2 emission increase since the anthropogenic emissions of both CO2 and CH4 increase linearly in the emission inventory. We find no systematic increase in land CO2 uptake over East Asia during 1993-2010 or 2000-2009 when scaled anthropogenic CO2 emissions are used, and that there is a need of higher emission increase rate for 2010-2012 compared to those calculated by the inventory methods. High bias in anthropogenic CO2 emissions leads to stronger land sinks in global land-ocean flux partitioning in our inverse model. The corrected anthropogenic CO2 emissions also produce measurable reductions in the rate of global land CO2 sink increase post-2002, leading to a better agreement with the terrestrial biospheric model simulations that include CO2-fertilization and climate effects.

  3. Tree ring evidence for limited direct CO2 fertilization of forests over the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalof, Ze'ev; Berg, Aaron A.

    2010-09-01

    The effect that rising atmospheric CO2 levels will have on forest productivity and water use efficiency remains uncertain, yet it has critical implications for future rates of carbon sequestration and forest distributions. Efforts to understand the effect that rising CO2 will have on forests are largely based on growth chamber studies of seedlings, and the relatively small number of FACE sites. Inferences from these studies are limited by their generally short durations, artificial growing conditions, unnatural step-increases in CO2 concentrations, and poor replication. Here we analyze the global record of annual radial tree growth, derived from the International Tree ring Data Bank (ITRDB), for evidence of increasing growth rates that cannot be explained by climatic change alone, and for evidence of decreasing sensitivity to drought. We find that approximately 20 percent of sites globally exhibit increasing trends in growth that cannot be attributed to climatic causes, nitrogen deposition, elevation, or latitude, which we attribute to a direct CO2 fertilization effect. No differences were found between species in their likelihood to exhibit growth increases attributable to CO2 fertilization, although Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), the two most commonly sampled species in the ITRDB, exhibit a CO2 fertilization signal at frequencies very near their upper and lower confidence limits respectively. Overall these results suggest that CO2 fertilization of forests will not counteract emissions or slow warming in any substantial fashion, but do suggest that future forest dynamics may differ from those seen today depending on site conditions and individual species' responses to elevated CO2.

  4. Practical guidebook about the market of CO2 emission quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO 2 emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO 2 emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO 2 quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO 2 they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO 2 quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  5. Process development of coke oven gas to methanol integrated with CO2 recycle for satisfactory techno-economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Qun; Gong, Min-Hui; Huang, Yi; Feng, Jie; Hao, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Ji-Long; Li, Wen-Ying

    2016-01-01

    A novel process designed for producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) integrated with CO 2 recycle is proposed. In the new system, oxygen replacing air is blown to combustor for assisting combustion of COG and unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process. The combustion process provides to the heat required in the coking process. The rest COG reacts with the recycled CO 2 separated from the exhaust gas to produce syngas for methanol synthesis. The unreacted syngas from methanol synthesis process with low grade energy level is recycled to the combustor. In the whole methanol production process, there is no additional process with respect to supplementary carbon, and the carbon resource only comes from the internal CO 2 recycle in the plant. With the aid of techno-economic analysis, the new system presents the energy or exergy saving by 5–10%, the CO 2 emission reduction by about 70% and the internal rate of return increase by 5–8%, respectively, in comparison with the traditional COG to methanol process. - Highlights: • A process for producing methanol from COG integrated with CO 2 recycle is first proposed. • CO 2 from the exhaust gas is recycled to supply carbon for producing syngas. • New integrated plant simplifies the production process with 5–8% IRR increase. • New system presents about 5–10% energy saving, about 70% CO 2 emission reduction.

  6. Comparison of CO2 Photoreduction Systems: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are a major contributor to the climate change equation. To alleviate concerns of global warming, strategies to mitigate increase of CO2 levels in the atmosphere have to be developed. The most desirable approach is to convert the carbon dioxide to us...

  7. Vehicle technology under CO2 constraint: a general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Jacoby, Henry D.

    2006-01-01

    A study is presented of the rates of penetration of different transport technologies under policy constraints on CO 2 emissions. The response of this sector is analyzed within an overall national level of restriction, with a focus on automobiles, light trucks, and heavy freight trucks. Using the US as an example, a linked set of three models is used to carry out the analysis: a multi-sector computable general equilibrium model of the economy, a MARKAL-type model of vehicle and fuel supply technology, and a model simulating the split of personal and freight transport among modes. Results highlight the importance of incremental improvements in conventional internal combustion engine technology, and, in the absence of policies to overcome observed consumer discount rates, the very long time horizons before radical alternatives like the internal combustion engine hybrid drive train vehicle are likely to take substantial market share

  8. Holiday CO2: Inference from the Salt Lake City data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, J.; Fung, I. Y.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Stephens, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    A network of high-frequency CO2 sensors has been established in Salt Lake City (SLC), Utah (http://co2.utah.edu/), and the annual/monthly pattern of CO2 variability is consistent with a priori estimates of CO2 fluxes (McKain et al., 2012). Here we ask if short-term changes in anthropogenic sources can be detected, and present a case study of Thanksgiving holiday, when traffic and energy use patterns are expected to be different from that during the rest of the month. CO2 mole fraction is much higher during the Thanksgiving holidays than the other days in November 2008 for all 5 sites in SLC, and a similar pattern is found in other years. Taking into account that the wind speed is relatively low in downtown SLC compared to the other SLC sites, the downtown site is further investigated to minimize the meteorological influence on CO2. In order to understand the relative contributions to the high level of CO2 during the Thanksgiving holidays, we carried out a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis of the rate of CO2 change against various sources. Mobile CO2 sources are assumed to be proportional to local traffic data and residential CO2 sources are assumed to depend exponentially on temperature. Vulcan data were used to specify the other anthropogenic sources (commercial, industrial, nonroad, electricity, aircraft, and cement). The MLR analysis shows that during the Thanksgiving holidays CO2 contributions from residential and commercial CO2 are larger than that during the rest of November, and mobile sources represent only a relatively small contribution. The study demonstrates the feasibility of detecting changes in urban source contributions using high-frequency measurements in combination with daily PBL height and local traffic volume data.

  9. Possible impacts of CO2 storage on the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poremski, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the potential impacts of deep-sea carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sequestration on the marine environment. The upper layers of oceans are currently saturated with CO 2 , while deeper ocean waters remain undersaturated. Arctic and Antarctic waters have higher uptake rates of CO 2 due to their lower temperatures. CO 2 deposited in Arctic and Antarctic waters sinks to the bottom of the ocean, and is then transported to equatorial latitudes, where stored amounts of CO 2 that are not fixed by biochemical processes will be released and enter the atmosphere again after a period of approximately 1000 years. Nearly 50 per cent of CO 2 fixation occurs as a result of phytoplankton growth, which is dependent on the availability of a range of nutrients, essential trace metals, and optimal physical conditions. Fertilization-induced CO 2 fixation in the sediments of southern oceans will result in nutrient depletion of bottom layers, which will in turn result in lower primary production levels at equatorial latitudes. Current modelling approaches to CO 2 injection assume that the injected CO 2 will dissolve in a plume extending 100 m around a riser. Retention times of several hundred years are anticipated. However, further research is needed to investigate the efficacy of CO 2 deep ocean storage technologies. Increased CO 2 uptake can also increase the formation of bicarbonate (HCO 3 ) acidification, decrease pH values, and inhibit the formation of biomass in addition to impacting on the calcification of many organisms. It was concluded that ocean storage by injection or deep storage is an untenable option at present due to the fact that the effects of excessive CO 2 in marine environments are not fully understood. 22 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Capture, transport and storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, B.

    2008-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gas CO2 in industrial processes and electricity production can be reduced on a large scale. Available techniques include post-combustion, pre-combustion, the oxy-fuel process, CO2 fixation in industrial processes and CO2 mineralization. In the Netherlands, plans for CO2 capture are not developing rapidly (CCS - carbon capture and storage). [mk] [nl

  11. Reduction of CO2 emissions by influencing fuel prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, M.; Zbinden, R.; Haan, P.; Gruetter, J.; Ott, W.

    2002-01-01

    The CO 2 law stipulates quantitative targets for CO 2 emissions (reductions of 10% by 2010 compared with 1990, 15% for heating fuels, 8% for motor fuels). For motor fuels, it is currently estimated that the target will be missed by about 15%, or 2 to 2.5 million tonnes of CO 2 . In order to reach the targets, therefore, all measures that can be taken to reduce emissions are to be checked out and, where sensible and possible, implemented too. The subject of this study is the preferential treatment of diesel, natural gas, liquefied gas and bio-fuels as far as taxation is concerned, with compensation of tax losses on the petrol side. Also, the possibilities for promoting energy-efficient cars are looked at. The reduction of the price for diesel (at least 25 Swiss cents when compensated for via the petrol price) is considered to be unsuitable for reaching the targets because, in the final analysis, fuel sales - the determining factor for the CO 2 emissions that are charged to Switzerland - will increase instead of decreasing. Also, reservations are expressed from the environmental point of view (increased NO x emissions and, in particular, emissions of particulate matter). The modified measure proposed (fixed difference between the prices for petrol and diesel of 25 Swiss cents, for example) is looked at less critically, because it does actually lead to a reduction of CO 2 , even if only a modest one (approx. 10% of the gap to be bridged). On the environmental side, the same reservations apply. Bonus-malus systems, on the other hand, permit a selective choice of the objects of promotion (efficient and, possibly, low-emission vehicles), avoid the unjust preferential treatment of goods traffic and can be implemented without disturbing international price structures (fuel tourism). A bonus-malus system applied at purchase (e.g. different levels of car taxation) is considered to be more efficient than a differentiation in vehicle (road) tax. The promotion of gas is a

  12. Leakage and Seepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO 2 may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO 2 leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO 2 overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO 2 bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s -1 at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s -1 . Liquid CO 2 bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO 2 bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO 2 and CH 4 at three different seepage rates reveals that

  13. RODZAJE METOD SEKWESTRACJI CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia LUBAŃSKA

    Full Text Available Z pojęciem ochrony środowiska wiąże się bardzo szeroko w ostatnim czasie omawiane zagadnienie dotyczące ograniczenia emisji CO2. Konsekwencją globalnych zmian klimatu wywołanego przez ludzi jest wzrost stężenia atmosferycznego gazów cieplarnianych, które powodują nasilający się efekt cieplarniany. Wzrasta na świecie liczba ludności, a co za tym idzie wzrasta konsumpcja na jednego mieszkańca, szczególnie w krajach szeroko rozwiniętych gospodarczo. Protokół z Kioto ściśle określa działania jakie należy podjąć w celu zmniejszenia stężenia dwutlenku węgla w atmosferze. Pomimo maksymalnej optymalizacji procesu spalania paliw kopalnianych wykorzystywanych do produkcji energii, zastosowania odnawialnych źródeł energii zmiana klimatu jest nieunikniona i konsekwentnie będzie postępować przez kolejne dekady. Prognozuje się, że duże znaczenie odegra nowoczesna technologia, która ma za zadanie wychwycenie CO2 a następnie składowanie go w odpowiednio wybranych formacjach geologicznych (CCS- Carbon Capture and Storage. Eksperci są zgodni, że ta technologia w niedalekiej przyszłości stanie się rozwiązaniem pozwalającym ograniczyć ogromną ilość emisji CO2 pochodzącą z procesów wytwarzania energii z paliw kopalnych. Z analiz Raportu IPCC wynika, iż technologia CSS może się przyczynić do ok. 20% redukcji emisji dwutlenku węgla przewidzianej do 2050 roku [3]. Zastosowanie jej napotyka na wiele barier, nie tylko technologicznych i ekonomicznych, ale także społecznych. Inną metodą dającą ujemne źródło emisji CO2 jest możliwość wykorzystania obszarów leśnych o odpowiedniej strukturze drzewostanu. Środkiem do tego celu, oprócz ograniczenia zużycia emisjogennych paliw kopalnych (przy zachowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju może być intensyfikacja zalesień. Zwiększanie lesistości i prawidłowa gospodarka leśna należy do najbardziej efektywnych sposobów kompensowania

  14. Reconsideration of atmospheric CO2 lifetime: potential mechanism for explaining CO2 missing sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, R.; Gorbacheva, T.; Gerardo, R.

    2009-04-01

    Carbon cycle data (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1996) indicate that fossil fuel use accounts for emissions to the atmosphere of 5.5±0.5 GtC (Gigatons of carbon) annually. Other important processes in the global CO2 budget are tropical deforestation, estimated to generate about 1.6±1.0 GtC/yr; absorption by the oceans, removing about 2.0±0.8 GtC/yr; and regrowth of northern forests, taking up about 0.5±0.5 GtC/yr. However, accurate measurements of CO2 show that the atmosphere is accumulating only about 3.3±0.2 GtC/yr. The imbalance of about 1.3±1.5 GtC/yr, termed the "missing sink", represents the difference between the estimated sources and the estimated sinks of CO2; that is, we do not know where all of the anthropogenic CO2 is going. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain this missing carbon, such as CO2 fertilization, climate change, nitrogen deposition, land use change, forest regrowth et al. Considering the complexity of ecosystem, most of ecosystem model cannot handle all the potential mechanisms to reproduce the real world. It has been believed that the dominant sink mechanism is the fertilizing effects of increased CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere and the addition to soils of fixed nitrogen from fossil-fuel burning and agricultural fertilizers. However, a recent analysis of long-term observations of the change in biomass and growth rates suggests that such fertilization effects are much too small to explain more than a small fraction of the observed sink. In addition, long-term experiments in which small forest patches and other land ecosystems have been exposed to elevated CO2 levels for extended periods show a rapid decrease of the fertilization effect after an initial enhancement. We will explore this question of the missing sink in atmospheric CO2 residence time. Radioactive and stable carbon isotopes (13-C/12-C) show the real CO2 lifetime is about 5 years; i.e. CO2 is quickly taken out of the atmospheric

  15. Dolomite decomposition under CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerfa, F.; Bensouici, F.; Barama, S.E.; Harabi, A.; Achour, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text.Dolomite (MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 is one of the most abundant mineral species on the surface of the planet, it occurs in sedimentary rocks. MgO, CaO and Doloma (Phase mixture of MgO and CaO, obtained from the mineral dolomite) based materials are attractive steel-making refractories because of their potential cost effectiveness and world wide abundance more recently, MgO is also used as protective layers in plasma screen manufacture ceel. The crystal structure of dolomite was determined as rhombohedral carbonates, they are layers of Mg +2 and layers of Ca +2 ions. It dissociates depending on the temperature variations according to the following reactions: MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + CaO + 2CO 2 .....MgCa (CO 3 ) 2 → MgO + Ca + CaCO 3 + CO 2 .....This latter reaction may be considered as a first step for MgO production. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) are used to control dolomite decomposition and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was used to elucidate thermal decomposition of dolomite according to the reaction. That required samples were heated to specific temperature and holding times. The average particle size of used dolomite powders is 0.3 mm, as where, the heating temperature was 700 degree celsius, using various holding times (90 and 120 minutes). Under CO 2 dolomite decomposed directly to CaCO 3 accompanied by the formation of MgO, no evidence was offered for the MgO formation of either CaO or MgCO 3 , under air, simultaneous formation of CaCO 3 , CaO and accompanied dolomite decomposition

  16. Tackling CO2 reduction in India through use of CO2 capture and storage (CCS): Prospects and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shackley, Simon; Verma, Preeti

    2008-01-01

    CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) is not currently a priority for the Government of India (GOI) because, whilst a signatory to the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, there are no existing greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and most commentators do not envisage compulsory targets for India in the post-2012 phase. The overwhelming priority for the GOI is to sustain a high level of economic growth (8%+) and provision of secure, reliable energy (especially electricity) is one of the widely recognised bottlenecks in maintaining a high growth rate. In such a supply-starved context, it is not easy to envisage adoption of CCS-which increases overall generation capacity and demand for coal without increasing actual electricity supply-as being acceptable. Anything which increases costs-even slightly-is very unlikely to happen, unless it is fully paid for by the international community. The majority viewpoint of the industry and GOI interviewees towards CCS appears to be that it is a frontier technology, which needs to be developed further in the Annex-1 countries to bring down the cost through RD and D and deployment. More RD and D is required to assess in further detail the potential for CO 2 storage in geological reservoirs in India and the international community has an important role to play in cultivating such research

  17. CO2 maximum in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ)

    OpenAIRE

    Paulmier, Aurélien; Ruiz-Pino, D.; Garcon, V.

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), known as suboxic layers which are mainly localized in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems, have been expanding since the 20th "high CO2" century, probably due to global warming. OMZs are also known to significantly contribute to the oceanic production of N2O, a greenhouse gas (GHG) more efficient than CO2. However, the contribution of the OMZs on the oceanic sources and sinks budget of CO2, the main GHG, still remains to be established. ...

  18. Predictive value of 14CO2 breath tests for clinical use of 13CO2 breath tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaubitt, D.M.H.

    1975-01-01

    The knowledge of the efficiency of 14 CO 2 breath tests makes possible the comparison of the efficiency of analogous tests using the stable isotope 13 C. 14 CO 2 exhalation studies render overall information. After parenteral administration of a 14 C labeled substrate, 14 CO 2 breath tests permit insight into the metabolism of the 14 C substrate and the associated intermediary metabolism. If the 14 C substrate is given orally or by intraduodenal instillation, 14 CO 2 breath tests supply information not only about gastrointenstinal absorption and digestion but also about the intermediary metabolism yielding 14 CO 2 , after the administered substrate or its degradation products have been absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. The fraction of 14 CO 2 arising from absorption, digestion and intermediary metabolism can be estimated only by additional methods. 14 CO 2 breath tests are unable to delineate single metabolic reactions involved in the formation of carbon dioxide. Under these considerations the clinical application of 14 CO 2 breath tests may provide diagnostically useful results, especially in internal medicine and surgery. The tests are suitable for intraindividual assessment of the course of a disease and of therapeutic effects. They may be important in the research of the metabolism of 14 C labeled substrates

  19. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  20. Feasibility of CO2 Sequestration as a Closure Option for Underground Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sutapa; Dey, Kaushik

    2018-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol, 1998, was signed by member countries to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to a minimum acceptable level. India agreed to Kyoto Protocol since 2002 and started its research on GHG mitigation. Few researchers have carried out research work on CO2 sequestration in different rock formations. However, CO2 sequestration in abandoned mines has yet not drawn its attention largely. In the past few years or decades, a significant amount of research and development has been done on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies, since it is a possible solution for assuring less emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from power plants and some other major industrial plants. CCS mainly involves three steps: (a) capture and compression of CO2 from source (power plants and industrial areas), (b) transportation of captured CO2 to the storage mine and (c) injecting CO2 into underground mine. CO2 is stored at an underground mine mainly in three forms: (1) adsorbed in the coals left as pillars of the mine, (2) absorbed in water through a chemical process and (3) filled in void with compressed CO2. Adsorption isotherm is a graph developed between the amounts of adsorbate adsorbed on the surface of adsorbent and the pressure at constant temperature. Various types of adsorption isotherms are available, namely, Freundlich, Langmuir and BET theory. Indian coal is different in origin from most of the international coal deposits and thus demands isotherm experiments of the same to arrive at the right adsorption isotherm. To carry out these experiments, adsorption isotherm set up is fabricated in the laboratory with a capacity to measure the adsorbed volume up to a pressure level of 100 bar. The coal samples are collected from the pillars and walls of the underground coal seam using a portable drill machine. The adsorption isotherm experiments have been carried out for the samples taken from a mine. From the adsorption isotherm experiments, Langmuir Equation is found to be

  1. Trading CO2 emission; Verhandelbaarheid van CO2-emissies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Waal, J.F.; Looijenga, A.; Moor, R.; Wissema, E.W.J. [Afdeling Energie, Ministerie van VROM, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2000-06-01

    Systems for CO2-emission trading can take many shapes as developments in Europe show. European developments for emission trading tend to comprehend cap and-trade systems for large emission sources. In the Netherlands a different policy is in preparation. A trading system for sheltered sectors with an option to buy reductions from exposed sectors will be further developed by a Commission, appointed by the minister of environment. Exposed sectors are committed to belong to the top of the world on the area of energy-efficiency. The authors point out that a cap on the distribution of energy carriers natural gas, electricity and fuel seems to be an interesting option to shape the trade scheme. A cap on the distribution of electricity is desirable, but not easy to implement. The possible success of the system depends partly on an experiment with emission reductions. 10 refs.

  2. CO2 point sources and subsurface storage capacities for CO2 in aquifers in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boee, Reidulv; Magnus, Christian; Osmundsen, Per Terje; Rindstad, Bjoern Ivar

    2002-01-01

    The GESTCO project comprises a study of the distribution and coincidence of thermal CO 2 emission sources and location/quality of geological storage capacity in Europe. Four of the most promising types of geological storage are being studied. 1. Onshore/offshore saline aquifers with or without lateral seal. 2. Low entalpy geothermal reservoirs. 3. Deep methane-bearing coal beds and abandoned coal and salt mines. 4. Exhausted or near exhausted hydrocarbon structures. In this report we present an inventory of CO 2 point sources in Norway (1999) and the results of the work within Study Area C: Deep saline aquifers offshore/near shore Northern and Central Norway. Also offshore/near shore Southern Norway has been included while the Barents Sea is not described in any detail. The most detailed studies are on the Tilje and Aare Formations on the Troendelag Platform off Mid-Norway and on the Sognefjord, Fensfjord and Krossfjord Formations, southeast of the Troll Field off Western Norway. The Tilje Formation has been chosen as one of the cases to be studied in greater detail (numerical modelling) in the project. This report shows that offshore Norway, there are concentrations of large CO 2 point sources in the Haltenbanken, the Viking Graben/Tampen Spur area, the Southern Viking Graben and the central Trough, while onshore Norway there are concentrations of point sources in the Oslofjord/Porsgrund area, along the coast of western Norway and in the Troendelag. A number of aquifers with large theoretical CO 2 storage potential are pointed out in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and in the Southern Barents Sea. The storage capacity in the depth interval 0.8 - 4 km below sea level is estimated to be ca. 13 Gt (13000000000 tonnes) CO 2 in geological traps (outside hydrocarbon fields), while the storage capacity in aquifers not confined to traps is estimated to be at least 280 Gt CO 2 . (Author)

  3. The possible evolution and future of CO2-concentrating mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A; Beardall, John; Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), based either on active transport of inorganic carbon (biophysical CCMs) or on biochemistry involving supplementary carbon fixation into C4 acids (C4 and CAM), play a major role in global primary productivity. However, the ubiquitous CO2-fixing enzyme in autotrophs, Rubisco, evolved at a time when atmospheric CO2 levels were very much higher than today and O2 was very low and, as CO2 and O2 approached (by no means monotonically), today's levels, at some time subsequently many organisms evolved a CCM that increased the supply of CO2 and decreased Rubisco oxygenase activity. Given that CO2 levels and other environmental factors have altered considerably between when autotrophs evolved and the present day, and are predicted to continue to change into the future, we here examine the drivers for, and possible timing of, evolution of CCMs. CCMs probably evolved when CO2 fell to 2-16 times the present atmospheric level, depending on Rubisco kinetics. We also assess the effects of other key environmental factors such as temperature and nutrient levels on CCM activity and examine the evidence for evolutionary changes in CCM activity and related cellular processes as well as limitations on continuity of CCMs through environmental variations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. CO2 como refrigerante: del pasado al futuro CO2 as refrigerant: from the past to future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Belman Flores

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available En años recientes y debido a la problemática que ha originado el calentamiento mundial, en el campo de la refrigeración y climatización se ha incrementado el interés por utilizar refrigerantes naturales e hidrocarburos con bajo potencial de calentamiento mundial, este es el caso de la utilización del CO2 como fluido frigorígeno que ha sido visto como una alter­nativa adecuada a los actuales refrigerantes en la comunidad científica. Hoy en día, el CO2 cada vez está retomando presencia en el campo de la refrigeración y climatización a nivel internacional, así pues, el presente trabajo tiene la finalidad de dar a conocer su potencial como refrigerante natural, las causas por las cuales este fluido fue relevado momentánea­mente por refrigerantes clorofluorocarbonados y su renacer en pleno siglo XXI. Además, se plantea su aplicación en la generación de frío en nuestro país mediante la tecnología de compresión de vapor basado en ciclo transcrítico.  In recent years, and due to problems resulting from global warming, interest has grown in the fields of refrigeration and air conditioning, specifically regarding the use of natural refrigerants and hydrocarbons with low potential for global warming. Such is the case of the use of CO2 as a cold fluid, which has been considered in the scientific community as an adequate alternative to common refrigerants. Nowadays, the use of CO2 in the areas of refrigeration and air conditioning has been recognized at international levels. Therefore, this work aims to show its potential as a natural refrigerant, the causes why this fluid was temporarily replaced by chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants, and its reappearance in the XXI century. It also proposes the use of CO2 in air conditioning in our country by using vapor compression technology, based on the transcritical cycle.

  5. Grey forecasting model for CO2 emissions: A Taiwan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiun-Sin; Liou, Fen-May; Huang, Chih-Pin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. → The CARMA indicates that the Taichung coal-fired power plants had the highest CO 2 emissions in the world. → GM(1,1) prediction accuracy is fairly high. → The results show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. -- Abstract: Among the various greenhouse gases associated with climate change, CO 2 is the most frequently implicated in global warming. The latest data from Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA) shows that the coal-fired power plant in Taichung, Taiwan emitted 39.7 million tons of CO 2 in 2007 - the highest of any power plant in the world. Based on statistics from Energy International Administration, the annual CO 2 emissions in Taiwan have increased 42% from 1997 until 2006. Taiwan has limited natural resources and relies heavily on imports to meet its energy needs, and the government must take serious measures control energy consumption to reduce CO 2 emissions. Because the latest data was from 2009, this study applied the grey forecasting model to estimate future CO 2 emissions in Taiwan from 2010 until 2012. Forecasts of CO 2 emissions in this study show that the average residual error of the GM(1,1) was below 10%. Overall, the GM(1,1) predicted further increases in CO 2 emissions over the next 3 years. Although Taiwan is not a member of the United Nations and is not bound by the Kyoto Protocol, the findings of this study provide a valuable reference with which the Taiwanese government could formulate measures to reduce CO 2 emissions by curbing the unnecessary the consumption of energy.

  6. Alberta industrial synergy CO2 programs initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, E.

    1998-01-01

    The various industrial sectors within Alberta produce about 350,000 tonnes of CO 2 per day. This presentation was concerned with how this large volume and high concentration of CO 2 can be used in industrial and agricultural applications, because every tonne of CO 2 used for such purposes is a tonne that does not end up in the atmosphere. There is a good potential for an industrial synergy between the producers and users of CO 2 . The Alberta Industrial Synergy CO 2 Programs Initiative was established to ultimately achieve a balance between the producers of CO 2 and the users of CO 2 by creating ways to use the massive quantities of CO 2 produced by Alberta's hydrocarbon-based economy. The Alberta CO 2 Research Steering Committee was created to initiate and support CO 2 programs such as: (1) CO 2 use in enhanced oil recovery, (2) creation of a CO 2 production inventory, (3) survey of CO 2 users and potential users, (4) investigation of process issues such as power generation, oil sands and cement manufacturing, and (5) biofixation by plants, (6) other disposal options (e.g. in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, in aquifers, in tailings ponds, in coal beds). The single most important challenge was identified as 'rationalizing the formation of the necessary infrastructure'. Failing to do that will greatly impede efforts directed towards CO 2 utilization

  7. Reduced plant nutrition under elevated CO2 depresses the immunocompetence of cotton bollworm against its endoparasite

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jin; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Estimating the immunocompetence of herbivore insects under elevated CO2 is an important step in understanding the effects of elevated CO2 on crop-herbivore-natural enemy interactions. Current study determined the effect of elevated CO2 on the immune response of Helicoverpa armigera against its parasitoid Microplitis mediator. H. armigera were reared in growth chambers with ambient or elevated CO2, and fed wheat grown in the concentration of CO2 corresponding to their treatment levels. Our res...

  8. Nuclear Power Generation and CO2 Abatement Scenarios in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Bin Huang; Fu-Kuang Ko

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan was the first country in Asia to announce "Nuclear-Free Homeland" in 2002. In 2008, the new government released the Sustainable Energy Policy Guidelines to lower the nationwide CO2 emissions some time between 2016 and 2020 back to the level of year 2008, further abatement of CO2 emissions is planed in year 2025 when CO2 emissions will decrease to the level of year 2000. Besides, under consideration of the issues of energy, environment and economics (3E), the new go...

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION (PCOR) PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O' Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

  10. Tuning of CO2 Reduction Selectivity on Metal Electrocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Liu, Junlang; Wang, Yifei; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2017-11-01

    Climate change, caused by heavy CO 2 emissions, is driving new demands to alleviate the rising concentration of atmospheric CO 2 levels. Enlightened by the photosynthesis of green plants, photo(electro)chemical catalysis of CO 2 reduction, also known as artificial photosynthesis, is emerged as a promising candidate to address these demands and is widely investigated during the past decade. Among various artificial photosynthetic systems, solar-driven electrochemical CO 2 reduction is widely recognized to possess high efficiencies and potentials for practical application. The efficient and selective electroreduction of CO 2 is the key to the overall solar-to-chemical efficiency of artificial photosynthesis. Recent studies show that various metallic materials possess the capability to play as electrocatalysts for CO 2 reduction. In order to achieve high selectivity for CO 2 reduction products, various efforts are made including studies on electrolytes, crystal facets, oxide-derived catalysts, electronic and geometric structures, nanostructures, and mesoscale phenomena. In this Review, these methods for tuning the selectivity of CO 2 electrochemical reduction of metallic catalysts are summarized. The challenges and perspectives in this field are also discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. CO2 leakage monitoring and analysis to understand the variation of CO2 concentration in vadose zone by natural effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joun, Won-Tak; Ha, Seung-Wook; Kim, Hyun Jung; Ju, YeoJin; Lee, Sung-Sun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Controlled ex-situ experiments and continuous CO2 monitoring in the field are significant implications for detecting and monitoring potential leakage from CO2 sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to understand the observed parameters because the natural disturbance will fluctuate the signal of detections in given local system. To identify the original source leaking from sequestration reservoir and to distinguish the camouflaged signal of CO2 concentration, the artificial leakage test was conducted in shallow groundwater environment and long-term monitoring have been performed. The monitoring system included several parameters such as pH, temperature, groundwater level, CO2 gas concentration, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, borehole pressure, and rainfall event etc. Especially in this study, focused on understanding a relationship among the CO2 concentration, wind speed, rainfall and pressure difference. The results represent that changes of CO2 concentration in vadose zone could be influenced by physical parameters and this reason is helpful in identifying the camouflaged signal of CO2 concentrations. The 1-D column laboratory experiment also was conducted to understand the sparking-peak as shown in observed data plot. The results showed a similar peak plot and could consider two assumptions why the sparking-peak was shown. First, the trapped CO2 gas was escaped when the water table was changed. Second, the pressure equivalence between CO2 gas and water was broken when the water table was changed. These field data analysis and laboratory experiment need to advance due to comprehensively quantify local long-term dynamics of the artificial CO2 leaking aquifer. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  12. Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Prowe, Friederike

    2013-01-01

    [1] High biological activity causes a distinct seasonality of surface water pH in the North Sea, which is a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 via an effective shelf pump. The intimate connection between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean suggests that the variability of the CO2 system...... of the North Atlantic Ocean may, in part, be responsible for the observed variability of pH and CO2 in the North Sea. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant climate mode for the North Atlantic, in governing this variability. Based on three extensive...... observational records covering the relevant levels of the NAO index, we provide evidence that the North Sea pH and CO2 system strongly responds to external and internal expressions of the NAO. Under positive NAO, the higher rates of inflow of water from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic outflow lead...

  13. PEAT-CO2. Assessment of CO2 emissions from drained peatlands in SE Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooijer, A.; Silvius, M.; Woesten, H.; Page, S.

    2006-12-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in SE Asia store at least 42,000 Megatonnes of soil carbon. This carbon is increasingly released to the atmosphere due to drainage and fires associated with plantation development and logging. Peatlands make up 12% of the SE Asian land area but account for 25% of current deforestation. Out of 27 million hectares of peatland, 12 million hectares (45%) are currently deforested and mostly drained. One important crop in drained peatlands is palm oil, which is increasingly used as a biofuel in Europe. In the PEAT-CO2 project, present and future emissions from drained peatlands were quantified using the latest data on peat extent and depth, present and projected land use and water management practice, decomposition rates and fire emissions. It was found that current likely CO2 emissions caused by decomposition of drained peatlands amounts to 632 Mt/y (between 355 and 874 Mt/y). This emission will increase in coming decades unless land management practices and peatland development plans are changed, and will continue well beyond the 21st century. In addition, over 1997-2006 an estimated average of 1400 Mt/y in CO2 emissions was caused by peatland fires that are also associated with drainage and degradation. The current total peatland CO2 emission of 2000 Mt/y equals almost 8% of global emissions from fossil fuel burning. These emissions have been rapidly increasing since 1985 and will further increase unless action is taken. Over 90% of this emission originates from Indonesia, which puts the country in 3rd place (after the USA and China) in the global CO2 emission ranking. It is concluded that deforested and drained peatlands in SE Asia are a globally significant source of CO2 emissions and a major obstacle to meeting the aim of stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions, as expressed by the international community. It is therefore recommended that international action is taken to help SE Asian countries, especially Indonesia, to better conserve

  14. CO2 emission reduction strategy and roles of nuclear energy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Osamu; Shimoda, Makoto; Takematsu, Kenji; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro

    1999-03-01

    An analysis was made on the potential and cost of reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from Japan's long-term energy systems by using the MARKAL model, developed in the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of International Energy Agency (IEA). Assuming future growths of GDP, the demand for energy services was estimated for the analytical time horizon 1990-2050. Assumptions were made also on prices and availability of fossil fuels, and on availability of nuclear and renewable energy. CO 2 emissions and system costs were compared between energy demand and supply scenarios defined with different assumptions on nuclear energy, a CO 2 disposal option, and natural gas imports. Main results were as follows. Without nuclear energy, the CO 2 emissions will hardly be reduced because of the increases of coal utilization. CO 2 disposal will be effective in reducing the emissions, however at much higher costs than the case with nuclear energy. The expansion of natural gas imports alone will not reduce the emissions at enough low levels. (author)

  15. Investigation of CO2 emission reduction strategy from in-use gasoline vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arti; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-04-01

    On road transport emissions is kicking off in Indian cities due to high levels of urbanization and economic growth during the last decade in Indian subcontinent. In 1951, about 17% of India's population were living in urban areas that increased to 32% in 2011. Currently, India is fourth largest Green House Gas (GHG) emitter in the world, with its transport sector being the second largest contributor of CO2 emissions. For achieving prospective carbon reduction targets, substantial opportunity among in-use vehicle is necessary to quantify. Since, urban traffic flow and operating condition has significant impact on exhaust emission (Choudhary and Gokhale, 2016). This study examined the influence of vehicular operating kinetics on CO2 emission from predominant private transportation vehicles of Indian metropolitan city, Guwahati. On-board instantaneous data were used to quantify the impact of CO2 emission on different mileage passenger cars and auto-rickshaws at different times of the day. Further study investigates CO2 emission reduction strategies by using International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model to improve co-benefit in private transportation by integrated effort such as gradual phase-out of inefficient vehicle and low carbon fuel. The analysis suggests that fuel type, vehicles maintenance and traffic flow management have potential for reduction of urban sector GHG emissions. Keywords: private transportation, CO2, instantaneous emission, IVE model Reference Choudhary, A., Gokhale, S. (2016). Urban real-world driving traffic emissions during interruption and congestion. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment 43: 59-70.

  16. Air-ice CO2 fluxes and pCO2 dynamics in the Arctic coastal area (Amundsen Gulf, Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilfus, Nicolas-Xavier; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier; Else, Brent; Borges, Alberto V.; Thomas, Helmuth; Shadwick, Elizabeth; Delille, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    driven by the air-ice pCO2 gradient. Hence, while the temperature is a leading factor in controlling magnitude of air-ice CO2 fluxes, pCO2 of the ice controls both magnitude and direction of fluxes. However, pCO2 in Arctic is significantly higher than in Antarctica. This difference could be due to a higher level of organic matter in Arctic. The degradation of this organic matter fuel CO2 efflux from the ice to the atmosphere in early spring. We observed evidence of CaCO3 precipitation, but only at the top of the ice. Implications in term of air-ice CO2 transfer of such CaCO3 precipitation will be discussed. In addition, salt-rich snow appears to strongly affect air-ice CO2 fluxes in the arctic. Borges, A. V., et al. (2006), Carbon dioxide in European coastal waters, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci., 70(3), 375-387.

  17. Elevated CO2 and O3 Levels Influence the Uptake and Leaf Concentration of Mineral N, P, K in Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. and Oligostachyum lubricum (wen King f.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghao Zhuang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rising CO2 and O3 concentrations significantly affect plant growth and can alter nutrient cycles. However, the effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on the nutrient dynamics of bamboo species are not well understood. In this study, using open top chambers (OTCs, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on leaf biomass and nutrient (N, P, and K dynamics in two bamboo species, Phyllostachys edulis (Carrière J.Houz. and Oligostachyum lubricum (wen King f. Elevated O3 significantly decreased leaf biomass and nutrient uptake of both bamboo species, with the exception of no observed change in K uptake by O. lubricum. Elevated CO2 increased leaf biomass, N and K uptake of both bamboo species. Elevated CO2 and O3 simultaneously had no significant influence on leaf biomass of either species but decreased P and N uptake in P. edulis and O. lubricum, respectively, and increased K uptake in O. lubricum. The results indicate that elevated CO2 alleviated the damage caused by elevated O3 in the two bamboo species by altering the uptake of certain nutrients, which further highlights the potential interactive effects between the two gases on nutrient uptake. In addition, we found differential responses of nutrient dynamics in the two bamboo species to the two elevated gases, alone or in combination. These findings will facilitate the development of effective nutrient management strategies for sustainable management of P. edulis and O. lubricum under global change scenarios.

  18. Numerical simulation of CO2 leakage from a geologic disposal reservoir, including transitions from super- to sub-critical conditions, and boiling of liquid of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruess, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    The critical point of CO 2 is at temperature and pressure conditions of T crit = 31.04 C, P crit = 73.82 bar. At lower (subcritical) temperatures and/or pressures, CO 2 can exist in two different phase states, a liquid and a gaseous state, as well as in two-phase mixtures of these states. Disposal of CO 2 into brine formations would be made at supercritical pressures. However, CO 2 escaping from the storage reservoir may migrate upwards towards regions with lower temperatures and pressures, where CO 2 would be in subcritical conditions. An assessment of the fate of leaking CO 2 requires a capability to model not only supercritical but also subcritical CO 2 , as well as phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO 2 in sub-critical conditions. We have developed a methodology for numerically simulating the behavior of water-CO 2 mixtures in permeable media under conditions that may include liquid, gaseous, and supercritical CO 2 . This has been applied to simulations of leakage from a deep storage reservoir in which a rising CO 2 plume undergoes transitions from supercritical to subcritical conditions. We find strong cooling effects when liquid CO 2 rises to elevations where it begins to boil and evolve a gaseous CO 2 phase. A three-phase zone forms (aqueous - liquid - gas), which over time becomes several hundred meters thick as decreasing temperatures permit liquid CO 2 to advance to shallower elevations. Fluid mobilities are reduced in the three-phase region from phase interference effects. This impedes CO 2 upflow, causes the plume to spread out laterally, and gives rise to dispersed CO 2 discharge at the land surface. Our simulation suggests that temperatures along a CO 2 leakage path may decline to levels low enough so that solid water ice and CO 2 hydrate phases may be formed

  19. ISLSCP II Globalview: Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GlobalView Carbon Dioxide (CO2) data product contains synchronized and smoothed time series of atmospheric CO2 concentrations at selected sites that were created...

  20. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D.

    1995-01-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO 2 levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO 2 Commercial CO 2 capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO 2 is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO 2 disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO 2 . The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO 2 is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO 2 concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO 2 injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO 2 will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996

  1. Optimization of pipeline transport for CO2 sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.X.; Wang, G.X.; Massarotto, P.; Rudolph, V.

    2006-01-01

    Coal fired power generation will continue to provide energy to the world for the foreseeable future. However, this energy use is a significant contributor to increased atmospheric CO 2 concentration and, hence, global warming. Capture and disposal of CO 2 has received increased R and D attention in the last decade as the technology promises to be the most cost effective for large scale reductions in CO 2 emissions. This paper addresses CO 2 transport via pipeline from capture site to disposal site, in terms of system optimization, energy efficiency and overall economics. Technically, CO 2 can be transported through pipelines in the form of a gas, a supercritical fluid or in the subcooled liquid state. Operationally, most CO 2 pipelines used for enhanced oil recovery transport CO 2 as a supercritical fluid. In this paper, supercritical fluid and subcooled liquid transport are examined and compared, including their impacts on energy efficiency and cost. Using a commercially available process simulator, ASPEN PLUS 10.1, the results show that subcooled liquid transport maximizes the energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO 2 transport over long distances under both isothermal and adiabatic conditions. Pipeline transport of subcooled liquid CO 2 can be ideally used in areas of cold climate or by burying and insulating the pipeline. In very warm climates, periodic refrigeration to cool the CO 2 below its critical point of 31.1 o C, may prove economical. Simulations have been used to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of inlet pressure, environmental temperature and ground level heat flux conditions

  2. Changes in CO2 emission intensities in the Mexican industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Domingo; Martínez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A CO 2 emission intensity analysis in the Mexican industry from 1965 to 2010 is carried out by taking into consideration four stages: 1965–1982, 1982–1994, 1994–2003, and 2004–2010. Based on the LMDI decomposition methodology, three influencing factors are analyzed: energy intensity, CO 2 coefficient, and structure in terms of their contributions of each individual attributes to the overall percent change of them as it was proposed in Choi and Ang (2011). The energy intensity effect was the driving factor behind the main decreases of CO 2 intensity, the CO 2 coefficient effect contributed to less extent to mitigate it, and the structure effect tended to increased it. It is observed that CO 2 intensity declined by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003, but it increased by 10.1% from 2004 to 2010. In addition, the move of Mexico from an economic model based on import-substitution to an export-oriented economy brought more importance to the Mexican industry intended to export, thus maintaining high levels of activity of industries such as cement, iron and steel, chemical, and petrochemical, while industries such as automotive, and ‘other’ industries grown significantly not only as far their energy consumptions and related CO 2 emissions but they also increased their contributions to the national economy. - Highlights: ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was reduced by 26.2% from 1965 to 2003. ► Industrial CO 2 emission intensity was increased by 10.1% from 2003 to 2010. ► 1965–2003: Intensity effect took down CO 2 emission intensity. ► 2003–2010: Export-oriented industries raised CO 2 emission intensity.

  3. Renewable energy and CO_2 abatement in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcantonini, Claudio; Valero, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    In order to combat global warming, Italy has committed to reduce its CO_2 emissions. To this end, it has significantly encouraged renewable energy development through a variety of support schemes, ranging from green certificates to feed-in and premium tariffs. As a result, the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, in particular from solar and wind energy, has risen considerably over the past years. In this paper we review the Italian support schemes for wind and solar energy and estimate the cost of abating CO_2 emissions by generating electricity from these two sources of energy for the period 2008–2011. The results show that the average costs for wind were around 165 €/tCO_2. For solar, they were much higher, around 1000 €/tCO_2, as solar energy received much higher remunerations than wind energy. These costs were much higher than in Germany. This was due to the differences between the level of incentives and the different power systems. - Highlights: • We estimate the cost of reducing CO_2 emissions by wind and solar energy in Italy in 2008–2011. • The average costs for wind were around 165 €/tCO_2. • The average costs for solar were much higher, around 1000 €/tCO_2. • Those costs were much higher than in Germany. • This was due to the differences in the levels of incentives and to the different power systems.

  4. Bioelectrochemical conversion of CO2 to chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bajracharya, Suman; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Strik, David P.B.T.B.; Pant, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    The recent concept of microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has evolved as an electricity-driven production technology for chemicals from low-value carbon dioxide (CO2) using micro-organisms as biocatalysts. MES from CO2 comprises bioelectrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon organic compounds

  5. A multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO model to study an international market of CO2 emission permits. A detailed analysis of a burden sharing strategy among the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Barreto, L.; Bueeler, B.; Kypreos, S.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (mMM) model and associated solution techniques have been actively continued during the first year (July 1996 - June 1997) of the IEA/ETSAP/Annex VI. This has been a joint research effort between: - the Systems Analysis Section of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), - the Inst. for Operations Research (IFOR) of the Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology at Zurich, - the Logistics Lab. (Logilab) of the Univ. of Geneva, and - the different ETSAP partners that provide the regional MARKAL-MACRO (MM) models. This report intends to give an update on the development of mMM and associated solution techniques, highlighting the progress made since July 1996. It details also first JI study performed with mMM. The mMM model enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through a market of emission permits, and to evaluate the economic implications of co-ordinating abatement policies on the participating regions. Along with emission permits, the regions may exchange other goods. So far, only an aggregate good in monetary unit has been considered. The mMM model integrates regional MM models into a meta-modelling framework. This integration can be done following two equivalent alternatives: mMM can be formulated either with market equilibrium conditions, or with an aggregated utility function and a global excess constraint. In both alternatives, regional MM models have to be extended by coherent budget and/or trade relationships. A first coding of a mMM model with three countries had been done in GAMS. Work has been done to generalise this coding to consider more traded goods and more countries. To solve mMM, two alternative mathematical methods can be used. The first one considers mMM formulated with market equilibrium conditions, and solves it as a variational inequality problem using a cutting plane algorithm. The second one considers mMM formulated with an aggregated utility

  6. Possibilities for reducing CO2 emissions by rational energy used as viewed by enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preuss, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    From the view of the industry, energy conservation offers many options for CO 2 reduction. CO 2 reduction in electric power generation is particularly important. The global CO 2 problem cannot be solved by any single measure, but international efforts are required in all production and consumption sectors. Providing energy for the growing world population while at the same time reducing CO 2 is one of the biggest challenges ever faced by mankind. (orig./UA) [de

  7. Analysis of ex situ processes of CO2 sequestration. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touze, S.; Bourgeois, F.; Baranger, P.; Durst, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to bring quantitative elements to evaluate the validation of the CO 2 mineral sequestration to limit the greenhouse effect gases. This analysis aims to calculate the CO 2 accounting of the system (internal energy production balance the energy expend) sequestrated CO 2 and produced CO 2 . The first part detailed the possible experimental solutions. Then two carbonation processes, direct and indirect, have been chosen of the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  8. The greenhouse effect and the amount of CO2 emissions in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, Gh.

    1992-01-01

    In order to reduce the CO 2 emissions, responsible by the greenhouse effect on Terra, an international control for monitoring them is to be instated. The development of methods for reducing the CO 2 emissions, implies the identification and evaluation of the CO 2 sources, the forecasting of probable evolution of the CO 2 emissions, and also the assessment of the economic impact. This paper tries to accomplish such an evaluation and to draft several scenarios for reduction of the CO 2 emissions. Also considerations about the suitability of the Romanian adhesion to the international treaties regarding the greenhouse effect monitoring are presented. (author). 7 tabs

  9. Tritium removal by CO2 laser heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Mueller, D.

    1997-10-01

    Efficient techniques for rapid tritium removal will be necessary for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) to meet its physics and engineering goals. One potential technique is transient surface heating by a scanning CO 2 or Nd:YAG laser that would release tritium without the severe engineering difficulties of bulk heating of the vessel. The authors have modeled the heat propagation into a surface layer and find that a multi-kW/cm 2 flux with an exposure time of order 10 msec is suitable to heat a 50 micron co-deposited layer to 1,000--2,000 degrees. Improved wall conditioning may be a significant side benefit. They identify remaining issues that need to be addressed experimentally

  10. US calls for CO2 cut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1996-01-01

    The US Government has outraged energy-intensive industries by calling for an international agreement to reduce global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases. In a clear policy shift, the US--the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases and not previously an advocate of curbing them--says it now intends to lead moves to prevent global warming. At last week's Second Conference of the Parties (COP-2) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), US Undersecretary for Global Affairs Timothy Wirth called for open-quotes an agreement that sets a realistic, verifiable, and binding medium-term emissions target.close quotes Individual countries should be free to choose how to meet targets, and the US favors market-based mechanisms, he says. open-quotes Climate change is a serious problem and will require sustained long-term investment to be addressed successfully,close quotes Wirth says

  11. Integrated system for capturing CO2 as feedstock for algae production: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2016, 14-18 November 2016, Lausanne, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Könst, P.M.; Hernandez Mireles, I.; Stel, R.W. van der; Os, P.M van; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2017-01-01

    In view of its promise as sustainable process for CO2 capture and its potential in the production of feed, food and natural high value products such as omega-3 fatty acids and anti-oxidants such as astaxanthin, large scale algae cultivation is gaining commercial interest. Currently, most systems are

  12. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  13. A multinational model for CO2 reduction: defining boundaries of future CO2 emissions in nine countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, Tom; Hill, Douglas.

    1996-01-01

    A need to make substantial future reductions in greenhouse gas emissions would require major changes in national energy systems. Nine industrialized countries have explored the technical boundaries of CO 2 emission restrictions during the next 40 to 50 years using comparable scenario assumptions and a standard model, MARKAL. Quantitative results for the countries are shown side by side in a set of energy maps that compare the least-cost evolution of the national energy systems by the main factors that contribute to CO 2 emissions. The ability to restrict future CO 2 emissions and the most cost-effective measures for doing so differ among the countries; an international agreement that would mandate substantial emission restrictions among countries by an equal percentage reduction is clearly impossible. The results are a first step toward a basis for allocating such international reductions, and the multinational process by which they were produced provides an example for further international greenhouse gas abatement costing studies. (Author)

  14. Effect of Mineral Dissolution/Precipitation and CO2 Exsolution on CO2 transport in Geological Carbon Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruina; Li, Rong; Ma, Jin; He, Di; Jiang, Peixue

    2017-09-19

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) in deep saline aquifers is an effective means for storing carbon dioxide to address global climate change. As the time after injection increases, the safety of storage increases as the CO 2 transforms from a separate phase to CO 2 (aq) and HCO 3 - by dissolution and then to carbonates by mineral dissolution. However, subsequent depressurization could lead to dissolved CO 2 (aq) escaping from the formation water and creating a new separate phase which may reduce the GCS system safety. The mineral dissolution and the CO 2 exsolution and mineral precipitation during depressurization change the morphology, porosity, and permeability of the porous rock medium, which then affects the two-phase flow of the CO 2 and formation water. A better understanding of these effects on the CO 2 -water two-phase flow will improve predictions of the long-term CO 2 storage reliability, especially the impact of depressurization on the long-term stability. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on the effect of CO 2 exsolution and mineral dissolution/precipitation on CO 2 transport in GCS reservoirs. We place emphasis on understanding the behavior and transformation of the carbon components in the reservoir, including CO 2 (sc/g), CO 2 (aq), HCO 3 - , and carbonate minerals (calcite and dolomite), highlight their transport and mobility by coupled geochemical and two-phase flow processes, and consider the implications of these transport mechanisms on estimates of the long-term safety of GCS. We describe experimental and numerical pore- and core-scale methods used in our lab in conjunction with industrial and international partners to investigate these effects. Experimental results show how mineral dissolution affects permeability, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, which are important phenomena affecting the input parameters for reservoir flow modeling. The porosity and the absolute permeability increase when CO 2 dissolved water is

  15. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-01-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  16. Neutron diffraction study of the inverse spinels Co2TiO4 and Co2SnO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, S.; Reehuis, M.; Maljuk, A.; Hoser, A.; Hoffmann, J.-U.; Weise, B.; Waske, A.; Krautz, M.; Joshi, D. C.; Nayak, S.; Ghosh, S.; Suresh, P.; Dasari, K.; Wurmehl, S.; Prokhnenko, O.; Büchner, B.

    2017-10-01

    We report a detailed single-crystal and powder neutron diffraction study of Co2TiO4 and Co2SnO4 between the temperature 1.6 and 80 K to probe the spin structure in the ground state. For both compounds the strongest magnetic intensity was observed for the (111)M reflection due to ferrimagnetic ordering, which sets in below TN=48.6 and 41 K for Co2TiO4 and Co2SnO4 , respectively. An additional low intensity magnetic reflection (200)M was noticed in Co2TiO4 due to the presence of an additional weak antiferromagnetic component. Interestingly, from both the powder and single-crystal neutron data of Co2TiO4 , we noticed a significant broadening of the magnetic (111)M reflection, which possibly results from the disordered character of the Ti and Co atoms on the B site. Practically, the same peak broadening was found for the neutron powder data of Co2SnO4 . On the other hand, from our single-crystal neutron diffraction data of Co2TiO4 , we found a spontaneous increase of particular nuclear Bragg reflections below the magnetic ordering temperature. Our data analysis showed that this unusual effect can be ascribed to the presence of anisotropic extinction, which is associated to a change of the mosaicity of the crystal. In this case, it can be expected that competing Jahn-Teller effects acting along different crystallographic axes can induce anisotropic local strain. In fact, for both ions Ti3 + and Co3 +, the 2 tg levels split into a lower dx y level yielding a higher twofold degenerate dx z/dy z level. As a consequence, one can expect a tetragonal distortion in Co2TiO4 with c /a <1 , which we could not significantly detect in the present work.

  17. Is an increased elderly population related to decreased CO2 emissions from road transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the potential effects of an increase in the share of aged population on the environmental impacts of road transportation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, this paper empirically analyzes whether there is a relationship between the share of aged population and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from road transportation by applying a quadratic function. Using international panel data, it also addresses the level of the turning point in the relationships between the share of aged population and CO 2 emissions. The analysis in this paper uses a first-order differential equation to estimate an inverted U-shaped relationship between them in order to alleviate the unit roots issue. The results from 25 OECD countries, consisting mainly of European countries and Japan, indicate that there is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of aged population, and that the turning point is around 16 percent. The results also imply that a relative increase in the number of elderly people is associated with a decrease in CO 2 emissions per capita from the road sector when the share of aged population reaches more than 16 percent. - Highlights: ► I estimate the relationship between a country's share of elderly population and CO 2 emissions from road transport. ► In order to alleviate the unit roots issue, the analysis uses a first-order differential equation to estimate models. ► There is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of elderly. ► The level of the turning point in terms of the share of elderly in OECD European countries and Japan is around 16 percent.

  18. Residual CO2 trapping in Indiana limestone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maghraby, Rehab M; Blunt, Martin J

    2013-01-02

    We performed core flooding experiments on Indiana limestone using the porous plate method to measure the amount of trapped CO(2) at a temperature of 50 °C and two pressures: 4.2 and 9 MPa. Brine was mixed with CO(2) for equilibration, then the mixture was circulated through a sacrificial core. Porosity and permeability tests conducted before and after 884 h of continuous core flooding confirmed negligible dissolution. A trapping curve for supercritical (sc)CO(2) in Indiana showing the relationship between the initial and residual CO(2) saturations was measured and compared with that of gaseous CO(2). The results were also compared with scCO(2) trapping in Berea sandstone at the same conditions. A scCO(2) residual trapping end point of 23.7% was observed, indicating slightly less trapping of scCO(2) in Indiana carbonates than in Berea sandstone. There is less trapping for gaseous CO(2) (end point of 18.8%). The system appears to be more water-wet under scCO(2) conditions, which is different from the trend observed in Berea; we hypothesize that this is due to the greater concentration of Ca(2+) in brine at higher pressure. Our work indicates that capillary trapping could contribute to the immobilization of CO(2) in carbonate aquifers.

  19. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2018-05-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO 2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO 2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO 2 removal capacity. CO 2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO 2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO 2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO 2 removal.

  20. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  1. Quotum for CO2. Trading system in preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Weijden, C.; Dingenen, S.

    2002-01-01

    CO2 emission rights trading is one of the most promising tools for limiting the release of CO2 in the short term. While development of a trading system continues at the European Union level, the Netherlands is working on a system of its own, which will differ from its European counterpart in various critical respects. Although the Netherlands is likely to be one of the main beneficiaries of emission trading, the nation nevertheless has an obligation to pursue technical innovation [nl

  2. Extraction of stevia glycosides with CO2 + water, CO2 + ethanol, and CO2 + water + ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pasquel

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia leaves are an important source of natural sugar substitute. There are some restrictions on the use of stevia extract because of its distinctive aftertaste. Some authors attribute this to soluble material other than the stevia glycosides, even though it is well known that stevia glycosides have to some extent a bitter taste. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to develop a process to obtain stevia extract of a better quality. The proposed process includes two steps: i Pretreatment of the leaves by SCFE; ii Extraction of the stevia glycosides by SCFE using CO2 as solvent and water and/or ethanol as cosolvent. The mean total yield for SCFE pretreatment was 3.0%. The yields for SCFE with cosolvent of stevia glycosides were below 0.50%, except at 120 bar, 16°C, and 9.5% (molar of water. Under this condition, total yield was 3.4%. The quality of the glycosidic fraction with respect to its capacity as sweetener was better for the SCFE extract as compared to extract obtained by the conventional process. The overall extraction curves were well described by the Lack extended model.

  3. Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade. The effects of sector aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bin; Huang, H.C.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, P.

    2010-01-01

    Energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade have been widely studied by researchers using the input-output analysis framework. These studies are often conducted at a specific level of sector aggregation and the choice made to a large extent is dictated by economic and energy data availability. We investigate analytically the possible effects of sector aggregation on the study results. We conduct empirical studies using the data of China and Singapore where energy-related CO 2 emissions embodied in their exports are estimated at different levels of sector aggregation. A finding from the studies is that levels around 40 sectors appear to be sufficient to capture the overall share of emissions embodied in a country's exports. Another finding is that in approximating the 'ideal' situation the hybrid data treatment approach produces better results than the uniformly distributed data treatment approach. Other findings and some recommendations are also presented. (author)

  4. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  5. Variability in soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux across riparian-hillslope transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent Jerald. Pacific

    2007-01-01

    The spatial and temporal controls on soil CO2 production and surface CO2 efflux have been identified as an outstanding gap in our understanding of carbon cycling. I investigated both the spatial and temporal variability of soil CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 efflux across eight topographically distinct riparian-hillslope transitions in the ~300 ha subalpine upper-...

  6. CO2 flux from Javanese mud volcanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, M; Burton, M R; Arzilli, F; Chiarugi, A; Marliyani, G I; Anggara, F; Harijoko, A

    2017-06-01

    Studying the quantity and origin of CO 2 emitted by back-arc mud volcanoes is critical to correctly model fluid-dynamical, thermodynamical, and geochemical processes that drive their activity and to constrain their role in the global geochemical carbon cycle. We measured CO 2 fluxes of the Bledug Kuwu mud volcano on the Kendeng Fold and thrust belt in the back arc of Central Java, Indonesia, using scanning remote sensing absorption spectroscopy. The data show that the expelled gas is rich in CO 2 with a volume fraction of at least 16 vol %. A lower limit CO 2 flux of 1.4 kg s -1 (117 t d -1 ) was determined, in line with the CO 2 flux from the Javanese mud volcano LUSI. Extrapolating these results to mud volcanism from the whole of Java suggests an order of magnitude total CO 2 flux of 3 kt d -1 , comparable with the expected back-arc efflux of magmatic CO 2 . After discussing geochemical, geological, and geophysical evidence we conclude that the source of CO 2 observed at Bledug Kuwu is likely a mixture of thermogenic, biogenic, and magmatic CO 2 , with faulting controlling potential pathways for magmatic fluids. This study further demonstrates the merit of man-portable active remote sensing instruments for probing natural gas releases, enabling bottom-up quantification of CO 2 fluxes.

  7. Modeling of CO2 storage in aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savioli, Gabriela B; Santos, Juan E

    2011-01-01

    Storage of CO 2 in geological formations is a means of mitigating the greenhouse effect. Saline aquifers are a good alternative as storage sites due to their large volume and their common occurrence in nature. The first commercial CO 2 injection project is that of the Sleipner field in the Utsira Sand aquifer (North Sea). Nevertheless, very little was known about the effectiveness of CO 2 sequestration over very long periods of time. In this way, numerical modeling of CO 2 injection and seismic monitoring is an important tool to understand the behavior of CO 2 after injection and to make long term predictions in order to prevent CO 2 leaks from the storage into the atmosphere. The description of CO 2 injection into subsurface formations requires an accurate fluid-flow model. To simulate the simultaneous flow of brine and CO 2 we apply the Black-Oil formulation for two phase flow in porous media, which uses the PVT data as a simplified thermodynamic model. Seismic monitoring is modeled using Biot's equations of motion describing wave propagation in fluid-saturated poroviscoelastic solids. Numerical examples of CO 2 injection and time-lapse seismics using data of the Utsira formation show the capability of this methodology to monitor the migration and dispersal of CO 2 after injection.

  8. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-05-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has long been regarded as the major greenhouse gas, which leads to numerous negative effects on global environment. The capture and separation of CO2 by selective adsorption using porous materials proves to be an effective way to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs with high CO2 adsorption capacities and CO2/N2 selectivities for post-combustion effluent (e.g. flue gas) treatment. We will also exploit the correlation between the CO2 capture performance of POPs and their textual properties/functionalities. Chapters Two focuses on the study of a group of porous phenolic-aldehyde polymers (PPAPs) synthesized by a catalyst-free method, the CO2 capture capacities of these PPAPs exceed 2.0 mmol/g at 298 K and 1 bar, while keeping CO2/N2 selectivity of more than 30 at the same time. Chapter Three reports the gas adsorption results of different hyper-cross-linked polymers (HCPs), which indicate that heterocyclo aromatic monomers can greatly enhance polymers’ CO2/N2 selectivities, and the N-H bond is proved to the active CO2 adsorption center in the N-contained (e.g. pyrrole) HCPs, which possess the highest selectivities of more than 40 at 273 K when compared with other HCPs. Chapter Four emphasizes on the chemical modification of a new designed polymer of intrinsic microporosity (PIM) with high CO2/N2 selectivity (50 at 273 K), whose experimental repeatability and chemical stability prove excellent. In Chapter Five, we demonstrate an improvement of both CO2 capture capacity and CO2/N2 selectivity by doping alkali metal ions into azo-polymers, which leads a promising method to the design of new porous organic polymers.

  9. International Emission Trading Systems: Trade Level and Political Acceptability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, J-T.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    , at the international level, industrial lobbyism was non-significant. Only the 'fossil fuel lobby' played a role. Third, at the national level, one could expect strong political opposition from industry lobbies in case quotas are actually to be distributed at firm level. But trade among countries may benefit industry...

  10. CO2 emission inventories for Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas compared with European cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wei; Pagani, Roberto; Huang Lei

    2012-01-01

    The international literature has paid significant attention to presenting China as the largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the world, despite having much lower per-capita emissions than the global average. In fact, the imbalance of economic development leads to diversity in GHG emissions profiles in different areas of China. This paper employs a common methodology, consistent with the Sustainable Energy Action Plan (SEAP) approved by the Covenant of Mayors (CoM), to estimate CO 2 emissions of four Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. The results show that the CO 2 emissions of all four cities are still rising and that secondary industries emit the most CO 2 in these cities. By comparing these data with the inventory results of two European cities, this paper further reveals that Chinese cities in highly urbanized areas contribute much higher per-capita emissions than their European competitors. Furthermore, the per-capita CO 2 emissions of the residential sector and private transport in these Chinese cities are growing rapidly, some of them approaching the levels of European cities. According to these findings, several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided that aim to reduce the CO 2 emissions of highly urbanized areas in China. - Highlights: ► An exemplary study of GHG emission inventory for Chinese cities. ► Estimate CO 2 emissions of Chinese city in highly urbanized areas from 2004 to 2010. ► The studied Chinese cities contribute higher per-capita emissions than European’s. ► Emissions of residential sector and private transport in China are growing rapidly. ► Several policy suggestions considering regional disparities are provided.

  11. Toward solar biodiesel production from CO2 using engineered cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Han Min; Lee, Hyun Jeong

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has received attention as a sustainable strategy to convert carbon dioxide to various biochemicals including fatty acid-derived biodiesel. Recently, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, a model cyanobacterium, has been engineered to convert CO2 to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) as biodiesel. Modular pathway has been constructed for FAEE production. Several metabolic engineering strategies were discussed to improve the production levels of FAEEs, including host engineering by improving CO2 fixation rate and photosynthetic efficiency. In addition, protein engineering of key enzyme in S. elongatus PCC 7942 was implemented to address issues on FAEE secretions toward sustainable FAEE production from CO2. Finally, advanced metabolic engineering will promote developing biosolar cell factories to convert CO2 to feasible amount of FAEEs toward solar biodiesel. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei; Wang, Lixin; McCabe, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  13. Elevated CO2 as a driver of global dryland greening

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Xuefei

    2016-02-12

    While recent findings based on satellite records indicate a positive trend in vegetation greenness over global drylands, the reasons remain elusive. We hypothesize that enhanced levels of atmospheric CO2 play an important role in the observed greening through the CO2 effect on plant water savings and consequent available soil water increases. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compare soil water content under ambient and elevated CO2 treatments across a range of climate regimes, vegetation types, soil textures and land management practices. Based on 1705 field measurements from 21 distinct sites, a consistent and statistically significant increase in the availability of soil water (11%) was observed under elevated CO2 treatments in both drylands and non-drylands, with a statistically stronger response over drylands (17% vs. 9%). Given the inherent water limitation in drylands, it is suggested that the additional soil water availability is a likely driver of observed increases in vegetation greenness.

  14. Shifting terrestrial feedbacks from CO2 fertilization to global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas, Josep; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan; Canadell, Josep; Obersteiner, Michael; Piao, Shilong; Vautard, Robert; Sardans Jordi Sardans, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Humans are increasingly fertilizing the planet. Our activities are increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen inputs to ecosystems and global temperatures. Individually and combined, they lead to biospheric availability of carbon and nitrogen, enhanced metabolic activity, and longer growing seasons. Plants can consequently grow more and take up more carbon that can be stored in ecosystem carbon pools, thus enhancing carbon sinks for atmospheric CO2. Data on the increased strength of carbon sinks are, however, inconclusive: Some data (eddy covariance, short-term experiments on elevated CO2 and nutrient fertilization) suggest that biospheric carbon uptake is already effectively increasing but some other data suggest it is not, or are not general and conclusive (tree-ring, forest inventory). The combined land-ocean CO2 sink flux per unit of excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. We will discuss the available data, and the discussion will drive us to revisit our projections for enhanced carbon sinks. We will reconsider the performance of the modulators of increased carbon uptake in a CO2 fertilized and warmed world: nutrients, climate, land use and pollution. Nutrient availability in particular plays a crucial role. A simple mass-balance approach indicates that limited phosphorus availability and the corresponding N:P imbalances can jointly reduce the projected future carbon storage by natural ecosystems during this century. We then present a new paradigm: we are shifting from a fertilization to a warming era. Compared to the historical period, future impacts of warming will be larger than the benefits of CO2 fertilization given nutrient limitations, management and disturbance (which reduces C stocks and thus sequestration potential) and because CO2 will decrease by 2050 in RCP2.6, meaning loss of CO2 fertilization, and CO2

  15. Potential gains from CO2 trading in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Vesterdal, Morten

    2003-01-01

    A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining the propo......A new Green Paper from the European Commission on emissions trading foresees the setting-up of a CO2 trading system within the EU for the energy sector. Because any such international environmental agreement is self-enforcing, the participants must have an economic net gain from joining...... the proposed system. Our contribution is therefore to follow the Green Paper proposal and investigate whether member countries and the largest industrial boilers in the electricity sector actually will get significant net gains from CO2 trade in the European Union rather than undertaking domestic actions...... solely. We show, based on PRIMES model, that a full CO2 emission trading system between Annex B countries suggest overall cost savings in the order of 40 % compared to a situation with no trading at all between Member States. A tradable CO2 permit scheme with comprehensive coverage of emissions within...

  16. Metal-Organic Framework-Stabilized CO2/Water Interfacial Route for Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Tian; Zhang, Jianling; Li, Wei; He, Zhenhong; Sun, Xiaofu; Shi, Jinbiao; Shao, Dan; Zhang, Bingxing; Tan, Xiuniang; Han, Buxing

    2017-11-29

    Here, we propose a CO 2 /water interfacial route for photocatalytic CO 2 conversion by utilizing a metal-organic framework (MOF) as both an emulsifier and a catalyst. The CO 2 reduction occurring at the CO 2 /water interface produces formate with remarkably enhanced efficiency as compared with that in conventional solvent. The route is efficient, facile, adjustable, and environmentally benign, which is applicable for the CO 2 transformation photocatalyzed by different kinds of MOFs.

  17. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup

    2010-09-15

    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  18. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  19. CO2 Allowance and Electricity Price Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With the introduction of CO2 emission constraints on power generators in the European Union, climate policy is starting to have notable effects on energy markets. This paper sheds light on the links between CO2 prices, electricity prices, and electricity costs to industry. It is based on a series of interviews with industrial and electricity stakeholders, as well as a rich literature seeking to estimate the exact effect of CO2 prices on electricity prices.

  20. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  1. Economic effects on taxing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haaparanta, P.; Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J.

    1996-01-01

    The CO 2 emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO 2 taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO 2 tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  2. Scenario analysis on CO2 emissions reduction potential in China's iron and steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wang Can; Lu Xuedu; Chen Jining

    2007-01-01

    The international climate community has begun to assess a range of possible options for strengthening the international climate change effort after 2012. Analysis of the potential for sector-based emissions reduction and relevant mitigation options will provide the necessary background information for the debate. In order to assess the CO 2 abatement potential of China's steel industry, a model was developed using LEAP software to generate 3 different CO 2 emission scenarios for the industry from 2000 to 2030. The abatement potentials of different scenarios were compared, and their respective feasibilities were assessed according to the cost information. High priority abatement measures were then identified. The results show that the average CO 2 abatement per year in the Recent Policy scenario and in the New Policy scenario, compared with the reference scenario, are 51 and 107 million tons, respectively. The corresponding total incremental costs are 9.34 and 80.95 billion dollars. It is concluded that there is great potential for CO 2 abatement in China's steel industry. Adjusting the structure of the industry and technological advancement will play an important role in emissions reduction. Successful implementation of current sustainable development policies and measures will result in CO 2 abatement at a low cost. However, to achieve higher levels of abatement, the cost will increase dramatically. In the near future, specific energy conservation technologies such as dry coke quenching, exhaust gas and heat recovery equipment will be of great significance. However, taking a long term perspective, emissions reduction will rely more on the adjustment of production processes and the application of more modern large scale plants. Advanced blast furnace technology will inevitably play an important role

  3. Mixing ratio and species affect the use of substrate-derived CO2 by Sphagnum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Robroek, B.J.M.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Tomassen, H.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: Can mixing ratio and species affect the use of substrate-derived CO2 by Sphagnum? Location: Poor fen in south Sweden and greenhouse in Wageningen, The Netherlands. Methods: Two mixing ratios of Sphagnum cuspidatum and S. magellanicum were exposed to two levels of CO2 by pumping CO2

  4. Experimental Ion Mobility measurements in Ne-CO$_2$ and CO$_2$-N$_2$ mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Encarnação, P.M.C.C.; Veenhof, R.; Neves, P.N.B.; Santos, F.P.; Trindade, A.M.F.; Borges, F.I.G.M.; Conde, C.A.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the experimental results for the mobility, K0, of ions in neon-carbon dioxide (Ne-CO2) and carbon dioxide-nitrogen (CO2-N2) gaseous mixtures for total pressures ranging from 8–12 Torr, reduced electric fields in the 10–25 Td range, at room temperature. Regarding the Ne-CO2 mixture only one peak was observed for CO2 concentrations above 25%, which has been identified as an ion originated in CO2, while below 25% of CO2 a second-small peak appears at the left side of the main peak, which has been attributed to impurities. The mobility values for the main peak range between 3.51 ± 0.05 and 1.07 ± 0.01 cm2V−1s−1 in the 10%-99% interval of CO2, and from 4.61 ± 0.19 to 3.00 ± 0.09 cm2V−1s−1 for the second peak observed (10%–25% of CO2). For the CO2-N2, the time-of-arrival spectra displayed only one peak for CO2 concentrations above 10%, which was attributed to ions originated in CO2, namely CO2+(CO2), with a second peak appearing for CO2 concentrations below 10%. This secon...

  5. Review of Project Permits under the London Protocol - An Assessment of the Proposed P18-4 CO2 Storage Site: 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, GHGT 2016. 14 November 2016 through 18 November

    OpenAIRE

    Mikunda, T.; Dixon, T.

    2017-01-01

    The London Protocol (1996) is a global agreement to promote the protection of the marine environment by prohibiting the dumping of wastes and other matter into the sea. Under the Protocol all dumping is prohibited, with the exception of a limited number of selected wastes on the so-called "reverse list", which can be considered for dumping. In 2007, an amendment entered into force which permitted CO2 streams to be considered for dumping under the London Protocol. The amendment was shortly fol...

  6. To harness, transport and store the CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This article about the CO 2 sequestration is divided in eight parts. The first part concerns the question of why it is important to harness the carbon dioxide. The second part reviews the different technologies to harness it. In part three, the conditioning and transport of CO 2 are studied. Then, the question of geological storage is tackled. The economical aspect of the CO 2 sequestration makes the following part. The acceptability of a underground storage is evoked because of the risk relative to the CO 2 storage. Some examples and projects (Usa, Canada, France) are presented. The conclusion ends this article with the assurance that the CO 2 sequestration is possible, but expansive on the energy level and financing (double investment cost and increasing at least 30% for the production costs for the energy coming from coal). It should be realized on a big scale only if significant tax are imposed to the atmospheric releases in CO 2 as it is the case in the Norwegian example (Sleipner field). The storage potentials are important by calling for aquifer layers. The questions of law and acceptability by the public are uncertain but not insurmountable if we think to the aquifers under the seas. (N.C.)

  7. Public perceptions of CO2 transportation in pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, Clair; O'Keefe, Laura; Mander, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the response by members of the lay public to the prospect of an onshore CO 2 pipeline through their locality as part of a proposed CCS development and presents results from deliberative Focus Groups held along a proposed pipeline route. Although there is a reasonable level of general knowledge about CO 2 across the lay public, understanding of its specific properties is more limited. The main concerns expressed around pipelines focused on five areas: (i) safe operation of the pipeline; (ii) the risks to people, livestock and vegetation arising from the leakage of CO 2 from the pipeline; (iii) the innovative and ‘first of its kind' nature of the pipeline and the consequent lack of operational CO 2 pipelines in the UK to demonstrate the technology; (iv) impacts on coastal erosion at the landfall site; and (v) the potential disruption to local communities during pipeline construction. Participants expressed scepticism over the motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. Trust that the developer will minimise risk during the route selection and subsequent construction, operation and maintenance of the pipeline is key; building trust within the local community requires early engagement processes, tailored to deliver a variety of engagement and information approaches. - Highlights: • Lay publics express good general knowledge of CO 2 but not of its specific properties. • Key concerns relate to risk and safety and ‘first of a kind' nature of CO 2 pipeline. • Group participants are sceptical about motivations of CO 2 pipeline developers. • Communities' trust in developer is a major element of their risk assessment

  8. Diffuse soil CO_2 degassing from Linosa island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cellura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Herein, we present and discuss the result of 148 measurements of soil CO2 flux performed for the first time in Linosa island (Sicily Channel, Italy, a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex no longer active but still of interest owing to its location within a seismically active portion of the Sicily Channel rift system. The main purpose of this survey was to assess the occurrence of CO2 soil degassing, and compare flux estimations from this island with data of soil degassing from worldwide active volcanic as well as non-volcanic areas. To this aim soil CO2 fluxes were measured over a surface of about 4.2 km2 covering ~80% of the island. The soil CO2 degassing was observed to be mainly concentrated in the eastern part of the island likely due to volcano-tectonic lineaments, the presence of which is in good agreement with the known predominant regional faults system. Then, the collected data were interpreted using sequential Gaussian simulation that allowed estimating the total CO2 emissions of the island. Results show low levels of CO2 emissions from the soil of the island (~55 ton d-1 compared with CO2 emissions of currently active volcanic areas, such as Miyakejima (Japan and Vulcano (Italy. Results from this study suggest that soil degassing in Linosa is mainly fed by superficial organic activity with a moderate contribution of a deep CO2 likely driven by NW-SE trending active tectonic structures in the eastern part of the island.

  9. Supercritical CO2 uptake by nonswelling phyllosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiamin; Tokunaga, Tetsu K; Ashby, Paul D; Kim, Yongman; Voltolini, Marco; Gilbert, Benjamin; DePaolo, Donald J

    2018-01-30

    Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO 2 and minerals are important when CO 2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO 2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO 2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones. Our studies conducted by using single crystals, combining reaction (incubation with scCO 2 ), visualization [atomic force microscopy (AFM)], and quantifications (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and off-gassing measurements) revealed unexpectedly high CO 2 uptake that far exceeded its macroscopic surface area. Results from different methods collectively suggest that CO 2 partially entered the muscovite interlayers, although the pathways remain to be determined. We hypothesize that preferential dissolution at weaker surface defects and frayed edges allows CO 2 to enter the interlayers under elevated pressure and temperature, rather than by diffusing solely from edges deeply into interlayers. This unexpected uptake of CO 2 , can increase CO 2 storage capacity by up to ∼30% relative to the capacity associated with residual trapping in a 0.2-porosity sandstone reservoir containing up to 18 mass % of illite/muscovite. This excess CO 2 uptake constitutes a previously unrecognized potential trapping mechanism. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Trends in global CO2 emissions. 2013 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, J.G.J.; Peters, J.A.H.W. [PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Den Haag (Netherlands); Janssens-Maenhout, G. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, European Commission' s Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy); Muntean, M. [Institute for Environment and Sustainability IES, Joint Research Centre JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    This report discusses the results of a trend assessment of global CO2 emissions up to 2012 and updates last year's assessment. This assessment focuses on the changes in annual CO2 emissions from 2011 to 2012, and includes not only fossil-fuel combustion on which the BP reports are based, but also incorporates other relevant CO2 emissions sources including flaring of waste gas during gas and oil production, cement clinker production and other limestone uses, feedstock and other non-energy uses of fuels, and several other small sources. The report clarifies the CO2 emission sources covered, and describes the methodology and data sources. More details are provided in Annex 1 over the 2010-2012 period, including a discussion of the degree of uncertainty in national and global CO2 emission estimates. Chapter 2 presents a summary of recent CO2 emission trends, per main country or region, including a comparison between emissions per capita and per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and of the underlying trend in fossil-fuel production and use, non-fossil energy and other CO2 sources. Specific attention is given to developments in shale gas and oil production and oil sands production and their impact on CO2 emissions. To provide a broader context of global emissions trends, international greenhouse gas mitigation targets and agreements are also presented, including different perspectives of emission accounting per country. In particular, annual trends with respect to the Kyoto Protocol target and Cancun agreements and cumulative global CO2 emissions of the last decade are compared with scientific literature that analyses global emissions in relation to the target of 2{sup 0}C maximum global warming in the 21st century, which was adopted in the UN climate negotiations. In addition, we briefly discuss the rapid development and implementation of various emission trading schemes, because of their increasing importance as a cross-cutting policy instrument for mitigating

  11. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  12. Corn residue removal and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the primary greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted from the soil due to agricultural activities. In the short-term, increases in CO2 emissions indicate increased soil microbial activity. Soil micro-organisms decompose crop residues and release...

  13. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, K.; Kovscek, A.R.; Orr, F.M. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage. [Author

  14. NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 119 NIST Photoionization of CO2 (ARPES) Database (Web, free access)   CO2 is studied using dispersed synchrotron radiation in the 650 Å to 850 Å spectral region. The vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are analyzed to generate relative vibrational transition amplitudes and the angular asymmetry parameters describing the various transitions observed.

  15. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  16. Eindhoven Airport : towards zero CO2 emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorge Simoes Pedro, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Eindhoven airport is growing and it is strongly committed to take this opportunity to invest in innovative solutions for a sustainable development. Therefore, this document proposes a strategic plan for reaching Zero CO2 emissions at Eindhoven airport. This document proposes to reduce the CO2

  17. Thermodynamic modeling of CO2 mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Martin Gamel

    Knowledge of the thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) is important in several industrial processes such as enhanced oil recovery, carbon capture and storage, and supercritical extractions, where CO2 is used as a solvent. Despite this importance...

  18. Increasing CO2 storage in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, Kristian; Kovscek, Anthony R.; Orr, Franklin M.

    2005-01-01

    Oil fields offer a significant potential for storing CO 2 and will most likely be the first large scale geological targets for sequestration as the infrastructure, experience and permitting procedures already exist. The problem of co-optimizing oil production and CO 2 storage differs significantly from current gas injection practice due to the cost-benefit imbalance resulting from buying CO 2 for enhanced oil recovery projects. Consequently, operators aim to minimize the amount of CO 2 required to sweep an oil reservoir. For sequestration purposes, where high availability of low cost CO 2 is assumed, the design parameters of enhanced oil recovery processes must be re-defined to optimize the amount of CO 2 left in the reservoir at the time of abandonment. To redefine properly the design parameters, thorough insight into the mechanisms controlling the pore scale displacement efficiency and the overall sweep efficiency is essential. We demonstrate by calculation examples the different mechanisms controlling the displacement behavior of CO 2 sequestration schemes, the interaction between flow and phase equilibrium and how proper design of the injection gas composition and well completion are required to co-optimize oil production and CO 2 storage

  19. Recent development of capture of CO2

    CERN Document Server

    Chavez, Rosa Hilda

    2014-01-01

    "Recent Technologies in the capture of CO2" provides a comprehensive summary on the latest technologies available to minimize the emission of CO2 from large point sources like fossil-fuel power plants or industrial facilities. This ebook also covers various techniques that could be developed to reduce the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. The contents of this book include chapters on oxy-fuel combustion in fluidized beds, gas separation membrane used in post-combustion capture, minimizing energy consumption in CO2 capture processes through process integration, characterization and application of structured packing for CO2 capture, calcium looping technology for CO2 capture and many more. Recent Technologies in capture of CO2 is a valuable resource for graduate students, process engineers and administrative staff looking for real-case analysis of pilot plants. This eBook brings together the research results and professional experiences of the most renowned work groups in the CO2 capture field...

  20. Flow assurance studies for CO2 transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltin, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    In order to compensate for the relative lack of experience of the CCTS community, Flow Assurance studies of new CO2 pipelines and networks are a very important step toward reliable operation. This report details a typical approach for Flow Assurance study of CO2 transport pipeline. Considerations to

  1. Characterization of a microalgal mutant for CO_2 biofixation and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Feng; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Mu, Ruimin; Zhang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combination of the isolation using 96-well microplates and traditional UV mutagenesis for screening HCT mutant. • Microalgal mutant Chlorella vulgaris SDEC-3M was screened out by modified UV mutagenesis. • SDEC-3M showed high CO_2 tolerance, high CO_2 requiring and relevant genetic stability. • LCE and carbohydrate content of SDEC-3M were significantly elevated. • SDEC-3M offers a strong candidature as CO_2 biofixation and biofuel production. - Abstract: In the present work, a Chlorella vulgaris mutant, named as SDEC-3M, was screened out through the combination of the isolation using 96-well microplates and traditional UV mutagenesis. Compared with its parent (wild type), the growth of SDEC-3M preferred higher CO_2 (15% v/v) environment to ambient air (0.038% CO_2 (v/v)), indicating that the mutant qualified with good tolerance and growth potential under high level CO_2 (high CO_2 tolerance) but was defective in directly utilizing the low level CO_2 (high CO_2 requiring). The genetic stability under ambient air and high level CO_2 was confirmed by a continuous cultivation for five generations. Higher light conversion efficiency (14.52%) and richer total carbohydrate content (42.48%) demonstrated that both solar energy and CO_2 were more effectively productively fixed into carbohydrates for bioethanol production than the parent strain. The mutant would benefit CO_2 biofixation from industrial exhaust gas to mitigate of global warming and promote biofuel production to relieve energy shortage.

  2. Atmospheric Variability of CO2 impact on space observation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, A. L.; Sen, B.; Newhart, L.; Segal, G.

    2009-12-01

    If International governments are to reduce GHG levels by 80% by 2050, as recommended by most scientific bodies concerned with avoiding the most hazardous changes in climate, then massive investments in infrastructure and new technology will be required over the coming decades. Such an investment will be a huge commitment by governments and corporations, and while it will offer long-term dividends in lower energy costs, a healthier environment and averted additional global warming, the shear magnitude of upfront costs will drive a call for a monitoring and verification system. Such a system will be required to offer accountability to signatories of governing bodies, as well as, for the global public. Measuring the average global distribution of CO2 is straight forward, as exemplified by the long running station measurements managed by NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division that includes the longterm Keeling record. However, quantifying anthropogenic and natural source/sink distributions and atmospheric mixing have been much more difficult to constrain. And, yet, an accurate accounting of all anthropogenic source strengths is required for Global Treaty verification. The only way to accurately assess Global GHG emissions is to construct an integrated system of ground, air and space based observations with extensive chemical modeling capabilities. We look at the measurement requirements for the space based component of the solutions. To determine what space sensor performance requirements for ground resolution, coverage, and revisit, we have analyzed regional CO2 distributions and variability using NASA and NOAA aircraft flight campaigns. The results of our analysis are presented as variograms showing average spatial variability over several Northern Hemispheric regions. There are distinct regional differences with the starkest contrast between urban versus rural and Coastal Asia versus Coastal US. The results suggest specific consequences on what spatial and temporal

  3. CO2 supply from an integrated network : the opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    2006-01-01

    Strategies for using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from an integrated network were discussed. The oil and gas industry is currently considering carbon capture and storage (CCS) scenarios for Alberta. Integrated scenarios are aimed at providing business solution for CO 2 currently being produced in the province as well as optimizing the amounts of CO 2 that can be stored in geologic sinks. The scenarios hope to transform CCS into a value-added market capable of providing optimal returns to stakeholders along the CO 2 supply chain through the creation of an infrastructure designed to transport CO 2 in sufficient volumes. The storage of CO 2 in geologic sinks is expected to remove optimal amounts of anthropogenic CO 2 from larger stationary point sources. Interest in an integrated CO 2 market in Alberta has arisen from both economic and environmental concerns. The most effective CO 2 sources are fertilizer, gas processing, and hydrogen plants. Petrochemical facilities also produce high purity CO 2 . CO 2 capture approaches include post- and pre-combustion capture technologies as well as oxyfuel conversion. It was concluded that the cost of capturing CO 2 depends on concentration and purity levels obtained at the point of capture. Major CO 2 sources in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) were provided. tabs., figs

  4. Field Tests of Real-time In-situ Dissolved CO2 Monitoring for CO2 Leakage Detection in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Zou, Y.; Delgado, J.; Guzman, N.; Pinedo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater monitoring for detecting CO2 leakage relies on groundwater sampling from water wells drilled into aquifers. Usually groundwater samples are required be collected periodically in field and analyzed in the laboratory. Obviously groundwater sampling is labor and cost-intensive for long-term monitoring of large areas. Potential damage and contamination of water samples during the sampling process can degrade accuracy, and intermittent monitoring may miss changes in the geochemical parameters of groundwater, and therefore signs of CO2 leakage. Real-time in-situ monitoring of geochemical parameters with chemical sensors may play an important role for CO2 leakage detection in groundwater at a geological carbon sequestration site. This study presents field demonstration of a real-time in situ monitoring system capable of covering large areas for detection of low levels of dissolved CO2 in groundwater and reliably differentiating natural variations of dissolved CO2 concentration from small changes resulting from leakage. The sand-alone system includes fully distributed fiber optic sensors for carbon dioxide detection with a unique sensor technology developed by Intelligent Optical Systems. The systems were deployed to the two research sites: the Brackenridge Field Laboratory where the aquifer is shallow at depths of 10-20 ft below surface and the Devine site where the aquifer is much deeper at depths of 140 to 150 ft. Groundwater samples were periodically collected from the water wells which were installed with the chemical sensors and further compared to the measurements of the chemical sensors. Our study shows that geochemical monitoring of dissolved CO2 with fiber optic sensors could provide reliable CO2 leakage signal detection in groundwater as long as CO2 leakage signals are stronger than background noises at the monitoring locations.

  5. Silvering substrates after CO2 snow cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Richard R.

    2005-09-01

    There have been some questions in the astronomical community concerning the quality of silver coatings deposited on substrates that have been cleaned with carbon dioxide snow. These questions center around the possible existence of carbonate ions left behind on the substrate by CO2. Such carbonate ions could react with deposited silver to produce insoluble silver carbonate, thereby reducing film adhesion and reflectivity. Carbonate ions could be produced from CO2 via the following mechanism. First, during CO2 snow cleaning, a small amount of moisture can condense on a surface. This is especially true if the jet of CO2 is allowed to dwell on one spot. CO2 gas can dissolve in this moisture, producing carbonic acid, which can undergo two acid dissociations to form carbonate ions. In reality, it is highly unlikely that charged carbonate ions will remain stable on a substrate for very long. As condensed water evaporates, Le Chatelier's principle will shift the equilibrium of the chain of reactions that produced carbonate back to CO2 gas. Furthermore, the hydration of CO2 reaction of CO2 with H20) is an extremely slow process, and the total dehydrogenation of carbonic acid is not favored. Living tissues that must carry out the equilibration of carbonic acid and CO2 use the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to speed up the reaction by a factor of one million. But no such enzymatic action is present on a clean mirror substrate. In short, the worst case analysis presented below shows that the ratio of silver atoms to carbonate radicals must be at least 500 million to one. The results of chemical tests presented here support this view. Furthermore, film lift-off tests, also presented in this report, show that silver film adhesion to fused silica substrates is actually enhanced by CO2 snow cleaning.

  6. The ins and outs of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, John A.; Beardall, John

    2016-01-01

    It is difficult to distinguish influx and efflux of inorganic C in photosynthesizing tissues; this article examines what is known and where there are gaps in knowledge. Irreversible decarboxylases produce CO2, and CO2 is the substrate/product of enzymes that act as carboxylases and decarboxylases. Some irreversible carboxylases use CO2; others use HCO3 –. The relative role of permeation through the lipid bilayer versus movement through CO2-selective membrane proteins in the downhill, non-energized, movement of CO2 is not clear. Passive permeation explains most CO2 entry, including terrestrial and aquatic organisms with C3 physiology and biochemistry, terrestrial C4 plants and all crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, as well as being part of some mechanisms of HCO3 – use in CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) function, although further work is needed to test the mechanism in some cases. However, there is some evidence of active CO2 influx at the plasmalemma of algae. HCO3 – active influx at the plasmalemma underlies all cyanobacterial and some algal CCMs. HCO3 – can also enter some algal chloroplasts, probably as part of a CCM. The high intracellular CO2 and HCO3 – pools consequent upon CCMs result in leakage involving CO2, and occasionally HCO3 –. Leakage from cyanobacterial and microalgal CCMs involves up to half, but sometimes more, of the gross inorganic C entering in the CCM; leakage from terrestrial C4 plants is lower in most environments. Little is known of leakage from other organisms with CCMs, though given the leakage better-examined organisms, leakage occurs and increases the energetic cost of net carbon assimilation. PMID:26466660

  7. AIRS retrieved CO2 and its association with climatic parameters over India during 2004–2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K. Ravi; Revadekar, J.V.; Tiwari, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) have been used to study the variability and its association with the climatic parameters over India during 2004 to 2011. The study also aims in understanding transport of CO 2 from surface to mid-troposphere over India. The annual cycle of mid-tropospheric CO 2 shows gradual increase in concentration from January till the month of May at the rate ∼ 0.6 ppm/month. It decreases continuously in summer monsoon (JJAS) at the same rate during which strong westerlies persists over the region. A slight increase is seen during winter monsoon (DJF). Being a greenhouse gas, annual cycle of CO 2 show good resemblance with annual cycle of surface air temperature with correlation coefficient (CC) of + 0.8. Annual cycle of vertical velocity indicate inverse pattern compared to annual cycle of CO 2 . High values of mid-tropospheric CO 2 correspond to upward wind, while low values of mid-tropospheric CO 2 correspond to downward wind. In addition to vertical motion, zonal winds are also contributing towards the transport of CO 2 from surface to mid-troposphere. Vegetation as it absorbs CO 2 at surface level, show inverse annual cycle to that of annual cycle of CO 2 (CC-0.64). Seasonal variation of rainfall-CO 2 shows similarities with seasonal variation of NDVI-CO 2 . However, the use of long period data sets for CO 2 at the surface and at the mid-troposphere will be an advantage to confirm these results. - Highlights: • Association of AIRS CO 2 with climate parameters over India • CO 2 show positive correlation with surface temperature • Vertical/horizontal winds contribute towards CO 2 transport • Vegetation and monsoonal rainfall show inverse relationship with CO 2

  8. Mutual emergency assistance arrangements at the international level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1979-01-01

    All countries do not necessarily have resources in skilled manpower and equipment enabling them to deal satisfactorily with the consequences of a nuclear incident. Therefore, a mechanism whereby such countries could obtain or provide mutual emergency assistance at international level is extremely useful. This article analyses the provisions of the Nordic Mutual Emergency Assistance Agreement and the measures taken in respect of emergency assistance by international organisations such as IAEA. (NEA) [fr

  9. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit. The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1 finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2 make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3 build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4 set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1 the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2 there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3 the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples

  10. Large-scale CO2 storage — Is it feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, H.

    2013-06-01

    CCS is generally estimated to have to account for about 20% of the reduction of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of CO2 storage, even if the CCS challenge is equally dependent upon finding viable international solutions to a wide range of economic, political and cultural issues. It has already been demonstrated that it is technically possible to store adequate amounts of CO2 in the subsurface (Sleipner, InSalah, Snøhvit). The large-scale storage challenge (several Gigatons of CO2 per year) is more an issue of minimizing cost without compromising safety, and of making international regulations.The storage challenge may be split into 4 main parts: 1) finding reservoirs with adequate storage capacity, 2) make sure that the sealing capacity above the reservoir is sufficient, 3) build the infrastructure for transport, drilling and injection, and 4) set up and perform the necessary monitoring activities. More than 150 years of worldwide experience from the production of oil and gas is an important source of competence for CO2 storage. The storage challenge is however different in three important aspects: 1) the storage activity results in pressure increase in the subsurface, 2) there is no production of fluids that give important feedback on reservoir performance, and 3) the monitoring requirement will have to extend for a much longer time into the future than what is needed during oil and gas production. An important property of CO2 is that its behaviour in the subsurface is significantly different from that of oil and gas. CO2 in contact with water is reactive and corrosive, and may impose great damage on both man-made and natural materials, if proper precautions are not executed. On the other hand, the long-term effect of most of these reactions is that a large amount of CO2 will become immobilized and permanently stored as solid carbonate minerals. The reduced opportunity for direct monitoring of fluid samples close to the

  11. Recycling CO 2 ? Computational Considerations of the Activation of CO 2 with Homogeneous Transition Metal Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Drees, Markus; Cokoja, Mirza; Kü hn, Fritz E.

    2012-01-01

    . A similar approach, storing energy from renewable sources in chemical bonds with CO 2 as starting material, may lead to partial recycling of CO 2 created by human industrial activities. Unfortunately, currently available routes for the transformation

  12. CO2 emissions abatement and geologic sequestration - industrial innovations and stakes - status of researches in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium was jointly organized by the French institute of petroleum (IFP), the French agency of environmental and energy mastery (Ademe) and the geological and mining research office (BRGM). This press kit makes a status of the advances made in CO 2 emissions abatement and geological sequestration: technological advances of CO 2 capture and sequestration, geological reservoir dimensioning with respect to the problem scale, duration of such an interim solution, CO 2 emissions abatement potentialities of geological sequestration, regulatory, economical and financial implications, international stakes of greenhouse gas emissions. This press kit comprises a press release about the IFP-Ademe-BRGM colloquium, a slide presentation about CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and four papers: a joint IFP-Ademe-BRGM press conference, IFP's answers to CO 2 emissions abatement, Ademe's actions in CO 2 abatement and sequestration, and BRGM's experience in CO 2 sequestration and climatic change expertise. (J.S.)

  13. Carbon recycling by cyanobacteria: improving CO2 fixation through chemical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Angela; Carroll, Austin L; Atsumi, Shota

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric CO2 levels have reached an alarming level due to industrialization and the burning of fossil fuels. In order to lower the level of atmospheric carbon, strategies to sequester excess carbon need to be implemented. The CO2-fixing mechanism in photosynthetic organisms enables integration of atmospheric CO2 into biomass. Additionally, through exogenous metabolic pathways in these photosynthetic organisms, fixed CO2 can be routed to produce various commodity chemicals that are currently produced from petroleum. This review will highlight studies and modifications to different components of cyanobacterial CO2-fixing systems, as well as the application of these systems toward CO2-derived chemical production. 2,3-Butanediol is given particular focus as one of the most thoroughly studied systems for conversion of CO2 to a bioproduct. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Evaluation Analysis of the CO2 Emission and Absorption Life Cycle for Precast Concrete in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To comply with recent international trends and initiatives, and in order to help achieve sustainable development, Korea has established a greenhouse gas (GHG emission reduction target of 37% (851 million tons of the business as usual (BAU rate by 2030. Regarding environmentally-oriented standards such as the IGCC (International Green Construction Code, there are also rising demands for the assessment on CO2 emissions during the life cycle in accordance with ISO (International Standardization Organization’s Standard 14040. At present, precast concrete (PC engineering-related studies primarily cover structural and construction aspects, including improvement of structural performance in the joint, introduction of pre-stressed concrete and development of half PC. In the manufacture of PC, steam curing is mostly used for the early-strength development of concrete. In steam curing, a large amount of CO2 is produced, causing an environmental problem. Therefore, this study proposes a method to assess CO2 emissions (including absorption throughout the PC life cycle by using a life cycle assessment (LCA method. Using the proposed assessment method, CO2 emissions during the life cycle of a precast concrete girder (PCG were assessed. In addition, CO2 absorption was assessed against a PCG using conventional carbonation and CO2 absorption-related models. As a result, the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1365.6 (kg-CO2/1 PCG. The CO2 emissions during the production of raw materials among the CO2 emissions throughout the life cycle of the PCG were 1390 (kg-CO2/1 PCG, accounting for a high portion to total CO2 emissions (nearly 90%. In contrast, the transportation and manufacture stages were 1% and 10%, respectively, having little effect on total CO2 emissions. Among the use of the PCG, CO2 absorption was mostly decided by the CO2 diffusion coefficient and the amount of CO2 absorption by cement paste. The CO2 absorption by carbonation

  15. Electrocatalytic Alloys for CO2 Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingfu; Johnson, Noah J J; Huang, Aoxue; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2018-01-10

    Electrochemically reducing CO 2 using renewable energy is a contemporary global challenge that will only be met with electrocatalysts capable of efficiently converting CO 2 into fuels and chemicals with high selectivity. Although many different metals and morphologies have been tested for CO 2 electrocatalysis over the last several decades, relatively limited attention has been committed to the study of alloys for this application. Alloying is a promising method to tailor the geometric and electric environments of active sites. The parameter space for discovering new alloys for CO 2 electrocatalysis is particularly large because of the myriad products that can be formed during CO 2 reduction. In this Minireview, mixed-metal electrocatalyst compositions that have been evaluated for CO 2 reduction are summarized. A distillation of the structure-property relationships gleaned from this survey are intended to help in the construction of guidelines for discovering new classes of alloys for the CO 2 reduction reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Role of Atmospheric CO2 in the Ice Ages (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Ice cores from Antarctica provide our most highly resolved records of glacial-interglacial climate change. They feature big transitions every 100,000 years or so in which Antarctica warms by up to 10 deg. C while the level of atmospheric CO2 rises by up to 100 ppm. We have no other records like these from any other location, so the assumption is often made that the Earth's mean temperature varies like the temperatures in Antarctica. The striking co-variation between the two records is taken to mean 1) that there is a causal relationship between the global temperature and atmospheric CO2 and 2) that atmospheric CO2 is a powerful agent of climate change during the ice ages. The problem is that the mechanism most often invoked to explain the CO2 variations operates right next to Antarctica and, as such, provides a fairly direct way to explain the temperature variations in Antarctica as well. If so, Antarctic temperatures go up and down for the same reason that atmospheric CO2 goes up and down, in which case no causation can be inferred. Climate models suggest that the 100-ppm CO2 increases during the big transitions did not increase surface temperatures by more than 2 deg. C. This is not nearly enough to explain the observed variability. A better reason for thinking that atmospheric CO2 is important is that its temporal variations are concentrated in the 100,000-yr band. In my presentation I will argue that atmospheric CO2 is important because it has the longest time scale in the system. We observe empirically that atmospheric CO2 remains low for 50,000 years during the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle. The northern ice sheets become especially large toward the ends of these intervals, and it is large ice sheets that make the Earth especially cold. This leads me to conclude that atmospheric CO2 is important because of its slow and persistent influence on the northern ice sheets over the second half of each 100,000-yr cycle.

  17. CO2 Accounting and Risk Analysis for CO2 Sequestration at Enhanced Oil Recovery Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Viswanathan, Hari; Middleton, Richard; Pan, Feng; Ampomah, William; Yang, Changbing; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Ting; Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian; Balch, Robert; Grigg, Reid; White, Mark

    2016-07-19

    Using CO2 in enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) is a promising technology for emissions management because CO2-EOR can dramatically reduce sequestration costs in the absence of emissions policies that include incentives for carbon capture and storage. This study develops a multiscale statistical framework to perform CO2 accounting and risk analysis in an EOR environment at the Farnsworth Unit (FWU), Texas. A set of geostatistical-based Monte Carlo simulations of CO2-oil/gas-water flow and transport in the Morrow formation are conducted for global sensitivity and statistical analysis of the major risk metrics: CO2/water injection/production rates, cumulative net CO2 storage, cumulative oil/gas productions, and CO2 breakthrough time. The median and confidence intervals are estimated for quantifying uncertainty ranges of the risk metrics. A response-surface-based economic model has been derived to calculate the CO2-EOR profitability for the FWU site with a current oil price, which suggests that approximately 31% of the 1000 realizations can be profitable. If government carbon-tax credits are available, or the oil price goes up or CO2 capture and operating expenses reduce, more realizations would be profitable. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding CO2 storage potential and the corresponding environmental and economic risks of commercial-scale CO2-sequestration in depleted reservoirs.

  18. Estimating CO2 Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO2 Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo; Choi, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Estimating potential of CO 2 emission reduction of non-capture CO 2 utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO 2 emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO 2 of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO 2 reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO 2 emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO 3 (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO 3 ). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO 2 reduction through the CO 2 carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO 2 reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO 2 contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO 2 emission technology.

  19. CO2 content of electricity losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daví-Arderius, Daniel; Sanin, María-Eugenia; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Countries are implementing policies to develop greener energy markets worldwide. In Europe, the ¨2030 Energy and Climate Package¨ asks for further reductions of green house gases, renewable sources integration, and energy efficiency targets. But the polluting intensity of electricity may be different in average than when considering market inefficiencies, in particular losses, and therefore the implemented policy must take those differences into account. Precisely, herein we study the importance in terms of CO2 emissions the extra amount of energy necessary to cover losses. With this purpose we use Spanish market and system data with hourly frequency from 2011 to 2013. Our results show that indeed electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions, with a higher CO2 emissions rate when covering losses than the average rate of the system. Additionally, we find that the market closing technologies used to cover losses have a positive and significant impact on CO2 emissions: when polluting technologies (coal or combined cycle) close the market, the impact of losses on CO2 emissions is high compared to the rest of technologies (combined heat and power, renewables or hydropower). To the light of these results we make some policy recommendations to reduce the impact of losses on CO2 emissions. - Highlights: • Electricity losses significantly explain CO2 emissions. • Policies aimed to reducing losses have a positive impact on CO2 emissions. • The market closing technology used to cover losses have impacts on CO2 emissions. • Pollutant technologies that close the market should be replaced by renewables.

  20. Inequality aspects of alternative CO2 agreement designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsch, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the expected climate change, due to the atmospheric accumulation of CO 2 and other trace gases, has become an increasingly important issue in energy policy. Given the important contribution of CO 2 to the greenhouse effect, and the global character of the problem, an international agreement on curbing CO 2 emissions is under current consideration. The design of such an agreement inevitably raises significant questions of equity and efficiency. In the international political debate, most emphasis is generally put on the distributive aspect. Interestingly, the discussion usually focuses on equity in terms of the distribution of emissions. From an economic perspective, it appears more natural to address the equity issue from the point of view of income. It is obvious that a given degree of abatement can have dramatically different economic effects in different countries. Of course, this aspect is implicitly at the centre of all CO 2 related equity considerations. In what follows, this issue will be addressed explicitly, by examining the applicability and the implications of various economic approaches to distributive justice. (author)

  1. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  2. CO2 fluxes near a forest edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogachev, Andrey; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Zhang, Gensheng

    2008-01-01

    In contrast with recent advances on the dynamics of the flow at a forest edge, few studies have considered its role on scalar transport and, in particular, on CO2 transfer. The present study addresses the influence of the abrupt roughness change on forest atmosphere CO2 exchange and contrasts...... as a function of both sources/sinks distribution and the vertical structure of the canopy. Results suggest that the ground source plays a major role in the formation of wave-like vertical CO2 flux behavior downwind of a forest edge, despite the fact that the contribution of foliage sources/sinks changes...

  3. CO2, the promises of geological sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouat, S.

    2006-01-01

    Trapping part of the world CO 2 effluents in the deep underground is a profitable and ecological way to limit the global warming. This digest paper presents the different ways of CO 2 sequestration (depleted oil and gas fields, unexploited coal seams, saline aquifers), the other possible solutions for CO 2 abatement (injection in the bottom of the ocean, conversion into carbonates by injection into basic rocks, fixation by photosynthesis thanks to micro-algae cultivation), and takes stock of the experiments in progress (Snoehvit field in Norway, European project Castor). (J.S.)

  4. Climate change and the CO2 myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, C.J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Further increase of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere has little effect on the greenhouse effect contrary to the effect of the increase of other greenhouse gases. However, politicians are using targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions that are unrealistic, taking into account the scientific uncertainties of the applied models, the doubts about the feasibility of quantitative targets and the economic consequences of such drastic measures. Some recommendations are given for a more realistic CO 2 policy. Also attention is paid to the important role that coal will play in the future of the energy supply. 5 figs., 3 ills

  5. Assessment of Technology Readiness Level of a Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Karen; Smith, Fred; Perry, Jay; Green, Steve

    2004-01-01

    When technologies are traded for incorporation into vehicle systems to support a specific mission scenario, they are often assessed in terms of Technology Readiness Level (TRL). TRL is based on three major categories of Core Technology Components, Ancillary Hardware and System Maturity, and Control and Control Integration. This paper describes the Technology Readiness Level assessment of the Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) for use on the International Space Station. A team comprising of the NASA Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, Southwest Research Institute and Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International have been working on various aspects of the CRA to bring its TRL from 4/5 up to 6. This paper describes the work currently being done in the three major categories. Specific details are given on technology development of the Core Technology Components including the reactor, phase separator and CO2 compressor.

  6. STABILITY OF CO2 ATMOSPHERES ON DESICCATED M DWARF EXOPLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peter; Hu, Renyu; Li, Cheng; Yung, Yuk L.; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the chemical stability of CO 2 -dominated atmospheres of desiccated M dwarf terrestrial exoplanets using a one-dimensional photochemical model. Around Sun-like stars, CO 2 photolysis by Far-UV (FUV) radiation is balanced by recombination reactions that depend on water abundance. Planets orbiting M dwarf stars experience more FUV radiation, and could be depleted in water due to M dwarfs’ prolonged, high-luminosity pre-main sequences. We show that, for water-depleted M dwarf terrestrial planets, a catalytic cycle relying on H 2 O 2 photolysis can maintain a CO 2 atmosphere. However, this cycle breaks down for atmospheric hydrogen mixing ratios <1 ppm, resulting in ∼40% of the atmospheric CO 2 being converted to CO and O 2 on a timescale of 1 Myr. The increased O 2 abundance leads to high O 3 concentrations, the photolysis of which forms another CO 2 -regenerating catalytic cycle. For atmospheres with <0.1 ppm hydrogen, CO 2 is produced directly from the recombination of CO and O. These catalytic cycles place an upper limit of ∼50% on the amount of CO 2 that can be destroyed via photolysis, which is enough to generate Earth-like abundances of (abiotic) O 2 and O 3 . The conditions that lead to such high oxygen levels could be widespread on planets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs. Discrimination between biological and abiotic O 2 and O 3 in this case can perhaps be accomplished by noting the lack of water features in the reflectance and emission spectra of these planets, which necessitates observations at wavelengths longer than 0.95 μm

  7. Limitations to CO2-induced growth enhancement in pot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnaughay, K D M; Berntson, G M; Bazzaz, F A

    1993-07-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that small pots may reduce or eliminate plant responses to enriched CO 2 atmospheres due to root restriction. While smaller pot volumes provide less physical space available for root growth, they also provide less nutrients. Reduced nutrient availability alone may reduce growth enhancement under elevated CO 2 . To investigate the relative importance of limited physical rooting space separate from and in conjunction with soil nutrients, we grew plants at ambient and double-ambient CO 2 levels in growth containers of varied volume, shape, nutrient concentration, and total nutrient content. Two species (Abutilon theophrasti, a C 3 dicot with a deep tap root andSetaria faberii, a C 4 monocot with a shallow diffuse root system) were selected for their contrasting physiology and root architecture. Shoot demography was determined weekly and biomass was determined after eight and ten weeks of growth. Increasing total nutrients, either by increasing nutrient concentration or by increasing pot size, increased plant growth. Further, increasing pot size while maintaining equal total nutrients per pot resulted in increased total biomass for both species. CO 2 -induced growth and reproductive yield enhancements were greatest in pots with high nutrient concentrations, regardless of total nutrient content or pot size, and were also mediated by the shape of the pot. CO 2 -induced growth and reproductive yield enhancements were unaffected by pot size (growth) or were greater in small pots (reproductive yield), regardless of total nutrient content, contrary to predictions based on earlier studies. These results suggest that several aspects of growth conditions within pots may influence the CO 2 responses of plants; pot size, pot shape, the concentration and total amount of nutrient additions to pots may lead to over-or underestimates of the CO 2 responses of real-world plants.

  8. Model rules and regulations for a global CO2 emissions credit market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandor, R.L.; Cole, J.B.; Kelly, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    On 21 April 1993, on the occasion of Earth Day, the United States affirmed its commitment to reducing emissions of greenhouse gases to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In doing so, the United States joined the European Union (EU), Japan, and approximately 141 other countries that had either committed themselves to this international objective or subscribed to the general principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed at UNCED, Rio de Janeiro, June 1992. The commitment of these three trading groups provides the basis for recommending that a market for tradeable carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emission entitlements among these groups be implemented as soon as an initial set of rules and regulations can be drafted. The goal of a tradeable CO 2 entitlement or credit market is to lower the cost of limiting emissions. The Costs of CO 2 emission abatement are lowered because the market encourages more emission reductions to be produced by the most efficient resources. The ability easily to selI CO 2 credits created through large emission cuts allows cost recovery by, and incentives for, the most efficient sources of emission reductions. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate debate by providing model rules and regulations for a tradeable CO 2 emission credit market. The trading rules and regulations proposed here are meant to initiate a process whereby participants will iterate toward a final set of rules and regulations. Therefore, our proposal should create a point of departure for further adjustments and transformation to the initial set of recommendations. A specific proposal will be advanced at this point in order to provide a basis for the conceptualization of this global market. Moreover, this specific proposal will help focus dialogue and may provide insight into the general recommendations presented in the balance of this paper

  9. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  10. Amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials for carbon dioxide adsorption from CO2/H2 mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Navin; Aishah Anuar, Siti; Yusuf, Nur Yusra Mt; Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam Wan; Shahbudin Masdar, Mohd

    2018-05-01

    Bio-hydrogen mainly contains hydrogen and high level of carbon dioxide (CO2). High concentration of CO2 lead to a limitation especially in fuel cell application. In this study, the amine-mixed oxide hybrid materials for CO2 separation from bio-hydrogen model (50% CO2:50% H2) have been studied. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) characterizations showed that the amine–mixed oxide hybrid materials successfully adsorbed CO2 physically with no chemical adsorption evidence. The dry gas of CO2/H2 mixture adsorbed physically on amine–CuO–MgO hybrid material. No carbonates were detected after several times of adsorption, which indicated the good recyclability of adsorbents. The adsorbent system of diethanolamine (DEA)/15% CuO–75% MgO showed the highest CO2 adsorption capacity of 21.2 wt% due to the presence of polar substance on MgO surface, which can adsorb CO2 at ambient condition. The alcohol group of DEA can enhance the CO2 solubility on the adsorbent surface. In the 20% CuO–50% MgO adsorbent system, DEA as amine type showed a high CO2 adsorption of 19.4 wt%. The 10% amine loading system showed that the DEA adsorption system provided high CO2 adsorption. The BET analysis confirmed that a high amine loading contributed to the decrease in CO2 adsorption due to the low surface area of the adsorbent system.

  11. Can Producing Oil Store Carbon? Greenhouse Gas Footprint of CO2EOR, Offshore North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R Jamie; Haszeldine, R Stuart

    2015-05-05

    Carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery (CO2EOR) is a proven and available technology used to produce incremental oil from depleted fields while permanently storing large tonnages of injected CO2. Although this technology has been used successfully onshore in North America and Europe, there are currently no CO2EOR projects in the United Kingdom. Here, we examine whether offshore CO2EOR can store more CO2 than onshore projects traditionally have and whether CO2 storage can offset additional emissions produced through offshore operations and incremental oil production. Using a high-level Life Cycle system approach, we find that the largest contribution to offshore emissions is from flaring or venting of reproduced CH4 and CO2. These can already be greatly reduced by regulation. If CO2 injection is continued after oil production has been optimized, then offshore CO2EOR has the potential to be carbon negative--even when emissions from refining, transport, and combustion of produced crude oil are included. The carbon intensity of oil produced can be just 0.056-0.062 tCO2e/bbl if flaring/venting is reduced by regulation. This compares against conventional Saudi oil 0.040 tCO2e/bbl or mined shale oil >0.300 tCO2e/bbl.

  12. Continuous CO2 gas monitoring to clarify natural pattern and artificial leakage signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joun, W.; Ha, S. W.; Joo, Y. J.; Lee, S. S.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous CO2 gas monitoring at shallow aquifer is significant for early detection and immediate handling of an aquifer impacted by leaking CO2 gas from the sequestration reservoir. However, it is difficult to decide the origin of CO2 gas because detected CO2 includes not only leaked CO2 but also naturally emitted CO2. We performed CO2 injection and monitoring tests in a shallow aquifer. Before the injection of CO2 infused water, we have conducted continuous monitoring of multi-level soil CO2 gas concentration and physical parameters such as temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation. The monitoring data represented that CO2 gas concentrations in unsaturated soil zone borehole showed differences at depths and daily variation (360 to 6980 ppm volume). Based on the observed data at 5 m and 8 m depths, vertical flux of gas was calculated as 0.471 L/min (LPM) for inflow from 5 m to 8 m and 9.42E-2 LPM for outflow from 8 m to 5 m. The numerical and analytical models were used to calculate the vertical flux of gas and to compare with observations. The results showed that pressure-based modeling could not explain the rapid change of CO2 gas concentration in borehole. Acknowledgement Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003)

  13. The BIG protein distinguishes the process of CO2 -induced stomatal closure from the inhibition of stomatal opening by CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jingjing; Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Peng, Kai; Tagliavia, Cecilia; Li, Siwen; Xue, Shaowu; Liu, Amy; Hu, Honghong; Zhang, Jingbo; Hubbard, Katharine E; Held, Katrin; McAinsh, Martin R; Gray, Julie E; Kudla, Jörg; Schroeder, Julian I; Liang, Yun-Kuan; Hetherington, Alistair M

    2018-04-01

    We conducted an infrared thermal imaging-based genetic screen to identify Arabidopsis mutants displaying aberrant stomatal behavior in response to elevated concentrations of CO 2 . This approach resulted in the isolation of a novel allele of the Arabidopsis BIG locus (At3g02260) that we have called CO 2 insensitive 1 (cis1). BIG mutants are compromised in elevated CO 2 -induced stomatal closure and bicarbonate activation of S-type anion channel currents. In contrast with the wild-type, they fail to exhibit reductions in stomatal density and index when grown in elevated CO 2 . However, like the wild-type, BIG mutants display inhibition of stomatal opening when exposed to elevated CO 2 . BIG mutants also display wild-type stomatal aperture responses to the closure-inducing stimulus abscisic acid (ABA). Our results indicate that BIG is a signaling component involved in the elevated CO 2 -mediated control of stomatal development. In the control of stomatal aperture by CO 2 , BIG is only required in elevated CO 2 -induced closure and not in the inhibition of stomatal opening by this environmental signal. These data show that, at the molecular level, the CO 2 -mediated inhibition of opening and promotion of stomatal closure signaling pathways are separable and BIG represents a distinguishing element in these two CO 2 -mediated responses. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  15. Energy Efficiency instead of CO2 levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetz, R.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at ways of avoiding a future, planned Swiss CO 2 levy by improving the efficiency of energy use. The political situation concerning the reduction of CO 2 emissions in Switzerland is reviewed and the likeliness of the introduction of a CO 2 levy is discussed. Strategies for the reduction of fossil fuel consumption and therefore of CO 2 emissions are looked at, including process optimisation. Recommendations are made on how to approach this work systematically - data collection, assessment of the potential for reduction and the planning of measures to be taken are looked at. The high economic efficiency of immediate action is stressed and typical middle and long-term measures are listed

  16. The ATLAS IBL CO2 Cooling System

    CERN Document Server

    Verlaat, Bartholomeus; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The Atlas Pixel detector has been equipped with an extra B-layer in the space obtained by a reduced beam pipe. This new pixel detector called the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is installed in 2014 and is operational in the current ATLAS data taking. The IBL detector is cooled with evaporative CO2 and is the first of its kind in ATLAS. The ATLAS IBL CO2 cooling system is designed for lower temperature operation (<-35⁰C) than the previous developed CO2 cooling systems in High Energy Physics experiments. The cold temperatures are required to protect the pixel sensors for the high expected radiation dose up to 550 fb^-1 integrated luminosity. This paper describes the design, development, construction and commissioning of the IBL CO2 cooling system. It describes the challenges overcome and the important lessons learned for the development of future systems which are now under design for the Phase-II upgrade detectors.

  17. Capture and geological storage of CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    Capture and geological storage of CO 2 could be a contribution to reduce CO 2 emissions, and also a way to meet the factor 4 objective of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. This publication briefly presents the capture and storage definitions and principles, and comments some key data related to CO 2 emissions, and their natural trapping by oceans, soils and forests. It discusses strengths (a massive and perennial reduction of CO 2 emissions, a well defined regulatory framework) and weaknesses (high costs and uncertain cost reduction perspectives, a technology which still consumes a lot of energy, geological storage capacities still to be determined, health environmental impacts and risks to be controlled, a necessary consultation of population for planned projects) of this option. Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly reviewed

  18. CO2 Washout Capability with Breathing Manikin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Washout performance is a critical parameter needed to ensure proper and sufficient designs in a spacesuit and in vehicle applications such as...

  19. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO2 laser technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1997-09-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO 2 laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO 2 lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO 2 lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. The authors discuss applications of TWps-CO 2 lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for γ-γ (or γ-lepton) colliders, for a possible table-top source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams

  20. Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture

    KAUST Repository

    Teng, Baiyang

    2013-01-01

    to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs

  1. Upscaling of enzyme enhanced CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne Berthold

    Fossil fuels are the backbone of the energy generation in the coming decades for USA, China, India and Europe, hence high greenhouse gas emissions are expected in future. Carbon capture and storage technology (CCS) is the only technology that can mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel...... the mass transfer of CO2 with slow-capturing but energetically favorable solvents can open up a variety of new process options for this technology. The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), which enhances the mass transfer of CO2 in the lungs by catalyzing the reversible hydration of CO2, is one very...... enhanced CO2 capture technology by identifying the potentials and limitations in lab and in pilot scale and benchmarking the process against proven technologies. The main goal was to derive a realistic process model for technical size absorbers with a wide range of validity incorporating a mechanistic...

  2. Evaluating M.D.-Level Competence in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alexander S.; Botticelli, Max G.

    1981-01-01

    The implementation of a clinical clerkship in internal medicine that was flexible in time required that a new evaluation program be developed to assess the progress of students. The progress of the classes of 1979 and 1980 toward achievement of predetermined levels of mastery is presented. (Author/MLW)

  3. Advances in Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction with Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsun Nahar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increasing level of CO2 in the atmosphere has not only contributed to global warming but has also triggered considerable interest in photocatalytic reduction of CO2. The reduction of CO2 with H2O using sunlight is an innovative way to solve the current growing environmental challenges. This paper reviews the basic principles of photocatalysis and photocatalytic CO2 reduction, discusses the measures of the photocatalytic efficiency and summarizes current advances in the exploration of this technology using different types of semiconductor photocatalysts, such as TiO2 and modified TiO2, layered-perovskite Ag/ALa4Ti4O15 (A = Ca, Ba, Sr, ferroelectric LiNbO3, and plasmonic photocatalysts. Visible light harvesting, novel plasmonic photocatalysts offer potential solutions for some of the main drawbacks in this reduction process. Effective plasmonic photocatalysts that have shown reduction activities towards CO2 with H2O are highlighted here. Although this technology is still at an embryonic stage, further studies with standard theoretical and comprehensive format are suggested to develop photocatalysts with high production rates and selectivity. Based on the collected results, the immense prospects and opportunities that exist in this technique are also reviewed here.

  4. Increasing CO2 flux at Pisciarelli, Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Queißer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Campi Flegrei caldera is located in the metropolitan area of Naples (Italy and has been undergoing different stages of unrest since 1950, evidenced by episodes of significant ground uplift followed by minor subsidence, increasing and fluctuating emission strengths of water vapor and CO2 from fumaroles, and periodic seismic crises. We deployed a scanning laser remote-sensing spectrometer (LARSS that measured path-integrated CO2 concentrations in the Pisciarelli area in May 2017. The resulting mean CO2 flux is 578 ± 246 t d−1. Our data suggest a significant increase in CO2 flux at this site since 2015. Together with recent geophysical observations, this suggests a greater contribution of the magmatic source to the degassing and/or an increase in permeability at shallow levels. Thanks to the integrated path soundings, LARSS may help to give representative measurements from large regions containing different CO2 sources, including fumaroles, low-temperature vents, and degassing soils, helping to constrain the contribution of deep gases and their migration mechanisms towards the surface.

  5. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, D.

    2008-01-01

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO 2 release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO 2 recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO 2 invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO 2 , ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO 2 in the atmosphere

  6. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  7. Study on CO2 global recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Niwa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In order to assist in finding ways to mitigate CO 2 emission and to slow the depletion of fossil fuels we have established and evaluated a representative system, which consists of three technologies developed in our laboratory. These technologies were in CO 2 recovery, hydrogen production and methanol synthesis and in addition we established the necessary supporting systems. Analysis of outline designs of the large scale renewable energy power generation system and this system and energy input for building plant, energy input for running plant has been conducted based on a case using this system for a 1000-MW coal fired power plant, followed by an evaluation of the material balance and energy balance. The results are as follows. Energy efficiency is 34%, the CO 2 reduction rate is 41%, the balance ratio of the energy and CO 2 of the system is 2.2 and 1.8, respectively, on the assumption that the primary renewable energy is solar thermal power generation, the stationary CO 2 emission source is a coal-fired power plant and the generation efficiency of the methanol power plant is 60%. By adopting the system, 3.7 million tons of CO 2 can be recovered, approximately 2.7 million tons of methanol can be produced, and 15.4 billion kWh of electricity can be generated per year. Compared to generating all electrical power using only coal, approximately 2.6 million tons of coal per year can be saved and approximately 2.15 million tons of CO 2 emission can be reduced. Therefore, it is clearly revealed that this system would be effective to reduce CO 2 emissions and to utilize renewable energy

  8. Synthesis and Design of a Sustainable CO2 Utilization Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frauzem, Rebecca; Gani, Rafiqul

    In response to increasing regulations and concern about the impact of greenhouse gases on the environment, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are targeted for reduction. One method is the conversion of CO2 to useful compounds via chemical reactions. However, conversion is still in its infancy...... and requires work for implementation at an industrial level. One aspect of this is the development of a methodology for the formulation and optimization of sustainable conversion processes. This methodology follows three stages for the process synthesis, design and more sustainable design. Using...

  9. Anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Peng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this review article is on the anthropogenic CO2 taken up by the ocean. There are several methods of identifying the anthropogenic CO2 signal and quantifying its inventory in the ocean. The ?C* method is most frequently used to estimate the global distribution of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean. Results based on analysis of the dataset obtained from the comprehensive surveys of inorganic carbon distribution in the world oceans in the 1990s are given. These surveys were jointly conducted during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS. This data set consists of 9618 hydrographic stations from a total of 95 cruises, which represents the most accurate and comprehensive view of the distribution of inorganic carbon in the global ocean available today. The increase of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean during the past few decades is also evaluated using direct comparison of results from repeat surveys and using statistical method of Multi-parameter Linear Regression (MLR. The impact of increasing oceanic anthropogenic CO2 on the calcium carbonate system in the ocean is reviewed briefly as well. Extensive studies of CaCO3 dissolution as a result of increasing anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean have revealed several distinct oceanic regions where the CaCO3 undersaturation zone has expanded.

  10. Recent developments in CO2 lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Keming

    1993-05-01

    CO2 lasers have been used in industry mainly for such things as cutting, welding, and surface processing. To conduct a broad spectrum of high-speed and high-quality applications, most of the developments in industrial CO2 lasers at the ILT are aimed at increasing the output power, optimizing the beam quality, and reducing the production costs. Most of the commercial CO2 lasers above 5 kW are transverse-flow systems using dc excitation. The applications of these lasers are limited due to the lower beam quality, the poor point stability, and the lower modulation frequency. To overcome the problems we developed a fast axial- flow CO2 laser using rf excitation with an output of 13 kW. In section 2 some of the results are discussed concerning the gas flow, the discharge, the resonator design, optical effects of active medium, the aerodynamic window, and the modulation of the output power. The first CO2 lasers ever built are diffusion-cooled systems with conventional dc excited cylindrical discharge tubes surrounded by cooling jackets. The output power per unit length is limited to 50 W/m by those lasers with cylindrical tubes. In the past few years considerable increases in the output power were achieved, using new mechanical geometries, excitation- techniques, and resonator designs. This progress in diffusion-cooled CO2 lasers is presented in section 3.

  11. Reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO2. Innovation an industrial stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandil, C.; Podkanski, J.; Socolow, R.; Dron, D.; Reiner, D.; Horrocks, P.; Fernandez Ruiz, P.; Dechamps, P.; Stromberg, L.; Wright, I.; Gazeau, J.C.; Wiederkehr, P.; Morcheoine, A.; Vesseron, P.; Feron, P.; Feraud, A.; Torp, N.T.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Czernichowski, I.; Hartman, J.; Roulet, C.; Roberts, J.; Zakkour, P.; Von Goerne, G.; Armand, R.; Allinson, G.; Segalen, L.; Gires, J.M.; Metz, B.; Brillet, B.

    2005-01-01

    An international symposium on the reduction of emissions and geological storage of CO 2 was held in Paris from 15 to 16 September 2005. The event, jointly organized by IFP, ADEME and BRGM, brought together over 400 people from more than 25 countries. It was an opportunity to review the international stakes related to global warming and also to debate ways of reducing CO 2 emissions, taking examples from the energy and transport sectors. The last day was dedicated to technological advances in the capture and geological storage of CO 2 and their regulatory and economic implications. This document gathers the available transparencies and talks presented during the colloquium: Opening address by F. Loos, French Minister-delegate for Industry; Session I - Greenhouse gas emissions: the international stakes. Outlook for global CO 2 emissions. The global and regional scenarios: Alternative scenarios for energy use and CO 2 emissions until 2050 by C. Mandil and J. Podkanski (IEA), The stabilization of CO 2 emissions in the coming 50 years by R. Socolow (Princeton University). Evolution of the international context: the stakes and 'factor 4' issues: Costs of climate impacts and ways towards 'factor 4' by D. Dron (ENS Mines de Paris), CO 2 emissions reduction policy: the situation in the United States by D. Reiner (MIT/Cambridge University), Post-Kyoto scenarios by P. Horrocks (European Commission), Possibilities for R and D in CO 2 capture and storage in the future FP7 program by P. Fernandez Ruiz and P. Dechamps (European Commission). Session II - CO 2 emission reductions in the energy and transport sectors. Reducing CO 2 emissions during the production and conversion of fossil energies (fixed installations): Combined cycles using hydrogen by G. Haupt (Siemens), CO 2 emission reductions in the oil and gas industry by I. Wright (BP). Reducing CO 2 emissions in the transport sector: Sustainable transport systems by P. Wiederkehr (EST International), The prospects for reducing

  12. How much CO2 is trapped in carbonate minerals of a natural CO2 occurrence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Csilla; Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Szamosfalvi, Ágnes; Cseresznyés, Dóra; Király, Edit; Szabó, Csaba; Falus, György

    2017-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a transitional technology to decrease CO2 emissions from human fossil fuel usage and, therefore, to mitigate climate change. The most important criteria of a CO2 geological storage reservoir is that it must hold the injected CO2 for geological time scales without its significant seepage. The injected CO2 undergoes physical and chemical reactions in the reservoir rocks such as structural-stratigraphic, residual, dissolution or mineral trapping mechanisms. Among these, the safest is the mineral trapping, when carbonate minerals such as calcite, ankerite, siderite, dolomite and dawsonite build the CO2 into their crystal structures. The study of natural CO2 occurrences may help to understand the processes in CO2 reservoirs on geological time scales. This is the reason why the selected, the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 occurrence as our research area, which is able to provide particular and highly significant information for the future of CO2 storage. The area is one of the best known CO2 fields in Central Europe. The main aim of this study is to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the mineral phase at Mihályi-Répcelak CO2 reservoirs. For gaining the suitable data, we apply petrographic, major and trace element (microprobe and LA-ICP-MS) and stable isotope analysis (mass spectrometry) and thermodynamic and kinetic geochemical models coded in PHREEQC. Rock and pore water compositions of the same formation, representing the pre-CO2 flooding stages of the Mihályi-Répcelak natural CO2 reservoirs are used in the models. Kinetic rate parameters are derived from the USGS report of Palandri and Kharaka (2004). The results of petrographic analysis show that a significant amount of dawsonite (NaAlCO3(OH)2, max. 16 m/m%) precipitated in the rock due to its reactions with CO2 which flooded the reservoir. This carbonate mineral alone traps about 10-30 kg/m3 of the reservoir rock from the CO2 at Mihályi-Répcelak area, which is an

  13. How secure is subsurface CO2 storage? Controls on leakage in natural CO2 reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miocic, Johannes; Gilfillan, Stuart; McDermott, Christopher; Haszeldine, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the only industrial scale technology available to directly reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuelled power plants and large industrial point sources to the atmosphere. The technology includes the capture of CO2 at the source and transport to subsurface storage sites, such as depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs or saline aquifers, where it is injected and stored for long periods of time. To have an impact on the greenhouse gas emissions it is crucial that there is no or only a very low amount of leakage of CO2 from the storage sites to shallow aquifers or the surface. CO2 occurs naturally in reservoirs in the subsurface and has often been stored for millions of years without any leakage incidents. However, in some cases CO2