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Sample records for internal carotid artery

  1. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure. Th...

  2. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  3. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  4. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T

    1988-01-01

    Neurologic symptoms in the region of an internal carotid artery stenosis are considered to be embolic in most instances. Only in a subgroup has carotid occlusive disease with impairment of the collateral supply, caused a state of hemodynamic failure with marked reduction of perfusion pressure...... stenosis. This is considered a result of chronic low perfusion pressure with subsequent loss of autoregulation, and autoregulatory control is first regained after some days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  5. Agenesis of internal carotid artery associated with congenital anterior hypopituitarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, W.-J.; Porto, L.; Lanfermann, H.; Zanella, F.E.; Weis, R.

    2002-01-01

    We report a rare case of unilateral agenesis of the internal carotid artery in association with congenital anterior hypopituitarism. The collateral circulation is supplied by a transsellar intercavernous anastomotic vessel connecting the internal carotid arteries. These abnormalities are well depicted on MRI and MRA. The agenesis of the internal carotid artery may explain the pathogenesis of some of congenital anterior hypopituitarism. (orig.)

  6. Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm Mimicking Peritonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Brzost

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm (EICAA is an uncommon arterial lesion. Patients typically present with neurologic symptoms resulting from impaired cerebral perfusion and compression symptoms of cranial nerves. Often EICAA presents as a pulsatile neck mass, which is otherwise asymptomatic. We present a case of an 84-year-old female, who was initially referred to the Emergency Department for Otolaryngology with suspected peritonsillar abscess. The patient had a history of recent upper airway infection and cardiovascular comorbidities, including hypertension and ischaemic stroke complicated by extensive neurologic deficits. Physical examination revealed a compact, nonpulsatile mass in the lateral parapharyngeal space and local erythema of the mucosa. Duplex Doppler Ultrasonography and Computed Tomography revealed an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery, measuring 63×55×88 mm, stretching from the skull base to the angle of the mandible.

  7. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion, External Carotid Artery Stenosis, and Vertebral Artery Kinking: May It Be Asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Jaffer, Usman; Ivana, Saicic; Gordana, Globarevic-Vukcevic; Markovic, Dragan; Kostic, Dusan; Davidovic, Lazar

    2017-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of internal carotid artery occlusion ranges from being a completely asymptomatic occlusion to a devastating stroke or death. The prevalence of asymptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion is unknown, particularly for bilateral occlusion. The distal branches of the external carotid artery anastomose with distal branches of the internal carotid artery provide important sources of collateral circulation to the brain. Stenosis of the external carotid artery with ipsilateral/bilateral internal occlusion may result in ischemic sequelae. Coiling or kinking of the vertebral artery is a rare morphological entity that is infrequently reported because it remains asymptomatic and has no clinical relevance. Currently, there is little evidence to support management strategies for this disease entity and no official recommendations for asymptomatic bilateral carotid artery occlusion. We present a case of a 62-year-old female with asymptomatic bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, bilateral external carotid artery stenoses, and bilateral kinking of the vertebral artery at the V2 segment, who has been successfully managed conservatively for over 5 years. An individualized approach to management of patients with bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, especially in combination with external carotid artery stenosis and elongation malformations of the vertebral artery is key to a successful strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal Carotid Artery Hypoplasia: Role of Color-Coded Carotid Duplex Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Ya; Liu, Hung-Yu; Lim, Kun-Eng; Lin, Shinn-Kuang

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of color-coded carotid duplex sonography for diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. We retrospectively reviewed 25,000 color-coded carotid duplex sonograms in our neurosonographic database to establish more diagnostic criteria for internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A definitive diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia was made in 9 patients. Diagnostic findings on color-coded carotid duplex imaging include a long segmental small-caliber lumen (52% diameter) with markedly decreased flow (13% flow volume) in the affected internal carotid artery relative to the contralateral side but without intraluminal lesions. Indirect findings included markedly increased total flow volume (an increase of 133%) in both vertebral arteries, antegrade ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow, and a reduced vessel diameter with increased flow resistance in the ipsilateral common carotid artery. Ten patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection showed a similar color-coded duplex pattern, but the reductions in the internal and common carotid artery diameters and increase in collateral flow from the vertebral artery were less prominent than those in hypoplasia. The ipsilateral ophthalmic arterial flow was retrograde in 40% of patients with distal internal carotid artery dissection. In addition, thin-section axial and sagittal computed tomograms of the skull base could show the small diameter of the carotid canal in internal carotid artery hypoplasia and help distinguish hypoplasia from distal internal carotid artery dissection. Color-coded carotid duplex sonography provides important clues for establishing a diagnosis of internal carotid artery hypoplasia. A hypoplastic carotid canal can be shown by thin-section axial and sagittal skull base computed tomography to confirm the final diagnosis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Acute internal carotid artery occlusion after carotid endarterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Yunoki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of acute carotid artery (CA occlusion following carotid endarterectomy (CEA. Case 1: a 58-year-old man was admitted with transient right-sided hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and MR angiography (MRA revealed cerebral infarction in the left cerebral hemisphere and left CA stenosis. Ten days after admission, he underwent CEA. 24 h after surgery, he developed right hemiplegia. MRI and MRA demonstrated a slightly enlarged infarction and left internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion. Emergency reoperation was performed and complete recanalization achieved. The patient made a clinically significant recovery. Case 2: a 65 year-old man underwent a right-sided CEA for an asymptomatic 80% CA stenosis. 48 h after surgery, his family noticed he was slightly disorientated. MRI and MRA revealed multiple infarctions and right ICA occlusion. He was treated with antiplatelet therapy without reoperation because sufficient cross-flow from the left ICA through the anterior communicating artery was demonstrated by angiography, and his neurological symptoms were mild. His symptoms gradually alleviated and he was discharged 14 days after surgery. With ICA occlusion after CEA, immediate re-operation is mandatory with severe neurological symptoms, whereas individualized judgement is needed when the symptoms are mild.

  10. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo; Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max; Raz, Eytan; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  11. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  12. Congenital Absence of the Internal Carotid Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, Francesco; Balzano, Silverio; Nardella, Michele; Strizzi, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Mario; Bozzini, Vincenzo; Catapano, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Vincenzo

    1999-01-01

    We report three cases of congenital absence of an internal carotid artery (ICA), diagnosed incidentally by digital subtraction angiography. The analysis of the cases is based on the classification of segmental ICA agenesis proposed by Lasjaunias and Berenstein. Usually the patients with this rare vascular anomaly are asymptomatic; some may have symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, compression by enlarged intracranial collateral vessels, or complications associated with cerebral aneurysms. Diagnosis of congenital absence of ICA is made by skull base computed tomography (CT) scan, CT and magnetic resonance angiography, and conventional or digital subtraction angiography

  13. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study) : an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Joerg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Bradbury, A.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molynewc, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; Hendriks, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid

  14. Thrombosis of internal carotid artery following blunt neck injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdek, M.; Klaus, E.

    1986-01-01

    Complicated problems of nonpenetrating injuries of the internal carotid artery, their pathophysiological mechanisms, clinical picture, diagnosis and therapy are analyzed. The possible surgical management is considered. Attention was paid to angiographic diagnosis of traumatic and spontaneous lesions of internal carotid arteries. (author). 87 refs

  15. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G.

    1980-12-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left internal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis.

  16. Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysm: case illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno Marco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms (EICAA are uncommon lesion. These aneurysms can be classified as true or false aneurysms, atherosclerotic, dysplastic, infectious, posttraumatic and iatrogenic aneurysms. The most common presentation is central neurologic dysfunction, either a stroke or a transient ischemic attack. The rupture of these aneurysms can lead to severely impairment and can affect the quality of life of the patients or even may lead to death. Management of these lesions is required in most cases to prevent complications, however there is no treatment guideline or expert consensus for the management. We present a case of an unusual EICAA, associated with kinking of the affected vessel and review the literature.

  17. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.

    1980-01-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left interal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Cervical Siphon of External and Internal Carotid Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajani; Tubbs, Richard Shane

    2017-10-01

    Variant courses, configuration, and branching pattern of the external and internal carotid arteries, especially when curved in S-shape, are important for hemodynamic changes and clinical implications. Therefore, the aim of the study is to report abnormal cervical siphons observed in external and internal carotid arteries to explore clinical significance by review of literature and hemodynamic changes theoretically.The right common carotid artery bifurcated into external and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of thyroid cartilage in a 70-year-old female cadaver. After bifurcation, the external carotid artery underwent severe tortuosity coursing through 5 bends at points A, B, C, D, and E from its origin to termination and 2 bends at A' and B' in internal carotid artery in the cervical region. The angles between inflow and out flow of the blood at the bends were measured and the change in velocity at each bend was computed for both arteries. Hemodynamic changes were calculated, compared and relevant clinical complications were theoretically correlated.The angles of 20°, 30°, 51°, 52°, 60°, and 28°, 48° were formed by 5 bends of external and 2 bends of internal carotid arteries, respectively. The curved courses of these arteries caused reduction in velocity/stasis, turbulence, and low shear stress. Such kinks might cause stroke, ischemia and mistaken for tumors and abscess in imagery leading to or otherwise producing iatrogenic repercussions. This study will be useful for anatomists, clinicians, and radiologists.

  19. Clinical study of internal carotid artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Kyoko

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion identified by cerebral angiography were studied for clinical features, computed tomographic findings, collateral circulation and risk factors. Eleven patients were males, and at age distribution it occurred more frequently in patients over 50 years to 60 years of age rather than other ages. As for the risk factors of cerebral infarction, smoking was more frequent in patients with thrombosis, and heart disease was more common in those with embolism. Stroke occurred progressively in patients with thrombosis whereas it occurred suddenly in those with embolism. The consciousness was more severely disturbed in patients with embolism than in those with thrombosis. On neuro-radiological findings, in the patients with thrombosis, the infarcted area on CT were small and emerged as deep or watershed types, and on the angiograms, occlusion at carotid bifurcation were found more frequently and the collateral circulation were well developed. In those with embolism, the infarcted areas were large and emerged as cortical types, and on the angiograms, occlusions were observed more frequently in the intracranial portion and collateral circulation were poorly developed. In many patients with thrombosis, platelet aggregation, hematocrit and blood viscosity increased, but in those with embolism did not. (author)

  20. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Eui Jong; Kim, Dae Ho

    1997-01-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation

  1. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Bonati, L.H.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Lo, T.H.; Gaines, P.; Dorman, P.J.; Macdonald, S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Hendriks, J.M.; McCollum, C.; Nederkoorn, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Blankensteijn, J.D.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  2. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, Jörg; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Bonati, Leo H.; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Lo, T. Hauw; Gaines, Peter; Dorman, Paul J.; Macdonald, Sumaira; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Hendriks, Johanna M.; McCollum, Charles; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Algra, A.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Bonati, L. H.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Tindall, H.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Chan, A.; Chu, P.; Clark, D.; Dewey, H.; Donnan, G.; Fell, G.; Hoare, M.; Molan, M.; Roberts, A.; Roberts, N.; Beiles, B.; Bladin, C.; Clifford, C.; Grigg, M.; New, G.; Bell, R.; Bower, S.; Chong, W.; Holt, M.; Saunder, A.; Than, P. G.; Gett, S.; Leggett, D.; McGahan, T.; Quinn, J.; Ray, M.; Wong, A.; Woodruff, P.; Foreman, R.; Schultz, D.; Scroop, R.; Stanley, B.; Allard, B.; Atkinson, N.; Cambell, W.; Davies, S.; Field, P.; Milne, P.; Mitchell, P.; Tress, B.; Yan, B.; Beasley, A.; Dunbabin, D.; Stary, D.; Walker, S.; Cras, P.; d'Archambeau, O.; Hendriks, J. M. H.; van Schil, P.; St Blasius, A. Z.; Bosiers, M.; Deloose, K.; van Buggenhout, E.; de Letter, J.; Devos, V.; Ghekiere, J.; Vanhooren, G.; Astarci, P.; Hammer, F.; Lacroix, V.; Peeters, A.; Verbist, J.; Blair, J.-F.; Caron, J. L.; Daneault, N.; Giroux, M.-F.; Guilbert, F.; Lanthier, S.; Lebrun, L.-H.; Oliva, V.; Raymond, J.; Roy, D.; Soulez, G.; Weill, A.; Hill, M.; Hu, W.; Hudion, M.; Morrish, W.; Sutherland, G.; Wong, J.; Albäck, A.; Harno, H.; Ijäs, P.; Kaste, M.; Lepäntalo, M.; Mustanoja, S.; Paananen, T.; Porras, M.; Putaala, J.; Railo, M.; Sairanen, T.; Soinne, L.; Vehmas, A.; Vikatmaa, P.; Goertler, M.; Halloul, Z.; Skalej, M.; Brennan, P.; Kelly, C.; Leahy, A.; Moroney, J.; Thornton, J.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.; Hendriks, J. M.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Pattynama, P. M. T.; van der Lugt, A.; van Dijk, L. C.; van Sambeek, M. R. H. M.; van Urk, H.; Verhagen, H. J. M.; Bruijninckx, C. M. A.; de Bruijn, S. F.; Keunen, R.; Knippenberg, B.; Mosch, A.; Treurniet, F.; van Dijk, L.; van Overhagen, H.; Wever, J.; de Beer, F. C.; van den Berg, J. S. P.; van Hasselt, B. A. A. M.; Zeilstra, D. J.; Boiten, J.; van Otterloo, J. C. A. de Mol; de Vries, A. C.; Lycklama a Nijeholt, G. J.; van der Kallen, B. F. W.; Blankensteijn, J. D.; de Leeuw, F. E.; Kool, L. J. Schultze; van der Vliet, J. A.; de Borst, G. J.; de Kort, G. A. P.; Kapelle, L. J.; Lo, T. H.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F.; van der Worp, H. B.; Verhagen, H.; Barber, P. A.; Bourchier, R.; Hill, A.; Holden, A.; Stewart, J.; Bakke, S. J.; Krohg-Sørensen, K.; Skjelland, M.; Tennøe, B.; Bialek, P.; Biejat, Z.; Czepiel, W.; Czlonkowska, A.; Dowzenko, A.; Jedrzejewska, J.; Kobayashi, A.; Lelek, M.; Polanski, J.; Kirbis, J.; Milosevic, Z.; Zvan, B.; Blasco, J.; Chamorro, A.; Macho, J.; Obach, V.; Riambau, V.; San Roman, L.; Branera, J.; Canovas, D.; Estela, Jordi; Gaibar, A. Gimenez; Perendreu, J.; Björses, K.; Gottsater, A.; Ivancev, K.; Maetzsch, T.; Sonesson, B.; Berg, B.; Delle, M.; Formgren, J.; Gillgren, P.; Kall, T.-B.; Konrad, P.; Nyman, N.; Takolander, R.; Andersson, T.; Malmstedt, J.; Soderman, M.; Wahlgren, C.; Wahlgren, N.; Binaghi, S.; Hirt, L.; Michel, P.; Ruchat, P.; Engelter, S. T.; Fluri, F.; Guerke, L.; Jacob, A. L.; Kirsch, E.; Lyrer, P. A.; Radue, E.-W.; Stierli, P.; Wasner, M.; Wetzel, S.; Bonvin, C.; Kalangos, A.; Lovblad, K.; Murith, M.; Ruefenacht, D.; Sztajzel, R.; Higgins, N.; Kirkpatrick, P. J.; Martin, P.; Varty, K.; Adam, D.; Bell, J.; Crowe, P.; Gannon, M.; Henderson, M. J.; Sandler, D.; Shinton, R. A.; Scriven, J. M.; Wilmink, T.; D'Souza, S.; Egun, A.; Guta, R.; Punekar, S.; Seriki, D. M.; Thomson, G.; Brennan, J. A.; Enevoldson, T. P.; Gilling-Smith, G.; Gould, D. A.; Harris, P. L.; McWilliams, R. G.; Nasser, H.-C.; White, R.; Prakash, K. G.; Serracino-Inglott, F.; Subramanian, G.; Symth, J. V.; Walker, M. G.; Clarke, M.; Davis, M.; Dixit, S. A.; Dorman, P.; Dyker, A.; Ford, G.; Golkar, A.; Jackson, R.; Jayakrishnan, V.; Lambert, D.; Lees, T.; Louw, S.; Macdonald, S.; Mendelow, A. D.; Rodgers, H.; Rose, J.; Stansby, G.; Wyatt, M.; Baker, T.; Baldwin, N.; Jones, L.; Mitchell, D.; Munro, E.; Thornton, M.; Baker, D.; Davis, N.; Hamilton, G.; McCabe, D.; Platts, A.; Tibballs, J.; Cleveland, T.; Dodd, D.; Lonsdale, R.; Nair, R.; Nassef, A.; Nawaz, S.; Venables, G.; Belli, A.; Cloud, G.; Halliday, A.; Markus, H.; McFarland, R.; Morgan, R.; Pereira, A.; Thompson, A.; Chataway, J.; Cheshire, N.; Gibbs, R.; Hammady, M.; Jenkins, M.; Malik, I.; Wolfe, J.; Adiseshiah, M.; Bishop, C.; Brew, S.; Brookes, J.; Jäger, R.; Kitchen, N.; Ashleigh, R.; Butterfield, S.; Gamble, G. E.; McCollum, C.; Nasim, A.; O'Neill, P.; Edwards, R. D.; Lees, K. R.; MacKay, A. J.; Moss, J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. METHODS: The International

  3. Predictors of antegrade flow at internal carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with proximal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kei; Kakumoto, Kosuke; Oshikata, Shogo; Fukuyama, Kozo

    2018-06-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) with proximal occlusion effectively prevent distal cerebral embolism by flow arrest at internal carotid artery (ICA); however, the method can expose antegrade flow at ICA due to incomplete flow arrest. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of antegrade flow during CAS with proximal protection. We retrospectively analyzed clinical and angiographic data among 143 lesions treated with CAS with proximal protection by occluding the common carotid artery (CCA) and external carotid artery (ECA). Flow arrest or antegrade flow at ICA was confirmed by contrast injection during proximal protection. Antegrade flow at ICA was observed in 12 lesions (8.4%). Compared with lesions in which flow arrest of ICA was achieved, the diameter of the superior thyroid artery (STA) was significantly larger (2.4 ± 0.34 vs. 1.4 ± 0.68 mm, p protection should be combined with proximal protection for the lesions with antegrade flow to prevent distal migration of the carotid debris.

  4. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaides, Andrew N; Kakkos, Stavros K; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis.......The purpose of this study was to determine the cerebrovascular risk stratification potential of baseline degree of stenosis, clinical features, and ultrasonic plaque characteristics in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis....

  5. Missed Total Occlusion Due to the Occipital Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustunsoz, Bahri; Gumus, Burcak; Koksal, Ali; Koroglu, Mert; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with an ultrasound diagnosis of right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis for possible carotid artery stenting. DSA revealed total occlusion of the ICA and an occipital artery arising from the stump and simulating continuation of the ICA. An ascending pharyngeal artery also arose from the same occipital artery. This case is of interest because this is a rare variation besides being a cause of misdiagnosis at carotid ultrasound

  6. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito [Kainan Hospital Aichi Prefectural Welfare Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives, Department of Neurosurgery, Aichi (Japan); Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Nagoya (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  7. Carotid angioplasty with stenting for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion: technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nozomu; Tanasawa, Toshihiko; Okada, Takeshi; Endo, Otone; Yamamoto, Naohito; Miyachi, Shigeru; Hattori, Kenichi

    2006-01-01

    Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is becoming accepted as an effective and reliable treatment option for severe carotid artery stenosis. However, it is rarely applied for carotid occlusion, especially in its chronic stage. We report our experience of CAS for chronic internal carotid artery occlusion representing compromised cerebral blood flow using various protection methods. A 77-year-old woman, who was already diagnosed with severe left internal carotid artery stenosis, suddenly had right hemiparesis and aphasia. At that time, she was treated conservatively because her neurological status was quite good, in spite of left carotid artery occlusion. Her symptoms improved in the short term, except slight aphasia, but deteriorated again 18 days from the onset, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed new ischemic lesions. CAS was then performed for the occluded carotid artery on the 23rd day from the first onset. Using the proximal protection technique, the occluded lesion was crossed carefully with a microguidewire. Stents were also placed successfully with the distal protection technique. The occluded carotid artery was completely recanalized without any unfavorable events or neurological deterioration. In this patient, CAS was successfully to treat chronic carotid artery occlusion. These procedures and techniques are reviewed and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of a symptomatic intrathoracic internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Brown

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcations are an anatomic anomaly with such rarity that only six cases have been reported to date. The true incidence of and preferred treatment options for a diseased intrathoracic common carotid artery bifurcation or internal carotid artery (ICA have not been clearly described. This case report describes a 72-year-old man who experienced a postoperative right hemispheric stoke after an aortic valve replacement, radiofrequency maze procedure, and left atrial appendage clip. Postoperative cerebrovascular evaluation revealed a severely diseased intrathoracic ICA that was treated by ligation of the diseased proximal ICA and transposition of the distal ICA to the disease-free external carotid artery. The patient provided written consent to present the history, data, and images in this manuscript.

  10. Hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery with intercavernous anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.J.; Wang, L.J.; Wong, Y.C.; Chen, S.T.; Hsieh, F.Y.

    1998-01-01

    We report a symptomatic case of unilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid artery with an intercavernous anastomosis, a very rare developmental anomaly. The symptoms were caused by occlusion of the proximal middle cerebral artery which possibly related to the haemodynamic stress caused by the anomalous intercavernous anastomosis. (orig.)

  11. Early control of distal internal carotid artery during carotid endarterectomy: does it reduce cerebral microemboli?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommertz, G; Das, M; Langer, S; Koeppel, T A; Krings, T; Mess, W H; Schiefer, J; Jacobs, M J

    2010-06-01

    According to the results of the large trials on carotid endarterectomy (CEA), this type of surgery is only warranted if perioperative mortality and morbidity are kept considerably low. Less attention has been paid to methods of cerebral protection during CEA, although intraoperative transcranial Doppler (TCD) can visualise intracerebral microemboli (MES) during routine carotid dissection, although MES occur throughout the CEA, only those during dissection are related to neurological outcome. Prevention of MES by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery dislodging from the carotid artery plaque during dissection is very likely the mechanism behind an eventual benefit from this approach. Hence, the amount of MES might serve as a surrogate parameter for the risk of periprocedural neurological events. So, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether early control of the distal carotid artery during CEA is capable of reducing the number of MES by means of a prospective randomised trial. Twenty-eight patients (29 procedures) could be prospectively included in our study. Before surgery we randomly assigned the patients to two groups: group A (N.=12): CEA by means of early control of the distal internal carotid artery; group B (N.=17): CEA with dissection of the total carotid bifurcation before clamping the arteries. Periprocedurally, we continuously monitored the cerebral blood flow in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery by means of TCD. Pre- and postoperative morbidity were independently verified by a neurologist control of the distal internal carotid artery did not reduce the occurrence of MES during dissection of the carotid bifurcation. Also, the total number of MES throughout the procedure and postoperatively was comparable between both groups. The procedure related times as well as the clinical outcome did not differ significantly. Thus, early control of the distal internal carotid artery has got no advantage but also no disadvantage

  12. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  13. [Risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery during surgical resection of carotid body tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y H; Wang, J S; Yao, C; Chang, G Q; Yin, H H; Li, S Q; Lü, W M; Hu, Z J; Wang, S M

    2017-06-13

    Objective: To investigate risk factors of rupture of internal carotid artery resection during carotid body tumor resection and to summarize our treatment experience. Methods: During the period from 1991 to 2016, rupture of internal carotid artery occurred in 27 patients (28 tumors) during surgical resection of carotid body tumor in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. Their clinical and follow-up data were retrospectively collected and analyzed. For all patients underwent surgical resection during this period, Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the risk factors of intraoperative rupture of internal carotid artery. Results: Of these 28 tumors, there were 15 (53.6%) tumors with diameter≥5 cm and 20 (71.4%) Shamblin Ⅲ tumors. Intraoperatively, shunt was applied for 8 (28.6%) cases. Thirteen (46.4%) patients underwent ligation of external carotid artery, while 2 (7.1%) patients accepted resection of cranial nerves. Direct closure/patchplasty, autologous vessels or graft reconstruction was used in 16, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Postoperatively, stroke occurred in 4(14.3%) cases and cranial nerve deficit in 15 (53.6%) cases. During a median length of 36 (14-125) months, cranial nerve deficit persisted in 5 cases. Follow-up radiologic examination indicated 3 (10.7%) cases of targeted vessel occlusion. However, no new-onset stroke was identified. Among all patients underwent surgical resection of carotid body tumor, female ( OR =3.650, P =0.012), age≤25 years old ( OR =3.710, P =0.013) and Shamblin Ⅲ tumor ( OR =4.631, P =0.008) increase the risks of intraoperative carotid artery rupture. Conclusions: Shamblin Ⅲ tumor is the predictor of rupture of internal carotid artery. Intraoperative, properly increased blood pressure, intraoperative heparinization and use of shunt for those cases without well-compensated cranial collateral arteries are likely to decreasing the incidence of stroke.

  14. Pain as the only manifestation of internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biousse, V; Woimant, F; Amarenco, P; Touboul, P J; Bousser, M G

    1992-10-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection is a major cause of ischemic stroke in the young. Pain is the leading symptom and is associated with other focal signs such as Horner's syndrome and painful tinnitus or with signs of cerebral or retinal ischemia. We report two patients with angiographically confirmed extracranial internal carotid artery dissection presenting with cephalic pain as the only manifestation. The first patient had a diffuse headache and a latero-cervical pain lasting for 12 days, reminiscent of carotidynia. The second patient experienced an exploding headache suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was ruled out by computed tomography of the head and cerebrospinal fluid study. These patients demonstrate that recognition of carotid artery dissection as a cause of carotidynia and headache suggestive of subarachnoid hemorrhage may permit an earlier diagnosis and possibly the prevention of a stroke through the use of anticoagulation.

  15. Dissecting aneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Youichi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Matsukado, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Takafumi.

    1987-01-01

    On lifting a heavy case, a 51-year-old male experienced a sudden onset of headache with giddiness and clouded vision. A week later, vertigo and right hand numbness were added to his symptoms. The next day anisocoria (right > left) and dilation of the left retinal veins were noted. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan appeared normal and there were no other remarkable neurological findings. The patient was treated conservatively for cerebral infarction, however, the headache worsened and diplopia occurred. Neurological examination on admission revealed nothing unusual except for left Horner's syndrome. Physical examination showed a palpable sausage-like painless tumor on the left side of the neck. Angiography showed a narrowing of the internal carotid artery in the cervical region with a small dissecting aneurysm at the C3 level. Cervical CT scan at the upper C3 level showed a low density lunar defect in the high density section of the enlarged left internal carotid artery. The patient was operated on by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis to increase the intracranial blood flow. Postoperatively the symptoms were quickly relieved. Angiography 1 month later showed less narrowing of the carotid artery, though the dissecting aneurysm still remained. Postoperative cervical CT scan showed the left internal carotid artery to be of normal size. The patient returned to his work in normal condition 2 months later. It is emphasized that cervical CT scan may be useful in the diagnosis of this unusual type of cervical dissecting aneurysm. (author)

  16. Aberrant internal carotid artery presenting as a retrotympanic vascular mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolay, Simon; De Foer, Bert; Bernaerts, Anja; Van Dinther, Joost; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a young woman with an aberrant right internal carotid artery (ICA) presenting as a retrotympanic reddish mass. This variant of the ICA represents the collateral pathway that is formed as a result of an embryological agenesis of the cervical segment of the ICA. The embryonic inferior tympanic artery is recruited to bypass the absent carotid segment. This hypertrophied vessel may be seen otoscopically and wrongfully considered to be a vascular middle ear tumor. Informing the otorhinolaryngologist of this important vascular variant not only obviates biopsy but also helps in careful preoperative planning of eventual middle ear procedures

  17. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient with Spontaneous Recanalization of a Proximal Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Jong; Koh, Jun Seok; Choi, Woo Suk

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of carotid artery angioplasty and stenting in a patient with spontaneous recanalization after complete occlusion of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient initially showed severe stenosis at the left proximal ICA on MR angiography (MRA). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed three days after MRA showed complete occlusion of the proximal ICA. The follow-up DSA after four weeks showed recanalization of the ICA, and then carotid artery stenting was successfully performed. There has been no neurologic complication during more than one year follow-up. cute internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions may result in profound disability and death (1). An occluded ICA can spontaneously recanalize, but this doesn't happen frequently, and the natural course of a proximal ICA occlusion and its possibility of recanalization, including the exact time of recanalization after occlusion, are not well known (2, 3). A few studies have reported the incidence of spontaneous recanalization of the proximal internal carotid artery, which has mostly occurred in patients with ICA dissections (4 6). A few limited studies have reported a considerable incidence of spontaneous recanalization in patients with underlying atherosclerotic lesion or atherothombotic diseases (2). The possibility of repeated occlusion and repeated cerebral ischemic infarction may exist for the patients exhibiting spontaneous recanalization of the ICA and underlying atherosclerosis. We report here on a case of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in a patient who exhibited underlying atherosclerosis with spontaneous recanalization after complete occlusion of the proximal ICA

  18. CrossFit-related cervical internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Albert; Shen, Peter; Lee, Paul; Dahlin, Brian; Waldau, Ben; Nidecker, Anna E; Nundkumar, Anoop; Bobinski, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    CrossFit is a high-intensity strength and conditioning program that has gained popularity over the past decade. Potential injuries associated with CrossFit training have been suggested in past reports. We report three cases of cervical carotid dissection that are associated with CrossFit workouts. Patient 1 suffered a distal cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection near the skull base and a small infarct in Wernicke's area. He was placed on anticoagulation and on follow-up has near complete recovery. Patient 2 suffered a proximal cervical ICA dissection that led to arterial occlusion and recurrent middle cerebral artery territory infarcts and significant neurological sequelae. Patient 3 had a skull base ICA dissection that led to a partial Horner's syndrome but no cerebral infarct. While direct causality cannot be proven, intense CrossFit workouts may have led to the ICA dissections in these patients.

  19. In-stent restenosis of innominate artery with critical stenosis of right internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Raza, A.; Ahmed, W.

    2011-01-01

    A lady with aortitis syndrome developed in-stent restenosis (ISR) of the innominate artery stent and critical stenosis of right internal carotid artery. The therapeutic challenge was gaining access to the carotid vessel, after treating the innominate artery ISR and all the while using distal protection to circumvent potential cerebral embolism. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with or without stenting is a safe therapeutic option for re-vascularization of the supra aortic vessels. In the event of re-stenosis, re-treatment with PTA and stenting is safe. Ample evidence-base exists now for carotid artery stenting (CAS) in preference to carotid endarterectomy in patients with stenotic lesions of the carotid vessels. (author)

  20. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASOUND AND STENOSIS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Flis

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elucidation of the ultrasound structure of the atherosclerotic plaque in stenosis of internal carotid artery may have important implications for carotid surgery. This study compares the ability of computer derived 3D ultrasound gray scale volumetric measurements to diferentiate between ultrasonic structure of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaque causing more than 70% stenosis.Methods. Eightysix internal carotid artery stenoses (70–99%, 45 symptomatic, 41 asymptomatic were imaged with 3D ultrasound to obtain the whole volume of the atherosclerotic plaque. Digitalized sonograms were computerized and normalized to the gray scale median (GSM of blood (0 and vessel adventitia (200. Plaque GSM was obtained for the whole volume by computing the volume ratio between echolucent and echogenic areas. The plaque heterogeneity was obtained by computing the density of echogenic areas per volume unit. Parametric t test was used for statistic analysis.Results. Minimum volume GSM ratio (determining echolucency was higher for asymptomatic plaque (0.6 – CI 0.48– 0.91 versus 0.3 – CI 0.21–0.75: p = 0.002. Greater GSM heterogeneity was present in symptomatic plaque (6.8 – CI 2.5– 18.3 versus 0.41 – CI 0.2–3.4;.p = 0.0001.Conclusions. Volume ultrasound imaging that enables objective assessment of whole ultrasonic plaque structure is more sensitive that single longitudinal view sonography for differentiating between ultrasonic structure of symptomatic and asymptomatic plaque.

  1. Interventional therapy of traumatic pseudoaneurysms in internal carotid artery siphon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Shang Jianqiang; Chen Jie; Li Fengxin; Liu Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the methods and results of treating traumatic pseudoaneurysms in siphon segment of internal carotid artery (ICA)by interventional therapy. Methods: Twelve cases of traumatic pseudoaneurysms in siphon segment of internal carotid artery were treated. The collateral circulation of Willis circle was observed after DSA. Different methods of treatment were applied according to the collateral circulation of Willis circle. Ten cases were treated by occlusion of ICA completely, 1 case was embolized by guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) only. Results: Nine of 12 treated by occlusion of ICA were cured. In the 3 cases who had poor collateral of Willis circle, one was cured by GDC embolization alone; one died 48 hours later after ICA occlusion though his consciousness and the activity of extremities were normal during the temporary balloon test occlusion (BTO) of ICA. One died during the training to improve the collateral of the Willis circle. Conclusion: ICA embolization is feasible for treatment of traumatic pseudoaneurysms in siphon segment of internal carotid artery after evaluating the collateral circulation of Willis circle. (authors)

  2. Endovascular Treatment of Unusual Multiple Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery-Posterior Communicating Artery Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Michiya; Kuwayama, Naoya; Hirashima, Yutaka; Ohi, Masayoshi; Takami, Masaaki; Endo, Shunro

    2000-01-01

    A 79-year-old female presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a rare true posterior communicating artery(PCoA)aneurysm and with poor general condition. Endovascular therapy was performed in the chronic stage. Right carotid angiography just before embolization demonstrated unusual multiple aneurysms of the internal carotid artery(ICA)-PCoA complex. Superselective an-giography and aneurysmography using microcatheter revealed two separate aneurysms arising from the PCoA and the I...

  3. Evidence for shear stress-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Howard Henry; Atkinson, Ceri L; Heinonen, Ilkka H A

    2016-01-01

    -mediated dilation of larger conduit arteries in humans. There was a strong association between change in shear and diameter of the internal carotid (r=0.68; Ptime in humans, that shear stress is an important stimulus for hypercapnic vasodilation of the internal carotid...... increases carotid shear stress, a known stimulus to vasodilation in other conduit arteries. To explore the hypothesis that shear stress contributes to hypercapnic internal carotid dilation in humans, temporal changes in internal and common carotid shear rate and diameter, along with changes in middle.......01) carotids. Diameter also increased (Ptime course is associated with shear...

  4. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of supra-aortic arteries especially the internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachel, R.; Basche, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik); Heerklotz, I.; Grossmann, K. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin); Endler, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Neurologie und Psychiatrie)

    1991-06-01

    We present our experience with 105 patients in whom percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 112 stenosed or occluded supra-aortic arteries. Symtoms of cerebrovascular and/or vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 104 of the 105 patients. The angioplasty was successful in 35 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, 2 stenoses of the common carotid artery, 1 stenosis of the external carotid artery, 15 stenoses of the vertebral artery, 3 stenoses of the innominate artery and 44 stenoses of the subclavian artery. There were only 4 minor-complications (2 haematomas, 1 transient ischemic attack, 1 small thrombus of the internal carotid artery which was detected by 111-indium platelet scintigraphy and treated by thrombendarterectomy before the appearance of neurological symptoms). All patients were symptom free after angioplasty. During the observations period of 3 to 109 months (average 58 months) there were only two cases with re-stenosis after subclavian angioplasty. The results of more than 700 personal and international published percutaneous transluminal angioplasties of supra-aortic arteries are presented. The results suggest that angioplasty of supra-aortic arteries is an effective method. On strict definition of the indications, the complication rate for angioplasty of the supra-aortic arteries is not likely to be higher than that for operative treatment. (orig.).

  5. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion Associated with the Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pria Anand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old woman presented with a right-hemispheric stroke 1 year after she had suffered a left-hemispheric stroke. Her diagnostic workup was notable for bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries at their origins and a positive lupus anticoagulant antibody test. There was no evidence of carotid dissection or another identifiable cause for her carotid occlusions. These findings suggest that the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome may be implicated in the pathological changes that resulted in occlusions of the extracranial internal carotid arteries. Young stroke patients who present with unexplained internal carotid artery occlusions may benefit from testing for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies.

  6. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  7. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  8. Long-term outcomes of internal carotid artery disease treated using radial artery graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akira; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Umeoka, Katsuya; Tateyama, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    Complex internal carotid artery disease presents a surgical challenge because limitations and difficulty are encountered with either clipping or endovascular treatment. Our review of previous reports suggests that no current vascular assessment can accurately predict occurrence of ischemic complications after internal carotid artery ligation. The present study concerns long-term clinical outcome of radial artery grafting followed by parent artery trapping or proximal occlusion for management of these difficult lesions. Between September 1997 and October 2007, we performed radial artery grafting followed immediately by parent artery occlusion in 20 sides of 19 patients with complex internal carotid arteries disease with follow-up for more than 36 months (5 men, 14 women; mean follow-up duration, 62 months). All patients underwent postoperative MRI and MR angiography (MRA) every year to assess graft patency, ischemic complications, and de novo aneurysm. Another 20 carotid aneurysms with visual disturbance were assessed concerning outcome. Among 13 patients with cranial nerve (III and VI) disturbances, all dysfunctions were improved in cases treated within 8 months of onset to operation. On the other hand, patients with second cranial nerve disturbances were not improved in cases treated after 4 months of onset. No long-term complications were discovered with MRI and MRA. With appropriate attention to surgical technique, radial artery grafting followed by acute parent artery occlusion is a safe treatment for complex internal carotid artery aneurysms. Long-term safety is satisfactory, with no delayed complications such as graft stenosis, ischemic complications or de novo aneurysm formations in follow-up periods of more than 3 years. Good clinical outcome of cranial nerve palsy was achieved in patients treated within 8 months of onset for cranial nerve (CN) III and VI, and 4 of CN II palsy. (author)

  9. Separate origins of the internal and external carotid arteries depicted on CT angiography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang Ho [Dept. of horacic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Beak, Hye Jin; Jung, Hyun Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Agenesis of the common carotid artery (CCA) is a rare congenital anomaly. We presented a rare case of unilateral congenital absence of the right CCA with separate origins of the ipsilateral internal and external carotid arteries from the brachiocephalic artery. Further, we reviewed the embryological mechanism and clinical importance of this anomaly.

  10. Carotid bifurcation calcium and correlation with percent stenosis of the internal carotid artery on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, Alexander M.; Casey, Sean O.; Teksam, Mehmet; Truwit, Charles L.; Kieffer, Stephen; Lucato, Leandro T.; Smith, Maurice

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the correlation between calcium burden (expressed as a volume) and extent of stenosis of the origin of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by CT angiography (CTA). Previous studies have shown that calcification in the coronary arteries correlates with significant vessel stenosis, and severe calcification (measured by CT) in the carotid siphon correlates with significant (greater than 50% stenosis) as determined angiographically. Sixty-one patients (age range 50-85 years) underwent CT of the neck with intravenous administration of iodinated contrast for a variety of conditions. Images were obtained with a helical multidetector array CT scanner and reviewed on a three-dimensional workstation. A single observer manipulated window and level to segment calcified plaque from vascular enhancement in order to quantify vascular calcium volume (cc) in the region of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery/ICA origin, and to measure the extent of ICA stenosis near the origin. A total of 117 common carotid artery bifurcations were reviewed. A ''significant'' stenosis was defined arbitrarily as >40% (to detect lesions before they become hemodynamically significant) of luminal diameter on CTA using NASCET-like criteria. All ''significant'' stenoses (21 out of 117 carotid bifurcations) had measurable calcium. We found a relatively strong correlation between percent stenosis and the calcium volume (Pearson's r= 0.65, P<0.0001). We also found that there was an even stronger correlation between the square root of the calcium volume and the percent stenosis as measured by CTA (r= 0.77, P<0.0001). Calcium volumes of 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.12 cc were used as thresholds to evaluate for a ''significant'' stenosis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve demonstrated that thresholds of 0.06 cc (sensitivity 88%, specificity 87%) and 0.03 cc (sensitivity 94%, specificity 76%) generated the best combinations of sensitivity and

  11. Anatomical characteristics of the styloid process in internal carotid artery dissection: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, José M; Pereira, Daniela; Rodrigues, Marta G; Beato-Coelho, José; Lopes, Margarida; Cunha, André; Figueiredo, Sofia; Mendes-Pinto, Mafalda; Ferreira, Carla; Sargento-Freitas, João; Castro, Sérgio; Pinho, João

    2018-06-01

    Introduction Pathophysiology of cervical artery dissection is complex and poorly understood. In addition to well-known causative and predisposing factors, including major trauma and monogenic connective tissue disorders, morphological characteristics of the styloid process have been recently recognized as a possible risk factor for cervical internal carotid artery dissection. Aims To study the association of the anatomical characteristics of styloid process with internal carotid artery dissection. Methods Retrospective, multicenter, case-control study of patients with internal carotid artery dissection and age- and sex-matched controls. Consecutive patients with internal carotid artery dissection and controls with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack of any etiology excluding internal carotid artery dissection, who had performed computed tomography angiography, diagnosed between January 2010 and September 2016. Two independent observers measured styloid process length and styloid process distance to internal carotid artery. Results Sixty-two patients with internal carotid artery dissection and 70 controls were included. Interobserver agreement was good for styloid process length and styloid process-internal carotid artery distance (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.89 and 0.76, respectively). Styloid process ipsilateral to dissection was longer than left and right styloid process in controls (35.8 ± 14.4 mm versus 30.4 ± 8.9 mm and 30.3 ± 8.2 mm, p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively). Styloid process-internal carotid artery distance ipsilateral to dissection was shorter than left and right distance in controls (6.3 ± 1.9 mm versus 7.2 ± 2.1 mm and 7.0 ± 2.3 mm, p = 0.003 and p = 0.026, respectively). Internal carotid artery dissection was associated with styloid process length (odds ratio = 1.04 mm -1 , 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.015) and styloid process-internal

  12. Classical surgical approach and treatment with clips of extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Vukas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We can define extracranial carotid artery aneurysm (ECAA as bulb dilatation greater than 200% of the diameter of the internal carotid artery (ICA or in a case of common carotid artery (CCA greater than 150% of the diameter. Surgical intervention is required for the treatment of this disease.Case report: This study presents an open vascular surgical procedure to resolve ECAA. We report a case of 61 years old woman with an extracranial internal carotid artery berry aneurysm, presented with a headache and dizziness when turning the head aside. Classic open surgery was performed and the lumen of berry aneurysm was separated with three clips from the lumen of ICA.Conclusions: The open surgical approach is the method of choice for the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery pathological conditions.

  13. Spontaneous Recanalization of Complete Internal Carotid Artery: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examination revealed global aphasia and right hemiplegia. No carotid bruits or heart murmurs were. ABSTRACT. Spontaneous recanalization of atherothrombotic extracranial cerebral arteries is rare vis-à-vis recanalization of intracranial vessels. The time course is unknown. The question is the advisability and timing of ...

  14. Blood flows in the maxillocarotid anastomoses and internal carotid artery of conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M C; Reid, I A; Ramsay, D J

    1986-06-01

    Although the external carotid artery is known to contribute to the cerebral blood flow in anesthetized dogs, quantitative information on the anastomoses and their role in conscious dogs is lacking. This study was carried out to determine blood flows in these anastomoses and the internal carotid artery, and also to examine the functional significance of the anastomoses in conscious dogs. Fifteen-micron radioactive microspheres were injected into common and external carotid arteries of four conscious dogs through chronically implanted catheters. Blood flows were determined by the reference sample method and by comparing microsphere distributions in the brain and the masseter muscle. Blood flows were estimated to be 140 +/- 32, 7.7 +/- 1.4, and 3.3 +/- 1.1 ml/minute (mean +/- SD) in the common carotid artery, internal carotid artery, and anastomoses on each side, respectively. Additional evidence indicated that the anastomotic flow so determined was primarily the flow in the anastomotic artery. Humoral responses to angiotensin II infusions were also studied in conscious dogs. External carotid angiotensin increased plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid concentration (used as an index of ACTH secretion) but did not increase plasma vasopressin concentration to the same extent as common carotid infusion. Therefore, the external carotid artery is functionally important in perfusing the brain in conscious dogs.

  15. Carotid endarterectomy in cervical block anesthesia in patients with occluded contralateral internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijevski Nenad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goal of modern carotid surgery is relief of symptoms, stroke prevention, improvement in quality of life, prevention of vascular dementia, and prolongation of lifetime. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to compare the outcome of carotid endarterectomy in cervical block vs. general anesthesia in patients with occluded contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA. METHOD: One hundred patients (76 male, 24 female, mean age 60.81 years with occluded contralateral ICA were operated from 1997-2000. Neurological symptomatology, deficiency and stroke incidence were preoperatively analyzed in two groups. Duplex-scanning, angiograms and CT-scan confirmed the diagnosis. Risk factors analysis included hypertension, diabetes, lipid metabolism disorders, smoking and history of CAD, CABG and PAOD. Morbidity and mortality were used to compare the outcome of surgery in two groups. RESULTS There was no difference of age, gender and symptomatology between the groups. Paresis, TIA and dysphasia were most frequent. 70%-90% of ICA stenosis was seen in the majority of patients. Hypertension and smoking were dominant risk factors in these two groups. Eversion carotid end arterectomy was the most frequent technique used. In three cases out of nine that were operated under cervical block, the neurological symptoms developed just after clamping, so the intra-luminal shunt was placed. Postoperative morbidity was 12% and mortality was 8%. Conclusion: There was no difference of preoperative parameters, surgical technique and outcome in these two groups. Without other intraoperative monitoring, cervical block anesthesia might be an option in patients with the occlusion of the contralateral ICA. However, prospective studies involving more patients are needed.

  16. Treatment of complex internal carotid artery aneurysms using radial artery grafts. Surgical technique, perioperative complications, and results in 17 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akira; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Kamiyama, Hiroyasu

    2007-01-01

    Complex giant or large internal carotid artery aneurysms present a surgical challenge because limitations and difficulty are encountered with either clipping or endovascular treatment. Our review of previous reports suggests that no current vascular assessment can accurately predict the occurrence of ischemic complications after internal carotid artery ligation. The present study concerns surgical technique, complications, and clinical outcome of radial artery grafting followed by parent artery trapping or proximal occlusion for management of these difficult lesions. Between September 1997 and October 2005, we performed radial artery grafting followed immediately by parent artery occlusion in 17 patients with giant or large complex intracranial carotid aneurysms (3 men, 14 women; mean follow-up duration, 62 months). All patients underwent postoperative digital subtraction angiography to assess graft patency and aneurysm obliteration. All 17 aneurysms were excluded from the cerebral circulation, with all radial artery grafts patent. Among 4 patients with cranial nerve disturbances, dysfunction was temporary in 5; in the others, oculomotor nerve paresis persisted. No perioperative cerebral infarction occurred. Sensory aphasia reflecting cerebral contusions caused by temporal lobe retraction resolved within 2 months, as did hemiparesis from a postoperative epidural hematoma. With appropriate attention to surgical technique, radial artery grafting followed by acute parent artery occlusion is a safe treatment for complex internal carotid artery aneurysms. Graft patency and aneurysm thrombosis were achieved in all patients. Cranial nerve dysfunction (III, VI) caused by altered blood flow from the internal carotid artery after occlusion was the most common complication and typically was temporary. In our experience with these difficult aneurysms, not only clipping but also reconstruction of the internal carotid artery was required, especially for wide-necked symptomatic

  17. Traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting as epistaxis treated by endovascular coiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jehani, Hosam M.; Alwadaani, Hassan A.; Almolani, Fadhel M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of blunt trauma. It is even more rare when it presents as epistaxis. Massive epistaxis of a ruptured intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a major cause of mortality, which requires emergency intervention. We report a case of traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm secondary to skull base fracture, which presented with delayed onset of epistaxis. This was successfully treated by primary endovascular coil embolization. We discuss endovascular treatment options and review the literature. PMID:26818170

  18. Angioplasty of symptomatic high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis with intraluminal thrombus: therapeutic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A.; Mayol, A. [Seccion de Neurorradiologia Intervencionista, Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Gil-Peralta, A.; Gonzalez-Marcos, J.R. [Servicio de Neurologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Boza, F. [Servicio de Neurofisiologia, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Ruano, J. [Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Avenida Manuel Siurot s/n, 41013, Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-04-01

    Intraluminal thrombus in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is usually found in patients with severe atheromatous stenosis. Having reviewed 300 carotid angioplasties for symptomatic >70% ICA stenosis, we found three patients (1%) with intraluminal thrombus. Conservative treatment with anticoagulants and double antiplatelet coverage can result in lysis of the thrombus without severe risks. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting, preferably with distal protection, can be an excellent alternative to carotid endarterectomy. (orig.)

  19. Endovascular Treatment for Fusiform Dilation of Internal Carotid Artery Following Craniopharyngioma Resection: A Case Illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Chaohua; Xu, Jianguo; You, Chao

    2015-09-01

    Fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery complicates aggressive craniopharyngioma resection and occurs mainly in children. We report a case to describe the availability of endovascular treatment for this rare entity. A 13-year-old boy presented with headache for 2 years after resection of craniopharyngioma. A fusiform dilation of the right carotid artery was found and was coiled using stent-assisted technique. Follow-up showed satisfactory outcome and disappearance of headache. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding endovascular treatment for fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery after craniopharyngioma resection. Stent-assisted coiling is a useful approach for fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery following craniopharyngioma surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ederle, Jörg

    2010-03-20

    Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy.

  1. Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Collateral Recruitment in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankbaar, Jan W; Kerckhoffs, Kelly G P; Horsch, Alexander D; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Kappelle, L Jaap; Velthuis, Birgitta K

    2017-04-24

    Leptomeningeal collaterals improve outcome in stroke patients. There is great individual variability in their extent. Internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may lead to more extensive recruitment of leptomeningeal collaterals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of pre-existing ICA stenosis with leptomeningeal collateral filling visualized with computed tomography perfusion (CTP). From a prospective acute ischemic stroke cohort, patients were included with an M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and absent ipsilateral, extracranial ICA occlusion. ICA stenosis was determined on admission CT angiography (CTA). Leptomeningeal collaterals were graded as good (>50%) or poor (≤50%) collateral filling in the affected MCA territory on CTP-derived vessel images of the admission scan. The association between ipsilateral ICA stenosis ≥70% and extent of collateral filling was analyzed using logistic regression. In a multivariable analysis the odds ratio (OR) of ICA stenosis ≥70% was adjusted for complete circle of Willis, gender and age. We included 188 patients in our analyses, 50 (26.6%) patients were classified as having poor collateral filling and 138 (73.4%) as good. Of the patients 4 with poor collateral filling had an ICA stenosis ≥70% and 14 with good collateral filling. Unadjusted and adjusted ORs of ICA stenosis ≥70% for good collateral filling were 1.30 (0.41-4.15) and 2.67 (0.81-8.77), respectively. Patients with poor collateral filling had a significantly worse outcome (90-day modified Rankin scale 3-6; 80% versus 52%, p = 0.001). No association was found between pre-existing ICA stenosis and extent of CTP derived collateral filling in patients with an M1 occlusion.

  2. Stent-induced flow disturbances in the ipsilateral external carotid artery following internal carotid artery stenting: a temporary cause of jaw claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgea, Georgiana-Aura; Haumer, Markus; Mlekusch, Irene; Sabeti-Sandor, Schila; Dick, Petra; Schillinger, Martin; Minar, Erich; Mlekusch, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesize that stenting of the internal carotid artery can immediately impede blood flow to the external carotid artery by either plaque shift or stent coverage of the ostium, and thereby cause ischemic symptoms like ipsilateral jaw claudication. Thirty-three patients with high-grade asymptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery who underwent endovascular treatment were examined by ultrasound of the external carotid artery and performed an exercise test by chewing chewing gum synchronously to an electronic metronome for 3 min. Tests were performed before, the day after, and 1 week after the stenting procedure. Claudication time was defined as the timespan until occurrence of pain of the masseter muscle and/or chewing dyssynchrony to the metronome for more than 15 s. Ten patients with an isolated, atherosclerotic stenosis of the external carotid artery served as controls. A significantly reduced claudication time (in seconds) was recorded in patients who underwent carotid artery stenting compared to baseline values; median 89 (interquartile range, IQR, 57 to 124) vs. median 180 (IQR 153 to 180; p external carotid artery into faster or slower as 200 cm/sec, the effect was even accentuated. Stenting values showed improvement 1 week after but did not return to baseline levels. No respective changes were found in controls. Stenting of the internal carotid artery lead to ipsilateral flow deterioration at the external carotid artery resulting in temporary jaw claudication. This impairment attenuated over the time and was significantly reduced after 1 week.

  3. Persistent dorsal ophthalmic artery arising from the internal carotid artery: Report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Hwan; Lee, Ghi Jai; Shim, Jae Chan; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Kim, Ho Kyun; Suh, Jung Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Normally, the ophthalmic artery (OA) arises from the supraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and enters the orbit via the optic canal. A persistent dorsal OA is a rare variation that originates from the cavernous segment of the ICA and enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure. To the best of our knowledge, persistent dorsal OA has not been described in the Korean literature. In this paper, we report three cases of persistent dorsal OA with review of the literature on embryogenesis and other origins of the OA.

  4. Clinical features of 10 patients with spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoya, Harumitsu; Takeda, Hidetaka; Dembo, Tomohisa; Kato, Yuzi; Deguchi, Ichiro; Fukuoka, Takuya; Maruyama, Hazime; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2011-01-01

    We clinically investigated 10 patients with spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissections (age range 36-70, mean 52±12 years; 8 male and 2 female) who were admitted to our university hospital between August 2002 and 2009. Cervical internal carotid artery dissection was diagnosed using findings from MRI, MR angiography (MRA), 3D-CTA, cerebral angiography, and carotid artery ultrasonography according to the diagnostic criteria of brain artery dissociation defined by the brain artery dissociation working group of the Strategies Against Stroke Study for Young Adults in Japan. The initial symptoms were stroke in eight patients, only neck pain in another, and no symptoms in the last. Four patients (40%) had neck pain or headache at onset. Five of the 10 patients had radiological improvements within three months after onset. The outcomes at three months were relatively good, with seven and three patients scoring 1 and 2, respectively, on the modified Rankin Scale. Disease did not recur in any patients during an average of 17.2 months of follow up. Spontaneous cervical internal carotid artery dissection is not rare in Japan. This condition should be considered when patients present with internal carotid artery occlusion or stenosis. (author)

  5. Shear-mediated dilation of the internal carotid artery occurs independent of hypercapnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiland, Ryan L; Smith, Kurt J; Carter, Howard Henry

    2017-01-01

    preceded increases in diameter in both transient (time: 16.8 ± 13.2 vs. 59.4 ± 60.3 s, P time: 18.2 ± 14.2 vs. 110.3 ± 79.6 s, P dilation was positively correlated with shear rate area under the curve in the transient (r2 = 0.44, P ...Evidence for shear stress as a regulator of carotid artery dilation in response to increased arterial CO2 was recently demonstrated in humans during sustained elevations in CO2 (hypercapnia); however, the relative contributions of CO2 and shear stress to this response remains unclear. We examined...... the hypothesis that, after a 30-s transient increase in arterial CO2 tension and consequent increase in internal carotid artery shear stress, internal carotid artery diameter would increase, indicating shear-mediated dilation, in the absence of concurrent hypercapnia. In 27 healthy participants, partial...

  6. Usefulness of CT angiography after metallic stent implantation of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Man Won; Kim, Hyeon Chul; Kim, Jae Kyu; Seo, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of CT angiography in patients with implantation of metallic stent for stenosed internal carotid artery. Seven patients with atherosclerotic stenosis of the internal carotid artery underwent metallic stent implantation. All were male and their ages ranged from 36 to 69 years. A total of seven stents were placed in the internal carotid artery in five patients and in the carotid bifurcation in two. Spiral CT scans were obtained and CT angiographic images were reconstructed using MPR or curved MPR techniques at a workstation. The interval between CT and conventional angiography did not exceed six days except in one patient, in whom it was 61days. CT and conventional angiography were compared for stent position with respect to the carotid bifurcation, stent deformation, intraluminal filling defect, and luminal caliber and outflow. Luminal patency of the implanted stent was measured according to NASCET(North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial) criteria, and statistically processed (p>.05). The presence or absence of intrastent thrombus and vascular wall calcification was determined using axial source images. In all patients, CT angiographic findings matched those obtained by conventional angiography. Complications such as migration or deformation of an implanted stent, intraluminal filling defect, change of luminal caliber or outflow of implanted stent were not observed in any patient. In two studies in which Wilcoxon signed rank test was used, degree of stent expansion correlated closely(p=0.237). Axial source images showed that in no patient was an intrastent thrombus present, though in five, vascular wall calcification of internal carotid arteries outside the stent was noted. CT angiography is useful for the assessment of positional change, occlusion, and luminal patency of a stent-implanted internal carotid artery

  7. [Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khamlichi, A; Amrani, F; el Azzusi, M; el Oufir, M; Khamlichi, A M

    1989-01-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries associated with aneurysm of the right posterior communicating artery in a 17 year old female patient. This anomaly was discovered following a meningeal haemorrhage, which recurred 18 months later, causing the patient's death. Surgical operation was refused by the patient and her family. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries is a rare congenital malformation (16 cases have been reported in the literature, our case constitutes the 17th). It is distinguished from aplasia by the presence of a patent but very reduced vascular lumen, while aplasia is associated with vestiges of non-patent vessels. The mechanism of development of such a malformation is unclear: some authors have suggested secondary regression of the internal carotid artery following a phase of normal development, while others consider it to represent arrest of the development of the internal carotid artery, at a given moment in time. The frequency of associated aneurysm would be due to the haemodynamic disruption induced by the malformation, especially as parietal defects are more frequent in a malformed vasculature. Bilateral hypoplasia of the internal carotid arteries may be compatible with normal life for an indefinite period of time due to the development of a large number of collateral vessels. However, the new vasculature is threatened by rupture with meningeal haemorrhage and by acute ischaemia, which would probably involve another aetiological factor.

  8. Stent impact on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkefeld, J.; Zanella, F.E.; Rosendahl, H.; Theron, J.G.; Guimaraens, L.; Treggiari-Venzi, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A measurement system is proposed to evaluate reconstructive effects of carotid stents on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery. To describe deviations of the stenotic internal carotid artery (ICA) from the extended axis of the common carotid artery (CCA) the CCA-ICA angle is measured between the CCA midaxis and the midaxis of the stenotic ICA segment. Maximal extensions of ICA tortuosities perpendicular to the course of the CCA axis are defined as ICA offset. The measurements were applied to DSA images of 224 carotid stenoses to evaluate variation and correlation between the two parameters. Comparative pre- and post-stent evaluation was performed in two series of 55 and 31 carotid stenoses treated with Wallstents and in a historic control group of 35 stenoses treated with Strecker stents. Straight course of the ICA was associated with low angle and low offset values, whereas tortuous course of the ICA showed larger angle and offset. A moderate linear correlation between the two parameters was found. Corresponding to a straightening of the stented segment, Wallstents reduced mean angle and offset values significantly. In five cases of the second series of Wallstents, transferrals of curves above the distal stent end associated with kinks were observed, and offset remained constant or increased. Strecker stent implantation caused no significant changes of bifurcational geometry. The proposed parameters corresponded to visual aspects of ICA tortuosity and detected reconstructive effects of self-expanding Wallstents on the ICA course. The measurement system may provide a basis for geometric evaluation of different stent types or implantation concepts with the aim: to optimize anatomic recanalization results in tortuous high angle-high offset bifurcations. (orig.)

  9. Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calió, Francesco G; Papaspyropoulos, Vassilios; Montesano, Giuseppe; D'Urso, Antonio

    2003-02-01

    The operation for isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving the symptoms of cerebral ischemia. A consecutive sample clinical study with a mean follow-up of 44 months. The surgical department of an academic tertiary care center and an affiliated secondary care center. Fifty-four patients with a mean age of 67 years underwent 55 revascularizations of the internal carotid artery. The surgical procedures consisted of the following: shortening and reimplantation in the common carotid artery in 36 cases, bypass grafting in 15 cases, and transposition into the external carotid artery in 4 cases. Cumulative survival, primary patency, and stroke-free and neurologic symptom-free rates expressed by standard life-table analysis. No patients died in the postoperative period. The postoperative stroke rate was 1.8%. The cumulative rates (SEs) at 5 years were as follows: survival, 70% (10.2%); primary patency, 89% (7.8%); overall stroke free, 92% (6.8%); ipsilateral stroke free, 96% (5.3%); neurologic symptom free, 90% (7.5%); and ipsilateral symptom free, 93% (6.5%). Revascularization of the internal carotid artery for the treatment of isolated, stenotic, and symptomatic kinking is safe and effective in preventing stroke and relieving symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency.

  10. Ideal Internal Carotid Artery Trapping Technique without Bypass in a Patient with Insufficient Collateral Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Joon Ho; Shin, Yong Sam; Lim, Yong Cheol; Park, Minjung

    2009-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) trapping can be used for treating intracranial giant aneurysm, blood blister-like aneurysms and ICA rupture during the surgery. We present a novel ICA trapping technique which can be used with insufficient collaterals flow via anterior communicating artery (AcoA) and posterior communicating artery (PcoA). A patient was admitted with severe headache and the cerebral angiography demonstrated a typical blood blister-like aneurysm at the contralateral side of PcoA. F...

  11. Treatment of internal carotid artery dissections with endovascular stent placement: report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Hur, Seung Ho; Kim, Hyeon Gak; Jung, Seung Mun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Park, Man Soo [Kangnung Hospital, Kangnung (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    Extracranial carotid artery dissection may manifest as arterial stenosis or occlusion, or as dissecting aneurysm formation. Anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet therapy is the first-line treatment, but because it is effective and less invasive than other procedures, endovascular treatment of carotid artery dissection has recently attracted interest. We encountered two consecutive cases of trauma-related extracranial internal carotid artery dissection, one in the suprabulbar portion and one in the subpetrosal portion. We managed the patient with suprabulbar dissection using a self-expandable metallic stent and managed the patient with subpetrosal dissection using a balloon-expandable metallic stent. In both patients the dissecting aneurysm disappeared, and at follow-up improved luminal patency was observed.

  12. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial

  13. Pseudoaneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery: Treatment with a Covered Stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scavee, Vincent; Wispelaere, Jean-Francois de; Mormont, Eric; Coulier, Bruno; Trigaux, Jean-Paul; Schoevaerdts, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Dissection of the cervical segment of the internal carotid artery may occur spontaneously or after trauma. We report the management of a 53-year-old right-handed man with progressive dizziness and neck pain 6 weeks after a motor vehicle collision. The clinical and neurologic examinations were normal. The CT scan led to the diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm of the right internal carotid artery near the skull base. We successfully treated this post-traumatic lesion with a covered stent. The patient underwent the endovascular procedure under general anesthesia and transcranial Doppler monitoring. No neurologic event was observed. Obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm with preservation of the carotid artery was achieved. The patient was discharged from the hospital 72 hr later with no complications. Clinical and imaging follow-up at 6 months was unremarkable

  14. Dissecting aneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery. Cervical CT scan findings and treatment - case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Youichi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Matsukado, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Takafumi

    1987-06-01

    On lifting a heavy case, a 51-year-old male experienced a sudden onset of headache with giddiness and clouded vision. A week later, vertigo and right hand numbness were added to his symptoms. The next day anisocoria (right > left) and dilation of the left retinal veins were noted. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan appeared normal and there were no other remarkable neurological findings. The patient was treated conservatively for cerebral infarction, however, the headache worsened and diplopia occurred. Neurological examination on admission revealed nothing unusual except for left Horner's syndrome. Physical examination showed a palpable sausage-like painless tumor on the left side of the neck. Angiography showed a narrowing of the internal carotid artery in the cervical region with a small dissecting aneurysm at the C3 level. Cervical CT scan at the upper C3 level showed a low density lunar defect in the high density section of the enlarged left internal carotid artery. The patient was operated on by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis to increase the intracranial blood flow. Postoperatively the symptoms were quickly relieved. Angiography 1 month later showed less narrowing of the carotid artery, though the dissecting aneurysm still remained. Postoperative cervical CT scan showed the left internal carotid artery to be of normal size. The patient returned to his work in normal condition 2 months later. It is emphasized that cervical CT scan may be useful in the diagnosis of this unusual type of cervical dissecting aneurysm.

  15. Dissecting aneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery. Cervical CT scan findings and treatment - case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Yoshihiro; Itoyama, Youichi; Fukumura, Akinobu; Matsukado, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Takafumi

    1987-06-01

    On lifting a heavy case, a 51-year-old male experienced a sudden onset of headache with giddiness and clouded vision. A week later, vertigo and right hand numbness were added to his symptoms. The next day anisocoria (right > left) and dilation of the left retinal veins were noted. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan appeared normal and there were no other remarkable neurological findings. The patient was treated conservatively for cerebral infarction, however, the headache worsened and diplopia occurred. Neurological examination on admission revealed nothing unusual except for left Horner's syndrome. Physical examination showed a palpable sausage-like painless tumor on the left side of the neck. Angiography showed a narrowing of the internal carotid artery in the cervical region with a small dissecting aneurysm at the C3 level. Cervical CT scan at the upper C3 level showed a low density lunar defect in the high density section of the enlarged left internal carotid artery. The patient was operated on by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis to increase the intracranial blood flow. Postoperatively the symptoms were quickly relieved. Angiography 1 month later showed less narrowing of the carotid artery, though the dissecting aneurysm still remained. Postoperative cervical CT scan showed the left internal carotid artery to be of normal size. The patient returned to his work in normal condition 2 months later. It is emphasized that cervical CT scan may be useful in the diagnosis of this unusual type of cervical dissecting aneurysm.

  16. Separate origins of the left internal and external carotid arteries from the aortic arch and cervical internal carotid artery aneurysm in a patient with Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Rizwan Ahmad; Asmaro, Karam; Pabaney, Aqueel; Kole, Max; Nypaver, Timothy; Marin, Horia

    2017-04-01

    Distinct origins of the external carotid artery and the internal carotid artery (ICA) from the aortic arch have been rarely described, and represent an aberrant development of the aortic arches during fetal life. This anatomical variation is usually discovered incidentally; infrequently, an aneurysm of the cervical ICA might accompany this rare configuration. We describe one such case in a patient with Noonan syndrome who presented with pulsatile neck mass. The diagnostic features and management of the aneurysm and a review of the literature are presented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Report of a Ruptured Case and Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siablis, Dimitrios; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Mastronikolis, Nikos; Zabakis, Peter; Kraniotis, Pantelis

    2004-01-01

    Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid arteries (ECAA) are extremely rare. Schechter et al. documented 835 cases in the literature up to 1977. One hundred and sixteen cases of ECAA have been documented in the Chinese literature since 1981, suggesting a higher prevalence of carotid aneurysmal disease in China than in the West. Four percent of all peripheral artery aneurysms are reported to be ECAA. Those arising from the internal carotid artery (EICAA) are even more rare. Two recent reviews reported 24 and 25 cases of EICAA during 21 and 17 years, respectively, the majority of them is treated surgically. Our literature review revealed only a few true EICAA managed endovascularly, but none of them with a covered stent. We describe a rare such case of ruptured atherosclerotic EICAA which was treated percutaneously

  18. Unilateral dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery: spectrum of imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mendonca, J.L.F.; Viana, S.L.; Freitas, F.M.O.; Matos, V.L.; Viana, M.A.C.B.; Silva, R.F.; Quaglia, L.A.N.; Guerra, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a broad term comprising hypoplasia, aplasia and agenesis of the vessel. It is a rare anomaly, often clinically silent, that can be confidently diagnosed by means of noninvasive imaging methods. After a review of teaching files, 7 patients with unilateral carotid dysgenesis were found, 2 with agenesis of the ICA, 3 with carotid aplasia, and 2 with hypoplasia of the vessel. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain were performed in all patients, with a complete magnetic resonance of the brain in 3 of them, a CT angiography of the brain in one, and MRA of the cervical arteries in 3. The fetal pattern of arterial circulation was found in 3 patients with agenesis/aplasia of the ICA and the adult pattern was found in 2 patients, being the brain circulation of normal pattern in the patients with hypoplasia of the ICA. Two patients presented signs of reduced flow to the brain hemisphere ipsilateral to the carotid dysgenesis; one of them with an old homolateral brain infarction. Far from being just an anatomic curiosity, the dysgenesis of the ICA may have serious consequences if not recognized prior to endarterectomies, carotid ligation or transsphenoidal surgery. As much as one-third of these patients will have intracranial aneurysms as well. The imaging methods, instead being mutually exclusive, are complementary in the evaluation of carotid dysgenesis. (author)

  19. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E. [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, ENT Department, Ankara (Turkey); Koeroglu, Kale B. [Ankara Numune Research and Education Hospital, Internal Medicine Department, Ankara (Turkey)

    2002-10-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  20. Mandibular subluxation for distal internal carotid artery exposure in edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Gijs W.; Witjes, Max J.; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Reintsema, Harry; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2009-01-01

    Four patients with high internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease were indicated for surgical endarterectomy and needed additional exposure be-sides regular head rotation and extension. When indicated, in our clinic this is usually achieved by mandibular subluxation with interdental wiring.

  1. Giant cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in a child: endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeroglu, M.; Arat, A.; Cekirge, S.; Akpinar, E.; Eryilmaz, A.; Akmansu, H.; Koeroglu, Kale B.

    2002-01-01

    We report a child with a giant upper cervical internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm presenting with dysphagia, respiratory distress and a sentinel mild epistaxis, then massive epistaxis. Rupture of the pseudoaneurysm during treatment occurred, as in one reported case. Prompt endovascular treatment yielded a good outcome. (orig.)

  2. Hybrid endovascular and surgical approach for mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mazzaccaro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Mycotic pseudoaneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery are rare, and their management often represents a challenge, but treatment is necessary due to the high risk of rupture and distal brain embolization. Systemic antibiotics associated with open surgical excision of the infected tissues and carotid reconstruction using autologous grafts are the treatment of choice. The use of endovascular techniques still remains controversial in infective fields; however, it can be an attractive alternative in high-risk patients or more often as a “temporary” solution to achieve immediate bleeding control for a safe surgical reconstruction. Methods: We discuss the unusual case of an extracranial right internal carotid artery mycotic pseudoaneurysm following methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection, in a patient with poor general conditions. Results and Conclusion: The lesion was successfully treated using a hybrid endovascular and surgical procedure.

  3. Dynamic changes of intramural hematoma in patients with acute spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldner, Mirjam R; Nedelcheva, Mila; Yan, Xin; Slotboom, Johannes; Mathier, Etienne; Hulliger, Justine; Verma, Rajeev K; Sturzenegger, Matthias; Jung, Simon; Bernasconi, Corrado; Arnold, Marcel; Wiest, Roland; Fischer, Urs

    2015-08-01

    We prospectively investigated temporal and spatial evolution of intramural hematomas in patients with acute spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection using repeated magnetic resonance imaging over six-months. The aim of the present study was to assess dynamic changes of intramural hematoma in patients with acute spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection at multiple follow-up time-points with T1w, PD/T2w, and magnetic resonance angiography. We performed serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging in 10 patients with spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection on admission, at days 1, 3, 7-14 and at months 1·5, 3, and 6. We calculated the volume and extension of the hyperintense intramural hematoma using T1w and PD/T2w fat suppressed sequences and assessed the degree of stenosis due to the hematoma using magnetic resonance angiography. Mean interval from symptom onset to first magnetic resonance imaging was two-days (SD 2·7). Two patients presented with ischemic stroke, three with transient ischemic attacks, and five with pain and local symptoms only. Nine patients had a transient increase of the intramural hematoma volume, mainly up to day 10 after symptom onset. Fifty percent had a transient increase in the degree of the internal carotid artery stenosis on MRA, one resulting in a temporary occlusion. Lesions older than one-week were predominantly characterized by a shift from iso- to hyperintese signal on T2w images. At three-month follow-up, intramural hematoma was no longer detectable in 80% of patients and had completely resolved in all patients after six-months. Spatial and temporal dynamics of intramural hematomas after spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection showed an early volume increase with concomitant progression of the internal carotid artery stenosis in 5 of 10 patients. Although spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection overall carries a good prognosis with spontaneous hematoma resorption in all our patients, early

  4. Surgical dissection of the internal carotid artery under flow control by proximal vessel clamping reduces embolic infarcts during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Kurosaki, Yoshitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ishii, Akira; Takahashi, Jun C; Takagi, Yasushi; Yamagata, Sen; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of flow control of the internal carotid artery (ICA) by the clamping of the common carotid artery, external carotid artery, and superior thyroid artery during surgical ICA dissection to reduce ischemic complications after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Sixty-seven patients (59 men; age, 70.5 ± 6.2 years) who underwent CEA by the same surgeon were retrospectively studied. Both conventional CEA (n = 29) and flow-control CEA (n = 38) were performed with the patient under general anesthesia and with the use of somatosensory-evoked potential and near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring as a guide for selective shunting. The number of new postoperative infarcts was assessed with preoperative and postoperative diffusion-weighted images (DWIs) obtained within 3 days of surgery. In addition to surgical technique, the effects of the following factors on new infarcts also were examined: age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and application of shunting. New postoperative DWI lesions were observed in 7 of 67 patients (10.4%), and none of them was symptomatic. With respect to operative technique, the incidence rate of DWI spots was significantly lower in the flow-control group (2.6%) than in the conventional group (20.7%), odds ratio: 0.069; 95% confidence interval: 0.006-0.779; P = 0.031). On multiple logistic regression analysis, age, side of ICA stenosis, high-grade stenosis, symptoms, and the use of internal shunting did not have significant effects on new postoperative DWI lesions, whereas technique did have an effect. The proximal flow-control technique for CEA helps avoid embolic complications during surgical ICA dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stent-Graft Repair of a Large Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm Causing Dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Vivek; Niranjan, Khandelwal; Rawat, Lokesh; Gupta, A. K.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) are rare and most frequently result from trauma, infection, or sometimes spontaneously. They have the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage; thus, their immediate management is necessary. Endovascular treatment by stent graft placement in the affected artery appears to be a safe and effective treatment option. We present a case of a child who presented with neck swelling and dysphagia caused by a ruptured cervical ICA pseudoaneurysm which was managed by stent graft placement.

  6. Balloon test occlusion of the internal carotid artery with stable xenon/CT cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, S.M.; Horton, J.A.; Latchaw, R.E.; Yonas, H.; Sekhar, L.; Schramm, V.; Pentheny, S.

    1988-01-01

    We describe a technique to predict preoperatively the safety of permanently occluding an internal carotid artery. The method was performed by imaging stable xenon cerebral blood flow (CBF) with the internal carotid artery both open and temporarily occluded with a nondetachable balloon on a double lumen Swan-Ganz catheter. Patients were those in whom we planned to sacrifice the internal carotid artery (those with giant or inaccessible aneurysms) or those in whom such a sacrifice was at least likely (those with skull base tumors). Patients were divided into three groups on the basis of a comparison of occluded and nonoccluded CBF values. Group-I patients had no significant change in CBF with internal carotid artery occlusion; group-II patients showed a symmetric decrease in CBF; and group-III patients had an asymmetric decrease in CBF, always greater on the occluded side. A fourth group clinically failed to tolerate even brief carotid occlusion. The internal carotid artery in one patients from group III was sacrificed at surgery: the size and shape of his postoperative infarct corresponded almost exactly to the area of asymmetrically decreased CBF on his occluded study. The data suggest that if surgery is likely to result in permanent occlusion of the internal carotid artery, then patients who are at risk for delayed neurologic injury due to a compromised cerebral blood flow should have arterial bypass grafts before such surgery is performed

  7. Enterprise stent in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhigang; Ji, Yong; Ding, Xuan; Zang, Yizheng; Wang, Chengwei

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the safety and effectiveness of recanalization in non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries using the flexible Enterprise self-expanding stent. From June 2014 to June 2016, 12 consecutive patients with non-acute occlusion of intracranial internal carotid arteries received endovascular recanalization with Enterprise stenting. All patients received medication for anti-platelet aggregation therapy before and after the operation. The perioperative complications and recanalization efficacy were evaluated with the modified Rankin scoring system and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) follow-up, respectively. Endovascular recanalization was successfully performed in 10 out of 12 patients with Enterprise stenting. Stent implantation following balloon dilatation failed in one patient because the lumen diameter was too small. Another recanalization failed because the guide wire could not pass through the occlusion. No perioperative mortality was observed. One case of acute thrombosis and one case of intraoperative carotid spasm occurred, but these were resolved with thrombolytic therapy by microcatheter exposure treatment and antispasmodic medications, respectively. DSA follow-up in seven patients revealed no re-occlusion. One stroke event occurred in the 10 patients who completed the follow-up. A meaningful improvement in the modified Rankin score during follow-up was suggested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test results. The Enterprise stent was shown to be safe and efficient in recanalizing non-acute atherosclerotic intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion. However, the long-term outcomes need to be further investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Results in a consecutive series of 83 surgical corrections of symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Caliò, Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Although there is a growing body of evidence to document the safety and efficacy of operative treatment of carotid stenosis, surgical indications for elongation and kinking of the internal carotid artery remain controversial. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of surgical correction of internal carotid artery kinking in patients with persistent hemispheric symptoms despite antiplatelet therapy. A consecutive series of 81 patients (mean age, 64 years) underwent 83 surgical procedures to correct kinking of the internal carotid artery either by shortening and reimplanting the vessel on the common carotid artery, inserting a bypass graft, or transposing the vessel onto the external carotid artery. Mean follow-up was 56 months (range, 15-135 months). Study endpoints were 30-day mortality and any stroke occurring during follow-up. No postoperative death was observed. The postoperative stroke rate was 1%. Primary patency, freedom from neurologic symptoms, and late survival at 5 years (x +/- standard deviation) were 89 +/- 4.1%, 92 +/- 4%, and 71 +/- 6%, respectively. The findings of this study indicate that surgical correction for symptomatic stenotic kinking of the internal carotid artery is safe and effective in relieving symptoms and preventing stroke. Operative correction should be considered as the standard treatment for patients with symptomatic carotid kinking that does not respond to antiplatelet therapy.

  9. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L.; de Jong, Pim A.; De Vis, Jill B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore...

  10. En bloc resection of skull base tumor including internal carotid artery. Preoperative evaluation of cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yoshitaka; Matsuzaki, Zensei; Kamijo, Atsushi; Ogino, Jun; Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Nukui, Hideaki; Yokomizo, Michinori; Togawa, Kiyoshi

    1998-01-01

    Carotid artery resection yields a possibility of cure in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma involving the carotid artery. However, the criteria for the identification of those who are vulnerable to neurologic injury after resection have not been established. Interposition graft covered with a well-vascularized flap could minimize the rate of perioperative morbidity. Particularly, when an extensive resection of the skull base including carotid artery and sigmoid vein, is planned, extracranial-intracranial bypass should be considered to minimize the risks of neurologic morbidity, even if preresection positron emission tomography during balloon test occlusion of internal carotid artery suggested the adequacy of hemispheric collateral blood flow. In these cases, the temporary occlusion of the carotid artery is not an accurate prediction of the morbidity after permanent occlusion. (author)

  11. Trickle Arteriography: Demonstration of Thrombi in the Origin of the Internal Carotid Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugh, A. E.

    1970-01-01

    Thrombi developing within the origin of the internal carotid artery may be demonstrated by a slow trickle injection of highly concentrated contrast medium, which lingers in pools around the thrombus on the dependent wall of the vessel. With this technique thrombi have been detected which could not be visualized on conventional arteriography because they were obscured by the density of the vascular shadow produced by the forceful injection usually employed in carotid angiography. In addition, trickle arteriography is useful for assessing the position and extent of atheromatous plaques and the contrast stasis associated with them. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:5526613

  12. Rupture of an internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm after irradiation for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, Yukiko; Nakamura, Megumi; Sasai, Hisanori; Kamakura, Aya; Sakata, Yoshiharu; Miyahara, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The primary treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been external radiotherapy. Rupture of an internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of irradiation therapy for a nasopharyngeal carcinoma. A 78 years old man had a history of NPC treated with radiotherapy in 1993. He was admitted to the hospital because of epistaxis. Angiography showed an ICA pseudoaneurysm pointing medially to the nasopharynx. Coil embolization of the ICA was performed, but cerebral infarction occurred. Internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysms are an uncommon but potentially lethal condition. Angiography is the mainstay of diagnosis of the aneurysm and planning the embolization of the ICA. We should be more aware of this complication in NPC patients. (author)

  13. Stent implantation for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Ming; Yang Pengfei; Huang Qinghai; Zhao Wenyuan; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Liu Jianmin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of stent placement for the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation. Methods: Eleven patients with wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation, who were encountered during the period from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2010 in hospital, were collected. A total of 16 intracranial aneurysms were detected, of which 11 were wide-necked and were located at internal carotid artery bifurcation. The diameters of the aneurysms ranged from 2.5 mm to 18 mm. Individual stent type and stenting technique was employed for each patient. Follow-up at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure was conducted. Results: A total of 11 different stents were successfully deployed in the eleven patients. The stents included balloon expandable stent (n=1) and self-expanding stent (n=10). According to Raymond grading for the immediate occlusion of the aneurysm, grade Ⅰ (complete obliteration) was obtained in 4, grade Ⅱ (residual neck) in 2 and grade Ⅲ (residual aneurysm) in 5 cases. No procedure-related complications occurred. At the time of discharge, the modified Rankin score was 0-1 in the eleven patients. During the follow-up period lasting for 1-108 months, all the patients were in stable condition and no newly-developed neurological dysfunction or bleeding observed. Follow-up examination with angiography (1-48 months) showed that the aneurysms were cured (no visualization) in 4 cases, improved in 2 cases and in stable condition in one case. Conclusion: For the treatment of wide-necked aneurysms located at internal carotid artery bifurcation, stent implantation is clinically feasible, safe and effective. Further studies are required to evaluate its long-term efficacy. (authors)

  14. [Damage to cranial and peripheral nerves following patency restoration of the internal carotid artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrcha, P; Ciostek, P; Szopiński, P; Noszczyk, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was an assessment of the incidence of injury to cranial and peripheral nerves as complication of patency restoration of the internal carotid artery, and analysis of the effect of peripheral nerve injury on the results of carotid patency restoration. From Oct 1987 to Sept 1999 543 procedures were carried out for restoration of patency of the internal carotid artery. After the operation hypoglossus nerve injury was found in 7 cases (1.4%), vagus injury in 9 (1.8%). Signs of exclusively recurrent laryngeal nerve damage were found in 6 cases (1.2%). Glossopharyngeus nerve was damaged in 2 cases (0.4%), transient phrenic nerve palsy as a result of conduction anaesthesia was noted in 2 cases (0.4%). Damage to the transverse cervical nerve was found in 96 cases (60%). In 2 patients (1.2%) lower position of mouth angle was due to section of the mandibular ramus of the facial nerve. In another 2 cases skin sensation disturbances were a consequence of lesion of the auricularis magnus nerve and always they coexisted with signs of transverse cervical nerve damage. damage to the cranial nerves during operation for carotid patency restoration are frequent but mostly they are not connected with any health risks and often they regress spontaneously.

  15. Nursing assistance for spring coil occlusion for the treatment of intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yugang; Mao Yanjun; Yuan Yili; Hu Yaqin; Liu Jing; Xi Juan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the importance of balloon occlusion test before interventional treatment of the intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysms and to sum up the nursing experience in assisting the procedure. Methods: Proper perioperative nursing measures were carried out for 12 patients, who suffered from intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysm and underwent spring coil occlusion treatment. Nursing measures included mental care, observation of the vital signs, prevention of the complications, etc. Results: Neither death nor exacerbation of the condition occurred in all the 12 patients. The patients were discharged from the hospital with a mean hospitalization of nine days. During a follow-up period ranged from 4 months to one year, seven patients had no disagreeable feeling, one patient complained of discomfort but no abnormality was found on follow-up DSA, and disappearance of the aneurysm was observed in 4 patients. Conclusion: The monitoring of the vital signs, the prevention of the complications and the standard nursing care are the key points for ensuring a successful operation in treating intracranial giant internal carotid artery aneurysms with spring coil occlusion. (authors)

  16. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  17. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan); Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Biomedical Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  18. Mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery - report of a case and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Edilene Cristina do; Silva, Ivone Martins da

    1998-01-01

    The authors report a case of mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery in a 4-year-old- male child, resulting from tonsillar infection. The authors relate the difficulties to initially suggest the diagnosis, stress the importance of the differential diagnosis particularly in children and describe the findings on conventional films, US colour-Doppler, CT and carotid digital subtraction angiography. (author)

  19. The internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion. The evaluation for the posterior communicating artery on DSA and MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunhui; Gao Xinjiang; Ma Zhubin; Xu Yikai

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of the posterior communicating artery in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) severe stenosis or occlusion on digital subtract angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Methods: DSA or MRA findings were analyzed in 74 patients with ICA stenosis or occlusion and in 120 persons selected in the control group, who were unremarkable on cerebral DSA or MRA. Results: On DSA, the presence rate of ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) between the study group and the control group had no significant difference; on MRA the rate in the study group was significantly higher than the control group (P 0.05). In the study group, the presence rate of PCoA on DSA was significantly higher than that on MRA (P 0.05). The presence rate of PCoA shown no significant difference between the cases with unilateral ICA involved and cases with bilateral ICA involved. Conclusion: The posterior communicating artery is very important to the patients with the internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion. Its dilatation on DSA and MRA or appearance on MRA shows its compensation. DSA is valuable in the evaluation of the posterior communicating artery. MRA is a noninvasive and functional imaging method for evaluation the posterior communicating artery

  20. Endoscopic repair of an injured internal carotid artery utilizing femoral endovascular closure devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompaey, Jason; Bowers, Greg; Radhakrishnan, Jay; Panizza, Benedict; Solares, C Arturo

    2014-06-01

    Injury to the internal carotid artery is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery of the skull base. Such an event, although rare, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Even if bleeding is controlled, permanent neurological defects frequently persist. Many techniques have been developed to manage internal carotid artery rupture with varying degrees of success. The purpose of this study was to explore endoscopic management of arterial damage with endovascular closure devices used for a femoral arteriotomy. The ability to remotely suture a damaged artery permits the possible adaptation of this technology in managing endoscopic arterial complications. Technical note. After the creation of an endoscopic endonasal corridor in a cadaveric specimen, an arteriotomy was created at the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. The Angio-Seal, StarClose, and MynxGrip vascular closure devices were utilized under endoscopic guidance to repair the arteriotomy. Angiography was then done on a cadaver sutured with the StarClose. Both the Angio-Seal and StarClose were deployed quickly and appeared to provide sufficient closure of the arteriotomy. The Angio-Seal required the use of a guidewire and was longer to deploy when compared with the StarClose. The StarClose deployment was quick and facile. The MynxGrip also deployed without difficulty. The Angio-Seal and StarClose systems were both successfully deployed utilizing an endoscopic endonasal approach. The MynxGrip was the easiest to deploy and has the greatest potential to be of benefit in this application. Further studies with hemodynamic models are required to properly assess the appropriateness in this setting. NA. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Clinical Comparison of Outcomes of Early versus Delayed Carotid Artery Stenting for Symptomatic Cerebral Watershed Infarction due to Stenosis of the Proximal Internal Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huakun Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of early versus delayed carotid artery stenting (CAS for symptomatic cerebral watershed infarction (sCWI patients due to stenosis of the proximal internal carotid artery. We retrospectively collected clinical data of those who underwent early or delayed CAS from March 2011 to April 2014. The time of early CAS and delayed CAS was within a week of symptom onset and after four weeks from symptom onset. Clinical data such as second stroke, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NHISS score, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS score and periprocedural complications were collected. The rate of second stroke in early CAS group is lower when compared to that of delayed CAS group. There was no significant difference regarding periprocedural complications in both groups. There was a significant difference regarding mean NHISS score 90 days after CAS in two groups. Early CAS group had a significant better good outcome (mRS score ≤ 2 than delayed CAS group. We suggest early CAS for sCWI due to severe proximal internal carotid artery stenosis as it provides lower rate of second stroke, comparable periprocedural complications, and better functional outcomes compared to that of delayed CAS.

  2. Reasons Underlying the Consent to Endovascular Treatment, Displayed by Patients Diagnosed with Asymptomatic Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stanišić, Michał-Goran; Rzepa, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Background Endovascular treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) has gained popularity in recent years. Offering CAS, which is a controversial treatment in asymptomatic disease, may provoke patient distrust of the diagnosis and intervention benefit. The aim of this study was to prove that asymptomatic ICAS patients tend to show an emotional attitude to their illness, and therefore their decisions regarding carotid artery stenting are externally motivated and assessed emotionally. ...

  3. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA; Puyau, F.A.; Provenza, L.J.; Richardson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The successful dilatation of postsurgical concentric stenosis of an internal carotid artery using percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is reported here. Only one such case has been previously documented. Review of the literature disclosed 16 patients who received transluminal angioplasty for stenosis of carotid arteries by percutaneous or open arteriotomy techniques. The authors feel that PTA may be the treatment of choice for postoperative concentric stenosis of a short segment of the carotid artery as opposed to surgical repair. (orig.)

  4. Cerebro-retinal ischemia after bilateral occlusion of internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogousslavsky, J.; Regli, F.

    1985-01-01

    Six patients with occlusion of internal carotid arteries (ICAs) were prospectively followed during a mean period of 14 months. Prior to demonstration of occlusions, four patients suffered a mild stroke, and three isolated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax. All patients remained alive and with an unchanged functional ability. During follow-up, one patient suffered amaurosis fugax and TIAs followed by a mild stroke, three suffered isolated TIAs or amaurosis fugax, two suffered reversible cerebro-retinal ischemia of more than 24 hours, and one remained symptomfree. In three cases, delayed cerebro-retinal ischemia distal to one of the occluded ICAs was systematically triggered by orthostatic, cardiogenic or iatrogenic hypotension, and resolved after adequate medical treatment or restoration of a functional collateral circulation by endarterectomy of a tightly stenosed ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA), suggesting hemodynamic phenomena. In three cases, micro-emboli originating from a stump or an ulcerated ipsilateral common carotid artery and migrating through well-developed ECA collateral channels explained delayed episodes of ipsilateral TIAs or amaurosis fugax, which disappeared in two cases after adequate anticoagulant therepy was introduced. Bilateral occlusion of ICA may be a relatively benign condition, if the patients are carefully controlled and treated. (orig.)

  5. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma. A sign of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery on non-enhanced computed tomography. A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen-Kondering, U.; Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel; Huhndorf, M.; Madjidyar, J.; Jansen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery (CAD) is an increasingly recognized cause for stroke especially in young and middle-aged patients. We hypothesized that non-enhanced cranial computed tomography (NECCT) can visualize the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma and thus enable identification of patients with CAD. We retrospectively reviewed patients with confirmed CAD (n=21) and a control group with ischemic symptoms but without CAD (n=42) who received NECCT at admission. Two independent neuroradiologists rated the presence and shape of SPH, density and diameter of the subpetrous internal carotid artery. Additionally, we correlated the shape of the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma with the grade of stenosis on subsequent angiographic imaging. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma was present in 14 of 21 patients (Cohen's k = 0.67). Mean diameter was 6.95 ± 1.05 mm in dissected vessels and 5.71 ± 1.52 mm in the contralateral vessel (p<0.05). Mean difference in vessel density was 15.05 ± 8.01 HU (p<0.01). Median grade of stenosis was significantly higher in patients with a full moon- shaped (n=11) than crescent-shaped (n=3) subpetrous carotid wall hematoma (21% vs. 80%, p<0.05). Two-thirds of patients with CAD were correctly identified on NECCT. The extracranial carotid artery should be evaluated in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia.

  6. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma. A sign of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery on non-enhanced computed tomography. A retrospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen-Kondering, U. [Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology; Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Huhndorf, M.; Madjidyar, J.; Jansen, O. [Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Radiology and Neuroradiology

    2015-03-15

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery (CAD) is an increasingly recognized cause for stroke especially in young and middle-aged patients. We hypothesized that non-enhanced cranial computed tomography (NECCT) can visualize the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma and thus enable identification of patients with CAD. We retrospectively reviewed patients with confirmed CAD (n=21) and a control group with ischemic symptoms but without CAD (n=42) who received NECCT at admission. Two independent neuroradiologists rated the presence and shape of SPH, density and diameter of the subpetrous internal carotid artery. Additionally, we correlated the shape of the subpetrous carotid wall hematoma with the grade of stenosis on subsequent angiographic imaging. The subpetrous carotid wall hematoma was present in 14 of 21 patients (Cohen's k = 0.67). Mean diameter was 6.95 ± 1.05 mm in dissected vessels and 5.71 ± 1.52 mm in the contralateral vessel (p<0.05). Mean difference in vessel density was 15.05 ± 8.01 HU (p<0.01). Median grade of stenosis was significantly higher in patients with a full moon- shaped (n=11) than crescent-shaped (n=3) subpetrous carotid wall hematoma (21% vs. 80%, p<0.05). Two-thirds of patients with CAD were correctly identified on NECCT. The extracranial carotid artery should be evaluated in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia.

  7. Development of a posterior cerebral artery aneurysm subsequent to occlusion of the contralateral internal carotid artery for giant cavernous aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, R.L.; Hurst, R.W.; Imbesi, S.G.; Galetta, S.L.; Sinson, G.P.; Grossman, R.I.

    2002-01-01

    We report a case of a patient who developed a left posterior cerebral artery aneurysm 5 years after balloon occlusion of the right internal carotid artery for a giant cavernous aneurysm. The location of the new aneurysm was outside of the primary collateral pathways to the contralateral, proximally occluded, anterior circulation, illustrating the complexity of hemodynamic factors contributing to the development of intracranial saccular aneurysms. The appearance of an aneurysm in this setting supports the hypothesis that degenerative factors and hemodynamic stresses are important in the etiology of intracranial aneurysms. (orig.)

  8. Evaluation of Contrast MR Angiography in the Study of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis. Systematic Review of the Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Perez, P.; Martinez Cantarero, J.; Ruiz Diaz, M.; Blazquez Morera, J. A.; Llano Senaris, J. E. de

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic benefit of using contrast MR Angiography (MRA) in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis as opposed to intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography (LADSA). A search for relevant articles from 1990 to 2000 using MDLINE and EMBASE databases. Initial selection criteria: 1. articles which compare MRA and IADSA in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis; and 2, sample size of 10 or more subjects. Studies employing contrast MRA were subsequently selected. Contrast MRA diagnostic results were studied, as were those of non-contrast MRA (TOF) if included. Roc curves and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In the studies, 324 patients and 648 extracranial internal carotid arteries were evaluated (12 articles). The diagnostic results in carotid artery stenosis discrimination using contrast MRA as opposed to IADSA were sensitivity and specificity=97.28% and 96.08%. With regard to contrast MRA vs. non-contrast MRA (TOF), significant differences favoring contrast MRA in both sensitivity and specificity were observed. (p=0.08 and p<0.001, respectively). MRA techniques demonstrate very high diagnostic capabilities in the detection of carotid stenosis, with contrast MRA being more effective than non-contrast. MRA. In spite of not being superior to IADSA, given the morbimortality risk which the latter is associated (0.7-1.2%). many authors defend contrast MRA (in association with Doppler echography) having become the method of choice for presurgical study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. (Author) 53 refs

  9. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker; Floegel, Thomas; Kitzler, Hagen H.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2016-01-01

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r s = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  10. Multi-parametric ultrasound criteria for internal carotid artery disease - comparison with CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlinn, Kristian; Kepplinger, Jessica; Siepmann, Timo; Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Bodechtel, Ulf; Reichmann, Heinz; Puetz, Volker [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Floegel, Thomas [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neurology, Dresden (Germany); Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Kitzler, Hagen H. [Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Alexandrov, Andrei V. [The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Neurology, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The German Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (known by its acronym DEGUM) recently proposed a novel multi-parametric ultrasound approach for comprehensive and accurate assessment of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease. We determined the agreement between duplex ultrasonography (DUS) interpreted by the DEGUM criteria and CT angiography (CTA) for grading of extracranial ICA steno-occlusive disease. Consecutive patients with acute cerebral ischemia underwent DUS and CTA. Internal carotid artery stenosis was graded according to the DEGUM-recommended criteria for DUS. Independent readers manually performed North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial-type measurements on axial CTA source images. Both modalities were compared using Spearman's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. A total of 303 acute cerebral ischemia patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; 58 % men; median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 4 [interquartile range 7]) provided 593 DUS and CTA vessel pairs for comparison. There was a positive correlation between DUS and CTA (r{sub s} = 0.783, p < 0.001) with mean difference in degree of stenosis measurement of 3.57 %. Bland-Altman analysis further revealed widely varying differences (95 % limits of agreement -29.26 to 22.84) between the two modalities. Although the novel DEGUM criteria showed overall good agreement between DUS and CTA across all stenosis ranges, potential for wide incongruence with CTA underscores the need for local laboratory validation to avoid false screening results. (orig.)

  11. Hydranencephaly Associated with Interruption of Bilateral Internal Carotid Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeak-Wun Quek

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydranencephaly is a rare and fatal central nervous system disorder where all or nearly all of the bilateral cerebral hemispheres are absent. The extensive hollow cerebrum is replaced with cerebrospinal fluid. Clinically, the differential diagnoses of hydranencephaly include severe hydrocephalus and alobar holoprosencephaly. Nearly all cases are sporadic, involving approximately 1 in 5000 continuing pregnancies. The exact main cause is still unknown, but hydranencephaly is usually found to develop secondarily to the occlusion of cerebral arteries above the supraclinoid level. We present the case of a 1-month-old male infant with hydranencephaly initially thought to be severely hydrocephalus via routine antenatal intrauterine sonography performed at 35 weeks of gestation. Hydranencephaly was confirmed by brain sonography, brain magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography postnatally. We discuss several imaging features that are helpful in distinguishing hydranencephaly from extreme hydrocephaly. Different theories that have been recently proposed regarding the origin of hydranencephaly are reviewed.

  12. Systematization and description of the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base in turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voll, Juliana; Campos, Rui

    2016-08-01

    Thirty turtle brains (Trachemys scripta elegans) were injected with latex to systematize and describe the internal carotid arteries and their main ramifications at the brain base. The internal carotid arteries had one intercarotid anastomosis. At the level of the tuber cinereum, the internal carotid artery bifurcated into its terminal branches, the rostral and the caudal branches. The rostral branch emitted the rostral choroid artery, the orbital artery, and a series of middle cerebral arteries. After giving off the last middle cerebral artery, the rostral branch continued as the rostral cerebral artery in the cerebral longitudinal fissure, and had one anastomosis with its contralateral homologous artery, the rostral communicating artery, making the first rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. Next, the rostral cerebral arteries anastomosed forming a rostral interhemispheric artery, making the second rostral closure of the cerebral arterial circle. The internal carotid artery, after emitting its rostral branch, continued caudally as the caudal branch. The caudal branch ran caudally along the ventral surface of the mesencephalic tegmentum, emitted the caudal cerebral artery and the mesencephalic artery, and continued caudomedially while progressively narrowing, and anastomosed with its contralateral homologous artery, forming the basilar artery. The narrower portion also emitted the trigeminal artery. The anastomosis of the caudal branches closed the cerebral arterial circle caudally. The internal carotid arteries exclusively supplied the cerebral arterial circle of the turtle. Anat Rec, 299:1090-1098, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Internal carotid artery occlusion or subocclusion: Contemporary diagnostic challenges: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Petar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Measurement of vessel stenosis using ultrasonography or magnetic resonance is still the principal method for determining the severity of carotid atherosclerosis and need for endarterectomy. Case Outline. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the Cardiovascular Institute 'Dedinje' due to a clinically asymptomatic restenosis of the operated left internal carotid artery (ICA. Angiography and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA in previous hospitalization had revealed occluded right ICA. However, routine duplex ultrasonography revealed a highgrade restenosis (85% of the left ICA and subocclusion of the right ICA by an ulcerated plaque (confirmed on repeated MRA. Conclusion. Selective arteriography examination could misrepresent the degree of stenosis especially in patents with the ICA that seems to be occluded. MRA is considered the method of choice for identifying pseudo-occlusions of ICA.

  14. Interobserver variability in the evaluation of internal carotid artery stenosis by CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Meli, Francisco; Sampere, Tulio; Capunay, Carlos; Sanchez, Flavio; Carrascosa, Jorge

    2001-01-01

    Ischemic cerebral vascular events are primarily due to atherosclerotic narrowing of carotid bifurcation. Catheter Angiography (CA) is the best test for determining carotid artery stenosis, but it is invasive and has some risks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate CT Angiography (CTA) as a non-invasive method compared with CA. Different estimate procedures (NASCET, ESCT and area quantification) were done to compare the Sensitivity (S) and Specificity (E) of each one with CA. Afterwards, interobserver variability of the three procedures was evaluated. Thirty-eight internal carotid arteries were studied in 19 patients with transient ischemic attacks. CTA studies were done in a helical CT scanner. The images were evaluated in a workstation by two radiologists, who were blinded to the percentage of stenosis determined by CA. For statistical analysis, the measurement of stenosis percentage was divided in two groups: a) Negative (0-69%) and b) Positive:(70-100%). Kappa analysis (K) was used to determine the agreement of stenosis. Results: Observer 1: Sensitivity (S) NASCET: 94%, ESCT: 77% and area 94% and Specificity (E): 91%, 87,5% and 87,5%. Observer 2: 77%, 77% and 74%. The interobserver K was 0.83, 0792 and 0.78 for NASCET, ESCT and area quantification methods respectively. In conclusion, CTA has high S and E especially in NASCET and area quantification. (author)

  15. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Blackham, Aaron [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  16. Incidental internal carotid artery calcifications on temporal bone CT in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Bernadette; Jones, Blaise; Blackham, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Incidental internal carotid artery (ICA) calcifications are occasionally noted on CT images of the brain and temporal bone. In adults, incidental calcifications have been correlated with increased incidence of hypercholesterolemia, cardiac disease, diabetes and carotid stenosis. To determine the incidence of incidental calcifications of the carotid siphon on temporal bone CT in children. We retrospectively reviewed 24 months of consecutive temporal bone CT examinations in children aged 18 years and younger. CT examinations on 663 patients were reviewed and the presence or absence of ICA calcifications was ranked as absent, questionable or definitive. In patients in whom definitive calcifications were identified, hospital charts were reviewed for evidence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperlipidemia and chronic renal disease as potential causes of early atherosclerosis. Of the 663 patients, 25% had definitive calcifications within the wall of the ICA: 6% of children younger than 2 years and 28% of children 12-19 years of age. Incidentally noted ICA calcifications are a common finding on temporal bone CT in children, most likely a physiologic response to turbulent flow at natural bends in the artery rather than secondary to underlying disease predisposing to early atherosclerotic calcification. (orig.)

  17. Relationship between intracranial internal carotid artery calcification and enlarged cerebral perivascular space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Xiao-Xiao [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); The First People' s Hospital of Wenling, Department of Neurology, Wenling (China); Li, Ge-Fei; Wu, Yi-Lan; Liu, Yi-Sheng; Zhao, Ying; Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhuang, Mei-Ting; Hou, Tian-Yu; Zhao, Rong; Liu, Feng-Di; Wang, Xue-Mei; Shen, Ying; Cui, Guo-Hong; Su, Jing-Jing; Chen, Wei [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Tang, Xue-Mei; Sun, Ji; Liu, Jian-Ren [Shanghai Ninth People' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Clinical Research Center, Shanghai (China)

    2017-06-15

    The association between intracranial internal carotid artery (IICA) calcification and lacunes, white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) has been well researched. However, enlarged cerebral perivascular space (PVS) has not yet been reported to correlate with intracranial internal carotid artery calcification. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. A total of 189 patients with ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory who presented within 7 days of ictus from 2012 to 2015 were enrolled respectively. All patients were required to have undergone head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, or computed tomography angiography. Clinical characteristics were recorded. IICA calcification and enlarged PVS were semi-quantitatively evaluated, and the presence of lacunes, WMH, and CMBs was recorded. Of the 189 patients, 63.5% were male. Mean age of the patients was 68.6 ± 12.2 years. There were 104 patients with IICA calcification. Age, diabetes mellitus, lacunes, and white matter hyperintensity were significantly associated with IICA calcification (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age, diabetes mellitus, and lacunes were independent predictors of IICA calcification (P < 0.05). A lower risk of IICA calcification was found in patients with a higher enlarged PVS score (P = 0.004). Higher enlarged PVS scores were associated with a lesser degree of IICA calcification. There appears to be a relationship between reduced risk of IICA calcification and enlarged PVS. (orig.)

  18. Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Chan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

  19. Clinical implications of internal carotid artery tortuosity, kinking and coiling: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenteno M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery are diverse. Abnormalities in their geometry and paths are commonly identified by ultrasonography and angiography. The surgical correction of symptomatic CAs is better in preventing stroke compared with best medical therapy, as well as it completely eliminates the symptoms in patients with nonhemispheric symptoms. The ICA anomalies may be dangerous and represent a risk factor for massive bleeding. Suture ligatures can penetrate and occlude torn vessels, scalpels or biting instruments can lacerate vessels, and indirectly conducted electric cauterization can burn the soft of bony tissues

  20. Retinal artery occlusion during carotid artery stenting with distal embolic protection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Kotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2018-01-01

    Retinal artery occlusion associated with carotid artery stenosis is well known. Although it can also occur at the time of carotid artery stenting, retinal artery occlusion via the collateral circulation of the external carotid artery is rare. We encountered two cases of retinal artery occlusion that were thought to be caused by an embolus from the external carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with a distal embolic protection device for the internal carotid artery. A 71-year-old man presented with central retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the Carotid Guardwire PS and a 77-year-old man presented with branch retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the FilterWire EZ. Because additional new cerebral ischaemic lesions were not detected in either case by postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, it was highly likely that the debris that caused retinal artery occlusion passed through not the internal carotid artery but collaterals to retinal arteries from the external carotid artery, which was not protected by a distal embolic protection device. It is suggested that a distal protection device for the internal carotid artery alone cannot prevent retinal artery embolisation during carotid artery stenting and protection of the external carotid artery is important to avoid retinal artery occlusion.

  1. Semi-automatic quantitative measurements of intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis and calcification using CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, Leslie; Berg, Rene van den; Majoie, Charles B.; Marquering, Henk A.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. However, its quantitative assessment is not routinely performed in clinical practice. In this diagnostic study, we present and evaluate a novel semi-automatic application to quantitatively measure intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) degree of stenosis and calcium volume in CT angiography (CTA) images. In this retrospective study involving CTA images of 88 consecutive patients, intracranial ICA stenosis was quantitatively measured by two independent observers. Stenoses were categorized with cutoff values of 30% and 50%. The calcification in the intracranial ICA was qualitatively categorized as absent, mild, moderate, or severe and quantitatively measured using the semi-automatic application. Linear weighted kappa values were calculated to assess the interobserver agreement of the stenosis and calcium categorization. The average and the standard deviation of the quantitative calcium volume were calculated for the calcium categories. For the stenosis measurements, the CTA images of 162 arteries yielded an interobserver correlation of 0.78 (P < 0.001). Kappa values of the categorized stenosis measurements were moderate: 0.45 and 0.58 for cutoff values of 30% and 50%, respectively. The kappa value for the calcium categorization was 0.62, with a good agreement between the qualitative and quantitative calcium assessment. Quantitative degree of stenosis measurement of the intracranial ICA on CTA is feasible with a good interobserver agreement ICA. Qualitative calcium categorization agrees well with quantitative measurements. (orig.)

  2. Why a standard contrast-enhanced MRI might be useful in intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeinck, Maximilian; Rozeik, Christoph; Wattchow, Jens; Meckel, Stephan; Schlageter, Manuel; Beeskow, Christel; Reinhard, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    In patients with ischemic stroke of unknown cause cerebral vasculitis is a rare but relevant differential diagnosis, especially when signs of intracranial artery stenosis are found and laboratory findings show systemic inflammation. In such cases, high-resolution T1w vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 'black blood' technique) at 3 T is preferentially performed, but may not be available in every hospital. We report a case of an 84-year-old man with right hemispheric transient ischemic attack and signs of distal occlusion in the right internal carotid artery (ICA) in duplex sonography. Standard MRI with contrast agent pointed the way to the correct diagnosis since it showed an intramural contrast uptake in the right ICA and both vertebral arteries. Temporal artery biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of a giant cell arteritis and dedicated vessel wall MRI performed later supported the suspected intracranial large artery inflammation. Our case also shows that early diagnosis and immunosuppressive therapy may not always prevent disease progression, as our patient suffered several infarcts in the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory with consecutive high-grade hemiparesis of the right side within the following four months. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Carotid stiffness indicates risk of ischemic stroke and TIA in patients with internal carotid artery stenosis: the SMART study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Joke M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with a carotid artery stenosis, including those with an asymptomatic or moderate stenosis, have a considerable risk of ischemic stroke. Identification of risk factors for cerebrovascular disease in these patients may improve risk profiling and guide new treatment strategies. We

  4. Clinical value of MSCTA in the interventional treatment of the initial origin stenotic segment of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Chen Lin; Sun Qingrong; Shuai Jie; Zhou Zheng; Huang Lan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of MSCTA in the interventional treatment of the initial origin stenotic segment of internal carotid artery. Methods: Forty two patients with stenosis of initial origin stenotic segment of internal carotid artery underwent interventional treatment and MSCTA were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Forty two patients were diagnosed correctly through MSCTA. The percentages of stenotic area were measured from the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR)images of MSCTA, including mild stenosis( 70%)in 30, obstruction in 4 (>100%)and normal in 18. Plaques and endoscopic views of stenosis were delineated on MSCTA and CTVE. Conclusion: MSCTA is an accurate method for the assessment of the stenosis and plaques of the stenotic origin segment of internal carotid artery. MSCTA can be used as a convenient follow-up modality for instent restenosis. (authors)

  5. Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms Presenting with Epistaxis - Our Experience and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Kanwaljeet; Gurjar, Hitesh Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Manmohan; Chandra, P Sarat; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    Intracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are an extremely rare cause of spontaneous epistaxis, with a few documented cases. The management of such cases is challenging due to the relative anatomical inaccessibility of the bleeding point. The aim of the present study was to acquaint the readers with this rare type of aneurysm presenting with epistaxis and to report our experience of treating cases of severe epistaxis due to internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. Data of 4 patients with İCA aneurysms presenting with epistaxis from June 2011 to July 2013 was retrospectively reviewed. The age of patients ranged from 16 to 62 years. Duration of epistaxis ranged from 3 months to 3 years. Two patients had severe epistaxis following transnasal biopsy. Two patients had a history of trauma. Two patients developed hemodynamically instability. All the patients were managed with trapping of the aneurysm. Complete exclusion of aneurysm from circulation was achieved in all the patients. ICA aneurysms can rarely present as life-endangering epistaxis. In patients presenting with a history of craniocerebral trauma, traumatic pseudoaneurysm must be considered as a differential diagnosis. Trapping of the aneurysm is a good option if there is good cross circulation.

  6. The infarction patterns and the compensatory effect of collateral circulation in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion: a correlative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Honghua; Wen Jiamei; Gao Lianbo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the infarction patterns and the collateral circulation in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion with diffusion-weighted imaging and DSA, to analyze the mechanism of stroke caused by internal carotid artery occlusion and to discuss the correlation between the infarction patterns and the compensatory effect of collateral circulation. Methods: A total of 45 patients with acute cerebral infarction due to DSA-confirmed unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, who were admitted to the hospital during the period from Jan. 2009 to Sep. 2010, were enrolled in this study. Diffusion-weighted imaging and DSA were performed in all patients. The infarction regions and the findings of PCoA/ACoA were recorded, and the ipsilateral infarction patterns were evaluated. The relationship between the infarction patterns and the compensatory effect of collateral circulation was statistically analyzed. Results: The ipsilateral infarction patterns caused by internal carotid artery occlusion were classified as small cortical infarcts (84.4%), internal watershed infarcts (48.9%), territory infarcts (46.7%), posterior watershed infarcts (22.2%), anterior watershed infarcts (13.3%), perforating artery infarcts (22.2%). Among them, 23 patients had small cortical infarcts together with cerebral watershed infarcts (60.5%). No territory infarcts were found in the patients with patent ACoA (0%, P=0.013), while 91.7% of the patients showing no patent PCoA and/or ACoA had territory infarcts (11/12, p=0.003). Conclusion: Both artery-to-artery embolism and hypoperfusion with impaired emboli clearance are involved in the mechanism of ipsilateral infarctions caused by internal carotid artery occlusion. Patent ACoA can reduce the incidence of territory infarcts, and it maybe protect patients from territory infarcts. (authors)

  7. Clinical and imaging features associated with intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications in patients with ischemic stroke

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    Yilmaz, Arda [Mersin University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Mersin (Turkey); Akpinar, Erhan [Hacettepe University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey); Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif; Arsava, Ethem Murat [Hacettepe University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-05-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery calcifications (ICAC), a frequent finding on imaging studies, are predictive of future stroke risk in population-based studies. The clinical significance of this observation among ischemic stroke patients is however less clear. In this study, we analyzed ICAC burden in relation to vascular risk factor profile, stroke etiology, and extent of craniocervical vascular calcifications in a consecutive series of ischemic stroke patients. The burden of ICAC was determined both on non-contrast CT and CT-angiography source images by semiquantitative scoring algorithms. The distribution of vascular risk factors, etiologic stroke subtype, and calcification burden in other craniocervical arteries was assessed among patients with no ICAC, mild-moderate ICAC, and severe ICAC. Of 319 patients included into the study, 28 % had no ICAC, 35 % had mild-moderate ICAC, and 37 % had severe ICAC on CT angiography. Independent factors associated with ICAC burden in multivariate analysis included age (p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.006), and coronary artery disease (p < 0.001). Furthermore, a stroke etiology of large artery atherosclerosis or cardioaortic embolism was significantly related to higher ICAC burden (p = 0.006). Patients with severe ICAC were more likely to harbor calcifications in other vascular beds (p < 0.001). All of these findings persisted when analyses were repeated with CT-based ICAC burden assessments. ICAC burden reflects a continuum of atherosclerotic disease involving carotid arteries together with other craniocervical vascular beds. ICAC is significantly associated with stroke of large vessel or cardioembolic origin. This information might help the clinician in prioritizing etiologic work-up in the acute period. (orig.)

  8. Stenting of the cervical internal carotid artery in acute stroke management: The Karolinska experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Kabbasch, Christoph; Borggrefe, Jan; Gontu, Vamsi; Soderman, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background Emergency stent placement in the extracranial internal carotid artery in combination with anterior circulation thrombectomy is a routine procedure. Yet, precise indications and clinical safety in this setting remains controversial. Present data for mechanical thrombectomy include few studies with acute stenting of tandem occlusions. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and clinical outcome of this endovascular treatment in a retrospective analysis of all consecutive cases at a comprehensive stroke centre. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with acute extracranial carotid artery occlusion including acute dissection or high-grade stenosis and concomitant intracranial large-vessel occlusion treated with emergency carotid stenting and intracranial mechanical thrombectomy between November 2007 and May 2015. Results A total of 63 patients with a median age of 67 years (range 33-84 years) were treated. Of these, 33 (52%) patients had concomitant intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator initially. Median admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 14 (range 1-29). Median time from stroke onset to recanalization was 408 minutes (range 165-1846 minutes). Procedure time was significantly shorter after intravenous thrombolysis (110 minutes [range 15-202 minutes] vs. 130 minutes [range 60-280 minutes]; p = 0.02). Three (5%) patients experienced post-procedural symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage. In 55/63 (87%) patients, a score of ≥2b on the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale could be achieved. Eight (13%) patients died, five (8%) during the acute phase. A total of 29/63 (46%) patients showed a favourable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) after three months. Conclusions Our single-centre retrospective analysis of emergency stent placement in the extracranial internal carotid artery in combination with anterior circulation thrombectomy demonstrated high

  9. Traumatic aneurysms of the internal carotid artery at the base of the skull. Two cases treated surgically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, P E; Branchereau, A; Cannoni, M

    1992-01-01

    Internal carotid aneurysms at the base of the skull after blunt trauma are infrequent but their management is difficult, leading many surgeons to only attempt ligation. We report 2 cases presenting with high traumatic aneurysms, following motorcycle accidents. The 2 aneurysms underwent repair by a venous graft. The petrous portion of the carotid artery was approached and controlled by an ENT surgeon. This "infratemporal" approach was used exposing the facial nerve, combined with temporary anterior sub-luxation of the temporomaxillary joint to expose the lower part of the carotid canal which was opened up with a drill in order to control the carotid artery in the petrous canal. Both patients developed facial nerve palsies which improved within 3 months. Postoperative angiography showed patent vein grafts and the patients were doing well, without any symptoms 18 and 24 months later.

  10. Pulsating Tonsil Due to Medial Displacement of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsini, Albaraa Y; Ibrahim, Alsheikhi

    2017-05-06

    BACKGROUND The internal carotid artery (ICA) is about 2.5 cm away from the tonsils. It has no branches in the cervical portion. ICA anomalies of the neck zone may result in a massive arterial bleeding during pharynx and neck surgery. Due to these anomalies, the surgeon must be aware of this risk during tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and pharyngeal operations.  CASE REPORT A 23-year-old woman who was discovered to have an acute S curling-type anomaly of the ICA in contact with the lateral border of the right tonsil during a work-up for a tonsillectomy. This anomaly was incidentally discovered via computed tomography (CT) with contrast. In re-evaluating the course of treatment, we found a severe S-shape kink on the right side, bringing it close to the right tonsil by approximately 2 mm, and putting it at severe risk of injury during a simple tonsillectomy, possibly exposing the patient to serious bleeding. Partial tonsillectomy was performed for this patient with the aim to preserve and not expose the internal carotid artery. Pulsation of right tonsil was recorded. The patient made an uneventful postoperative recovery. CONCLUSIONS Undetected ICA anomaly variation can lead to fatal bleeding during a simple procedure, like tonsillectomy. We recommend vigilance during tonsillectomy if one is using a hot dissection method versus a cold dissection method, which may allow for detection of a perioperative ICA anomaly. Tonsillectomy performed by a junior resident should be under direct supervision, particularly if the hot dissection method is used.

  11. Collateral Flow and White Matter Disease in Patients with Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Mami; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Kusaka, Gen; Tanaka, Yuichi; Naritaka, Heiji

    2017-01-01

    When an internal carotid artery (ICA) occludes, a patient may develop cerebral infarction (CI). We investigated whether CI caused by ICA occlusion (ICAO) is associated with collateral flow through the anterior and posterior communicating arteries (ACoA and PCoA). In 100 patients with ICAO, we investigated CI and white matter disease by performing an MRI and the anatomy of the ACoA and PCoA were investigated by performing magnetic resonance angiography. All patients were divided into the symptomatic CI group or the no-CI group. The collateral flow pathway was estimated by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-PCoA score and the collateral flow volume after ICAO was estimated by the middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow score, based on how well the MCA was visualized. Of 100 patients with ICAO, the symptomatic CI group included 36 patients. ACA-PCoA score and white matter disease grades were significantly higher in the CI group (indicating poor collateral flow). More than 80% of patients with an ACA-PCoA score of 4 (poor collateral) experienced symptomatic CI. Thirty-one symptomatic CI patients (86%) had an MCA flow score of 1 or 2 (decreased MCA flow). The ACA-PCoA score and white matter disease grade may suggest an increased risk of CI following ICAO. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Ocular Image and Haemodynamic Features Associated with Different Gradings of Ipsilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyse the changes of ocular haemodynamics and morphology in Chinese patients with internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis in the current study. Methods. A retrospective case-control study was conducted with 219 patients. The haemodynamic characteristics, the calibre of retinal vessels, and the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT were compared. We analysed the correlations with the degree of ipsilateral ICA stenosis. Results. There were no significant differences among the groups in the central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE, central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE, and AVR (p=0.073, p=0.188, and p=0.738, resp.. The peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in the central retinal artery (CRA and the posterior ciliary artery (PCA were significantly lower than normal eyes (p<0.001. The outer retinal layer thickness and SFChT values of the ICA stenosis groups were significantly lower than normal eyes (p=0.030 and p<0.001, resp.. Conclusion. The PSV and EDV in CRA and PCA and the SFChT and outer retinal layer thickness of ICA eyes were significantly lower than normal eyes. ICA stenosis may impact choroidal haemodynamics, and decreased choroidal circulation might affect the discordance of the SFChT and the outer retinal layer thickness.

  13. Brainstem ischemic stroke without permanent sequelae during the course of spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesteruk, Tomasz; Nesteruk, Marta; Bulik-Pasińska, Marta; Boroszko, Dariusz; Ostrowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a frequent cause of a stroke in young patients. Risk factors which can lead to dissection include neck injury and diseases of the inner wall of the artery. Common symptoms in ICAD are cervical pain and headache, Horner’s syndrome, paralysis of the cranial nerves and subsequently cerebral and retinal ischemia. MR angiography in TOF technique and brain MRI in T1- and T2-weighted images, FLAIR and DWI sequences are the method of choice in patients with ICAD but contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography remains the fastest and the most available diagnostic method. A 39-year old woman, previously healthy, presented to the Hospital Emergency Department because of increasing neck pain on the right side and difficulty in swallowing. The neurological examination revealed: drooping of the right eyelid with narrow palpebral fissure, dysarthria, anisocoria (narrower pupil on the right side), unilateral hypoesthesia on the left side, weak palatal and pharyngeal reflexes on both sides, paresthesia within the left half of the body. Seven days before, the patient felt a sudden, severe neck pain radiating to the temporal apophysis. CT angiography revealed a defect in contrast filling within the left internal carotid artery and right vertebral artery. MRI of the head with MR angiography showed internal carotid artery dissection on the left side and dissection of the right vertebral artery and no ischemic changes within the brain. CT and MR angiography are methods characterized by high sensitivity in detecting dissection of the cervical arteries

  14. Dissection of internal carotid artery presenting as isolated ischaemic optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Oruc

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Carotid artery dissections are one of the important reasons of cerebrovascular events that are observed before the age of 45. Besides the local findings such as head, neck and face pains, Horner syndrome findings, pulsatile tinnitus and cranial nerve involvements, some other symptoms such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attacks and amaurosis fugax can also be observed in the approximately three quarters of patients. Ischemic optic neuropathy may be seen as %4 in the carotid artery dissections and it mostly accompanies other ischemic local symptoms. It is rare to observe the ischemic optic neuropathy as the first and unique finding in the carotid artery dissections. In this study, a 55 year old male patient with carotid artery dissection was represented. He did not have any other complaint, except the sudden unilateral visual loss and he was sent to our clinics from the opthalmology clinics in order to search for the etiology of ischemic optic neuropathy. It should be kept in mind that there can be a possibility to have carotid artery dissections in patients with unilateral visual loss.

  15. Recovery of Third Nerve Palsy after Endovascular Packing of Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavilio, N.; Pisani, R.; Rivano, C.; Testa, V.; Spaziante, R.; Rosa, M.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Endovascular packing of intracranial aneurysm with preservation of the parent vessel has become in many cases a valid alternative to surgical clipping. Regression of oculomotor disorders after clipping of internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysms has been well assessed. This report focuses on the reversal of third nerve palsy after endovascular packing of ICA-PCoA aneurysms. To this end, clinical appearances, neuroradiological features, and endovascular interventional procedures of six treated patient are reported and discussed in the light of the very few previous case observations found in the literature. Results indicate that endovascular packing of ICA-PCoA aneurysms may produce effective recovery of correlated third nerve dysfunction. PMID:20667199

  16. A SPECT study in internal carotid artery occlusion: Discrepancies between flow image and neurologic deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaki, H.; Hougaku, H.; Matsuda, I.; Kusunoki, M.; Shirai, J.

    1989-01-01

    A SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) study in internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion was performed in 6 patients. The validity of iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT study in the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) or neurologic function is still controversial. In this study, the authors showed several cases in whom SPECT images of brain were not compatible with their neurologic deficits. In 2 typical cases, a large low-density area was observed in the non-dominant hemisphere in computed tomography (CT) scan, but no apparent motor-sensory deficits in left limbs were present. In these patients, SPECT study also revealed flow reduction in the affected side of the brain. So there was a possibility that an IMP brain image could not always reflect CBF, which maintains neurologic function of the brain

  17. Post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery: a cause of intractable epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeel, Mohammad; Ikram, Mubasher

    2012-05-23

    In this case report, the authors are presenting a case of a 35-year-old lady who presented to our clinic with recurrent episodes of massive epistaxis and loss of right eye vision for last 6 months following road traffic accident. There was no other significant medical and surgical history. Bleeding episodes were sometimes very severe with loss up to 400-500 cc and would stop spontaneously. She was given multiple blood transfusions after these episodes. A complete otorhinolaryngological examination including rigid endoscopy and coagulation investigation did not reveal any abnormality. CT with contrast of paranasal region showed blood within the right sphenoid sinus with linear fracture of the lateral wall with post-traumatic cavernous pseudoaneurysm of internal carotid artery localised to right sphenoid sinus. That was managed successfully by embolisation using a detachable balloon and a coil. She was followed up in the clinic at 6 weeks and 6 months interval with no symptoms.

  18. Clinical efficiency of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test for patients with internal carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yasuko; Maeshima, Shinichiro; Osawa, Aiko; Imura, Junko; Kohyama, Shinya; Yamane, Fumitaka; Ishihara, Shoichiro; Tanahashi, Norio

    2010-01-01

    Most patients who have an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis with cerebral lesion have some cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the clinical efficiency of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) and to assess the relationship between AVLT and cerebral damage, we examined AVLT in patients with ICA stenosis. 44 patients (35 males and 9 females) with ICA stenosis aged 56 to 83 (69.6±6.5) years old were evaluated. The educational periods were from 9 to 16 (12.3±2.8) years. Their activities of daily living (ADL) were independent. We assessed cognitive function with neuropsychological tests including AVLT, Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Raven's coloured progressive matrices (RCPM) and Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), etc. We assessed cerebral damage (periventricular high intensity; PVH and white matter hyperintensity; WMH) with MRI. Then, we investigated the relationship between AVLT and other neuropsychological tests, and the relationship between AVLT and carotid/cerebral lesion. There was no association with lesion side of ICA stenosis and the scores of AVLT. In patients with ICA stenosis and cerebral damage (PVH and/or WMH), there was a significant relationship between the severity of cerebral damage and the scores in AVLT. AVLT had a significant relationship to other neuropsychological tests. AVLT might be a good cognitive assessment for patients who have cerebral damage due to ICA stenosis. (author)

  19. Dynamics of clinical semiotics in children with pathological tortuosity of internal carotid arteries in remote period after surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoĭkhet, Ya N; Khorev, N G; Kulikova, N I; Beller, A V; Kulikov, V P; Miller, V E

    2010-01-01

    The present study enrolling a total of eighty-eight 4-to-16-year-old children and adolescents was aimed at detailed elaboration and formalization of clinical signs of the internal carotid artery pathological kinking syndrome. To achieve these objectives, the authors carried out a comparative analysis of clinical manifestations of the disease in the surgically treated subjects (constituting the Surgery Group comprising 43 children and adolescents) and non-operated patients (making up the Comparison Group consisting of 45 age- and gender-matched subjects). There were no baseline differences in the incidence rate of clinical syndromes and symptoms between the groups of the would-be operated and conservatively treated patients. Also studied were the remote outcomes (1-to-12-year follow up) of surgical correction for pathological tortuosity of the internal carotid artery. The incidence rate of regression of neurological symptomatology along different clinical signs after surgery was shown to vary within a wide range from 11.6% to 96.3%. Resection of the proximal portion of the internal carotid artery with re-implantation into the old ostium turned out to be clinically effective in 90.0% of cases, with the haemodynamic efficacy amounting to 83.3%. Arteriolysis of the internal carotid artery rendered a clinical effect in 75% of cases, with a haemodynamical effect thereof equalling 25.0%. The decision as to the type of a surgical intervention to perform was primarily made based on the findings of angiography of the internal carotid artery. The operation of arteriolysis did not lead to deterioration of the child's condition.

  20. [Ehlers Danlos type IV syndrome presenting with simultaneous dissection of both internal carotid and both vertebral arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondon, K; de Toffol, B; Georgesco, G; Cassarini, J-F; Machet, M-C; Cottier, J-P; Arbeille, B; Autret, A

    2004-04-01

    Dissection of cervical arteries is a frequent cause of stroke in young subjects. We report the case of a 34-year-old patient who experienced simultaneous dissection of both internal carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries leading to repeated motor deficit of the right half-body associated with persistent otalgia. Search for an etiology led to the diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV. Search for the cause of cervical artery dissection must consider connective tIssue disease, particularly vascular forms of Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Diagnostic, therapeutic as well as prognostic aspects are discussed.

  1. Ideal Internal Carotid Artery Trapping Technique without Bypass in a Patient with Insufficient Collateral Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joon Ho; Shin, Yong Sam; Lim, Yong Cheol; Park, Minjung

    2009-04-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) trapping can be used for treating intracranial giant aneurysm, blood blister-like aneurysms and ICA rupture during the surgery. We present a novel ICA trapping technique which can be used with insufficient collaterals flow via anterior communicating artery (AcoA) and posterior communicating artery (PcoA). A patient was admitted with severe headache and the cerebral angiography demonstrated a typical blood blister-like aneurysm at the contralateral side of PcoA. For trapping the aneurysm, the first clip was placed at the ICA just proximal to the aneurysm whereas the distal clip was placed obliquely proximal to the origin of the PcoA to preserve blood flow from the PcoA to the distal ICA. The patient was completely recovered with good collaterals filling to the right ICA territories via AcoA and PcoA. This technique may be an effective treatment option for trapping the aneurysm, especially when the PcoA preservation is mandatory.

  2. Angiographic diagnosis of the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Tan Yinghui; Li Zhongyu; Zhou Zheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To create a further understanding of the angiographic features of the carotid artery pseudoaneurysm (CAPA) and to explore the clinical diagnostic value of angiography. Methods: Sixteen cases of CAPA with clinical and angiographic data were analyzed retrospectively. The angiographic appearances in all of the patients were observed dynamically and precisely with a double blind method by two experienced radiologists together and formed a consensus interpretation. Results: Angiography provided a definite diagnosis for all cases. The parent arteries included the common carotid artery (1 case), common carotid artery bifurcation (9 cases), internal carotid artery (5 cases) and external carotid artery (1 case). The angiographic features of the CAPA were: All cases showed the contrast media retension in the aneurysms; turbulent flow within aneurysm in 9 cases; the 'jetting sign' at the leak of the parent artery in 7 cases; increase angulation of the bifurcation of internal and external carotid arteries in 12 cases. Conclusions: Angiography is the most valuable examination method in diagnosis of CAPA, and it can not only provide definite diagnosis, but also play an important role in selection of therapeutic plan. (authors)

  3. Evaluation of results and radiologic follow-up in detachable balloon occlusion therapy of the internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Kyu Chang; Huh, Seung Kon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Jun

    1999-01-01

    The author has studied the clinical results of CT and MR findings of proximal carotid artery occlusion using detachable balloons in the treatement of unclippable internal carotid (IC) aneurysms. From 1987 to 1995, twenty-eight patients with IC aneurysms were treated by proximal artery occlusion with detachable balloons. Of these patients, 4 had aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the IC artery, 23 had aneuryms arising from cavernous portion of the IC artery, and one had aneurysm arising from cervical portion of the IC artery. Of the 28 patients, 7 patients without CT or MR examinations were excluded in this study. The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months. The causes of aneurysm formation were spontaneous in 17 cases and traumatic in 4 cases. Of 20 patients with aneurysms arising from supraclinoid and cavernous portion of the IC artery, 16 patients (80%) had cranial nerve symptoms by mass effect. Five patients had epistaxis (3 patient), carotid cavernous fistula (1 patient) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (1 patient) due to aneurysm rupture. Two patients, each with aneuryms arising from supraclinoid and cervical portion of carotid artery had 9th and 12th cranial nerve symptom. There were three instances of complication after permanent occlusion; two patients had subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage by aneurysm rupture and expired. One patient had ischemia of posterior cerebral artery teritorry after one day. Delayed ischemic event did not occur during the follow-up period. All aneurysms of the carotid artery below the level of ophthalmic artery presented radiographic proof of complete thrombosis within two months. However, complete thrombosis of aneurysm was considerably delayed in two aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the carotid artery. In long-term follow-up study, completely thrombosed aneurysms decreased in size slowly. But incompletely thrombosed aneurysms did not decrease in size for a long time and began to contract after

  4. Evaluation of results and radiologic follow-up in detachable balloon occlusion therapy of the internal carotid artery aneurysms

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    Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Kyu Chang; Huh, Seung Kon; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Dong Jun [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    The author has studied the clinical results of CT and MR findings of proximal carotid artery occlusion using detachable balloons in the treatement of unclippable internal carotid (IC) aneurysms. From 1987 to 1995, twenty-eight patients with IC aneurysms were treated by proximal artery occlusion with detachable balloons. Of these patients, 4 had aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the IC artery, 23 had aneuryms arising from cavernous portion of the IC artery, and one had aneurysm arising from cervical portion of the IC artery. Of the 28 patients, 7 patients without CT or MR examinations were excluded in this study. The mean follow-up period was 18.6 months. The causes of aneurysm formation were spontaneous in 17 cases and traumatic in 4 cases. Of 20 patients with aneurysms arising from supraclinoid and cavernous portion of the IC artery, 16 patients (80%) had cranial nerve symptoms by mass effect. Five patients had epistaxis (3 patient), carotid cavernous fistula (1 patient) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (1 patient) due to aneurysm rupture. Two patients, each with aneuryms arising from supraclinoid and cervical portion of carotid artery had 9th and 12th cranial nerve symptom. There were three instances of complication after permanent occlusion; two patients had subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage by aneurysm rupture and expired. One patient had ischemia of posterior cerebral artery teritorry after one day. Delayed ischemic event did not occur during the follow-up period. All aneurysms of the carotid artery below the level of ophthalmic artery presented radiographic proof of complete thrombosis within two months. However, complete thrombosis of aneurysm was considerably delayed in two aneurysms arising from the supraclinoid portion of the carotid artery. In long-term follow-up study, completely thrombosed aneurysms decreased in size slowly. But incompletely thrombosed aneurysms did not decrease in size for a long time and began to contract after

  5. Simultaneous determination of arterial input function of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries for dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholdei, R.; Wenz, F.; Fuss, M.; Essig, M.; Knopp, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The determination of the arterial input function (AIF) is necessary for absolute quantification of the regional cerebral blood volume and blood flow using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI. The suitability of different vessels (ICA-internal carotid artery, MCA-middle cerebral artery) for AIF determination was compared in this study. Methods: A standard 1.5 T MR system and a simultaneous dual FLASH sequence (TR/TE1/TE2/α=32/15/25/10 ) were used to follow a bolus of contrast agent. Slice I was chosen to cut the ICA perpendicularly. Slice II included the MCA. Seventeen data sets from ten subjects were evaluated. Results: The number of AIF-relevant pixels, the area under the AIF and the maximum concentration were all lower when the AIF was determined from the MCA compared to the ICA. Additionally, the mean transit time (MTT) and the time to maximum concentration (TTM) were longer in the MCA, complicating the computerized identification of AIF-relevant pixels. Data from one subject, who was examined five times, demonstrated that the intraindividual variance of the measured parameters was markedly lower than the interpersonal variance. Conclusions: It appears to be advantageous to measure the AIF in the ICA rather than the MCA. (orig.) [de

  6. Dissection of internal carotid and vertebral arteries: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Andreevna Kalashnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature and the author’s results of an examination of almost 140 patients with dissection of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries (ICA and VA. Dissection is blood penetration through an intimal tear from the lumen of an artery into its wall to develop intramural hematoma (IMH. The cause of dissection is the weakness of the arterial wall presumably due to mitochondrial cytopathy. IMH narrows/occludes the arterial lumen or is a source of arterioarterial embolism, which in turn leads to ischemic stroke. Stroke as a result of dissection generally develops in young patients, who are not prone to traditional vascular risk factors, frequently after the influence of provocative factors (mild head/neck injury, head jerks, physical strain, contraceptives, etc.. The characteristics of stroke are head/neck pain on the side of dissection that appears a few days prior to stroke or simultaneously with the latter; quite often a good recovery of impaired functions; and low recurrence rates. Another major manifestation, isolated cervicocephalic pain, is encountered in PA dissection more frequently (in almost a third of cases and in ICA dissection less frequently (about 5%. Magnetic resonance (MR angiography and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR imaging play a leading role in the verification of dissection. Dissection should be treated with anticoagulants/antiaggregants in its acute phase, as well as with trophic drugs, primarily actovegin, in both acute and chronic phases.

  7. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with internal carotid artery dissection resulting from whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Freeman, Michael D; Webb, Alexandra L; Pedersen, Michael; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2015-12-01

    Spinal injury following inertial loading of the head and neck (whiplash) is a common sequel of low speed traffic crashes. A variety of non-musculoskeletal injuries have been described in association with injury to the spine following whiplash trauma, including traumatic brain injury, vestibular derangement, and cranial nerve injury, among others. Vascular injuries in the head and neck have, however, only rarely been described. We present the case of a middle-aged male who sustained an ultimately fatal injury that resulted from injury to the internal carotid artery (ICA) and intracerebral vascular structures following a hard braking maneuver, with no direct head- or neck contact with the vehicular interior. Based on this unusual mechanism of injury we reviewed hospital data from the United States nationwide inpatient database (NIS) to assess the frequency of similar injuries reportedly resulting from traffic crashes. The post-mortem examination revealed a left internal carotid artery dissection associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Based on the close temporal association, the absent prior history, and the plausibility of the injury mechanism, the injury was attributed to the braking maneuver. An analysis of NIS data demonstrated that the prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage is significantly higher when there is a traumatic etiology, and higher yet when the trauma is a traffic crash (odds ratio 3.3 and 4.3, respectively). The presented case, together with the hospital inpatient data analysis, indicate that although SAH in combination with ICA dissection is relatively rare, it is substantially more probable following a traffic crash. In a clinical or forensic setting the inference that magnitude of a trauma was low should not serve as a basis for either excluding a cervical artery dissection from a differential diagnosis, or for excluding the trauma as a cause of a diagnosed dissection. This case report illustrates a rare fatal outcome of inertial load to

  8. Decreased hyperintense vessels on FLAIR images after endovascular recanalization of symptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenhua; Yin Qin; Yao Lingling; Zhu Shuanggen; Xu Gelin; Zhang Renliang; Ke Kaifu; Liu Xinfeng

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Hyperintense vessels (HV) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were assumed to be explained by slow antegrade or retrograde leptomeningeal collateral flow related to extracranial or intracranial artery steno-occlusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recanalization after endovascular therapy of symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion on the presence of HV. Methods: Eleven patients with symptomatic ICA occlusion were retrospectively enrolled. Changes in the HV on FLAIR images were examined in affected hemisphere of each patient after successful treatment with endovascular recanalization (angioplasty, n = 3; stent-assisted angioplasty, n = 8). The relationship between postoperative changes in the HV and Thrombolysis In Cerebral Ischemia (TICI) scale (I-III) was assessed. Results: After operation, HV of the 11 affected hemispheres were showed to be decreased (n = 3) or disappeared (n = 8) in treated side. The median interval between pre- and postoperative MRI examinations was 97.0 h (range, from 69. to 48.7 h). Of the 8 patients with disappeared HV, 7 achieved high TICI grade flow (III) and 1 had relatively low TICI grade flow (IIc) in treated side. However, all the 3 patients with decreased HV were found to be relatively low TICI grade flow (IIc). Conclusion: Our data indicate that endovascular recanalization of ICA occlusion was effective for decreasing HV. Postoperative decrease in HV can be considered as a marker for hemodynamic improvement.

  9. Significance of preoperative cerebral blood flow measurements in endovascular occlusion of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Weitzner, I.; Luft, A.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during 12 endovascular balloon occlusions (ten internal carotid and two middle cerebral arteries) with good clinical and angiographic tolerance were done with repeated boluses of Xe-133 injected directly into the ipsi- and contralateral carotid systems, during the occlusion and repeated measurements with detectors on both sides (before occlusion and 5-30 minutes after occlusion). In two cases of unchanged and four of increased CBF, one reversible deficit was probably due to an embolus. In six cases of decreased CBF, two deficits occurred, characterized by a greater than 25% decrease. It seems to represent a good predictive value for intolerance to occlusion

  10. Quantitative study of the opticocarotid and carotid-oculomotor windows for the interpeduncular fossa, before and after internal carotid artery mobilization and posterior communicating division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Don; Elhadi, Ali M; Mendes, George A C; Maramreddy, Naveen; Agrawal, Abhishek; Kalb, Samuel; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2015-03-01

    The management of basilar apex (BX) aneurysms remains problematic. We quantified the surgical exposure of the BX through the opticocarotid window (OCW) and the carotid-oculomotor window (COW), before and after mobilization of the internal carotid artery and division of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). Eleven silicone-injected cadaveric heads were dissected bilaterally. The surgical dissection was divided into 4 major steps: (1) supraorbital modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy, (2) mobilization of the internal carotid artery after drilling out the anterior clinoid process intradurally and cutting the distal dural ring, (3) drilling out the posterior clinoid process and dorsum sellae, and (4) dividing the PCoA from the posterior third portion of the vessel. A frameless navigation system was used to quantify the surgical exposure area of the BX through the OCW and COW. The total surgical area increased significantly from steps 1 to 4 (P PCoA significantly increased the overall surgical area for permanent clip application (P PCoA and height of the BX.

  11. Dissection of the internal carotid artery and stroke after mandibular fractures: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveita, Ingrid Aune; Madsen, Martin Ragnar Skjerve; Nielsen, Erik Waage

    2017-06-02

    We present a report of a patient with blunt trauma and mandibular fractures who developed a significant cerebral infarction due to an initially unrecognized injury of her left internal carotid artery. We believe that increased knowledge of this association will facilitate early recognition and hence prevention of a devastating outcome. A 41-year-old ethnic Norwegian woman presented to our Emergency Room after a bicycle accident that had caused a direct blow to her chin. At admittance, her Glasgow Coma Scale was 15. Initial trauma computed tomography showed triple fractures of her mandible, but no further pathology. She was placed in our Intensive Care Unit awaiting open reduction of her mandibular fractures. During the following 9 hours, she showed recurrent episodes of confusion and a progressive right-sided hemiparesis. Repeated cerebral computed tomography revealed no further pathology compared to the initial scan. She had magnetic resonance angiography 17 hours after admittance, which showed dissection and thrombus formation in her left internal carotid artery, total occlusion of her left medial cerebral artery, and left middle cerebral artery infarction was detected. Carotid artery dissection is a rare but life-threatening condition that can develop after trauma to the head and neck. There should be a high index of suspicion in patients with a mechanism of injury that places the internal carotid artery at risk because blunt vascular injury may show delayed onset with no initial symptoms of vascular damage. By implementing an algorithm for early detection and treatment of these injuries, serious brain damage may be avoided.

  12. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  13. Internal carotid artery dissection in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nasser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS type IV, also known as vascular EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1/100,000 to 1/250,000. In EDS type IV, vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a preference for large- and medium-sized arteries. Dissections of the vertebral and carotid arteries in their extra- and intra-cranial segments are typical. The authors report the case of a patient with EDS type IV for whom the diagnosis was established based on clinical signs and who developed internal carotid artery dissection at the age of 44 years. In the absence of a specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical interventions should focus on symptomatic relief, prophylactic measures, and genetic counseling. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated, and a conservative approach to vascular complications is usually recommended.

  14. Association between Champagne Bottle Neck Sign of Internal Carotid Artery and Ipsilateral Hemorrhagic Stroke in Patients with Moyamoya Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Chen, Gong; Yang, Yongbo; Zhang, Bing; Jia, Zhongzhi; Gu, Peiyuan; Wei, Dong; Ji, Jing; Hu, Weixing; Zhao, Xihai

    2018-06-15

    To assess the association between champagne bottle neck sign (CBNS) in carotid artery and intracranial hemorrhage in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD). From January 2016 to December 2017, a total of 76 consecutive patients with MMD without definite risk factors associated intracranial hemorrhage who underwent preoperative angiography were included in this retrospective study. CBNS was defined as luminal diameter of internal carotid artery (ICA)/common carotid artery (CCA) ≤ 0.5 on angiographic imaging. The right and left cerebral hemisphere in each patient was separately identified as hemorrhagic and none-hemorrhagic. The association between CBNS and intracranial hemorrhage was analyzed. Of 76 MMD patients, intracranial hemorrhage was found in 44 (28.9%) hemispheres of 152 and 6.8% (3/44) had multiple events. Compared carotid arteries without intracranial hemorrhage in the ipsilateral hemispheres, those with intracranial hemorrhage in the ipsilateral hemispheres had significantly smaller luminal diameter ratio of ICA/CCA (0.49 ± 0.11 vs. 0.55 ± 0.12, p < 0.01) and higher prevalence of CBNS (63.7% vs. 41.7%, p = 0.01). For hemispheres with intracranial hemorrhage, those with ipsilateral carotid artery CBNS had significantly higher prevalence of hemorrhage at posterior territories than those without (57.1% vs. 23.1%, p=0.05). Logistic regression revealed that CBNS was significantly associated with ipsilateral intracranial hemorrhage before (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.19-5.05; p=0.02) and after (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.50-7.87; p<0.01) adjusted for female, lenticulostriate anastomosis, and choroidal anastomosis. CBNS is significantly associated with intracranial hemorrhage at ipsilateral hemisphere in MMD patients, particularly for intracranial hemorrhage at posterior territories. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Unilateral and bilateral internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion: a study of the secondary collateral circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunhui; Ma Zhubin; Zhuang Lei; Liu Jianjun; Zang Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: It's a study of the collateral circulation secondary to unilateral and bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) severe stenosis or occlusion using digital subtract angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Methods: Ninty-five patients with ICA stenosis or occlusion were diagnosed by DSA or MRA. Forty-four patients were assessed by DSA, and fifty-one patients were evaluated by MRA, who were divided into two groups of the unilateral and bilateral involvement. DSA, MRA findings were analyzed, by which the patterns of the collateral circulation were comparatively studied. Results: The presence rate of anterior communicating artery (AcoA) in the unilateral group on DSA and MRA was significantly higher than that in the bilateral group (P 0.05). On DSA, the presence rate of ophthalmic artery (OphA) in the unilateral and bilateral groups had no significant difference between the two groups. The augmentation rate of the OphA in the bilateral group was significantly higher than that in the unilateral group (P<0.05). The presence rate of leptomeningeal anastomosis in the bilateral group was significantly higher than that in the unilateral group on DSA and MRA (P<0.01). Conclusion: In patients with the unilateral and bilateral ICA stenosis or occlusion, the collateral circulation formats in different patterns. The major collateral pathways secondary to the unilateral ICA stenosis or occlusion are AcoA and ispilateral PCoA, while to the bilateral ICA stenosis or' occlusion are PCoA, OPhA, and leptomeningeal anastomosis. (authors)

  16. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo. First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides). Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort. First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s), medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82) between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable. The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological) studies on iICA calcification.

  17. Dissection of the internal carotid artery and stroke after mandibular fractures: a case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tveita, Ingrid Aune; Madsen, Martin Ragnar Skjerve; Nielsen, Erik Waage

    2017-01-01

    Source at https://doi.org/10.1186/s13256-017-1316-1 Background: We present a report of a patient with blunt trauma and mandibular fractures who developed a significant cerebral infarction due to an initially unrecognized injury of her left internal carotid artery. We believe that increased knowledge of this association will facilitate early recognition and hence prevention of a devastating outcome. Case presentation: A 41-year-old ethnic Norwegian woman presented to our Emerg...

  18. Late-Onset Massive Epistaxis due to a Ruptured Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tabuse, Masanao; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2016-01-01

    A traumatic internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm is rare and difficult to treat. Trapping of ICA is commonly performed owing to the difficulty of directly approaching ICA aneurysms. Recently, coiling the aneurysm itself was recommended if possible. However, it is controversial which of methods are best to completely treat aneurysm. We present the case of a 74-year-old man, who had experienced a head injury 8 years previously, with recurrent severe epistaxis. An ICA aneurysm was detected on ...

  19. Endovascular treatment with a stent-graft for internal carotid artery laceration during trans sphenoidal surgery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Eun Hwa; Ko, Ji Ho; Lee, Tae Hong; Rho, Myung Ho

    2008-01-01

    An internal carotid artery (ICA) tear during or after trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS) is rare but may cause potentially lethal complications. A 23-year-old female patient visited our hospital for treatment of a Rathke's cleft cyst. The patient had massive hemorrhage during surgery and angiography performed after surgery showed laceration of the cavernous ICA. We successfully controlled the hemorrhage with emergency placement of an endovascular stent-graft

  20. TREATMENT OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSION USING PROXIMAL CEREBRAL PROTECTION DEVICE AND ITS EFFECT ON THE BLOOD PRESSURE DYNAMICS. CLINICAL CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. В. Shukurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, according to the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, about 200 thousand people died from stroke. Strokes are considered as the main cause of disability of the population, causing huge economic damage to the country. One of the most common causes of ischemic stroke is atherosclerosis of the branches of the aortic arch. The most common localization of atherosclerotic plaques is the extracranial section of the carotid arteries – bifurcation and ostium of the common carotid artery and the internal carotid artery. Recanalization of occlusion of the internal carotid artery until recently was an insoluble task for interventional surgery due to the high risk of distal embolization. The invention and use of the proximal cerebral protection device, which ensure the complete cessation of blood flow, has changed the situation. Effect of carotid revascularization on arterial hypertension, due to the effect on the baroreceptors of the carotid plexus by balloon angioplasty, which leads to a reflex decrease in arterial pressure, is an additional advantage of the endovascular technique in some cases. This effect requires further study. One also needs to pay careful attention to the diagnosis and imaging of carotid artery lesions before procedure. This clinical case is the illustration that an adequate assessment of the risk factors for intraoperative complications allows to achieve maximum results of endovascular treatment.

  1. Internal carotid artery aneurysms, cranial nerve dysfunction and headache: the role of deformation and pulsation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Catarino, M.; Wikholm, G.; Svendsen, P. [Interventional Neuroradiology, Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Frisen, L. [Ophthalmology Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Elfverson, J. [Neurosurgery Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden); Quiding, L. [Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering Dept., Sahlgrenska Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction and headache may occur with unruptured aneurysms of the cavernous and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid artery. Nerve deformation (mass effect) and transmitted pulsations have been suggested as pathogenetic mechanisms. Differentiation may be possible by studying effects of endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils. Symptoms and signs of cranial neuropathy were retrospectively contrasted with angiographic aneurysm volumes before and after treatment in 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Symptoms improved in three of four patients with cranial nerve dysfunction and in all patients with headache: None of the other patients, one with cranial nerve dysfunction, and three who were asymptomatic, developed any new symptoms after treatment. Aneurysm volume ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 cm{sup 3} before and 0.2 to 5.7 cm{sup 3} after treatment; the size thus increased by 15 to 110%, a change which was statistically significant (P = 0.004). The consistent increase in aneurysm volume with treatment is not associated with clinical deterioration, suggesting that deformation and displacement play a minor role in cranial neuropathy and that transmitted pulsations may be more important. (orig.)

  2. Anatomical nuances of the internal carotid artery in relation to the quadrangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Ricardo L L; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Goulart, Carlos R; Upadhyay, Smita; Buohliqah, Lamia; Lazarini, Paulo R; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in relation to the quadrangular space (QS) and to propose a classification system based on the results. METHODS A total of 44 human cadaveric specimens were dissected endonasally under direct endoscopic visualization. During the dissection, the anatomical variations of the ICA and their relationship with the QS were noted. RESULTS The space between the paraclival ICAs (i.e., intercarotid space) can be classified as 1 of 3 different shapes (i.e., trapezoid, square, or hourglass) based on the trajectory of the ICAs. The ICA trajectories also directly influence the volumetric area of the QS. Based on its geometry, the QS was classified as one of the following: 1) Type A has the smallest QS area and is associated with a trapezoid intercarotid space, 2) Type B corresponds to the expected QS area (not minimized or enlarged) and is associated with a square intercarotid space, and 3) Type C has the largest QS area and is associated with an hourglass intercarotid space. CONCLUSIONS The different trajectories of the ICAs can modify the area of the QS and may be an essential parameter to consider for preoperative planning and defining the most appropriate corridor to reach Meckel's cave. In addition, ICA trajectories should be considered prior to surgery to avoid injuring the vessels.

  3. Internal carotid arterial occlusion in computed tomography. Correlation of CT and angiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, K.; Miura, T.; Nishikubo, Y.; Kawai, R.; Mitomo, M. (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-09-01

    The computed tomographic appearance of internal carotid arterial occlusion was reviewed in 33 patients. In 23 of them, who underwent 4-vessel study, the angiographic and CT findings were compared. Ten patients were disclosed to have watershed infarction by CT. Seven of them had watershed processes in the centrum semiovale which were considered to be terminal infarction. Patients who showed watershed infarction under CT revealed inadequate circle of Willis and well-developed cortical anastomosis under angiography. Unilaterally accentuated cerebral atrophy, which we have called asymmetrical atrophy in this paper, was noted in 10 patients. The findings of asymmetrical cerebral atrophy sometimes resemble the changes secondary to old infarction. However, the changes in the lateral ventricle caused by asymmetrical cerebral atrophy are somewhat different from those resulting from old infarction. The angiographic findings suggested that asymmetrical cerebral atrophy is, in addition to being associated with incomplete circle of Willis, also associated with local circulatory disturbances which further decrease the regional cerebral blood flow in the affected hemisphere.

  4. Internal Carotid Artery Blister-Like Aneurysm Caused by Aspergillus – Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masaki; Sakurai, Keita; Kawaguchi, Takatsune; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Okita, Kenji; Matsukawa, Noriyuki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Blister-like aneurysm of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is a well-documented cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Generally, this type of aneurysm is associated with various conditions such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and ICA dissection. Although Aspergillus is the most common organism causing intracranial fungal aneurysmal formation, there is no report of a blister-like aneurysm caused by Aspergillus infection. An 83-year-old man received corticosteroid pulse therapy followed by oral steroid therapy for an inflammatory pseudotumor of the clivus. Two months later, the patient was transported to an emergency department due to the diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage, classified as Fisher group 4. Subsequent 3D computed tomography angiogram revealed a blister-like aneurysm at the superior wall of the left ICA. Six days later, the patient died of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the left ICA aneurysm rerupture. Autopsy revealed proliferation of Aspergillus hyphae in the wall of the aneurysm. Notably, that change was present more densely in the inner membrane than in the outer one. Thus, it was considered that Aspergillus hyphae caused infectious aneurysm formation in the left ICA via hematogenous seeding rather than direct invasion. The blister-like aneurysm is a rare but important cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case report documents another cause of blister-like aneurysms, that is an infectious aneurysm associated with Aspergillus infection

  5. A Novel and Freely Available Interactive 3d Model of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Melé, Marc; Puigdellívol-Sánchez, Anna; Mavar-Haramija, Marija; Juanes-Méndez, Juan A; San-Román, Luis; de Notaris, Matteo; Prats-Galino, Alberto

    2018-03-05

    We describe a new and freely available 3D interactive model of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) and the skull base that also allows to display and compare its main segment classifications. High-resolution 3D human angiography (isometric voxel's size 0.36 mm) and Computed Tomography angiography images were exported to Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) format for processing in a 3D software platform and embedding in a 3D Portable Document Format (PDF) document that can be freely downloaded at http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/112442 and runs under Acrobat Reader on Mac and Windows computers and Windows 10 tablets. The 3D-PDF allows for visualisation and interaction through JavaScript-based functions (including zoom, rotation, selective visualization and transparentation of structures or a predefined sequence view of the main segment classifications if desired). The ICA and its main branches and loops, the Gasserian ganglion, the petrolingual ligament and the proximal and distal dural rings within the skull base environment (anterior and posterior clinoid processes, silla turcica, ethmoid and sphenoid bones, orbital fossae) may be visualized from different perspectives. This interactive 3D-PDF provides virtual views of the ICA and becomes an innovative tool to improve the understanding of the neuroanatomy of the ICA and surrounding structures.

  6. Internal carotid artery aneurysms, cranial nerve dysfunction and headache: the role of deformation and pulsation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Catarino, M.; Wikholm, G.; Svendsen, P.; Frisen, L.; Elfverson, J.; Quiding, L.

    2003-01-01

    Cranial nerve dysfunction and headache may occur with unruptured aneurysms of the cavernous and supraclinoid portions of the internal carotid artery. Nerve deformation (mass effect) and transmitted pulsations have been suggested as pathogenetic mechanisms. Differentiation may be possible by studying effects of endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils. Symptoms and signs of cranial neuropathy were retrospectively contrasted with angiographic aneurysm volumes before and after treatment in 10 patients. Mean follow-up was 36 months. Symptoms improved in three of four patients with cranial nerve dysfunction and in all patients with headache: None of the other patients, one with cranial nerve dysfunction, and three who were asymptomatic, developed any new symptoms after treatment. Aneurysm volume ranged from 0.1 to 2.7 cm 3 before and 0.2 to 5.7 cm 3 after treatment; the size thus increased by 15 to 110%, a change which was statistically significant (P = 0.004). The consistent increase in aneurysm volume with treatment is not associated with clinical deterioration, suggesting that deformation and displacement play a minor role in cranial neuropathy and that transmitted pulsations may be more important. (orig.)

  7. What Is Carotid Artery Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lack of physical activity . Too much sitting (sedentary lifestyle) and a lack of aerobic activity can worsen other risk factors for carotid artery disease, such as unhealthy blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, and ...

  8. Preoperative ultrasonographic findings of internal jugular veins and carotid arteries in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Won; Kim, Gaab Soo; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Jeong Bo; Lee, Jeong Jin; Ko, Justin Sangwook

    2016-08-01

    Hemodialysis via the internal jugular vein (IJV) has been widely used for patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, as they have a higher risk of arterial diseases. We investigated the ultrasonographic findings of the IJV and carotid artery (CA) in recipients of kidney transplantation (KT) and identified factors influencing IJV/CA abnormalities. We enrolled 120 adult KT recipients. Patients in group A (n = 57) had a history of IJV hemodialysis, while those in group B (n = 63) were not yet on dialysis or undergoing dialysis methods not involving the IJV. The day before surgery, we evaluated the state of the IJV and CA using ultrasonography. We followed patients with IJV stenosis for six months after KT. Ultrasonography revealed that four patients (7%) in group A had IJV abnormalities, while no patients in group B had abnormalities (P = 0.118). Of the four patients with abnormalities, one with 57.4% stenosis normalized during follow- up. However, another patient with 90.1% stenosis progressed to occlusion, while the two patients with total occlusion remained the same. Twenty patients in group A (n = 11) and B (n = 9) had several CA abnormalities (P = 0.462). Upon multivariate analysis with stepwise selection, height and age were significantly correlated with IJV stenosis (P = 0.043, odds ratio = 0.9) and CA abnormality (P = 0.012, odds ratio = 1.1), respectively. IJV abnormalities (especially with a history of IJV hemodialysis) and CA abnormalities may be present in ESRD patients. Therefore, we recommend ultrasonographic evaluation before catheterization.

  9. Epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm embedded within pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zesheng; Tian, Daofeng; Wang, Hongliu; Kong, Derek Kai; Zhang, Shenqi; Liu, Baohui; Deng, Gang; Xu, Zhou; Wu, Liquan; Ji, Baowei; Wang, Long; Cai, Qiang; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Junmin; Zhang, Aimin; Chen, Qianxue

    2015-01-01

    Epistaxis due to ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm embedded within a pituitary adenoma (PA) has seldom been reported in the literature. Here we want to elaborate the incidence, mechanisms, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategy for this condition. The first survived case of a patient with epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy due to ruptured aneurysm embedded within PA was reported and the literature was reviewed. A 53-year-old male patient presented to our institution with sudden onset epistaxis and progressive vision loss. Neurological examination revealed bilateral ptosis and dilated unresponsive pupils. A CT scan showed a large mass in the pituitary fossa with bony erosion. MRI revealed a large pituitary tumor and abnormal signal intensity in the tumor. No aneurysm was noted during the pre-operative MR angiography. Abundant arterial bleeding suddenly occurred during urgent transsphenoidal surgery. Digital subtraction angiography confirmed the presence of a 14 mm unexpected saccular aneurysm of right ICA in the cavernous sinus with the dome protruding into the sella turcica. Balloon test occlusion of the right ICA was undertaken and permanent occlusion was performed. The patient recovered well and received bromocriptine and thyroid hormone replacement therapy during the follow-up period. At 14-month followup, the patient had no neurological deficits, no features of ischaemia relating to the right ICA therapeutic occlusion. Our case indicated that epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy could be due to the rupture of an ICA aneurysm embedded in a PA. Clinical suspicion should remain high when evaluating any case of epistaxis and pituitary apoplexy. Optimal treatment should take into consideration individual features of the tumor, aneurysm, and patient. Making the correct diagnosis as well as identifying an appropriate management strategy is critical in the care of such patients.

  10. Angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Dong Gyu; Han, Moon Hee; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Gi Seok; Yeon, Kung Mo

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the angiographic findings of collateral vessels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid arteries and to evaluate the extent of angiographic assessment needed before embolization. We retrospectively reviewed 10 cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery, which were 6 cases of arteriovenous malformation, 2 cases of carotid cavernous fistula, 1 case of hemangioma and 1 case of arteriovenous malformation with carotid cavernous fistula. The previously ligated arteries are proximal external carotid artery (n = 5), branches of external carotid artery (n = 2) and common carotid artery (n = 3). Common carotid artery or internal carotid artery (n = 9), vertebral artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), costocervical trunk (n = 2), thyrocervical trunk (n = 2) were assessed by conventional angiography. Angiography of both carotid and vertebral arteries was performed in 5 cases. The collateral vascular channels were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery (n = 8), vertebral artery (n = 5), contralateral external carotid artery (n = 5), ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 4), deep cervical artery (n = 2) and ascending cervical artery (n = 1). Embolization were performed in 9 cases with operative cannulation (n = 4), embolization via collateral branches of ipsilateral external carotid artery (n = 1), embolization via collateral branches of contralateral external carotid artery (n = 3) and balloon occlusion via direct puncture (n = 1). The collateral channels in cervicofacial vascular lesions with previously ligated carotid artery were inferolateral trunk of internal carotid artery, contralateral or ipsilateral external carotid artery, vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery on angiography. Complete angiographic assessment of possible collateral channels is mandatory for the

  11. Internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion: study of collateral circulation pathways on DSA and MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunhui; Ma Zhubin; Xu Yikai

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the collateral pathways of internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis or occlusion on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and to compare these two methods in the study for collateral pathways. Methods: Seventy-four patients with ICA stenosis or occlusion were included as the study group. Sixty persons with normal findings on DSA or MRA each served as the control group. DSA, MRA, MRI, CT findings, and clinicall materials were analyzed in the two groups. Results: Stenosis or occlusion over ICA bifurcation was showed clearly in all patients on DSA or MRA. On DSA, the presence rate of ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) in the study group (82.5%) was lower significantly than that of the control group (94.2%) (P=0.025). On MRA (3D-TOF), the rate in the study group (59.3%) was higher significantly than that of the controls (30.0%) (P=0.000). On DSA and MRA, the diameter of ipsilateral PCoA in the study group was larger than that of the control group (P=0.000). On DSA, the presence rate of OPhA in the study group was significantly different from that of the control group, and its diameter was larger than that of the control group (P=0.003). On MRA, its presence rate was lower than that of the control group. The presence rate of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) in the study group showed no statistical difference between DSA and MRA. In the study group, the presence rate of PCoA on DSA was significantly higher than that on MRA (P 0.05). The diameters of the three arteries showed no significant differences between DSA and MRA (P>0.05). Conclusion: DSA is highly valuable for the evaluation of collateral pathways of ICA stenosis or occlusion, and it is necessary for preoperative examination. MRA is a non-invasive angiographic method and can evaluate collateral circulation in both morphology and function, and can be the preferred method for the disease. (authors)

  12. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remko Kockelkoren

    Full Text Available Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification. Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo.First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides. Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort.First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s, <90°, 90-270° or 270-360°, thickness (absent, ≥1.5mm, or <1.5mm, and morphology (indistinguishable, irregular/patchy or continuous. A high sum of features represented medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82 between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable.The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological studies on iICA calcification.

  13. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002953.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery To use the sharing features ... to remove plaque buildup ( endarterectomy ) Carotid angioplasty with stent placement Description Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is ...

  14. Computed tomography angiography intraluminal filling defect is predictive of internal carotid artery free-floating thrombus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaberi, A.; Lum, C.; Stefanski, P.; Iancu, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Thornhill, R. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); The Ottawa Hospital, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Section, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Petrcich, W. [Neurosciences and Clinical Epidemiology Program/Methods Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Momoli, F. [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Torres, C.; Dowlatshahi, D. [University of Ottawa, Faculty of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); University of Ottawa, Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Filling defects at the internal carotid artery (ICA) origin in the work-up of stroke or transient ischemic attack may be an ulcerated plaque or free-floating thrombus (FFT). This may be challenging to distinguish, as they can appear morphologically similar. This is an important distinction as FFT can potentially embolize distally, and its management differs. We describe a series of patients with suspected FFT and evaluate its imaging appearance, clinical features, and evolution with therapy. Between 2008 and 2013, we prospectively collected consecutive patients with proximal ICA filling defects in the axial plane surrounded by contrast on CT/MR angiography. We defined FFT as a filling defect that resolved on follow-up imaging. We assessed the cranial-caudal dimension of the filling defect and receiver operating characteristics to identify clinical and radiological variables that distinguished FFT from complex ulcerated plaque. Intraluminal filling defects were identified in 32 patients. Filling defects and resolved or decreased in 25 patients (78 %) and felt to be FFT; there was no change in 7 (22 %). Resolved defects and those that decreased in size extended more cranially than those that remained unchanged: 7.3 mm (4.2-15.9) versus 3.1 mm (2.7-3.7; p = 0.0038). Receiver operating characteristic analysis established a threshold of 3.8 mm (filling defect length), sensitivity of 88 %, specificity of 86 %, and area under the curve of 0.86 (p < 0.0001) for distinguishing FFT from plaque. Filling defects in the proximal ICA extending cranially >3.8 mm were more likely to be FFT than complex ulcerated plaque. Further studies evaluating filling defect length as a predictor for FFT are warranted. (orig.)

  15. Unruptured internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms: general features and overall results after modern treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Pira, Biagia; Brinjikji, Waleed; Burrows, Anthony M; Cloft, Harry J; Vine, Roanna L; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysms (ICAbifAs) present unique challenges to endovascular and surgical operators, and little is known about their natural history. We reviewed our institution's experience with ICAbifAs studying outcomes of surgical and endovascular management and natural history. Consecutive patients with unruptured ICAbifAs evaluated and/or treated over an 8-year interval were studied. Baseline demographics, neurovascular risk factors, aneurysm location and size, clinical presentation, treatment recommendations, and outcomes were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. Continuous variables were compared with Student's t test and categorical variables with Chi-square tests. Fifty-nine patients with 61 unruptured ICAbifAs were included. Seven aneurysms were treated surgically (11.5 %), 22 underwent endovascular treatment (36 %), and 32 were managed conservatively (52.5 %). In the surgical group, short- and long-term complete aneurysm occlusion rates were 100 % with no cases of perioperative or long-term permanent morbidity or treatment-related mortality. In the endovascular group, two patients (11.7 %) with giant aneurysms had perioperative thromboembolic events with transient morbidity. There was one case of aneurysm rupture at follow-up in a giant aneurysm treated with partial coil embolization. Complete/near-complete occlusion rates were 63 %. There was one case of aneurysm rupture after 114 aneurysm-years of follow-up in the conservative management group (0.89 %/year), but no ruptures were observed in small aneurysms selected for conservative management. Unruptured small ICAbifAs have a benign natural history. In patients selected for treatment, excellent results can be achieved in the vast majority of patients with judicious use of endovascular and surgical therapy.

  16. Microvascular versus macrovascular cerebral vasomotor reactivity in patients with severe internal carotid artery stenosis or occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirak, Peyman; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Dinia, Lavinia; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Durduran, Turgut

    2014-02-01

    In patients with severe internal carotid artery steno-occlusive lesions (ISOL), impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is predictive of future ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Therefore, the evaluation of CVR in ISOL patients may be a means to evaluate the risk for IS/TIA and decide on an intervention. Our aim was (1) to explore the feasibility of concurrent near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS-DOS), diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and transcranial Doppler for CVR assessment in ISOL patients, and (2) to compare macrovascular and microvascular CVR in ISOL patients and explore its potential for IS/TIA risk stratification. Twenty-seven ISOL patients were recruited. The changes in continuous microvascular and macrovascular hemodynamics upon acetazolamide injection were used to determine CVR. Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2, by near-infrared spectroscopy), microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF, by diffuse correlation spectroscopy) and CBF velocity (by transcranial Doppler) showed significant increases upon acetazolamide injection in all subjects (P < .03). Only macrovascular CVR (P = .024) and none of the microvascular measures were significantly dependent on the presence of ISOL. In addition, while CBF was significantly correlated with HbO2, neither of these microvascular measures correlated with macrovascular CBF velocity. We demonstrated the simultaneous, continuous, and noninvasive evaluation of CVR at both the microvasculature and macrovasculature. We found that macrovascular CVR response depends on the presence of ISOL, whereas the microvascular CVR did not significantly depend on the ISOL presence, possibly due to the role of collaterals other than those of the circle of Willis. The concurrent microvascular and macrovascular CVR measurement in the ISOL patients might improve future IS/TIA risk assessment. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Preliminary clinical application in the cranial internal carotid artery of covered stents specially designed for intracranial vasculature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minghua; Luo Qiyi; Fang Chun; Xie Zhiyong; Cheng Yingsheng; Gao Bulang; Li Yu; Zhang Beilei; Xie Jian; Wang Yongli

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the flexibility of both the covered stents specially designed for use in intracranial vasculature and the delivering system in passing through the bone tube and the physiological curves of the cranial internal carotid artery (CICA) to reach the targeted area, the performance (adherence) of the covered stents in occluding vascular wall diseases and the impact on the vascular branches of the covered segment. Methods: The covered stents specially designed for use in intracranial vasculature were used to treat 13 patients with CICA diseases using endovascular techniques. There were 4 huge pseudoaneurysms, 4 giant aneurysms, 3 small wide-necked aneurysms, 1 giant pseudoaneurysm with concurrent internal carotid cavernous fistula (CCF), and 1 CCF. Prior to the detachment of the covered stents, balloon occlusion test (BOT) of the internal carotid artery on the diseased side and whole-brain digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in all the patients. Three to 16 months following procedure, DSA and clinical follow-ups were performed. Results: Thirteen patients all tolerated the BOT well with the DSA demonstrating well-opened anterior and posterior communicating arteries. The covered stents and the delivering systems all successfully passed CICA to reach the targeted diseased area, with the diseased segments of the internal carotid artery including C3-C4 in 4 cases, C4-C5 in 4 and C6-C7 in 5. Immediately following the detachment of the covered stents, DSA demonstrated that 7 aneurysms were completely occluded, 4 aneurysms had slight endoleak, and 1 CCF had markedly-decreased blood flow through the fistula. In the patient with concurrent pseudoaneurysm and CCF, the pseudoaneurysm disappeared and the blood flow through the fistula was markedly-reduced immediately following the stenting procedure. Apart from one patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who died due to extensive vascular spasm on the 9th day following the stenting

  18. Analysis of 3D geometry in the stenosis of internal carotid artery siphon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Huang Yining; Zhang Chi; Li Deyu; Li Shuyu

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To identify the differences of 3D geometry of internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon between the controls and patients with ICA siphon stenosis. Methods: The clinical and imaging data of the inpatients under, vent carotid artery MRA in the past three years were collected. All patients were divided into the control group (17 males and 14 females with mean age of 67.5 years) and ICA siphon stenosis group (20 males and 9 females with mean age of 58.6 years). There were 5 smokers and 9 smokers in two groups, respectively. The atheroselerotic predisposing factors were compared between the two groups using chi-square test and paired t-test. In order to extract the 3D geometry of ICA siphon, the MRA data were transferred to PC and processed with the software of Mimics. The average curvature radius (ACR) was calculated and paired t-test was applied to determine the bilateral differences in the controls. According to the stenotic site of ICA siphon, ICA siphon stenosis group was divided into C2 segment stenosis group and C4 segment stenosis group. The differences of ACR among the control group, C2 segment stenosis group and C4 segment stenosis group were compared. In addition, the values of ACR in the stenotic and normal sides were compared with paired t-test in patients with unilateral C2 segment stenosis. Results: No significant differences were found in gender and smoker between the control group and the ICA siphon stenosis group (χ 2 =1.63, P>0.05; χ 2 =1.86, P>0.05). The systolic blood pressure was (146.6±21.3) mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)and (140.3±17.3) mm Hg respectively in the ICA siphon stenosis group and the control group. The serum glucose level was (5.94±1.89) mmoL/L and (6.79±3.57) mmol/L respectively in two groups. The serum cholesterol level and triglyceride level were (4.57±0.87) mmol/L, (1.34±0.63) mmoL/L and (4.75±1.70) mmol/L, (1.54±0.72) mmol/L respectively in two groups. There were no differences in the atherosclerotic predisposing

  19. Measurement of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computed tomography in cases of internal carotid artery occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunada, Ichiro [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with {sup 133}xenon inhalation and single photon emission computed tomography in 33 cases of internal carotid artery occlusion, in the resting state and 25 minutes after acetazolamide administration. The patient population consisted of 24 males and nine females with a mean age of 57 years, who presented with transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Acetazolamide inhibits carbonic anhydrase, and CBF increases as a result of dilatation of cerebral arteries due to CO{sub 2} accumulation. The mean CBF was 46 ml/100 g/min on the affected hemisphere and 56 ml/100 g/min on the unaffected hemisphere. The mean CBF value obtained by the same method in 10 normal volunteers was 55 ml/100 g/min. The average increase in CBF after acetazolamide administration was 9% on the affected side and 17% on the unaffected side. The average increase in 10 normal volunteers was 32%. The reduced cerebral arterial reactivity to acetazolamide administration was bilateral in the patient group, suggesting that the cerebral arteries were dilated so as to maintain normal CBF. Extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery was performed in nine patients. Preoperatively, the mean CBF was 48 ml/100 g/min on the affected side and 57 ml/100 g/min on the unaffected side. With postoperative acetazolamide administration, the percent increase in CBF rose from 13% to 22% on the affected side and from 17% to 23% on the unaffected side. The bilateral change toward normal in cerebral arterial reactivity to acetazolamide indicates that the dilated cerebral arteries returned to normal after EC-IC bypass surgery. This suggests that bypass surgery is effective in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion in whom ischemia is caused only by hemodynamic factors, and that measurement of CBF via acetazolamide loading is useful in identifying appropriate candidates for bypass surgery.

  20. Haemodynamic evaluation of carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T

    1989-01-01

    Cerebral ischaemia in the region of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis may be caused by embolism or cerebral hypoperfusion. A severe ICA stenosis may be well compensated by collateral blood supply, however, in some patients the capacity of the collateral blood supply is insufficient. Studies...... evaluating therapeutic modalities or natural history of carotid artery disease should therefore include a test capable of assessing cerebral haemodynamics. However, most studies, invasive as well as non-invasive, have focused on the ability of the test to diagnose the ICA lesions itself, rather than...

  1. A Case of Complete Recovery of Fluctuating Monocular Blindness Following Endovascular Treatment in Internal Carotid Artery Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Tae; Baik, Seung Guk; Park, Kyung-Pil; Park, Min-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    Monocular blindness may appear as the first symptom of internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD). However, there have been no reports that monocular visual loss repeatedly occurs and disappears in response to postural change in ICAD. A 33-year-old woman presented with transient monocular blindness (TMB) following acute-onset headache. TMB repeatedly occurred in response to postural change. Two days later, she experienced transient dysarthria and right hemiparesis in upright position. Pupil size and light reflex were normal, but a relative afferent pupillary defect was positive in the left eye. Diffusion-weighted imaging showed no acute lesion, but perfusion-weighted imaging showed perfusion delay in the left ICA territory. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a false lumen and an intraluminal filling defect in proximal segment of the left ICA. Carotid stenting was performed urgently. After carotid stenting, left relative afferent pupillary defect disappeared and TMB was not provoked anymore by upright posture. At discharge, left visual acuity was completely normalized. Because fluctuating visual symptoms in the ICAD may be associated with hemodynamically unstable status, assessment of the perfusion status should be done quickly. Carotid stenting may be helpful to improve the fluctuating visual symptoms and hemodynamically unstable status in selected patient with the ICAD. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A road map to the internal carotid artery in expanded endoscopic endonasal approaches to the ventral cranial base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labib, Mohamed A; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo; Kerr, Edward E; Naudy, Cristian; Abou Al-Shaar, Hussam; Corsten, Martin; Kassam, Amin

    2014-09-01

    Injuring the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a feared complication of endoscopic endonasal approaches. To introduce a comprehensive ICA classification scheme pertinent to safe endoscopic endonasal cranial base surgery. Anatomic dissections were performed in 33 cadaveric specimens (bilateral). Anatomic correlations were analyzed. Based on anatomic correlations, the ICA may be described as 6 distinct segments: (1) parapharyngeal (common carotid bifurcation to ICA foramen); (2) petrous (carotid canal to posterolateral aspect of foramen lacerum); (3) paraclival (posterolateral foramen lacerum to the superomedial aspect of the petrous apex); (4) parasellar (superomedial petrous apex to the proximal dural ring); (5) paraclinoid (from the proximal to the distal dural rings); and (6) intradural (distal ring to ICA bifurcation). Corresponding surgical landmarks included the Eustachian tube, the fossa of Rosenmüller, and levator veli palatini for the parapharyngeal segment; the vidian canal and V3 for the petrous segment; the fibrocartilage of foramen lacerum, foramen rotundum, maxillary strut, lingular process of the sphenoid bone, and paraclival protuberance for the paraclival segment; the sellar floor and petrous apex for the parasellar segment; and the medial and lateral opticocarotid and lateral tubercular recesses, as well as the distal osseous arch of the carotid sulcus for the paraclinoid segment. The proposed endoscopic classification outlines key anatomic reference points independent of the vessel's geometry or the sinonasal pneumatization, thus serving as (1) a practical guide to navigate the ventral cranial base while avoiding injury to the ICA and (2) further foundation for a modular access system.

  3. Late-Onset Massive Epistaxis due to a Ruptured Traumatic Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Akiyoshi; Tabuse, Masanao; Miyazaki, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    A traumatic internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm is rare and difficult to treat. Trapping of ICA is commonly performed owing to the difficulty of directly approaching ICA aneurysms. Recently, coiling the aneurysm itself was recommended if possible. However, it is controversial which of methods are best to completely treat aneurysm. We present the case of a 74-year-old man, who had experienced a head injury 8 years previously, with recurrent severe epistaxis. An ICA aneurysm was detected on computed tomography. The trapping and bypass was planned. However, sudden epistaxis occurred, we performed trapping to stop the bleeding and save his life. After the operation, no right ICA or aneurysm was detected. However, severe epistaxis recurred two months after the operation. In the second operation, a ligation of the common -/- external carotid artery and a severance of an ICA portion between the ophthalmic artery and the aneurysm were insufficient to stop the bleeding. This case indicates ICA trapping, even if a trapping portion is below an ophthalmic artery, is insufficient to treat an ICA aneurysm. ICA aneurysms should be suspected when a patient present with recurrent -/- massive epistaxis, who has a head injury history, even if it is far past.

  4. Resting and hypercapnic rCBF in patients with unilateral occlusive disease of the internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyeux, A.; Laterre, C.; Beckers, C.

    1988-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by the 133 Xe inhalation technique in 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (75%) or occlusion, and in the absence of evidence of any sign of occlusive disease in other main afferent cerebral arteries. A comparison with normal subjects showed that lowered resting flow in both hemispheres was a common finding in all patients. Interhemispheric asymmetry was present only in patients with occlusion and the precentral, posterior temporal, and occipital regions were the most seriously affected. The CO 2 reactivity was substantially reduced in both hemispheres of all stenotic and occluded patients, but occluded patients showed an increased reduction of CO 2 reactivity only in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In addition to an hypothetical age effect, the atherosclerotic involvement of the cerebral vascular system leads to a reduction of flow and loss of CO 2 reactivity in both hemispheres. In this context, the collateral supply capacity is not overloaded in case of a unilateral severe stenosis but fails in case of a unilateral occlusion of the internal carotid artery. A suitable estimate of the blood flow reduction as a result of occlusion is made by the hemispheric and regional laterality indices applied in resting and hypercapnia conditions. These indices could be used as indicators for endarterectomy or bypass surgery as well as a sensitive means for appreciating cerebral blood flow response to treatment

  5. Extracranial internal carotid artery dissection caused by compression from a giant osteophyte due to atlantoaxial osteoarthritis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikedo, Taichi; Nakamura, Kazuhito; Sano, Noritaka; Nagata, Manabu; Okada, Yumiko; Kawakami, Taichiro; Murata, Takaho

    2017-10-01

    Deformed osseous structures have been reported as rare causes of extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection, including the styloid process and the hyoid bone. Here, the authors describe the first known case of symptomatic ICA dissection caused by a giant osteophyte due to atlantoaxial osteoarthritis. The left ICA was fixed at the skull base and at the ICA portion compressed by the osteophyte, and it was highly stretched and injured between the two portions during neck rotation. The patient was successfully treated with ligation of the affected ICA following balloon test occlusion. Atlantoaxial osteoarthritis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ICA dissection in patients with a severely deformed cervical spine.

  6. (/sup 3/H)Haloperidol labels brain dopamine receptors after its injection into the internal carotid artery of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, A; Zivkovic, B; Bartholini, G [Research Department, Synthelabo-L.E.R.S., Paris (France)

    1982-04-29

    Pulse injection of (/sup 3/H)haloperidol (0.1 ..mu..Ci; 0.003 ..mu..g) into the internal carotid artery of the rat specifically labelled dopamine receptors in striatum and olfactory tubercle, as indicated by the kinetics of, and the effects of neuroleptic drugs on, the ligand disposition. The described method may prove useful for labelling brain receptors with ligands which readily cross the blood-brain barrier but which do not selectively mark their receptors if injected systemically.

  7. [3H]Haloperidol labels brain dopamine receptors after its injection into the internal carotid artery of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, A.; Zivkovic, B.; Bartholini, G.

    1982-01-01

    Pulse injection of [ 3 H]haloperidol (0.1 μCi; 0.003 μg) into the internal carotid artery of the rat specifically labelled dopamine receptors in striatum and olfactory tubercle, as indicated by the kinetics of, and the effects of neuroleptic drugs on, the ligand disposition. The described method may prove useful for labelling brain receptors with ligands which readily cross the blood-brain barrier but which do not selectively mark their receptors if injected systemically. (Auth.)

  8. Analysis of flow and LDL concentration polarization in siphon of internal carotid artery: Non-Newtonian effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Carotid siphon is known as one of the risky sites among the human intracranial arteries, which is prone to formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, scientists believe that accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) inside the lumen is the major cause of atherosclerosis. To this aim, three types of internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon have been constructed to examine variations of hemodynamic parameters in different regions of the arteries. Providing real physiological conditions, blood considered as non-Newtonian fluid and real velocity and pressure waveforms have been employed as flow boundary conditions. Moreover, to have a better estimation of risky sites, the accumulation of LDL particles has been considered, which has been usually ignored in previous relevant studies. Governing equations have been discretized and solved via open source OpenFOAM software. A new solver has been built to meet essential parameters related to the flow and mass transfer phenomena. In contrast to the common belief regarding negligible effect of blood non-Newtonian behavior inside large arteries, current study suggests that the non-Newtonian blood behavior is notable, especially on the velocity field of the U-type model. In addition, it is concluded that neglecting non-Newtonian effects underestimates the LDL accumulation up to 3% in the U-type model at the inner side of both its bends. However, in the V and C type models, non-Newtonian effects become relatively small. Results also emphasize that the outer part of the second bend at the downstream is also at risk similar to the inner part of the carotid bends. Furthermore, from findings it can be implied that the risky sites strongly depend on the ICA shape since the extension of the risky sites are relatively larger for the V-type model, while the LDL concentrations are higher for the C-type model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endovascular Extraction of a Needle from the Internal Carotid Artery: A Novel Approach to a Controversial Dental Misadventure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurintano, Jonathan P.; Somerville, Jessica; Sebelik, Merry; Hoit, Daniel; Michael, L. Madison; Shires, Courtney B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective  To review the literature concerning the management of dental needles broken off into the deep spaces of the neck, to report what we believe is the first case of a fractured dental needle migrating into the jugular foramen, and the unconventional use of endovascular intervention to retrieve the needle fragment. Design  Case report with review of literature. Setting  Academic tertiary care center. Participants  Intervention was performed by the otolaryngology–head and neck surgery, vascular surgery, and neurovascular interventional radiology teams. Results  Transoral exploration, including palatal split and exposure of the poststyloid parapharyngeal space with C-arm image guidance, was unable to retrieve the broken needle, which traversed the internal carotid lumen with the distal end entering the jugular foramen. Through endovascular intervention, the neurovascular interventional radiology team captured the proximal end of the needle and retrieved it through the femoral artery. The patient recovered uneventfully. Conclusion  Fracture and loss of oral injection needles remain a persistent and preventable problem. This case demonstrates a novel, minimally invasive, well-tolerated, and successful method to extract a fractured needle that migrated into the lumen of the internal carotid artery at the level of the skull base. PMID:28845380

  10. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  11. Effect of white-matter lesions on the risk of periprocedural stroke after carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): a prespecified analysis of data from a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ederle, J.; Davagnanam, I.; Worp, H.B. van der; Venables, G.S.; Lyrer, P.A.; Featherstone, R.L.; Brown, M.M.; Jager, H.R.; Leeuw, F.E. de; Schultze Kool, L.J.; Vliet, J.A. van der; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from randomised trials have shown a higher early risk of stroke after carotid artery stenting than after carotid endarterectomy. We assessed whether white-matter lesions affect the perioperative risk of stroke in patients treated with carotid artery stenting versus carotid

  12. Central retinal and posterior ciliary artery occlusion after particle embolization of the external carotid artery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mames, R N; Snady-McCoy, L; Guy, J

    1991-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy underwent neuroradiologic embolization of the left internal maxillary artery with polyvinyl alcohol to stop traumatic epistaxis after failure of surgical clipping and nasal packing. Selective catheterization of the external carotid artery before embolization showed a faint choroidal blush. Although the procedure provided hemostasis, embolization to the central retinal artery and ciliary arteries resulted in loss of vision. The route of the emboli to the eye was via the anastomotic network of the lacrimal artery supplied by the external carotid artery system. Neuroradiologic embolization of the external carotid artery is an effective mode of therapy for dural-cavernous fistulas when fed by the external carotid artery system. Because the blood flow to the brain and eye is predominantly supplied by the internal carotid artery, embolization of the external carotid artery is considered relatively safe. The authors document the importance of recognition of the choroidal blush during selective external carotid artery angiography as a sign of collateral blood flow to the eye. Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of blindness as a complication of external carotid artery embolization when this sign is present.

  13. Successful Endovascular Treatment of a Left Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm Following Failed Surgery of a Right Common Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cil, Barbaros E.; Ucar, Ibrahim; Ozsoy, Fatma; Arat, Anil; Yorgancioglu, Cem; Boeke, Erkmen

    2005-01-01

    Aneurysm of the common carotid artery is a rare and serious disease requiring prompt treatment in order to avoid neurologic complications. A 39-year-old man presented with voice impairment and a pulsatile mass at the right side of his neck and was found by color Doppler examination to have bilateral common carotid artery aneurysms of unknown origin. The right-sided large aneurysm was treated with placement of an 8 mm interposition Gore-Tex graft between the right common and internal carotid arteries. The surgical graft thrombosed 7 days after the surgery but the left-sided aneurysm was successfully treated by a Jostent peripheral stent-graft. Color Doppler examination showed a patent stent and no filling of the aneurysm on his first and sixth-month follow-up. Bilateral common carotid artery aneurysm is an exceptionally unusual condition and endovascular treatment of carotid artery aneurysms with covered stents may become an effective treatment alternative for these lesions

  14. Reasons underlying the consent to endovascular treatment, displayed by patients diagnosed with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Michał-Goran; Rzepa, Teresa

    2014-08-24

    Endovascular treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) has gained popularity in recent years. Offering CAS, which is a controversial treatment in asymptomatic disease, may provoke patient distrust of the diagnosis and intervention benefit. The aim of this study was to prove that asymptomatic ICAS patients tend to show an emotional attitude to their illness, and therefore their decisions regarding carotid artery stenting are externally motivated and assessed emotionally. This study was conducted by a questionnaire consisting of 18 half-open questions (obtained from 25 consecutive patients) in categories of self-image, attitude to illness, and decision-making regarding CAS. Descriptive analysis was performed. Reaction: "Nothing to worry about - every illness can be cured" evidenced the rational attitude to the disease. Attitude towards oneself after receiving the unexpected information about the disease did not change. Most patients pursued a second opinion before the intervention. Most patients showed internal motivation (78.7%). Rational assessment of the decision on CAS relied on consulting and insights into the disease and the intervention-related risk compared to risk of "doing nothing" In decision-making about CAS by asymptomatic patients, the emotional attitude to disease and negative expectations pertaining to postoperative health lead to an internally-motivated and rationally assessed decision. At least 2 conversations with the patient should be scheduled. The primary purpose of the second visit should be dissipating any doubts and repeating the arguments for the intervention. Patients should be provided with an appropriate amount of information to reduce their fear of neurological complications and mental disturbances. Conversation should be concentrated on life-quality improvement instead of controversies about the intervention.

  15. Carotid artery aneurysm resulting in myxedema coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth M. Lamos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intra-sellar aneurysms are a rare, but important consideration when evaluating pituitary masses. Identification of aneurysms is critical to appropriate treatment and avoiding perilous consequences. These vascular aneurysms can result in severe endocrine dysfunction due to mass effect, stripping of the vascular supply to the pituitary, or hemorrhage. Here we describe a novel case of spontaneous myxedema coma and pituitary apoplexy secondary to a large internal carotid artery aneurysm.

  16. Cerebral metabolism of patients with stenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery. A 1H-MR spectroscopic imaging study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grond, J.; Balm, R.; Kappelle, L. J.; Eikelboom, B. C.; Mali, W. P.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occlusion or severe stenosis of extracranial vessels may lead to hypoperfusion without overt infarction of brain tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occlusion of the internal carotid artery or stenosis with reduction in diameter of more than 70% leads to

  17. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma : multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbuchel, Anna M. M.; Sterkenburg, Anthe S.; Mueller, Hermann L.

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with

  18. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery following childhood craniopharyngioma resection treated by endovascular flow diversion-A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Heiferman, Daniel M; Boucher, Andrew B; Serrone, Joseph C; Barrow, Daniel L; Dion, Jacques E

    2018-05-24

    Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery (FDICA) is a well-described radiographic finding following resection of childhood craniopharyngioma (CP). A 39-year-old woman with right-sided FDICA was successfully treated for lesion enlargement with endovascular flow diversion, which has not been described in the literature. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Delayed pan-hypopituitarism as a complication following endovascular treatment of bilateral internal carotid artery aneurysms. A case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Caputo, Carmela; Chung, Carlos; Holt, Michael; Wang, Yi Yuen

    2015-04-01

    Pan-hypopituitarism has been reported in patients who are subsequently found to have a cerebral aneurysm and there have been reports of pituitary dysfunction immediately following both surgical and endovascular treatment. The authors report a rare case of delayed pan-hypopituitarism following endovascular treatment of bilateral internal carotid artery aneurysms with coil embolisation and flow-diverting stents.

  20. Congenital absence of the bilateral internal carotid artery: a review of the associated (ab)normalities from a newborn status to the eighth decade of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasović, Ljiljana; Trandafilović, Milena; Vlajković, Slobodan; Radenković, Goran

    2018-01-01

    Due to the fact that the internal carotid artery (ICA) is responsible for nourishing two thirds of the brain volume, our aim was to inspect the morphofunctional consequences of the bilateral lack of this artery. In order to examine this condition, we referred to both the library archive of our Faculty of Medicine and electronic databases of anatomical and clinical reports that included the following keywords: "absence," "aplasia," or "agenesis" in combination with "internal carotid artery," "common carotid artery," or only "carotid artery." We found 60 recorded cases of the bilateral ICA absence in the subjects of newborn status to the eighth decade of life, which had been discovered in 20 countries. The following ten parameters were described: the embryological base, terminology, history, incidence, general data, differential diagnosis, collateral circulation, the associated vascular aplasia and/or other variants, pathophysiology, and the importance in praxis. This review noted all the cases of the bilateral ICA aplasia published for the past 104 years. Although there were 11.6% of cases of the associated cerebral aneurysms and 1-4 cases of 16 other diseases, approximately one quarter of the cases was without any pathology.

  1. Bilateral non-superselective embolization with particles under transient occlusion of the internal carotid artery in the management of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Franco, J A; Lee, A; Campos-Navarro, L A; Tenorio-Sánchez, J; Zenteno, M; Osorio-Alvarado, A R

    2012-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare histologically benign tumor, highly vascularized, with usually aggressive behavior, and can extend from the nasal cavity to neighboring structures. We present the case of a 14-year-old male harboring a JNA, presenting with an active severe and persistent epistaxis. Two previous surgical attempts of removal were unsuccessful, because of profuse intraoperative bleeding. Angiography showed a highly vascularized neoplasm with multiple branches arising from both internal carotid arteries, with absence of branches from the external carotid due to previous surgical ligation. Direct puncture tumor embolization was not possible because removal of nasal packing triggered major hemorrhage. The only option for embolization was a technique of non-superselective embolization with particles under transient occlusion of the internal carotid artery. The procedure was performed uneventfully from either side, the tumor was subsequently removed, and the patient had no recurrence 2 years after the initial treatment.

  2. Characterization of plaque in the internal carotid artery. Comparison neuroradiological findings with pathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Misao; Nishio, Akimasa; Takami, Toshihiro; Goto, Takeo; Ueda, Makiko; Hara, Mitsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the morphology of the carotid plaque using echogram, CT scan and MRI and compare those neuroradiological findings with histological findings of the plaque. We evaluated 14 cases operated with carotid endoarterectomy for carotid stenosis. We estimated the findings of the echogram, enhanced CT scan and black blood MRI (BB MRI), in comparison with the histological findings of the carotid plaque. Echogram, enhanced CT scan and MRI clearly demonstrated the plaque in cervical carotid stenosis. In most cases, echograms could show the plaque, but in some cases could not due to the back shadow caused by plaque calcification. Enhanced CT scan clearly demonstrated the calcification and the neovasculization in plaque. BB MRI clearly showed the carotid plaque. Low-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed hard and fibrous plaque. High-intensity lesions in T1 and T2 weighted images showed soft plaque with lipoprotein and/or hemorrhage. This study demonstrates the potential of a systemic approach to atherosclerotic plaque with enhanced CT scan and BB MRI compared with histological findings of the carotid plaque. These estimations elucidate the growth mechanism of carotid plaque. (author)

  3. Treatment of traumatic internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysms with willis covered stents: a midterm follow-up result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wu; Li Minghua; Li Yongdong; Gu Binxian; Fang Chun; Tan Huaqiao; Wang Ju; Zhang Peilei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and mid-term follow-up results of endovascular treatment with Willis covered stent for traumatic pseudoaneurysms located in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods: ICA angiography was performed in 38 patients with traumatic brain and neck injury. Of the 38 patients, 13 delayed traumatic pseudoaneurysms were found. All the pseudoaneurysms were treated with Willis covered stents. Follow-up angiography was performed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the procedure, and the results were categorized as complete or incomplete occlusion. Clinical manifestations were graded as full recovery, improvement, unchanged and aggravation. Results: Willis covered stent placement was technically successful in all traumatic pseudoaneurysms. No procedure-related complications occurred. The initial angiographic results showed a complete occlusion in 9 patients, and an incomplete occlusion in 4. The angiographic follow-up within 3-12 months exhibited a complete occlusion in 12 patients and the parent arteries remained patency in all patients. The clinical follow-up observation demonstrated that full recovery was obtained in 11 patients, clinical improvement in one, and unchanged condition in one. No morbidity or mortality occurred. Conclusion: Willis covered stent implantation is a feasible and practical treatment for traumatic pseudoaneurysms located in the ICA. This technique can well preserve the parent artery with excellent therapeutic results. (authors)

  4. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection causing a juvenile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S.; Huebsch, P.; Schindler, E.

    1988-11-01

    The case of a 19-year-old patient is presented who was admitted with aphasia and hemiparesis due to basal ganglia infarction as a result of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery. The difficulties in diagnosing this disease with CT and MRI in the acute stage are demonstrated. Angiography is still imperative in order to ascertain that a carotid dissection has occurred.

  5. Carotid artery disease and low cerebral perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Utzon, N P; Aabech, J

    1990-01-01

    Direct internal carotid artery blood pressure measurements in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy identified 49 patients, among 239 consecutive cases (21%), who had a reduction in perfusion pressure of 20% or more. The clinical history, objective findings and angiographic data were compared...

  6. Bypass surgery to treat symptomatic fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery following craniopharyngioma resection: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Shi, Xiang'en; Liu, Fangjun; Qian, Hai

    2016-12-01

    Fusiform dilation of the internal carotid artery (FDICA) is an infrequent vascular complication following resection of suprasellar lesions in the pediatric population, and its course appears to be benign without apparent clinical symptoms. However, data correlating symptomatic FDICA with bypass surgery are scarce. The authors here report 2 symptomatic cases that were treated using internal maxillary artery bypass more than 5 years after total removal of a craniopharyngioma at an outside institution. Both cases of FDICA were resected to relieve the mass effect and to expose the craniopharyngioma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and radiological imaging revealed graft conduit patency. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported use of extracranial to intracranial bypass to treat FDICA following removal of a suprasellar lesion. Their findings suggest that bypass surgery is a useful therapeutic approach for symptomatic cases of FDICA and total removal of recurrent craniopharyngioma. Moreover, the indications for surgical intervention and treatment modalities are discussed in the context of previous relevant cases.

  7. Direct Doppler auscultation of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the carotid Doppler examinations and contrast arteriograms are presented. The overall sensitivity of the carotid Doppler examinations in detecting severe stenosis or occlusion of the carotid artery was 92%. The Doppler studies correctly differentiated these two conditions in 84% of the diseased vessels. In carotid arteries with stenosis greater than or equal to 50%, the sensitivity of the Doppler examinations was 90%, and these studies suggested stenosis in all but two of the 36 abnormal examinations. In two patent carotids with greater than 90% stenosis, a signal could not be elicited, presumably because of the low blood flow through the severely stenotic segment

  8. Location of the internal carotid artery and ophthalmic artery segments for non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement by multi-depth TCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamarat, Yasin; Deimantavicius, Mantas; Kalvaitis, Evaldas; Siaudvytyte, Lina; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Zakelis, Rolandas; Bartusis, Laimonas

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to locate the ophthalmic artery by using the edge of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as the reference depth to perform a reliable non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement via a multi-depth transcranial Doppler device and to then determine the positions and angles of an ultrasonic transducer (UT) on the closed eyelid in the case of located segments. High tension glaucoma (HTG) patients and healthy volunteers (HVs) undergoing non-invasive intracranial pressure measurement were selected for this prospective study. The depth of the edge of the ICA was identified, followed by a selection of the depths of the IOA and EOA segments. The positions and angles of the UT on the closed eyelid were measured. The mean depth of the identified ICA edge for HTG patients was 64.3 mm and was 63.0 mm for HVs (p = 0.21). The mean depth of the selected IOA segment for HTG patients was 59.2 mm and 59.3 mm for HVs (p = 0.91). The mean depth of the selected EOA segment for HTG patients was 48.5 mm and 49.8 mm for HVs (p = 0.14). The difference in the located depths of the segments between groups was not statistically significant. The results showed a significant difference in the measured UT angles in the case of the identified edge of the ICA and selected ophthalmic artery segments (p = 0.0002). We demonstrated that locating the IOA and EOA segments can be achieved using the edge of the ICA as a reference point. OA: ophthalmic artery; IOA: intracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery; EOA: extracranial segments of the ophthalmic artery; ICA: internal carotid artery; UT: ultrasonic transducer; HTG: high tension glaucoma; SD: standard deviation; ICP: intracranial pressure; TCD: transcranial Doppler.

  9. Clinical observations on the effect of carotid artery occlusion on cerebral blood flow mapped by xenon computed tomography and its correlation with carotid artery back pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steed, D.L.; Webster, M.W.; DeVries, E.J.; Jungreis, C.A.; Horton, J.A.; Sehkar, L.; Yonas, H.

    1990-01-01

    Xenon computed tomographic cerebral blood flow mapping was correlated with internal carotid artery stump pressures and clinical neurologic assessment during temporary internal carotid artery occlusion. One hundred fourteen patients with skull base tumors or intracranial aneurysms potentially requiring carotid resection or ligation underwent angiography, xenon CT cerebral blood flow mapping, and internal carotid artery blood pressure monitoring. The internal carotid artery was then temporarily occluded with a balloon catheter, stump pressure was measured through the catheter, and the xenon CT cerebral blood flow mapping was repeated. Adequate xenon CT cerebral blood flow was defined as greater than 30 cc/100 gm/min. All patients had normal xenon CT cerebral blood flow before internal carotid artery occlusion. During internal carotid artery occlusion, xenon CT cerebral blood flow was found to be normal (group I, 40 patients), globally reduced but still within the normal range (group II, 50 patients), or low in the distribution of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (group III, 13 patients). With balloon occlusion, an immediate neurologic deficit developed in 11 patients (9%) requiring deflation of the balloon preceding xenon CT cerebral blood flow measurement (group IV). In group I internal carotid artery blood pressure was 128 mm Hg. (range 85 to 171 mm Hg) with stump pressure 86 mm Hg (range 46 to 125 mm Hg). In group II internal carotid artery blood pressure was 130 mm Hg. (range 78 to 199 mm Hg), with stump pressure 86 mm Hg (range 31 to 150 mm Hg)

  10. Acetazolamide stimulation test in patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis using Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT and transcranial doppler sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I. Y.; Na, J. H. [Inha University Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We compared perfusion reserve by acetazolamide (ACZ) challenged brain perfusion SPECT and cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) in patients with unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis. This study was conducted prospectively in 37 consecutive patients with angiographically proven unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (stenosis> 50%). We estimated % CVR (100? {l_brace}post-ACZ mean velocity (cm/sec) - Pre-ACZ mean velocity (cm/sec){r_brace} / pre-ACZ mean velocity) by TCD. The % CVR was compared with perfusion reserve of SPECT. The % CVR of MCA and ICA was significantly decreased in the ipsilateral side to the carotid stenosis (p<0.05). The CVR impairment was more severe when cerebral infarct is already developed (p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between the degree of carotid stenosis and the CVR (p<0.01). In the area of impaired perfusion reserve on the SPECT, the estimated CVR by TCD was significantly lower (p<0.05), even to the negative value, implying that there is actually steal phenomenon in that area. ACZ challenge can actually decrease cerebral blood flow in the area of impaired perfusion reserve on brain SPECT. So we should be very cautiously performing in ACZ challenge especially when there is a severe carotid stenosis because there is a possibility of developing hemodynamic stroke.

  11. Common carotid artery disease in Takayasu's arteritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Nabil; Calderon, Luis I; Castro, Pablo and others

    2004-01-01

    Takayasu's arteritis is a disease of unknown etiology with main involvement of the common carotid 5 artery and its branches. we report the case of a 69 years old female patient with Tokays arteritis with 2 bilateral involvements of the common carotid arteries, treated with percutaneous angioplasty and Stent implantation

  12. Preliminary evaluation of 3D TOF MRA fly-around advantages in the diagnosis of internal carotid artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yusen; Zhang Lina; Xu Ke; Li Songbai; Huang Yanling; Sun Wenge; Jin Anyu; Qi Xixun; Li Yanliang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the advantages and the clinical application value of 3D TOF MR angiography fly-around in diagnosing internal carotid artery aneurysms in comparison with multi-slice helical CT three dimensional angiography (MS 3D-CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Methods: Eighteen patients with clinical suspected internal carotid artery aneurysms were involved in the study. There were 4 males and 14 females, and their age ranged from 17 to 76 years. 14 patients were with subarachnoid hemorrhage and 4 patients with oculomotor nerve palsy. All these patients underwent 3D TOF MRA and MS 3D-CTA, and 17 patients underwent DSA. All of them accepted operation treatment. 3D TOF MRA was performed with Toshiba 1.5 T MRI system and the parameters of 3D-TOF sequence were: TR 30 ms, TE 6.8 ms, field of view 17 cm x 19 cm, matrix 160 x 256, slab thickness 50-60 mm, section thickness 1.2 mm, flip angle 20 degree. Row data of MS 3D-CTA was acquired by Multi-slice helical CT-Aquilion (Toshiba). The scanning parameters were: image slice thickness 1.0 mm, scan speed 0.5 s/r, helical pitch 3.5, delay time 15-18 sec. Nonionic contrast agent was injected intravenously (2.0 ml/kg) at the speed of 4.0-5.0 ml/s using a power injector. Source images of 3D TOF MRA and MS 3D-CTA were processed into MIP and fly-around using a workstation SGI-O2, with the post-processing software Alatoview (Ver: 1.42). Conventional four-vessel digital subtraction angiography was performed with Siemens Multi-Start OT. Results: 22 aneurysms were detected by both 3D TOF MRA and MS 3D-CTA (1 ACA aneurysm, 3 ACoMA aneurysms, 1 left MCA aneurysm, 2 ICA-cavernous aneurysms, 3 left ICA-PCoM aneurysms, 8 right ICA-PCoM aneurysms, 1 left ICA-AChA aneurysms, 2 right ICA-AChA aneurysms, and 1 superior pituitary artery aneurysm). Among those aneurysms, one was not detected by DSA, and another aneurysm's neck was not clear on the image of DSA. 1 right ICA-PCoM aneurysm was surgically treated according to 3D

  13. DYNAMICS OF HIGHGER MENTAL FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH OBLITERATING LESIONS OF INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES IN SURGICAL BRAIN REVASCUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Vinogradov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obliterating atherosclerosis of internal carotid arteries is one of the main causes of ischemic stroke and discirculatory encephalopathy. It causes up to 40% of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. Currently, the strategy for stroke prevention is determined by the intensive development of surgical methods of treatment, primarily methods for managing lesions of brachiocephalic arteries. Based on the results of a number of international multicenter randomized studies, indications for reconstructive operations for BCA, tactics for managing patients in the postoperative period were formulated. A number of patients with atherosclerotic lesions of brachiocephalic arteries have reduced cognitive functions. The aim of the study is to compare cognitive functions (CF in patients who underwent different surgical approaches in the treatment of obliterating atherosclerotic lesion of internal carotid arteries (ICA.MATERIAL AND METHODS. We studied higher mental functions (HMFs in 116 patients with obliterating unilateral or bilateral lesion of ICA. The study of cognitive functions (MF was performed prior to carotid endarterectomy (CE, group 1, n=73 and transluminal balloon angioplasty of ICAs (TBA of ICA, group 2, n=43, and on days 5–7 and 30–31 after cerebral revascularization (CR. To assess the overall severity of cognitive impairment, the summary indicators of main screening neuropsychological tests were used: MMSE; MoCA; Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB; Beck Depression Inventory and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.RESULTS. Results Neuropsychologic disorders were reavealed in 98% of patients prior to surgery. An initially comparable condition of HMF in groups with CE and TBA of ICA was revealed. MMSE2 revealed a significant improvement in the results in group 1 both in comparison with the initial data (p<0.05 and in comparison with the results of the second test of group 2. The results of MMSE1 and MMSE2 in group 2 did not show significant

  14. Combined percutaneous and transarterial devascularisation of juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma with protection of internal carotid artery: A modification of the technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Ljubisa; Mahmoud, Ehab; Nyberg, Christoffer; Ekberg, Tomas

    2015-06-01

    Juvenile nasal angiofibroma (JNA) is a hypervascularised, benign, but locally aggressive tumour that grows in the posterior, upper part of the nasal cavity and invades surrounding anatomical structures. The treatment of choice is surgical removal, but complete resection of the tumour can be hampered because of profuse perioperative bleeding. Preoperative embolisation of the tumour has been proposed as an effective method for prevention of perioperative bleeding, thereby shortening of the time of the operation. In this report of five cases, we describe successful preoperative devascularisation of the tumour by applying a modified method of direct intratumoural injection of the liquid embolic agent Onyx combined with protection of the internal carotid artery. The control of bleeding during the embolisation and occlusion of the maxillary or sphenopalatine artery was achieved by using a bi-luminal balloon catheter. Such use of the dual-lumen catheter in treatment of JNA has not been reported so far in the medical literature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A fluid-structure interaction model of the internal carotid and ophthalmic arteries for the noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiulis, Edgaras; Džiugys, Algis; Navakas, Robertas; Striūgas, Nerijus

    2017-05-01

    Accurate and clinically safe measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP) are crucial for secondary brain damage prevention. There are two methods of ICP measurement: invasive and noninvasive. Invasive methods are clinically unsafe; therefore, safer noninvasive methods are being developed. One of the noninvasive ICP measurement methods implements the balance principle, which assumes that if the velocity of blood flow in both ophthalmic artery segments - the intracranial (IOA) and extracranial (EOA) - is equal, then the acting ICP on the IOA and the external pressure (Pe) on the EOA are also equal. To investigate the assumption of the balance principle, a generalized computational model incorporating a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) module was created and used to simulate noninvasive ICP measurement by accounting for the time-dependent behavior of the elastic internal carotid (ICA) and ophthalmic (OA) arteries and their interaction with pulsatile blood flow. It was found that the extra balance pressure term, which incorporates the hydrodynamic pressure drop between measurement points, must be added into the balance equation, and the corrections on a difference between the velocity of blood flow in the IOA and EOA must be made, due to a difference in the blood flow rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Common carotid artery thrombosis; Clinical and radiological evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Takeshi; Hakusui, Shigetaka; Yanagi, Tsutomu (Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital (Japan)); Ito, Eiichi

    1994-02-01

    Common carotid artery thrombosis (CCAT) is not common. We studied 4 patients with CCAT to clarify the clinical and radiological features of this disorder. Case 1 had only episodes of TIA. Case 2 was diagnosed by chance as having CCAT at the time of admission due to cerebellar infarction. On the contrary, Cases 3 and 4 were admitted because of disturbance of consciousness and hemiparesis. Case 4 died soon after his stroke because of complications. We evaluated cases 1, 2 and 3 using head CT, head MRI, neck MRI, MR angiography, SPECT and cerebral angiography. Case 4, who was evaluated with head CT and cerebral angiography, was autopsied to confirm the occlusion of the common carotid artery. The clinical severity of CCAT varies from asymptomatic to severe, because each case differs in the time taken for complete occlusion of the common carotid artery; the development of collateral circulation; and hemodynamics of the brain. As for the collaterals their contribution is variable; for example, the thyrocervical and other arteries function as the bypass. We can diagnose CCAT easily and noninvasively using MR angiography and neck MRI based on disappearance of the flow void in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery. On physical examination, it is important to detect faded pulsation of the superficial temporal artery that is ipsilateral to the occluded common carotid artery. (author).

  17. Diagnosis of carotid artery stegnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uwatoko, Takeshi; Okada, Yasushi

    2008-01-01

    Carotid Artery Stegnosis (CAS) is an important cause of the crisis of atherothrombotic cerebral infarction. This paper describes diagnosis and evaluation of CAS by echo and MRI/MR angiography (MRA) together with its clinical characteristics. Two hundreds Japanese patients undergone with carotid endarterectomy in authors' hospital are found to have had complications of coronary lesions in 38% and arteriosclerosis obliterans in 13%. Echo is a useful and simple method for detection of dynamic state of CAS and in cerebral infarction, diagnosis to decide whether the plaque is the culprit lesion is important as well as to decide the degree of stegnosis. The lesion is detected through the B mode method and the degree, through the color Doppler imaging; and blood flow rate and its waveform can be evaluated. MRI/MRA has advantages of its objectivity and wide imaging range. The MRI/MRA using various imaging techniques like black-blood method by spin echo or gradient echo modes and fat-suppression combination is advantageous and expectedly to be further developed for evaluation of plaque nature and status leading to therapeutic planning. Thus the degree of stegnosis and vulnerability of the plaque evaluated by echo and MRI/MRA of the cervical artery will be more important for judging the surgical applicability of circulatory reconstruction. (R.T.)

  18. Bilateral spontaneous internal carotid artery dissection managed with endovascular stenting – A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Agarwala

    2016-09-01

    We describe a patient with ischemic stroke from spontaneous bilateral ICAD with completely occluded left ICA. Having failed medical therapy with antiplatelets and anticoagulants due to extensive loss of carotid vascular supply, he was managed successfully with endovascular stenting with good neurological recovery.

  19. Asymmetry of intracranial internal carotid artery on 3D TOF MR angiography: a sign of unilateral extracranial stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naggara, Olivier; Seiller, Nicolas; Gobin-Metteil, Marie-Pierre; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine; Touze, Emmanuel; Mas, Jean-Louis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine whether an asymmetry of size of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) on 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) is predictive of a high-grade cervical ICA stenosis. Ninety-six stroke/TIA consecutive patients were recruited for the study, of whom 32 had unilateral high-grade ICA stenosis (≥70% NASCET) and were included into the case group, and the remaining 64 did not have such high-grade stenosis and were included in the control group. On intracranial MRA, two observers, blinded to the characteristics of cervical ICA stenosis, independently searched for qualitative size asymmetry between ICAs and measured the cross-sectional surface of the intracranial ICAs. An intracranial size asymmetry was seen in 28 of the 32 high-grade stenoses by both readers, and in 10 (reader 1 ) and 8 (reader 2 ) of the 64 controls (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 84-88%). In patients without agenesia of the A1 segment of the circle of Willis (n = 70), sensitivity was ≥90% and specificity = 96%. Surfaces ratios were significantly different (p < 0.001) between cases and controls. However, using ROC curves analysis, the quantitative processing did not improve the detection when compared with the qualitative assessment of intracranial ICA asymmetry. A size asymmetry of the intracranial ICAs reveals the presence of an underlying high-grade cervical stenosis, with a high degree of confidence, especially in patients without anatomical variant of the anterior part of the circle of Willis. This sign may allow an early detection of high-grade cervical carotid stenosis in stroke patients before dedicated neck imaging is performed. (orig.)

  20. Asymmetry of intracranial internal carotid artery on 3D TOF MR angiography: a sign of unilateral extracranial stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naggara, Olivier; Seiller, Nicolas; Gobin-Metteil, Marie-Pierre; Meder, Jean-Francois; Oppenheim, Catherine [Faculte de Medecine Rene Descartes, Universite Paris 5. Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neuroradiology, Paris cedex 14 (France); Touze, Emmanuel; Mas, Jean-Louis [Faculte de Medecine Rene Descartes, Universite Paris 5. Centre Hospitalier Sainte-Anne, Department of Neurology, Paris cedex 14 (France)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine whether an asymmetry of size of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) on 3D time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) is predictive of a high-grade cervical ICA stenosis. Ninety-six stroke/TIA consecutive patients were recruited for the study, of whom 32 had unilateral high-grade ICA stenosis ({>=}70% NASCET) and were included into the case group, and the remaining 64 did not have such high-grade stenosis and were included in the control group. On intracranial MRA, two observers, blinded to the characteristics of cervical ICA stenosis, independently searched for qualitative size asymmetry between ICAs and measured the cross-sectional surface of the intracranial ICAs. An intracranial size asymmetry was seen in 28 of the 32 high-grade stenoses by both readers, and in 10 (reader{sub 1}) and 8 (reader{sub 2}) of the 64 controls (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 84-88%). In patients without agenesia of the A1 segment of the circle of Willis (n = 70), sensitivity was {>=}90% and specificity = 96%. Surfaces ratios were significantly different (p < 0.001) between cases and controls. However, using ROC curves analysis, the quantitative processing did not improve the detection when compared with the qualitative assessment of intracranial ICA asymmetry. A size asymmetry of the intracranial ICAs reveals the presence of an underlying high-grade cervical stenosis, with a high degree of confidence, especially in patients without anatomical variant of the anterior part of the circle of Willis. This sign may allow an early detection of high-grade cervical carotid stenosis in stroke patients before dedicated neck imaging is performed. (orig.)

  1. Balloon occlusion of the internal carotid artery in 40 cases of giant intracavernous aneurysm: Technical aspects, cerebral monitoring, and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez Anon, V.; Aymard, A.; Gobin, Y.P.; Casasco, A.; Rueffenacht, D.; Khayata, M.H.; Merland, J.J.; Abizanda, E.; Redondo, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the results of carotid occlusion in the treatment of giant intracavernous carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms in 40 patients. Clinical, angiographic, Doppler and cerebral blood flow (CBF) criteria for tolerance of occlusion are discussed. The patients had headaches (47.5%), cranial nerve compression (87.5%), decreased visual acuity (20%), ruptured aneurysm (15%) and 5% were asymptomatic. Balloon occlusion tests were performed under light sedation anaesthesia; a successful test required perfect clinical tolerance and adequate angiographic collateral circulation in arterial, parenchymatous, and venous phases. Additional criteria included xenon 133 CBF measurements, and transcranial Doppler sonography of the middle cerebral artery. According to these criteria, 5 patients did not tolerate test occlusion and required an extra-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass. Mean follow-up was 4.7 years. All patients were radiologically cured of their aneurysm, and in 35 the symptoms resolved, although 3 had persistent ocular motor nerve palsies, and in 4 visual defects were unchanged. Complications were 1 permament and 3 transient neurological deficits. Balloon occlusion of the ICA is an effective, reliable form of treatment for intracavernous giant aneurysm and should replace surgical ligation of the cervical carotid artery. With CBF or Doppler monitoring, the risk of neurological deficit is diminished. EC-IC bypass prior to ICA occlusion is indicated if test occlusion is not tolerated. (orig.)

  2. Delayed Presentation of an Extracranial Internal Carotid Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Massive Epistaxis Secondary to a Nasal Foreign Body: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsevman, Gennadiy A; Braca, John A; Welch, Kevin C; Ashley, William W

    2016-08-01

    Epistaxis is a very common medical condition and can often be controlled with conservative measures. Rarely, uncontrolled and life-threatening epistaxis can occur. We present the case of a 58-year-old man who developed delayed, massive epistaxis caused by an extracranial left internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm caused by an intranasal foreign object without apparent recent trauma. The patient was successfully treated with endovascular stenting of the affected vessel segment. Massive epistaxis is a potentially lethal condition. Although the source uncommonly originates from the internal carotid artery, pseudoaneurysm rupture needs to be considered on the differential diagnosis in selected patients. This case illustrates the need for vigilance for the presence of foreign objects and/or vessel injuries in the setting of acute, massive epistaxis. Additionally, we describe treatment options and review the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the carotid artery stenosis based on minimization of mechanical energy loss of the blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Sheau Fung; Zhao, Xihai; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yu; Chong, Winston; He, Le; Chen, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Internal carotid artery stenosis requires an accurate risk assessment for the prevention of stroke. Although the internal carotid artery area stenosis ratio at the common carotid artery bifurcation can be used as one of the diagnostic methods of internal carotid artery stenosis, the accuracy of results would still depend on the measurement techniques. The purpose of this study is to propose a novel method to estimate the effect of internal carotid artery stenosis on the blood flow based on the concept of minimization of energy loss. Eight internal carotid arteries from different medical centers were diagnosed as stenosed internal carotid arteries, as plaques were found at different locations on the vessel. A computational fluid dynamics solver was developed based on an open-source code (OpenFOAM) to test the flow ratio and energy loss of those stenosed internal carotid arteries. For comparison, a healthy internal carotid artery and an idealized internal carotid artery model have also been tested and compared with stenosed internal carotid artery in terms of flow ratio and energy loss. We found that at a given common carotid artery bifurcation, there must be a certain flow distribution in the internal carotid artery and external carotid artery, for which the total energy loss at the bifurcation is at a minimum; for a given common carotid artery flow rate, an irregular shaped plaque at the bifurcation constantly resulted in a large value of minimization of energy loss. Thus, minimization of energy loss can be used as an indicator for the estimation of internal carotid artery stenosis.

  4. Agenesis of the internal carotid artery with a trans-sellar anastomosis: CT and MRI findings in late-onset congenital hypopituitarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Merino, X.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Sauri, A.

    2001-01-01

    A 29-year-old woman with a history of hypothyroidism since early childhood developed hypopituitarism. CT and MRI revealed anterior pituitary hypoplasia, an ectopic posterior lobe, a Chiari I malformation and agenesis of the right internal carotid artery with a trans-sellar anastomosis. This constellation of findings constitutes a previously unreported association in congenital hypopituitarism of late onset. The usefulness of imaging modalities and the pathogenic implications are also discussed. (orig.)

  5. Does the new International Diabetes Federation definition of metabolic syndrome improve prediction of coronary artery disease and carotid intima-media thickening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timóteo, Ana; Santos, Rui; Lima, Sandra; Mamede, Andreia; Fernandes, Rita; Ferreira, Rui

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with increased incidence of diabetes and atherosclerotic complications. The new definition of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) increases the population with this entity, compared to the NCEP ATP III definition. To study the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in patients with and without MS, according to the NCEP ATP III and IDF definitions, and the predictive ability of carotid IMT for CAD. We studied 270 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography due to suspicion of CAD. All patients underwent ultrasound study of the carotid arteries to measure IMT (the highest value between the right and left common carotid arteries was used in the analysis). Coronary stenosis of > or =70% (or 50% for the left main coronary artery) was considered significant. By the ATP III definition, 14% of the patients had MS, and these patients had a higher prevalence of CAD (87% vs. 63%, p = 0.004), but no significant difference was found for carotid IMT (1.03 +/- 0.36 mm vs. 0.95 +/- 0.35 mm, p=NS). With the IDF definition, 61% of the patients had MS; this group was slightly older and included more women. There were no differences in terms of CAD (68% vs. 63%) or carotid IMT (0.97 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.96 +/- 0.39 mm). On multivariate analysis, the ATP III definition of MS predicts CAD (OR 4.76, 95% CI 1.71-13.25, p = 0.003), but the IDF definition does not (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.74-2.27, p = 0.37). On ROC curve analysis, an IMT of > or = 0.95 mm predicts CAD (AUC 0.66, p definition increases the population with MS, decreasing the capacity to predict the presence of CAD. In our population, neither the ATP III nor the IDF definition showed differences in terms of carotid IMT. Carotid IMT can predict CAD, but with only modest sensitivity.

  6. Association between Asymptomatic Unilateral Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis and Electrophysiological Function of the Retina and Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Machalińska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was designed to assess retinal and optic nerve bioelectrical function in patients with unilateral asymptomatic but hemodynamically significant internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS. Methods. Forty-two subjects with a diagnosis of unilateral ICAS and 34 controls were analyzed. Full-field electroretinogram (ERG, pattern electroretinogram (PERG, and pattern visual-evoked potentials, as well as optical coherence tomography and ophthalmological examination, were performed. Data analysis included eyes ipsilateral to ICAS (EIS and eyes contralateral to ICAS (ECS. Results. Intraocular pressure was significantly decreased in EIS and ECS compared to that in the controls. In the macula, both the cube average thickness and cube volume values were significantly reduced both in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. Similarly, PERG P50 and N95 wave amplitudes were significantly smaller in EIS and ECS compared to those in the controls. The ERG rod b-wave and rod-cone a-wave amplitudes were decreased, and implicit times were significantly prolonged, whereas the OP wave index was reduced in EIS compared to that in the controls. No differences in IOP, OCT, or ERG and PERG parameters were identified between EIS and ECS. Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that retinal bioelectrical function is negatively affected by ICAS despite the absence of objective clinical signs and symptoms of ocular ischemia.

  7. Agenesis of internal carotid artery associated with isolated growth hormone deficiency: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Traficante, Giovanna; Lapi, Elisabetta; Pantaleo, Marilena; Becciani, Sabrina; Mortilla, Marzia; Seminara, Salvatore; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-10-19

    Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital abnormality, sporadically reported to be associated with a combined congenital hypopituitarism. Nevertheless, only a few cases have been extensively described, and none of these have been characterized by an isolated growth hormone (GH) deficiency. Here, we describe a 17-year old boy referred to our hospital for fatigue, decreased muscle strength and severe headache reported after the cessation of rhGH treatment for a GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 2 years and 3 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed an adenohypophyseal hypoplasia with a lack of posterior pituitary hyperintensity, whereas MRI angiography indicated the absence of a normal flow void in the left ICA. Endocrinological tests confirmed the GH deficiency (GH peak after growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) + arginine: 2.42 ng/mL) with a very low IGF-I value (31 ng/mL) and normal function of other pituitary axes. To the best of our knowledge this is the first confirmed case of an isolated GH deficiency in a patient with ICA agenesis. The presence of an isolated pituitary deficit is unlike to be considered only as an effect of hemodynamic mechanism, suggesting a role for genetic factor(s) as a common cause of these two rare birth defects. Further studies could clarify this issue and the underlying mechanisms to better understand the etiopathogenetic characteristics of this disorder.

  8. Endovascular treatment of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm presenting with acute haemorrhage. A report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K.-M.; Chiu, H.-M.; Chan, C.-M.; Cheung, Y.-L.; Tang, K.-W.; Law, C.-K.

    2001-01-01

    Hemorrhage from rupture of petrous ICA aneurysm can be life threatening and emergency treatment is required. We report 2 cases of radiation-induced petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm presenting with acute hemorrhage (epistaxis and otorrhagia) after radiotherapy (RT) for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Both patients had a history of RT treatment for NPC. The first patient, a 54-year-old man, presented with sudden severe epistaxis and hemorrhagic shock. The second patient, a 35-year-old man, presented with episodes of severe otorrhagia. The first patient was immediately resuscitated. Obliteration of the aneurysm was performed by endovascular occlusion of the ICA with Guglielmi detachable coils and fibered platinum coils. For the second patient, the aneurysm was treated by deploying a self-expandable stent across the aneurysm neck. In an emergency situation, ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm can be treated with endovascular occlusion of the ICA with micro-coils if there is a good collateral blood flow. Alternatively, the aneurysm can be treated by deployment of a stent, which can induce stasis and eventual thrombosis of the aneurysm. (author)

  9. Mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery - report of a case and review of the literature; Aneurisma micotico da arteria carotida interna extracraniana - relato de um caso e revisao da literatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Edilene Cristina do; Silva, Ivone Martins da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Silvio Cavalcanti de [Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Abath, Carlos [Angiorad, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1998-08-01

    The authors report a case of mycotic aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery in a 4-year-old- male child, resulting from tonsillar infection. The authors relate the difficulties to initially suggest the diagnosis, stress the importance of the differential diagnosis particularly in children and describe the findings on conventional films, US colour-Doppler, CT and carotid digital subtraction angiography. (author)

  10. Internal carotid arterial canal size and scaling in Euarchonta: Re-assessing implications for arterial patency and phylogenetic relationships in early fossil primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Kirk, E Christopher; Silcox, Mary T; Gunnell, Gregg F; Gilbert, Christopher C; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Allen, Kari L; Welch, Emma; Bloch, Jonathan I; Gonzales, Lauren A; Kay, Richard F; Seiffert, Erik R

    2016-08-01

    Primate species typically differ from other mammals in having bony canals that enclose the branches of the internal carotid artery (ICA) as they pass through the middle ear. The presence and relative size of these canals varies among major primate clades. As a result, differences in the anatomy of the canals for the promontorial and stapedial branches of the ICA have been cited as evidence of either haplorhine or strepsirrhine affinities among otherwise enigmatic early fossil euprimates. Here we use micro X-ray computed tomography to compile the largest quantitative dataset on ICA canal sizes. The data suggest greater variation of the ICA canals within some groups than has been previously appreciated. For example, Lepilemur and Avahi differ from most other lemuriforms in having a larger promontorial canal than stapedial canal. Furthermore, various lemurids are intraspecifically variable in relative canal size, with the promontorial canal being larger than the stapedial canal in some individuals but not others. In species where the promontorial artery supplies the brain with blood, the size of the promontorial canal is significantly correlated with endocranial volume (ECV). Among species with alternate routes of encephalic blood supply, the promontorial canal is highly reduced relative to ECV, and correlated with both ECV and cranium size. Ancestral state reconstructions incorporating data from fossils suggest that the last common ancestor of living primates had promontorial and stapedial canals that were similar to each other in size and large relative to ECV. We conclude that the plesiomorphic condition for crown primates is to have a patent promontorial artery supplying the brain and a patent stapedial artery for various non-encephalic structures. This inferred ancestral condition is exhibited by treeshrews and most early fossil euprimates, while extant primates exhibit reduction in one canal or another. The only early fossils deviating from this plesiomorphic

  11. Clipping in Awake Surgery as End-Stage in a Complex Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm After Failure of Multimodal Endovascular and Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Delia; Peschillo, Simone; Mancarella, Cristina; La Pira, Biagia; Rastelli, Emanuela; Passacantilli, Emiliano; Santoro, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Intracranial carotid artery aneurysm can be treated via microsurgical or endovascular techniques. The optimal planning is the result of the careful patient selection through clinical, anatomic, and angiographic analysis. We present a case of ruptured internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm that became a complex aneurysm after failure of multi-endovascular and surgery treatment. We describe complete trapping in awake craniotomy after failure of coiling, stenting, and bypassing. ICA aneurysms could become complex aneurysms following multi-treatment failure. Endovascular approaches to treat ICA aneurysms include coiling, stenting, flow diverter stenting, and stenting-assisted coiling technique. The role of surgery remains relevant. To avoid severe neurologic deficits, recurrence, and the need of retreatment, a multidisciplinary discussion with experienced endovascular and vascular neurosurgeons is mandatory in such complex cases. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ischemic stroke in combined cerebrovascular abnormalities - aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery and arteriovenous malformation temporo occipital in the right hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manolova, T.; Naydenov, K.; Manchev, I.; Manchev, L.

    2016-01-01

    A case of combined vascular abnormalities is presented- an aneurysm of the internal carotid artery and arterio-venous malformation temporooccipitally on the right, clinically presented by an ischemic brain stroke in the territory supplied by the right middle cerebral artery. Treatment included - hypo-tensive drugs, antiplatelet (antiaggregants) agents and vasodilators, which lead to significant improvement of the general and focal neurological symptoms. Neurosurgical intervention is been discussed, in order to remove the vascular malformation and to prevent future vascular events. Key words: Aneurysm. Arteriovenous Malformation. Ischemic Stroke

  13. Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000235.htm Angioplasty and stent placement - carotid artery - discharge To use the sharing ... the hospital. You may have also had a stent (a tiny wire mesh tube) placed in the ...

  14. Comparison of enterprise and neuroform stent-assisted coil embolization of distal internal carotid artery aneurysms: Midterm results from a single-center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Jin; Baik, Seung Kug; Yeom, Jeong A; Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Weon

    2014-01-01

    To compare the mid-term follow-up angiographic findings in distal internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms treated by stent-assisted coil embolization using the Enterprise or Neuroform stent. We included 68 patients with 70 aneurysms: 31 cases with Enterprise and 39 cases with Neuroform. Inclusion criteria were 1) location of the stent within the distal ICA, including the carotid siphon; 2) follow-up angiogram after > 6 months, and 3) single use of the stent for 1 parent artery. The patients' mean age was 54.9 years (16 male and 52 female). Mean follow-up duration was 9.1 months. At follow-up, there were intraluminal filling defects of the parent artery in 19.4% of the Enterprise group and no filling defect in the Neuroform group. There was no significant in-stent stenosis in either group. Straightening of the parent artery was seen in 35.5% of the Enterprise group and 20.5% of the Neuroform group. Two Enterprise cases showed delayed migration. The Enterprise showed statistically significant intraluminal filling defects of the parent artery compared with the Neuroform. The rates of significant in-stent stenosis and straightening of the parent artery were not significantly different between the Enterprise and the Neuroform groups.

  15. Doppler examination of the periorbital arteries adds valuable hemodynamic information in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Steenberg, H J

    1987-01-01

    The periorbital flow direction and internal carotid artery (ICA) angiogram were compared to the ICA pressure gradient across the stenosis and the distal ICA pressure in 51 patients subjected to carotid endarterectomy. All 17 patients with inverted periorbital flow had stenoses exceeding 50%. The ...... collaterals and, Patients with 50% stenosis or more and insufficient collaterals....

  16. Extracranial-intracranial bypass in medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the intracranial segments of the internal carotid artery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yabo; Wang, Zhong; Han, Qingdong

    2018-06-01

    Tumor resection and extracranial-intracranial bypass concerning medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of intracranial segments has been rarely presented. Effective treatment as to the complex lesions may be complicated. Tumor resection and cerebrovascular protection should be both taken into consideration. We presented one case of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery of intracranial segments. The patient suffered hyperthyroidism, mirror-image dextrocardia and congenital heart disease atrial septal defect simultaneously. Before the neurosurgical treatment , the colleagues of department of cardiac surgery, anesthesiology and respiratory medicine agreed on our plan of resecting the tumor following the comprehensive evaluation of basal clinical conditions in the patient. For reducing the bleeding intraoperatively, the interventional branch performed digital subtraction angiography(DSA) and found collateral anastomosis between the supplying vessels of left middle meningeal arteries and anterior choroid arteries. No preoperative interventional embolization was determined considering the risk of cerebral ischemia. The following subtotal resection of medial sphenoid ridge meningioma and left extracranial-intracranial bypass were carried out. Additionally, ipsilateral decompressive craniectomy was done. Post-operative imaging Computed tomography (CT), Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and Transcranial Doppler (TCD) indicated subtotal resection of tumor and bypass patency. The patient was discharged with the right limbs of muscle strength of grade IV. The muscle strength of the patient returned to grade V after 6 months of follow-up. Comprehensive treatment of tumor resection and extracranial-intracranial bypass concerning medial sphenoid ridge meningioma associated with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery of intracranial segments is

  17. Carotid artery stenosis after neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kasuya, Junji; Terasaki, Tadashi [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Uchino, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    Carotid artery stenosis sometimes occurs after cervical radiotherapy. We report a 70-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for thyroid cancer at the age of 28 years. She had no signs and symptoms except the skin lesion at the irradiation site. Duplex ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous plaques showing 50% stenosis of bilateral common carotid arteries. Those lesions were observed within segment of irradiation, where atheromatous plaque usually seldom occurs. These indicated that the carotid stenosis was induced by radiotherapy. Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for radiation-induced plaque is not clear, the plaques remained unchanged for 4 years in spite of aspirin administration. (author)

  18. Carotid artery bypass in acute postendarterectomy thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paty, P S; Darling, R C; Cordero, J A; Shah, D M; Chang, B B; Leather, R P

    1996-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy has demonstrated excellent results over the past 2 decades with combined stroke mortality of improvement in symptoms in 79% (11 of 14) of the patients and complete resolution in 57% (8 of 14). In long-term follow up (1 to 41 months), there have been no occlusions and one restenosis requiring revision at 11 months. Carotid artery bypass can be performed safely with acceptable results. The use of autogenous venous conduits allows reconstruction with an endothelial lined conduit that may improve results in patients with acute postoperative neurologic deficit secondary to thrombosis of the endarterectomized carotid artery.

  19. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection causing a juvenile cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trattnig, S.; Huebsch, P.; Schindler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The case of a 19-year-old patient is presented who was admitted with aphasia and hemiparesis due to basal ganglia infarction as a result of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery. The difficulties in diagnosing this disease with CT and MRI in the acute stage are demonstrated. Angiography is still imperative in order to ascertain that a carotid dissection has occurred. (orig.) [de

  20. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye [Capital Medical University and Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Brain Disorders Research, Beijing (China); Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Zhao, Huilin [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Radiology, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Cui, Yuanyuan [PLA General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Zhou, Zechen [Philips Research China, Healthcare Department, Beijing (China); Yuan, Chun [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Seattle, WA (United States); Zhao, Xihai [Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Beijing (China); Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Center for Stroke, Beijing (China)

    2017-05-15

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  1. Association between proximal internal carotid artery steno-occlusive disease and diffuse wall thickening in its petrous segment: a magnetic resonance vessel wall imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoyi; Li, Dongye; Zhao, Huilin; Chen, Zhensen; Qiao, Huiyu; He, Le; Li, Rui; Cui, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Zechen; Yuan, Chun; Zhao, Xihai

    2017-01-01

    Significant stenosis or occlusion in carotid arteries may lead to diffuse wall thickening (DWT) in the arterial wall of downstream. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) steno-occlusive disease and DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. Symptomatic patients with atherosclerotic stenosis (>0%) in proximal ICA were recruited and underwent carotid MR vessel wall imaging. The 3D motion sensitized-driven equilibrium prepared rapid gradient-echo (3D-MERGE) was acquired for characterizing the wall thickness and longitudinal extent of the lesions in petrous ICA and the distance from proximal lesion to the petrous ICA. The stenosis degree in proximal ICA was measured on the time-of-flight (TOF) images. In total, 166 carotid arteries from 125 patients (mean age 61.0 ± 10.5 years, 99 males) were eligible for final analysis and 64 showed DWT in petrous ICAs. The prevalence of severe DWT in petrous ICA was 1.4%, 5.3%, 5.9%, and 80.4% in ipsilateral proximal ICAs with stenosis category of 1%-49%, 50%-69%, 70%-99%, and total occlusion, respectively. Proximal ICA stenosis was significantly correlated with the wall thickness in petrous ICA (r = 0.767, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that proximal ICA stenosis was independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA (odds ratio (OR) = 2.459, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.896-3.189, P < 0.001). Proximal ICA steno-occlusive disease is independently associated with DWT in ipsilateral petrous ICA. (orig.)

  2. Simultaneous occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and epistaxis due to ruptured petrous internal carotid artery aneurysm. Association with transsphenoidal surgery and radiation therapy. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Hidenori; Fujimura, Miki; Inoue, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yasushi; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Kawagishi, Jun; Jokura, Hidefumi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented with simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and massive epistaxis. The patient had been treated for pituitary prolactinoma by two transsphenoidal surgeries, gamma knife radiosurgery, and conventional radiation therapy since age 43 years. Cerebral angiography showed left petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm with slight stenosis on the adjacent left petrous ICA. She underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) double anastomosis with endovascular internal trapping without complication the day after onset. Postoperative course was uneventful; the patient did not develop symptomatic vasospasm, recurrent epistaxis, or cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea. Postoperative angiography demonstrated complete disappearance of the aneurysm with patent STA-MCA anastomosis. The patient was discharged 2 months after surgery without neurological deficit. The present case is extremely rare with simultaneous onset of SAH and epistaxis caused by ruptured petrous ICA aneurysm. The transsphenoidal surgeries and radiation therapies might have been critical in the formation of the petrous ICA aneurysm. (author)

  3. Carotid endarterectomy in patients with occlusion of the contralateral carotid artery. Perioperative risk and late results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Rasmussen, L

    1987-01-01

    severe strokes when compared to patients with only minor reduction in CPP. In addition, the internal carotid artery blood flow following endarterectomy was significantly higher in the low pressure group (P less than 0.02). No patients were lost during follow-up, for a mean of 34 months. The cumulative....... Compared with a complication rate of about 5% previously reported from this institution, this clearly indicates contralateral carotid occlusion as a major risk factor in carotid surgery. Though not statistically significant, patients with severely reduced cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) had suffered more...

  4. Evaluation of Contrast MR Angiography in the Study of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis. Systematic Review of the Literature; Evaluacion de la estenosis de la arteria carotida interna por angiografia REM con contraste: revision sistematica de la bibliografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Perez, P.; Martinez Cantarero, J. [Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid (Spain); Ruiz Diaz, M.; Blazquez Morera, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Llano Senaris, J. E. de [Fundacion Gaspar Casal. Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic benefit of using contrast MR Angiography (MRA) in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis as opposed to intraarterial digital subtraction arteriography (LADSA). A search for relevant articles from 1990 to 2000 using MDLINE and EMBASE databases. Initial selection criteria: 1. articles which compare MRA and IADSA in the study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis; and 2, sample size of 10 or more subjects. Studies employing contrast MRA were subsequently selected. Contrast MRA diagnostic results were studied, as were those of non-contrast MRA (TOF) if included. Roc curves and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. In the studies, 324 patients and 648 extracranial internal carotid arteries were evaluated (12 articles). The diagnostic results in carotid artery stenosis discrimination using contrast MRA as opposed to IADSA were sensitivity and specificity=97.28% and 96.08%. With regard to contrast MRA vs. non-contrast MRA (TOF), significant differences favoring contrast MRA in both sensitivity and specificity were observed. (p=0.08 and p<0.001, respectively). MRA techniques demonstrate very high diagnostic capabilities in the detection of carotid stenosis, with contrast MRA being more effective than non-contrast. MRA. In spite of not being superior to IADSA, given the morbimortality risk which the latter is associated (0.7-1.2%). many authors defend contrast MRA (in association with Doppler echography) having become the method of choice for presurgical study of extracranial internal carotid artery stenosis. (Author) 53 refs.

  5. Throbbing tinnitus in aberrant internal carotid artery aggravated by elevation of the jugular bulb. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, T.; Kirsten, R.; Kau, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular anomalies in the middle ear are rarely observed. They cause no symptoms in the majority of cases, although some may be associated with tinnitus. The false diagnosis of glomus tumour may lead to considerable problems, if surgery is performed. It is therefore necessary that precise pre-operative data are obtained, preferably based on contrast-enhanced computerized tomography. Subsequent 2D and 3D image reconstructions provide further vascular findings regarding the topographic and anatomic factors involved and eliminate the need for invasive angiography of the carotid artery or retrograde jugular venography to make a firm diagnosis. (orig.) [de

  6. The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations: a computational study based on a patient-specific three-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Yuan, Qi; Yang, Jian; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis (CoW) under anatomical and pathological variations. In the current study, a patient-specific three-dimensional computational model of the CoW was reconstructed based on the computed tomography (CT) images. The Carreau model was applied to simulate the non-Newtonian property of blood. Flow distributions in five common anatomical variations coexisting with different degrees of stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (RICA) were investigated to obtain detailed flow information. With the development of stenosis in unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), the cerebral blood supply decreased when the degree of stenosis increased. The blood supply of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) was most affected by the stenosis of ICA. The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) functioned as the important collateral circulation channels when unilateral stenosis occurred. The blood flow of the anterior circulation and the total cerebral blood flow (CBF) reached to the minimum in the configuration of the contralateral proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) absence coexisting with unilateral ICA stenosis. Communicating arteries provided important collateral channels in the complete CoW when stenosis in unilateral ICA occurred. The cross-flow in the ACoA is a sensitive indicator of the morphological change of the ICA. The collateral function of the PCoA on the affected side will not be fully activated until a severe stenosis occurred in unilateral ICA. The absence of unilateral A1 coexisting with the stenosis in the contralateral ICA could be the most dangerous configuration in terms of the total cerebral blood supply. The findings of this study would enhance the understanding of the collateral mechanism of the CoW under different anatomical variations.

  7. Vertebrocarotid collateral in extracranial carotid artery occlusions: digital subtraction angiography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Kizilkilic, Osman; Tercan, Fahri; Tuerkoez, Riza; Yildirim, Tuelin

    2005-01-01

    The internal and external carotid arteries are usually considered occluded distal to a common carotid artery occlusion but some collateral vessels may provide blood keeping the internal and external carotid arteries patent distal to the occlusion. Most common communication in such a case is diversion of blood from muscular branches of the vertebral artery to occipital branch of the external carotid artery which in turn could maintain blood flow into the internal carotid artery, a condition called carotid steal. We encountered vertebrocarotid anastomoses maintaining the patency of carotid circulation in six patients. Patients were four females and two males, ages ranging from 40 to 67 (mean age: 56) years. Five of the patients had ischemic cerebral symptoms. The origin of the external carotid artery was occluded in two and the whole common carotid artery in the remaining four patients. Two patients had double steal, carotid and subclavian at the same time. There was also severe stenosis or occlusion of at least one other major extracranial cerebral artery in all the cases. This concomitant involvement of the second extracranial cerebral artery was thought to be the main reason for the development of vertebrocarotid collateral. In contrast to most of the previously published reports claiming the inadequacy of angiography when compared with colour Doppler ultrasonography, angiography finely depicted the distal patency of the carotid circulation and all the collaterals in detail in every case. Selective injection of the vertebral artery ipsilateral to the occlusion, is the key to demonstrate distal patency of the carotid circulation in cases of proximal carotid occlusion. Demonstration of patency of the distal circulation is very important because some of the patients might get benefit from a reconstructive surgery

  8. Vertebrocarotid collateral in extracranial carotid artery occlusions: digital subtraction angiography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguzkurt, Levent; Kizilkilic, Osman; Tercan, Fahri; Tuerkoez, Riza; Yildirim, Tuelin

    2005-02-01

    The internal and external carotid arteries are usually considered occluded distal to a common carotid artery occlusion but some collateral vessels may provide blood keeping the internal and external carotid arteries patent distal to the occlusion. Most common communication in such a case is diversion of blood from muscular branches of the vertebral artery to occipital branch of the external carotid artery which in turn could maintain blood flow into the internal carotid artery, a condition called carotid steal. We encountered vertebrocarotid anastomoses maintaining the patency of carotid circulation in six patients. Patients were four females and two males, ages ranging from 40 to 67 (mean age: 56) years. Five of the patients had ischemic cerebral symptoms. The origin of the external carotid artery was occluded in two and the whole common carotid artery in the remaining four patients. Two patients had double steal, carotid and subclavian at the same time. There was also severe stenosis or occlusion of at least one other major extracranial cerebral artery in all the cases. This concomitant involvement of the second extracranial cerebral artery was thought to be the main reason for the development of vertebrocarotid collateral. In contrast to most of the previously published reports claiming the inadequacy of angiography when compared with colour Doppler ultrasonography, angiography finely depicted the distal patency of the carotid circulation and all the collaterals in detail in every case. Selective injection of the vertebral artery ipsilateral to the occlusion, is the key to demonstrate distal patency of the carotid circulation in cases of proximal carotid occlusion. Demonstration of patency of the distal circulation is very important because some of the patients might get benefit from a reconstructive surgery.

  9. Radiation-induced carotid artery atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujral, Dorothy M.; Chahal, Navtej; Senior, Roxy; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotid arteries frequently receive significant doses of radiation as collateral structures in the treatment of malignant diseases. Vascular injury following treatment may result in carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and increased risk of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). This systematic review examines the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on the carotid arteries, looking at the incidence of stroke in patients receiving neck radiotherapy. In addition, we consider possible surrogate endpoints such as CAS and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) and summarise the evidence for radiation-induced carotid atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: From 853 references, 34 articles met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. These papers described 9 studies investigating the incidence of stroke/TIA in irradiated patients, 11 looking at CAS, and 14 examining CIMT. Results: The majority of studies utilised suboptimally-matched controls for each endpoint. The relative risk of stroke in irradiated patients ranged from 1.12 in patients with breast cancer to 5.6 in patients treated for head and neck cancer. The prevalence of CAS was increased by 16–55%, with the more modest increase seen in a study using matched controls. CIMT was increased in irradiated carotid arteries by 18–40%. Only two matched-control studies demonstrated a significant increase in CIMT of 36% and 22% (p = 0.003 and <0.001, respectively). Early prospective data demonstrated a significant increase in CIMT in irradiated arteries at 1 and 2 years after RT (p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions: The incidence of stroke was significantly increased in patients receiving RT to the neck. There was a consistent difference in CAS and CIMT between irradiated and unirradiated carotid arteries. Future studies should optimise control groups

  10. Posttraumatic cerebral infarction due to progressive occlusion of the internal carotid artery after minor head injury in childhood: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Kohno, Kanehisa

    2011-07-01

    Although minor head injury in childhood is a common occurrence and usually no complications, posttraumatic cerebral infarction has rarely been reported. Such infarction is characterized by occlusion of the lateral lenticulostriate artery. The authors report an atypical case of posttraumatic occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) after minor head injury in childhood. A healthy 16-year-old boy was hit on the head by a pitch while playing baseball. He developed a transient ischemic attack involving the left extremities 15 min after the accident. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed neither hemorrhage nor infarction, and MR angiography demonstrated mild stenosis of the right carotid fork. Conservative therapy was started. However, 24 h after the accident, he suddenly developed left hemiparesis. Emergent neuroimaging demonstrated progressive occlusion of the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA and cerebral infarction of the deep white matter in the right frontal lobe. The hemiparesis deteriorated and the infarction area continued to expand on a daily. The patient underwent emergent superficial temporally artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass. Intraoperative observation demonstrated that the supraclinoid portion of the right ICA was not thrombosed but pale with low tension and did not appear dissected. He fully recovered by 2 weeks after the operation. Postoperative investigations showed gradual improvement of the ICA occlusion. Minor head injury can cause cerebral infarction in childhood, although this is rare. If conservative therapy cannot prevent progressive cerebral infarction, STA-MCA bypass should be considered in case of the ICA occlusion.

  11. Percutaneous angioplasty of carotid artery stenoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, G.; Freitag, J.; Koch, R.D.; Wagemann, W.

    1986-03-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is a well-established method to remedy stenoses and short occlusions in the femoro-popliteal region and has also proved worthwhile in dilating stenoses of pelvic, renal and coronary arteries. Following successful experiments in animals, Mathias et al. employed angioplasty to treat carotid artery stenoses in the same way. To date, successful treatment of carotid artery stenoses has been described only in isolated recent reports. For fear of embolism, angioplasty has not yet become standard practice in this region. Because of the limited number of carotid artery stenoses treated so far, the risk involved cannot be reliably assessed. It is remarkable that no embolism has been reported for the greater number of dilated stenoses of the subclavian artery. Moreover, the report by Mathias et al. indicated that for 350 angioplasties of pelvifemoral arteries 1.1% embolisms occured after artery occlusions only, while no embolism was observed after stenoses. Having gained experience of applying PTA to the treatment of vascular obstructions of extremities, we have adopted this technique in the carotid area as well.

  12. Emergency embolization in the treatment of intractable epistaxis resulted from carotid arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zengtao; Liu Yanjun; Chao Baoting; Tang Jun; Liu Zuoqin; Chen Jie; Shang Jianqiang; Zhang Lei; Li Jijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of internal carotid artery occlusion in treatment of intractable epistaxis caused by carotid artery siphon traumatic lesions. Methods: A total of 37 patients with intractable epistaxis caused by traumatic carotid artery siphon pseudoaneurysm or carotid cavernous fistula were retrospectively analyzed. All the patients underwent embolization from October 1998 to June 2010, including 34 men and 3 women with the age ranged from 25 to 65 years and a average of 40 years. Only lesions were occluded in 12 cases without involving the internal carotid artery, while occlusions of internal carotid artery were performed in the rest 25 cases. Results: Thirty-six patients were cured without recurrent hemorrhage after embolization. Only 1 patient with carotid artery occlusion died 48 hours after operation. Conclusion: For patients with carotid arterial intractable epistaxis, if the elimination of the lesions is not applicable and the collateral circulation of Willis ring has a good compensation, the use of detachable balloon or coil occlusion of ipsilateral internal carotid artery is a quick and easy method to save patients' lives. (authors)

  13. Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenak, Kamil, E-mail: zelenak@unm.sk [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia); Zelenakova, Jana [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); DeRiggo, Julius [University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery (Slovakia); Kurca, Egon; Kantorova, Ema [University Hospital, Department of Neurology (Slovakia); Polacek, Hubert [University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Slovakia)

    2013-08-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet-Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX-XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits.

  14. Treatment of Cervical Internal Carotid Artery Spontaneous Dissection with Pseudoaneurysm and Unilateral Lower Cranial Nerves Palsy by Two Silk Flow Diverters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňák, Kamil; Zeleňáková, Jana; DeRiggo, Július; Kurča, Egon; Kantorová, Ema; Poláček, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) lesions in the parapharyngeal space (a dissection and a pseudoaneurysm) may present as isolated lower cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, and XII) palsy (Collet–Sicard syndrome). Some arteriopathies such as fibromuscular dysplasia and tortuosity make a vessel predisposed to dissection. Extreme vessel tortuosity makes the treatment by a stent graft impossible. Two Silk stents were used in a 46 year-old man with left lower cranial nerves (IX–XII) palsy for the treatment of left ICA spontaneous dissection with pseudoaneurysm. A follow-up angiogram 5 months later confirmed pseudoaneurysm thrombosis and patency of the left ICA. The patient recovered completely from the deficits

  15. Pathologic implications of severely stenotic carotid artery in disparity to the contralateral asymptomatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacayorin, E.D.; Schwartz, R.A.; Park, S.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 15 patients (eight women, seven men; age range 56-67 years), arteriography showed severely stenotic internal carotid artery in contrast to the contralateral asymptomatic carotid artery. The patients with recent neurologic manifestations of transient ischemic attack and amaurosis fugax underwent carotid endarterectomy and were subsequently proved to have hemorrhagic atheromatous plaques on gross and histologic examinations. The disparity was unusually significant: 80%-95% stenosis for the symptomatic side, and 0%-20% stenosis for the asymptomatic side. The authors conclude that this arteriographic finding suggests high likelihood of focal subintimal hemorrhage occurring locally; such pathologic change might actually precipitate a cerebroembolic event

  16. Measurement of blood flow in the carotid arteries using color doppler in healthy Korean adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ki Ho; Jeon, Do Ig; Choi, Chang Ho; Ro, Young Jin; Kim, Hak Jin; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the blood flow patterns and velocities of the carotid arteries in healthy Korean adults. We evaluated the blood flow patterns and measured the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocities of the common, internal and external carotid arteries in 48 healthy adults who did not have cardiovascular disorders and neck lesions. The velocity difference was analyzed according to different age groups. In addition, peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery was estimated, and our data were compared with values reported by other authors. Generally, the velocity in the younger age group tends be to higher than in older group. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocities of the internal carotid artery were 84.5 cm/sec and 30.5 cm/sec. The peak systolic and end diastolic velocity ratio of the internal to common carotid artery were 0.715 and 0.966. The internal carotid artery was less resistant in blood flow than the external carotid artery. Our data were lower than the values which were reported by Bluth et al. The blood flow velocities of the internal carotid artery in healthy adults were lower than those of previous reported foreign values, but the patterns were similar

  17. Autopsy findings in carotid arterial rupture following radiotherapy of head and neck advanced carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satake, Bunsuke; Matsuura, Shizumu; Sakaino, Kouji; Maehara, Yasunobu

    1989-01-01

    The influence of radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer was investigated by autopsy of head and neck patients who had had carotid artery rupture. Twenty-five cases of head and neck cancer revealed carotid artery rupture among the 255 head and neck cases autopsied from 1972 to 1985. The rate of carotid artery rupture in hypopharyngeal cancer was 8/32 (25%); in oral cancer 8/55 (14.5%), and in other cancers 9/165 (5.4%). In localization of ruptured arteries there were 9 cases of common carotid artery, 14 cases of external carotid artery, one case of internal carotid artery, and one unknown. These cases were irradiated using more than 70 Gy. The following reasons for carotid artery rupture were suspected: 1. There was a tumor with deep ulceration and necrosis near the vessel. 2. The wall of the artery had radiation angitis. 3. The artery wall was necrotic because of invasion by the tumor. 4. Thrombosis developed with ensuant rupture of the artery. Radiotherapy for advanced cancer of the head and neck is necessary to control pain and as palliative treatment, but to avoid rupture of the carotid artery, pain clinic techniques and chemotherapy as palliative treatment for this kinds of terminal condition should also be considered. (author)

  18. Apolipoprotein E and carotid artery atherosclerosis - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooter, AJC; Bots, ML; Havekes, LM; del Sol, AI; Cruts, M; Grobbee, DE; Hofman, A; Van Broeckhoven, C; Witteman, JCM; van Duijn, CM

    Background and Purpose-Carotid artery atherosclerosis is a strong predictor for future stroke. It is yet unclear whether the apolipoprotein E polymorphism (APOE) is related to atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of APOE in carotid artery

  19. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kelly; Marcus Bradley; Ankur Srivastava

    2008-01-01

    A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA) and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was...

  20. Case of radiation induced aneurysm of extracranial carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Takashi; Ikota, Toshio; Yamashita, Kousuke; Kodama, Takao

    1988-08-01

    An unusual case of post-irradiation aneurysm of extracranial internal carotid artery is presented. A 70-year-old man, complaining of left cervical throbbing mass with focal pain, was admitted on February 8, 1985. It was noted, from his past history, that he had had surgery of the removal of cervical lymphnodes and that unknown dosage of irradiation had been added to the cervical region 30 years before. Left carotid angiography (on admission) demonstrated a giant aneurysm in the cervical portion of internal carotid artery. Right carotid angiography with compression of left carotid artery revealed good cross filling through anterior communicating artery. Computed tomography with contrast media showed a ring like enhanced mass, which was thought to suggest that a large part of the aneurysm was filled with intraluminal thrombosis. During 30 days of evaluation, the aneurysm grew larger and his cervical pain became untolerable. Operation, the resection of the aneurysm and the reconstruction (of circulation) with vein graft, was challenged on March 12. It was so difficult with meticulous work that the ligation of left common carotid artery was performed after all. Seven days after the operation, he suffered from the gastrointestinal bleeding, which was enough to lead him to hypovolemic shock. Thereafter, right hemiparesis and aphasia were brought about. Two months later, he died of pneumonia. On histological examination, it was demonstrated that the aneurysm communicated with the necrotic tissue and that the normal structure of the blood vessel was not observed in the aneurysmal wall and consisted of the collagenous fiber and granulated tissue. The aneurysm was interpreted as a false one.

  1. A case of radiation induced aneurysm of extracranial carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Takashi; Ikota, Toshio; Yamashita, Kousuke; Kodama, Takao

    1988-01-01

    An unusual case of post-irradiation aneurysm of extracranial internal carotid artery is presented. A 70-year-old man, complaining of left cervical throbbing mass with focal pain, was admitted on February 8, 1985. It was noted, from his past history, that he had had surgery of the removal of cervical lymphnodes and that unknown dosage of irradiation had been added to the cervical region 30 years before. Left carotid angiography (on admission) demonstrated a giant aneurysm in the cervical portion of internal carotid artery. Right carotid angiography with compression of left carotid artery revealed good cross filling through anterior communicating artery. Computed tomography with contrast media showed a ring like enhanced mass, which was thought to suggest that a large part of the aneurysm was filled with intraluminal thrombosis. During 30 days of evaluation, the aneurysm grew larger and his cervical pain became untolerable. Operation, the resection of the aneurysm and the reconstruction (of circulation) with vein graft, was challenged on March 12. It was so difficult with meticulous work that the ligation of left common carotid artery was performed after all. Seven days after the operation, he suffered from the gastrointestinal bleeding, which was enough to lead him to hypovolemic shock. Thereafter, right hemiparesis and aphasia were brought about. Two months later, he died of pneumonia. On histological examination, it was demonstrated that the aneurysm communicated with the necrotic tissue and that the normal structure of the blood vessel was not observed in the aneurysmal wall and consisted of the collagenous fiber and granulated tissue. The aneurysm was interpreted as a false one. (author)

  2. [CHANGES OF CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES IN PATENTS WITH ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND HEPATOBILIARY PATHOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, V Ya; Nikolaev, Yu A; Pegova, S V; Matsievskaya, T R; Obukhov, I V

    2016-01-01

    The study included 1172 patients (410 men and 762 women) at the mean age of 60.3 ± 10.4 years with grade I-II (stage I-II) arterial hypertension (AH) admitted to the clinic of Institute of Experimental Medicine. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the results of clinical and laboratory diagnostics. Group 1 (n = 525) included patients with AH and hepatobiliary system (HBS) diseases, group 2 (n = 647) patients with AH without HBS diseases. The patients group 1 had a thicker intima-media complex of carotid arteries, higher peak systolic bloodflow rate in the internal and vertebral carotid arteries, more pronounced coiling of internal carotid arteries than patients of group 2. Patients with AH and HBS diseases exhibited correlation between bloodflow rate in external carotid arteries and atherogenicity coefficient. Duplex scanning of neck vessels of in patients with AH without HBS diseases revealed peculiar changes of the intima-media thickness and hemodynamically significant changes of the blood flow in the internal carotid arteries that may be of prognostic value in this nosological syntropy and require the personified approach to diagnostics, treatment, and prevention of these conditions.

  3. Pituitary dysfunction from an unruptured ophthalmic internal carotid artery aneurysm with improved 2-year follow-up results: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Meng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA supraclinoid segment aneurysms extending into the sellar region and leading to pituitary dysfunction are a rare occurrence. To date, long-term follow up of pituitary function 2 years post-treatment has never been reported. Herein, we present a case of pituitary dysfunction due to an unruptured ophthalmic segment internal carotid artery aneurysm and report improved 2-year follow-up results. A 76-year-old male presented with disturbed consciousness due to hyponatremia, which was caused by hypoadrenocorticism resulting from pituitary dysfunction complicated by hypogonadism and hypothyroidism. Computed tomography angiography revealed an intracranial aneurysm of the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA with an intrasellar extension. Thus, digital subtraction angiography and coil embolization were performed, followed by hormone replacement therapy. A 2-year follow-up revealed a partial improvement in the pituitary function, including complete restoration of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and other thyroid hormones levels, and partial restoration of testosterone levels, followed by discontinuation of thyroid hormone replacement therapy. However, the mechanisms of such pituitary dysfunction and the effects of various treatments, including clipping and coiling, on different hormones of pituitary function recovery remain unclear. A long-term follow-up of >2 years may elucidate the pituitary function recovery post-treatment and provide a medication adjustment for hormone replacement therapy.

  4. Pituitary Dysfunction from an Unruptured Ophthalmic Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysm with Improved 2-year Follow-up Results: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Meng; Ye, Ming; Li, Meng; Zhang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) supraclinoid segment aneurysms extending into the sellar region and leading to pituitary dysfunction are a rare occurrence. To date, long-term follow up of pituitary function 2 years post-treatment has never been reported. Herein, we present a case of pituitary dysfunction due to an unruptured ophthalmic segment internal carotid artery aneurysm and report improved 2-year follow-up results. A 76-year-old male presented with disturbed consciousness due to hyponatremia, which was caused by hypoadrenocorticism resulting from pituitary dysfunction complicated by hypogonadism and hypothyroidism. Computed tomography angiography revealed an intracranial aneurysm of the ophthalmic segment of the right ICA with an intrasellar extension. Thus, digital subtraction angiography and coil embolization were performed, followed by hormone replacement therapy. A 2-year follow-up revealed a partial improvement in the pituitary function, including complete restoration of thyroid-stimulating hormone level and other thyroid hormones levels, and partial restoration of testosterone levels, followed by discontinuation of thyroid hormone replacement therapy. However, the mechanisms of such pituitary dysfunction and the effects of various treatments, including clipping and coiling, on different hormones of pituitary function recovery remain unclear. A long-term follow-up of >2 years may elucidate the pituitary function recovery post-treatment and provide a medication adjustment for hormone replacement therapy.

  5. Endoscopic endonasal approach for the treatment of a large clival giant cell tumor complicated by an intraoperative internal carotid artery rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacoangeli M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Iacoangeli,1 Alessandro Di Rienzo,1 Massimo Re,2 Lorenzo Alvaro,1 Niccolò Nocchi,1 Maurizio Gladi,1 Maurizio De Nicola,3 Massimo Scerrati11Department of Neurosurgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, Italy; 2Department of Ear, Nose, and Throat Surgery, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Interventional Radiology Section, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Umberto I General Hospital, Ancona, ItalyAbstract: Giant cell tumors (GCTs are primary bone neoplasms that rarely involve the skull base. These lesions are usually locally aggressive and require complete removal, including the surrounding apparently healthy bone, to provide the best chance of cure. GCTs, as well as other lesions located in the clivus, can nowadays be treated by a minimally invasive fully endoscopic extended endonasal approach. This approach ensures a more direct route to the craniovertebral junction than other possible approaches (transfacial, extended lateral, and posterolateral approaches. The case reported is a clival GCT operated on by an extended endonasal approach that provides another contribution on how to address one of the most feared complications attributed to this approach: a massive bleed due to an internal carotid artery injury.Keywords: clival giant cell tumor, endoscopic endonasal approach, internal carotid artery injury, minimally invasive surgery

  6. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of experimental internal carotid arterial thrombi in dogs with 99mTc-labelled monoclonal anti-activated platelet antibody SZ-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyao; Li Wen; He Guangren; Shao Guofu; Zhang Zhilin; Wu Jinchang

    1995-05-01

    The capacity of McAbSZ-51, which is specific for an α-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) expressed on the surface of activated platelets, to bind to the grafted human thrombus in rabbits was studied. The feasibility of imaging thrombus with 99m Tc-labelled McAbSZ-51 in the internal carotid artery of dog was also explored. The results showed that McAbSZ-51 could bind to the grafted human thrombus in rabbits. The thrombus in internal carotid artery was clearly discerned at 2 to 6 h after injection of 99m Tc-SZ-51, with the optimal imaging time at 2 to 4 h after injection. The radioactivity ratio of thrombus to blood was 6.03 +- 1.09 at 6 to 8 h after injection. It is thus concluded that by using the 99m Tc-labelled McAbSZ-51, the early and specific detection of thrombi formed in vivo was fairly possible and feasible. (3 figs., 1 tab.)

  7. Management of Extracranial Carotid Artery Aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleweerd, J. C.; den Ruijter, H. M.; Nelissen, B. G. L.; Bots, M. L.; Kappelle, L. J.; Rinkel, G. J. E.; Moll, F. L.; de Borst, G. J.

    Introduction: Aneurysms of the extracranial carotid artery (ECAA) are rare. Several treatments have been developed over the last 20 years, yet the preferred method to treat ECAA remains unknown. This paper is a review of all available literature on the risk of complications and long-term outcome

  8. Carotid artery revascularization : Surgical and endovascular developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, G.J. de

    2007-01-01

    Carotid artery revascularization. Surgical and endovascular developments. Stroke is among the most disabling chronic diseases and the third major cause of death in the Western world. In the Netherlands around 12 per 1000 inhabitants suffers a stroke, and in 2005 over 10.000 people died as a result

  9. Absent right common carotid artery associated with aberrant right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Uwabe, Kazuhiko; Osawa, Iichiro

    2018-06-01

    Rarely, the external and internal carotid arteries arise separately from the brachiocephalic trunk and right subclavian artery (SA) or the aortic arch and reflect the absence of a common carotid artery (CCA). We report a 45-year-old man with absent right CCA associated with aberrant right SA, an extremely rare combination, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography during follow-up for postoperative aortic dissection. Retrospective careful observation of preoperative postcontrast CT revealed the absent right CCA. Previously reported arch variations associated with absent CCA include cervical aortic arch, double aortic arch, and right aortic arch.

  10. Right retrograde brachial cerebral angiography with simultaneous compression of the left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, K.; Mosskin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Right retrograde brachial angiography with simultaneous compression of the left common carotid artery was performed in 12 patients, invariably resulting in filling of the right vertebral and the basilar artery. In all but one patient, the right carotid artery and its branches were also filled. Retrograde filling of the left internal carotid artery occurred in 8 patients. Furthermore, retrograde filling of the intracranial part of the left vertebral artery was obtained in 5 of 12 patients. A complete four-vessel cranial angiography was thus obtained in one third of the patients. The method may be considered as a safe and valuable adjunct to other angiographic techniques. (Auth.)

  11. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  12. A case of Behcet's disease with aneurysms of common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Myung; Chang, Kee Hyun; Choi, Sung Jae

    1984-01-01

    One case of Behcet's disease with multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta is presented with brief review of the literatures. A 26-year-old woman had slowly enlarging pulsatile masses in both sides of neck and recurrent ulcerations in oral cavity and genitalia. One day prior to admission, aphasia, right facial nerve palsy and right hemiplegia suddenly developed. Brain CT showed acute infarction in left basal ganglia. Both Carotid Angiography and abdominal Aortography demonstrated multiple aneurysms in both common carotid arteries and abdominal aorta with organizing thrombi and thromboembolism of internal carotid artery

  13. Results of subclavian to carotid artery bypass for occlusive disease of the common carotid artery: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calio, Francesco G; Masci, Federica; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Peschillo, Simone

    2018-05-01

    Optimal treatment of significant atherosclerosis of the common carotid artery (CCA) is not well-defined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of prosthetic subclavian to carotid bypass for occlusive disease of the CCA. From January 1994 to December 2015, 45 patients, mean age 67 years, underwent an ipsilateral subclavian to carotid bypass for occlusive disease of the CCA. Thirty-eight patients (84%) presented with neurologic symptoms, including transitory ischemic attacks in 29 cases and minor strokes in 9 cases. The graft material consisted of a 7 mm polytetrafluoroethylene conduit, and the distal anastomosis was done on the carotid bulb in 21 patients, on the internal carotid artery in 19 cases, and on the distal CCA in 5 cases. Median length of follow-up was 58 months. Study endpoints were the combined postoperative stroke/mortality rate, graft infection, overall late survival, freedom from ipsilateral stroke, and graft patency. Postoperative stroke/mortality rate was 2%. No graft infection was observed throughout follow-up. At 60 months, overall survival, freedom from stroke, and graft patency were 71% (standard error [SE] = 0.07), 98% (SE = 0.02), and 95.5% (SE = 0.06), respectively. Subclavian to carotid bypass allows very good patency rates and excellent protection from postoperative and late stroke, remaining a benchmark for any other treatment method. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The selective external carotid arterial embolization treatment of uncontrollable epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Qunli; Liu Yizhi; Ni Caifang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the selective external carotid arterial embolization of uncontrollable epistaxis. Methods: 27 procedures of super-selective external carotid arterial embolization were performed with absorbable gelfoam by using Seldinger's method in 26 cases with uncontrollable epistaxis. Results: 27 procedures of super-selective intra-arterial embolization of uncontrollable epistaxis were all successful without any serious complication. Conclusions: Selective external carotid arterial embolization is safe, effective and successful in the treatment of severe epistaxis. (authors)

  15. Increased common carotid artery wall thickness is associated with rapid progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diomedi, Marina; Scacciatelli, Daria; Misaggi, Giulia; Balestrini, Simona; Balucani, Clotilde; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Di Legge, Silvia; Stanzione, Paolo; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify clinical and ultrasound imaging predictors of progression of carotid luminal narrowing in subjects with asymptomatic moderate internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. A total of 571 subjects with asymptomatic moderate (50-69%) ICA stenoses were enrolled. They underwent ultrasound examination at baseline and after 12 months. Demographics, vascular risk factors, medications, plaque characteristics (surface and echogenicity) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were collected. At the follow-up examination, any change of ICA stenosis was graded in three categories (i) ≥70% to near occlusion, (ii) near occlusion, and (iii) occlusion. Progression of stenosis was defined as an increase in the stenosis degree by at least one category from baseline to follow-up. At 12 months, progression occurred in 142 subjects (prevalence rate 25%). At the multivariable logistic model, pathological IMT values (considered as binary variable: normal: ≤1 mm vs. pathologic: >1 mm) significantly predicted the risk for plaque progression after adjusting the model for possible confounders (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.18-4.43, P = .014, multivariable logistic model). Our results confirm the role of carotid wall thickening as a marker of atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT measurement should be considered to implement risk stratification in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease.

  16. Efficacy of Carotid Artery Stenting by the Universal Protection Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Shunsaku; Ohshima, Tomotaka; Kato, Kyozo; Izumi, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2018-04-18

    To avoid distal plaques embolization during carotid artery stenting, we developed Universal Protection Method that combined the use of a proximal common carotid artery balloon, an external carotid artery balloon, and a distal internal carotid artery filter, with continuous flow reversal to the femoral vein. Herein, we assessed the efficacy of the Universal Protection Method by comparing stenting outcomes before and after its introduction. We assessed outcomes for 115 cases before and 41 cases after the Universal Protection Method was adopted (non-Universal Protection Method and Universal Protection Method groups, respectively). We then compared procedure details, magnetic resonance imaging (within 48 hours after the procedure), intraprocedural complications, and postoperative stroke rates. Ischemic stroke was not observed in the Universal Protection Method group, but 1 major stroke and 2 minor strokes were observed in the non-Universal Protection Method group. High-intensity areas were seen in 6 (15.0%) and 49 (42.6%) cases in the Universal Protection Method and non-Universal Protection Method groups, respectively (P = .001). Contrastingly, intraprocedural complications were observed in 9 (22.5%) and 21 (18.3%) cases in the Universal Protection Method and non-Universal Protection Method groups, respectively. Among these intraprocedural complication cases, high-intensity areas were observed in 1 case (11.1%) in the Universal Protection Method group and in 15 cases (71.4%) in the non-Universal Protection Method group. Universal Protection Method is a safe technique that is applicable to all patients undergoing carotid artery stenting, irrespective of individual risk factors. Notably, the incidence rates of both distal embolization and unexpected intraprocedural complications are low. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Models of experimental saccular aneurysms of carotid arteries in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haixia; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Minghua

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the availability by making experimental saccular aneurysm models of carotid arteries in canine similar to human intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Twenty healthy canines with experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries were created successfully by surgery. Results: Forty experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries were created successfully with 36 aneurysms and parent arteries maintaining patency with each other and four spontaneously occluded confirmed by angiography. Model successful rate reached 90%. Conclusions: Experimental saccular side-wall aneurysms of carotid arteries in canines were one of best models created for simulating human intracranial aneurysms. (authors)

  18. Idiopathic multiple aneurysm of external carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysms of external carotid artery are rare. Treatments for these are undertaken for the prevention of complications like hemorrhage or rupture, and embolism. We present a 71-year-old male with idiopathic multiple aneurysm for the past 34 years on conservative management and regular follow up for the past 4 years. This case was discussed for the rarity of idiopathic multiple aneurysm of the external carotid artery and the need for individualized treatment protocol to be followed as in this case, only watchful observation considering the age and patient compliance. In this world of evolving surgical techniques and newer treatment modalities, conservative treatment still has a role to play. Primary care physicians at the community level have a major role in following these patients and referring them as and when the need arises.

  19. [Revascularization of the carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Bezzi, M; D'Urso, A; Giacobbi, D; Ceccanei, G; Vietri, F

    2004-01-01

    From January 1994 to July 2004, 323 patients underwent 348 revascularization of carotid bifurcation for atherosclerotic stenoses. Eighty eight patients (group A) were 75 year-old or older, whereas 235 (group B) were younger than 75 years. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was 1% in group A, and 1.4% in group B. At 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 91% and 92% in group A, and 89% and 91% in group B. None of these differences was statistically significant. In the same time period, 26 internal carotid arteries were revascularized in 24 patients, 75 or more aged, for a symptomatic kinking. Postoperative mortality/morbidity rate was absent, whereas, at 5 years, patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were, respectively, 88% and 92%. Twelve vertebral arteries were revascularized in 12 patients, 75 or more aged, for invalidating symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Postoperative mortality/neurologic morbidity rate was absent. In one case postoperative recurrence of symptoms occurred, despite a patent revascularization. Patency and freedom from symptoms/stroke were 84% and 75%, at 5 years. Revascularization of carotid and vertebral arteries in the elderly can be accomplished with good results, superposable to those of standard revascularization of carotid bifurcation in a younger patients' population.

  20. Obesity and carotid artery remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, M; Palombo, C; Morizzo, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) might represent not only preclinical atherosclerosis but an adaptive remodeling meant to preserve circumferential wall stress (CWS) in altered hemodynamic conditions...... and CCA LD (266 healthy subjects with wide range of body weight (24-159 kg)); (B) longitudinal associations between CCA LD and 3-year IMT progression rate (ΔIMT; 571 healthy non-obese subjects without increased cardiovascular (CV) risk); (C) the impact of obesity on CCA geometry and CWS (88 obese subjects...... without CV complications and 88 non-obese subjects matched for gender and age). RESULTS: CCA LD was independently associated with SV that was determined by body size. In the longitudinal study, baseline LD was an independent determinant of ΔIMT, and ΔIMT of subjects in the highest LD quartile...

  1. Operative management of penetrating carotid artery injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2011-07-01

    To analyse management and outcomes of carotid artery (CA) injuries. Retrospective study of the patients in the combat operations in Chechnya (1999-2002) and in peacetime (2003-2009). A total of 46 patients with missile (27) and stab (19) wounds, who had common and internal CA injury, underwent an open surgery. Temporary shunts (TSs) were placed in eight patients with more severe injuries. Retrospective analysis of patients' data. CA ligation and CA repair were performed in 9 and 37 patients, respectively. Of the nine patients with CA ligation, five developed neurologic deficit; the remaining four patients died (100% of poor outcomes). Of the 37 patients with blood flow restoration, nine patients died and neurologic deficit persisted in two patients (30% of poor outcomes) (p < 0.05). Among patients with TS, three patients died and two had stable neurologic deficit (63% of poor results). Of the patients without TS, 10 patients died and five had neurologic disorders (56% of poor outcomes) (p = 0.53). CA repair is the method of choice in CA injury. TS use does not result in a decreased mortality rate or neurologic deficit reduction in patients with severe injuries. Copyright © 2011 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Delayed presentation of carotid artery dissection following major orthopaedic trauma resulting in dense hemiparesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Edmundson, S P

    2012-01-31

    We report a 30-year-old patient who was involved in a high-velocity road traffic accident and developed a left-sided hemiparesis, which was noted in the post-operative period following bilateral femoral intramedullary nailing. CT scanning of the brain revealed infarcts in the right frontal and parietal lobes in the distribution of the right middle cerebral artery. CT angiography showed occlusion of the right internal carotid artery consistent with internal carotid artery dissection. He was anticoagulated and nine months later was able to walk independently. An awareness of this injury is needed to diagnose blunt trauma to the internal carotid artery. Even in the absence of obvious neck trauma, carotid artery dissection should be suspected in patients with a neurological deficit in the peri-operative period.

  3. A Case of Pseudoaneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery Following Endoscopic Endonasal Pituitary Surgery: Endovascular Treatment with Flow-Diverting Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karadag

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Internal carotid artery (ICA pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of endoscopic endonasal surgery occurring in 0.4–1.1% of cases. Pseudoaneurysms can subsequently result in other complications, such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, epistaxis, and caroticocavernous fistula with resultant death or permanent neurologic deficit. In this case, we illustrate endovascular treatment with a flow-diverting stent for an ICA pseudoaneurysm after endoscopic endonasal surgery for a pituitary adenoma in a 56-year-old male. Surgery was complicated by excessive intraoperative bleeding and emergent CT angiography confirmed an iatrogenic pseudoaneurysm on the anteromedial surface of the ICA. The pseudoaneurysm was treated endovascularly with flow-diverting stent implantation only. Follow-up CT angiography after three months demonstrated occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm.

  4. Delayed Cerebral Ischemia following to Repair of Penetrating Trauma to External Carotid artery Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eskandarlou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Penetrating trauma to anterior neck can induce cerebral ischemia due to carotid artery injury. Brain ischemia also can present after surgical carotid repairs. Early diagnosis and suitable treatment modality prevent from permanent neurologic deficit post operatively. Case Report: A 30 years old man with stab wound to zone two left side of neck underwent exploration and penrose insertion. Due to excessive bleeding through drain tube, patient was transferred to Besat Hospital of Hamadan. Surgical repair of external carotid artery successfully was done. Four days later patient developed right hemiparesis suddenly. According to MRI and color Doppler sonography finding of thrombosis of left common and internal carotid artery, reoperation was done. After thrombectomy cerebral ischemia and hemi-paralysis improved. Conclusions: Surgical approach to symptomatic penetrating neck trauma is oblique cervical incision, control of bleeding, repair of internal carotid, repair or ligature of external carotid artery base on some factors and preferential repair of internal jugular vein. Meticulous and fine surgical technique for both vascular repair and protection of adjacent normal vessels for avoiding to blunt trauma or compression with retractors is noticeable. Exact postoperative care as repeated clinical examination with goal of early diagnosis of internal carotid artery thrombosis and rapid diagnostic and treatment planning of this complication are important factors for taking of good result in treatment of penetrating trauma to carotid. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :353-357

  5. Constructing canine carotid artery stenosis model by endovascular technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guangsen; Liu Yizhi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish a carotid artery stenosis model by endovascular technique suitable for neuro-interventional therapy. Methods: Twelve dogs were anesthetized, the unilateral segments of the carotid arteries' tunica media and intima were damaged by a corneous guiding wire of home made. Twenty-four carotid artery stenosis models were thus created. DSA examination was performed on postprocedural weeks 2, 4, 8, 10 to estimate the changes of those stenotic carotid arteries. Results: Twenty-four carotid artery stenosis models were successfully created in twelve dogs. Conclusions: Canine carotid artery stenosis models can be created with the endovascular method having variation of pathologic characters and hemodynamic changes similar to human being. It is useful for further research involving the new technique and new material for interventional treatment. (authors)

  6. Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis on MR angiography: a university hospital-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Kaiji [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Rarely in the anterior circulation, an anastomosis of the carotid and anterior cerebral arteries occurs when an anomalous branch arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery and anastomoses with the A1-A2 junction of the anterior communicating artery. Right-side predominance is known. To our knowledge, the incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis has not been reported, so we researched cases in our institution records to determine incidence and investigated characteristic features of the condition on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. To isolate such cases, we retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiographic images of 3,491 consecutive patients in our institution. We found three cases with carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis (two men, one woman), representing an incidence of 0.086%. The anastomosis was on the right in all three cases. A normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was present in two cases but could not be identified in the remaining case on MR angiographic images that included source images. Two of the three patients demonstrated associated arterial variations in their carotid systems. On MR angiography, we observed a 0.086% incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis in our institution and reaffirmed the right-side predominance of this anomaly. We found a high frequency of other associated arterial variations in the carotid system. (orig.)

  7. Detection of hemodynamic impairment using magnetic resonance angiography in patients with internal carotid artery stenoocclusive disease. Comparison with quantitative brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Ryonoshin; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamideis a key parameter in determining the severity of hemodynamic impairment in patients with major cerebral artery occlusive disease. The aim of the present study is to validate the accuracy of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) for detecting hemodynamic impairment by correlating detectability of the middle cerebral artery obtained by MRA with CVR measured by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusive disease. Ninety-four patients with chronic ICA occlusion underwent single slab three-dimensional time-of-flight MRA and SPECT. SPECT-CVR was calculated by measured cerebral blood flow before and after acetazolamide challenge. CVR was significantly lower in patients without detection of any portion (M1, M2 or M3) of the MCA than in those with detection of all portions. When SPECT-CVR lower than the mean- 2 standard deviation (SD) obtained in normal subjects was defined as reduced and the SPECT-CVR was assumed as the true determinant of hemodynamic impairment, MRA provided 92% sensitivity and 73% specificity, with 96% negative predictive value for detecting patients with reduced CVR. The present MRA method is effective for the identification of patients with hemodynamic impairment. (author)

  8. Prevalence of significant carotid artery stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabili K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abolhassan Shakeri Bavil1, Kamyar Ghabili2, Seyed Ebrahim Daneshmand3, Masoud Nemati3, Moslem Shakeri Bavil4, Hossein Namdar5, Sheyda Shaafi61Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Radiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Department of Cardiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 6Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Generalized screening for carotid artery stenosis with carotid duplex ultrasonography in patients with peripheral arterial disease is controversial.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of significant internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis in a group of Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease.Methods: We prospectively screened 120 patients with a known diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease for carotid artery stenosis. Based on the angiographic assessment of abdominal aorta and arteries of the lower extremities, patients with stenosis greater than 70% in the lower extremity arteries were included. A group of healthy individuals aged ≥50 years was recruited as a control. Risk factors for atherosclerosis including smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were recorded. Common carotid arteries (CCAs and the origins of the internal and external arteries were scanned with B-mode ultrasonogaphy. Significant ICA stenosis, >70% ICA stenosis but less than near occlusion of the ICA, was diagnosed when the ICA/CCA peak systolic velocity ratio was ≥3.5.Results: Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 58.52 ± 11.04 years, were studied. Twenty-five patients had a history of smoking, six

  9. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  10. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  11. Bilateral blunt carotid artery injury: A case report and review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-02

    May 2, 2013 ... We report a case of bilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) injury ... There are no definitive management guidelines regarding this type of injury, and our report .... Cervical bruit in patient <50 years of age ... Cervical spine fracture.

  12. Cerebral Ischemia Due to Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Kamacı Şener; Özlem Taşkapılıoğlu; Nermin Kelebek Girgin; Bahattin Hakyemez; Mustafa Bakar; Yakup Tomak

    2012-01-01

    Blunt injury to the neck region may lead to carotid artery dissection and cerebral ischemia. Blunt injury to carotid artery is not frequent but determination of the presence of trauma in the history of stroke patients will provide early diagnosis and treatment of them. In this article, a case with cerebral ischemia resulting from traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented and clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and choice of treatment are discussed in the light of the literature.

  13. Cerebral Ischemia Due to Traumatic Carotid Artery Dissection: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Kamacı Şener

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury to the neck region may lead to carotid artery dissection and cerebral ischemia. Blunt injury to carotid artery is not frequent but determination of the presence of trauma in the history of stroke patients will provide early diagnosis and treatment of them. In this article, a case with cerebral ischemia resulting from traumatic carotid artery dissection is presented and clinical findings, diagnostic procedures and choice of treatment are discussed in the light of the literature.

  14. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in patients with severe peripheral vascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Mirsharifi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis (CAS in the  eneral population is not high enough to justify screening programs. This study was done to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis (ACAS among patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD.
    • METHODS: Between March 2005 and February 2006, 54 consecutive  atients with severe PVD admitted at a vascular surgery unit and underwent carotid duplex scanning in a prospective study. A  uestionnaire was used to collect data concerning known risk factors. Significant CAS was defined as a stenosis of 70% or greater.
    • RESULTS: The mean age was 62.5 years (51-72. Out of 54 patients, 2 (3.7% had an occluded internal carotid artery. Significant CAS was found in 9 (16.7% and its presence was correlated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery disease, severity of symptoms, ankle-brachial index, and carotid bruit. On multivariate analysis, only hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit seemed to have independent influence.
    • CONCLUSION: The prevalence of significant ACAS is higher among  atients with severe PVD. This patient population may indicate a  uitable subgroup for screening of ACAS, especially when hypercholesterolemia and carotid bruit are present.
    • KEYWORDS: Carotid artery stenosis, duplex ultrasound scanning, peripheral vascular disease, carotid endarterectomy,
    • cerebrovascular accident.

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  3. Bilateral Carotid Artery Dissection after High Impact Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A 58 year old man was involved in a high impact road traffic incident and was admitted for observation. Asymptomatic for the first 24 hours, he collapsed with symptoms and signs consistent with a cerebrovascular accident. Computed tomography angiogram (CTA and Magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA demonstrated bilateral internal carotid artery dissections and a left middle cerebral artery infarct. It was not considered appropriate to attempt stenting or other revascularistation. The patient was treated with heparin prior to starting warfarin. He made a partial recovery and was discharged to a rehabilitation facility. This case is a reminder of carotid dissection as an uncommon but serious complication of high speed motor vehicle accident, which may be silent initially. Literature Review suggests risk stratification before relevant radiological screening at risk patients. Significant advances in CTA have made it the diagnostic tool of choice, but ultrasound is an important screening tool.

  4. Acute Carotid Artery Stent Thrombosis Due to Dual Antiplatelet Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köklü, Erkan; Arslan, Şakir; Yüksel, İsa Öner; Bayar, Nermin; Koç, Pınar

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a revascularization modality that is an alternative to carotid endarterectomy. The efficacy of CAS in primary and secondary prevention from ischemic stroke has been demonstrated in various trials. Acute thrombosis of CAS is a rare complication that can lead to dramatic and catastrophic consequences. We discuss a case of acute CAS thrombosis in a patient who had previously undergone successful CAS. CAS was performed in a 73-year-old man who had had dysarthria lasting 2 weeks with 95 % stenosis in his left internal carotid artery. An acute cerebrovascular event resulting in right-sided hemiplegia developed 24 h after the procedure. Computed tomographic carotid angiography revealed complete occlusion of the stent with thrombus. The cause of stent thrombosis was thought to be antiaggregant resistance to both acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel. The most important cause of acute CAS thrombosis is inadequate or ineffective antiaggregant therapy. Evaluating patients who are candidates for CAS for acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel resistance may preclude this complication

  5. Hemodynamic study of cervical carotid arteries using DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Masayuki; Araki, Osamu; Matsunaga, Morio; Shigeyasu, Makio

    1986-01-01

    Although intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IVDSA) has been widely utilized as a means of morphological examination for the detection of intracranial or extracranial vascular lesions, it has thus for contributed little to quantitative assessment in hemodynamics. In the present study, a fundamental analysis of the hemodynamics on the cervical carotid artery was performed with a relative perfusion efficiency (Rath et al., 1979). This was not related to the measurement of time, such as the mean transit time, but was based on Sapirstein's principle. After the intravenous administration of the contrast material, dynamic DSA was performed using our equipment, Shimadzu DAR-100. After setting the region of interest in common carotid arteries on DSA images by means of a microdensitometer (Sakura PDS-15) combined with a computer (NEC ACOS-460), time-density curves were obtained on both sides. Thereafter, the RPE was calculated as a ratio of two integrals from the zero time to the earlier peak time of the time-density curves with respect to the time. The flow model with the hydro-dynamic system was used to detect the relationship between the RPEs and the ratios of the actual flows in the system. The results of this experiment showed a high correlation between the RPEs and the flows (r = 0.85, p < 0.001). In normal subjects (n = 28), the mean of the RPEs was 1.07 ± 0.27 (S.D.). The RPEs showed significantly lower values in the 5 patients with severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery (0.76 ± 0.15, p < 0.02), as well as even more significantly lower values in the 9 patients with a complete occlusion of the internal carotid artery (0.64 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The RPE measurement with IVDSA has been shown to be useful for recognizing the cervical hemodynamic changes in patients with occlusive cervicovascular disease. (author)

  6. Reconstruction of Injured Carotid Artery in a Comatose Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Zenelaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A man 30 years old,was brought to the emergency department after being injured on the left side of the neck area.Massive bleeding from the wound caused by glass was observed.The patient was in cerebral coma and hemorrahagic shock.The eye pupils remained isochoric during and after the operation.He was taken immediately at the surgery room.The bleeding was stopped by using external compression.Exposure of the left neck blood vessels was carried out.The left common carotid artery and internal jugular vein was revealed.A provisory Pruitt-Inahara shunt was put in the common carotid artery,while teh injured vein was ligated.The suture of the left common carotid artery using Prolen 6-0 completed the procedure.After the surgery the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit.About two hours later he woke up,conscious.The left thoracic drainage because of the hemothorax was applied in the second postoperative day.The patient was lively and discharged from the hospitall in the 14-th postoperative day.The right facial paresis and mild left side hemiparesis persisted.Two months after the event no residual neurologic deficits were observed. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 598-601

  7. Cerebral Perfusion Long Term after Therapeutic Occlusion of the Internal Carotid Artery in Patients Who Tolerated Angiographic Balloon Test Occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gevers, S.; Heijtel, D.; Ferns, S. P.; van Ooij, P.; van Rooij, W. J.; van Osch, M. J.; van den Berg, R.; Nederveen, A. J.; Majoie, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Therapeutic carotid occlusion is an established technique for treatment of large and giant aneurysms of the (CA, in patients with synchronous venous filling on angiography during BTO. Concern remains that hemodynamic alterations after permanent occlusion will predispose the

  8. Bayes Clustering and Structural Support Vector Machines for Segmentation of Carotid Artery Plaques in Multicontrast MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Guan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate segmentation of carotid artery plaque in MR images is not only a key part but also an essential step for in vivo plaque analysis. Due to the indistinct MR images, it is very difficult to implement the automatic segmentation. Two kinds of classification models, that is, Bayes clustering and SSVM, are introduced in this paper to segment the internal lumen wall of carotid artery. The comparative experimental results show the segmentation performance of SSVM is better than Bayes.

  9. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakstad, P.; Bakke, S.J.; Kjartansson, O.; Nyhus, S.

    1986-01-01

    A cross-over test in intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) of the carotid arteries was performed in 50 patients to evaluate image quality and side-effects with iohexol and metrizoate injected at concentrations of 100 mg I/ml by hand. The image quality was excellent or good in all cases. Although the severity and the frequency of side-effects were higher with metrizoate, both contrast media were suitable for IADSA at this low concentration. No complications were seen. It was assumed that the risk with IADSA was less than that of conventional-selectivity and with small amounts of contrast media, as in this study. (orig.)

  10. Safety of Carotid Artery Stenting in Elderly Patients with Severe Carotid Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seul Kee; Kim, Seul Kee; Jeong, Min Young; Yoon, Woong

    2012-01-01

    To determine the safety of carotid artery stenting (CAS) using an emboli-protection device in elderly patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. Ninety consecutive patients who were at high risk for carotid endarterectomy underwent protected CAS using an emboli-protection device. Patients were divided into two groups by age: < 70 and ≥ 70. The primary outcome measure was the combined incidence of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), and death within 30 days of CAS. The secondary outcome measures were technical success and hyperperfusion syndrome. Associations between age and the clinical outcomes were investigated. Overall, 30-day stroke, MI, and death rates were 6.7%. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the older age group (n = 56) and younger age group (n = 34) (8.9% and 2.9%, respectively; HR for age ≥ 70, 1.141; 95% CI, 0.875 to 1.488, p = 0.331). A logistic regression showed there was no independent variable associated with primary outcome. Technical success was achieved in all patients and there was no significant difference in the incidence of hyperperfusion syndrome between the two age groups. The results of this study suggest that protected CAS seems to be safe in elderly patients with severe carotid artery stenosis.

  11. Artefacts at a glance: differentiating features of artefactual stenosis from true stenosis at the genu of the petrous internal carotid artery on TOF MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.K.; Ahn, K.J.; Jang, J.H.; Choi, H.S.; Jung, S.L.; Kim, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the distinguishing features of artefactual stenosis from true stenosis at the genu of the petrous internal carotid artery (ICA) on time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Materials and methods: Both TOF MRA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were performed in 65 patients with 74 vessels who demonstrated artefactual stenosis in 43 patients with 50 vessels and true stenosis in 22 patients with 24 vessels. The following findings of the signal loss were compared between the two groups: (1) margin, (2) darkness, (3) the presence of bilaterality, (4) the presence of tandem arterial stenosis, (5) the location of the epicentre, and (6) length. Results: In five out of the six evaluated items, statistically significant differences were present between the two groups (p<0.00 in all five items). Artefactual stenosis more frequently showed signal loss with ill-defined margins (47/50), less darkness compared to the background darkness (46/50), the absence of tandem arterial stenosis (35/50), epicentre at the genu (34/50), and shorter length (2.57 ± 0.68 mm). No significant difference was noted in the presence of bilaterality of signal loss between the two groups (p=0.706). Conclusion: Several MRA features can be useful for suggesting artefactual stenosis rather than true stenosis at the genu of the petrous ICA on TOF MRA. - Highlights: • TOF MRA is increasingly used for the noninvasive evaluation for imaging the cerebrovascular system. • We investigated several artifacts at the genu of petrous ICA on TOF MRA to prevent misinterpretations as true stenosis. • Short segmental, ill-defined, less dark defect at the epicenter of genu without tandem stenosis is more likely an artifact.

  12. Effective imaging of carotid artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradovis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Angiography has been the gold standard in the diagnosis of arterial dissection for many years. With recent advances in techniques, particularly in MRI it may be worthy to re-evaluate the imaging methods available in obtaining the most information to maxims the patients' level of management. Assessing the imaging methods used in four patients with clinically suspected carotid artery dissection may reveal the most appropriate clinical pathway in managing these types of patients. In today's economic environment, we are striving for the most cost-effective imaging methods combined with the least invasive and safest. We must also review the cost benefit analysis of CT, angiography (DSA), Doppler Ultrasound and MRI/MRA. It is not within the scope of this paper to argue the merits of each imaging method, but purely to present some of the benefits in using non-invasive techniques if the clinical indications warrant them and they are available. (author)

  13. Long-term results after carotid artery stenting. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting using self-expandable stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yasushi; Furui, Eisuke; Tsuboi, Ken; Takahashi, Akira; Ezura, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting has emerged as an acceptable treatment alternative in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Although early clinical results of carotid artery stenting have shown promise, long, term clinical results remain less certain. We report the frequency, management, and clinical results of in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting using a self-expandable stent. Between August 1998 and September 2004, 80 carotid artery stenting procedures in 78 patients were performed. We evaluated 76 of the 80 procedures in 75 of the 78 patients treated during this period who had a minimum 6-month clinical and imaging (ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance angiography) follow-up. Recurrent stenosis (≥50%) after carotid artery stenting occurred in 3 (3.9%) patients. The recurrent stenosis occurred within one year after the procedure in all cases. The low rate of in-stent restenosis using self-expandable stent suggested that carotid artery stenting may be an effective alternative treatment for carotid artery stenosis, but more data of long-term follow-up are required. (author)

  14. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, L.H.; Dobson, J.; Featherstone, R.L.; Ederle, J.; Worp, H.B. van der; Borst, G.J. de; Mali, W.P.; Beard, J.D.; Cleveland, T.; Engelter, S.T.; Lyrer, P.A.; Ford, G.A.; Dorman, P.J.; Brown, M.M.; Leeuw, F.E. de; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic carotid

  15. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonati, Leo H.; Dobson, Joanna; Featherstone, Roland L.; Ederle, Jörg; van der Worp, H. Bart; de Borst, Gert J.; Mali, Willem P. Th M.; Beard, Jonathan D.; Cleveland, Trevor; Engelter, Stefan T.; Lyrer, Philippe A.; Ford, Gary A.; Dorman, Paul J.; Brown, Martin M.; Bamford, J.; Beard, J.; Bland, M.; Bradbury, A. W.; Brown, M. M.; Hacke, W.; Halliday, A.; Malik, I.; Mas, J. L.; McGuire, A. J.; Sidhu, P.; Venables, G.; Clifton, A.; Gaines, P.; Collins, R.; Molyneux, A.; Naylor, R.; Warlow, C.; Ferro, J. M.; Thomas, D.; Coward, L.; Dobson, J.; Doig, D.; Ederle, J.; Featherstone, R. F.; Kennedy, F.; Tindall, H.; Turner, E.; McCabe, D. J. H.; Wallis, A.; Brooks, M.; Chambers, B.; Koelemay, M. J. W.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Reekers, J. A. A.; Roos, Y. B. W. E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Stenting is an alternative to endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis, but long-term efficacy is uncertain. We report long-term data from the randomised International Carotid Stenting Study comparison of these treatments. Methods Patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis

  16. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography in screening for carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keberle, M; Jenett, M; Beissert, M; Jahns, R; Haerten, R; Hahn, D

    2000-01-01

    Color Doppler sonography has gained considerable recognition as a noninvasive method to detect carotid artery disease and to assess the degree of carotid artery stenosis. However, results are highly operator-dependent and cannot be presented as survey images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate real-time 3-dimensional (3D) power Doppler sonography as a method for screening for atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. We prospectively screened 75 patients for carotid artery disease using both conventional color Doppler sonography and 3D power Doppler sonography, and the results from the 2 modalities were compared. A total of 150 common carotid arteries, 150 internal carotid arteries, and 150 external carotid arteries were examined utilizing a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer combined with tissue harmonic imaging. Color Doppler sonography detected 297 normal or atherosclerotic arteries without stenosis, 57 arteries with mild (1-49%) stenosis, 41 with moderate (50-69%) stenosis, 32 with severe (70-99%) stenosis, and 9 with occlusions. The degree of stenosis determined by color Doppler sonography correlated with that determined by 3D power Doppler sonography (r = 0.982-0.998). Moreover, there was a good correlation between the measurements for both the length of the lesion and its distance from the bulb as determined by the 3D volume surveys and by color Doppler sonography (r = 0.986). The interobserver variability rate was 3.7% +/- 0.5%. Generally, the acquisition and reconstruction of the 3D data took less than 5 minutes. 3D power Doppler sonography is easy to perform and is an accurate method in screening for atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries. Moreover, it provides excellent 3D volume surveys that may be helpful in the planning of surgical treatment. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. The prevalence of carotid artery stenosis in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, M A; Killewich, L A; Kolodner, L; Powell, C C; Metz, M; Sawyer, R; Lilly, M P; Benjamin, M E; Flinn, W R

    1999-09-01

    Coronary artery disease occurs frequently in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction, and it has been presumed that internal carotid artery occlusive disease is also common. This has led to the practice of screening for and repairing significant carotid lesions in asymptomatic patients prior to aortic reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the true prevalence of internal carotid artery disease in these patients. The records of 240 patients who underwent duplex ultrasound screening for carotid artery disease prior to aortic reconstruction were reviewed. Surgery was performed for aortic aneurysm (AA) or aorto-iliac occlusive disease (AO). The prevalence of hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease was similar between the two groups, but tobacco use, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus differed. Internal carotid artery stenosis > or = 50% occurred in 26.7% of the total group (64 of 240 cases). Stenosis > or = 50% was more common in the AO group (40 of 101 cases, 39.6%) than the AA group (24 of 139 cases, 17.3%, P = 0.0001). Severe disease (70% to 99%) was also more common in the AO group than the AA group (9.9% versus 3.6%, P = 0.0464). Internal carotid artery disease occurs commonly in patients undergoing aortic reconstruction, and screening is worthwhile. Significant disease is more common in patients with aorto-iliac occlusive disease than in those with aortic aneurysm, although atherosclerotic risk factors occur with varying frequency in the two groups. These findings suggest that additional factors may contribute to the higher prevalence of internal carotid artery stenosis in aorto-iliac occlusive disease.

  18. Atheromatous extracranial carotid arteries: CT evaluation correlated with arteriography and pathologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeson, M.D.; Cacayorin, E.D.; Iliya, A.R.; Hodge, C.J.; Culebras, A.; Collins, G.H.; Kieffer, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic, rapid sequence, axial computed tomography (CT) was employed to evaluate the extracranial common and internal carotid arteries in 17 patients with clinical histories suggesting recent or remote ischemia in the territory supplied by the internal carotid artery. The CT findings were correlated with arteriographic observations and with gross and histologic evaluations of endarterectomy specimens. Areas of arterial wall thickening were evaluated on CT scans with regard to both degree of thickening and radiographic density (attenuation). The degree of vessel wall thickening secondary to atheromatous plaque demonstrated on CT scans corresponded closely to the severity of luminal compromise seen on arteriograms. While arteriography provides information regarding the status of the arterial lumen, CT offers the potential of accurate characterization of pathologic changes in the wall of the extracranial carotid arteries in patients with symptoms of cerebral ischemia

  19. Fusiform dilatation of the internal carotid artery in childhood-onset craniopharyngioma: multicenter study on incidence and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Anika; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Daubenbüchel, Anna M M; Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Müller, Hermann L

    2016-08-01

    Fusiform dilatations of the internal carotid artery (FDCA) represent a vascular complication following surgery for suprasellar tumors in children. Incidence rate and long-term prognosis of FDCA in terms of survival rates, vascular complications, and quality of survival are unknown for patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 583 patients with childhood-onset craniopharyngioma, recruited from 2001 to 2015 in the German Childhood Craniopharyngioma Registry, were reviewed for FDCA. Risk factors for FDCA and long-term outcome after FDCA were analyzed. Fourteen of 583 patients (2.4 %) developed FDCA based on reference assessment of MRI. FDCA occurred ipsilateral to the surgical approach and was not related to degree of resection, hypothalamic involvement, or irradiation. The median time interval between first detection of FDCA and initial surgery was 0.79 years (range 0.01-5.56 years). During a median follow-up of 6.47 years (range 1.2-21.9 years) after first detection of FDCA, no bleeding or cerebrovascular events were observed in any patient. Irradiation was not related to FDCA. Survival rates and functional capacity were similar in patients with and without FDCA. Clinically the FDCA was unapparent in all cases and not treated. FDCA is a rare complication related to surgical treatment of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma without major impact on prognosis and clinical course of the disease. KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2000-NCT00258453; KRANIOPHARYNGEOM 2007-NCT01272622.

  20. [A Case of Ruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Associated with Acute Subdural Hematoma, Extending from the Interhemispheric Space to the Posterior Fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Yoshimura, Shouta; Somagawa, Chika; Hiu, Takeshi; Ono, Tomonori; Ushijima, Ryujirou; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden severe headache without a history of head trauma. CT and MRI revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) extending from the right interhemispheric space to the posterior fossa bilaterally, with a small amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage that was predominantly localized to the left side of the basal cistern. CT angiogram demonstrated a long protruding ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (IC/PC AN) with a posteroinferior projection, associated with a small bleb located near the tentorial edge close to the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process, for which she received clipping surgery. Though rare, IC/PC AN could cause pure or nearly pure ASDH in the above-mentioned distribution. Therefore, in patients with such ASDH, especially without a history of head injury or precise information regarding the situation at the time of onset, urgent imaging evaluation and early intervention are essential to prevent devastating re-rupture events.

  1. ANCA-Negative Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting with Hypertrophic Cranial Pachymeningitis, Abducens Nerve Palsy, and Stenosis of the Internal Carotid Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Harabuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA presenting with hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis (HCP, abducens nerve palsy, and stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA. A 59-year-old Japanese man presented with a year history of nasal obstruction and a 2-month history of slight headache. Histopathological examination of the granulomatous mucosa in the ethmoid sinuses resected by endoscopic sinus surgery revealed necrotizing vasculitis with multinucleated giant cells. The patient was diagnosed with the limited form of GPA as a result of the systemic examination. He declined immunosuppressive treatment. Eighteen months after the diagnosis of GPA, he presented with diplopia and severe headache. Though nasal findings indicating GPA were not observed in the nasal cavity, CT scan revealed a lesion of the right sphenoid sinus eroding the bone of the clivus. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI of the brain showed thickening of the dura mater around the right cavernous sinus and clivus. Magnetic resonance angiography and cerebral angiography revealed narrowing at the C5 portion of the ICA. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide resolved headache and dramatically improved HCP and stenosis of the ICA.

  2. Fusiform-shaped nodules along the internal carotid artery demonstrated by follow-up sonography within the dissected neck area in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takafumi; Katsura, Kouji; Taira, Shuhzou; Shingaki, Susumu; Hoshina, Hideyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to distinguish benign from malignant nodules within the dissected neck area in patients with oral cancer during the follow-up period, we retrospectively evaluated the frequency and characteristic findings of fusiform-shaped nodules along the internal carotid artery observed by follow-up sonography. From 1997 to 2003, 52 patients with oral cancer, who underwent radical neck dissections, were enrolled in this study. The study cohort consisted of 33 males and 19 females ranging in age from 29 to 84 years (mean, 62.0 years). After neck dissection, every patient was examined repeatedly with sonography during the follow-up period at an interval of one month. CT and/or MRI were performed when clinically required. Any patient with recurrent neck mass was excluded from this study. In the 52 patients, fusiform-shaped nodules were observed in 10 patients (19%) by the follow-up sonography. The nodules were homogenously hypoechoic and the margin was well-demarcated except for the upper end. A hyperechoic core was clearly observed in every nodule, which showed a fatty density on post-contrast CT. On post-contrast MRI, the nodules enhanced markedly and the core showed hypointensity on fat saturated images. In conclusion, it was suggested that the fusiform-shaped nodules observed by follow-up sonography within the dissected neck area might be the superior cervical ganglion of sympathetic trunk. However, further studies are needed to disclose the true character of the nodules. (author)

  3. A comparative study of perfusion CT and 99mTc-Hmpao spect measurement to assess cerebrovascular reserve capacity in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eicker S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion can demonstrate impaired cerebral vascular reserve (CVR. The detection of CVR using single photon emission CT (SPECT is nowadays widely accepted as a predictor in the diagnostic pathway in patients considered for cerebral revascularization. Recently perfusion CT (PCT gained widely acceptance in stroke imaging The present study was aimed at comparing the results of perfusion CT (PCT and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT with acetazolamide challenge in patients with ICA occlusion. Methods 13 patients were included in the prospective evaluation. Both PCT and 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT were performed before and after the administration of acetazolamide. In detail, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV, adapted time to peak (Tmax and mean transit times (MTT were compared with SPECT data. Results 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT demonstrated an impairment of CVR in six patients. A preserved CVR was present in seven patients. All patients with impaired CVR proven by SPECT had a delayed MTT (mean +2.98 s and a delayed Tmax (mean + 5.9 s, (both p Conclusion The prospective study demonstrated a highly significant correlation of perfusion parameters as' detected by 99mTc-HMPAO SPECT and the Tmax as detected by PCT in patients with ICA occlusion. Therefore this easy-to-perform technique seems to be an adequate method for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in patients with ICA occlusion.

  4. Quantitative perfusion computed tomography measurements of cerebral hemodynamics: Correlation with digital subtraction angiography identified primary and secondary cerebral collaterals in internal carotid artery occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoqing; Tian Jianming; Zuo Changjing; Liu Jia; Zhang Qi; Lu Guangming

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess hemodynamic variations in symptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) patients with primary collateral flow via circle of Willis or secondary collateral flow via ophthalmic artery and/or leptomeningeal collaterals. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with a symptomatic unilateral ICAO were enrolled in the study. Based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings, patients were classified into 2 groups: primary collateral (n = 14) and secondary collateral (n = 24) groups. Collateral flow hemodynamics were investigated with perfusion computed tomography (PCT) by measuring the cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and time to peak (TTP) in the hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to ICAO. Based on the measurements, the ipsilateral to contralateral ratio for each parameter was calculated and compared. Results: Irrespective of the collateral patterns, ipsilateral CBF was not significantly different from that of the contralateral hemisphere (P = 0.285); ipsilateral CBV and TTP was significantly increased compared with those of the contralateral hemisphere (P = 0.000 and P = 0.000 for CBV and TTP, respectively). Furthermore, patients with secondary collaterals had significantly larger ipsilateral-to-contralateral ratios for both CBV (rCBV, P = 0.0197) and TTP (rTTP, P = 0.000) than those of patients with only primary collaterals. These two groups showed no difference in ipsilateral-to-contralateral ratio for CBF (rCBF, P = 0.312). Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic unilateral ICAO in our study were in an autoregulatory vasodilatation status. Moreover, secondary collaterals in ICAO patients were correlated with ipsilateral CBV and delayed TTP that suggested severe hemodynamic impairment, presumably increasing the risk of ischemic events.

  5. Magnetic resonance angiography of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimura, Tatsuo; Saito, Kenichi; Nakayama, Hisato; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Kato, Shoichi; Ito, Haruhide.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the screening study of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries using the conventional head and neck coils, 500 consecutive MRAs of the cervical vessels were performed using 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance unit with circularly polarized head coil. The 5 cm-thick imaging plane was placed in coronal fashion including both carotid and vertebral arteries. The imaging sequence was three-dimensional (3D) fast imaging with steady precession (FISP). In 10 patients with failed head coil examination, 10 patients with possible carotid and vertebral diseases and 10 volunteers, the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries were examined with the Helmholtz neck coil. Both 3D- and 2D-FISP were performed in each case. The imaging plane was placed in oblique sagittal fashion. In 458 out of 500 cases (91.6%), the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries were successfully depicted using head coil. In 20 patients with high shoulders, the carotid bifurcations were out of range of the head coil. In these cases, carotid bifurcations and the origins of the carotid and vertebral arteries were successfully revealed using a neck coil. To evaluate the stenotic lesions and tortuous vessels, 2D-FISP sequence seemed to be more suitable than 3D-FISP. Compared with conventional angiography, MRA caused overestimation of the degree of stenotic lesions. For screening examination of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries, most cases can be evaluated only with the conventional head coil. If depiction of the carotid bifurcation fails and the examination of carotids or vertebrals down to the aortic arch is needed, neck coil examination is required. (author)

  6. Spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery: a natural history of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms Trombose espontânea da artéria carótida interna: a história natural dos aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Perez de Vasconcellos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe five cases of giant carotid cavernous aneurysms which evolved with spontaneous thrombosis of internal carotid artery (STICA, with emphasis at epidemiology, clinical presentation, natural history, related factors and neurological outcome. METHOD: There were 711 consecutives patients with 802 aneurysms with and without surgical treatment during a period of 19 years. We selected 35 patients with 40 carotid cavernous aneurysms (5% of which 20 (50% were giant aneurysms. Among those cases, 5 patients evolved with STICA (25%. Symptoms and findings at presentation were recorded and compared with those at outcome. RESULTS: Clinical presentation was commonly related to atherosclerotic factors such as elevated blood pressure (80%, diabetes mellitus (40% and dislipidemy (40%. All patients presented with hemicranial headache, ophthalmparesy and retro bulbar pain, and after STICA all presented improvement of symptoms. After STICA, 4 patients had regression of deficit, 2 partial and 2 complete. Four patients had sensorial trigeminal neuropathy in V1 and V2 territories, also showing improvement of symptoms after STICA. CONCLUSION: STICA is a common outcome in giant carotid cavernous aneurysms, and is related with significant improvement of symptoms; however, it may be catastrophic for those patients without efficient collateral circulation.OBJETIVO: Relatar cinco casos de aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos que evoluíram com trombose espontânea da artéria carótida interna (TEACI, estudando-se: prevalência, apresentação clínica, história natural, fatores associados e prognóstico neurológico. MÉTODO: Análise de 711 pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de 802 aneurismas cerebrais submetidos a tratamento clínico ou cirúrgico num período de 19 anos. Foram identificados 40 aneurismas intracavernosos, sendo que 20 desses eram gigantes. Dentre esses, 5 pacientes com aneurismas gigantes intracavernosos que evoluíram com TEACI

  7. Cognitive changes after carotid artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Krick, C.; Backens, M. [University of the Saarland, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Homburg (Germany); Supprian, T.; Falkai, P.; Reith, W. [University of the Saarland, Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Homburg (Germany)

    2006-05-15

    We aimed to test changes in cognitive performance after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Ten patients were neuropsychologically tested at least 24 h before and 48 h after CAS. To diminish thromboembolic events, we used a proximal protection device. The following neuropsychological tests were selected: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), symbol digit test and subtests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (verbal fluency, constructional practice, word list memory and delayed recall). Affective state was determined by the Beck Depression Score (BDS). No patient suffered from depression (BDS <1) or dementia (MMSE 29.9{+-}1.5). Nine of the ten patients (P=0.12) showed increased speed in the Number Connection Test (NCT) (corresponding to trail making test). Most patients showed better or similar results concerning delayed recall (P=0.31). No change was observed in the symbol digit test, word list memory, verbal fluency or constructional practice. Better results concerning NCT and delayed recall after carotid stenting might be due to improved brain perfusion. After CAS, cognitive and memory performance seem to improve. Further studies with different time intervals and more refined testing, as well as perfusion-weighted imaging, are needed. (orig.)

  8. Cognitive changes after carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Krick, C.; Backens, M.; Supprian, T.; Falkai, P.; Reith, W.

    2006-01-01

    We aimed to test changes in cognitive performance after carotid artery stenting (CAS). Ten patients were neuropsychologically tested at least 24 h before and 48 h after CAS. To diminish thromboembolic events, we used a proximal protection device. The following neuropsychological tests were selected: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), symbol digit test and subtests of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery (verbal fluency, constructional practice, word list memory and delayed recall). Affective state was determined by the Beck Depression Score (BDS). No patient suffered from depression (BDS <1) or dementia (MMSE 29.9±1.5). Nine of the ten patients (P=0.12) showed increased speed in the Number Connection Test (NCT) (corresponding to trail making test). Most patients showed better or similar results concerning delayed recall (P=0.31). No change was observed in the symbol digit test, word list memory, verbal fluency or constructional practice. Better results concerning NCT and delayed recall after carotid stenting might be due to improved brain perfusion. After CAS, cognitive and memory performance seem to improve. Further studies with different time intervals and more refined testing, as well as perfusion-weighted imaging, are needed. (orig.)

  9. Cone pathway function in relation to asymmetric carotid artery stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine; Holfort, Stig K

    2013-01-01

    Purpose:  To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Methods:  Thirteen patients with carotid artery stenosis without clinical eye disease underwent assessment of ophthalmic artery systolic blood pressure (OSP) by ocular...... pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery obstructive disease by ultrasonography, intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography and retinal function by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Data analysis compared the eye on the most stenotic side with the fellow eye...... pressure (p = 0.0028, 0.011, 0.041 for N1, P1, N2 implicit times, respectively, and p = 0.0086, 0.016, 0.040 for N1, P1, N2 for amplitudes, respectively, corrected for OSP). Conclusion:  Cone function deviation was observed in clinically healthy eyes on the side with highest degree of carotid artery...

  10. Assessing the blood pressure waveform of the carotid artery using an ultrasound image processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani, Effat; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe [Dept. of Medical Physics, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fatouraee, Nasser [Dept. of Medical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saben, Hazhir [Dept. Radiology, Imaging Center of Imam Khomaini Hospital, Tehran Medical Sciences University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study was to introduce and implement a noninvasive method to derive the carotid artery pressure waveform directly by processing diagnostic sonograms of the carotid artery. Ultrasound image sequences of 20 healthy male subjects (age, 36±9 years) were recorded during three cardiac cycles. The internal diameter and blood velocity waveforms were extracted from consecutive sonograms over the cardiac cycles by using custom analysis programs written in MATLAB. Finally, the application of a mathematical equation resulted in time changes of the arterial pressure. The resulting pressures were calibrated using the mean and the diastolic pressure of the radial artery. A good correlation was found between the mean carotid blood pressure obtained from the ultrasound image processing and the mean radial blood pressure obtained using a standard digital sphygmomanometer (R=0.91). The mean absolute difference between the carotid calibrated pulse pressures and those measured clinically was -1.333±6.548 mm Hg. The results of this study suggest that consecutive sonograms of the carotid artery can be used for estimating a blood pressure waveform. We believe that our results promote a noninvasive technique for clinical applications that overcomes the reproducibility problems of common carotid artery tonometry with technical and anatomical causes.

  11. Assessing the blood pressure waveform of the carotid artery using an ultrasound image processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleimani, Effat; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Fatouraee, Nasser; Saben, Hazhir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to introduce and implement a noninvasive method to derive the carotid artery pressure waveform directly by processing diagnostic sonograms of the carotid artery. Ultrasound image sequences of 20 healthy male subjects (age, 36±9 years) were recorded during three cardiac cycles. The internal diameter and blood velocity waveforms were extracted from consecutive sonograms over the cardiac cycles by using custom analysis programs written in MATLAB. Finally, the application of a mathematical equation resulted in time changes of the arterial pressure. The resulting pressures were calibrated using the mean and the diastolic pressure of the radial artery. A good correlation was found between the mean carotid blood pressure obtained from the ultrasound image processing and the mean radial blood pressure obtained using a standard digital sphygmomanometer (R=0.91). The mean absolute difference between the carotid calibrated pulse pressures and those measured clinically was -1.333±6.548 mm Hg. The results of this study suggest that consecutive sonograms of the carotid artery can be used for estimating a blood pressure waveform. We believe that our results promote a noninvasive technique for clinical applications that overcomes the reproducibility problems of common carotid artery tonometry with technical and anatomical causes

  12. Clinical experience of cerebral protection with balloon occlusion during carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, H.J.; Mathias, K.D.; Drescher, R.; Bockisch, G.; Hauth, E.; Demirel, E.; Gissler, H.M.; Witten/Herdecke Univ.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To asses the technical feasibility and the results of cerebral protection with the GuardWire Plus Temporary Occlusion and Aspiration System during carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenosis. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients 20 carotid artery stenoses were treated with stent placement under cerebral protection. A contralateral carotid occlusion was an exclusion criteria for the use of the protection device. In all cases only aspiration, but no flushing was used before deflation of the occlusion balloon. In 17 of 20 patients diffusion-weighted (DW-)MRT imaging of the brain was performed before and 24 hours after the procedure. Results: The stent implantation was successfully performed in all patients. In 3 patients neurologic symptoms occurred during the occlusion time. In these 3 patients the symptoms immediately disappeared after deflation of the balloon. In one case there was dilatation of the internal carotid artery at the site of the balloon inflation. In 3 of the 17 DW-MR images new ipsilateral cerebral lesions, in one case a new contralateral lesion occurred after the procedure. Conclusions: The cerebral protection procedure is technically feasible. The occlusion of the internal carotid artery was not tolerated by all patients. The DW-MR imaging demonstrated cerebral lesions indicating the occurrence of cerebral microemboli during the procedure. Further investigations are necessary to determine if the use of the cerebral protection device will improve the results of the carotid artery stenting for high-grade stenoses. (orig.) [de

  13. National variation in preoperative imaging, carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and threshold for surgery for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arous, Edward J; Simons, Jessica P; Flahive, Julie M; Beck, Adam W; Stone, David H; Hoel, Andrew W; Messina, Louis M; Schanzer, Andres

    2015-10-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is among the most common procedures performed in the United States. However, consensus is lacking regarding optimal preoperative imaging, carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and ultimately, the threshold for surgery. We sought to characterize national variation in preoperative imaging, carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and threshold for surgery for asymptomatic CEA. The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI) database was used to identify all CEA procedures performed for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis between 2003 and 2014. VQI currently captures 100% of CEA procedures performed at >300 centers by >2000 physicians nationwide. Three analyses were performed to quantify the variation in (1) preoperative imaging, (2) carotid duplex ultrasound criteria, and (3) threshold for surgery. Of 35,695 CEA procedures in 33,488 patients, the study cohort was limited to 19,610 CEA procedures (55%) performed for asymptomatic disease. The preoperative imaging modality used before CEA varied widely, with 57% of patients receiving a single preoperative imaging study (duplex ultrasound imaging, 46%; computed tomography angiography, 7.5%; magnetic resonance angiography, 2.0%; cerebral angiography, 1.3%) and 43% of patients receiving multiple preoperative imaging studies. Of the 16,452 asymptomatic patients (89%) who underwent preoperative duplex ultrasound imaging, there was significant variability between centers in the degree of stenosis (50%-69%, 70%-79%, 80%-99%) designated for a given peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, and internal carotid artery-to-common carotid artery ratio. Although 68% of CEA procedures in asymptomatic patients were performed for an 80% to 99% stenosis, 26% were performed for a 70% to 79% stenosis, and 4.1% were performed for a 50% to 69% stenosis. At the surgeon level, the range in the percentage of CEA procedures performed for a duplex ultrasound

  14. Attitude towards one's illness vs. attitude towards a surgical operation, displayed by patients diagnosed with asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm and asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisić, M; Rzepa, T

    2012-08-01

    Two most frequent asymptomatic diseases qualifying for vascular surgery are abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). Emotions experienced by the patient activate processes of dealing with the cognitive dissonance of asymptomatic disease. The aim of this paper was to compare the reasons involved in decision making on surgery in two asymptomatic vascular pathologies. Fifty patients were divided into two groups: the ICAS group-27 (CAS or CEA) and the AAA group-23 (EVAR or open surgical operation (OSR). Specific questionnaire regarding: 1) self-image; 2) attitude to one's illness; 3) reasons for decision on surgery was applied for the study. The χ² test was used to for the analysis. The AAA patients reacted emotionally (88.2%) comparing to ICAS patients reacting "rationally" (59.3%) (α=0.05). In AAA patients attitude towards themselves had worsened (α=0.001) AAA patients were less likely to seek support in decision on surgery (α=0.01). ICAS patients are internally motivated (78.7%), whereas AAA patients are externally motivated (63.9%) (α=0.001). Reasons underlying the decision on surgery, were predominantly rational (55.8%). In the process of decision-making on surgery by asymptomatic patients, evolutionary transformation takes place - the emotional attitude to one's illness leads to rationally evaluated decision. Regardless of the causes the process of making a decision on surgical operation tended to run more smoothly in ICAS patients. The ICAS patients tended to display a rational attitude to their illness. AAA patients displayed a distinctly emotional attitude towards their illness.

  15. Carotid Artery Stenting and Endarterectomy: a clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Hendriks (Joke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractStroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the western world. Atherosclerotic disease of the carotid arteries is in approximately 25% of the cases responsible for the cerebral infarction.1 Since NASCET and ECST, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is considered the standard treatment

  16. Treatment and experience of traumatic carotid artery injury with massive epistaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAO Hai-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis was made on 5 cases who had the traumatic carotid artery injury with massive epistaxis (from September 2007 to June 2011. All of them were finally diagnosed by digital substraction angiography (DSA. Among them, 2 cases of traumatic pesudoaneurysm from internal maxillary artery were embolized with polyvinyl alcohol particles and gelatin sponge. One case was carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF with traumatic pesudoaneurysm located in the sphenoid sinus. This patient's internal carotid artery (ICA and fistula was blocked with balloon, and then ICA was clipped proximal to the posterior communicating artery. One case with injuried ICA was treated with blocking by balloon. The pesudoaneurysm located in ICA cavernous segment of one case was embolized with coil and liquid glue. No recurrence was found after successful surgeries. Patients with massive epistaxis or recurrent epistaxis after craniofacial trauma should undergo CT angiography (CTA or DSA examination so as to get proper diagnosis and treatment as early as possible.

  17. An unusual case of common carotid artery pseudoaneurysm caused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    pseudoaneurysm involving the right common carotid artery. Sewing needle ( ... displacement of tracheal shadow towards the left ... CT scan of brain was not done in this case as there are no .... function and allergies to CT contrast material12.

  18. Mixing in the human carotid artery during carotid drug infusion studied with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junck, L.; Koeppe, R.A.; Greenberg, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of drug infusion into the carotid artery require adequate mixing of the infused solution with carotid blood. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied the mixing of solutions infused into the human carotid artery in seven patients by analyzing the distribution of [15O]H2O infused into the carotid artery and by vein. At four infusion rates ranging from 0.5 to 10 ml/min, the variability in distribution averaged 16.5-17.8% among the pixels in a large volume of interest, without dependence on the infusion rate. The overall correlation between [15O]H2O influx with arterial infusion and [15O]H2O influx with venous injection was 0.78-0.82 at the four infusion rates, with no trend toward higher correlations at the faster infusion rates. The distribution into the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery territories differed from distribution throughout the entire carotid territory by an average of 6.2-9.6% at the four infusion rates, with no trend toward smaller differences at the faster infusion rates. Infusions performed into a vinyl tube simulating the carotid artery indicated that at 0.5 ml/min, the velocity of fluid exiting the catheter makes no apparent contribution to mixing. We conclude that with infusions at the carotid bifurcation, mixing in the human carotid artery is complete or nearly complete over a wide range of infusion rates. The mixing appears to result from the patterns of blood flow within the artery, and not from jet effects at the catheter tip

  19. Aneurisma da artéria carótida interna extracraniana: relato de caso Aneurysm of the extracranial internal carotid artery: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Ricardo Taveira Garcia

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Os aneurismas verdadeiros da artéria carótida interna extracraniana são raros, ao contrário dos supraclinóideos, somando menos de 4% dos aneurismas periféricos. Eles se apresentam clinicamente como massas palpáveis cervicais, junto à margem inferior do ângulo da mandíbula, causando rouquidão, disfagia e dor por compressão nervosa. Há freqüente associação desta doença com outros aneurismas periféricos devido à sua etiologia principal (aterosclerose. Os aneurismas periféricos são comumente identificados à ultra-sonografia Doppler, quando na vigência de janela acústica adequada. Nesta situação, os aneurismas podem ser avaliados tanto morfológica como hemodinamicamente. Sua identificação e estudo são importantes para prevenir graves complicações, como tromboses, infartos maciços ou embólicos da área correspondente no sistema nervoso central, ruptura e dissecção, além de auxiliar na indicação da melhor conduta terapêutica.Unlike supraclinoid aneurysms, true aneurysms of the extracranial internal carotid artery are extremely rare (less than 4% of the peripheral aneurysms. The commonest presentation is a pulsatile neck swelling below the angle of the jaw associated with hoarseness, dysphagia and pain (neural compression. Concomitance with other peripherical aneurysms is frequent and caused by atherosclerosis. The morphological and hemodynamic features are very well evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, when the acoustic window is satisfactory. Identification and evaluation of these aneurysms are very important to prevent thrombosis, rupture, dissections, massive strokes and embolic brain infarcts, besides helping in the decision of the best treatment.

  20. Hemodynamic vascular biomarkers for initiation of paraclinoid internal carotid artery aneurysms using patient-specific computational fluid dynamic simulation based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tomoya; Isoda, Haruo; Takehara, Yasuo; Terada, Masaki; Naito, Takehiro; Kosugi, Takafumi; Onishi, Yuki; Tanoi, Chiharu; Izumi, Takashi

    2018-05-01

    We performed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for patients with and without paraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms to evaluate the distribution of vascular biomarkers at the aneurysm initiation sites of the paraclinoid ICA. This study included 35 patients who were followed up for aneurysms using 3D time of flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and 3D cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Fifteen affected ICAs were included in group A with the 15 unaffected contralateral ICAs in group B. Thirty-three out of 40 paraclinoid ICAs free of aneurysms and arteriosclerotic lesions were included in group C. We deleted the aneurysms in group A based on the 3D TOF MRA dataset. We performed CFD based on MR data set and obtained wall shear stress (WSS), its derivatives, and streamlines. We qualitatively evaluated their distributions at and near the intracranial aneurysm initiation site among three groups. We also calculated and compared the normalized highest (nh-) WSS and nh-spatial WSS gradient (SWSSG) around the paraclinoid ICA among three groups. High WSS and SWSSG distribution were observed at and near the aneurysm initiation site in group A. High WSS and SWSSG were also observed at similar locations in group B and group C. However, nh-WSS and nh-SWSSG were significantly higher in group A than in group C, and nh-SWSSG was significantly higher in group A than in group B. Our findings indicated that nh-WSS and nh-SWSSG were good biomarkers for aneurysm initiation in the paraclinoid ICA.

  1. A case of unusual collateral circulation from internal carotid occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Il Jung; Choi, Byung So

    1972-01-01

    A 23 year old Korean boy was admitted to Dept. of Neurosurgery. Capital Army Hospital on Feb. 2, 1971 because of recurrent transient focal seizure and more weakness in the left extremities. During hospitalization, he recovered from focal seizure and motor weakness in the left extremities without specific therapy. Right carotid angiograms were performed. Right carotid angiograms show right internal carotic occlusion at the level of distal siphon of extradural level with good filling of ophthalmic artery of right. Extensive small vascular network developed intracranial region of right hemisphere. There are appearance to be two major anastomotic communication. 1. Via at the base of the brain. 2. Via the rete mirabile with external carotid artery. These angiographic finding were similar to that of the so-called 'cerebral rete mirabile' which was described in many literature. Etiology of cerebral rete mirabile is divided as to whether these represent true congenital vascular malformations or whether the 'rete mirabile' develops as a collateral because of a primary stenosis in the internal carotid arteries. Evidence for either theory is still inconclusive

  2. Histological analysis of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna C Welleweerd

    Full Text Available Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECAA are rare but may be accompanied with significant morbidity. Previous studies mostly focused on diagnostic imaging and treatment. In contrast, the pathophysiological mechanisms and natural course of ECAA are largely unknown. Understanding the pathophysiological background may add to prediction of risk for adverse outcome and need for surgical exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological characteristics of ECAA in patients who underwent complete surgical ECAA resection.From March 2004 till June 2013, 13 patients were treated with open ECAA repair. During surgery the aneurysm sac was resected and processed for standardized histological analysis. Sections were stained with routine hematoxylin and eosin and special stains to detect elastin, collagen, different types of inflammatory cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.Histopathological characterization revealed two distinct categories: dissection (abrupt interruption of the media; n = 3 and degeneration (general loss of elastin fibers in the media; n = 10. In the degenerative samples the elastin fibers in the media were fragmented and were partly absent. Inflammatory cells were observed in the vessel wall of the aneurysms.Histological analysis in this small sample size revealed dissection and degeneration as the two distinct underlying mechanisms in ECAA formation.

  3. Diagnosis Of The Risk For Carotid Artery Stenos Based On Thermal Model In Infrared Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Valipoori Goodarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death and a common cause of hospitalization in the United States of America and is also an important factor for Inability of patients and carotid stenos is one of the most important factors in creating it. Now, Imaging studies include: Angiography, MRI, CT scan and Doppler ultrasonography , are used to detect carotid artery stenos that is one of the most important causes of ischemic stroke. However, each method has unique advantages and disadvantages, that many of them will have a compromise between performance and accuracy versus easy usage and cost considerations. In contrast, in this paper, thermography is used as a non-invasive and cost effective to detect carotid artery Stenos and thus the risk of stroke. Materials and methods: This study is done on a series of thermal images obtained from the Clinical Center in California. In this imaging, the automatic detection of carotid artery stenos and thus Risk for stroke was done, based on: (1 the difference of average temperature between the right and left carotid arteries in the neck (2 The presence or absence of internal and external carotid arteries. Results: In this study, with the survey conducted by a specialist brain of patients had been previously, the accuracy of this work is confirmed. the techniques and points that are Experimental and  scientifically based  and obtained in this study, can help to doctors for Early detection of Artery disease, based on analysis of thermal images . Conclusion: The method presented in this paper is considered as a non-invasive and cost-effective method that automatically operates to detect the carotid arteries and prevent the Risk for stroke.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. Carotid artery and lower cranial nerve exposure with increasing surgical complexity to the parapharyngeal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos-Rodriguez, Ana M; Sreenath, Satyan B; Rawal, Rounak B; Overton, Lewis J; Farzal, Zainab; Zanation, Adam M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the extent of carotid artery exposure attained, including the identification of the external carotid branches and lower cranial nerves in five sequential external approaches to the parapharyngeal space, and to provide an anatomical algorithm. Anatomical study. Six latex-injected adult cadaver heads were dissected in five consecutive approaches: transcervical approach with submandibular gland removal, posterior extension of the transcervical approach, transcervical approach with parotidectomy, parotidectomy with lateral mandibulotomy, and parotidectomy with mandibulectomy. The degree of carotid artery exposure attained, external carotid branches, and lower cranial nerves visualized was documented. The transcervical approach exposed 1.5 cm (Standard Deviation (SD) 0.5) of internal carotid artery (ICA) and 1.25 cm (SD 0.25) of external carotid artery (ECA). The superior thyroid and facial arteries and cranial nerve XII and XI were identified. The posterior extension exposed 2.9 cm (SD 0.7) of ICA and 2.7 cm (SD 1.0) of ECA. Occipital and ascending pharyngeal arteries were visualized. The transparotid approach exposed 4.0 cm (SD 1.1) of ICA and 3.98 cm (SD 1.8) of ECA. Lateral mandibulotomy exposed the internal maxillary artery, cranial nerve X, the sympathetic trunk, and 4.6 cm (SD 2.4) of ICA. Mandibulectomy allowed for complete ECA exposure, cranial nerve IX, lingual nerve, and 6.9 cm (SD 1.3) of ICA. Approaches for the parapharyngeal space must be based on anatomic and biological patient factors. This study provides a guide for the skull base surgeon for an extended approach based on the desired anatomic exposure. N/A. Laryngoscope, 127:585-591, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Contemporary Management of Patients with Concomitant Coronary and Carotid Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poi, Mun J; Echeverria, Angela; Lin, Peter H

    2018-01-01

    The ideal management of concomitant carotid and coronary artery occlusive disease remains elusive. Although researchers have advocated the potential benefits of varying treatment strategies based on either concomitant or staged surgical treatment, there is no consensus in treatment guidelines among national or international clinical societies. Clinical studies show that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with either staged or synchronous carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is associated with a high procedural stroke or death rate. Recent clinical studies have found carotid artery stenting (CAS) prior to CABG can lead to superior treatment outcomes in asymptomatic patients who are deemed high risk of CEA. With emerging data suggesting favorable outcome of CAS compared to CEA in patients with critical coronary artery disease, physicians must consider these diverging therapeutic options when treating patients with concurrent carotid and coronary disease. This review examines the available clinical data on therapeutic strategies in patients with concomitant carotid and coronary artery disease. A treatment paradigm for considering CAS or CEA as well as CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention is discussed.

  1. Carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasagawa, Yasuo; Tachibana, Osamu; Doai, Mariko; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Tonami, Hisao; Iizuka, Hideaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-10-01

    Acromegaly is a systemic disease which causes multiple bony alterations. Some authors reported that acromegalic patients have risk factors for an intraoperative vascular injury due to the specific anatomical features of their sphenoid sinus. The objective of our study was to analyze the anatomic characteristics of sphenoid sinus in acromegalic patients compared with controls, by evaluation of computed tomography (CT) findings. We examined 45 acromegalic (acromegaly group) and 45 non-acromegalic patients (control group) with pituitary adenomas who were matched for sex, age, height, tumor size, and cavernous sinus invasion (Knosp grade). Preoperative CT of the pituitary region including the sphenoid sinus was used to evaluate the following anatomic characteristics: type of sphenoid sinus (sellar or pre-sellar/conchal); intrasphenoid septa (non/single or multiple); carotid artery protrusion; carotid artery dehiscence; intercarotid distance. Sixteen acromegalic patients (35.5 %) and 6 controls (13.3 %) had carotid artery protrusion. Additionally, 10 acromegalic patients (22.2 %) and 3 controls (6.6 %) had carotid artery dehiscence. Carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence were more frequent in the acromegaly group than in control group (p = 0.013 and 0.035, respectively). Other anatomic characteristics (type of sphenoid sinus, intrasphenoid septa, and intracarotid distance) showed no significant differences between acromegaly and control groups. Our study suggests that carotid artery protrusion and dehiscence occur more frequently among acromegalic patients, compared with non-acromegalic patients. It is important for surgeons to be aware of these anatomic variations to avoid vital complications, such as carotid injuries, during surgery.

  2. Increased LDL susceptibility to oxidation accelerates future carotid artery atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We analyzed the causal relationship between LDL susceptibility to oxidation and the development of new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a period of 5 years. We previously described the determinants related to a risk of cardiovascular changes determined in a Japanese population participating in the Niigata Study, which is an ongoing epidemiological investigation of the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Methods We selected 394 individuals (169 males and 225 females who underwent a second carotid artery ultrasonographic examination in 2001 - 2002 for the present study. The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was determined as the photometric absorbance and electrophoretic mobility of samples that had been collected in 1996 - 1997. The measurements were compared with ultrasonographic findings obtained in 2001 - 2002. Results The multivariate-adjusted model showed that age (odds ratio (OR, 1.034; 95% confidence interval (95%CI, 1.010 - 1.059, HbA1c (OR, 1.477; 95%CI, 0.980 - 2.225, and photometric O/N (OR, 2.012; 95%CI, 1.000 - 4.051 were significant variables that could independently predict the risk of new carotid artery atherosclerosis. Conclusion The susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was a significant parameter that could predict new carotid artery atherosclerosis over a 5-year period, and higher susceptibility was associated with a higher incidence of new carotid artery atherosclerosis.

  3. Predictive Factors for the Occurrence of Visual and Ischemic Complications After Open Surgery for Paraclinoid Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuta, Ken-Ichiro; Kitai, Ryuhei; Kodera, Toshihiko; Arishima, Hidetaka; Isozaki, Makoto; Hashimoto, Norichika; Neishi, Hiroyuki; Higashino, Yoshifumi; Yamada, Shinsuke; Yomo, Munenori; Awara, Kousuke

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the predictive factors for visual and ischemic complications after open surgery for paraclinoid aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Thirty-eight consecutive patients with unruptured paraclinoid aneurysms of ICA operated on between 2009 and 2013 were included in this study. The male:female ratio was 6:32 and the ages ranged from 33 to 81 (mean: 60 ± 2). Twenty cases were asymptomatic and 18 had ophthalmological symptoms. The sizes of the aneurysms ranged from 2 to 35 mm (mean: 10.6 ± 9 mm). Twenty-three patients were treated by clipping and 15 by trapping with bypass (high-flow bypass in 11, and low-flow in 4). Twenty-four patients underwent removal of the anterior clinoid process. Among them, 8 underwent en bloc anterior clinoidectomy with a high-speed drill, and 16 had piecemeal excision with a microrongeur or ultrasonic bone curette. Intraoperative monitoring was performed using motor-evoked potentials (MEP) and visual-evoked potentials (VEP) in 27 and 15 cases, respectively. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm was achieved in 37 cases (97.4 %). The patency rate of bypass was 100 %. Postoperative worsening of visual acuity, including one case of blindness, was observed in six cases (11 %). Worsening of visual field defects occurred in 14 cases (38 %), but 10 of them were transient. Transient oculomotor nerve palsy occurred in six cases (15 %). Postoperative stroke was detected by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in five cases (13 %), four of which were symptomatic. Statistical analysis showed that piecemeal anterior clinoidectomy was significantly safer than en bloc removal in preserving visual function. Trapping with high-flow bypass had a significantly greater risk of postoperative stroke than direct clipping. Intraoperative VEP monitoring might be useful for preventing postoperative worsening of visual function. Two-stage treatment with bypass and endovascular trapping might be safer than single-stage trapping

  4. Evaluation of Freehand B-Mode and Power-Mode 3D Ultrasound for Visualisation and Grading of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Otto Pelz

    Full Text Available Currently, colour-coded duplex sonography (2D-CDS is clinical standard for detection and grading of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS. However, unlike angiographic imaging modalities, 2D-CDS assesses ICAS by its hemodynamic effects rather than luminal changes. Aim of this study was to evaluate freehand 3D ultrasound (3DUS for direct visualisation and quantification of ICAS.Thirty-seven patients with 43 ICAS were examined with 2D-CDS as reference standard and with freehand B-mode respectively power-mode 3DUS. Stenotic value of 3D reconstructed ICAS was calculated as distal diameter respectively distal cross-sectional area (CSA reduction percentage and compared with 2D-CDS.There was a trend but no significant difference in successful 3D reconstruction of ICAS between B-mode and power mode (examiner 1 {Ex1} 81% versus 93%, examiner 2 {Ex2} 84% versus 88%. Inter-rater agreement was best for power-mode 3DUS and assessment of stenotic value as distal CSA reduction percentage (intraclass correlation coefficient {ICC} 0.90 followed by power-mode 3DUS and distal diameter reduction percentage (ICC 0.81. Inter-rater agreement was poor for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.36, distal diameter reduction 0.51. Intra-rater agreement for power-mode 3DUS was good for both measuring methods (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.88 {Ex1} and 0.78 {Ex2}; ICC, distal diameter reduction 0.83 {Ex1} and 0.76 {Ex2}. In comparison to 2D-CDS inter-method agreement was good and clearly better for power-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.85, Ex2 0.78; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.63, Ex2 0.57 than for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.40, Ex2 0.52; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.15, Ex2 0.51.Non-invasive power-mode 3DUS is superior to B-mode 3DUS for imaging and quantification of ICAS. Thereby, further studies are warranted which should now compare power-mode 3DUS with the angiographic gold standard

  5. Evaluation of Freehand B-Mode and Power-Mode 3D Ultrasound for Visualisation and Grading of Internal Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Johann Otto; Weinreich, Anna; Karlas, Thomas; Saur, Dorothee

    2017-01-01

    Currently, colour-coded duplex sonography (2D-CDS) is clinical standard for detection and grading of internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS). However, unlike angiographic imaging modalities, 2D-CDS assesses ICAS by its hemodynamic effects rather than luminal changes. Aim of this study was to evaluate freehand 3D ultrasound (3DUS) for direct visualisation and quantification of ICAS. Thirty-seven patients with 43 ICAS were examined with 2D-CDS as reference standard and with freehand B-mode respectively power-mode 3DUS. Stenotic value of 3D reconstructed ICAS was calculated as distal diameter respectively distal cross-sectional area (CSA) reduction percentage and compared with 2D-CDS. There was a trend but no significant difference in successful 3D reconstruction of ICAS between B-mode and power mode (examiner 1 {Ex1} 81% versus 93%, examiner 2 {Ex2} 84% versus 88%). Inter-rater agreement was best for power-mode 3DUS and assessment of stenotic value as distal CSA reduction percentage (intraclass correlation coefficient {ICC} 0.90) followed by power-mode 3DUS and distal diameter reduction percentage (ICC 0.81). Inter-rater agreement was poor for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.36, distal diameter reduction 0.51). Intra-rater agreement for power-mode 3DUS was good for both measuring methods (ICC, distal CSA reduction 0.88 {Ex1} and 0.78 {Ex2}; ICC, distal diameter reduction 0.83 {Ex1} and 0.76 {Ex2}). In comparison to 2D-CDS inter-method agreement was good and clearly better for power-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.85, Ex2 0.78; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.63, Ex2 0.57) than for B-mode 3DUS (ICC, distal diameter reduction percentage: Ex1 0.40, Ex2 0.52; distal CSA reduction percentage: Ex1 0.15, Ex2 0.51). Non-invasive power-mode 3DUS is superior to B-mode 3DUS for imaging and quantification of ICAS. Thereby, further studies are warranted which should now compare power-mode 3DUS with the angiographic gold standard imaging

  6. Carotid artery stenting: Rationale, technique, and current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Narata, Ana-Paula; Sztajzel, Roman; Lovblad, Karl-Olof

    2010-01-01

    Carotid stenosis is a major risk factor for stroke. With the aging of the general population and the availability of non-invasive vascular imaging studies, the diagnosis of a carotid plaque is commonly made in medical practice. Asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenoses need to be considered separately because their natural history is different. Two large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in preventing ipsilateral ischemic events in patients with symptomatic severe stenosis. The benefit of surgery is much less for moderate stenosis and harmful in patients with stenosis less than 50%. Surgery has a marginal benefit in patients with asymptomatic stenosis. Improvements in medical treatment must be taken into consideration when interpreting the results of these previous trials which compared surgery against medical treatment available at the time the trials were conducted. Carotid artery stenting (CAS) might avoid the risks associated with surgery, including cranial nerve palsy, myocardial infarction, or pulmonary embolism. Therefore and additionally to well-established indications of CAS, this endovascular approach might be a valid alternative particularly in patients at high surgical risk. However, trials of endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis have failed to provide enough evidence to justify routine CAS as an alternative to CEA in patients suitable for surgery. More data from ongoing randomized trials of CEA versus CAS will be soon available. These results will help determining the role of CAS in the management of patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  7. Current global status of carotid artery stent placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wholey, M H; Wholey, M; Bergeron, P; Diethrich, E B; Henry, M; Laborde, J C; Mathias, K; Myla, S; Roubin, G S; Shawl, F; Theron, J G; Yadav, J S; Dorros, G; Guimaraens, J; Higashida, R; Kumar, V; Leon, M; Lim, M; Londero, H; Mesa, J; Ramee, S; Rodriguez, A; Rosenfield, K; Teitelbaum, G; Vozzi, C

    1998-05-01

    Our purpose was to review the current status of carotid artery stent placement throughout the world. Surveys were sent to major interventional centers in Europe, North and South America, and Asia. Information from peer-reviewed journals was also included and supplemented the survey. The survey asked various questions regarding the patients enrolled, procedure techniques, and results of carotid stenting, including complications and restenosis. Of the centers which were sent surveys, 24 responded. The total number of endovascular carotid stent procedures that have been performed worldwide to date included 2,048 cases, with a technical success of 98.6%. Complications that occurred during carotid stent placement or within a 30-day period following placement were recorded. Overall, there were 63 minor strokes, with a rate of occurrence of 3.08%. The total number of major strokes was 27, for a rate of 1.32%. There were 28 deaths within a 30-day postprocedure period, resulting in a mortality rate of 1.37%. Restenosis rates of carotid stenting have been 4.80% at 6 mo. Endovascular stent treatment of carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is growing as an alternative to vascular surgery, especially for patients that are at high risk for standard carotid endarterectomy. The periprocedural risks for major and minor strokes and death are generally acceptable at this early stage of development.

  8. The relationship of flow velocities to vessel diameters differs between extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Mayowa O; Agunloye, Atinuke M; Ogunniyi, Adesola

    2014-01-01

    Chronic changes in flow rate through arteries produce adjustment of arterial diameters. We compared the relationship between flow velocity and diameter in the carotid and in the vertebral arteries of stroke patients. Using triplex ultrasonography, the internal diameter and flow velocities of the common carotid, internal carotid, and vertebral arteries of 176 consecutive stroke patients were measured. Correlations were examined with Pearson's statistics at an alpha level of 0.05. Mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 12 years, and 66% had cerebral infarcts. Diameter and blood flow velocities showed significant negative correlations (-0.115 ≥ r ≥ -0.382) in the carotid arteries on both sides, but positive correlations (0.211 ≤ r ≤ 0.320) in the vertebral arteries, even after controlling for age, gender, and blood pressure. Our study demonstrated different diameter/flow relationships in the carotid and the vertebral arteries of stroke patients, which may suggest pathologic changes in the adaptive processes governing vessel diameter and growth, especially in the carotid arteries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Impact of Carotid Artery Stenting on Cerebral Perfusion, Functional Connectivity, and Cognition in Severe Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and purposeAsymptomatic carotid artery stenosis can lead to not only stroke but also cognition impairment. Although it has been proven that carotid artery stenting (CAS can reduce the risk of future strokes, the effect of CAS on cognition is conflicting. In recent years, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL MRI and resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI have been employed in cognitive impairment studies. For the present study, cognition is evaluated in severe asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing CAS, and the mechanisms underlying the cognitive change are explored by pASL MRI and R-fMRI.Materials and methodsWe prospectively enrolled 24 asymptomatic, severe (≥70%, unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis patients, who were expecting the intervention of CAS. Cognition assessment (including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Minimum Mental State Examination, the Digit Symbol Test, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the Verbal Memory Test and an integrated MRI program (pASL MRI, and R-fMRI were administered 7 days before and 3 months after CAS.Results16 subjects completed the follow-up study. After stenting, significant improvement in the scores of the MMSE, the Verbal Memory test, and the delayed recall was found. No significant difference was found in the scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Beijing Version, the Digit Symbol Test, and the immediate recall. After CAS treatment, asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients showed increased perfusion in the left frontal gyrus, increased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF in the right precentral gyrus, and increased connectivity to the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC in the right supra frontal gyrus. However, no significant correlations were found between these imaging changes and cognition assessments.ConclusionSuccessful CAS can partly improve cognition in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis patients. The cognition

  10. Carotid artery occlusion and collateral circulation in C57Black/6J mice detected by synchrotron radiation microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masahiro; Kidoguchi, Keiji; Mizobe, Takashi; Koyama, Junji; Kondoh, Takeshi; Sakurai, Takashi; Kohmura, Eiji; Yokono, Koichi; Umetani, Keiji

    2006-01-01

    Using monochromatic synchrotron radiation, we performed microangiography in C57BL/6J mice and investigated their vasculature after unilateral and bilateral carotid artery occlusion. Bilateral occlusion of the carotid artery was made by a ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by a ligation of the right internal carotid artery (ICA) two days later (n=12). Five days after the second surgery, angiography was performed. Unilateral occlusion was made by clipping the right ICA and then angiography was performed immediately (n=5). The control mice did not undergo any occlusion (n=5). We removed the brain of the bilateral occlusion mice after angiography and examined the infarction area. The cerebral microvessels in all animals were clearly visualized. In the control mice, the posterior communicating artery (Pcom) was not visualized. In the unilateral occlusion mice, the anastomosis of the pterygopalatine artery (PPA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) were recognized. The PPA is thus considered to play a role in the collateral vessel between the ICA and the ECA. The Pcom was not visualized. In the bilateral occlusion mice, the Pcom was observed either unilateraly (n=5) or bilateraly (n=5). The Pcom supplied blood flow to the anterior circulation from the vertebrobasilar arteries. The bilateral occlusion mice that had at least one visualized Pcom did not have any infarction. We could successfully visualize the cerebral vasculature of normal mice and carotid artery occluded mice in an in vivo study. Microangiography can demonstrate the development of vasculature and the blood flow dynamics in mice. (author)

  11. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus S; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette F

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of (18)F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131......) indicating that the luminal (18)F-FDG content had minimal influence on the values. The study shows for the first time that simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid arteries is feasible in patients with increased risk of atherosclerosis. Quantification of (18)F-FDG uptake correlated well between PET/MR and PET...

  12. Associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ried-Larsen, M; Grøntved, A; Østergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Youth Heart Study. Total frequency of bicycle usage was assessed by self-report, and carotid arterial stiffness was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. After adjusting for pubertal status, body height, and objectively measured physical activity and other personal lifestyle and demographic factors, boys......The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between bicycling and carotid arterial stiffness, independent of objectively measured moderate-and-vigorous physical activity. This cross-sectional study included 375 adolescents (age 15.7 ± 0.4 years) from the Danish site of the European...... using their bicycle every day of the week displayed a higher carotid arterial compliance {standard beta 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.87]} and distension [standard beta 0.38 (95% CI -0.04 to 0.81)]. Boys using their bicycle every day of the week furthermore displayed a lower Young's elastic...

  13. Radiation-induced bilateral common carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Nakagawa, Yoku; Tashiro, Kunio; Abe, Hiroshi

    1986-01-01

    A case of radiation-induced bilateral common carotid artery stenosis is reported. This 60 years old housewife was hospitalized in 1982 because of sudden onset of mild left hemiparesis. Twenty-five years ago, she underwent radiation therapy of approximately 5,000 rads to the anterior cervical region because of thyroid cancer. Angiograms in 1982 revealed bilateral common carotid artery stenosis, especially in the right common carotid artery, the legion of which were included within the field of radiation performed in 1952. Right thromboendarterectomy was performed in 1983. At operation, slight periarterial fibrosis with calcified arteriosclerotic change was found, and dissection between the thickened intima and the media was not so difficult. Histological change of resected thromboendarterium was similar to the one observed in the pure arteriosclerotic disease. (author)

  14. Primary mycotic aneurysm of the common carotid artery: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukasiewicz, A.; Molski, S.; Jundzill, W.; Meder, G.; Lasek, W.

    2006-01-01

    Aneurysms of the common carotid artery are relatively rare. Mycotic aneurysms in such location occur even less frequently. Causative factors can be sepsis, recent surgery, or dental procedures. Immunosuppression may also be a burdening factor. The authors present the case of a 70-year-old male patient with primary mycotic carotid artery aneurysm. The patient was diagnosed with ultrasound and multidetector spiral computed tomography and treated operatively with a PTFE prosthesis. Culture-appropriate antibiotic therapy was administered during the perioperative period. The rarity of extracranial carotid artery aneurysms might cause diagnostic and treatment difficulties. Open surgery is the recommended method, although the endovascular approach is gaining more acceptance. The choice of treatment modality might be facilitated by a detailed morphologic description of the aneurysm and its surroundings. Available methods of imaging are described. (author)

  15. MR plaque imaging of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuji; Nagayama, Masako

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic carotid plaque represents a major cause of cerebral ischemia. The detection of vulnerable plaque is important for preventing future cardiovascular events. The key factors in advanced plaque that are most likely to lead to patient complications are the condition of the fibrous cap, the size of the necrotic core and hemorrhage, and the extent of inflammatory activity within the plaque. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has excellent soft tissue contrast and can allow for a more accurate and objective estimation of carotid wall morphology and plaque composition. Recent advances in MR imaging techniques have permitted serial monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution and the identification of intraplaque risk factors for accelerated progression. The purpose of this review article is to review the current state of techniques of carotid wall MR imaging and the characterization of plaque components and surface morphology with MR imaging, and to describe the clinical practice of carotid wall MR imaging for the determination of treatment plan. (orig.)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: DNS.CDV.05.AllAg.Carotid_Arteries [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Experimental study on representation of flow on the bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms using magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Rhim, Yoon Chul; Kim, Kyung Oh; Suh, Sang Ho; Jin, En Hao

    1995-01-01

    A common finding of carotid artery on magnetic resonance angiograms(MRAs) is a signal dropout along the posterior wall of carotid bulb due to reverse flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate variable flow patterns on bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms using steady-state flow. We designed phantoms of a bifurcated carotid artery with acrylic materials. Flow patterns were evaluated with axial and coronal imaging of MRA(2D-TOF, 3D-TOF), color Doppler imaging, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) within the phantoms constructed of an automated closed-type circulatory system filled with 4% sugar solution. These findings were compared with findings obtained from normal volunteers. Axial 3D-TOF MRA images exhibited closer resemblance to the contour of the inner wall of phantoms when compared to coronal 2D-TOF MRA imaging. However, 2D-TOF MRA showed good contrast difference of signal intensities between forward flow area and reverse flow area. Dark zones with reduced signal intensities due to reversed flow were separated from the outer wall of the internal and external carotid arteries by a thin layer of forward flow along the wall on the source slice image of MRA. The general hemodynamics of the phantoms on MRA were identical to hemodynamics on color Doppler imaging and CFD. The results obtained with the phantoms matched the findings on normal volunteers. Although representations of bifurcated carotid arterial phantoms on axial 3D-TOF MRA were excellent if ideally designed, the zone of reversed flow could be a significant factor in creating distorted image when the zone of reversed flow contacted directly with curved or deformed arterial wall

  5. Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masashi; Hayashi, Morito; Yagi, Fumihiko; Sato, Kenichiro; Tomita, Goji; Iwabuchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS ( P = 0.003). Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow ( P = 0.002). In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation.

  6. External Carotid-Internal Jugular Fistula as a Late Complication After Carotid Endarterectomy: A Rare Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, Bulent; Cekirge, Saruhan; Tekkok, Ismail Hakki

    2011-01-01

    A 66-year-old man presented with mild amnesia, progressive fatigue, ataxia, visual hallucinations, and debility. His past medical history included right-sided carotid endarterectomy performed elsewhere 6 years previously. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left parieto-occipital arteriovenous malformation-like tortous vessels, venous congestion, and ischemic areas. Cerebral angiography showed right-sided compound external carotid artery-internal jugular vein (IJV) fistula, and distal occlusion of the right IJV. Transvenous embolization via contralateral IJV was performed, and the fistula, together with fistulous portion of the distal IJV, was sealed using coils. Two years later, patient is well with normal neurologic examination findings. The presence of an arteriovenous communication after vascular surgery is a serious complication with potential long-term effects and therefore should be diagnosed and treated as promptly as possible.

  7. Isolated anomalous origin of the vertebral artery from the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, William W; Sabat, Shyamsunder B

    2018-04-18

    Anomalous origins of the vertebral arteries are uncommon and typically associated with other abnormalities of the great vessels. We present a case of an isolated origin of the right vertebral artery from the ipsilateral common carotid artery detected using magnetic resonance angiography. Such variants can significantly affect endovascular and surgical planning.

  8. Percutaneous implantation of endoprostheses in the carotid arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Jr. José Ribamar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the in-hospital evolution of patients undergoing percutaneous stent placement in the carotid arteries. METHODS: From August 1996 to April 2001, we studied 86 patients with carotid arterial obliterative lesions > 70% who were treated with percutaneous stent placement in the carotid arteries. We assessed the rate of success of the implantation and of the procedure, the types of stents used, mortality rate, and neurological complications. RESULTS: Successful implantation was obtained in 98.9% of the cases, and the procedure was successful in 91.8%. The Wallstent was the most frequently used stent (73 patients - 77%. Cerebral strokes occurred as follows: 3 (3.2% transient ischemic attacks, 1 (1.1% minor stroke, and 3 (3.1% major strokes. One (1.1% patient died during hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The high rate of success of stent implantation (98.9% in addition to the low rate of cerebral stroke/death (4.2% showed the efficiency and safety of percutaneous stent placement in carotid arteries.

  9. Hybrid treatment of tandem, common carotid/innominate artery and ipsilateral carotid bifurcation stenoses by simultaneous, retrograde proximal stenting and eversion carotid endarterectomy: Preliminary results of a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Frezzotti, Francesca; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Macrina, Francesco; Calio', Francesco

    2018-04-01

    Tandem stenoses of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and proximal, ipsilateral common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate artery can be treated with a hybrid approach, combining conventional carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and retrograde stenting of the proximal stenosis, through surgical exposure of the carotid bifurcation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of combining eversion CEA with retrograde CCA/innominate artery stenting. From January 2015 to July 2017, 7 patients, 6 men of a mean age of 72 years (range 59-83 years) underwent simultaneous, retrograde stenting of the proximal CCA/innominate artery and an eversion CEA of the ipsilateral ICA, through surgical exposure of the carotid bifurcation, for severe tandem stenoses. The proximal stenosis involved the left proximal CCA in 4 patients, the proximal innominate artery in 2 patients and the right CCA in one patient. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia in a conventional operating room equipped with a mobile C-arm. A covered, balloon expandable stent was deployed over the proximal stenosis via a 6-F sheath directly introduced into the proximal CCA through the obliquely transected carotid bulb. After removing the sheath, debris were flushed through the carotid bulb and eversion CEA completed the procedure. Study endpoints were: postoperative stroke/mortality rate, cardiac mortality and morbidity, peripheral nerve injury, cervical hematoma, overall late survival, freedom from ipsilateral stroke and patency of arterial reconstruction. No postoperative mortality or neurologic morbidity was observed in any patient. Cervical hematomas and peripheral nerve injuries were likewise absent. At a mean follow-up of 18 months, all the patients were alive, free from neurologic events of new onset and free from restenosis. Combined proximal stenting and eversion CEA for tandem lesions seems a valid treatment, with the advantages of eversion CEA over other techniques of carotid bifurcation

  10. Carotid disease in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Abid, A.R.; Dar, M.A.; Noeman, A.; Amin, S.; Azhar, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the severity of carotid artery disease in diabetic and non-diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: From January to June 2008, 379 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass surgery were preoperatively evaluated for the presence of carotid stenoses by duplex scanning. Patients were divided into two groups, Group I, 156 (41.2%) diabetic patients and Group II, 223 (58.8%) non-diabetic patients. Results: There were 314 (82.8%) males and 65 (17.2%) females with a mean age of 57.2+-9.1 years. In diabetic group there were 125 (80.1%) males and 31 (19.9%) females with a mean age of 56.3+-8.9 years. Left main stem stenosis was present in 59 (37.8%) diabetics and 45 (20.2%) non-diabetics (p 70% stenosis was present in 20 (5.3%) with 13 (8.3%) diabetics and 7 (3.1%) non-diabetics (p<0.025). Stenosis of 50-70% was observed in 30 (7.9%) of which 17 (10.9%) were diabetics and 13 (5.8%) were non-diabetics. Conclusion: Presence of diabetes mellitus is associated with diffuse coronary artery disease and significant carotid artery disease in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. (author)

  11. Comparisons of carotid artery stenting and carotid endoarterectomy in terms of diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Shintani, Tsunehiro; Masuda, Mikio; Higashi, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two methods of treatment for carotid arterial stenosis, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), by means of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). Nineteen treatments in 18 cases during the 2007 academic year were included in this study. CAS was performed for 9 cases with 10 lesions (10 procedures), while 9 cases with 9 lesions (9 procedures) were treated by CEA. Patients were examined by a neurologist before and after the procedure, and had pre- and post-procedural DWI. No strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) were observed in these cases. New DWI lesions were found in 7 out of the 10 procedures of CAS imaged 24 hours postprocedure, (average: 2.0 lesions). No new lesions were detected on DWI of CEA cases (χ 2 =8.33, p=0.0039). Certain high-risk subsets may respond well to CAS with a very low incidence of clinically-evident neurologic events, but with significantly higher incidence of periprocedural micro-brain embolism. Currently, CEA should be the first choice of treatment for atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis. (author)

  12. [Current guidelines on carotid artery stenting. Critical evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein-Rothweiler, R; Mudra, H

    2013-11-01

    Scientific data underlying current guidelines on treatment of carotid artery stenosis is subject to interdisciplinary discussion. In particular selective weighting of the randomized European studies leads to conflicting levels of recommendation and levels of evidence, especially when directly comparing guidelines under surgical versus endovascular guidance. Surgical guidelines recommend a limitation of carotid artery stenting (CAS) to symptomatic patients with specific surgical/anatomical disadvantages and/or severe comorbidities. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines recommend the use of CAS only in patients at increased surgical risk but at the same time requires morbidity and mortality rates comparable to those of surgical interventions. Even one step further, the American guidelines and specifically the associated comments of the German Society of Cardiology on the above mentioned ESC guidelines put CAS and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on a par in terms of treatment alternatives, presupposing analogous CEA complication rates. Differential interpretation of the so far inadequate data is a common issue of current evidence-based medicine. The difficulty in conceptualization of new studies concerning the therapy of carotid stenosis lies in the funding these large projects and also on the high patient number required to achieve adequate statistical power. Furthermore, during the estimated long study period substantial changes of current techniques and devices can be anticipated which might render the study results in part outdated by the time of publication. However, as long as no new randomized study results comparing medical, surgical and interventional treatment of carotid stenosis are available, the question on the optimal therapy for patients with carotid artery disease remains unanswered.

  13. [Arterial sequelae of pregnancy hypertension. Detection by carotid piezogram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Heine, A; Asquer, J C; Lagrue, G

    1989-01-01

    High blood pressure (HTA) is characterized by elevation of pression, but also by modifications of arterial pulse wave. Carotid piezograms were used to evaluate arterial pulse wave. Diastolic blood pressure is significantly correlated with dicrotic notch pressure. The duration of dicrotic notch is negatively correlated with arterial wall elasticity. Thus by carotid piezogram analysis one can determine the respective participation of arterial wall elasticity, peripheral resistance and cardiac factors in blood pressure elevation. Carotid piezograms were measured in 97 women (mean age 27, 8 y), with previous hypertensive pregnancy and apparently cured (mean blood pressure 122-74 mmHg at time of examination). 25 women only had normal piezogram drawing. Abnormalities similar to that of permanent hypertensive disease were observed in most cases. Dicrotic notch duration was significantly reduced and dicrotic notch pressure enhanced; in 34 women both of these abnormalities were present. In conclusion, among women previously hypertensive during pregnancy, even when blood pressure is returned to normal, abnormalities of arterial pulse wave may be present, suggesting that these women are prone to subsequent permanent hypertension.

  14. Preliminary Report of Carotid Artery Stenting Using a Tapered Stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Chang Woo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Hong, Seung; Jeong; Kim, Young Suk; Byun, Joo Nam; Oh, Jae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Seong Hwan [Dept. of Neurology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    To analyze the results of carotid artery stenting using a tapered stent and to evaluate the effectiveness of the tapered stent compared to previously reported studies using non-tapered stents. From October 2008 to August 2010, elective carotid artery stenting using a tapered stent was attempted in 39 lesions from 36 consecutive patients. Post-procedural complications were evaluated by neurologic symptoms and magnetic resonance imaging. Restenosis or occlusion was evaluated by carotid Doppler ultrasound and computerized tomography with angiography. Newly developed neurologic symptoms were evaluated clinically. The self-expandable tapered stent was placed across the carotid artery stenosis. A total stroke was noted in 3 patients, while a major stroke was noted in 1 patient. On diffusion weighted imaging, new lesions were observed in 15 patients, but 13 patients were clinically silent. Follow-up imaging studies were performed in the 13 clinically silent lesions, and no evidence of restenosis or occlusion was found any of the 13 lesions. During clinical follow-up in 34 lesions from 31 patients, there were newly developed neurological symptoms in only 1 patient.

  15. Combined application of distal and proximal embolic protection devices in endovascular stenting for severe carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-hua DU

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze and summarize methods and experiences of combined application of distal and proximal embolic protection devices(EPD in endovascular stenting for severe carotid artery stenosis.Methods Five patients with severe stenosis of the common carotid artery or with extracranial segment of the internal carotid artery diagnosed through digital subtraction angiography(DSA from March to July 2010 were involved in the present study.All patients received carotid angioplasty and stenting(CAS,with a combination of distal and proximal EPD via the percutaneous femoral artery approach.Results The operation failed in one patient,whereas technical success with no intraoperative complication was achieved in four patients.The symptoms disappeared or improved in the four cases that achieved technical success.The follow-up duration was one to three months,and no cerebral ischemia was found.Conclusion CAS with the combined application of distal and proximal EPD in some special cases of carotid artery stenosis may surmount the shortage of single EPD,reduce the risk of intraoperative embolization,decrease the time of intraoperative endovascular inflow occlusion,and reduce high-risk operations.CAS may be used as an individualized treatment strategy for patients with carotid artery stenosis.

  16. Outcomes of emergent carotid artery stenting within 6 hours of symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Won Gi; Yoon, Woong; Yim, Nam Yeol; Jung, Min Young; Jung, Se Hee; Kang, Heoung Keun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate clinical outcomes following the emergent carotid artery stenting for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Twenty-eight consecutive patients with acute stroke due to atherosclerotic steno-occlusive diseases of extracranial internal carotid artery underwent emergent carotid artery stenting. Of these, 23 patients had tandem intracranial arterial occlusions. Extracranial carotid stenting was successful in all patients. From the 13 patients who underwent intracranial recanalization procedures, successful recanalization occurred in 84.6% (11/13). 57% of patients (16/28) had a good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-2) after 3 months. Patients with successful intracranial/extracranial recanalization had a significantly higher rate of good outcome than those without recanalization after 3 months (75% vs. 33%, p = 0.027). Patients without intracranial tandem occlusions had a more favorable clinical outcome than those with intracranial tandem occlusions (100% vs. 48%, p = 0.033). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in one patient (3.6%). Mortality rate was 0% (0/28) after 3 months. Emergent carotid artery stenting in setting of acute stroke was a safe and effective treatment modality. Successful recanalization (extracranial and intracranial) and absence of intracranial tandem occlusion are significantly associated with a good outcome for our cohort of patients whom undergone emergent carotid artery stenting.

  17. A suggested training programme for carotid artery stenting (CAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, Peter; Nicholson, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting as an alternative to traditional carotid endartrectomy is becoming increasingly important in the treatment of transient ischemic attack and stroke. Physicians from several different medical disciplines are interested in treating appropriate patients by this method. Patients are entitled to know what training and experience the surgeon or clinician has before giving consent. This should involve endovascular experience in all systems and experience and knowledge of cerebral angiography and intervention. A multidisciplinary approach and reporting of adverse events is vital for patient safety

  18. Optimal Treatment of the ‘High-Risk’ Patient with Carotid Artery Stenosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Four landmark randomized trials have clearly validated the use of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for the management of asymptomatic and symptomatic significant carotid artery stenosis. However, its risk-to-benefit ratio is variable for different patients. With the advent of carotid artery stenting

  19. MRI of the carotid artery at 7 Tesla: Quantitative comparison with 3 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Wouter; De Rotte, Alexandra A J; Bluemink, Johanna J.; Van Der Velden, Tijl A.; Luijten, Peter R.; Klomp, DWJ; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the 7 Tesla (T) MRI of the carotid arteries, as quantitatively compared with 3T. Materials and Methods: The 7T MRI of the carotid arteries was performed in six healthy subjects and in two patients with carotid stenosis. The healthy group was scanned at 3T and at 7T, using

  20. Cerebral haemodynamic and metabolic changes in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, Y.; Loc'h, C.; Ottaviani, M.; Baron, J.C.; Bousser, M.

    1984-09-01

    Using the positron emission tomography, with the O 15 inhalation technique, the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) were studied in 37 patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. In the territory of the occluded ICA, two pattern of focal anomaly have been observed: a CBF decrease with a ''compensatory'' OEF increase or a matched CBF and CMRO 2 decrease. On the other hand, as compared to age matched control values, CMRO 2 is significantly decreased in the territory of the occluded carotid only in patients with extensive neck vessels obstructive disease

  1. Resection of recurrent neck cancer with carotid artery replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Schneider, Fabrice; Minni, Antonio; Calio, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with recurrent neck cancer invading the carotid artery is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate overall survival rate, primary patency of vascular reconstructions, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) after en bloc resection of the carotid artery and tumor with in-line polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) carotid grafting, followed by radiotherapy. From 2000 to 2014, 31 consecutive patients with recurrent neck cancer invading the carotid artery underwent en bloc resection and simultaneous carotid artery reconstruction with a PTFE graft, which was associated in 18 cases with a myocutaneous flap. The primary tumor was a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in 17 patients and of the hypopharynx in 7, an undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown origin in 4, and an anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid in 3. All of the patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (50-70 Gy), and 10 of them also underwent chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cisplatin). None of the patients died or sustained a stroke during the first 30 days after the index procedure. Postoperative morbidity consisted of 6 transitory dysphagias, 3 vocal cord palsies, 2 wound dehiscences, 1 transitory mandibular claudication, and 1 partial myocutaneous flap necrosis. No graft infection occurred during follow-up. Fifteen patients (48%) died from metastatic cancer during a mean follow-up of 45.4 months (range, 8-175 months). None of the patients showed evidence of local recurrence, stroke, or thrombosis of the carotid reconstruction. The 5-year survival rate was 49 ± 10%. The overall number of QALYs was 3.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.87-4.37) with a significant difference between patients without metastasis at the time of redo surgery (n = 26; QALYs, 3.74) and those with metastasis (n = 5; QALYs, 0.56; P = .005). QALYs were also significantly improved in patients with cancer of the larynx (n = 17; QALYs, 4.69) compared to patients presenting with other types of

  2. Guidelines for patient selection and performance of carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladin, Christopher; Chambers, Brian; New, Gishel; Denton, Michael; Lawrence-Brown, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The endovascular treatment of carotid atherosclerosis with carotid artery stenting (CAS) remains controversial. Carotid endarterectomy remains the benchmark in terms of procedural mortality and morbidity. At present, there are no consensus Australasian guidelines for the safe performance of CAS. We applied a modified Delphi consensus method of iterative consultation between the College representatives on the Carotid Stenting Guidelines Committee (CSGC). Selection of patients suitable for CAS needs careful consideration of clinical and patho-anatomical criteria and cannot be directly extrapolated from clinical indicators for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Randomized controlled trials (including pooled analyses of results) comparing CAS with CEA for treatment of symptomatic stenosis have demonstrated that CAS is more hazardous than CEA. On current evidence, the CGSC therefore recommends that CAS should not be performed in the majority of patients requiring carotid revascularisation. The evidence for CAS in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis who are considered medically high risk is weak, and there is currently no evidence to support CAS as a treatment for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The use of distal protection devices during CAS remains controversial with increased risk of clinically silent stroke. The knowledge requirements for the safe performance of CAS include an understanding of the evidence base from randomized controlled trials, carotid and aortic arch anatomy and pathology, clinical stroke syndromes, the differing treatment options for stroke and carotid atherosclerosis, and recognition and management of periprocedural complications. It is critical that all patients being considered for a carotid intervention have adequate pre-procedural neuro-imaging and an independent, standardized neurological assessment before and after the procedure. Maintenance of proficiency in CAS requires active involvement in surgical/endovascular audit and

  3. Surgical techniques and curative effect of carotid endarterectomy for carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the surgical techniques of carotid endarterectomy (CEA for treating carotid artery stenosis, in order to improve the surgical efficacy and reduce intraoperative adverse events and complications after operation. Methods Retrospective analysis was carried out on surgical data of 53 cases who were performed CEA from October 2010 to October 2013 in Department of Neurosurgery in Tianjin Huanhu Hospital. There were 39 males and 14 females, aged from 40 to 78 years old and mean age (60.34 ± 8.92 years old; the course of disease was from 2 d to 4 years. Twenty-six cases were diagnosed as right carotid stenosis, 15 cases left carotid stenosis and 12 cases double-sided carotid stenosis. Among all of those cases, 35 cases were diagnosed as moderate stenosis (30%-69%, 16 cases severe stenosis (70%-99% , and 2 cases complete occlusion. Results Among 53 patients, 50 patients underwent CEA; 2 cases underwent CEA and aneurysm clipping; one case underwent stent removal surgery and CEA because restenosis was found after carotid artery stenting (CAS. Postoperative neck CTA and fMRI showed good morphology of carotid artery, fluent blood flow and improved cerebral perfusion after operation. All of those patients were followed up for 3 to 24 months. One case died of myocardial infarction; 2 cases appeared skin numbness on the operating side of the neck, and the symptom disappeared 3 months later; one case appeared hoarseness after operation; 3 cases experienced mild transient ischemic attack (TIA and the symptom disappeared 2 months later. No case of stroke was found. Conclusions CEA is a safe and effective surgical approach to treat carotid stenosis. Correct and reasonable choices of the surgical indications and skilled surgical technique are the key to ensure the success of operation and to improve efficacy of the therapy. doi:10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.02.006Video: http://www.cjcnn.org/index.php/cjcnn/pages/view/v14n2a6

  4. Collateral Circles in Carotid Artery Occlusion. A Comparative Study between CW Doppler and contrast angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldi, C; Marconi, F; Parenti, G; Lenzi, B; Canapicchi, R; Padolecchia, R

    1986-01-01

    In order to evaluate the presence and efficacy of the different collateral circles, 98 patients with occlusion of the internal carotid artery between its origin and the origin of the ophtalmic artery, has been examined. Before contrast angiography, each patients was submitted to a Doppler examination with test of compression on the exsternal and common carotid arteries. The information on the collateral circles (Willis and pre-Willis) deriving from the Doppler examination seems to be interesting and more accurate. On the contrary, angiography allows a better visualisation of the extention of intercranial circles. These data show that the Doppler and angiographic techniques are complementary one to the other in the study of the collateral circles.

  5. Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring May Detect Carotid Occlusion Intolerance during Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Ryo; Furuse, Motomasa; Yagi, Ryokichi; Ohmura, Tomohisa; Ohnishi, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Naokado; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Kawabata, Shinji; Miyachi, Shigeru; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2018-02-05

    The frequency of the occurrence of adverse events associated with carotid artery stenting (CAS) is usually low, but serious adverse events such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) may occur. Real-time monitoring is ideal for the early detection of adverse events during the surgical procedure. This study aimed to evaluate continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring for the detection of adverse events during CAS. Forty patients undergoing scheduled CAS were prospectively enrolled. An artificial pancreas was used for continuous BG monitoring (once per minute), using venous blood extracted at a rate of 2 mL/hr during CAS. The primary endpoint was a correlation between BG change and adverse events. CAS was discontinued in 1 patient, and BG was not measured in 5 patients (12.5%) because of the inability to extract blood. Among 34 evaluable patients, no patient developed CHS, but 3 patients (9%) experienced carotid occlusion intolerance. During CAS, BG was significantly higher in patients with carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 5 mg/dL) than in patients without carotid occlusion intolerance (median: 0 mg/dL) (P = 0.0221). A cutoff BG value ≥4 mg/dL during CAS showed 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of carotid occlusion intolerance. There was no significant correlation between BG change and other adverse events. BG elevation may help detect carotid occlusion intolerance although it is still unknown whether BG monitoring can detect CHS. Further studies should validate that a cutoff BG elevation value of ≥4 mg/dL during CAS indicates carotid occlusion intolerance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasound Common Carotid Artery Segmentation Based on Active Shape Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Jin, Jiaoying; Xu, Mengling; Wu, Huihui; He, Wanji; Yuchi, Ming; Ding, Mingyue

    2013-01-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a major reason of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a segmentation method based on Active Shape Model (ASM) is developed and evaluated to outline common carotid artery (CCA) for carotid atherosclerosis computer-aided evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed method is used to segment both media-adventitia-boundary (MAB) and lumen-intima-boundary (LIB) on transverse views slices from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) images. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo), who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. Manually outlined boundaries by expert are adopted as the ground truth for evaluation. For the MAB and LIB segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 94.4% ± 3.2% and 92.8% ± 3.3%, mean absolute distances (MAD) of 0.26 ± 0.18 mm and 0.33 ± 0.21 mm, and maximum absolute distances (MAXD) of 0.75 ± 0.46 mm and 0.84 ± 0.39 mm. It took 4.3 ± 0.5 mins to segment single 3D US images, while it took 11.7 ± 1.2 mins for manual segmentation. The method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression. PMID:23533535

  7. Ultrasound Common Carotid Artery Segmentation Based on Active Shape Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is a major reason of stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. In this paper, a segmentation method based on Active Shape Model (ASM is developed and evaluated to outline common carotid artery (CCA for carotid atherosclerosis computer-aided evaluation and diagnosis. The proposed method is used to segment both media-adventitia-boundary (MAB and lumen-intima-boundary (LIB on transverse views slices from three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US images. The data set consists of sixty-eight, 17 × 2 × 2, 3D US volume data acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of seventeen patients (eight treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and nine with placebo, who had carotid stenosis of 60% or more, at baseline and after three months of treatment. Manually outlined boundaries by expert are adopted as the ground truth for evaluation. For the MAB and LIB segmentations, respectively, the algorithm yielded Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC of 94.4% ± 3.2% and 92.8% ± 3.3%, mean absolute distances (MAD of 0.26 ± 0.18 mm and 0.33 ± 0.21 mm, and maximum absolute distances (MAXD of 0.75 ± 0.46 mm and 0.84 ± 0.39 mm. It took 4.3 ± 0.5 mins to segment single 3D US images, while it took 11.7 ± 1.2 mins for manual segmentation. The method would promote the translation of carotid 3D US to clinical care for the monitoring of the atherosclerotic disease progression and regression.

  8. Prosthetic bypass for restenosis after endarterectomy or stenting of the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Belmonte, Romain; Schneider, Fabrice; Pizzardi, Giulia; Calió, Francesco G; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of prosthetic carotid bypass (PCB) with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts as an alternative to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in treatment of restenosis after CEA or carotid artery stenting (CAS). From January 2000 to December 2014, 66 patients (57 men and 9 women; mean age, 71 years) presenting with recurrent carotid artery stenosis ≥70% (North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial [NASCET] criteria) were enrolled in a prospective study in three centers. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Informed consent was obtained from all patients. During the same period, a total of 4321 CEAs were completed in the three centers. In these 66 patients, the primary treatment of the initial carotid artery stenosis was CEA in 57 patients (86%) and CAS in nine patients (14%). The median delay between primary and redo revascularization was 32 months. Carotid restenosis was symptomatic in 38 patients (58%) with transient ischemic attack (n = 20) or stroke (n = 18). In this series, all patients received statins; 28 patients (42%) received dual antiplatelet therapy, and 38 patients (58%) received single antiplatelet therapy. All PCBs were performed under general anesthesia. No shunt was used in this series. Nasal intubation to improve distal control of the internal carotid artery was performed in 33 patients (50%), including those with intrastent restenosis. A PTFE graft of 6 or 7 mm in diameter was used in 6 and 60 patients, respectively. Distal anastomosis was end to end in 22 patients and end to side with a clip distal to the atherosclerotic lesions in 44 patients. Completion angiography was performed in all cases. The patients were discharged under statin and antiplatelet treatment. After discharge, all of the patients underwent clinical and Doppler ultrasound follow-up every 6 months. Median length of follow-up was 5 years. No patient died, sustained a stroke, or presented with a

  9. A CT study of the prevalence of carotid artery calcification in dental patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Yoon, Woong

    2006-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Korea. Atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery bifurcation is the most common cause of stroke. The carotid artery calcification is easily appreciated by CT(Computed tomography). CT is often taken in a dental hospital for the diagnosis of inflammation. injury, cyst or tumor on maxillofacial region. However, there was no report of carotid artery calcification on CT in dental patients. The presence of carotid artery calcification was evaluated by an experienced radiologist on CT scans of 287 patients (166 males, 121 females, average age 42, range 6 to 86 years) and the medical history of the patient and the interpretation of CT were reviewed. Carotid artery calcification was detected on CT scans of 57 patients (19.8%; 35 males, 22 females). All the male patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 50, and all the female patients with carotid artery calcification were older than 60. Among the 57 patients, 10 had Diabetes mellitus, 20 had cardiovascular disease, 3 had history of stroke and 3 underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Carotid artery calcification was not included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients except one patient. The prevalence of carotid artery calcification on CT of dental patients was about 20% in this study. Carotid artery calcification should be included in the interpretation of CT of dental patients

  10. Skin autofluorescence is increased in patients with carotid artery stenosis and peripheral artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Marjon J.; Lefrandt, Joop D.; Loeffen, Erik A. H.; Saleem, Ben R.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Lutgers, Helen L.; Smit, Andries J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. We evaluated skin autofluorescence (SAF), a non-invasive measurement of tissue AGE accumulation, in patients with carotid artery stenosis with and without coexisting peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD). SAF was

  11. [The state of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarova, A F; Iurtaeva, V R; Kotovskaia, Iu V; Kobalava, Zh D

    2012-01-01

    To study elastic properties of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension (AH). We examined men aged 18-25 years (mean 21.1+/-0.14 years): 36 with normal blood pressure (BP), 123 with stable and 51 with unstable AH. Parameters studied comprised intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries, their M-mode measured maximal systolic and minimal diastolic diameters (Ds and Dd), stiffness of common carotid artery (CCA) wall determined on the basis of analysis of elasticity and distensibility coefficients (CC and DC), Peterson's and Young's modules of elasticity (Ep and E), and index of flow deformation (CS). Compared with young men with normal BP and unstable AH patients with stable AH had abnormal elastic properties of CCA and increased IMT. Stable AH in young men is associated with signs of remodeling of CCA walls and increase of their rigidity.

  12. Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting for Radiation-Induced Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorresteijn, Lucille; Vogels, Oscar; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de; Vos, Jan-Albert; Christiaans, Marleen H.; Ackerstaff, Rob; Kappelle, Arnoud C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50% at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.

  13. STA-MCA Bypass as a “Bridge” to Pituitary Surgery in a Patient with an Adenoma Occluding the Internal Carotid Artery: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi A. Lanterna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA by a pituitary adenoma with resulting cerebral ischemia is a very rare but devastating occurrence. The authors present a case in which a condition of symptomatic ICA occlusion due to a giant pituitary adenoma was successfully treated using a preliminary extraintracranial bypass as a “bridge” to the tumor removal. A 52-year-old patient presented with a minor stroke followed by pressure-dependent transient ischemic attacks consistent with a condition of hypoperfusion. MR imaging and a digital subtraction angiography revealed a pituitary adenoma occluding the ICA on the right side. He underwent a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass with the aim of revascularizing the ischemic hemisphere and reducing the risk of perioperative stroke or stroke evolution. The patient was subsequently operated on to remove the adenoma through a transsphenoidal approach. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has suffered no further ischemic events. When there are no emergency indications to decompress the optical pathways but the patient is at risk of impending stroke because of ICA occlusion, a two-step strategy consisting of a bypass and subsequent removal of the pituitary adenoma may be a valuable option.

  14. 18FDG PET and ultrasound echolucency in carotid artery plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graebe, Martin; Pedersen, Sune F; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to evaluate inflammation in echolucent carotid artery plaques. BACKGROUND: Ultrasound echolucency of carotid artery plaques has been proven to differentiate patients at high risk of stroke. On the other hand, positron emission tomography (PET) of plaques with the use...... for ultrasound and PET imaging. Plaque standardized gray scale medians (GSM) were measured in longitudinal ultrasound images to quantitate echolucency, and GSM values were compared with FDG PET uptake quantified by maximum standardized uptake values (SUV). Symptomatic plaques were compared with contralateral...... plaques ranged from high to low inflammatory activity, as depicted with PET. Quantitative FDG SUV differentiated asymptomatic from symptomatic plaques, whereas GSM values did not. There was a positive correlation between CD68 expression and FDG uptake (r = 0.50, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results...

  15. Severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis and middle cerebral artery disease in lacunar ischaemic stroke: innocent bystanders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, G E; Lewis, S C; Wardlaw, J M; Dennis, M S; Warlow, C P

    2002-03-01

    Lacunar infarcts are thought to be mostly due to intracranial small vessel disease. Therefore, when a stroke patient with a relevant lacunar infarct does have severe ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) disease, it is unclear whether the arterial disease is causative or coincidental. If causative, we would expect ICA/MCA disease to be more severe on the symptomatic side than on the asymptomatic side. Therefore, our aim was to compare the severity of ipsilateral with contralateral ICA and MCA disease in patients with lacunar ischaemic stroke. We studied 259 inpatients and outpatients with a recent lacunar ischaemic stroke and no other prior stroke. We used carotid Duplex ultrasound and transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound to identify ICA and MCA disease, and compared our results with previously published data. In our study, there was no difference between the severity of ipsilateral and contralateral ICA stenosis within individuals (median difference 0%, Wilcoxon paired data p=0.24, comparing severity of ipsilateral and contralateral stenosis). The overall prevalence of severe ipsilateral stenosis was 5%, and the prevalence of severe contralateral stenosis was 4% (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.6, 4.8). There was no difference in the prevalence of ipsilateral and contralateral MCA disease. A systematic review of the other available studies strengthened this conclusion. Carotid stenosis in patients with a lacunar ischaemic stroke may be coincidental. Further studies are required to elucidate the causes of lacunar stroke, and to evaluate the role of carotid endarterectomy.

  16. SUTURE NON-SUTSRE CIRCUMFERENTIAL REPAIR OF CAROTID ARTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Nader

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available plastic adhesives, normal butyl cyanoacrylate monomer, isobutyl cyanoacrylate monomer and methyl 2 _ cyaooacrylate monomer, have been utilized in a comparative study with 5-{ silk suture in the repair of transected carotid arteries. Follow _ up arteriog ramS indicate isobutyl cyanoacrylate monomer and normal butyl cyanoacrylate monomer as having the most impressive rerults with only tWO thrombosis each. The silk suture had three thromboses and the adhesive methyl 2 _ cyanoacrylate monomer had nine, one of which a delayed

  17. Contemporary medical therapies of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Suk F; Brown, Martin M

    2017-03-01

    Contemporary medical therapy consists of identification and treatment of all patient-modifiable vascular risk factors. Specific atherosclerotic disease therapies are designed to reduce the risk of thrombosis, and the disease progression in order to reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events. Contemporary medical management emphasizes the need to support the patient in achieving lifestyle modifications and to adjust medication to achieve individualized target values for specific quantifiable risk factors. Antiplatelet therapy in the form of aspirin or clopidogrel is routinely used for the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a transient ischemic attack or stroke. There is evidence from a recent trial that the use of combination antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel started within 24 hours of minor stroke or transient ischemic attack reduces the risk of recurrent stroke compared to the use of aspirin alone, and therefore we use aspirin plus clopidogrel in recently symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis pending carotid revascularization. Anticoagulation with heparins or vitamin K antagonist is not recommended except in patients at risk for cardio-embolic events. Lowering blood pressure to target levels has been shown to slow down the progression of carotid artery stenosis and reduces the intima-media thickness of the carotid plaque, while lowering lipid levels with statins has become an essential element in the medical therapy of carotid artery stenosis. Diabetes management should be optimized. Lifestyle choices, including tobacco smoking, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, obesity, and excessive alcohol intake, are all important modifiable vascular risk factors. The combination of dietary modification, physical exercise, and use of aspirin, a statin, and an antihypertensive agent can be expected to give a cumulative relative stroke risk reduction of 80%. The evidence suggests that intensive medical therapy is so effective that

  18. Colour Doppler evaluation of extracranial carotid artery in patients presenting with features of cerebrovascular disease: A clinical and radiological correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sehrawat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the morphological and hemodynamic changes that take place in carotid arteries by colour Doppler in patients presenting with features of stroke. Background and Objectives: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute a major cause of adult mortality. The principal indication for cerebrovascular Doppler examination is stroke prevention. Colour Doppler sonography is a sensitive method for detection of atherosclerotic plaque and provides considerable information about the extent and severity of plaque as well as the resulting diminution of arterial lumen. The main strengths of sonography of carotid arteries are patient comfort, lack of risk and accuracy in detecting carotid stenosis. Material and Methods: A prospective study of Colour Doppler in carotid arteries was carried out for 12 months from 1 st July 2009 to 1 st July 2010. The study was carried out on 40 individuals, suspected of cerebrovascular insufficiency and having one or the other risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. A detailed clinical history, CNS examination findings and evidence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart disease were noted. Carotid Doppler evaluation was done by using Siemens Antares Ultrasound system. The data gathered were grey scale and Doppler findings of common carotid artery, internal carotid artery and external carotid arteries. Doppler findings were correlated with clinical features and risk factors. Results: In our study of 40 patients, the commonest lesion found was the atherosclerotic plaque. Highest incidence of plaque was seen in males 41% in the age group of 60-70 years and in females 37% in age group of 70-80 years. Cigarette smoking was the most common risk factor (60% associated with stroke/ Transient Ischaemic Attacks (TIA. Hemiparesis was the most common presenting symptom (35% among the symptomatic cases. Atheromatous plaque was most commonly found in the right carotid system (60%. Most common site for

  19. Complications in percutaneous transluminal stenting for carotid artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shenmao; Miao Zhongrong; Zhu Fengshui; Ji Xunming; Jiao Liqun; Qi Jianshu; Ling Feng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the complications of endovascular stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Methods: Cerebral vascular angiography and cervical Doppler sonography were performed in 648 patients with carotid artery stenosis. Emboli-protected device was used in 365 patients and none in 283 patients. Results: All 648 patients were technically successful (100%). Symptoms disappeared or improved in 78.7% patients. Slow heart rate during operation existed in 26.4% patients. Embolism caused by dislodgment of emboli occurred in 5 patients, 3 of them recovered after treatment and 2 had unilateral dyskinesias. Intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 3 patients. Stroke or death within 30 days after operation occurred in 6 patients(1.24%). 322 patients (77.8%)were followed up. Restenosis occurred in 17 patients(3.3%). Conclusion: Percutaneous transluminal stenting is a safe option for carotid artery stenosis. Correct evaluation of clinical and angiographic data before operation, together with normative manipulation and nursing during and after operation are the key points to avoid complications. (authors)

  20. Software-assisted CT-postprocessing of the carotid arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhards, A.; Raab, P.; Herber, S.; Kreitner, K.F.; Mildenberger, P.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: A software assistant for automatic evaluation of CT-angiograms (CTA) was developed. It should enable the visualization of the vessel lumen and the quantitative evaluation of a stenosis. CTA examinations of patients with suspected carotid artery stenoses were used for the evaluation of the software assistant. Materials and Methods: Twelve Patients with suspected highgrade stenosis of the carotid arteries underwent a CTA examination using a multislice CT scanner. The data were analyzed and evaluated using the new software assistant. The results were compared with the data of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) of these patients. Results: The time of digital postprocessing with the new software-assistant took about six minutes on average. Contour extraction of the vessel, MIP and curved MPR (c-MPR) and orthogonal cross-sectional images of the vessels were calculated, followed by an automatic quantification of stenosis by the use of the C-MPR. A good correlation was found between CTA and DSA data regarding the stenosis grade (r=0.82). Furthermore, some information could be provided about the plaque morphology. Conclusion: The software-assisted detection and analysis of carotid artery stenosis with the new developed program is possible within a justifiable time. DSA- and CTA-data did not show a significant difference in stenosis grading. Further development of software tools could lead to a better characterization of plaque morphology. (orig.) [de

  1. Conjunctival-corneal melt in association with carotid artery stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind MK Stewart

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosalind MK Stewart1, Say Aun Quah1, Dan Q Nguyen2, Stephen B Kaye11Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK; 2Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, UKPurpose: To report a case of severe conjunctival-corneal melt in association with carotid artery stenosis.Methods: Observational case report.Results: A 76-year-old man with a history of bilateral severe carotid artery occlusion and nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy developed a spontaneous bulbar conjunctival defect. Despite intensive lubrication, and attempts at surgical closure including an amniotic membrane patch graft, it progressed with subsequent adjacent corneal perforation. Thorough investigations revealed no underlying disease, except markedly delayed episcleral vessel filling on anterior segment fluorescein angiography.Conclusions: Neovascularisation is a known factor in the inhibition of ulceration. In light of the findings in this report, ocular ischemia should be considered as a cause or contributing factor in the differential diagnosis of conjunctival-corneal melt.Keywords: conjunctival melt, corneal melt, ocular ischemia, carotid artery stenosis

  2. Carotid artery disease progression and related neurologic events after carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthymios D; Go, Catherine; Ling, Jennifer; Naddaf, Abdallah; Steinmetz, Amy; Abou Ali, Adham N; Makaroun, Michel S; Chaer, Rabih A

    2016-08-01

    During the last decade, there has been a dramatic improvement in best medical treatment for patients with vascular disease. Yet, there is a paucity of contemporary long-term data for restenosis and contralateral internal carotid artery (ICA) progression. This study assessed ipsilateral and contralateral disease progression and cerebrovascular events after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). A consecutive cohort of CEAs between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, was retrospectively analyzed. End points were restenosis ≥50% and ≥70%, contralateral carotid disease progression (50%-69%, 70%-99%, or occlusion) and stroke. Survival analysis and Cox regression models were used to assess the effect of baseline predictors. During the 11-year study period, 1639 patients underwent 1782 CEAs (50.0% patch closure, 23.9% primary closure, 26.1% eversion, and 2.5% combined with coronary artery bypass grafting). The combined stroke/death rate was 2.6% overall and 1.8% in the asymptomatic cohort. The rate of restenosis ≥50% at 2, 5, and 10 years was 8.5%, 15.6%, 27.2%, and the rate for restenosis ≥70% was 3.4%, 6.5%, 10.2%, respectively. Restenosis ≥50% was predicted by hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 2.09; P = .027), female gender (HR, 1.43; P = .042), and younger age (≤65 years; HR, 1.56; P = .016), but not by statins, surgical technique, symptoms, or other baseline risk factors. Restenoses remained asymptomatic in 125 of 148 (84.5%). Progression of contralateral ICA disease at 2, 5, and 10 years was estimated at 5.4%, 15.5%, and 46.8%, respectively. Contralateral progression was only predicted by smoking (HR, 1.74; P = .008). The stroke rate in patients with disease progression of the contralateral ICA was not different compared with those without progression (7.0% vs 3.3%; P = .063). Any-stroke rates at 2, 5, and 10 years were 4.6%, 7.3%, and 15.7%, respectively. Predictors were symptomatic lesion (HR, 1.48; P = .039), renal insufficiency, defined as a

  3. Intramural location and size of arterial calcification are associated with stenosis at carotid bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Shigeki, E-mail: shigekiyamada3@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery and Stroke Center, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho 2, Yamashina-ku, Kyoto 607-8602 (Japan); Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Oshima, Marie, E-mail: marie@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies/Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshihiko, E-mail: ynabe@magic.odn.ne.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Ogata, Hideki, E-mail: hidogata@gmail.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kenji, E-mail: hashiken8022@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Kishiwada Municipal Hospital, 1001 Gakuhara-cho, Kishiwada city, Osaka 596-8501 (Japan); Miyake, Hidenori, E-mail: hi-miyake@hamamatsuh.rofuku.go.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu Rosai Hospital, 25 Shogen-cho, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu city, Shizuoka 430-8525 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis and intramural location and size of calcification at the ICA origins and the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA. Method: A total of 1139 ICAs were evaluated stenosis and calcification on the multi-detector row CT angiography. The intramural location was categorized into none, outside and inside location. The calcification size was evaluated on the 4-point grading scale. The multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, serum creatinine level, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, smoking and alcohol habits. Results: Outside calcification at the ICA origins showed the highest multivariate odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ICA stenosis (30.0) and severe calcification (a semicircle or more of calcification at the arterial cross-sectional surfaces) did the second (14.3). In the subgroups of >70% ICA stenosis, the multivariate OR of outside location increased to 44.8 and that of severe calcification also increased to 32.7. Four of 5 calcified carotid plaque specimens extracted by carotid endarterectomy were histologically confirmed to be calcified burdens located outside the internal elastic lamia which were defined as arterial medial calcification. Conclusions: ICA stenosis was strongly associated with severe calcification located mainly outside the carotid plaque. Outside calcification at the ICA origins should be evaluated separately from inside calcification, as a marker for the ICA stenosis. Additionally, we found that calcification at the origins of the cervical arteries proximal to the ICA was significantly associated with the ICA stenosis.

  4. Duplex ultrasound surveillance after carotid artery endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Lowry, Danielle; Nath, Jay; Khawaja, Aurangzaib Z; Inston, Nicholas; Tiwari, Alok

    2016-06-01

    After carotid endarterectomy (CEA), patients have been regularly followed up by duplex ultrasound imaging. However, the evidence for long-term follow-up is not clear, especially if the results from an early duplex scan are normal. This study assessed and systematically reviewed the evidence base for long-term surveillance after CEA and a normal early scan. Electronic databases were searched for studies assessing duplex surveillance after CEA in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The primary outcome for this study was the incidence of restenosis after a normal early scan. The secondary outcome was the number of reinterventions after a normal early scan. The review included seven studies that reported 2317 procedures. Of those patients with a normal early scan, 2.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.7%-6%) developed a restenosis, and 0.4% (95% confidence interval, 0%-0.9%) underwent a reintervention for their restenosis during the follow-up period. This review confirms that routine postoperative duplex ultrasound surveillance after CEA is not necessary if the early duplex scan is normal. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonselective carotid artery ultrasound screening in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: Is it necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masabni, Khalil; Sabik, Joseph F.; Raza, Sajjad; Carnes, Theresa; Koduri, Hemantha; Idrees, Jay J.; Beach, Jocelyn; Riaz, Haris; Shishehbor, Mehdi H.; Gornik, Heather L.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nonselective preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening alters management of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and whether such screening affects neurologic outcomes. Methods From March 2011 to September 2013, preoperative carotid artery ultrasound screening was performed on 1236 of 1382 patients (89%) scheduled to undergo CABG. Carotid artery stenosis (CAS) was classified as none or mild (any type 0%–59% stenosis), moderate (unilateral 60%-79% stenosis), or severe (bilateral 60%-79% stenosis or unilateral 80%–100% stenosis). Results A total of 1069 (86%) hadcarotid endarterectomy (CEA); 11 (12%) had off-pump surgery. Of those with severe CAS, 18 (23%) had confirmatory testing, and 18 (23%) underwent combined CABG + CEA; 6 (7.8%) had off-pump surgery. Stroke occurred in 14 of 1069 (1.3%) patients with carotid artery evaluation altered the management of a minority of patients undergoing CABG; this did not translate into perioperative stroke risk. Hence, a more targeted approach for preoperative carotid artery evaluation should be adopted. PMID:26586360

  6. Pseudoaneurysm of the Common Carotid Artery in an Infant due to Swallowed Fish Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulion Tapouh Jean Roger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare condition, particularly in the paediatric population. Only about 30 cases of carotid artery aneurysms in infants have been published until now. This paper reports the case of a giant pseudoaneurysm of the left common carotid artery due to swallowed fish bone by an 8-year-old boy. This pseudoaneurysm was 5.5 cm transverse-diameter and resulted in severe respiratory distress. It was treated by resection and end-to-end anastomosis with satisfactory outcome after one-year follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest carotid artery pseudoaneurysm ever described in children.

  7. A COMPUTATIONAL FRAMEWORK INVOLVING CFD AND DATA MINING TOOLS FOR ANALYZING DISEASE IN CAROTID ARTERY BIFURCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fonn, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, like Carotid Artery Disease and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are associated with the narrowing of artery due to build-up of fatty substances and cholesterol deposits (called plaque). Carotid Artery Disease increases the chances of brain stroke. Hence, the main objective of this work is to apply computational tools to help differentiate between the healthy and unhealthy artery (with 25% stenosis) using a combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and data minin...

  8. Complications and Follow-up after Unprotected Carotid Artery Stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Drescher, Robert; Jansen, Christian; Gissler, H. Martin; Schwarz, Michael; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.; Mathias, Klaus D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. This prospective study was undertaken to determine the success rate, complications, and outcome of carotid artery stenting (CAS) without the use of cerebral protection devices. Methods. During 12 months, 94 high-grade stenoses of the carotid artery in 91 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-six (70%) of the stenoses were symptomatic and 28 (30%) were asymptomatic. Results. In all 94 carotid stenoses CAS was successfully performed. During the procedure and within the 30 days afterwards, there were 2 deaths and 3 major strokes in the 66 symptomatic patients, resulting in a combined death and stroke rate of 5 of 66 (7%). Only one of these complications, a major stroke, occurred during the procedure. In the 6-month follow-up, one additional major stroke occurred in a originally symptomatic patient resulting in a combined death and stroke rate of 6 of 66 (10%) for symptomatic patients at 6 months. No major complications occurred in asymptomatic patients during the procedure or in the 6-month follow-up period. At 6 months angiographic follow-up the restenosis rate with a degree of >50% was 3 of 49 (6%) and the rate with a degree of ≥70% was 1 of 49 (2%). Conclusions. Cerebral embolization during CAS is not the only cause of the stroke and death rate associated with the procedure. The use of cerebral protection devices during the procedure may therefore not prevent all major complications following CAS

  9. Relationship between haemodynamic impairment and collateral blood flow in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkamp, Nolan S; Petersen, Esben T; Chappell, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    Collateral blood flow plays a pivotal role in steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease to prevent irreversible ischaemic damage. Our aim was to investigate the effect of carotid artery disease upon cerebral perfusion and cerebrovascular reactivity and whether haemodynamic impairment...... is influenced at brain tissue level by the existence of primary and/or secondary collateral. Eighty-eight patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease and 29 healthy controls underwent MR examination. The presence of collaterals was determined with time-of-flight, two-dimensional phase contrast MRA and territorial....... In conclusion, both CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity were found to be reduced in symptomatic patients with steno-occlusive ICA disease. The presence of collateral flow is associated with further haemodynamic impairment. Recruitment of secondary collaterals is associated with severe haemodynamic impairment....

  10. Bilateral segmental regression of the carotid and vertebral arteries with rete compensation in a Western patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, J.; Batista, L.; Alvarez, H.; Lasjaunias, P. [Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Hopital de Bicetre, 94275 Le Kremlin Bicetre, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicetre (France); Bravo-Castro, E. [Instituto De Neurocirugia Asenjo, c/Jose Manuel Infante, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-06-01

    We report a case of symptomatic symmetrical, bilateral absence of the cavernous internal carotid (ICA) and transdural vertebral artery (VA) segments with formation of a rete mirabile. There have been similar reports in Asian patients; ours is the first in the Western population. A 29- year-old woman presented with recurrent temporary blindness and an episode of minor subarachnoid haemorrhage. Angiography demonstrated absence of the C5 and C6 segments of the ICA and the C1/2 segments of the VA bilaterally, with typical carotid rete mirabile formation to reconstitute the distal flow. Comparative anatomy and embryology show retia in several species and point to their secondary origin. The anomalies of the ICA cannot be called agenesis but rather absence since they are likely to result from perinatal disappearance of the artery rather its failure to develop. (orig.)

  11. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K

    2014-01-01

    O₂ by 10.5 (8.2-12.9%; Padministration of ephedrine while SinvosO₂ and SavO₂ decreased [by 3.1 (0.7-4.5%; P=0.017) and 2.1 (0.5-3.3%; P=0.......012)] as arterial carbon dioxide pressure decreased (P=0.003). ICAf was stable and ECAf increased by 11 (4-18%; P=0.005) with administration of ephedrine while SskinO₂ did not change. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of phenylephrine on ScO₂ is governed by a decrease in external carotid blood flow since it increases...... cerebral blood flow as determined by flow in the internal carotid artery. In contrast, ScO₂ is largely maintained with administration of ephedrine because blood flow to extracerebral tissue increases....

  12. Modeling the absorbed dose to the common carotid arteries following radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jeppe Lerche; Hedemann-Jensen, Per; Søgaard-Hansen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    External fractionated radiotherapy of cancer increases the risk of cardio- and cerebrovascular events, but less attention has been paid to the potential side effects on the arteries following internal radiotherapy with radioactive iodine (RAI), i.e. 131-iodine. About 279 per million citizens...... in the western countries are treated each year with RAI for benign thyroid disorders (about 140,000 a year in the EU), stressing that it is of clinical importance to be aware of even rare radiation-induced side effects. In order to induce or accelerate atherosclerosis, the dose to the carotid arteries has...

  13. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  14. Body mass index and outcome after revascularization for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greving, Jacoba P.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L. Jaap; Becquemin, Jean-Pierre; Bonati, Leo H.; Brott, Thomas G.; Bulbulia, Richard; Calvet, David; Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Fraedrich, Gustav; Gregson, John; Halliday, Alison; Howard, George; Jansen, Olav; Roubin, Gary S.; Brown, Martin M.; Mas, Jean-Louis; Ringleb, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the obesity paradox exists in patients who undergo carotid artery stenting (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Methods: We combined individual patient data from 2 randomized trials (Endarterectomy vs Angioplasty in Patients with Symptomatic Severe Carotid Stenosis and Stent-Protected Angioplasty vs Carotid Endarterectomy) and 3 centers in a third trial (International Carotid Stenting Study). Baseline body mass index (BMI) was available for 1,969 patients and classified into 4 groups: 120 days after randomization). This outcome was compared between different BMI strata in CAS and CEA patients separately, and in the total group. We performed intention-to-treat multivariable Cox regression analyses. Results: Median follow-up was 2.0 years. Stroke or death occurred in 159 patients in the periprocedural (cumulative risk 8.1%) and in 270 patients in the postprocedural period (rate 4.8/100 person-years). BMI did not affect periprocedural risk of stroke or death for patients assigned to CAS (ptrend = 0.39) or CEA (ptrend = 0.77) or for the total group (ptrend = 0.48). Within the total group, patients with BMI 25–<30 had lower postprocedural risk of stroke or death than patients with BMI 20–<25 (BMI 25–<30 vs BMI 20–<25; hazard ratio 0.72; 95% confidence interval 0.55–0.94). Conclusions: BMI is not associated with periprocedural risk of stroke or death; however, BMI 25–<30 is associated with lower postprocedural risk than BMI 20–<25. These observations were similar for CAS and CEA. PMID:28446644

  15. Imaging of carotid artery disease: from luminology to function?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillard, J.H. [University Department of Radiology, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2003-10-01

    There have been tremendous advances in our ability to image atheromatous disease, particularly in the carotid artery, which is accessible and large enough to image. The repertoire of methodology available is growing, giving anatomical information on luminal narrowing which is approaching the level at which conventional carotid angiography will become very uncommon as CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques become the norm. More exciting is the tentative ability to perform functional plaque imaging addressing enhancement patterns and macrophage activity using MR or positron-emission tomography techniques. These techniques, once rigorously evaluated, may, in addition to complex mathematical modelling of plaque, eventually allow us to assess true plaque risk. Time will best judge whether we will be able to move from the use of simple luminology to assessment of plaque function. (orig.)

  16. Imaging of carotid artery disease: from luminology to function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    There have been tremendous advances in our ability to image atheromatous disease, particularly in the carotid artery, which is accessible and large enough to image. The repertoire of methodology available is growing, giving anatomical information on luminal narrowing which is approaching the level at which conventional carotid angiography will become very uncommon as CT and contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques become the norm. More exciting is the tentative ability to perform functional plaque imaging addressing enhancement patterns and macrophage activity using MR or positron-emission tomography techniques. These techniques, once rigorously evaluated, may, in addition to complex mathematical modelling of plaque, eventually allow us to assess true plaque risk. Time will best judge whether we will be able to move from the use of simple luminology to assessment of plaque function. (orig.)

  17. Atherosclerosis of the carotid artery: evaluation by magnetic resonance angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildy, K S; Yuan, C; Tsuruda, J S; Ferguson, M S; Wen, N; Subramaniam, D S; Strandness, D E

    1996-01-01

    Carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques (APs) can lead to brain ischemia, an event shown to correlate with both the degree of stenosis and the composition of the AP. Currently, accurate estimates of stenosis can be obtained by either x-ray angiography or three-dimensional time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Our purpose was to determine whether three-dimensional TOF MRA images could also provide information on plaque location, morphology, and composition. Seven pre-endarterectomy patients underwent three-dimensional TOF MRA. After endarterectomy, plaque histology was evaluated. Three-dimensional TOF MRA images contained sufficient soft tissue contrast to differentiate the plaques from the surrounding tissues in all cases. Estimation of plaque morphology had 80% correlation with histology. Finally, intraplaque hemorrhage and calcification were deplicted as regions of moderately high and very low intensity, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that three-dimensional TOF MRA may be useful in studying the development and progression of carotid atherosclerosis.

  18. Lateral abdominal wall hematoma as a rare complication after carotid artery stenting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Jyunichiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abdominal wall hematoma is a rare and life-threatening complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS, but it can occur when activated clotting time is prolonged. We report a right lateral abdominal wall hematoma caused by rupture of the superficial circumflex iliac artery after CAS in a 72-year-old man with severe stenosis of the origin of the right internal carotid artery. We performed CAS for the targeted lesion while activated clotting time exceeded 300 seconds. After 2 hours, he complained of right lateral abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an extensive hematoma in the right lateral abdominal wall. Activated clotting time was 180 seconds at this point. Seven hours later, he developed hypotension and hemoglobin level dropped to 11.3 g/dl. Subsequent computed tomography showed enlargement of the hematoma. Emergent selective angiography of the external iliac artery revealed active bleeding from the right superficial circumflex iliac artery. Transcatheter arterial embolization with Gelfoam and microcoils was performed successfully. With more CAS procedures being performed, it is important for endovascular surgeons and radiologists to consider the possibility of abdominal wall hematoma in this situation.

  19. Trombose de artéria carótida interna relacionada a trauma de palato em criança Internal carotid artery thrombosis related to trauma of palate in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Souza Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de trombose de artéria carótida interna secundária relacionada a trauma de palato mole em criança. DESCRIÇÃO DO CASO: Criança admitida com quadro de alteração do nível de consciência, sonolência, afasia e hemiplegia direita; tinha antecedente de trauma corto contuso leve em palato mole há oito horas. A investigação tomográfica evidenciou acidente vascular isquêmico secundário à interrupção do fluxo sanguíneo em território de artéria cerebral média esquerda. A arteriografia mostrou oclusão da artéria carótida interna imediatamente distal à sua origem, com aspecto radiológico de "ponta de lápis", obstruindo o fluxo sanguíneo na região. A paciente foi submetida à investigação para doença pró-trombótica e cardíaca, contudo, não foi detectada nenhuma alteração. A administração de enoxaparina em dose terapêutica por três semanas conduziu à melhora clínica progressiva. Após três semanas de seguimento, a paciente não mostrava sequelas motoras. COMENTÁRIOS: As lesões intraorais são frequentes em crianças e a maioria evolui sem complicações. A trombose da artéria carótida interna é uma complicação rara, mas bem documentada destas lesões e decorre da compressão do vaso com trombogênese localizada. A taxa de mortalidade relatada é de 30% e as sequelas ocorrem em 85% dos casos.OBJECTIVE: To describe a child with internal carotid artery thrombosis secondary to trauma of the soft palate. CASE DESCRIPTION: Child presented with altered level of consciousness, drowsiness, aphasia, right hemiplegia, and a history of trauma, with mild concussion of the soft palate eight hours prior to admission. CT scan showed ischemic stroke secondary to interruption of blood flow in the area of the left middle cerebral artery. Arteriography showed occlusion of the carotid artery just distal to its origin, with radiological appearance of "pencil tip", obstructing blood flow in the region

  20. Plaque Characteristics of Patients with Symptomatic Mild Carotid Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Hiroki; Uemura, Juniti; Yagita, Yoshiki; Ogawa, Yukari; Kinoshita, Keita; Hirai, Satoshi; Ishihara, Manabu; Hara, Keijirou; Toi, Hiroyuki; Matsubara, Shunji; Nishimura, Hirotake; Uno, Masaaki

    2018-03-20

    Carotid revascularization may be considered for severe stenosis, but its use for symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) with vulnerable plaque or ulcer remains uncertain. The characteristics of patients with symptomatic mild stenosis who underwent revascularization are reviewed. The subjects of this study were 18 patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography from among 175 patients who underwent revascularization in our department. The plaques were evaluated by black-blood magnetic resonance imaging (BB-MRI) and ultrasonography (US) and classified into 2 types: type 1 (n = 15), a lesion with an ulcer or mobile plaque or thrombosis on angiography or US; and type 2 (n = 3), a lesion without any of the above. Fourteen patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent carotid artery stenting. The stenosis on angiography was 27.2% ± 10.7 (5%-41%), and the area carotid artery stenosis rate on US was 69.8 ± 14.5% (44.5%-97%). The stenosis rate of these 2 methods was not at all correlated. In type 1 plaque that underwent CEA, 10 of 11 patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology, and 1 patient had thrombus on the plaque by operative findings. In type 2 plaque that underwent CEA, all patients had vulnerable plaque by histopathology. During the follow-up period, none of the patients had restenosis or stroke. The findings of US and BB-MRI in patients with symptomatic mild stenosis (<50%) on angiography are important for determining treatment. If BB-MRI or US shows the findings of vulnerable plaque in mild stenosis, surgical treatment may be considered for these patients. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Usage of perioperative anxiety neuromarker for improving the quality of life of a patient operated on for critical stenosis of the internal carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Trystuła

    2016-09-01

    Significant changes were observed on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD. Modern neurotechnologies measures are necessary to capture all the changes in the symptoms of anxiety before and after the operation for a carotid stenosis. ERPs might be used to select patients with neuromarker of perioperative anxiety, and subsequently to serve in proper psychological care and minimalize the perioperative risk of complications.

  2. Endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis in acute occlusive carotid artery dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Brunel, Herve; Vendrell, Jean-Francois; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Internal carotid artery dissection with tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion may be responsible for large cerebral infarction that carries a general poor prognosis. Recanalization of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection by stent-assisted thrombolysis has been recently proposed. We report two cases of acute symptomatic ICA dissection with tandem occlusion successfully treated with emergent endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis using new self-expandable intracranial stents. A 37-year-old woman and a 59-year-old man were admitted in our hospital after acute severe symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of 15 and 18, respectively. In both cases, magnetic resonance angiography showed tandem occlusion and angiography confirmed tandem occlusion with ICA dissection. An extensive mismatch region was diagnosed by Perfusion-diffusion MRI of the brain within 3 h after symptoms onset. Treatment was initiated 4 h after symptom onset by implantation of self-expandable intracranial stents into the dissected ICA and administration of intra-arterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery (MCA) was accomplished within 6 h after symptoms onset. In both cases, no periprocedural complication was observed and follow-up CT scan showed only a mild brain infarct in the MCA territory. After, respectively, 12 and 10 months follow-up, patients had a favorable outcome with NIHSS 0 and mRS ≤1. Endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis appears to be a promising treatment in tandem occlusion due to ICA dissection. Our work underline the potential use of self-expandable intracranial stents in symptomatic acute ICA dissection. (orig.)

  3. Endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis in acute occlusive carotid artery dissection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourand, Isabelle [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neurology, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neurology, Service de Neurologie, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Brunel, Herve; Vendrell, Jean-Francois; Bonafe, Alain [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neuroradiology, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France); Thouvenot, Eric [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Department of Neurology, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, Cedex 5 (France)

    2010-02-15

    Internal carotid artery dissection with tandem internal carotid and middle cerebral artery occlusion may be responsible for large cerebral infarction that carries a general poor prognosis. Recanalization of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection by stent-assisted thrombolysis has been recently proposed. We report two cases of acute symptomatic ICA dissection with tandem occlusion successfully treated with emergent endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis using new self-expandable intracranial stents. A 37-year-old woman and a 59-year-old man were admitted in our hospital after acute severe symptoms of right-hemispheric stroke with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of 15 and 18, respectively. In both cases, magnetic resonance angiography showed tandem occlusion and angiography confirmed tandem occlusion with ICA dissection. An extensive mismatch region was diagnosed by Perfusion-diffusion MRI of the brain within 3 h after symptoms onset. Treatment was initiated 4 h after symptom onset by implantation of self-expandable intracranial stents into the dissected ICA and administration of intra-arterial recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. Recanalization of the ICA and middle cerebral artery (MCA) was accomplished within 6 h after symptoms onset. In both cases, no periprocedural complication was observed and follow-up CT scan showed only a mild brain infarct in the MCA territory. After, respectively, 12 and 10 months follow-up, patients had a favorable outcome with NIHSS 0 and mRS {<=}1. Endovascular stent-assisted thrombolysis appears to be a promising treatment in tandem occlusion due to ICA dissection. Our work underline the potential use of self-expandable intracranial stents in symptomatic acute ICA dissection. (orig.)

  4. Stent-assisted coil embolization for cavernous carotid artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kenichi; Shintani, Aki; Okada, Hideo; Tanaka, Yuko; Terada, Tomoaki

    2014-01-01

    Internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion with or without a bypass surgery is the traditional treatment for cavernous sinus (CS) aneurysms with cranial nerve (CN) dysfunction. Coil embolization without stents frequently requires retreatment because of the large size of CS aneurysms. We report the mid-term results of six unruptured CS aneurysms treated with stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE). The mean age of the patients was 72 years. The mean size of the aneurysms was 19.8 mm (range: 13-26 mm). Before treatment, four patients presented with CN dysfunction and two patients had no symptoms. SACE was performed under local or general anesthesia in three patients each. Mean packing density was 29.1% and tight packing was achieved. There were no neurological complications. CN dysfunction was cured in three patients (75%) and partly resolved in one patient (25%). Transient new CN dysfunction was observed in two patients (33%). Clinical and imaging follow-up ranged from 6 to 26 months (median: 16 months). Recanalization was observed in three patients (50%; neck remnant in two patients and dome filling in one patient), but no retreatment has yet been required. No recurrence of CN dysfunction has occurred yet. In summary, SACE increases packing density and may reduce requirement of retreatment with an acceptable cure rate of CN dysfunction. SACE may be a superior treatment for coiling without stents and be an alternative treatment of ICA occlusion for selected patients, such as older patients and those who require a high-flow bypass surgery or cannot receive general anesthesia.

  5. Diagnóstico clínico diferencial entre oclusão da artéria carótida interna e da artéria cerebral média A comparative symptomatological study of internal carotid artery occlusion and middle cerebral artery occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Melaragno

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi feito um estudo comparativo entre o quadro clínico inicial de 61 casos de oclusão da artéria carótida interna e o de 23 casos de oclusão da artéria cerebral média, diagnosticados pela angiografia cerebral e/ou pela necropsia em pacientes submetidos ou não à cirurgia vascular. Os autores comparam a idade dos pacientes, o sexo, o modo de início da afecção, a existência ou não de convulsões e/ou cefaléias, a ocorrência do acidente cerebral durante o sono ou em vigília, a existência de ictos prévios, os níveis de pressão arterial, o grau de consciência, a força muscular, os achados eletrencefalográficos, a palpação e ausculta das carótidas em nível cervical. Os resultados são demonstrados em índices percentuais, pelos quais os autores inferem que não há significância estatística nesses elementos com três exceções: a maior ocorrência de convulsões nas oclusões da artéria cerebral média em relação às da carótida, a oftalmodinamometria e a sintomatologia carotídea cervical. A oftalmodinamometria revela valores significantemente menores nas pressões da artéria central da retina, no mesmo lado da trombose da carótida em 70,0% dos casos, enquanto que medidas normais e simétricas verificaram-se em todos os casos de oclusão da artéria cerebral média em que o exame foi realizado. No que concerne a sinais arteriais no pescoço, havia anormalidades palpatórias e auscultatórias em 52,4% dos pacientes com trombose da carótida e em 8,6% dos casos com oclusão da cerebral média. Concluem os autores, portanto, que apenas a angiografia cerebral permite um diagnóstico seguro entre ambas as sedes da oclusão.A comparative study of the early clinical picture in 61 cases of internal carotid artery occlusion and 23 cases of middle cerebral artery occlusion, diagnosed by cerebral angiography and/or necropsy in patients who were either submitted to surgery or not operated upon is reported. The authors had

  6. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya [King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital the Thai Red Cross Society, Department of Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulalongkorn University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-10-15

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  7. Mid-cervical flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion: diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial internal carotid artery sign on computed tomographic angiography in hyperacute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakkamakul, Supada; Pitakvej, Nantaporn; Dumrongpisutikul, Netsiri; Lerdlum, Sukalaya

    2017-01-01

    Flame-shaped pseudo-occlusion of the extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) is a flow-related phenomenon that creates computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings that mimic tandem intracranial-extracranial ICA occlusion or dissection. We aim to determine the diagnostic performance of mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign on CTA in hyperacute ischemic stroke patients. We retrospectively included consecutive anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients presenting within 6 h of symptom onset who underwent 4D brain CTA and arterial-phase neck CTA using a 320-detector CT scanner during August 2012 to July 2015. Two blinded readers independently reviewed arterial-phase neck CTA and characterized the extracranial ICA configurations into mid-cervical flame-shaped, proximal blunt/beak-shaped, and tubular-shaped groups. 4D whole brain CTA was used as a reference standard for intracranial ICA occlusion detection. Diagnostic performance of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign and interobserver reliability were calculated. Of the 81 cases, 11 had isolated intracranial ICA occlusion, and 6 had true extracranial ICA occlusion. Mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign was found in 45.5% (5/11) of isolated intracranial ICA occlusions but none in the true extracranial ICA occlusion group. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign for the detection of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion were 45.5, 100, 100, 92.1, and 92.6%, respectively. Interobserver reliability was 0.90. The mid-cervical flame-shaped extracranial ICA sign may suggest the presence of isolated intracranial ICA occlusion and allow reliable exclusion of tandem extracranial-intracranial ICA occlusion in hyperacute ischemic stroke setting. (orig.)

  8. Radiographically occult perforation and dissection of the common carotid artery following stab injury to the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many diagnostic algorithms have been devised to reduce the rate of negative explorations associated with indiscriminate surgical management of penetrating neck injuries. In hemodynamically stable patients, the need for surgical intervention is usually determined by integrating both clinical signs and radiological findings; if such investigations remain unremarkable, recommended treatment consists in close observation and sequential physical examinations. We report on a 29-year-old male who was admitted to a Swiss tertiary care hospital after sustaining a penetrating injury to his left neck following a knife attack. Disregarding a pre-hospital account of hemorrhage from the wound and slight dysphagia, no manifest symptoms or signs of internal organ damage were present on primary survey. Moreover, there was no evidence of vascular or aerodigestive tract injury on initial CT angiography. We nonetheless proceeded with immediate surgical exploration, exposing a significant perforation of the left common carotid artery with concomitant dissection of the said vessel. Surgical repair was successfully performed and the patient suffered no long-term sequelae. We thus recommend that a high level of suspicion be upheld in both asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic patients with PNI and that clinical practitioners remain cautious in the face of deceptively reassuring radiologic findings. Keywords: Penetrating neck injury, Carotid artery perforation, Carotid artery dissection, CT angiography

  9. Thyroid abnormality secondary to tortuous carotid artery. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, R.T.; Siddiqui, A.R.

    1986-05-01

    A 59-year-old man was referred to the nuclear medicine service for a thyroid scan, as his neck was thick and the thyroid was not palpable. In the past the patient had undergone head and neck irradiation for acne. A /sup 123/I-thyroid scan was interpreted as a ''cold'' nodule in the lower pole of the right lobe, but thyroid ultrasound showed no thyroid abnormality. Repeat ultrasound examination eventually showed a tortuous carotid artery behind the lower pole of the right lobe of the thyroid that corresponded to the ''cold'' defect.

  10. Carotid artery plaque imaging. Present status and new perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishikawa, Tomohito; Date, Isao; Iihara, Koji; Yamada, Naoaki; Ueda, Hatsue; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    At present, the management of carotid artery (CA) stenosis depends largely on the degree of stenosis. CA plaque imaging is a modality, which assesses the nature of CA plaques objectively and less invasively, that has developed remarkably in recent years. The use of CA plaque imaging in the management of CA stenosis not only reveals the degree of stenosis but it can make the selection of treatment more appropriate by taking the plaque character into consideration. In this manuscript, we introduce ultrasound, intravascular ultrasound, angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) and describe the present situation and new perspectives of CA plaque imaging. (author)

  11. Spasm induced by protection balloon during carotid artery stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Masanori; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi; Onizuka, Masanari

    2007-01-01

    The PercuSurge system is a distal balloon embolic protection device used for carotid artery stenting (CAS). We performed a retrospective study on the prognosis and clinical effects of spasms induced by the PercuSurge GuardWire system (PercuSurge-induced spasm). We performed CAS in 118 carotid stenoses using the PercuSurge system. Of the 118 procedures, 31 (26.3%) of the patients experienced PercuSurge-induced spasm, and all underwent postoperative follow-up studies by cerebral angiography and antiplatelet treatment. On follow-up angiograms obtained a mean of 5.2 months (range 3-10 months) after CAS, all 31 PercuSurge-induced spasms had disappeared, and no delayed stenosis was found at the sites where the spasms had occurred. No ischemic events due to the spasms occurred during a mean follow-up of 13 months (range 3-32 months). In the hands of physicians experienced in endovascular surgery, CAS using the PercuSurge system is a safe method with which to treat patients with carotid stenosis. Our study demonstrated that PercuSurge-induced spasms had no morphological or clinical adverse effects. (author)

  12. Carotid Artery Stenting in a Patient With a Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Michele; Squizzato, Francesco; Grego, Franco; Bottio, Tommaso; Gerosa, Gino; Antonello, Michele

    2016-08-01

    To demonstrate the safety and feasibility of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in a patient with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD). A 54-year-old woman with a LVAD was referred for a 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery (ICA). The patient was offered CAS, and oral anticoagulant was not discontinued in the periprocedural period. Because of absent arterial pulses, percutaneous transfemoral access was obtained under ultrasound guidance. Particular attention was paid to cannulation of the innominate artery; a 7-F guiding catheter was advanced from the descending aorta into the innominate artery under road-mapping, avoiding maneuvers in the ascending aorta where the outflow Dacron graft of the LVAD was anastomosed. To avoid cerebral flow modifications, the Angioguard RX was used as the cerebral protection device rather than other devices such as the flow reversal or flow-clamping systems. At this point, CAS was performed in a standard fashion using the 7×30-mm Precise ProRX stent. The computed tomography angiogram at 6 months showed patency of the stented right ICA. With adequate planning, CAS appears feasible in patients with a LVAD. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Application of willis covered stent in the treatment of aneurysms located in the cisternal segment of the internal carotid artery: a pilot comparative study with long-term follow-up results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yueqi; Li Minghua; Fang Chun; Wang Wu; Zhang Peilei; Cheng Yingsheng; Tan Huaqiao; Wang Jianbo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Complicated aneurysms located in the cisternal segment of the internal carotid artery(ICA-CSA) present unique therapeutic difficulties. This study is to discuss the feasibility of the Willis stent-graft in treating complicated ICA-CSA by comparing its effect with that of coiling therapy. Methods: Willis covered stents were employed in 19 complicated ICA-CSAs (group A), while coils were used in 17 complicated ICA-CSAs (group B). Follow-up angiography was performed to investigate aneurysm recurrence, endoleak and parent artery (PA) stenosis. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to compare the recurrence-free and PA stenosis-free rate in both groups. Results: Total exclusion was immediately achieved in 13 ICA-CSAs and minor endoleaks presented in 5 cases in group A. Total or near-total occlusion was achieved in 7 ICA-CSAs, subtotal occlusion in 8 and partial occlusion in 2 cases in group B after coiling. Acute thrombosis occurred in 1 patient in either group and re-hemorrhage happened in 1 patient after coiling. Follow-up angiography in group A revealed that 16 ICA-CSAs were completely isolated, with two parent arteries showing mild in-stent stenosis. Eighteen months after the procedure, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the recurrence-free rate was 93.3% and 50%, while the stenosis-free rate of parent artery was 87.5% and 100% in group A and in Group B, respectively. In group A and group Bthe clinical neurological symptoms were fully recovered in 9 and 9, obviously improved in 3 and 5, unchanged in 2 and 2, and aggravated in one and 0 patients, respectively. Conclusion: The implantation of Willis stent-graft is a feasible endovascular therapy for complicated ICA-CSAs. When the parent artery is very tortuous or when the risk that a main collateral branch may be wrongly covered and occluded is present, the implantation of Willis covered stent can not be taken as the treatment of first choice. (authors)

  14. Carotid artery calcification in ischemic stroke patients detected in standard dental panoramic radiographs - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, P.; Kiliaridis, S.; Leemann, B.; Schimmel, M.; Muller, F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Examine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications in standard dental panoramic radiographs (OPT), their association to gender, medical history and oral status. Assess the predictive value of a dental OPT in early diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Material and Methods: Fourteen patients admitted to Geneva University Hospital for recent ischemic stroke and stenosis of the carotid artery confirmed by Duplex sonography. All OPTs were digitised and subsequently assessed independently by two operators. Results: From 21 carotid artery calcifications detected with Doppler sonography 15 were visible on the corresponding OPT, most of them on the right side (n=11). No correlation was found between the side of calcification and cerebral lesion. Hypertension and periodontal disease were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Dentists who either detect carotid artery calcifications in OPTs or see patients with severe periodontitis should consider a prophylactic specialist examination. (authors)

  15. Development of a Duplex Ultrasound Simulator and Preliminary Validation of Velocity Measurements in Carotid Artery Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierler, R Eugene; Leotta, Daniel F; Sansom, Kurt; Aliseda, Alberto; Anderson, Mark D; Sheehan, Florence H

    2016-07-01

    Duplex ultrasound scanning with B-mode imaging and both color Doppler and Doppler spectral waveforms is relied upon for diagnosis of vascular pathology and selection of patients for further evaluation and treatment. In most duplex ultrasound applications, classification of disease severity is based primarily on alterations in blood flow velocities, particularly the peak systolic velocity (PSV) obtained from Doppler spectral waveforms. We developed a duplex ultrasound simulator for training and assessment of scanning skills. Duplex ultrasound cases were prepared from 2-dimensional (2D) images of normal and stenotic carotid arteries by reconstructing the common carotid, internal carotid, and external carotid arteries in 3 dimensions and computationally simulating blood flow velocity fields within the lumen. The simulator displays a 2D B-mode image corresponding to transducer position on a mannequin, overlaid by color coding of velocity data. A spectral waveform is generated according to examiner-defined settings (depth and size of the Doppler sample volume, beam steering, Doppler beam angle, and pulse repetition frequency or scale). The accuracy of the simulator was assessed by comparing the PSV measured from the spectral waveforms with the true PSV which was derived from the computational flow model based on the size and location of the sample volume within the artery. Three expert examiners made a total of 36 carotid artery PSV measurements based on the simulated cases. The PSV measured by the examiners deviated from true PSV by 8% ± 5% (N = 36). The deviation in PSV did not differ significantly between artery segments, normal and stenotic arteries, or examiners. To our knowledge, this is the first simulation of duplex ultrasound that can create and display real-time color Doppler images and Doppler spectral waveforms. The results demonstrate that an examiner can measure PSV from the spectral waveforms using the settings on the simulator with a mean absolute error

  16. Computational model of collagen turnover in carotid arteries during hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez, P; Peña, E; Tarbell, J M; Martínez, M A

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that biological tissues adapt their properties because of different mechanical and chemical stimuli. The goal of this work is to study the collagen turnover in the arterial tissue of hypertensive patients through a coupled computational mechano-chemical model. Although it has been widely studied experimentally, computational models dealing with the mechano-chemical approach are not. The present approach can be extended easily to study other aspects of bone remodeling or collagen degradation in heart diseases. The model can be divided into three different stages. First, we study the smooth muscle cell synthesis of different biological substances due to over-stretching during hypertension. Next, we study the mass-transport of these substances along the arterial wall. The last step is to compute the turnover of collagen based on the amount of these substances in the arterial wall which interact with each other to modify the turnover rate of collagen. We simulate this process in a finite element model of a real human carotid artery. The final results show the well-known stiffening of the arterial wall due to the increase in the collagen content. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Applying the payoff time framework to carotid artery disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuo, Theodore H; Roberts, Mark S; Braithwaite, R Scott; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2013-11-01

    and Asymptomatic stenosis of the carotid arteries is associated with stroke. Carotid revascularization can reduce the future risk of stroke but can also trigger an immediate stroke. The objective was to model the generic relationship between immediate risk, long-term benefit, and life expectancy for any one-time prophylactic treatment and then apply the model to the use of revascularization in the management of asymptomatic carotid disease. In the "payoff time" framework, the possibility of losing quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) because of revascularization failure is conceptualized as an "investment" that is eventually recouped over time, on average. Using this framework, we developed simple mathematical forms that define relationships between the following: perioperative probability of stroke (P); annual stroke rate without revascularization (r0); annual stroke rate after revascularization, conditional on not having suffered perioperative stroke (r1); utility levels assigned to the asymptomatic state (ua) and stroke state (us); and mortality rates (λ). In patients whose life expectancy is below a critical life expectancy (CLE = P/(1-P)r0-r1, the "investment" will never pay off, and revascularization will lead to loss of QALYs, on average. CLE is independent of utilities assigned to the health states if a rank ordering exists in which ua > us. For clinically relevant values (P = 3%, r0 = 1%, r1 = 0.5%), the CLE is approximately 6.4 years, which is longer than published guidelines regarding patient selection for revascularization. In managing asymptomatic carotid disease, the payoff time framework specifies a CLE beneath which patients, on average, will not benefit from revascularization. This formula is suitable for clinical use at the patient's bedside and can account for patient variability, the ability of clinicians who perform revascularization, and the particular revascularization technology that is chosen.

  18. Analysis of the population at high risk of stroke detected with carotid artery ultrasonography in Tianjin urban communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei YUE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the features of carotid atherosclerosis in a population at high risk of stroke in urban communities of Tianjin, so as to provide inspiration for carotid ultrasonography to play a greater role in the prevention and control of stroke.  Methods A total of 956 residents at high risk of stroke were selected from 4 urban communities in Tianjin using cluster random sampling method. Doppler ultrasound screening was performed in bilateral common carotid artery (CCA, internal carotid artery (ICA, external carotid artery (ECA, vertebral artery (VA, subclavian artery (SCA and innominate artery of the population. The intima-media thickness (IMT, atherosclerotic plaque formation and its location and size, vascular stenosis or occlusion, and flow spectrum were detected. The results and features of carotid ultrasound screening were analyzed and compared among different gender and age groups.  Results 1 The detection rate of carotid atherosclerosis was 71.55% (684/956, and the detection rate in males was significantly higher than that in females (79.08% vs 65.87%; χ2 = 20.067, P = 0.000. 2 Among the population with carotid atherosclerosis, the most common manifestation was the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (81.58%, 558/684, secondly intima-media thickening (13.01%, 89/684, followed by moderate to severe stenosis or occlusion (5.41%, 37/684. The proportion of intima-media thickening in males was lower than that in females (7.08% vs 18.38%; χ2 = 19.269, P = 0.000. The proportion of carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in males was higher than that in females (86.46% vs 77.16%; χ2 = 9.824, P = 0.002. The median rating of carotid atherosclerosis was 1.79, with males higher than females [1.98 (0.70, 3.26 vs 1.52 (0.20, 2.84; Z = 2.304, P = 0.042]. The site of plaque formation was most commonly located in carotid bulb (36.61%, secondly SCA (22.18%. Of the type of carotid stenosis, ICA stenosis was detected in 30 cases, VA

  19. Petrous internal carotid aneurysm causing epistaxis: Balloon embolization with preservation of the parent vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willinsky, R.; Lasjaunias, P.; Pruvost, P.; Boucherat, M.

    1987-11-01

    A patient with severe, recurrent posterior epistaxis was shown at angiography to have an aneurysm of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Since childhood, she had had pain related to eustachian tube blockage by the aneurysm. An endovascular balloon embolization of the aneurysm was successful with preservation of the parent artery. The treatment resulted in resolution of the symptoms. The report confirms the usefulness of an angiographic protocol in evaluating vascular problems.

  20. Petrous internal carotid aneurysm causing epistaxis: Balloon embolization with preservation of the parent vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willinsky, R.; Lasjaunias, P.; Pruvost, P.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with severe, recurrent posterior epistaxis was shown at angiography to have an aneurysm of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Since childhood, she had had pain related to eustachian tube blockage by the aneurysm. An endovascular balloon embolization of the aneurysm was successful with preservation of the parent artery. The treatment resulted in resolution of the symptoms. The report confirms the usefulness of an angiographic protocol in evaluating vascular problems. (orig.)

  1. Rapid Formation of Cerebral Microbleeds after Carotid Artery Stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousuke Kakumoto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies reported that cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, i.e. small areas of signal loss on T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE imaging, could develop rapidly after acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that CMBs rapidly emerge after carotid artery stenting (CAS. Objective: We investigated the frequency of and predisposing factors for CMBs after CAS. Methods: We retrospectively examined MRI before and after CAS in 88 consecutive patients (average age: 71.7 ± 7.2 years, average rates of carotid stenosis: 72.6 ± 12.8% who underwent CAS for carotid artery stenosis between March 1, 2009, and September 30, 2010. We defined new CMBs as signal losses that newly appeared on the follow-up GE. We examined the association of new CMBs with demographics, risk factors, and baseline MBs. Results: Among 88 patients, 18 (20.5% had CMBs initially, and 7 (8.0% developed new CMBs right after CAS. New CMBs appeared on the same side of CAS in all of the 7 patients. New CMBs appeared significantly more frequently in the CMB-positive group than in the CMB-negative one (22% vs. 4%, p = 0.03 on the pre-CAS MRI. Multivariate analysis also revealed that the presence of CMBs before CAS was an independent predictor of new development of CMBs after CAS (odds ratio: 8.09, 95% confidence interval: 1.39–47.1. Conclusion: CMBs can develop rapidly after CAS, especially in patients with pre-existing CMBs. Since the existence of CMBs prior to CAS suggests a latent vascular damage which is vulnerable to hemodynamic stress following CAS, particular attention should be paid to the prevention of intracerebral hemorrhage due to hyperperfusion after CAS.

  2. Focal ischemia of the brain after neuroprotected carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Michael; Tübler, Thilo; Steffens, Johann C; Mathey, Detlef G; Schofer, Joachim

    2003-09-17

    This study sought to assess the incidence of cerebral ischemia in nonselected patients undergoing neuroprotected carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) without preceding multiple-vessel diagnostic angiography. Protection devices to prevent distal embolization during CAS are presently under clinical investigation. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) visualizes recent ischemia of the brain and may aid in assessing the efficacy of protection devices. Elective CAS was performed in 42 consecutive patients (15 female, 27 male; mean age, 67 +/- 9 years) using six different types of cerebral protection systems. All patients underwent MRI of the brain before and after a total of 44 interventions. Placement and retrieval of the devices and stent deployment was achieved in all procedures. New ischemic foci were seen on postinterventional MRI in 10 cases (22.7%). One patient had sustained a major stroke, whereas no adverse neurological sequelae were associated with the other nine procedures. In the latter, one to three foci (maximum area 43.0 mm(2)) were detected in cerebral regions subtended by the ipsilateral carotid artery in eight cases and by the contralateral carotid artery in one case. In the stroke patient, 12 ischemic foci (maximum area 84.5 mm(2)) were exclusively located in the contralateral hemisphere. Follow-up MRI at 4.1 months (median, n = 7) identified residuals of cerebral ischemia only in this patient. Neuroprotected CAS is associated in about 25% of cases with predominantly silent cerebral ischemia. Our findings suggest manipulation of endoluminal equipment in the supraaortic vessels to be a major risk factor for cerebral embolism during neuroprotected CAS.

  3. MRT of carotid stents: influence of stent properties and sequence parameters on visualization of the carotid artery lumen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straube, T.; Wolf, S.; Alfke, K.; Jansen, O.; Flesser, A.; Deli, M.; Nabavi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate MR artifacts of carotid artery stents and to optimize stent properties and sequence parameters. Material and Methods: Four carotid artery stents - Wallstent (mediloy), Precise (nitinol), ACCULINK (nitinol) and a stent prototype (nitinol) - were investigated in a flow model of the cervical vessels. The model was made of silicon tubing and a flow pump that produces realistic flow curves of the carotid artery. To investigate the effects of magnetic susceptibility and radiofrequency induced shielding artifacts, turbo spin echo and gradient echo sequences as well as CE-MRAs were measured. To improve the visualization of the stent lumen in a CE-MRA, flip angle as well as geometry and covering of the stent prototype were altered. Results: Susceptibility artifacts in stents of the carotid artery only influence the lumen visualization at the proximal and distal end of the braided mediloy stent. A change of stent coverings has no significant influence on radiofrequency artifacts, whereas a reduction in linking elements between stent segments and a change in diameter of stent struts improves visualization of the stent lumen. By increasing the flip angle in a CE-MRA, visualization of the stent lumen is possible in both mediloy and nitinol stents. Conclusion: The choice of stent material and changes in stent geometry as well as the optimization of the flip angle of the CE-MRA may reduce susceptibility and radiofrequency artifacts, rendering feasible the CE-MRA of a stented carotid artery. (orig.)

  4. Studies on reconstruction of the carotid artery in the neck using arterial vessels irradiated by a large amount of high voltage electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    High voltage electron beam of 2,000,000 rad was irradiated to the common carotid arteries excised from dogs. After keeping them in a frozen state, they were replaced with the common carotid arteries of other adult dogs. The border of the artery transplanted could not be identified from the x-ray films 7 - 36 months after transplantation. There was no stenosis or dilation in the artery on either x-ray films or in histopathological examinations. There was no tissue reaction in the homologous transplantation, but all the cells died and the nuclei of muscular fibers of the tunica media disappeared. However, the internal elastica and other elastic fibers were unchanged. Cells proliferated from the original artery to form a false inner coat. Noradrenergic nerves and the vasa vasorum did not enter the graft. Thus, the arteries transplanted were only substitutive vessels. A rabbit abdominal aorta which was transplanted to a dog common carotid artery, showed sacculated dilation or obstruction. In the case of obstruction, severe tissue reaction was recognized. In the case of sacculated dilation, thinning of the arterial wall at the dilated part and fragmentation of the elastic fibers of the tunica media were observed, and other tissues also tended to be destructed and absorbed. (Ichikawa, K.)

  5. [Prevalence of carotid artery stenosis in nonagenarians: Survey in a primary care hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlender, J; Nussberger, J; Ménard, J; Bohlender, B

    2017-06-01

    Carotid artery stenosis increases with age and may cause brain ischemia if arterial hypotension occurs. We performed a monocentric pilot study to investigate its prevalence in the very elderly and to assess its potential influence on blood pressure (BP) goals during antihypertensive treatment. All patients≥90 years of a primary care medical ward were prospectively included over 15 months. Ultrasound exams of the precerebral arteries were offered to all elderly patients for routine evaluation of their cardiovascular risk. Frequencies of stenosed common, internal and external carotid arteries (CCA, ICA, ECA) were analyzed together with clinical BP and antihypertensive therapy. Patients with circulatory shock and readmissions were excluded. Sixty-three patients aged 92±3 years (78% female) hospitalized for a median of 11 days were included. On admission, 76% were on antihypertensive drugs vs. 86% at discharge. Mean admission BP was 149/77 vs. 129/72mmHg at discharge; systolic BP<140mmHg 36% vs 64% (P<0.05). Mean intima-media thickness (ACC, right/left) was 8.7/9.4mm. Prevalence of plaque or stenosis<60% was: CCA 19.0%, ICA 19.0%, ECA 31.7%, bulb 74.6%; of stenosis≥60%: CCA 0%, ICA 7.9%, ECA 19.0%, ICA bilateral 1.6% (unilateral occlusion 3.1%, no bilateral). Coincidence of systolic BP<120mmHg and ACI stenosis≥60% had a probability of 1-2%. Concerning the risk of brain ischemia due to carotid artery stenosis, a BP goal<140mmHg should be safe for most nonagenarians. If individual BP goals are lower, searching for significant stenosis by ultrasound may be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Intracranial cerebral artery stenosis with associated coronary artery and extracranial carotid artery stenosis in Turkish patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Ozlem [Department of Radiology, Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara (