WorldWideScience

Sample records for internal anatomical structure

  1. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  2. Internal rib structure can be predicted using mathematical models: An anatomic study comparing the chest to a shell dome with application to understanding fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casha, Aaron R; Camilleri, Liberato; Manché, Alexander; Gatt, Ruben; Attard, Daphne; Gauci, Marilyn; Camilleri-Podesta, Marie-Therese; Mcdonald, Stuart; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-11-01

    The human rib cage resembles a masonry dome in shape. Masonry domes have a particular construction that mimics stress distribution. Rib cortical thickness and bone density were analyzed to determine whether the morphology of the rib cage is sufficiently similar to a shell dome for internal rib structure to be predicted mathematically. A finite element analysis (FEA) simulation was used to measure stresses on the internal and external surfaces of a chest-shaped dome. Inner and outer rib cortical thickness and bone density were measured in the mid-axillary lines of seven cadaveric rib cages using computerized tomography scanning. Paired t tests and Pearson correlation were used to relate cortical thickness and bone density to stress. FEA modeling showed that the stress was 82% higher on the internal than the external surface, with a gradual decrease in internal and external wall stresses from the base to the apex. The inner cortex was more radio-dense, P rib level. The internal anatomical features of ribs, including the inner and outer cortical thicknesses and bone densities, are similar to the stress distribution in dome-shaped structures modeled using FEA computer simulations of a thick-walled dome pressure vessel. Fixation of rib fractures should include the stronger internal cortex. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Internal structure of mandible around mandibular molar using computed tomography. Anatomical consideration of molar anchorage in orthodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Yutaka; Yamashita, Daisuke; Saito, Katsuhiko; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2008-01-01

    For establishment of fine occlusion, facial profile and oral function in orthodontic treatment, molar anchorage in teeth movement is important manner in extracted cases. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between facial morphology and internal structure of mandibular body in molar region by computer tomography, and to discuss about molar anchorage in orthodontic treatment. The data for this study were obtained from 35 modern male Japanese skulls (mean age; 27 year-old, ranged from 18 year-old to 47 year-old). Measurement variables were FMA, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, alveolar breadth, cortical bone thickness of buccal and lingual sides, and the distance between dental root and cortical bone. As a result, alveolar breadth and the distance between dental root and cortical bone were narrow in long facial type, on the contrary, these variables were wide in short facial type. The result suggested that these variables were considered important factors as molar anchorage in extracted cases. (author)

  4. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  5. Posterolateral supporting structures of the knee: findings on anatomic dissection, anatomic slices and MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, M. de; Shahabpour, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium); Roy, F. van [Dept. of Experimental Anatomy, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    In this article we study the ligaments and tendons of the posterolateral corner of the knee by anatomic dissection, MR-anatomic correlation, and MR imaging. The posterolateral aspect of two fresh cadaveric knee specimens was dissected. The MR-anatomic correlation was performed in three other specimens. The MR images of 122 patients were reviewed and assessed for the visualization of different posterolateral structures. Anatomic dissection and MR-anatomic correlation demonstrated the lateral collateral, fabellofibular, and arcuate ligaments, as well as the biceps and popliteus tendons. On MR images of patients the lateral collateral ligament was depicted in all cases. The fabellofibular, arcuate, and popliteofibular ligaments were visualized in 33, 25, and 38% of patients, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a detailed appreciation of the posterolateral corner of the knee. (orig.)

  6. The ligament of Parks as a key anatomical structure for safer hemorrhoidectomy: Anatomic study and a simple surgical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menelaos Zoulamoglou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhoids are a common anal disorder which affects both men and women of all ages. One out of ten patients with hemorrhoidal disease, requires surgical treatment. Unfortunately though, hemorrhoidectomy is closely related to complications that can be present early or late postoperatively. In the present manuscript, the safe surgical technique which emphasizes to the identification of the key anatomical structure of the ligament of Parks (Trietz's muscle is adequately described. A total of 200 patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, underwent Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson's hemorrhoidectomy. The mucosal ligament of Parks was identified to all patients and was used as a key anatomical structure through the excision of the hemorrhoids. Its identification guides surgeons during the operation and reduces the major problem of postoperative complications. Finally, since the mucosal ligament of Parks represents a constantly identifiable landmark, it allows simple and reliable identification of the internal sphincter muscle and minimizes the probability of postoperative complications.

  7. Probabilistic anatomical labeling of brain structures using statistical probabilistic anatomical maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byung Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Shin, Hee Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The use of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) program has increased for the analysis of brain PET and SPECT images. Montreal neurological institute (MNI) coordinate is used in SPM program as a standard anatomical framework. While the most researchers look up Talairach atlas to report the localization of the activations detected in SPM program, there is significant disparity between MNI templates and Talairach atlas. That disparity between Talairach and MNI coordinates makes the interpretation of SPM result time consuming, subjective and inaccurate. The purpose of this study was to develop a program to provide objective anatomical information of each x-y-z position in ICBM coordinate. Program was designed to provide the anatomical information for the given x-y-z position in MNI coordinate based on the statistical probabilistic anatomical map (SPAM) images of ICBM. When x-y-z position was given to the program, names of the anatomical structures with non-zero probability and the probabilities that the given position belongs to the structures were tabulated. The program was coded using IDL and JAVA language for the easy transplantation to any operating system or platform. Utility of this program was shown by comparing the results of this program to those of SPM program. Preliminary validation study was performed by applying this program to the analysis of PET brain activation study of human memory in which the anatomical information on the activated areas are previously known. Real time retrieval of probabilistic information with 1 mm spatial resolution was archived using the programs. Validation study showed the relevance of this program: probability that the activated area for memory belonged to hippocampal formation was more than 80%. These programs will be useful for the result interpretation of the image analysis performed on MNI coordinate, as done in SPM program

  8. Environmental impact on morphological and anatomical structure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphological and anatomical structure of Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) from two specific locations in one town, depending on environmental conditions, were carried out: anthropogenic Ada Huja (polluted zone) and non anthropogenic Topcider park (unpolluted). Study included the diferences in the structure of leaves, ...

  9. Anatomizing the Mechanics of Structural Change

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Carrera, Jaime; Freire Serén, María Jesús; Raurich, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    We characterize several possible mechanisms of structural change by using a general multisector growth model, where preferences and technologies are not parameterized. In this generic set up, we derive the growth rates of sectoral employment shares at the equilibrium. We find that the economic fundamentals governing structural change in the sectoral employment shares are: (i) the income elasticities of the demand for consumption goods; (ii) the Allen-Uzawa elasticities of substitution between...

  10. Anatomic Pathology Structured Report Under FHIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2016-06-01

    A first FHIR based structured report was created and validated against a public available FHIR server (http:// spark.furore.com/fhir. FHIR allows to create different document structures for any type of document: a document only with inside resources or a document with inside and outside (linked resources. Our example consists of resources embedded in the main document file and linked resources. The FHIR document allows a great flexibility related to the document resources as well as data files. It is possible FHIR documents as XML, JSON (JavaScript Object Notation or RDF (Resource Description Framework. Due to these various possibilities FHIR documents can be used in a web based application context easily.

  11. Salt effect on physiological, biochemical and anatomical structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we evaluated the salt concentration effect on plant growth, mineral composition, antioxidant responses and anatomical structure of two varieties of Origanum majorana after exposure to NaCl treatment. Our results show an inclusive behaviour of the two varieties, since the majority of sodium was exported and ...

  12. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment betw...

  13. Dissimilarity-based classification of anatomical tree structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lauge Emil Borch Laurs; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for classification of abnormality in anatomical tree structures is presented. A tree is classified based on direct comparisons with other trees in a dissimilarity-based classification scheme. The pair-wise dissimilarity measure between two trees is based on a linear assignment...

  14. Gross anatomical syringeal structures of goose (Anser anser domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: There were some similarities and some differences of the anatomical structures of the syrinx of goose and that of other bird species. No differences between male and female syrinx were observed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 343-347

  15. Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for internal jugular vein catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brass, Patrick; Hellmich, Martin; Kolodziej, Laurentius; Schick, Guido; Smith, Andrew F

    2015-01-09

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) can help with diagnosis and treatment of the critically ill. The catheter may be placed in a large vein in the neck (internal jugular vein), upper chest (subclavian vein) or groin (femoral vein). Whilst this is beneficial overall, inserting the catheter risks arterial puncture and other complications and should be performed with as few attempts as possible. Traditionally, anatomical 'landmarks' on the body surface were used to find the correct place in which to insert catheters, but ultrasound imaging is now available. A Doppler mode is sometimes used to supplement plain 'two-dimensional' ultrasound. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of two-dimensional (imaging ultrasound (US) or ultrasound Doppler (USD)) guided puncture techniques for insertion of central venous catheters via the internal jugular vein in adults and children. We assessed whether there was a difference in complication rates between traditional landmark-guided and any ultrasound-guided central vein puncture.Our secondary objectives were to assess whether the effect differs between US and USD; whether the effect differs between ultrasound used throughout the puncture ('direct') and ultrasound used only to identify and mark the vein before the start of the puncture procedure (indirect'); and whether the effect differs between different groups of patients or between different levels of experience among those inserting the catheters. We searched the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to 15 January 2013), EMBASE (1966 to 15 January 2013), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to 15 January 2013 ), reference lists of articles, 'grey literature' and dissertations. An additional handsearch focused on intensive care and anaesthesia journals and abstracts and proceedings of scientific meetings. We attempted to identify unpublished or ongoing studies

  16. Technical note: Correlation of respiratory motion between external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Hadi; Pan, Tinsu; Clément, Jean-François; Visvikis, Dimitris

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Current respiratory motion monitoring devices used for motion synchronization in medical imaging and radiotherapy provide either 1D respiratory signals over a specific region or 3D information based on few external or internal markers. On the other hand, newer technology may offer the potential to monitor the entire patient external surface in real time. The main objective of this study was to assess the motion correlation between such an external patient surface and internal anatomical landmarks motion. Methods Four dimensional Computed Tomography (4D CT) volumes for ten patients were used in this study. Anatomical landmarks were manually selected in the thoracic region across the 4D CT datasets by two experts. The landmarks included normal structures as well as the tumour location. In addition, a distance map representing the entire external patient surface, which corresponds to surfaces acquired by a Time of Flight (ToF) camera or similar devices, was created by segmenting the skin of all 4D CT volumes using a thresholding algorithm. Finally, the correlation between the internal landmarks and external surface motion was evaluated for different regions (placement and size) throughout a patient’s surface. Results Significant variability was observed in the motion of the different parts of the external patient surface. The larger motion magnitude was consistently measured in the central regions of the abdominal and the thoracic areas for the different patient datasets considered. The highest correlation coefficients were observed between the motion of these external surface areas and internal landmarks such as the diaphragm and mediastinum structures as well as the tumour location landmarks (0.8 ± 0.18 and 0.72 ± 0.12 for the abdominal and the thoracic regions respectively). Worse correlation was observed when one considered landmarks not significantly influenced by respiratory motion such as the apex and the sternum. Discussion and conclusions There

  17. Anatomic structural study of cerebellopontine angle via endoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.

  18. Medial structure generation for registration of anatomical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera, Sergio; Gil, Debora; Kjer, Hans Martin

    2017-01-01

    structures. Methods for generation of medial structures, however, are prone to the generation of medial artifacts (spurious branches) that traditionally need to be pruned before the medial structure can be used for further computations. The act of pruning can affect main sections of the medial surface......Medial structures (skeletons and medial manifolds) have shown capacity to describe shape in a compact way. In the field of medical imaging, they have been employed to enrich the description of organ anatomy, to improve segmentation, or to describe the organ position in relation to surrounding...

  19. Anatomic Basis for Penis Transplantation: Cadaveric Microdissection of Penile Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiftikcioglu, Yigit Ozer; Erenoglu, Cagil Meric; Lineaweaver, William C; Bilge, Okan; Celik, Servet; Ozek, Cuneyt

    2016-06-01

    We present a cadaveric dissection study to investigate the anatomic feasibility of penile transplantation. Seventeen male cadavers were dissected to reveal detailed anatomy of the dorsal neurovascular structures including dorsal arteries, superficial and deep dorsal veins, and dorsal nerves of the penis. Dorsal artery diameters showed a significant decrease from proximal to distal shaft. Dominance was observed in one side. Deep dorsal vein showed a straight course and less decrease in diameter compared to artery. Dorsal nerves showed proximal branching pattern. In a possible penile transplantation, level of harvest should be determined according to the patient and the defect, where a transgender patient will receive a total allograft and a male patient with a proximal penile defect will receive a partial shaft allograft. We designed an algorithm for different levels of penile defect and described the technique for harvest of partial and total penile transplants.

  20. Tridimensional Regression for Comparing and Mapping 3D Anatomical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendra K. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape analysis is useful for a wide variety of disciplines and has many applications. There are many approaches to shape analysis, one of which focuses on the analysis of shapes that are represented by the coordinates of predefined landmarks on the object. This paper discusses Tridimensional Regression, a technique that can be used for mapping images and shapes that are represented by sets of three-dimensional landmark coordinates, for comparing and mapping 3D anatomical structures. The degree of similarity between shapes can be quantified using the tridimensional coefficient of determination (2. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique to correctly match the image of a face with another image of the same face. These results were compared to the 2 values obtained when only two dimensions are used and show that using three dimensions increases the ability to correctly match and discriminate between faces.

  1. Mathematical modelling of the growth of human fetus anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Kędzia, Wojciech; Kędzia, Emilia; Kędzia, Alicja; Derkowski, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to present a procedure that would enable mathematical analysis of the increase of linear sizes of human anatomical structures, estimate mathematical model parameters and evaluate their adequacy. Section material consisted of 67 foetuses-rectus abdominis muscle and 75 foetuses- biceps femoris muscle. The following methods were incorporated to the study: preparation and anthropologic methods, image digital acquisition, Image J computer system measurements and statistical analysis method. We used an anthropologic method based on age determination with the use of crown-rump length-CRL (V-TUB) by Scammon and Calkins. The choice of mathematical function should be based on a real course of the curve presenting growth of anatomical structure linear size Ύ in subsequent weeks t of pregnancy. Size changes can be described with a segmental-linear model or one-function model with accuracy adequate enough for clinical purposes. The interdependence of size-age is described with many functions. However, the following functions are most often considered: linear, polynomial, spline, logarithmic, power, exponential, power-exponential, log-logistic I and II, Gompertz's I and II and von Bertalanffy's function. With the use of the procedures described above, mathematical models parameters were assessed for V-PL (the total length of body) and CRL body length increases, rectus abdominis total length h, its segments hI, hII, hIII, hIV, as well as biceps femoris length and width of long head (LHL and LHW) and of short head (SHL and SHW). The best adjustments to measurement results were observed in the exponential and Gompertz's models.

  2. Design and Validation of 3D Printed Complex Bone Models with Internal Anatomic Fidelity for Surgical Training and Rehearsal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Bertram J; Kraut, Jay; Rhodes, Charlotte; Hochman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Physical models of complex bony structures can be used for surgical skills training. Current models focus on surface rendering but suffer from a lack of internal accuracy due to limitations in the manufacturing process. We describe a technique for generating internally accurate rapid-prototyped anatomical models with solid and hollow structures from clinical and microCT data using a 3D printer. In a face validation experiment, otolaryngology residents drilled a cadaveric bone and its corresponding printed model. The printed bone models were deemed highly realistic representations across all measured parameters and the educational value of the models was strongly appreciated.

  3. Deformable meshes for medical image segmentation accurate automatic segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kainmueller, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    ? Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatom

  4. Automatic anatomical structures location based on dynamic shape measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Marcin; Rapp, Walter; Sitnik, Robert; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Vander Sloten, Jos; Haex, Bart; Bogaert, Nico; Heitmann, Kjell

    2005-09-01

    New image processing methods and active photonics apparatus have made possible the development of relatively inexpensive optical systems for complex shape and object measurements. We present dynamic 360° scanning method for analysis of human lower body biomechanics, with an emphasis on the analysis of the knee joint. The anatomical structure (of high medical interest) that is possible to scan and analyze, is patella. Tracking of patella position and orientation under dynamic conditions may lead to detect pathological patella movements and help in knee joint disease diagnosis. The processed data is obtained from a dynamic laser triangulation surface measurement system, able to capture slow to normal movements with a scan frequency between 15 and 30 Hz. These frequency rates are enough to capture controlled movements used e.g. for medical examination purposes. The purpose of the work presented is to develop surface analysis methods that may be used as support of diagnosis of motoric abilities of lower limbs. The paper presents algorithms used to process acquired lower limbs surface data in order to find the position and orientation of patella. The algorithms implemented include input data preparation, curvature description methods, knee region discrimination and patella assumed position/orientation calculation. Additionally, a method of 4D (3D + time) medical data visualization is proposed. Also some exemplary results are presented.

  5. Internal Occipital Crest Misalignment with Internal Occipital Protuberance: A Case Report of Posterior Cranial Fossa Anatomic Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Ha

    2016-01-01

    During gross anatomy head and neck laboratory session, one dissection group observed an abnormal anatomic variation in the posterior cranial fossa of a 94-year-old male cadaver. The internal occipital crest was not aligned with internal occipital protuberance and groove for superior sagittal sinus. It seemed that the internal occipital protuberance was shifted significantly to the right side. As a result the skull was overly stretched in order to connect with the internal occipital ridge. These internal skull variations of occipital bone landmarks can influence the location of adjacent dural venous sinuses and possibly influence cerebrospinal fluid flow. Similar anatomical anomalies have been attributed to presence of hydrocephalus and abnormalities in cisterna magna. PMID:27648322

  6. Minimally invasive anterior pelvic internal fixation: An anatomic study comparing Pelvic Bridge to INFIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Lee M; MacCormick, Lauren M; Dugarte, Anthony J; Rizkala, Amir R; Graves, Sara C; Cole, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Anterior external fixation for pelvic ring fractures has shown to effectively improve stability and reduce mortality. However, these fixators can be associated with substantial morbidity such as pin tract infection, premature loss of fixation, and decreased quality of life in patients. Recently, two new methods of subcutaneous anterior pelvic internal fixation have been developed; the INFIX and the Pelvic Bridge. These methods have the purported advantages of lower wound complications, less surgical site pain, and improved quality of life. We sought to investigate the measured distances to critical anatomic structures, as well as the qualitative and topographic differences notable during implantation of both devices in the same cadaveric specimen. The Pelvic Bridge and INFIX were implanted in eleven fresh cadavers. Distances were then measured to: the superficial inguinal ring, round ligament, spermatic cord, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN), femoral nerve, femoral artery, and femoral vein. Observations regarding implantation and topography were also recorded. The INFIX had greater measured distances from all structures except for the LFCN, in which its proximity placed this structure at risk. Neither device appears to put other critical structures at risk in the supine position. Significant implantation and topographic differences exist between the devices. The INFIX application lacked "safety margins" concerning the LFCN in 10/11 (90.9%) specimens, while Pelvic Bridge placement lacked "safety margins" with regard to the right superficial ring (1/11, 9%) and the right spermatic cord (1/11, 9%). Both the Pelvic Bridge and INFIX lie at safe distances from most critical pelvic structures in the supine position, though INFIX application places the LFCN at risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anatomical structure of virginal plants of Ikonnikovia kaufmanniana (Regel Lincz.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygul Аkhmetova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is represented anatomical characteristic of vegetative organs of the rare, endangered and endemic species – Ikonnikovia kaufmanniana, which has been studied in conditions of three different coenopopulations. As a result, it was established that vegetative organs of these plants are characterized by different stage of development of its tissues dependently from the habitat.

  8. Marginal space learning for medical image analysis efficient detection and segmentation of anatomical structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yefeng

    2014-01-01

    Presents an award winning image analysis technology (Thomas Edison Patent Award, MICCAI Young Investigator Award) that achieves object detection and segmentation with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency Flexible, machine learning-based framework, applicable across multiple anatomical structures and imaging modalities Thirty five clinical applications on detecting and segmenting anatomical structures such as heart chambers and valves, blood vessels, liver, kidney, prostate, lymph nodes, and sub-cortical brain structures, in CT, MRI, X-Ray and Ultrasound.

  9. Cloud-Based Evaluation of Anatomical Structure Segmentation and Landmark Detection Algorithms : VISCERAL Anatomy Benchmarks

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez-del-Toro, Oscar; Muller, Henning; Krenn, Markus; Gruenberg, Katharina; Taha, Abdel Aziz; Winterstein, Marianne; Eggel, Ivan; Foncubierta-Rodriguez, Antonio; Goksel, Orcun; Jakab, Andres; Kontokotsios, Georgios; Langs, Georg; Menze, Bjoern H.; Fernandez, Tomas Salas; Schaer, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the shape and appearance of anatomical structures in medical images are often relevant radiological signs of disease. Automatic tools can help automate parts of this manual process. A cloud-based evaluation framework is presented in this paper including results of benchmarking current state-of-the-art medical imaging algorithms for anatomical structure segmentation and landmark detection: the VISCERAL Anatomy benchmarks. The algorithms are implemented in virtual machines in the ...

  10. Age dependent physical and anatomical Indian data for application in internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, H.S.; Jaiswal, D.D.; Parameswaran, M.; Krishnamony, S.

    1996-01-01

    The data on physical, anatomical, physiological and metabolic human characteristics of the Indian population in various age groups were obtained for application in internal dosimetry. Only the physical and anatomical characteristics of the Indian population in age groups 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 y and adult are considered here. A comparison of the adult Indian data with that of ICRP Reference Man, clearly showed that with the exception of a few smaller organs, the body size as well as the organ weights of Indian subjects are, in general, smaller. With the exception of brain, a statistically significant linear correlation (p < 0.01) was observed between the body weights and the corresponding organ weights of Indian subjects in different age groups. (author)

  11. Ultrasound monitoring in cannulation of the internal jugular vein: anatomic and technical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, B; So, C B; Saliken, J C; Gray, R R

    1996-06-01

    To examine the effect of variations in anatomic features and operator experience on the success and complication rates of sonographically monitored cannulation of the internal jugular vein. The authors prospectively collected data for ultrasound-monitored cannulation of the internal jugular vein in 150 patients. In all cases the radiologist recorded the side of puncture, the number of passes needed, the number of vein punctures (one or two), whether the walls were opposed during puncture and any complications. For the last 80 patients the following information was also recorded: the distance from the skin to the internal jugular vein, the diameter of the vein with the Valsalva manoeuvre and the location of the vein relative to the carotid artery. All but three of the cannulations were performed by one of three radiologists, all of whom had at least 5 years of experience. Cannulation was successful in all of the patients, and the first pass was successful in 133 (88.7%). These results are better than those of blind placement techniques reported in the literature. The only complications were hematoma and carotid puncture, which both occurred in the same two patients (1.3%). There was no significant difference among the radiologists in the number of passes needed (one-way analysis of variance, p > 0.05). The number of passes was independent of anatomic factors, including depth from skin, vein diameter or relative location. However, significantly more passes were needed for left-side punctures than for right-side punctures (Student t-test, p < 0.05). Real-time ultrasound monitoring is superior to blind techniques in cannulation of the internal jugular vein because of its ease, accuracy and safety. Sonographic real-time monitoring minimizes the impact of anatomic factors on success and complication rates. It is a safe and efficacious approach that should be preferred in the placement of central lines.

  12. Anatomical Thin Titanium Mesh Plate Structural Optimization for Zygomatic-Maxillary Complex Fracture under Fatigue Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a structural optimization of anatomical thin titanium mesh (ATTM plate and optimal designed ATTM plate fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM to verify its stabilization under fatigue testing. Finite element (FE analysis was used to simulate the structural bending resistance of a regular ATTM plate. The Taguchi method was employed to identify the significance of each design factor in controlling the deflection and determine an optimal combination of designed factors. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour was fabricated using AM and applied to a ZMC comminuted fracture to evaluate the resting maxillary micromotion/strain under fatigue testing. The Taguchi analysis found that the ATTM plate required a designed internal hole distance to be 0.9 mm, internal hole diameter to be 1 mm, plate thickness to be 0.8 mm, and plate height to be 10 mm. The designed plate thickness factor primarily dominated the bending resistance up to 78% importance. The averaged micromotion (displacement and strain of the maxillary bone showed that ZMC fracture fixation using the miniplate was significantly higher than those using the AM optimal designed ATTM plate. This study concluded that the optimal designed ATTM plate with enough strength to resist the bending effect can be obtained by combining FE and Taguchi analyses. The optimal designed ATTM plate with patient-matched facial contour fabricated using AM provides superior stabilization for ZMC comminuted fractured bone segments.

  13. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 ± 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 ± 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm ± 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm ± 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm ± 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  14. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  15. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-10-09

    Oct 9, 2013 ... the morphology and fine structure of the ion transporting epithelium ... The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. ...... Wu G, Zhang H, Sun J, Liu F, Ge X, Chen WH, Yu, J, Wang W (2011).

  16. An interactive three-dimensional virtual body structures system for anatomical training over the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Bharti; Acosta, Eric; Malvankar, Ameya; Vaidyanath, Sreeram

    2006-04-01

    The Visible Human digital datasets make it possible to develop computer-based anatomical training systems that use virtual anatomical models (virtual body structures-VBS). Medical schools are combining these virtual training systems and classical anatomy teaching methods that use labeled images and cadaver dissection. In this paper we present a customizable web-based three-dimensional anatomy training system, W3D-VBS. W3D-VBS uses National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Visible Human Male datasets to interactively locate, explore, select, extract, highlight, label, and visualize, realistic 2D (using axial, coronal, and sagittal views) and 3D virtual structures. A real-time self-guided virtual tour of the entire body is designed to provide detailed anatomical information about structures, substructures, and proximal structures. The system thus facilitates learning of visuospatial relationships at a level of detail that may not be possible by any other means. The use of volumetric structures allows for repeated real-time virtual dissections, from any angle, at the convenience of the user. Volumetric (3D) virtual dissections are performed by adding, removing, highlighting, and labeling individual structures (and/or entire anatomical systems). The resultant virtual explorations (consisting of anatomical 2D/3D illustrations and animations), with user selected highlighting colors and label positions, can be saved and used for generating lesson plans and evaluation systems. Tracking users' progress using the evaluation system helps customize the curriculum, making W3D-VBS a powerful learning tool. Our plan is to incorporate other Visible Human segmented datasets, especially datasets with higher resolutions, that make it possible to include finer anatomical structures such as nerves and small vessels. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Development of a patient-specific anatomical foot model from structured light scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Samuel J; Huissoon, Jan P; Bedi, Sanjeev S

    2014-01-01

    The use of anatomically accurate finite element (FE) models of the human foot in research studies has increased rapidly in recent years. Uses for FE foot models include advancing knowledge of orthotic design, shoe design, ankle-foot orthoses, pathomechanics, locomotion, plantar pressure, tissue mechanics, plantar fasciitis, joint stress and surgical interventions. Similar applications but for clinical use on a per-patient basis would also be on the rise if it were not for the high costs associated with developing patient-specific anatomical foot models. High costs arise primarily from the expense and challenges of acquiring anatomical data via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) and reconstructing the three-dimensional models. The proposed solution morphs detailed anatomy from skin surface geometry and anatomical landmarks of a generic foot model (developed from CT or MRI) to surface geometry and anatomical landmarks acquired from an inexpensive structured light scan of a foot. The method yields a patient-specific anatomical foot model at a fraction of the cost of standard methods. Average error for bone surfaces was 2.53 mm for the six experiments completed. Highest accuracy occurred in the mid-foot and lowest in the forefoot due to the small, irregular bones of the toes. The method must be validated in the intended application to determine if the resulting errors are acceptable.

  18. Anatomical Cystocele Recurrence: Development and Internal Validation of a Prediction Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeldt, Tineke F M; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Notten, Kim J B; Kluivers, Kirsten B; Weemhoff, Mirjam

    2016-02-01

    To develop a prediction model that estimates the risk of anatomical cystocele recurrence after surgery. The databases of two multicenter prospective cohort studies were combined, and we performed a retrospective secondary analysis of these data. Women undergoing an anterior colporrhaphy without mesh materials and without previous pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery filled in a questionnaire, underwent translabial three-dimensional ultrasonography, and underwent staging of POP preoperatively and postoperatively. We developed a prediction model using multivariable logistic regression and internally validated it using standard bootstrapping techniques. The performance of the prediction model was assessed by computing indices of overall performance, discriminative ability, calibration, and its clinical utility by computing test characteristics. Of 287 included women, 149 (51.9%) had anatomical cystocele recurrence. Factors included in the prediction model were assisted delivery, preoperative cystocele stage, number of compartments involved, major levator ani muscle defects, and levator hiatal area during Valsalva. Potential predictors that were excluded after backward elimination because of high P values were age, body mass index, number of vaginal deliveries, and family history of POP. The shrinkage factor resulting from the bootstrap procedure was 0.91. After correction for optimism, Nagelkerke's R and the Brier score were 0.15 and 0.22, respectively. This indicates satisfactory model fit. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the prediction model was 71.6% (95% confidence interval 65.7-77.5). After correction for optimism, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 69.7%. This prediction model, including history of assisted delivery, preoperative stage, number of compartments, levator defects, and levator hiatus, estimates the risk of anatomical cystocele recurrence.

  19. An international ecological study of adult height in relation to cancer incidence for 24 anatomical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yannan; Marshall, Roger J; Walpole, Sarah C; Prieto-Merino, David; Liu, Dong-Xu; Perry, Jo K

    2015-03-01

    Anthropometric indices associated with childhood growth and height attained in adulthood, have been associated with an increased incidence of certain malignancies. To evaluate the cancer-height relationship, we carried out a study using international data, comparing various cancer rates with average adult height of women and men in different countries. An ecological analysis of the relationship between country-specific cancer incidence rates and average adult height was conducted for twenty-four anatomical cancer sites. Age-standardized rates were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2008. Average female (112 countries) and male (65 countries) heights were sourced and compiled primarily from national health surveys. Graphical and weighted regression analysis was conducted, taking into account BMI and controlling for the random effect of global regions. A significant positive association between a country's average adult height and the country's overall cancer rate was observed in both men and women. Site-specific cancer incidence for females was positively associated with height for most cancers: lung, kidney, colorectum, bladder, melanoma, brain and nervous system, breast, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, corpus uteri, ovary, and leukemia. A significant negative association was observed with cancer of the cervix uteri. In males, site-specific cancer incidence was positively associated with height for cancers of the brain and nervous system, kidney, colorectum, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, prostate, testicular, lip and oral cavity, and melanoma. Incidence of cancer was associated with tallness in the majority of anatomical/cancer sites investigated. The underlying biological mechanisms are unclear, but may include nutrition and early-life exposure to hormones, and may differ by anatomical site.

  20. Morphology and anatomical structure of the larval salt gland of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general structure of the salt gland of nauplii cultured at 180 g/L disappeared. Semiquantitative APH-1 mRNA analysis indicated that the gene was expressed in all tested salinities. The expression did not change remarkably between 25 and 40 g/L salinities. As salinity increased, the gene was up regulated at 70 g/L and ...

  1. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D [Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  2. SU-C-207B-02: Maximal Noise Reduction Filter with Anatomical Structures Preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitree, R; Guzman, G; Chundury, A; Roach, M; Yang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: All medical images contain noise, which can result in an undesirable appearance and can reduce the visibility of anatomical details. There are varieties of techniques utilized to reduce noise such as increasing the image acquisition time and using post-processing noise reduction algorithms. However, these techniques are increasing the imaging time and cost or reducing tissue contrast and effective spatial resolution which are useful diagnosis information. The three main focuses in this study are: 1) to develop a novel approach that can adaptively and maximally reduce noise while preserving valuable details of anatomical structures, 2) to evaluate the effectiveness of available noise reduction algorithms in comparison to the proposed algorithm, and 3) to demonstrate that the proposed noise reduction approach can be used clinically. Methods: To achieve a maximal noise reduction without destroying the anatomical details, the proposed approach automatically estimated the local image noise strength levels and detected the anatomical structures, i.e. tissue boundaries. Such information was used to adaptively adjust strength of the noise reduction filter. The proposed algorithm was tested on 34 repeating swine head datasets and 54 patients MRI and CT images. The performance was quantitatively evaluated by image quality metrics and manually validated for clinical usages by two radiation oncologists and one radiologist. Results: Qualitative measurements on repeated swine head images demonstrated that the proposed algorithm efficiently removed noise while preserving the structures and tissues boundaries. In comparisons, the proposed algorithm obtained competitive noise reduction performance and outperformed other filters in preserving anatomical structures. Assessments from the manual validation indicate that the proposed noise reduction algorithm is quite adequate for some clinical usages. Conclusion: According to both clinical evaluation (human expert ranking) and

  3. Anatomical characteristics of the styloid process in internal carotid artery dissection: Case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, José M; Pereira, Daniela; Rodrigues, Marta G; Beato-Coelho, José; Lopes, Margarida; Cunha, André; Figueiredo, Sofia; Mendes-Pinto, Mafalda; Ferreira, Carla; Sargento-Freitas, João; Castro, Sérgio; Pinho, João

    2018-06-01

    Introduction Pathophysiology of cervical artery dissection is complex and poorly understood. In addition to well-known causative and predisposing factors, including major trauma and monogenic connective tissue disorders, morphological characteristics of the styloid process have been recently recognized as a possible risk factor for cervical internal carotid artery dissection. Aims To study the association of the anatomical characteristics of styloid process with internal carotid artery dissection. Methods Retrospective, multicenter, case-control study of patients with internal carotid artery dissection and age- and sex-matched controls. Consecutive patients with internal carotid artery dissection and controls with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack of any etiology excluding internal carotid artery dissection, who had performed computed tomography angiography, diagnosed between January 2010 and September 2016. Two independent observers measured styloid process length and styloid process distance to internal carotid artery. Results Sixty-two patients with internal carotid artery dissection and 70 controls were included. Interobserver agreement was good for styloid process length and styloid process-internal carotid artery distance (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.89 and 0.76, respectively). Styloid process ipsilateral to dissection was longer than left and right styloid process in controls (35.8 ± 14.4 mm versus 30.4 ± 8.9 mm and 30.3 ± 8.2 mm, p = 0.011 and p = 0.008, respectively). Styloid process-internal carotid artery distance ipsilateral to dissection was shorter than left and right distance in controls (6.3 ± 1.9 mm versus 7.2 ± 2.1 mm and 7.0 ± 2.3 mm, p = 0.003 and p = 0.026, respectively). Internal carotid artery dissection was associated with styloid process length (odds ratio = 1.04 mm -1 , 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.08, p = 0.015) and styloid process-internal

  4. Anatomical nuances of the internal carotid artery in relation to the quadrangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolci, Ricardo L L; Ditzel Filho, Leo F S; Goulart, Carlos R; Upadhyay, Smita; Buohliqah, Lamia; Lazarini, Paulo R; Prevedello, Daniel M; Carrau, Ricardo L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the internal carotid artery (ICA) in relation to the quadrangular space (QS) and to propose a classification system based on the results. METHODS A total of 44 human cadaveric specimens were dissected endonasally under direct endoscopic visualization. During the dissection, the anatomical variations of the ICA and their relationship with the QS were noted. RESULTS The space between the paraclival ICAs (i.e., intercarotid space) can be classified as 1 of 3 different shapes (i.e., trapezoid, square, or hourglass) based on the trajectory of the ICAs. The ICA trajectories also directly influence the volumetric area of the QS. Based on its geometry, the QS was classified as one of the following: 1) Type A has the smallest QS area and is associated with a trapezoid intercarotid space, 2) Type B corresponds to the expected QS area (not minimized or enlarged) and is associated with a square intercarotid space, and 3) Type C has the largest QS area and is associated with an hourglass intercarotid space. CONCLUSIONS The different trajectories of the ICAs can modify the area of the QS and may be an essential parameter to consider for preoperative planning and defining the most appropriate corridor to reach Meckel's cave. In addition, ICA trajectories should be considered prior to surgery to avoid injuring the vessels.

  5. Anatomical glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and symmetric rotational strength in male and female young beach volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccol, Michele Forgiarini; Almeida, Gabriel Peixoto Leão; de Souza, Vivian Lima

    2016-08-01

    Beach volleyball is a sport with a high demand of shoulder structures that may lead to adaptations in range of motion (ROM) and strength like in other overhead sports. Despite of these possible alterations, no study evaluated the shoulder adaptations in young beach volleyball athletes. The aim of this study was to compare the bilateral ROM and rotation strength in the shoulders of young beach volleyball players. Goniometric passive shoulder ROM of motion and isometric rotational strength were evaluated in 19 male and 14 female asymptomatic athletes. External and internal ROM, total rotation motion, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD), external rotation and internal rotation strength, bilateral deficits and external rotation to internal rotation ratio were measured. The statistical analysis included paired Student's t-test and analysis of variance with repeated measures. Significantly lower dominant GIRD was found in both groups (pvolleyball athletes present symmetric rotational strength and shoulder ROM rotational adaptations that can be considered as anatomical. These results indicate that young practitioners of beach volleyball are subject to moderate adaptations compared to those reported for other overhead sports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anatomical study of lumbar vertebral pedicle and adjacent neural structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matuoka Cláudia Maria

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For the evaluation of the Lumbar pedicle morphometry and its relation to the neural structures, 14 male adult cadavers were dissected, and the size of the lumbar pedicle was assessed by measuring its sagittal and transversal diameter. It was found that the size of the pedicle increases from L2 to L5, both in the sagittal and transversal diameter, the first bigger. The relation of the lumbar pedicle to the neural structures was evaluated by measuring the distance between dura-mater and the pedicle medial area, the distance between the most distal area of the pedicle and the nerve root that appears under it, and , to obtain in an indirect way, the distance between the pedicle apex and the nerve root that appears over it. The acquired results showed that the distance between the most distal area of the pedicle and the nerve root that appears under it, and the distance between the pedicle medial area and dura-mater, do not increase from L2 to L5, and they are in average 1,98 and 3,02 respectively. The distance between the pedicle apex and the nerve root that appears over it, increases from L2 to L5, varying from 13,64 in L2 to 21,62 in L5. The location of the spinal ganglion in relation to the pedicle has also been found, and 87% of the spinal ganglions are located in the foraminal zone.

  7. Sonneratiaceae (concluded). Sonneratiaceae and other mangrove-swamp families, anatomical structure and water relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders-Gouwentak, C.A.

    1948-01-01

    The question whether tidal and non-tidal members of a family have a separate wood anatomical structure would be examined best in such genera as embrace both types. The sequel to this examination, whether any such differences are connected with peculiarities in the water relations of the plants,

  8. Methods of fixation of intraocular lenses according to the anatomical structures in trauma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentzis, Miltiadis; Viestenz, Anja; Heichel, Jens; Seitz, Berthold; Hammer, Thomas; Viestenz, Arne

    2018-01-01

    Ocular trauma can lead to severe visual impairment and morbidity, depending on the anatomical structures affected. The main causes of ocular trauma include foreign bodies, impact by an object, falls, and chemicals. Most ocular traumas occur in children or young male adults. A meticulous slit lamp examination is crucial for assessing all anatomical structures. Trauma to the crystalline lens can result in dislocation, an intralenticular foreign body, cataract, fragmentation, and capsular breach. An intraocular lens (IOL) can endure subluxation or luxation under the conjunctiva, into the anterior chamber or the vitreous, or can be extruded. The surgical approach depends on the condition and morphology of the lens and the anatomical structures surrounding it. If there is capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be placed in the sulcus using remnants of the damaged capsule. If there is no capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be fixated to the anterior chamber angle, to the iris, or to the sclera. A detailed history of injury cannot always be obtained in trauma settings. Proper education, supervision, and certified safety eye protectors could prevent up to 90% of ocular injuries. Lens trauma can be treated with various surgical procedures and fixation techniques, which nevertheless require advanced surgical skills owing to the fine anatomical structure of the anterior segment. A careful surgical strategy should be established for a globe reconstruction after trauma with secondary lens implantation. Clin. Anat. 31:6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Extractive and anatomical wood structure effects on mechanical properties of Caoba wood (Swietenia macrophylla King)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo Fuentes Rosven Libardo; Hernandez Roger

    2008-01-01

    The compression tangential to grain of samples of mahogany wood from Peru was examined at different relative humidity levels at 25 Celsius degrade to determine the influence of both extractives and anatomical structure. Matched samples were used to assess the percentage of extractive components by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity: cyclohexane, dichloromethane, acetone, methanol and hot water. Additionally, fourteen anatomical parameters were determined by image analysis. Stepwise regression analysis concluded that mainly anatomical features, such as rays and vessels, rather than extractives, affect the mechanical behaviour of mahogany. These findings are agree with earlier results showing a negative effect of large and multiseriate rays on the mechanical properties of wood when loaded perpendicularly to their long axis. The influence of lumen located extracts soluble in dichloromethane might disallow deformations. Finally, it is postulated that hot water extracts may play a plasticizing role in this species.

  10. Comparative anatomical study of internal brooding in three anascan bryozoans (Cheilostomata) and its taxonomic and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Grischenko, Andrei V; Taylor, Paul D; Bock, Phil; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2006-06-01

    The anatomical structure of internal sacs for embryonic incubation was studied using SEM and light microscopy in three cheilostome bryozoans-Nematoflustra flagellata (Waters,1904), Gontarella sp., and Biflustra perfragilis MacGillivray, 1881. In all these species the brood sac is located in the distal half of the maternal (egg-producing) autozooid, being a conspicuous invagination of the body wall. It consists of the main chamber and a passage (neck) to the outside that opens independently of the introvert. There are several groups of muscles attached to the thin walls of the brood sac and possibly expanding it during oviposition and larval release. Polypide recycling begins after oviposition in Gontarella sp., and the new polypide bud is formed by the beginning of incubation. Similarly, polypides in brooding zooids degenerate in N. flagellata and, sometimes, in B. perfragilis. In the evolution of brood chambers in the Cheilostomata, such internal sacs for embryonic incubation are considered a final step, being the result of immersion of the brooding cavity into the maternal zooid and reduction of the protecting fold (ooecium). Possible reasons for this transformation are discussed, and the hypothesis of Santagata and Banta (Santagata and Banta1996) that internal brooding evolved prior to incubation in ovicells is rejected. J. Morphol. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Proximity of arthroscopic ankle stabilization procedures to surrounding structures: an anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark; Behrens, Steve B; Mulcahey, Mary K; Paller, David; Hoffman, Eve; DiGiovanni, Christopher W

    2013-06-01

    To examine the anatomy of the lateral ankle after arthroscopic repair of the lateral ligament complex (anterior talofibular ligament [ATFL] and calcaneofibular ligament [CFL]) with regard to structures at risk. Ten lower extremity cadaveric specimens were obtained and were screened for gross anatomic defects and pre-existing ankle laxity. The ATFL and CFL were sectioned from the fibula by an open technique. Standard anterolateral and anteromedial arthroscopy portals were made. An additional portal was created 2 cm distal to the anterolateral portal. The articular surface of the fibula was identified, and the ATFL and CFL were freed from the superficial and deeper tissues. Suture anchors were placed in the fibula at the ATFL and CFL origins and were used to repair the origin of the lateral collateral structures. The distance from the suture knot to several local anatomic structures was measured. Measurements were taken by 2 separate observers, and the results were averaged. Several anatomic structures lie in close proximity to the ATFL and CFL sutures. The ATFL sutures entrapped 9 of 55 structures, and no anatomic structures were inadvertently entrapped by the CFL sutures. The proximity of the peroneus tertius and the extensor tendons to the ATFL makes them at highest risk of entrapment, but the proximity of the intermediate branch of the superficial peroneal nerve (when present) is a risk with significant morbidity. Our results indicate that the peroneus tertius and extensor tendons have the highest risk for entrapment and show the smallest mean distances from the anchor knot to the identified structure. Careful attention to these structures, as well as the superficial peroneal nerve, is mandatory to prevent entrapment of tendons and nerves when one is attempting arthroscopic lateral ankle ligament reconstruction. Defining the anatomic location and proximity of the intervening structures adjacent to the lateral ligament complex of the ankle may help clarify the

  12. The Anatomical Correlation between the Internal Venous Vertebral System and the Cranial Venae Cavae in Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Petrovova, Eva; Danko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the possible variations in the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava in rabbit using corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The venous system was injected by using Batson's corrosion casting kit number 17. We found the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava by means of the vertebral veins and the right azygos vein. The vertebral vein was present as independent tributary in 36 cases (90%). In the rest of the cases, it was found as being double, being triple, or forming a common trunk with other veins. The azygos vein was present as independent tributary of the cranial vena cava in 39 cases (97.5%). We found also a common trunk formed by the junction of the deep cervical vein, the right vertebral vein, and the azygos vein in one case (2.5%). The azygos vein received 6, 7, 8, or 9 pairs of dorsal intercostal veins. Documenting the anatomical variations in the rabbit will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  13. The Anatomical Correlation between the Internal Venous Vertebral System and the Cranial Venae Cavae in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mazensky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the possible variations in the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava in rabbit using corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The venous system was injected by using Batson's corrosion casting kit number 17. We found the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava by means of the vertebral veins and the right azygos vein. The vertebral vein was present as independent tributary in 36 cases (90%. In the rest of the cases, it was found as being double, being triple, or forming a common trunk with other veins. The azygos vein was present as independent tributary of the cranial vena cava in 39 cases (97.5%. We found also a common trunk formed by the junction of the deep cervical vein, the right vertebral vein, and the azygos vein in one case (2.5%. The azygos vein received 6, 7, 8, or 9 pairs of dorsal intercostal veins. Documenting the anatomical variations in the rabbit will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  14. Relationship between Peeled Internal Limiting Membrane Area and Anatomic Outcomes following Macular Hole Surgery: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Sakir Goker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantitatively evaluate the effects of peeled internal limiting membrane (ILM area and anatomic outcomes following macular hole surgery using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. Forty-one eyes in 37 consecutive patients with idiopathic, Gass stage 3-4 macular hole (MH were enrolled in this retrospective comparative study. All patients were divided into 2 groups according to anatomic success or failure. Basal MH diameter, peeled ILM area, and MH height were calculated using SD-OCT. Other prognostic parameters, including age, stage, preoperative BCVA, and symptom duration were also assessed. Results. Thirty-two cases were classified as anatomic success, and 9 cases were classified as anatomic failure. Peeled ILM area was significantly wider and MH basal diameter was significantly less in the anatomic success group (p=0.024 and 0.032, resp.. Other parameters did not demonstrate statistical significance. Conclusion. The findings of the present study show that the peeled ILM area can affect the anatomic outcomes of MH surgery.

  15. In vivo estimation of normal amygdala volume from structural MRI scans with anatomical-based segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siozopoulos, Achilleas; Thomaidis, Vasilios; Prassopoulos, Panos; Fiska, Aliki

    2018-02-01

    Literature includes a number of studies using structural MRI (sMRI) to determine the volume of the amygdala, which is modified in various pathologic conditions. The reported values vary widely mainly because of different anatomical approaches to the complex. This study aims at estimating of the normal amygdala volume from sMRI scans using a recent anatomical definition described in a study based on post-mortem material. The amygdala volume has been calculated in 106 healthy subjects, using sMRI and anatomical-based segmentation. The resulting volumes have been analyzed for differences related to hemisphere, sex, and age. The mean amygdalar volume was estimated at 1.42 cm 3 . The mean right amygdala volume has been found larger than the left, but the difference for the raw values was within the limits of the method error. No intersexual differences or age-related alterations have been observed. The study provides a method for determining the boundaries of the amygdala in sMRI scans based on recent anatomical considerations and an estimation of the mean normal amygdala volume from a quite large number of scans for future use in comparative studies.

  16. Estimation of the 3D positioning of anatomic structures from radiographic projection and volume knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bifulco, P; Cesarelli, M; Roccasalva Firenze, M; Verso, E; Sansone, M; Bracale, M [University of Naples, Federico II, Electronic Engineering Department, Bioengineering Unit, Via Claudio, 21 - 80125 Naples (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this study is to develop a method to estimate the 3D positioning of an anatomic structure using the knowledge of its volume (provided by CT or MRI) combined with a single radiographic projection. This method could be applied in stereotactic surgery or in the study of 3D body joints kinematics. The knowledge of the 3D anatomical structure, available from CT (or in future MRI) is used to estimate the orientation of the projection that better match the actual 2D available projection. For this purpose it was necessary to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic projections. The radiographic image formation process has been simulated utilizing the geometrical characteristics of a real radiographic device and the volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained by 3D diagnostic CT images. The position of the patient volume respect to the radiological device is estimated comparing the actual radiographic projection with those simulated, maximising a similarity index. To assess the estimation, the 3D positioning of a segmented vertebra has been used as a test volume. The assessment has been carried out only by means of simulation. Estimation errors have been statistically evaluated. Conditions of mispositioning and noise have been also considered. The results relative to the simulation show the feasibility of the method. From the analysis of the errors emerges that the searching procedure results robust respect to the addition of white Gaussian noise. (authors) 13 fers., 4 figs., 1 tabs.

  17. Estimation of the 3D positioning of anatomic structures from radiographic projection and volume knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifulco, P.; Cesarelli, M.; Roccasalva Firenze, M.; Verso, E.; Sansone, M.; Bracale, M.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a method to estimate the 3D positioning of an anatomic structure using the knowledge of its volume (provided by CT or MRI) combined with a single radiographic projection. This method could be applied in stereotactic surgery or in the study of 3D body joints kinematics. The knowledge of the 3D anatomical structure, available from CT (or in future MRI) is used to estimate the orientation of the projection that better match the actual 2D available projection. For this purpose it was necessary to develop an algorithm to simulate the radiographic projections. The radiographic image formation process has been simulated utilizing the geometrical characteristics of a real radiographic device and the volumetric anatomical data of the patient, obtained by 3D diagnostic CT images. The position of the patient volume respect to the radiological device is estimated comparing the actual radiographic projection with those simulated, maximising a similarity index. To assess the estimation, the 3D positioning of a segmented vertebra has been used as a test volume. The assessment has been carried out only by means of simulation. Estimation errors have been statistically evaluated. Conditions of mispositioning and noise have been also considered. The results relative to the simulation show the feasibility of the method. From the analysis of the errors emerges that the searching procedure results robust respect to the addition of white Gaussian noise. (authors)

  18. Sparing functional anatomical structures during intensity-modulated radiotherapy: an old problem, a new solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenyong; Han, Guang; Wei, Shaozhong; Hu, Desheng

    2014-08-01

    During intensity-modulated radiotherapy, an organ is usually assumed to be functionally homogeneous and, generally, its anatomical and spatial heterogeneity with respect to radiation response are not taken into consideration. However, advances in imaging and radiation techniques as well as an improved understanding of the radiobiological response of organs have raised the possibility of sparing the critical functional structures within various organs at risk during intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Here, we discuss these structures, which include the critical brain structure, or neural nuclei, and the nerve fiber tracts in the CNS, head and neck structures related to radiation-induced salivary and swallowing dysfunction, and functional structures in the heart and lung. We suggest that these structures can be used as potential surrogate organs at risk in order to minimize their radiation dose and/or irradiated volume without compromising the dose coverage of the target volume during radiation treatment.

  19. The morpho-anatomical structure of the leaves of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L. grown in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina C. Ciobanu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L. was introduced in the collection of medicinal plants of the Centre for the cultivation of medicinal plants of The State Medical and Pharmaceutical University «Nicolae Testemiţanu» in 2002 ( Bodrug 2005 . We carried out morphological and anatomical study of leaves of the artichoke with a view to determining the adaptive anatomical structures of the leaf to the climatic conditions of the Republic of Moldova, as well as to elucidate specific anatomical structures to identify the medicinal drug and medicinal plant.

  20. The Study of Anatomical Structure and Karyotype of West Sumatran Dioscorea bulbifora L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjahridal Dahlan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Had been done from March 2005 to January 2006 in plant Structure and Development Laboratory of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Andalas University. In present study were used descriptives and quantitatives method by preparing semi-permanent and permanent slide. Anatomycal structures of green aerial stem were consisting of epidermal, cortex with endodermoid cells and sclerechima tissue centripetally. Vascular bundle can be rocognized in three distinct rings with amphycribal type. Transverse section of leave anatomical composed by both a layer epidermal on upper and lower leaf surface, palysade parechima, and spons parenchyma (dorsiventral type. The stomata were anomocytic type on both upper and lower surface of leaf (amphystomatic type. Idioblast of cell raphides crystals and tannin containing founded in leaf structure. In transverse section each of eight individual bundle surrounded by sclerenchyma. The root anatomical structures consist of epidermal, cortex, endodermal (U shape wall thickening, pericycle and pith (with three ring of vascular bundles centripetally. The air tuber lacking of starch grains containing of parenchyma cells. Idioblast cell expected contain of HCN distributed over all of tuber tissue. The somatic cell chromosome were diploid 2n=20 with basic chromosome number were x=10.

  1. Measurement of anatomical structure of jaw bone trabecula with micro-CT and its accuracy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Guangchun; Zhang Xiaoyan; Jiang Ling; Li Xianglin; Zhang Di; Li Weixing; Jin Xizhen; Jin Dongchun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the anatomic structures of the jaw and to discuss the accuracy of the method. Methods: The mandibular specimens were divided into ankle condylar group (3 specimens, regular trabecular architecture and mandibular body group (5 specimens, irregular trabecular trabecular architecture). Fifteen volumes of interests (VOI) were created in each group and the total of thirty were measured. The mean value and standard deviation of each parameter at each reconstruction voxel size were calculated. Repeated ANOVA test was used to determine whether the significant differences in the values existed between each parameter. Results: The structure model index (SMI) value in mandibular body group had significant difference (P<0.05) at all reconstruction voxel sizes compared with 18 μm group; but in condyle group, the reconstruction voxel size of 36 μm was not significant (P>0.05). The differences of trabecular thickness (Tb. Th), trabecular number (Tb. N) and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) values between condyle and mandibular body groups were significant at all reconstruction voxel sizes (P<0.05). In condyle group, except for Tb. Th, Tb. N and Tb. Sp, the most parameter values were not significant at reconstruction pixel size of 36μm. In the mandible body group, the differences of all parameter values between different pixel sizes were significant. Conclusion: Micro-CT can reflect the anatomical changes of bone trabecula structure. (authors)

  2. An anatomical and histological study of the structures surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bellmunt, Albert; Miguel-Pérez, Maribel; Brugué, Marc Blasi; Cabús, Juan Blasi; Casals, Martí; Martinoli, Carlo; Kuisma, Raija

    2015-06-01

    The proximal attachment of hamstring muscles has a very high incidence of injuries due to a wide number of factors and its morphology may be one of the underlying factors as scientific literature points out. The connective tissue component of the attachment of hamstring muscles is not well known. For this reason the aim of this study is to describe the anatomy and histology surrounding the proximal attachment of the hamstring muscles (PAHM) and its direct anatomic relations. Forty-eight cryopreserved lower limbs have sequentially been studied by means of dissection, anatomical sections and histology. All specimens studied presented an annular connective tissue structure that resembles a retinaculum, which covers and adapts to the attachment of hamstring muscles on the ischial tuberosity. The results show how this retinaculum is continuous with the long head of biceps femoris muscle, however there is a layer of loose connective tissue between the retinaculum and the semitendinosus muscle. Furthermore, this structure receives expansions of the anterior epimysium of the gluteus maximus muscle (GIM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurovascular structures of the mandibular angle and condyle: a comprehensive anatomical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hun-Mu; Won, Sung-Yoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hu, Kyung-Seok

    2015-11-01

    Various surgical interventions including esthetic surgery, salivary gland excision, and open reduction of fracture have been performed in the area around the mandibular angle and condyle. This study aimed to comprehensively review the anatomy of the neurovascular structures on the angle and condyle with recent anatomic and clinical research. We provide detailed information about the branching and distributing patterns of the neurovascular structures at the mandibular angle and condyle, with reported data of measurements and proportions from previous anatomical and clinical research. Our report should serve to help practitioners gain a better understanding of the area in order or reduce potential complications during local procedures. Reckless manipulation during mandibular angle reduction could mutilate arterial branches, not only from the facial artery, but also from the external carotid artery. The transverse facial artery and superficial temporal artery could be damaged during approach and incision in the condylar area. The marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve can be easily damaged during submandibular gland excision or facial rejuvenation treatment. The main trunk of the facial nerve and its upper and lower distinct divisions have been damaged during parotidectomy, rhytidectomy, and open reductions of condylar fractures. By revisiting the information in the present study, surgeons will be able to more accurately prevent procedure-related complications, such as iatrogenic vascular accidents on the mandibular angle and condyle, complete and partial facial palsy, gustatory sweating (Frey syndrome), and traumatic neuroma after parotidectomy.

  4. A Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system for characterizing dynamic surface geometry of tubular anatomic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh, Torbjörn; Suh, Ga-Young; DiGiacomo, Phillip; Cheng, Christopher

    2018-03-03

    Vascular morphology characterization is useful for disease diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment planning, and prediction of treatment durability. To quantify the dynamic surface geometry of tubular-shaped anatomic structures, we propose a simple, rigorous Lagrangian cylindrical coordinate system to monitor well-defined surface points. Specifically, the proposed system enables quantification of surface curvature and cross-sectional eccentricity. Using idealized software phantom examples, we validate the method's ability to accurately quantify longitudinal and circumferential surface curvature, as well as eccentricity and orientation of eccentricity. We then apply the method to several medical imaging data sets of human vascular structures to exemplify the utility of this coordinate system for analyzing morphology and dynamic geometric changes in blood vessels throughout the body. Graphical abstract Pointwise longitudinal curvature of a thoracic aortic endograft surface for systole and diastole, with their absolute difference.

  5. Semi-automated measurement of anatomical structures using statistical and morphological priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Edward A.; Du, Tong

    2004-05-01

    Rapid, accurate and reproducible delineation and measurement of arbitrary anatomical structures in medical images is a widely held goal, with important applications in both clinical diagnostics and, perhaps more significantly, pharmaceutical trial evaluation. This process requires the ability first to localize a structure within the body, and then to find a best approximation of the structure"s boundaries within a given scan. Structures that are tortuous and small in cross section, such as the hippocampus in the brain or the abdominal aorta, present a particular challenge. Their apparent shape and position can change significantly from slice to slice, and accurate prior shape models for such structures are often difficult to form. In this work, we have developed a system that makes use of both a user-defined shape model and a statistical maximum likelihood classifier to identify and measure structures of this sort in MRI and CT images. Experiments show that this system can reduce analysis time by 75% or more with respect to manual tracing with no loss of precision or accuracy.

  6. Measurement of distances between anatomical structures using a translating stage with mounted endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrs, Lueder A.; Blachon, Gregoire S.; Balachandran, Ramya; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael; Labadie, Robert F.

    2012-02-01

    During endoscopic procedures it is often desirable to determine the distance between anatomical features. One such clinical application is percutaneous cochlear implantation (PCI), which is a minimally invasive approach to the cochlea via a single, straight drill path and can be achieved accurately using bone-implanted markers and customized microstereotactic frame. During clinical studies to validate PCI, traditional open-field cochlear implant surgery was performed and prior to completion of the surgery, a customized microstereotactic frame designed to achieve the desired PCI trajectory was attached to the bone-implanted markers. To determine whether this trajectory would have safely achieved the target, a sham drill bit is passed through the frame to ensure that the drill bit would reach the cochlea without damaging vital structures. Because of limited access within the facial recess, the distances from the bit to anatomical features could not be measured with calipers. We hypothesized that an endoscope mounted on a sliding stage that translates only along the trajectory, would provide sufficient triangulation to accurately measure these distances. In this paper, the design, fabrication, and testing of such a system is described. The endoscope is mounted so that its optical axis is approximately aligned with the trajectory. Several images are acquired as the stage is moved, and threedimensional reconstruction of selected points allows determination of distances. This concept also has applicability in a large variety of rigid endoscopic interventions including bronchoscopy, laparoscopy, and sinus endoscopy.

  7. Structural changes in leaves and roots are anatomical markers of aluminum sensitivity in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel da Silva de Jesus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum (Al toxicity in plants evidences the importance of genotype evaluation to the identification of tolerance markers. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of aluminum stress on the relative water content, membrane damages and anatomical changes, in Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive sunflower cultivars. Sunflower plants [Catissol (Al-tolerant and IAC-Uruguai (Al-sensitive] were grown in nutrient solution (control or nutrient solution containing 0.15 mM of AlCl3 (Al-stress treatment, in a greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a factorial arrangement consisting of four harvest times x two sunflower cultivars x two Al levels, with four replications. The results showed that Al negatively affected the absolute integrity percentage and relative water content only for the IAC-Uruguay cultivar. These results in the stressed leaves of the Al-sensitive cultivar may be due to damage in the xylem structure. In addition, the increase in leaf blade thickness and parenchyma layers, as well as lignification of root tissues, are important traits of IAC-Uruguay plants and may be used as anatomical markers of Al sensitivity in sunflower.

  8. The "G-Spot" Is Not a Structure Evident on Macroscopic Anatomic Dissection of the Vaginal Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoag, Nathan; Keast, Janet R; O'Connell, Helen E

    2017-12-01

    Controversy exists in the literature regarding the presence or absence of an anatomic "G-spot." However, few studies have examined the detailed topographic or histologic anatomy of the putative G-spot location. To determine the anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall and present detailed, systematic, accessible findings from female cadaveric dissections to provide anatomic clarity with respect to this location. Systematic anatomic dissections were performed on 13 female cadavers (32-97 years old, 8 fixed and 5 fresh) to characterize the gross anatomy of the anterior vaginal wall. Digital photography was used to document dissections. Dissection preserved the anterior vaginal wall, urethra, and clitoris. In 9 cadavers, the vaginal epithelial layer was reflected to expose the underlying urethral wall and associated tissues. In 4 cadavers, the vaginal wall was left intact before preservation. Once photographed, 8 specimens were transversely sectioned for macroscopic inspection and histologic examination. The presence or absence of a macroscopic anatomic structure at detailed cadaveric pelvis dissection that corresponds to the previously described G-spot and gross anatomic description of the anterior vaginal wall. Deep to the lining epithelium of the anterior vaginal wall is the urethra. There is no macroscopic structure other than the urethra and vaginal wall lining in the location of the putative G-spot. Specifically, there is no apparent erectile or "spongy" tissue in the anterior vaginal wall, except where the urethra abuts the clitoris distally. The absence of an anatomic structure corresponding to the putative G-spot helps clarify the controversy on this subject. Limitations to this study include limited access to specimens immediately after death and potential for observational bias. In addition, age, medical history, and cause of death are not publishable for privacy reasons. However, it is one of the most thorough and complete anatomic evaluations documenting the

  9. Internal structure of magnetic endosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, C.; Wilhelm, C.; Cousin, F.; Dupuis, V.; Gazeau, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2007-01-01

    The internal structure of biological vesicles filled with magnetic nanoparticles is investigated using the following complementary analyses: electronic transmission microscopy, dynamic probing by magneto-optical birefringence and structural probing by Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). These magnetic vesicles are magnetic endosomes obtained via a non-specific interaction between cells and anionic magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Thanks to a magnetic purification process, they are probed at two different stages of their formation within HeLa cells: (i) adsorption of nanoparticles onto the cellular membrane and (ii) their subsequent internalisation within endosomes. Differences in the microenvironment of the magnetic nanoparticles at those two different stages are highlighted here. The dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles adsorbed onto cellular membranes and confined within endosomes is respectively 3 and 5 orders of magnitude slower than for isolated magnetic nanoparticles in aqueous media. Interestingly, SANS experiments show that magnetic endosomes have an internal structure close to decorated vesicles, with magnetic nanoparticles locally decorating the endosome membrane, inside their inner-sphere. These results, important for future biomedical applications, suggest that multiple fusions of decorated vesicles are the biological processes underlying the endocytosis of that kind of nanometric materials.

  10. Visualisation of bony and vascular structures via digital subtraction images upon the amount of anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinz, A.; Scholz, A.; Zwicker, C.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the loss of contrast leaving a part of the anatomic background in digital subtraction angiography by visual analysis and densitometry. We observed a greater loss of the quality at the representation of the bone below than above an amount of anatomic background of 60%. The loss of quality at the representation of the vessels decreases more above than below an anatomical background of 45%. We think that, depending on the clinical problem, an anatomical background between 15 and 30% should be left. (orig.) [de

  11. The Monorail Technique to Overcome Difficult Anatomical Course During Implantation of Central Venous Port via the Left Internal Jugular Vein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eu Hyun, E-mail: doorihyun6@gmail.com; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hae Giu; Choi, Byung Gil, E-mail: cbg@catholic.ac.kr [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    PurposeThe study aimed to introduce a monorail technique to overcome difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.MethodsFrom 2007 to 2016, a total of 9346 patients were referred for implantable port insertion in our interventional unit, among which 79 cases were requested to insert on the left side. Our monorail technique was applied only when the technical challenge of the catheter tip entering the azygos vein instead of the superior vena cava occurred (n = 7). The technique consists of puncturing at the distal tip of the port catheter with a 21-gauge micropuncture needle and advancing a 0.018-in. hair-wire to guide and provide support for pre-assembled port.ResultsThe monorail technique was performed in seven patients and all but one case were technically successful, showing a technical success rate of 85.7%. There were no immediate or delayed complications.ConclusionsThe monorail technique is helpful to overcome the difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.

  12. The Monorail Technique to Overcome Difficult Anatomical Course During Implantation of Central Venous Port via the Left Internal Jugular Vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eu Hyun; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hae Giu; Choi, Byung Gil

    2017-01-01

    PurposeThe study aimed to introduce a monorail technique to overcome difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.MethodsFrom 2007 to 2016, a total of 9346 patients were referred for implantable port insertion in our interventional unit, among which 79 cases were requested to insert on the left side. Our monorail technique was applied only when the technical challenge of the catheter tip entering the azygos vein instead of the superior vena cava occurred (n = 7). The technique consists of puncturing at the distal tip of the port catheter with a 21-gauge micropuncture needle and advancing a 0.018-in. hair-wire to guide and provide support for pre-assembled port.ResultsThe monorail technique was performed in seven patients and all but one case were technically successful, showing a technical success rate of 85.7%. There were no immediate or delayed complications.ConclusionsThe monorail technique is helpful to overcome the difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.

  13. The Monorail Technique to Overcome Difficult Anatomical Course During Implantation of Central Venous Port via the Left Internal Jugular Vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eu Hyun; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hae Giu; Choi, Byung Gil

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to introduce a monorail technique to overcome difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion. From 2007 to 2016, a total of 9346 patients were referred for implantable port insertion in our interventional unit, among which 79 cases were requested to insert on the left side. Our monorail technique was applied only when the technical challenge of the catheter tip entering the azygos vein instead of the superior vena cava occurred (n = 7). The technique consists of puncturing at the distal tip of the port catheter with a 21-gauge micropuncture needle and advancing a 0.018-in. hair-wire to guide and provide support for pre-assembled port. The monorail technique was performed in seven patients and all but one case were technically successful, showing a technical success rate of 85.7%. There were no immediate or delayed complications. The monorail technique is helpful to overcome the difficult anatomical course via left internal jugular vein in implantable port insertion.

  14. A novel 3D shape descriptor for automatic retrieval of anatomical structures from medical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Fátima L. S.; Bergamasco, Leila C. C.; Delmondes, Pedro H.; Valverde, Miguel A. G.; Jackowski, Marcel P.

    2017-03-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) aims at retrieving from a database objects that are similar to an object provided by a query, by taking into consideration a set of extracted features. While CBIR has been widely applied in the two-dimensional image domain, the retrieval of3D objects from medical image datasets using CBIR remains to be explored. In this context, the development of descriptors that can capture information specific to organs or structures is desirable. In this work, we focus on the retrieval of two anatomical structures commonly imaged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) techniques, the left ventricle of the heart and blood vessels. Towards this aim, we developed the Area-Distance Local Descriptor (ADLD), a novel 3D local shape descriptor that employs mesh geometry information, namely facet area and distance from centroid to surface, to identify shape changes. Because ADLD only considers surface meshes extracted from volumetric medical images, it substantially diminishes the amount of data to be analyzed. A 90% precision rate was obtained when retrieving both convex (left ventricle) and non-convex structures (blood vessels), allowing for detection of abnormalities associated with changes in shape. Thus, ADLD has the potential to aid in the diagnosis of a wide range of vascular and cardiac diseases.

  15. Anatomical Inputs From the Sensory and Value Structures to the Tail of the Rat Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Jiang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The caudal region of the rodent striatum, called the tail of the striatum (TS, is a relatively small area but might have a distinct function from other striatal subregions. Recent primate studies showed that this part of the striatum has a unique function in encoding long-term value memory of visual objects for habitual behavior. This function might be due to its specific connectivity. We identified inputs to the rat TS and compared those with inputs to the dorsomedial striatum (DMS in the same animals. The TS directly received anatomical inputs from both sensory structures and value-coding regions, but the DMS did not. First, inputs from the sensory cortex and sensory thalamus to the TS were found; visual, auditory, somatosensory and gustatory cortex and thalamus projected to the TS but not to the DMS. Second, two value systems innervated the TS; dopamine and serotonin neurons in the lateral part of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and dorsal raphe nucleus projected to the TS, respectively. The DMS received inputs from the separate group of dopamine neurons in the medial part of the SNc. In addition, learning-related regions of the limbic system innervated the TS; the temporal areas and the basolateral amygdala selectively innervated the TS, but not the DMS. Our data showed that both sensory and value-processing structures innervated the TS, suggesting its plausible role in value-guided sensory-motor association for habitual behavior.

  16. Internal structure of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    Full text: We review recent progress that sheds light on the internal structure of general black holes. We first summarize properties of general multi-charged rotating black holes both in four and five dimensions. We show that the asymptotic boundary conditions of these general asymptotically flat black holes can be modified such that a conformal symmetry emerges. These subtracted geometries preserve the thermodynamic properties of the original black holes and are of the Lifshitz type, thus describing 'a black hole in the asymptotically conical box'. Recent efforts employ solution generating techniques to construct interpolating geometries between the original black hole and their subtracted geometries. Upon lift to one dimension higher, these geometries lift to AdS 3 times a sphere, and thus provide a microscopic interpretation of the black hole entropy in terms of dual two-dimensional conformal field theory. (author)

  17. Anatomical variants of the internal spermatic vein discovered during the percutaneous embolization of left varicoceles in a pediatric population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garel, L.; Dubois, J.; Rypens, F.; Ouimet, A.; Yazbeck, S.

    2004-01-01

    To report on the high incidence of anatomical variants of the origin and course of the internal spermatic vein (ISV) discovered at the time of percutaneous embolization of left varicoceles in a pediatric population. We reviewed retrospectively the 65 cases of left varicocele treated by percutaneous embolization (grade II and III) in our institution between 1990 and 2000. The course of the left renal vein (LRV), the origin of the ISV, and the number of ISVs and their pathway were recorded in all cases, according to the B ren classification. In 37/65 (57%), the ISV was single and arose from a normal LRV (type I).The following variants were encountered: type V - circumaortic LRV 9/65 (14%); type IVb - intrarenal origin of ISV 8/65 (12%); type II - multiple ISV 5/65 (8%); and pelvic collaterals 6/65 (9%). Venous anatomical variants are frequently encountered (43%) at the time of left varicocele embolization in children. Such variants often impose some adjustments to the technique of embolization and, at times, hamper the procedure. (author)

  18. TH-E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory Surrogate for 4D CT Using Fourier Transform and Anatomical Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, C; Suh, Y; Robertson, D; Pan, T; Das, P; Crane, C; Beddar, S [MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm to generate internal respiratory signals for sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm extracted multiple time resolved features as potential respiratory signals. These features were taken from the 4D CT images and its Fourier transformed space. Several low-frequency locations in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features from the images were used as potential respiratory signals. A clustering algorithm was then used to search for the group of appropriate potential respiratory signals. The chosen signals were then normalized and averaged to form the final internal respiratory signal. Performance of the algorithm was tested in 50 4D CT data sets and results were compared with external signals from the real-time position management (RPM) system. Results: In almost all cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that visibly matched the external respiratory signals from the RPM system. On average, the end inspiration times calculated by the proposed algorithm were within 0.1 s of those given by the RPM system. Less than 3% of the calculated end inspiration times were more than one time frame away from those given by the RPM system. In 3 out of the 50 cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that were significantly smoother than the RPM signals. In these cases, images sorted using the internal respiratory signals showed fewer artifacts in locations corresponding to the discrepancy in the internal and external respiratory signals. Conclusion: We developed a robust algorithm that generates internal respiratory signals from 4D CT images. In some cases, it even showed the potential to outperform the RPM system. The proposed algorithm is completely automatic and generally takes less than 2 min to process. It can be easily implemented into the clinic and can potentially replace the use of external surrogates.

  19. TH-E-17A-01: Internal Respiratory Surrogate for 4D CT Using Fourier Transform and Anatomical Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C; Suh, Y; Robertson, D; Pan, T; Das, P; Crane, C; Beddar, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm to generate internal respiratory signals for sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm extracted multiple time resolved features as potential respiratory signals. These features were taken from the 4D CT images and its Fourier transformed space. Several low-frequency locations in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features from the images were used as potential respiratory signals. A clustering algorithm was then used to search for the group of appropriate potential respiratory signals. The chosen signals were then normalized and averaged to form the final internal respiratory signal. Performance of the algorithm was tested in 50 4D CT data sets and results were compared with external signals from the real-time position management (RPM) system. Results: In almost all cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that visibly matched the external respiratory signals from the RPM system. On average, the end inspiration times calculated by the proposed algorithm were within 0.1 s of those given by the RPM system. Less than 3% of the calculated end inspiration times were more than one time frame away from those given by the RPM system. In 3 out of the 50 cases, the proposed algorithm generated internal respiratory signals that were significantly smoother than the RPM signals. In these cases, images sorted using the internal respiratory signals showed fewer artifacts in locations corresponding to the discrepancy in the internal and external respiratory signals. Conclusion: We developed a robust algorithm that generates internal respiratory signals from 4D CT images. In some cases, it even showed the potential to outperform the RPM system. The proposed algorithm is completely automatic and generally takes less than 2 min to process. It can be easily implemented into the clinic and can potentially replace the use of external surrogates

  20. Accurate measurement of surface areas of anatomical structures by computer-assisted triangulation of computed tomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, J.T.; Jacomb-Hood, J.; Abulafi, A.M.; Williams, N.S. (Royal London Hospital (United Kingdom)); Cookson, J.; Dykes, E.; Holman, J. (London Hospital Medical College (United Kingdom))

    1993-05-01

    There is a need for accurate surface area measurement of internal anatomical structures in order to define light dosimetry in adjunctive intraoperative photodynamic therapy (AIOPDT). The authors investigated whether computer-assisted triangulation of serial sections generated by computed tomography (CT) scanning can give an accurate assessment of the surface area of the walls of the true pelvis after anterior resection and before colorectal anastomosis. They show that the technique of paper density tessellation is an acceptable method of measuring the surface areas of phantom objects, with a maximum error of 0.5%, and is used as the gold standard. Computer-assisted triangulation of CT images of standard geometric objects and accurately-constructed pelvic phantoms gives a surface area assessment with a maximum error of 2.5% compared with the gold standard. The CT images of 20 patients' pelves have been analysed by computer-assisted triangulation and this shows the surface area of the walls varies from 143 cm[sup 2] to 392 cm[sup 2]. (Author).

  1. Spinor Structure and Internal Symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamov, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    Spinor structure and internal symmetries are considered within one theoretical framework based on the generalized spin and abstract Hilbert space. Complex momentum is understood as a generating kernel of the underlying spinor structure. It is shown that tensor products of biquaternion algebras are associated with the each irreducible representation of the Lorentz group. Space-time discrete symmetries P, T and their combination PT are generated by the fundamental automorphisms of this algebraic background (Clifford algebras). Charge conjugation C is presented by a pseudoautomorphism of the complex Clifford algebra. This description of the operation C allows one to distinguish charged and neutral particles including particle-antiparticle interchange and truly neutral particles. Spin and charge multiplets, based on the interlocking representations of the Lorentz group, are introduced. A central point of the work is a correspondence between Wigner definition of elementary particle as an irreducible representation of the Poincaré group and SU(3)-description (quark scheme) of the particle as a vector of the supermultiplet (irreducible representation of SU(3)). This correspondence is realized on the ground of a spin-charge Hilbert space. Basic hadron supermultiplets of SU(3)-theory (baryon octet and two meson octets) are studied in this framework. It is shown that quark phenomenologies are naturally incorporated into presented scheme. The relationship between mass and spin is established. The introduced spin-mass formula and its combination with Gell-Mann-Okubo mass formula allows one to take a new look at the problem of mass spectrum of elementary particles.

  2. Evaluating mental workload of two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization for anatomical structure localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jung-Leng; Martinez-Escobar, Marisol; Juhnke, Bethany; Cassidy, Keely; Hisley, Kenneth; Lobe, Thom; Winer, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of medical data in three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) views is a complex area of research. In many fields 3D views are used to understand the shape of an object, and 2D views are used to understand spatial relationships. It is unclear how 2D/3D views play a role in the medical field. Using 3D views can potentially decrease the learning curve experienced with traditional 2D views by providing a whole representation of the patient's anatomy. However, there are challenges with 3D views compared with 2D. This current study expands on a previous study to evaluate the mental workload associated with both 2D and 3D views. Twenty-five first-year medical students were asked to localize three anatomical structures--gallbladder, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery--in either 2D or 3D environments. Accuracy and time were taken as the objective measures for mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was used as a subjective measure for mental workload. Results showed that participants viewing in 3D had higher localization accuracy and a lower subjective measure of mental workload, specifically, the mental demand component of the NASA-TLX. Results from this study may prove useful for designing curricula in anatomy education and improving training procedures for surgeons.

  3. Clarification of Eponymous Anatomical Terminology: Structures Named After Dr Geoffrey V. Osborne That Compress the Ulnar Nerve at the Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Arvin R; Gabel, Brandon; Mitwalli, Madhawi; Tubbs, R Shane; Brown, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    In 1957, Dr Geoffrey Osborne described a structure between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon that placed excessive pressure on the ulnar nerve. Three terms associated with such structures have emerged: Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia. As anatomical language moves away from eponymous terminology for descriptive, consistent nomenclature, we find discrepancies in the use of anatomic terms. This review clarifies the definitions of the above 3 terms. We conducted an extensive electronic search via PubMed and Google Scholar to identify key anatomical and surgical texts that describe ulnar nerve compression at the elbow. We searched the following terms separately and in combination: "Osborne's band," "Osborne's ligament," and "Osborne's fascia." A total of 36 papers were included from 1957 to 2016. Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia were found to inconsistently describe the etiology of ulnar neuritis, referring either to the connective tissue between the 2 heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle as described by Dr Osborne or to the anatomically distinct fibrous tissue between the olecranon process of the ulna and the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The use of eponymous terms to describe ulnar pathology of the elbow remains common, and although these terms allude to the rich history of surgical anatomy, these nonspecific descriptions lead to inconsistencies. As Osborne's band, Osborne's ligament, and Osborne's fascia are not used consistently across the literature, this research demonstrates the need for improved terminology to provide reliable interpretation of these terms among surgeons.

  4. [Variants of anatomical structure of lower-limb veins as a possible cause of the development of primary varicosity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakhitov, M Kh; Bol'shakov, O P

    2011-01-01

    In order to reveal anatomical prerequisites for the development of primary varicose veins we investigated the structure of the venous system on a total of 53 adult human cadaveric lower extremities. Congenital morphological grounds providing the phlebohaemodynemics of the lower limbs are ambiguous in different individual forms. We revealed a total of 18 variants of the structure of deep veins, reflecting various stages of the embryonic development. In 34.1% of cases we saw the forms characteristic of incomplete reduction and unfinished transformation, with 30.2% of cases showing the utmost degree of reduction and transformation. An inadequate outflow along the deep veins conditioned by their anatomical structure is a prerequisite for the development of valvular insufficiency and venous reflux to the superficial veins followed by varicose transformation thereof

  5. Features of morpho-anatomic structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna Berezkina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study results of biological features and morpho-anatomical structure of vegetative organs of Sedum antiquum Omelcz et Zaverucha (Crassulaceae DC. are given. S. antiquum is Eastern Carpathian-Opillia rare endemic species. It is listed in the Red Book of Ukraine and in the European Red List of Animals and Plants and is endangered in world scale. As a result of study of morpho-anatomic structure of leaves and stems of S. antiquum the anisocytic type of stomata and presence of cuticle have been determined. It was ascertained that structure of leaves is adapted to the accumulation of significant water reserves and its further gradual use. Ecological and phytocenotic conditions of growth are studied too. S. antiquum has been determined here as petrophyte, calcephyl, and succulent ephemer. This rare species need protection and control of population state in all natural habitats.

  6. Fast detection of the main anatomical structures in digital retinal images based on intra- and inter-structure relational knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Casado, José M; Carmona, Enrique J; García-Feijoó, Julián

    2017-10-01

    The anatomical structure detection in retinal images is an open problem. However, most of the works in the related literature are oriented to the detection of each structure individually or assume the previous detection of a structure which is used as a reference. The objective of this paper is to obtain simultaneous detection of the main retinal structures (optic disc, macula, network of vessels and vascular bundle) in a fast and robust way. We propose a new methodology oriented to accomplish the mentioned objective. It consists of two stages. In an initial stage, a set of operators is applied to the retinal image. Each operator uses intra-structure relational knowledge in order to produce a set of candidate blobs that belongs to the desired structure. In a second stage, a set of tuples is created, each of which contains a different combination of the candidate blobs. Next, filtering operators, using inter-structure relational knowledge, are used in order to find the winner tuple. A method using template matching and mathematical morphology is implemented following the proposed methodology. A success is achieved if the distance between the automatically detected blob center and the actual structure center is less than or equal to one optic disc radius. The success rates obtained in the different public databases analyzed were: MESSIDOR (99.33%, 98.58%, 97.92%), DIARETDB1 (96.63%, 100%, 97.75%), DRIONS (100%, n/a, 100%) and ONHSD (100%, 98.85%, 97.70%) for optic disc (OD), macula (M) and vascular bundle (VB), respectively. Finally, the overall success rate obtained in this study for each structure was: 99.26% (OD), 98.69% (M) and 98.95% (VB). The average time of processing per image was 4.16 ± 0.72 s. The main advantage of the use of inter-structure relational knowledge was the reduction of the number of false positives in the detection process. The implemented method is able to simultaneously detect four structures. It is fast, robust and its detection

  7. Market structures in international telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures.......Paper dealing with the internationalisation of telecommunications and the developing market structures....

  8. Arthroscopically Assisted Reconstruction of Acute Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocations: Anatomic AC Ligament Reconstruction With Protective Internal Bracing—The “AC-RecoBridge” Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadpanah, Kaywan; Jaeger, Martin; Ogon, Peter; Südkamp, Norbert P.; Maier, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    An arthroscopically assisted technique for the treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations is presented. This pathology-based procedure aims to achieve anatomic healing of both the acromioclavicular ligament complex (ACLC) and the coracoclavicular ligaments. First, the acromioclavicular joint is reduced anatomically under macroscopic and radiologic control and temporarily transfixed with a K-wire. A single-channel technique using 2 suture tapes provides secure coracoclavicular stabilization. The key step of the procedure consists of the anatomic repair of the ACLC (“AC-Reco”). Basically, we have observed 4 patterns of injury: clavicular-sided, acromial-sided, oblique, and midportion tears. Direct and/or transosseous ACLC repair is performed accordingly. Then, an X-configured acromioclavicular suture tape cerclage (“AC-Bridge”) is applied under arthroscopic assistance to limit horizontal clavicular translation to a physiological extent. The AC-Bridge follows the principle of internal bracing and protects healing of the ACLC repair. The AC-Bridge is tightened on top of the repair, creating an additional suture-bridge effect and promoting anatomic ACLC healing. We refer to this combined technique of anatomic ACLC repair and protective internal bracing as the “AC-RecoBridge.” A detailed stepwise description of the surgical technique, including indications, technical pearls and pitfalls, and potential complications, is given. PMID:26052493

  9. Internal respiratory surrogate in multislice 4D CT using a combination of Fourier transform and anatomical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Cheukkai; Suh, Yelin; Robertson, Daniel; Beddar, Sam; Pan, Tinsu; Das, Prajnan; Crane, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel algorithm to create a robust internal respiratory signal (IRS) for retrospective sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm combines information from the Fourier transform of the CT images and from internal anatomical features to form the IRS. The algorithm first extracts potential respiratory signals from low-frequency components in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features in the image space. A clustering algorithm then constructs groups of potential respiratory signals with similar temporal oscillation patterns. The clustered group with the largest number of similar signals is chosen to form the final IRS. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the IRS was computed and compared with the external respiratory signal from the real-time position management (RPM) system on 80 patients. Results: In 72 (90%) of the 4D CT data sets tested, the IRS computed by the authors’ proposed algorithm matched with the RPM signal based on their normalized cross correlation. For these data sets with matching respiratory signals, the average difference between the end inspiration times (Δt ins ) in the IRS and RPM signal was 0.11 s, and only 2.1% of Δt ins were more than 0.5 s apart. In the eight (10%) 4D CT data sets in which the IRS and the RPM signal did not match, the average Δt ins was 0.73 s in the nonmatching couch positions, and 35.4% of them had a Δt ins greater than 0.5 s. At couch positions in which IRS did not match the RPM signal, a correlation-based metric indicated poorer matching of neighboring couch positions in the RPM-sorted images. This implied that, when IRS did not match the RPM signal, the images sorted using the IRS showed fewer artifacts than the clinical images sorted using the RPM signal. Conclusions: The authors’ proposed algorithm can generate robust IRSs that can be used for retrospective sorting of 4D CT data

  10. Internal respiratory surrogate in multislice 4D CT using a combination of Fourier transform and anatomical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, Cheukkai; Suh, Yelin [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Robertson, Daniel; Beddar, Sam, E-mail: abeddar@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Pan, Tinsu [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 and Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Das, Prajnan; Crane, Christopher H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel algorithm to create a robust internal respiratory signal (IRS) for retrospective sorting of four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: The proposed algorithm combines information from the Fourier transform of the CT images and from internal anatomical features to form the IRS. The algorithm first extracts potential respiratory signals from low-frequency components in the Fourier space and selected anatomical features in the image space. A clustering algorithm then constructs groups of potential respiratory signals with similar temporal oscillation patterns. The clustered group with the largest number of similar signals is chosen to form the final IRS. To evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, the IRS was computed and compared with the external respiratory signal from the real-time position management (RPM) system on 80 patients. Results: In 72 (90%) of the 4D CT data sets tested, the IRS computed by the authors’ proposed algorithm matched with the RPM signal based on their normalized cross correlation. For these data sets with matching respiratory signals, the average difference between the end inspiration times (Δt{sub ins}) in the IRS and RPM signal was 0.11 s, and only 2.1% of Δt{sub ins} were more than 0.5 s apart. In the eight (10%) 4D CT data sets in which the IRS and the RPM signal did not match, the average Δt{sub ins} was 0.73 s in the nonmatching couch positions, and 35.4% of them had a Δt{sub ins} greater than 0.5 s. At couch positions in which IRS did not match the RPM signal, a correlation-based metric indicated poorer matching of neighboring couch positions in the RPM-sorted images. This implied that, when IRS did not match the RPM signal, the images sorted using the IRS showed fewer artifacts than the clinical images sorted using the RPM signal. Conclusions: The authors’ proposed algorithm can generate robust IRSs that can be used for retrospective

  11. Analysis of the priority of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic task in cone-beam computed tomographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Chunan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to evaluate differences in the required visibility of anatomic structures according to the diagnostic tasks of implant planning and periapical diagnosis. Images of a real skull phantom were acquired under 24 combinations of different exposure conditions in a cone-beam computed tomography scanner (60, 70, 80, 90, 100, and 110 kV and 4, 6, 8, and 10 mA). Five radiologists evaluated the visibility of anatomic structures and the image quality for diagnostic tasks using a 6-point scale. The visibility of the periodontal ligament space showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for periapical diagnosis in both jaws. The visibility of the sinus floor and canal wall showed the closest association with the ability to use an image for implant planning. Variations in tube voltage were associated with significant differences in image quality for all diagnostic tasks. However, tube current did not show significant associations with the ability to use an image for implant planning. The required visibility of anatomic structures varied depending on the diagnostic task. Tube voltage was a more important exposure parameter for image quality than tube current. Different settings should be used for optimization and image quality evaluation depending on the diagnostic task.

  12. Organizational Structures that Support Internal Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambur, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores how the structure of large complex organizations such as Cooperative Extension affects their ability to support internal evaluation of their programs and activities. Following a literature review of organizational structure and its relation to internal evaluation capacity, the chapter presents the results of interviews with…

  13. Recent advances in standards for collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Context Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology refers to the use of information technology that supports the creation and sharing or exchange of information, including data and images, during the complex workflow performed in an Anatomic Pathology department from specimen reception to report transmission and exploitation. Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology can only be fully achieved using medical informatics standards. The goal of the international integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) initiative is precisely specifying how medical informatics standards should be implemented to meet specific health care needs and making systems integration more efficient and less expensive. Objective To define the best use of medical informatics standards in order to share and exchange machine-readable structured reports and their evidences (including whole slide images) within hospitals and across healthcare facilities. Methods Specific working groups dedicated to Anatomy Pathology within multiple standards organizations defined standard-based data structures for Anatomic Pathology reports and images as well as informatic transactions in order to integrate Anatomic Pathology information into the electronic healthcare enterprise. Results The DICOM supplements 122 and 145 provide flexible object information definitions dedicated respectively to specimen description and Whole Slide Image acquisition, storage and display. The content profile “Anatomic Pathology Structured Report” (APSR) provides standard templates for structured reports in which textual observations may be bound to digital images or regions of interest. Anatomic Pathology observations are encoded using an international controlled vocabulary defined by the IHE Anatomic Pathology domain that is currently being mapped to SNOMED CT concepts. Conclusion Recent advances in standards for Collaborative Digital Anatomic Pathology are a unique opportunity to share or exchange Anatomic Pathology structured

  14. Fast automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in x-ray computed tomography images to improve fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyer, Marcus; Ale, Angelique; Schulz, Ralf B; Zientkowska, Marta; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Englmeier, Karl-Hans

    2010-01-01

    The recent development of hybrid imaging scanners that integrate fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and x-ray computed tomography (XCT) allows the utilization of x-ray information as image priors for improving optical tomography reconstruction. To fully capitalize on this capacity, we consider a framework for the automatic and fast detection of different anatomic structures in murine XCT images. To accurately differentiate between different structures such as bone, lung, and heart, a combination of image processing steps including thresholding, seed growing, and signal detection are found to offer optimal segmentation performance. The algorithm and its utilization in an inverse FMT scheme that uses priors is demonstrated on mouse images.

  15. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wognum, S; Bondar, L; Zolnay, A G; Chai, X; Hulshof, M C C M; Hoogeman, M S; Bel, A

    2013-02-01

    Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight parameters were determined

  16. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A.; Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors’ unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  17. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Meiberdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  18. [Anatomical and functional results of macular hole surgery with internal limiting membrane peeling after 10-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foveau, P; Conart, J-B; Hubert, I; Selton, J; Berrod, J-P

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the anatomical and functional results of macular hole surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling after 10 years follow-up. Monocentric retrospective study of patients who had undergone macular hole surgery between 2003 and 2005 in the Nancy University Medical Center and still followed in the department in 2014. All patients underwent pars plana vitrectomy and ILM peeling without staining. Clinical examination at ten years including determination of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), evaluation of quality of life and spectral domain optical coherence tomography was performed. Four men and six women with mean age of 64±8 years were included. The mean diameter of the MH was 395±133μm. The mean best corrected visual acuity improved significantly from 0.90±0.22 logMAR to 0.14±0.14 logMAR after 10 years with a satisfactory quality of life in 90 % of patients. The integrity of the IS/OS layer was preserved in 9 eyes. Inner retinal dimples located in the temporal quadrant related to ILM peeling initiation were observed in 8 eyes. No significant RNFL or ganglion cell complex changes were found compared to the contralateral eye. Macular hole surgery with ILM peeling in this series resulted in a visual acuity gain of 8 ETDRS lines and persistent improvement in quality of life after a 10-year follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. In-vivo visualisation of the anatomical structures related to the acupuncture points Dai mai and Shen mai by MRI: A single-case pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncayo, Roy; Rudisch, Ansgar; Diemling, Markus; Kremser, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The concept of acupuncture point localisation in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is based on millenary practical experience. Modern imaging methods such as PET, MRI and SPECT have been used primary for the investigation of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture. In this pilot single-case study we have evaluated the technical possibilities for in-vivo imaging of the anatomical relations of acupuncture points using state of the art MRI. Preliminary experiments relating to the quality of acupuncture needles under the setting of MRI were done both with stainless steel and gold needles. In a second step, in-vivo imaging was carried out. A licensed acupuncture practitioner (RM) chose two points belonging to the so-called extraordinary vessels. In 2 sequential, separate procedures, he inserted himself gold acupuncture needles using a neutral technique (known as Ping Bu Ping Xie) into the Dai mai and Shen mai points, i.e. gall bladder 26 and bladder 62. Imaging was done on a Siemens Magnetom Avanto MR scanner using a head array and body coil. Mainly T1-weighted imaging sequences, as routinely used for patient exams, were used to obtain multi-slice images. In the preliminary experiments only acupuncture needles made of gold showed enough stability in order to be used for further imaging procedures. Using an onion and a banana as an object, further studies showed that the gold needles produced a void defect that corresponds to the tip of the inserted needle, while at the same time an artefactually increased diameter was observed. The in-vivo experiments showed that the Dai mai point was in relation to the abdominal internal oblique muscle. The Shen mai point artefact showed up close to the longus and brevis peroneal tendons at the fibular malleolus. Side effects related to heating or burning were not observed. Improved anatomical recognition was obtained using 3D-volume rendering techniques. Through an adequate choice of acupuncture material (gold needles) as well as of

  20. Morpho-anatomical structure of the leaves of Festuca trachyphylla (Hack. Krajina in the ecological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Festuca trachyphylla(Hack. Krajina is a morphologically variable species common in warm and dry habitats in various communities: xerothermic grasslands, dry meadows, sand dunes, scrub and well-lighted forest. The aim of this study was to determine the limits of morphological and anatomical trait variability of F. rachyphylla leaves. The study was conducted in 24 sub-populations (N-432 individuals in the Lublin Upland, southeastern Poland. Plants in two localities were investigated: in calcium carbonate-rich xerothermic grasslands and on sand dunes. Variability of the F. trachyphylla leaf blades was demonstrated to be dependent on thehabitat type. The following morphological and anatomical traits: the length of the leaf, width of the cauline leaf, number of ribs in theleaf, length of the cauline leaf, length of hair in the leaf, colour of the leaf, hairiness of the upper part leaf, cross-section of the leaf, and distribution of the sclerenchymatous tissue in the leaf blade exhibited high variability.

  1. Wood Anatomical Structure of Morus alba L. and Morus nigra L., Native to Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham KARAMI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Iran is a wast country with many different tree species. Among those there are two species of Morus genus including alba and nigra. Since long time ago, white mulberry�s wood (Morus alba has been used for making musical instruments especially bowl shaped instruments in Iran.. In contrast, black mulberry�s wood (Morus nigra has never been used for these types of applications. In order to investigate the possible replacement choices, this study has been carried out to investigate the anatomical differences and similarities between these two species. Wood samples of the two species have been collected from same site and microsections for light microscopic studies and maceration samples have been prepared. The anatomical characteristics were studied according to the IAWA List of Hardwoods. The most important similarities between them are: vessel solitary in short radial multiples or irregular clusters, fiber nonseptate, rays uniseriate and multiseriate type, paratracheal parenchyma, varying from vasicentric to aliform confluent, apotracheal as marginal bands, Rhombic crystals present in rays and sometimes in parenchyma. The main differences are: semi-ring porous distribution of vessels in M. alba, fewer number of vessels and presence of aliform parenchyma in M. nigra. Taking these results into consideration, the most important features of both species are similar and it could be recommended to use the nigra species as well as the alba for making musical instruments.

  2. Touching my left elbow: the anatomical structure of the body affects the illusion of self-touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    A self-touch paradigm is used to create the illusion that one is touching one's own left elbow when one is actually touching the examiner's arm. Our new self-touch illusion is sensitive to the anatomical structure of the body: you can touch your left elbow with your right index finger but not with your left index finger. Illusion onset was faster and illusion ratings were higher when participants administered touch using the plausible right index finger compared with the implausible left index finger.

  3. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  4. 3D Models of Female Pelvis Structures Reconstructed and Represented in Combination with Anatomical and Radiological Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio Romero, L; Asensio Gómez, M; Prats-Galino, A; Juanes Méndez, J A

    2018-01-15

    We present a computer program designed to visualize and interact with three-dimensional models of the main anatomical structures of the female pelvis. They are reconstructed from serial sections of corpse, from the Visible Human project of the Medical Library of the United States and from serial sections of high-resolution magnetic resonance. It is possible to represent these three-dimensional structures in any spatial orientation, together with sectional images of corpse and magnetic resonance imaging, in the three planes of space (axial, coronal and sagittal) that facilitates the anatomical understanding and the identification of the set of visceral structures of this body region. Actually, there are few studies that analysze in detail the radiological anatomy of the female pelvis using three-dimensional models together with sectional images, making use of open applications for the representation of virtual scenes on low cost Windows® platforms. Our technological development allows the observation of the main female pelvis viscera in three dimensions with a very intuitive graphic interface. This computer application represents an important training tool for both medical students and specialists in gynecology and as a preliminary step in the planning of pelvic floor surgery.

  5. [Functional and Anatomic Outcomes of Primary and Secondary Internal Limiting Membrane Transplantation in Large and Persistent Macular Holes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jelka A; Michels, Stephan; Becker, Matthias D

    2017-11-20

    Background The gold standard therapy for full-thickness macular holes (FTMH) is vitrectomy (PPV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (ILM), gas tamponade of the vitreous cavity and postoperative face-down positioning. Nevertheless, eyes with large macular holes (> 400 µm) and surgical failures remain difficult to manage. Recently, ILM transplantation (ILM-TX) techniques were developed with acceptable results, advocating different mechanisms of hole closure: in such a setting, the ILM could serve as a scaffold for neuronal tissue in the pedicle ILM flap technique or the ILM could induce a contraction of the FTMH rims through shrinking of a folded ILM plug. Patients/Material and Methods This retrospective study evaluates the functional and anatomic outcomes following ILM-TX for large FTMH and failed FMTH surgery. Large holes (group 1) were treated by the pedicle flap and the plug technique. Persistent holes following vitrectomy and ILM peeling (group 2) were treated with the plug technique. All ILM-TX were performed under perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) with a subsequent silicone oil tamponade. Results In group 1 (6 eyes), three eyes had a free ILM graft and three eyes underwent a pedunculated ILM-TX. The mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, LogMar) before primary ILM-TX was 1.18 ± 0.54 with a mean initial hole size of 681 ± 106 µm and a photoreceptor defect (PRD) of 1829 ± 474 µm. Five of six eyes showed a postoperative anatomical macular hole closure (83%). The mean BCVA after a mean follow-up of 9.3 ± 5.1 months was 0.83 ± 0.31 after a free ILM graft and 0.95 ± 0.79 after a pedunculated ILM flap. The PRD reduced to 1781 ± 713 µm after a free ILM graft and 1148 ± 378 µm after a pedunculated ILM flap. In group 2 (7 eyes), all patients had failed initial macular hole surgery closure. Prior to free ILM-TX BCVA was 1.05 ± 0.41, the hole size was 433 ± 183 µm and PRD was 2012 ± 718

  6. Structure of molecules and internal rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Mizushima, San-Ichiro

    1954-01-01

    Structure of Molecules and Internal Rotation reviews early studies on dihalogenoethanes. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 8 chapters that evaluate the Raman effect in ethane derivatives, the energy difference between rotational isomers, and the infrared absorption of ethane derivatives. Some of the topics covered in the book are the potential barrier to internal rotation; nature of the hindering potential; entropy difference between the rotational isomers; internal rotation in butane, pentane, and hexane; and internal rotation in long chain n-paraffins. Other chapters deal wi

  7. The effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhihong; Wu Hong; Qin Yongwen; Hu Jianqiang; Ding Zhongru; Liu Zongjun; Liu Biao; Zheng Xing

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage (LAA) with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in canine. Methods: A new self-manufactured LAA occluder was implanted into the LAA through a transseptal catheter in 20 dogs. Before and after the procedure, the experimental dogs were anaesthetized and examined by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to measure the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, the left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and the left atrioventricular valve flow velocity separately. The contrast radiography of the LAA and the left coronary arteriography were performed. Results: The new LAA occluder was implanted successfully in 14 dogs. No obvious changes in the diameter and the volume of the left atrium, in left superior pulmonary vein flow velocity and in left atrioventricular valve flow velocity were found. On arteriography, left circumflex artery was normally displayed after the procedure. No migration of the occluder was seen on TTE and angiography after procedure. Conclusion: Percutaneous transcatheter occlusion of left atrial appendage with a new self-manufactured LAA occluder has no obvious effect on left atrium and adjacent anatomic structure in experimental canine, which indicates that the new-type device is a safe and feasible occluder for LAA. (authors)

  8. The International Standards Organisation offshore structures standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The International Standards Organisation has initiated a program to develop a suite of ISO Codes and Standards for the Oil Industry. The Offshore Structures Standard is one of seven topics being addressed. The scope of the standard will encompass fixed steel and concrete structures, floating structures, Arctic structures and the site specific assessment of mobile drilling and accommodation units. The standard will use as base documents the existing recommended practices and standards most frequently used for each type of structure, and will develop them to incorporate best published and recognized practice and knowledge where it provides a significant improvement on the base document. Work on the Code has commenced under the direction of an internationally constituted sub-committee comprising representatives from most of the countries with a substantial offshore oil and gas industry. This paper outlines the background to the code and the format, content and work program

  9. Anatomical characterization of ultra-structures, biominerals and histolocalization of metabolites in leaves of Genipa americana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex L. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Abstract Inserted in one of the largest families among the Angiosperms, Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae, can be found in all Brazilian territory, presenting great medicinal importance, where several uses have been attributed. In view of this, this work has the purpose of analyzing the ultrastructural, biomineral, phytochemical and histochemical characteristics of the leaves of this native species from Brazil. For this, light microscopy, polarization and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used with X-ray scattering energy, associated to chromatographic and histochemical tests. The anatomical ultrastructural characteristics of the leaves detailed information about the type and arrangement of the cuticle, trichomes, surface and arrangement of the tissues that determine the botanical identity of this species. The phytochemical tests allowed determining their chromatographic pattern and histochemistry to determine the exact storage site of these substances in the leaf. It was observed that the characterization of the crystalline macro-pattern present in the analyzed species, as well as its exact elemental composition, can be considered an important differential diagnosis factor. The results characterize the leaves of this species in different aspects, being a native species and pharmacologically promising, with different popular uses and proven pharmacological activities, and more in depth studies is needed.

  10. Unification of Sinonasal Anatomical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voegels, Richard Louis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The advent of endoscopy and computed tomography at the beginning of the 1980s brought to rhinology a revival of anatomy and physiology study. In 1994, the International Conference of Sinus Disease was conceived because the official “Terminologia Anatomica”[1] had little information on the detailed sinonasal anatomy. In addition, there was a lack of uniformity of terminology and definitions. After 20 years, a new conference has been held. The need to use the same terminology led to the publication by the European Society of Rhinology of the “European Position Paper on the Anatomical Terminology of the Internal Nose and Paranasal Sinuses,” that can be accessed freely at www.rhinologyjournal.com. Professor Valerie Lund et al[2] wrote this document reviewing the anatomical terms, comparing to the “Terminology Anatomica” official order to define the structures without eponyms, while respecting the embryological development and especially universalizing and simplifying the terms. A must-read! The text's purpose lies beyond the review of anatomical terminology to universalize the language used to refer to structures of the nasal and paranasal cavities. Information about the anatomy, based on extensive review of the current literature, is arranged in just over 50 pages, which are direct and to the point. The publication may be pleasant reading for learners and teachers of rhinology. This text can be a starting point and enables searching the universal terminology used in Brazil, seeking to converge with this new European proposal for a nomenclature to help us communicate with our peers in Brazil and the rest of the world. The original text of the European Society of Rhinology provides English terms that avoided the use of Latin, and thus fall beyond several national personal translations. It would be admirable if we created our own cross-cultural adaptation of this new suggested anatomical terminology.

  11. Characterization of the anatomical structures involved in the contractile response of the rat lung periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, F G; Kurosawa, H; Eidelman, D H; Ludwig, M S

    1996-06-01

    1. When lung parenchymal strips are challenged with different smooth muscle agonists, the tensile and viscoelastic properties change. It is not clear, however, which of the different anatomical elements present in the parenchymal strip, i.e., small vessel, small airway or alveolar wall, contribute to the response. 2. Parenchymal lung strips from Sprague Dawley rats were suspended in an organ bath filled with Krebs solution (37 degrees C, pH = 7.4) bubbled with 95%O2/5%CO2. Resting tension (T) was set at 1.1 g and sinusoidal oscillations of 2.5% resting length (L0) at a frequency of 1 Hz were applied. Following 1 h of stress adaptation, measurements of length (L) and T were recorded under baseline conditions and after challenge with a variety of pharmacological agents, i.e., acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA) and angiotensin II (AII). Elastance (E) and resistance (R) were calculated by fitting changes in T, L and delta L/ delta t to the equation of motion. Hysteresivity (eta, the ratio of the energy dissipated to that conserved) was obtained from the equation eta = (R/E)2 pi f. 3. In order to determine whether small airways or small vessels accounted for the responses to the different pharmacologic agents, further studies were carried out in lung explants. Excised lungs from Sprague Dawley rats were inflated with agarose. Transverse slices of lung (0.5-1.0 mm thick) were cultured overnight. By use of an inverted microscope and video camera, airway and vascular lumen area were measured with an image analysis system. 4. NA, ACh and AII constricted the parenchymal strips. Airways constricted after all agonists, vessels constricted only after All. Atropine (Atr) pre-incubation decreased the explanted airway and vessel response to AII, but no difference was found in the parenchymal strip response. 5. Preincubation with the arginine analogue N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG) did not modify the response to ACh but mildly increased the oscillatory response to NA after

  12. The effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on the assessment of diagnostic image quality and visualisation of anatomical structures in paediatric cerebral CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Joel; Baath, Magnus; Thilander-Klang, Anne; Ledenius, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR) on the visualisation of anatomical structures and diagnostic image quality in paediatric cerebral computed tomography (CT) examinations. Forty paediatric patients undergoing routine cerebral CT were included in the study. The raw data from CT scans were reconstructed into stacks of 5 mm thick axial images at various levels of ASiR. Three paediatric radiologists rated six questions related to the visualisation of anatomical structures and one question on diagnostic image quality, in a blinded randomised visual grading study. The evaluated anatomical structures demonstrated enhanced visibility with increasing level of ASiR, apart from the cerebrospinal fluid space around the brain. In this study, 60 % ASiR was found to be the optimal level of ASiR for paediatric cerebral CT examinations. This shows that the commonly used 30 % ASiR may not always be the optimal level. (authors)

  13. Resolving anatomical and functional structure in human brain organization: identifying mesoscale organization in weighted network representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Christian; Bassett, Danielle S; Lim, Kelvin O; Carlson, Jean M

    2014-10-01

    Human brain anatomy and function display a combination of modular and hierarchical organization, suggesting the importance of both cohesive structures and variable resolutions in the facilitation of healthy cognitive processes. However, tools to simultaneously probe these features of brain architecture require further development. We propose and apply a set of methods to extract cohesive structures in network representations of brain connectivity using multi-resolution techniques. We employ a combination of soft thresholding, windowed thresholding, and resolution in community detection, that enable us to identify and isolate structures associated with different weights. One such mesoscale structure is bipartivity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into two partitions with high connectivity between partitions and low connectivity within partitions. A second, complementary mesoscale structure is modularity, which quantifies the extent to which the brain is divided into multiple communities with strong connectivity within each community and weak connectivity between communities. Our methods lead to multi-resolution curves of these network diagnostics over a range of spatial, geometric, and structural scales. For statistical comparison, we contrast our results with those obtained for several benchmark null models. Our work demonstrates that multi-resolution diagnostic curves capture complex organizational profiles in weighted graphs. We apply these methods to the identification of resolution-specific characteristics of healthy weighted graph architecture and altered connectivity profiles in psychiatric disease.

  14. Population-based evaluation of a suggested anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart defects based on the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffinet François

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classification of the overall spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHD has always been challenging, in part because of the diversity of the cardiac phenotypes, but also because of the oft-complex associations. The purpose of our study was to establish a comprehensive and easy-to-use classification of CHD for clinical and epidemiological studies based on the long list of the International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC. Methods We coded each individual malformation using six-digit codes from the long list of IPCCC. We then regrouped all lesions into 10 categories and 23 subcategories according to a multi-dimensional approach encompassing anatomic, diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. This anatomic and clinical classification of congenital heart disease (ACC-CHD was then applied to data acquired from a population-based cohort of patients with CHD in France, made up of 2867 cases (82% live births, 1.8% stillbirths and 16.2% pregnancy terminations. Results The majority of cases (79.5% could be identified with a single IPCCC code. The category "Heterotaxy, including isomerism and mirror-imagery" was the only one that typically required more than one code for identification of cases. The two largest categories were "ventricular septal defects" (52% and "anomalies of the outflow tracts and arterial valves" (20% of cases. Conclusion Our proposed classification is not new, but rather a regrouping of the known spectrum of CHD into a manageable number of categories based on anatomic and clinical criteria. The classification is designed to use the code numbers of the long list of IPCCC but can accommodate ICD-10 codes. Its exhaustiveness, simplicity, and anatomic basis make it useful for clinical and epidemiologic studies, including those aimed at assessment of risk factors and outcomes.

  15. Internal spin structure of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, V.W.; Kuti, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study of the structure of the proton and neutron through deep inelastic scattering, initially with electrons but subsequently with muons and neutrinos as well, has played a central role in establishing the quark-parton theory of the composition of hadrons and of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). One important aspect of these theoretical and experimental developments is the two spin-dependent structure functions, which are independent of the two spin-averaged structure functions and define the internal spin structure of the nucleon. Since both quarks and gluons possess spin and the forces between them are spin dependent, we can expect important information on these forces and on nucleon structure to be obtained through the study of the spindependent aspects of the nucleon wave function, as has been the case before in atomic and nuclear physics

  16. Functional brain connectivity is predictable from anatomic network's Laplacian eigen-structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnour, Farras; Dayan, Michael; Devinsky, Orrin; Thesen, Thomas; Raj, Ashish

    2018-05-15

    How structural connectivity (SC) gives rise to functional connectivity (FC) is not fully understood. Here we mathematically derive a simple relationship between SC measured from diffusion tensor imaging, and FC from resting state fMRI. We establish that SC and FC are related via (structural) Laplacian spectra, whereby FC and SC share eigenvectors and their eigenvalues are exponentially related. This gives, for the first time, a simple and analytical relationship between the graph spectra of structural and functional networks. Laplacian eigenvectors are shown to be good predictors of functional eigenvectors and networks based on independent component analysis of functional time series. A small number of Laplacian eigenmodes are shown to be sufficient to reconstruct FC matrices, serving as basis functions. This approach is fast, and requires no time-consuming simulations. It was tested on two empirical SC/FC datasets, and was found to significantly outperform generative model simulations of coupled neural masses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The Impact of Stereoscopic Imagery and Motion on Anatomical Structure Recognition and Visual Attention Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmele, Martin; Schmidt, Elena; Lingenfelder, Melissa; Martens, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Gross anatomy is located in a three-dimensional space. Visualizing aspects of structures in gross anatomy education should aim to provide information that best resembles their original spatial proportions. Stereoscopic three-dimensional imagery might offer possibilities to implement this aim, though some research has revealed potential impairments…

  18. The relationship of lateral anatomic structures to exiting guide pins during femoral tunnel preparation utilizing an accessory medial portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Lutul D; Parker, Richard D

    2010-06-01

    Anatomic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament through an accessory medial portal has become increasingly popular. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship of guide pin exit points to the lateral anatomic structures when preparing the anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnel through an accessory medial portal. We utilized seven fresh frozen cadaveric knees. Utilizing an anteromedial approach, a guide wire was placed into the center of each bundle's footprint. Each guide wire was advanced through the lateral femoral cortex. The guide pins were passed at 90, 110, and 130 degrees of knee flexion. The distances from each guide pin to the closest relevant structures on the lateral side of the knee were measured. At 90 degrees the posterolateral bundle guide pin was closest to the lateral condyle articular cartilage (mean 5.4 +/- 2.2 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 5.7 +/- 2.1 mm). At 110 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 4.5 +/- 3.4 mm). At 130 degrees the posterolateral bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 7.2 +/- 5.5 mm) and lateral collateral ligament (mean 6.8 +/- 2.1 mm). At 90 degrees the anteromedial bundle guide pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 2.0 +/- 2.0 mm). At 110 degrees the anteromedial bundle pin was closest to the articular cartilage (mean 7.4 +/- 3.5 mm) and gastrocnemius tendon (mean 12.3 +/- 3.1 mm). At 130 degrees the AM bundle pin was closest to the gastrocnemius tendon (mean 8.2 +/- 3.2 mm) and LCL (mean 15.1 +/- 2.9 mm). Neither guide pin (anteromedial or posterolateral bundle) put the peroneal nerve at risk at any knee flexion angle. At low knee flexion angles the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle guide pins closely approximated multiple lateral structures when using an accessory medial arthroscopic portal. Utilizing higher flexion angles increases the margin of error when preparing both femoral tunnels. During preparation of

  19. The role of the circle of Willis in internal carotid artery stenosis and anatomical variations: a computational study based on a patient-specific three-dimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangyu; Yuan, Qi; Yang, Jian; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2015-11-25

    The aim of this study is to provide better insights into the cerebral perfusion patterns and collateral mechanism of the circle of Willis (CoW) under anatomical and pathological variations. In the current study, a patient-specific three-dimensional computational model of the CoW was reconstructed based on the computed tomography (CT) images. The Carreau model was applied to simulate the non-Newtonian property of blood. Flow distributions in five common anatomical variations coexisting with different degrees of stenosis in the right internal carotid artery (RICA) were investigated to obtain detailed flow information. With the development of stenosis in unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA), the cerebral blood supply decreased when the degree of stenosis increased. The blood supply of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) was most affected by the stenosis of ICA. The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and ipsilateral posterior communicating artery (PCoA) functioned as the important collateral circulation channels when unilateral stenosis occurred. The blood flow of the anterior circulation and the total cerebral blood flow (CBF) reached to the minimum in the configuration of the contralateral proximal anterior cerebral artery (A1) absence coexisting with unilateral ICA stenosis. Communicating arteries provided important collateral channels in the complete CoW when stenosis in unilateral ICA occurred. The cross-flow in the ACoA is a sensitive indicator of the morphological change of the ICA. The collateral function of the PCoA on the affected side will not be fully activated until a severe stenosis occurred in unilateral ICA. The absence of unilateral A1 coexisting with the stenosis in the contralateral ICA could be the most dangerous configuration in terms of the total cerebral blood supply. The findings of this study would enhance the understanding of the collateral mechanism of the CoW under different anatomical variations.

  20. Effect of presowing gamma irradiation of buckwheat seeds on anatomic structure of adult plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiseleva, N S [Gomel' skij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Byelorussian SSR)

    1975-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the leaves and stems of buckwheat resulting from presowing irradiation of seeds in doses of 5, 10, 20, and 30 kR were studied. It was shown that small doses of radiation caused an increase in cell dimensions and significant development of the stem parenchyma. With higher radiation doses xeromorphic changes occurred. The number of epidermal cells and orifices per unit surface area of the leaf, a decrease in the sizes of the perenchyma cells, and considerable development of mechanical tissues in the stem were observed. A 30-kR dose was lethal for buckwheat.

  1. Colliculus atlantis: an insufficiently considered anatomic structure in open-mouth radiography of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidberger, H.R.; Weiglein, A.H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To study the time and mode of the development of the colliculus atlantis, the rate of its occurrence, the causes for its absence, and the radiological-clinical importance in the analysis of open-mouth-view radiographs. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of standardized radiographs of the cervical spine in more than 20 000 adults and 100 children. Study of 234 human skeletons of different ages and of 38 isolated adult atlases. Cadaveric dissection of 42 adults (age 48-87). Axial radiographs of isolated atlases and analysis of the bony structures of the colliculus atlantis. Results: The colliculus atlantis develops between age 10 and 13 years. It is always present after age 13 years. For the development of the colliculus atlantis a normal function of the craniocervical joints is necessary. In congenital dysmorphias of the craniocervical region with dysfunction of the craniocervical joints and in fractures of the dens axis before age 10 years with instable healing the colliculus atlantis is absent. Conclusions: The colliculus atlantis is developed at age 13 years apart from some rare exceptions as mentioned. Changes of the site and the structure of the colliculus atlantis allow an early diagnosis of certain traumatically and inflammatory diseases of this region. Furthermore, it serves as an additional parameter in functional analysis of the craniocervical joints. (orig.) [de

  2. Growth and Anatomical Parameters of Adventitious Roots Formed on Mung Bean Hypocotyls Are Correlated with Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kollárová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA, while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation.

  3. Visual analysis of transcriptome data in the context of anatomical structures and biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid eJunker

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity and temporal as well as spatial resolution of transcriptome datasets is constantly increasing due to extensive technological developments. Here we present methods for advanced visualization and intuitive exploration of transcriptomics data as necessary prerequisites in order to facilitate the gain of biological knowledge. Color-coding of structural images based on the expression level enables a fast visual data analysis in the background of the examined biological system. The network-based exploration of these visualizations allows for comparative analysis of genes with specific transcript patterns and supports the extraction of functional relationships even from large datasets. In order to illustrate the presented methods, the tool HIVE was applied for visualization and exploration of database-retrieved expression data for master regulators of Arabidopsis thaliana flower and seed development in the context of corresponding tissue-specific regulatory networks.

  4. Anatomical structure and surface micromorphology of tomatillo leaf and flower (Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. is a newly introduced cultivated plant in Poland. Its anatomy was investigated in light and scanning electron microscopes. Tomatillo adult leaf had one layer of palisade parenchyma. The 1-2 cell layers of spongy parenchyma situated just below the palisade parenchyma showed large, tightly packed cells with great druses. The remaining spongy parenchyma was built of cells showing several extensions. Peculiarity of the sepals were the stomata situated on columns or hills formed of many cells. The petals had a very loose mesophyl. Their adaxial epidermis was composed of papillate cells. Such structure of the petal epidermis probably contributes to light dispersion and prevents glittering. There were several types of trichomes on the leaves, sepals and petals, some of them glandular and some simple. The large, very ramified, dendritic trichomes situated on the petals at the entry to the ovary might eventually protect it against excessive drying. The pollen grain was spherical, three-colpate. The style had a hollow channel inside. The stigma was of a wet, pa-pillate type. Sometimes thorny trichomes were found among papillae.

  5. Radio frequency-induced temperature elevations in the human head considering small anatomical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Ueberbacher, R.; Samaras, T.

    2007-01-01

    In order to enable a detailed numerical radio frequency (RF) dosimetry and the computations of RF-induced temperature elevations, high-resolution (0.1 mm) numerical models of the human eye, the inner ear organs and the pineal gland were developed and inserted into a commercially available head model. As radiation sources, generic models of handsets at 400, 900 and 1850 MHz operating in close proximity to the head were considered. The results, obtained by finite-difference time domain-based computations, showed a highly heterogeneous specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution and SAR-peaks inside the inner ear structures; however, the corresponding RF-induced temperature elevations were well below 0.1 deg. C, when considering typical output power values of hand-held devices. In case of frontal exposure, with the radiation sources ∼2.5 cm in front of the closed eye, maximum temperature elevations in the eye in the range of ∼0.2-0.6 deg. C were found for typical device output powers. A reduction in tissue perfusion mainly affected the maximum RF-induced temperature elevation of tissues deep inside the head. Similarly, worst-case considerations regarding pulsed irradiation affected temperature elevations in deep tissue significantly more than in superficial tissues. (authors)

  6. Meniscofibular Ligament: Morphology and Functional Significance of a Relatively Unknown Anatomical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Natsis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL, was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture.

  7. Dysphagia and aspiration after chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer: which anatomic structures are affected and can they be spared by IMRT?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Schwartz, Marco; Rasch, Coen; Vineberg, Karen; Damen, Eugene; van As, Corina J.; Marsh, Robin; Pameijer, Frank A.; Balm, Alfons J. M.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify the anatomic structures whose damage or malfunction cause late dysphagia and aspiration after intensive chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, and to explore whether they can be spared by intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) without compromising target RT. METHODS

  8. Anatomical pulmonary magnetic resonance imaging segmentation for regional structure-function measurements of asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F. [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Svenningsen, S.; Eddy, R. L.; Capaldi, D. P. I.; Sheikh, K. [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada); Fenster, A.; Parraga, G., E-mail: gparraga@robarts.ca [Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5C1 (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) and x-ray computed-tomography have provided strong evidence of spatially and temporally persistent lung structure-function abnormalities in asthmatics. This has generated a shift in their understanding of lung disease and supports the use of imaging biomarkers as intermediate endpoints of asthma severity and control. In particular, pulmonary {sup 1}H MRI can be used to provide quantitative lung structure-function measurements longitudinally and in response to treatment. However, to translate such biomarkers of asthma, robust methods are required to segment the lung from pulmonary {sup 1}H MRI. Therefore, their objective was to develop a pulmonary {sup 1}H MRI segmentation algorithm to provide regional measurements with the precision and speed required to support clinical studies. Methods: The authors developed a method to segment the left and right lung from {sup 1}H MRI acquired in 20 asthmatics including five well-controlled and 15 severe poorly controlled participants who provided written informed consent to a study protocol approved by Health Canada. Same-day spirometry and plethysmography measurements of lung function and volume were acquired as well as {sup 1}H MRI using a whole-body radiofrequency coil and fast spoiled gradient-recalled echo sequence at a fixed lung volume (functional residual capacity + 1 l). We incorporated the left-to-right lung volume proportion prior based on the Potts model and derived a volume-proportion preserved Potts model, which was approximated through convex relaxation and further represented by a dual volume-proportion preserved max-flow model. The max-flow model led to a linear problem with convex and linear equality constraints that implicitly encoded the proportion prior. To implement the algorithm, {sup 1}H MRI was resampled into ∼3 × 3 × 3 mm{sup 3} isotropic voxel space. Two observers placed seeds on each lung and on the background of 20 pulmonary {sup 1}H MR images

  9. Passive vs. active virtual reality learning: the effects on short- and long-term memory of anatomical structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Andrew; Fritchle, Alicia; Hoffman, Helene

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study compares the differences in learning outcomes when students are presented with either an active (student-centered) or passive (teacher-centered) virtual reality-based anatomy lesson. The "active" lesson used UCSD's Anatomic VisualizeR and enabled students to interact with 3D models and control presentation of learning materials. The "passive" lesson used a digital recording of an anatomical expert's tour of the same VR lesson played back as a QuickTime movie. Subsequent examination of the recall and retention of the studied anatomic objects were comparable in both groups. Issues underlying these results are discussed.

  10. The international uranium market - structure and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oe.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the international uranium market is immature and is subject to factors of a political, rather than economic nature. This is due largely to potential military exploitation, which has led USA, Canada and Australia to adopt a restrictive export policy. South Africa and France, on the other hand have a more liberal attitude. The history of the market, and the development of U308 prices are then discussed and related to the phases in the commercial exploitation of nuclear power. The present market structure is described, both international and within Canada, USA, Australia, South Africa and France. The future demand is then discussed, assuming three levels of demand and various price categories. It is shown that the demand will be only slightly influenced by moderate to large increases in price, assuming price rises for coal and oil. It is concluded that the price can rise to $400-500/pound U308. (JIW)

  11. Standards to support information systems integration in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Christel; García Rojo, Marcial; Bourquard, Karima; Henin, Dominique; Schrader, Thomas; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Gilbertson, John; Beckwith, Bruce A

    2009-11-01

    Integrating anatomic pathology information- text and images-into electronic health care records is a key challenge for enhancing clinical information exchange between anatomic pathologists and clinicians. The aim of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) international initiative is precisely to ensure interoperability of clinical information systems by using existing widespread industry standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). To define standard-based informatics transactions to integrate anatomic pathology information to the Healthcare Enterprise. We used the methodology of the IHE initiative. Working groups from IHE, HL7, and DICOM, with special interest in anatomic pathology, defined consensual technical solutions to provide end-users with improved access to consistent information across multiple information systems. The IHE anatomic pathology technical framework describes a first integration profile, "Anatomic Pathology Workflow," dedicated to the diagnostic process including basic image acquisition and reporting solutions. This integration profile relies on 10 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standards. A common specimen model was defined to consistently identify and describe specimens in both HL7 and DICOM transactions. The IHE anatomic pathology working group has defined standard-based informatics transactions to support the basic diagnostic workflow in anatomic pathology laboratories. In further stages, the technical framework will be completed to manage whole-slide images and semantically rich structured reports in the diagnostic workflow and to integrate systems used for patient care and those used for research activities (such as tissue bank databases or tissue microarrayers).

  12. Maxwell-Higgs vortices with internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Marques, M. A.; Menezes, R.

    2018-05-01

    Vortices are considered in relativistic Maxwell-Higgs systems in interaction with a neutral scalar field. The gauge field interacts with the neutral field via the presence of generalized permeability, and the charged and neutral scalar fields interact in a way dictated by the presence of first order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. The neutral field may be seen as the source field of the vortex, and we study some possibilities, which modify the standard Maxwell-Higgs solution and include internal structure to the vortex.

  13. Correlations of External Landmarks With Internal Structures of the Temporal Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piromchai, Patorn; Wijewickrema, Sudanthi; Smeds, Henrik; Kennedy, Gregor; O'Leary, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    The internal anatomy of a temporal bone could be inferred from external landmarks. Mastoid surgery is an important skill that ENT surgeons need to acquire. Surgeons commonly use CT scans as a guide to understanding anatomical variations before surgery. Conversely, in cases where CT scans are not available, or in the temporal bone laboratory where residents are usually not provided with CT scans, it would be beneficial if the internal anatomy of a temporal bone could be inferred from external landmarks. We explored correlations between internal anatomical variations and metrics established to quantify the position of external landmarks that are commonly exposed in the operating room, or the temporal bone laboratory, before commencement of drilling. Mathematical models were developed to predict internal anatomy based on external structures. From an operating room view, the distances between the following external landmarks were observed to have statistically significant correlations with the internal anatomy of a temporal bone: temporal line, external auditory canal, mastoid tip, occipitomastoid suture, and Henle's spine. These structures can be used to infer a low lying dura mater (p = 0.002), an anteriorly located sigmoid sinus (p = 0.006), and a more lateral course of the facial nerve (p external landmarks. The distances between these two landmarks and the operating view external structures were able to further infer the laterality of the facial nerve (p internal structures with a high level of accuracy: the distance from the sigmoid sinus to the posterior external auditory canal (p external landmarks found on the temporal bone. These relationships could be used as a guideline to predict challenges during drilling and choosing appropriate temporal bones for dissection.

  14. A reexamination and extension of international strategy-structure theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Joachim; Egelhoff, William G.

    2001-01-01

    Using a sample of 95 German firms, the study finds general support for the traditional fits of international strategy-structure theory. Employing an information-processing perspective, the study conceptually and empirically extends existing theory (1) to address strategy-structure fit for various types of matrix structure, and (2) by adding two new elements of international strategy to the existing international strategy-structure model: the level of international transfers and level of forei...

  15. [Root anatomical structure and hydraulic traits of three typical shrubs on the sandy lands of northern Shaanxi Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Shao-shui; Li, Yang-yang; Chen, Jia-cun; Chen, Wei-yue

    2015-11-01

    Root xylem anatomical structure and hydraulic traits of three typical shrubs, i.e., Salix psammophila, Caragana korshinskii and Hippophae rhamnoides, within two soil layers (0-20 cm and 30-50 cm) were compared. The results showed that S. psammophila had a higher leaf water potential than C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, the average maximum and minimum lumen diameter (d(max) and d(min), respectively), the average lumen area of vessels (Alum) and the ratio of lumen area of all vessels to xylem area (Aves/Axyl) in S. psammophila roots were also significantly higher than those in C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides, and the root vessel density (VD) in S. psammophila was the same as that in H. rhamnoides but significantly higher than that in C. korshinskii. Root hydraulic conductivity in S. psammophila was 5 times of C. korshinskii and 2.8 times of H. hamnoides. The vulnerability index in S. psammophila roots was similar to that in C. korshinskii but higher than that in H. hamnoides. S. psammophila belonged to a water-spending species, whereas both C. korshinskii and H. rhamnoides were water-saving species, and C. korshinskii was more drought-resistant than H. rhamnoides. There was no difference of d(max), d(min) and Alum between roots in two soil layers, but roots within in the 30-50 cm soil layer had larger VD and Aves/Axyl. The root specific hydraulic conductivity within the 30-50 cm soil layer was significantly higher than within the surface soil layer, whereas the vulnerability index within the 30-50 cm soil layer was smaller, indicating roots in deep soil layers had higher hydraulic transport efficiency and lower hydraulic vulnerability.

  16. Internal energy relaxation in shock wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josyula, Eswar; Suchyta, Casimir J.; Boyd, Iain D.; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    The Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck (WCU) equation is numerically integrated to characterize the internal structure of Mach 3 and Mach 5 shock waves in a gas with excitation in the internal energy states for the treatment of inelastic collisions. Elastic collisions are modeled with the hard sphere collision model and the transition rates for the inelastic collisions modified appropriately using probabilities based on relative velocities of the colliding particles. The collision integral is evaluated by the conservative discrete ordinate method [F. Tcheremissine, “Solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation for high-speed flows,” Comput. Math. Math. Phys. 46, 315–329 (2006); F. Cheremisin, “Solution of the Wang Chang-Uhlenbeck equation,” Dokl. Phys. 47, 487–490 (2002)] developed for the Boltzmann equation. For the treatment of the diatomic molecules, the internal energy modes in the Boltzmann equation are described quantum mechanically given by the WCU equation. As a first step in the treatment of the inelastic collisions by the WCU equation, a two- and three-quantum system is considered to study the effect of the varying of (1) the inelastic cross section and (2) the energy gap between the quantum energy states. An alternative method, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, is used for the Mach 3 shock wave to ensure the consistency of implementation in the two methods and there is an excellent agreement between the two methods. The results from the WCU implementation showed consistent trends for the Mach 3 and Mach5 standing shock waves simulations. Inelastic contributions change the downstream equilibrium state and allow the flow to transition to the equilibrium state further upstream

  17. CHANGES IN STRUCTURE OF ROMANIA'S INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of structural changes in Romanian trade is somewhat interesting if you look at it from the perspective of mutations that occurred in the categories of goods and services subject to international trade. After the Revolution of 1989, the Romanian economy has gone through dramatic changes that had determinate a total reconfiguration of foreign trade. At the same time, the economic instability has had further repercussions on the Romanian economy manifested through higher prices, reduced wages or earnings, reduced employment and rising unemployment, increasing interest rates on loans due to the devaluation of the national currency, increase value-added tax, consumption reduction etc. We proposed in this paper an analyze for a significant period of time evolution of international trade in goods and services of Romania in order to establish the main categories of goods traded but Romania's main trading partners, too. In order to achieve the central goal of this paper we will use statistical data found in the databases provided by the WTO, Eurostat and the National Statistical Institutes and statistical methods to support our initiative.

  18. Internal wave structures in abyssal cataract flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Liapidevskii, Valery; Morozov, Eugene; Tarakanov, Roman

    2014-05-01

    We discuss some theoretical approaches, experimental results and field data concerning wave phenomena in ocean near-bottom stratified flows. Such strong flows of cold water form everywhere in the Atlantic abyssal channels, and these currents play significant role in the global water exchange. Most interesting wave structures arise in a powerful cataract flows near orographic obstacles which disturb gravity currents by forced lee waves, attached hydraulic jumps, mixing layers etc. All these effects were observed by the authors in the Romanche and Chain fracture zones of Atlantic Ocean during recent cruises of the R/V Akademik Ioffe and R/V Akademik Sergei Vavilov (Morozov et al., Dokl. Earth Sci., 2012, 446(2)). In a general way, deep-water cataract flows down the slope are similar to the stratified flows examined in laboratory experiments. Strong mixing in the sill region leads to the splitting of the gravity current into the layers having the fluids with different densities. Another peculiarity is the presence of critical layers in shear flows sustained over the sill. In the case under consideration, this critical level separates the flow of near-bottom cold water from opposite overflow. In accordance with known theoretical models and laboratory measurements, the critical layer can absorb and reflect internal waves generated by the topography, so the upward propagation of these perturbations is blocked from above. High velocity gradients were registered downstream in the vicinity of cataract and it indicates the existence of developed wave structures beyond the sill formed by intense internal waves. This work was supported by RFBR (grants No 12-01-00671-a, 12-08-10001-k and 13-08-10001-k).

  19. Detection of the anatomic structure and pathology in animal lung specimens: comparison of micro CT and multi-detector row CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kun Young [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Chang Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [Seoul National University Hospital and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-05-15

    We wanted to compare the capability of micro CT and the clinically available thin-slice multi-detector row CT (MDCT) for demonstrating fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions in formalin-fixed lung specimens. The porcine lung with shark liver oil-induced lipoid pneumonia and the canine lung with pulmonary paragonimiasis were fixed by ventilating them with formalin vapor, and they were then sliced into one-centimeter thick sections. Micro CT (section thickness, 18 micrometer) and MDCT (section thickness, 0.75 mm) images were acquired in four of the lung slices of the lipoid pneumonia specimen and in five of the lung slices of the paragonimiasis specimen. On 62 pairs of micro CT and MDCT images, 169 pairs of rectangular ROIs were manually drawn in the corresponding locations. Two chest radiologists recorded the detectability of three kinds of anatomic structures (lobular core structure, interlobular septum and small bronchiolar lumen) and two kinds of pathological lesions (ground-glass opacity and consolidation) with using a five-point scale. The statistical comparison was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated with kappa statistics. For all observers, all the kinds of anatomic structures and pathological lesions were detected better on the micro CT images than on the MDCT images ({rho} < 0.01). Agreement was fair between two observers ({kappa} = 0.38, {rho} < 0.001). The fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions of the lung were more accurately demonstrated on micro CT than on thin-slice MDCT in the inflated and fixed lung specimens.

  20. Detection of the anatomic structure and pathology in animal lung specimens: comparison of micro CT and multi-detector row CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Chang Hyun; Son, Kyu Ri; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to compare the capability of micro CT and the clinically available thin-slice multi-detector row CT (MDCT) for demonstrating fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions in formalin-fixed lung specimens. The porcine lung with shark liver oil-induced lipoid pneumonia and the canine lung with pulmonary paragonimiasis were fixed by ventilating them with formalin vapor, and they were then sliced into one-centimeter thick sections. Micro CT (section thickness, 18 micrometer) and MDCT (section thickness, 0.75 mm) images were acquired in four of the lung slices of the lipoid pneumonia specimen and in five of the lung slices of the paragonimiasis specimen. On 62 pairs of micro CT and MDCT images, 169 pairs of rectangular ROIs were manually drawn in the corresponding locations. Two chest radiologists recorded the detectability of three kinds of anatomic structures (lobular core structure, interlobular septum and small bronchiolar lumen) and two kinds of pathological lesions (ground-glass opacity and consolidation) with using a five-point scale. The statistical comparison was performed by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Interobserver agreement was evaluated with kappa statistics. For all observers, all the kinds of anatomic structures and pathological lesions were detected better on the micro CT images than on the MDCT images (ρ < 0.01). Agreement was fair between two observers (κ = 0.38, ρ < 0.001). The fine anatomic structures and pathological lesions of the lung were more accurately demonstrated on micro CT than on thin-slice MDCT in the inflated and fixed lung specimens

  1. Internal structure of reactor building for Madras Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    The structural configuration and analysis of structural elements of the internal structure of reactor building for the Madras Atomic Power Project has been presented. Two methods of analysis of the internal structure, viz. Equivalent Plane Frame and Finite Element Method, are explained and compared with the use of bending moments obtained. (author)

  2. Early fetal anatomical sonography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Jennifer C

    2012-10-01

    Over the past decade, prenatal screening and diagnosis has moved from the second into the first trimester, with aneuploidy screening becoming both feasible and effective. With vast improvements in ultrasound technology, sonologists can now image the fetus in greater detail at all gestational ages. In the hands of experienced sonographers, anatomic surveys between 11 and 14 weeks can be carried out with good visualisation rates of many structures. It is important to be familiar with the normal development of the embryo and fetus, and to be aware of the major anatomical landmarks whose absence or presence may be deemed normal or abnormal depending on the gestational age. Some structural abnormalities will nearly always be detected, some will never be and some are potentially detectable depending on a number of factors.

  3. A probabilistic approach using deformable organ models for automatic definition of normal anatomical structures for 3D treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, Daniel; Yu Liyun; Johnson, Valen; McAuliffe, Matthew; Pizer, Stephen; Chaney, Edward

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective : Current clinical methods for defining normal anatomical structures on tomographic images are time consuming and subject to intra- and inter-user variability. With the widespread implementation of 3D RTP, conformal radiotherapy, and dose escalation the implications of imprecise object definition have assumed a much higher level of importance. Object definition and volume-weighted metrics for normal anatomy, such as DVHs and NTCPs, play critical roles in aiming, shaping, and weighting beams. Improvements in object definition, including computer automation, are essential to yield reliable volume-weighted metrics and gains in human efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate a probabilistic approach using deformable models to automatically recognize and extract normal anatomy in tomographic images. Materials and Methods: Object models were created from normal organs that were segmented by an interactive method which involved placing a cursor near the center of the object on a slice and clicking a mouse button to initiate computation of structures called cores. Cores describe the skeletal and boundary shape of image objects in a manner that, in 2D, associates a location on the skeleton with the width of the object at that location. A significant advantage of cores is stability against image disturbances such as noise and blur. The model was composed of a relatively small set of extracted points on the skeleton and boundary. The points were carefully chosen to summarize the shape information captured by the cores. Neighborhood relationships between points were represented mathematically by energy functions that penalize, due to warping of the model, the ''goodness'' of match between the model and the image data at any stage during the segmentation process. The model was matched against the image data using a probabilistic approach based on Bayes theorem, which provides a means for computing a posteriori (posterior) probability from 1) a

  4. Atomic structures and compositions of internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, D.N. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering); Merkle, K.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This research program addresses fundamental questions concerning the relationships between atomic structures and chemical compositions of metal/ceramic heterophase interfaces. The chemical composition profile across a Cu/MgO {l brace}111{r brace}-type heterophase interface, produced by the internal oxidation of a Cu(Mg) single phase alloy, is measured via atom-probe field-ion microscopy with a spatial resolution of 0.121 nm; this resolution is equal to the interplanar space of the {l brace}222{r brace} MgO planes. In particular, we demonstrate for the first time that the bonding across a Cu/MgO {l brace}111{r brace}-type heterophase interface, along a <111> direction common to both the Cu matrix and an MgO precipitate, has the sequence Cu{vert bar}O{vert bar}Mg{hor ellipsis} and not Cu{vert bar}Mg{vert bar}O{hor ellipsis}; this result is achieved without any deconvolution of the experimental data. Before determining this chemical sequence it was established, via high resolution electron microscopy, that the morphology of an MgO precipitate in a Cu matrix is an octahedron faceted on {l brace}111{r brace} planes with a cube-on-cube relationship between a precipitate and the matrix. First results are also presented for the Ni/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} interface; for this system selected area atom probe microscopy was used to analyze this interface; Cr{sub 2}O{sub 4} precipitates are located in a field-ion microscope tip and a precipitate is brought into the tip region via a highly controlled electropolishing technique.

  5. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  6. Deep learning of the sectional appearances of 3D CT images for anatomical structure segmentation based on an FCN voting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangrong; Takayama, Ryosuke; Wang, Song; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    We propose a single network trained by pixel-to-label deep learning to address the general issue of automatic multiple organ segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. Our method can be described as a voxel-wise multiple-class classification scheme for automatically assigning labels to each pixel/voxel in a 2D/3D CT image. We simplify the segmentation algorithms of anatomical structures (including multiple organs) in a CT image (generally in 3D) to a majority voting scheme over the semantic segmentation of multiple 2D slices drawn from different viewpoints with redundancy. The proposed method inherits the spirit of fully convolutional networks (FCNs) that consist of "convolution" and "deconvolution" layers for 2D semantic image segmentation, and expands the core structure with 3D-2D-3D transformations to adapt to 3D CT image segmentation. All parameters in the proposed network are trained pixel-to-label from a small number of CT cases with human annotations as the ground truth. The proposed network naturally fulfills the requirements of multiple organ segmentations in CT cases of different sizes that cover arbitrary scan regions without any adjustment. The proposed network was trained and validated using the simultaneous segmentation of 19 anatomical structures in the human torso, including 17 major organs and two special regions (lumen and content inside of stomach). Some of these structures have never been reported in previous research on CT segmentation. A database consisting of 240 (95% for training and 5% for testing) 3D CT scans, together with their manually annotated ground-truth segmentations, was used in our experiments. The results show that the 19 structures of interest were segmented with acceptable accuracy (88.1% and 87.9% voxels in the training and testing datasets, respectively, were labeled correctly) against the ground truth. We propose a single network based on pixel-to-label deep learning to address the challenging

  7. Developing organizational structures for international marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2002-01-01

    International marketing represents marketing activities performed across national boundaries. The level of involvement in international marketing can range from casual exporting to globalization of markets. Although most firms adjust their marketing mixes for differences in target markets, some firms are able to standardize their marketing efforts worldwide

  8. Laryngeal spaces and lymphatics: current anatomic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, L.W.; Welsh, J.J.; Rizzo, T.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This investigation evaluates the anatomic concepts of individual spaces or compartments within the larynx by isotope and dye diffusion. The authors identified continuity of spaces particularly within the submucosal planes and a relative isolation within the fixed structures resulting from the longitudinal pattern of fibroelastic tissues, muscle bands, and perichondrium. The historical data of anatomic resistance are refuted by the radioisotope patterns of dispersion and the histologic evidence of tissue permeability to the carbon particles. There is little clinical application of the compartment concept to the perimeter of growth and the configuration of extensive endolaryngeal cancers. The internal and extralaryngeal lymphatic network is presented and the regional associations are identified. The normal ipsilateral relationship is distorted by dispersion within the endolarynx supervening the anatomic midline. The effects of lymphatic obstruction caused by regional lymphadenectomy, tumor fixation, and irradiation-infection sequelae are illustrated; these result in widespread bilateral lymphatic nodal terminals. Finally, the evidence suggests that the internal network is modified by external interruption to accommodate an outflow system in continuity with the residual patent lymphatic channels

  9. Variation in the wood anatomical structure of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae trees at different ecological conditions in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The tree Gmelina arborea has been widely introduced in Costa Rica for commercial purposes. This new conditions for melina cause variations on anatomy in secondary xylem of the trees growing in plantations. The objective of the present research was to determine the variation in the anatomy of xylem caused by the ecological conduction variation. Dimensions of fiber, axial parenchyma percentage of cross sections, parameters of vessels and the ray were measured. The results showed that some anatomical characteristics remained stable despite variations of ecological conditions, especially radial parenchyma and anatomical features which were less affected by the altitude. On the other hand, the vessels, axial parenchyma and fiber were less stable because they were affected significantly by the longitude, latitude, altitude and precipitation. Latitude significantly affected vessel percentage, length and diameter of the fiber and lumen. Longitude affected vessel percentage and fiber diameter. Altitude had a significant correlation with the amount of cells at ray height. Annual average precipitation affected vessel percentage and diameter, not only of the fiber, but also of the lumen. These results suggest that the new growth conditions of G. arborea trees in Costa Rica have produced an anatomic adaptation. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 689-704. Epub 2008 June 30.Gmelina arborea ha sido introducida y ampliamente sembrada en Costa Rica en plantaciones de rápido crecimiento. Estas nuevas condiciones ecológicas provocan variación en la anatomía del xilema de estos árboles. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar la variación en la anatomía del xilema debido a la variación de la latitud, longitud, altitud y precipitación. Se evaluaron las dimensiones de las fibras, el porcentaje de área ocupada por el parénquima y los parámetros de los vasos y los radios. Algunas características anatómicas se mantuvieron estables con las variaciones de las

  10. Analyzing the Structure of the International Business Curriculum in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak K.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the structure of the international business curriculum through a questionnaire-based survey among current students and young managers who are studying or have studied international business courses in one of the top B-Schools of India. Respondents have the opinion that international business is more than internationalization…

  11. Do Open Reduction and Internal Fixation With Articular Disc Anatomical Reduction and Rigid Anchorage Manifest a Promising Prospect in the Treatment of Intracapsular Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bo-Lei; Ren, Rong; Yu, Hong-Bo; Liu, Peng-Chao; Shen, Steve G F; Shi, Jun

    2018-05-01

    In response to the increased attention to soft tissue reduction in the treatment of intracapsular condylar fractures (ICFs), a modified open reduction technique is proposed and its functional and radiographic outcomes were evaluated in this study. This is a retrospective case series study of patients with all ICF types that were treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with articular disc anatomic reduction and rigid anchorage. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly applied. Preoperative and postoperative clinical examinations of malocclusion, maximum incisor opening (MIO), laterotrusion, and temporomandibular disorder symptoms were recorded and analyzed. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to assess articular position and condylar morphology and position. Thirty-four patients with ICFs (47 sides) were treated with the modified ORIF technique. At 6 months of follow-up, no malocclusion was found and the MIO considerably expanded to 3.56 ± 0.13 cm. Only 4 patients (12%) had temporomandibular joint discomfort with mouth opening. Interestingly, for unilateral type B ICFs, the laterotrusion distance to the ORIF sides was notably longer than to the non-ORIF sides. Postoperative CT and MRI showed that all fragments were properly reduced and the condyles were in the normal position. Postoperative anterior disc displacement occurred in 4 sides and condylar morphologic abnormalities (slight surface roughening and articular cartilage absorption) occurred in 3 sides (6.4%). This modified ORIF technique, which achieved good outcomes after treatment of all ICF types, shows promise for the treatment of ICFs. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  13. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L.; Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  14. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on Visual Learning & Memory and Anatomical Structures of the Brain in Male Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Tekieh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Humans in modern societies expose to substantially elevated levels of electromagnetic field (EMF emissions with different frequencies.The neurobiological effects of EMF have been the subject of debate and intensive research over the past few decades. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of EMF on visual learning and anatomical dimensions of the hippocampus and the prefrontal area (PFA in male Rhesus monkeys. Materials and Methods:In this study, four rhesus monkeys were irradiated by 0.7 microtesla ELF-EMF either at 5 or 30 Hz, 4 h a day, for 30 days. Alterations in visual learning and memory were assessed before and after irradiation phase by using a box designed that cchallenging animals for gaining rewards Also, the monkeys’ brains were scanned by using MRI technique one week before and one week after irradiation. The monkeys were anesthetized by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (10–20 mg/kg and xylazine (0.2–0.4 mg/kg, and scanned with a 3-Tesla Magnetom, in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes using T2 weight­ed protocol with a slice thickness of 3 mm. The anatomical changes of hippocampus and the prefrontal area (PFA was measured by volumetric study. Results: Electromagnetic field exposure at a frequency of 30 Hz reduced the number of correct responses in the learning process and delayed memory formation in the two tested monkeys. While, ELF-EMF at 5 Hz had no effect on the visual learning and memory changes. No anatomical changes were found in the prefrontal area and the hippocampus at both frequencies. Conclusion: ELF-EMF irradiation at 30 Hz adversely affected visual learning and memory, pprobably through these changes apply through effects on other factors except changes in brain structure and anatomy.

  15. Learning model of eye movement system based on anatomical structure; Kaibogakuteki kozo ni motozuita gakushu kino wo motsu gankyu undo system to sono tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Wakamatsu, H. [Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    A learning system is proposed to explain the adaptive function of an eye movement consisting of compensatory and optokinetic reflex, and pursuit movements based on the brain anatomy and physiology. Thereby, the learning system is synthesized as an artificial neural network based on the structure and function of the biological neural network of flocculus. The role of neural paths into flocculus from stretch receptors of ocular muscles are discussed in detail from the viewpoint of system control engineering. The mathematical learning process is also shown taking into account the adaptive mechanism and the anatomical structure of vestibular nuclei. The experimental results through simulation confirm the validity of the hypothesis and the appropriateness of the inference process in connection with the proposed mathematical model. 18 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Segmented and Detailed Visualization of Anatomical Structures based on Augmented Reality for Health Education and Knowledge Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Siqueira da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of technology has changed the face of education, especially when combined with appropriate pedagogical bases. This combination has created innovation opportunities in order to add quality to teaching through new perspectives for traditional methods applied in the classroom. In the Health field, particularly, augmented reality and interaction design techniques can assist the teacher in the exposition of theoretical concepts and/or concepts that need of training at specific medical procedures. Besides, visualization and interaction with Health data, from different sources and in different formats, helps to identify hidden patterns or anomalies, increases the flexibility in the search for certain values, allows the comparison of different units to obtain relative difference in quantities, provides human interaction in real time, etc. At this point, it is noted that the use of interactive visualization techniques such as augmented reality and virtual can collaborate with the process of knowledge discovery in medical and biomedical databases. This work discuss aspects related to the use of augmented reality and interaction design as a tool for teaching anatomy and knowledge discovery, with the proposition of an case study based on mobile application that can display targeted anatomical parts in high resolution and with detail of its parts.

  17. International Good Market Segmentation and Financial Market Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Basak, Suleyman; Croitoru, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    While financial markets have recently become more complete and international capital flows well liberalized, markets for goods remain segmented. To investigate how more complete security markets may relieve the effects of this segmentation, we examine a series of two-country economies with internationally segmented good markets, distinguished by the available financial securities. We show that, under heterogeneity within countries, the financial structure matters: even with internationally co...

  18. 22 CFR 96.32 - Internal structure and oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accreditation and Approval Licensing and Corporate Governance § 96.32 Internal structure and oversight. (a) The... number of such other provider; and (3) The name, address, and phone number of any entity it uses or...

  19. Salinity-Induced Callus Browning and Re-Differentiation, Root Formation by Plantlets and Anatomical Structures of Plantlet Leaves in Two Malus Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, W.; Zheng, P.; Zheng, P.; Wang, K.; Zhang, L.; Akram, N. A.

    2016-01-01

    Apple (Malus domestica L.) is widely grown in northern China. However, soil salinization has become one of the most severe factors limiting apple productivity in some regions including the Loess Plateau. In our study, the regeneration system of both rootstock Rehd (Malus robusta Rehd) and scion Fuji (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) was established In vitro. The two Malus species were cultured on the MS medium containing 0 or 150 mM NaCl to examine salt-induced effects on callus browning and re-differentiation, root formation of plantlets and anatomical structures of plantlet leaves at 15 days old callus and plantlet stages. Salt stress caused a marked increase in callus browning rate, while a decrease in re-differentiation rate, rooting rate, root number and length in both species. Additionally, anatomical structures of plantlet leave showed salt-induced damage such as reduced palisade tissue and intracellular chloroplast, incomplete development of xylem and severe damage of the phloem tissue. Salt stress also caused a few adaptive structural features in leaves including increased thickness of upper and lower epidermis, elevated proportion of spongy tissue and formation of lignified vessels. The responses of the two Malus species did not differ significantly at the differentiation stage. However, they were more sensitive to salinity at the callus stage than those at the plantlet stage in each species. Therefore, callus stage has been found to be more suitable for evaluating responses of the two apple species to salt stress. The Fuji and Rehd could be treated as a good scion/rootstock combination of apple to adapt to soil salinity based on their similar degree of salt stress-tolerance. (author)

  20. The Science and Politics of Naming: Reforming Anatomical Nomenclature, ca. 1886-1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2017-04-01

    Anatomical nomenclature is medicine's official language. Early in their medical studies, students are expected to memorize not only the bodily geography but also the names for all the structures that, by consensus, constitute the anatomical body. The making and uses of visual maps of the body have received considerable historiographical attention, yet the history of production, communication, and reception of anatomical names-a history as long as the history of anatomy itself-has been studied far less. My essay examines the reforms of anatomical naming between the first modern nomenclature, the 1895 Basel Nomina Anatomica (BNA), and the 1955 Nomina Anatomica Parisiensia (NAP, also known as PNA), which is the basis for current anatomical terminology. I focus on the controversial and ultimately failed attempt to reform anatomical nomenclature, known as Jena Nomina Anatomica (INA), of 1935. Discussions around nomenclature reveal not only how anatomical names are made and communicated, but also the relationship of anatomy with the clinic; disciplinary controversies within anatomy; national traditions in science; and the interplay between international and scientific disciplinary politics. I show how the current anatomical nomenclature, a successor to the NAP, is an outcome of both political and disciplinary tensions that reached their peak before 1945. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. International seminar on structural investigations on pulsed neutron sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Balagurov, A.M.; Taran, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The proceedings of the International seminar on structural investigations using pulsed neutron sources are presented. The seminar is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Yu.M. Ostanevich, a world acknowledged physicist. The problems of structural analysis using pulsed neutron source at the IBR-2 reactor are discussed

  2. International conference on design, fabrication and economy of metal structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the International Conference on Design, Fabrication and Economy of Metal Structures held on 24-26 April 2013 in Miskolc, Hungary which contain 99 papers covering: Structural optimization Thin-walled structures Stability Fatigue Frames Fire Fabrication Welding technology Applications Steel-concrete composite Special problems The authors are from 23 different countries, ensuring that the themes covered are of worldwide interest and importance. The International Institute of Welding (IIW), the International Society of Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (ISSMO), the TÁMOP 4.2.1.B-10/2/KONV-2010-0001 project entitled “Increasing the quality of higher education through the development of research - development and innovation program at the University of Miskolc supported by the European Union, co-financed by the European Social Fund” and many other sponsors helped organizers to collect these valuable studies, the results of which will provoke discussion, and provide an i...

  3. Occipital neuralgia: anatomic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmebasi, Alper; Muhleman, Mitchel A; Hulsberg, Paul; Gielecki, Jerzy; Matusz, Petru; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2015-01-01

    Occipital neuralgia is a debilitating disorder first described in 1821 as recurrent headaches localized in the occipital region. Other symptoms that have been associated with this condition include paroxysmal burning and aching pain in the distribution of the greater, lesser, or third occipital nerves. Several etiologies have been identified in the cause of occipital neuralgia and include, but are not limited to, trauma, fibrositis, myositis, fracture of the atlas, and compression of the C-2 nerve root, C1-2 arthrosis syndrome, atlantoaxial lateral mass osteoarthritis, hypertrophic cervical pachymeningitis, cervical cord tumor, Chiari malformation, and neurosyphilis. The management of occipital neuralgia can include conservative approaches and/or surgical interventions. Occipital neuralgia is a multifactorial problem where multiple anatomic areas/structures may be involved with this pathology. A review of these etiologies may provide guidance in better understanding occipital neuralgia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anatomical and palynological characteristics of Salvia willeana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, anatomical and palynological features of the roots, stems, petiole and leaves of Salvia willeana (Holmboe) Hedge and Salvia veneris Hedge, Salvia species endemic to Cyprus, were investigated. In the anatomical characteristics of stem structures, it was found that the chlorenchyma composed of 6 or 7 rows of ...

  5. Anatomical Evaluation of the Proximity of Neurovascular Structures During Arthroscopically Assisted Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction: A Cadaveric Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaszek, Daniel; Pickell, Michael; Wilson, Evan; Ducsharm, Melissa; Hesse, Daniel; Easteal, Ron; Bardana, Davide D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the safety of an arthroscopic technique for acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) reconstruction by investigating its proximity to important neurovascular structures. Six shoulders from 4 cadaveric specimens were used for ACJ reconstruction in this study. The procedure consists of performing an arthroscopic acromioclavicular (AC) reduction with a double button construct, followed by coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction without drilling clavicular tunnels. Shoulders were subsequently dissected in order to identify and measure distances to adjacent neurovascular structures. The suprascapular artery and nerve were the closest neurovascular structures to implanted materials. The mean distances were 8.2 (standard deviation [SD] = 3.6) mm to the suprascapular nerve and 5.6 (SD = 4.2) mm to the suprascapular artery. The mean distance of the suprascapular nerve from implants was found to be greater than 5 mm (P = .040), while the distance to the suprascapular artery was not (P > .5). Neither difference was statistically significant (P = .80 for artery; P = .08 for nerve). Mini-open, arthroscopically assisted ACJ reconstruction safely avoids the surrounding nerves, with no observed damage to any neurovascular structures including the suprascapular nerve and artery, and may be a viable alternative to open techniques. However, surgeons must remain cognizant of possible close proximity to the suprascapular artery. This study represents an evaluation of the safety and feasibility of a minimally invasive ACJ reconstruction as it relates to the proximity of neurovascular structures. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Only-child and non-only-child exhibit differences in creativity and agreeableness: evidence from behavioral and anatomical structural studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junyi; Hou, Xin; Wei, Dongtao; Wang, Kangcheng; Li, Yadan; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Different family composition and size inevitably make only-children different from non-only-children. Previous studies have focused on the differences in behaviors, such as cognitive function and personality traits, between the only-child and the non-only-child. However, there are few studies that have focused on the topic of whether different family environments influence children's brain structural development and whether behavior differentially has its neural basis between only-child and non-only-child status. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the differences in cognition (e.g., intelligence and creativity) and personality and the anatomical structural differences of gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) between only-children and non-only-children. The behavioral results revealed that only-children exhibited higher flexibility scores (a dimension of creativity) and lower agreeableness scores (a dimension of personality traits) than non-only-children. Most importantly, the GMV results revealed that there were significant differences in the GMV between only-children and non-only-children that occurred mainly in the brain regions of the supramarginal gyrus, which was positively correlated with flexibility scores; the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which was positively correlated with agreeableness scores; and the parahippocampal gyrus. These findings may suggest that family environment (i.e., only-child vs. non-only-child), may play important roles in the development of the behavior and brain structure of individuals.

  7. Structural reasons for vertical integration in the international oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, G.

    1991-01-01

    Once upon a time, the international oil industry was vertically integrated. A small group of companies controlled a very substantial share of international oil flows, extending their operations from the oil well to the gas pump, and relying on intracorporate transfers for most in-between transactions. The historical reasons for vertical disintegration, the market role, and structural reasons for vertical reintegration are examined. (author)

  8. Comparative analysis of the anatomical structure of heartwood and sapwood selected Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. trees in Srpska Crnja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilotić Dragica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results obtained from the study of the macroscopic-microscopic structure (capillary system in the growth stem of Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. originating from North America, which grows in “Muzljanski rit” in the area of Srpska Crnja. Gymnocladus canadensis Lam. falls under the ring-porous species according to its porosity, with large tracheas in its early zone. The early zone trachea lumens, contained in the sapwood, reach dimensions of up to 160 μm, while early zone trachea lumens in the growth stem rings of the sapwood reach dimensions of up to 120 μm. Examination of the microscopic structure of this tree show good properties of the tree.

  9. Rotational characterization of methyl methacrylate: Internal dynamics and structure determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbers, Sven; Wachsmuth, Dennis; Obenchain, Daniel A.; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2018-01-01

    Rotational constants, Watson's S centrifugal distortion coefficients, and internal rotation parameters of the two most stable conformers of methyl methacrylate were retrieved from the microwave spectrum. Splittings of rotational energy levels were caused by two non equivalent methyl tops. Constraining the centrifugal distortion coefficients and internal rotation parameters to the values of the main isotopologues, the rotational constants of all single substituted 13C and 18O isotopologues were determined. From these rotational constants the substitution structures and semi-empirical zero point structures of both conformers were precisely determined.

  10. Structural and Infrastructural Underpinnings of International R&D Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the process of globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on the effects of network maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...... to dispersed development. Drawing from case studies of two international R&D networks, it presents a capability maturity model and argues that understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks has become a key requirement for developing organizational...

  11. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    -category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...... used to simplify different structures. Next the chapter points to the blindness of most structural theories of IR to the role of assemblages in general and governance-objects in particular. Thirdly, the idea that a polity is constituted precisely by the assemblage of a governance...

  12. Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Holmes, Sophie E; DellaGioia, Nicole; Schleifer, Charlie; Matuskey, David; Abdallah, Chadi G; Hampson, Michelle; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-04-01

    Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor-based morphometry and intrinsic connectivity distribution to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20). These regions were then used as seeds for exploratory anatomical covariance and connectivity analyses. Reduction in volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lower structural covariance between the ACC and the cerebellum were observed in the MDD group. Additionally, individuals with MDD had significantly lower whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This mPFC region showed altered connectivity to the ventral lateral PFC (vlPFC) and local circuitry in MDD. Global connectivity in the ACC was negatively correlated with reported depressive symptomatology. The mPFC-vlPFC connectivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Finally, we observed increased structure-to-function correlation in the PFC/ACC in the MDD group. Although across all analysis methods and modalities alterations in the PFC/ACC were a common finding, each modality and method detected alterations in subregions belonging to distinct large-scale brain networks. These exploratory results support the hypothesis that MDD is a systems level disorder affecting multiple brain networks located in the PFC and provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder.

  13. Multimodal Investigation of Network Level Effects Using Intrinsic Functional Connectivity, Anatomical Covariance, and Structure-to-Function Correlations in Unmedicated Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Holmes, Sophie E; DellaGioia, Nicole; Schleifer, Charlie; Matuskey, David; Abdallah, Chadi G; Hampson, Michelle; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan; Esterlis, Irina

    2018-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) affects multiple large-scale brain networks. Analyses of the correlation or covariance of regional brain structure and function applied to structural and functional MRI data may provide insights into systems-level organization and structure-to-function correlations in the brain in MDD. This study applied tensor-based morphometry and intrinsic connectivity distribution to identify regions of altered volume and intrinsic functional connectivity in data from unmedicated individuals with MDD (n=17) and healthy comparison participants (HC, n=20). These regions were then used as seeds for exploratory anatomical covariance and connectivity analyses. Reduction in volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and lower structural covariance between the ACC and the cerebellum were observed in the MDD group. Additionally, individuals with MDD had significantly lower whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This mPFC region showed altered connectivity to the ventral lateral PFC (vlPFC) and local circuitry in MDD. Global connectivity in the ACC was negatively correlated with reported depressive symptomatology. The mPFC–vlPFC connectivity was positively correlated with depressive symptoms. Finally, we observed increased structure-to-function correlation in the PFC/ACC in the MDD group. Although across all analysis methods and modalities alterations in the PFC/ACC were a common finding, each modality and method detected alterations in subregions belonging to distinct large-scale brain networks. These exploratory results support the hypothesis that MDD is a systems level disorder affecting multiple brain networks located in the PFC and provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this disorder. PMID:28944772

  14. Structural studies on an internal loop from a hairpin ribozyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Z.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Tinoco, I. Jr. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Ribozymes, RNA enzymes, catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation reactions. We are studying the three-dimensional structure of a hairpin ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ring spot virus satellite RNA ((-)sTRSV), which has been engineering to specifically cleave the HIV-1 RNA. The minimum structure for the catalytic reaction involves a 50-nucleotide ribozyme and a 14-nucleotide substrate. The proposed secondary structure of the ribozyme-substrate complex consists of four short helices separated by two internal loops. The relatively large size (64-nucleotide) of the ribozyme-substrate complex presents formidable problems in solving the structure using NMR. Therefore we are studying smaller structural subunits of the complex. We are determining the high resolution structure of the symmetric internal loop involving the cleavage site and the flanking helices. One strand of the internal loop was selectively {sup 13}C-labeled at C8 of each purine and C6 of each pyrimidine. By using {sup 13}C-edited two-dimensional NMR, the proton NOESY spectrum was greatly simplified. This allowed unambiguous sequential proton resonance assignments along each strand. Three-dimensional {sup 1}-{sup 13}C HMQC-NOESY was used to further facilitate resonance assignments. We are also enzymatically synthesizing the entire 50-nucleotide ribozyme and will combine it with the {sup 13}C-labeled substrate. Through comparison of the NOE connectivities of the labeled nucleotides from the internal loop alone with those from the entire complex, the differences between the two structures can be elucidated.

  15. A membranous structure separating the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis: an anatomical study and its clinical application for craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun-Tao; Qi, Song-Tao; Xu, Jia-Ming; Pan, Jun; Shi, Jin

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT This study aimed to identify the membranous septation between the adeno- and neurohypophysis. The clinical impact of this septation in the surgical removal of infradiaphragmatic craniopharyngioma (Id-CP) is also clarified. METHODS The sellar regions from 8 fetal and 6 adult cadavers were dissected. After staining first with H & E and then with picro-Sirius red, the membranous structures were observed and measured under normal light and polarization microscopy. The pre- and postsurgical images and intraoperative procedures in 28 cases of childhood Id-CP were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS There is a significant membranous septation (termed the adenoneurohypophysis septation [ANHS]) lying behind the intermediate lobe to separate the adeno- and neurohypophysis. The average thicknesses are 21.9 ± 16.9 μm and 79.1 ± 43.2 μm in fetal and adult heads, respectively. The median segment of the septation is significantly thicker than the upper and lower segments. The ANHS extends from the suprasellar pars tuberalis to the sellar floor, where it is fused with the pituitary capsule. During Id-CP surgery performed via a transcranial approach, the ANHS can be identified to reserve the neurohypophysis. Moreover, by understanding the anatomy of this membrane, the pituitary stalk was preserved in 3 patients (10.7%). CONCLUSIONS There is a significant membrane separating the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland, which lies behind the intermediate lobe. Understanding the anatomy of this septation is important for identifying and preserving the neurohypophysis and pituitary stalk during Id-CP surgery.

  16. [Cellular subcutaneous tissue. Anatomic observations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart-Elbaz, C; Varnaison, E; Sick, H; Grosshans, E; Cribier, B

    2001-11-01

    We showed in a companion paper that the definition of the French "subcutaneous cellular tissue" considerably varied from the 18th to the end of the 20th centuries and has not yet reached a consensus. To address the anatomic reality of this "subcutaneous cellular tissue", we investigated the anatomic structures underlying the fat tissue in normal human skin. Sixty specimens were excised from the surface to the deep structures (bone, muscle, cartilage) on different body sites of 3 cadavers from the Institut d'Anatomie Normale de Strasbourg. Samples were paraffin-embedded, stained and analysed with a binocular microscope taking x 1 photographs. Specimens were also excised and fixed after subcutaneous injection of Indian ink, after mechanic tissue splitting and after performing artificial skin folds. The aspects of the deep parts of the skin greatly varied according to their anatomic localisation. Below the adipose tissue, we often found a lamellar fibrous layer which extended from the interlobular septa and contained horizontally distributed fat cells. No specific tissue below the hypodermis was observed. Artificial skin folds concerned either exclusively the dermis, when they were superficial or included the hypodermis, but no specific structure was apparent in the center of the fold. India ink diffused to the adipose tissue, mainly along the septa, but did not localise in a specific subcutaneous compartment. This study shows that the histologic aspects of the deep part of the skin depend mainly on the anatomic localisation. Skin is composed of epidermis, dermis and hypodermis and thus the hypodermis can not be considered as being "subcutaneous". A difficult to individualise, fibrous lamellar structure in continuity with the interlobular septa is often found under the fat lobules. This structure is a cleavage line, as is always the case with loose connective tissues, but belongs to the hypodermis (i.e. fat tissue). No specific tissue nor any virtual space was

  17. Percutaneous Placement of Central Venous Catheters: Comparing the Anatomical Landmark Method with the Radiologically Guided Technique for Central Venous Catheterization Through the Internal Jugular Vein in Emergent Hemodialysis Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koroglu, M.; Demir, M.; Koroglu, B.K.; Sezer, M.T.; Akhan, O.; Yildiz, H.; Yavuz, L.; Baykal, B.; Oyar, O. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Depts. of Radiology, Internal Medicine and Anesthesiology

    2006-02-15

    Purpose: To compare the success and immediate complication rates of the anatomical landmark method (group 1) and the radiologically (combined real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopy) guided technique (group 2) in the placement of central venous catheters in emergent hemodialysis patients. Material and Methods: The study was performed prospectively in a randomized manner. The success and immediate complication rates of radiologically guided placement of central venous access catheters through the internal jugular vein (n = 40) were compared with those of the anatomical landmark method (n 40). The success of placement, the complications, the number of passes required, and whether a single or double-wall puncture occurred were also noted and compared. Results: The groups were comparable in age and sex. The indication for catheter placement was hemodialysis access in all patients. Catheter placement was successful in all patients in group 2 and unsuccessful in 1 (2.5%) patient in group 1. All catheters functioned adequately and immediately after the placement (0% initial failure rate) in group 2, but 3 catheters (7.5% initial failure rate) were non-functional just after placement in group 1. The total number of needle passes, double venous wall puncture, and complication rate were significantly lower in group 2. Conclusion: Percutaneous central venous catheterization via the internal jugular vein can be performed by interventional radiologists with better technical success rates and lower immediate complications. In conclusion, central venous catheterization for emergent dialysis should be performed under both real-time ultrasound and fluoroscopic guidance.

  18. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure.

  19. Discrete Optimization of Internal Part Structure via SLM Unit Structure-Performance Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural optimization of the internal structure of parts based on three-dimensional (3D printing has been recognized as being important in the field of mechanical design. The purpose of this paper is to present a creation of a unit structure-performance database based on the selective laser melting (SLM, which contains various structural units with different functions and records their structure and performance characteristics so that we can optimize the internal structure of parts directly, according to the database. The method of creating the unit structure-performance database was introduced in this paper and several structural units of the unit structure-performance database were introduced. The bow structure unit was used to show how to create the structure-performance database of the unit as an example. Some samples of the bow structure unit were designed and manufactured by SLM. These samples were tested in the WDW-100 compression testing machine to obtain their performance characteristics. After this, the paper collected all data regarding unit structure parameters, weight, performance characteristics, and other data; and, established a complete set of data from the bow structure unit for the unit structure-performance database. Furthermore, an aircraft part was reconstructed conveniently to be more lightweight according to the unit structure-performance database. Its weight was reduced by 36.8% when compared with the original structure, while the strength far exceeded the requirements.

  20. Internal structure changes of eyelash induced by eye makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kawai, Tomomitsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how eye makeup affects eyelash structure, internal structure of eyelashes were observed with a scanning X-ray microscopic tomography system using synchrotron radiation light source. Eyelash samples were obtained from 36 Japanese women aged 20-70 years and whose use of eye makeup differed. Reconstructed cross-sectional images showed that the structure of the eyelash closely resembled that of scalp hair. The eyelash structure is changed by use of eye makeup. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of mascara use and the degree of cracking in cuticle. The positive correlation was also found between the frequency of mascara use and the porosity of the cortex. By contrast, the use of eyelash curler did not affect the eyelash structure with statistical significance.

  1. PREFACE: International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, James

    2012-09-01

    Dear Colleagues It is a great pleasure to welcome you to NanoStruc2012 at Cranfield University. The purpose of the 2012 International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NanoStruc2012) is to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NanoStruc brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas. The conference is split in 7 panel sessions, Metallic Nanocomposites and Coatings, Silica based Nanocomposites, safty of Nanomaterials, Carboin based Nanocomposites, Multscale Modelling, Bio materials and Application of Nanomaterials. All accepted Papers will be published in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), and included in the NanoStruc online digital library. The abstracts will be indexed in Scopus, Compedex, Inspec, INIS (International Nuclear Information System), Chemical Abstracts, NASA Astrophysics Data System and Polymer Library. Before ending this message, I would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which ensured the general organisation. As a conclusion, I would like to Welcome you to the Nanostruc2012 and wish you a stimulating Conference and a wonderful time. On behalf of the scientific committee, Signature James Njuguna Conference Chair The PDF of this preface also contains committee listings and associates logos.

  2. Studies in stellar evolution. 3. The internal structure constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejlesen, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the third paper in a series describing the results of extensive stellar evolution calculations. The internal structure constants k j (j = 2, 3, 4) have been computed for a fine grid of stellar models covering the HR-diagram from the zero-age main sequence to the subgiant region. These constants represent the influence of the internal structure on the disturbing potentials of stars, and they are needed for prediction of theoretical apsidal motion rates in close eccentric binaries as well as for other tidal effects. Results for four different initial chemical compositions are presented. The opacity tables by Cox and Stewart (1969) have been adopted, and a mixing length parameter of l/H p = 2.0 has been used throughout. The results are compared with previous calculations. A comparison with observational data for eclipsing binaries will be published elsewhere

  3. The internal structure of magnetic nanoparticles determines the magnetic response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacáková, Barbara; Kubíčková, Simona; Salas, G.; Mantlíková, Alice; Marciello, M.; Morales, M.P.; Nižňanský, D.; Vejpravová, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 16 (2017), s. 5129-5140 ISSN 2040-3364 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01953S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanoparticles * single-domain * internal structure Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 7.367, year: 2016

  4. The effect of internal magnetic structure on the fishbone instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, D.W.; Powell, E.; Kaita, R.; Bell, R.; Chance, M.; Hatcher, R.; Holland, A.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Okabayashi, M.; Paul, S.; Pomphrey, N.; Sauthoff, N.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; White, R.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.; Gammel, G.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas exhibiting the ''fishbone'' instability studied on the PBX-M tokamak show a distinct relationship between the plasma shape, the internal magnetic structure, and the presence or absence of fast ion losses associated with the fishbone mode. We have, for the first time, carried out measurements of the magnetic safety factor profile in fishbone-unstable plasmas, and used the knowledge of the associated experimental equilibria to compare the stability and fast ion loss properties of these plasmas with experimental observations

  5. Direct experimental determination of the atomic structure at internal interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, N.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Pennycook, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-07-01

    A crucial first step in understanding the effect that internal interfaces have on the properties of materials is the ability to determine the atomic structure at the interface. As interfaces can contain atomic disorder, dislocations, segregated impurities and interphases, sensitivity to all of these features is essential for complete experimental characterization. By combining Z-contrast imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), the ability to probe the structure, bonding and composition at interfaces with the necessary atomic resolution has been obtained. Experimental conditions can be controlled to provide, simultaneously, both incoherent imaging and spectroscopy. This enables interface structures observed in the image to be interpreted intuitively and the bonding in a specified atomic column to be probed directly by EELS. The bonding and structure information can then be correlated using bond-valence sum analysis to produce structural models. This technique is demonstrated for 25{degrees}, 36{degrees} and 67{degrees} symmetric and 45{degrees} and 25{degrees} asymmetric [001] tilt grain boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3} The structures of both types of boundary were found to contain partially occupied columns in the boundary plane. From these experimental results, a series of structural units were identified which could be combined, using continuity of gain boundary structure principles, to construct all [001] tilt boundaries in SrTiO{sub 3}. Using these models, the ability of this technique to address the issues of vacancies and dopant segregation at grain boundaries in electroceramics is discussed.

  6. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, Michael James; Brake, Matthew Robert; Segalman, Daniel Joseph; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Ewins, David J.

    2013-08-01

    The Third International Workshop on Jointed Structures was held from August 16th to 17th, 2012, in Chicago Illinois, following the ASME 2012 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference. Thirty two researchers from both the United States and international locations convened to discuss the recent progress of mechanical joints related research and associated efforts in addition to developing a roadmap for the challenges to be addressed over the next five to ten years. These proceedings from the workshop include the minutes of the discussions and follow up from the 2009 workshop [1], presentations, and outcomes of the workshop. Specifically, twelve challenges were formulated from the discussions at the workshop, which focus on developing a better understanding of uncertainty and variability in jointed structures, incorporating high fidelity models of joints in simulations that are tractable/efficient, motivating a new generation of researchers and funding agents as to the importance of joint mechanics research, and developing new insights into the physical phenomena that give rise to energy dissipation in jointed structures. The ultimate goal of these research efforts is to develop a predictive model of joint mechanics.

  7. Self-force as probe of internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isoyama, Soichiro; Poisson, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The self-force acting on a (scalar or electric) charge held in place outside a massive body contains information about the body's composition, and can therefore be used as a probe of internal structure. We explore this theme by computing the (scalar or electromagnetic) self-force when the body is a spherical ball of perfect fluid in hydrostatic equilibrium, under the assumption that its rest-mass density and pressure are related by a polytropic equation of state. The body is strongly self-gravitating, and all computations are performed in exact general relativity. The dependence on internal structure is best revealed by expanding the self-force in powers of r -1 0 , with r 0 denoting the radial position of the charge outside the body. To the leading order, the self-force scales as r -3 0 and depends only on the square of the charge and the body's mass; the leading self-force is universal. The dependence on internal structure is seen at the next order, r -5 0 , through a structure factor that depends on the equation of state. We compute this structure factor for relativistic polytropes, and show that for a fixed mass, it increases linearly with the body's radius in the case of the scalar self-force, and quadratically with the body's radius in the case of the electromagnetic self-force. In both cases we find that for a fixed mass and radius, the self-force is smaller if the body is more centrally dense, and larger if the mass density is more uniformly distributed. (paper)

  8. Anatomical variants of the internal spermatic vein discovered during the percutaneous embolization of left varicoceles in a pediatric population; Variantes anatomiques de la veine spermatique lors du traitement endovasculaire des varicoc es gauches : une serie pediatrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garel, L.; Dubois, J.; Rypens, F.; Ouimet, A.; Yazbeck, S. [Univ. of Montreal, Sainte-Justine Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: laurent_garel@ssss.gouv.qc.ca

    2004-02-01

    To report on the high incidence of anatomical variants of the origin and course of the internal spermatic vein (ISV) discovered at the time of percutaneous embolization of left varicoceles in a pediatric population. We reviewed retrospectively the 65 cases of left varicocele treated by percutaneous embolization (grade II and III) in our institution between 1990 and 2000. The course of the left renal vein (LRV), the origin of the ISV, and the number of ISVs and their pathway were recorded in all cases, according to the B ren classification. In 37/65 (57%), the ISV was single and arose from a normal LRV (type I).The following variants were encountered: type V - circumaortic LRV 9/65 (14%); type IVb - intrarenal origin of ISV 8/65 (12%); type II - multiple ISV 5/65 (8%); and pelvic collaterals 6/65 (9%). Venous anatomical variants are frequently encountered (43%) at the time of left varicocele embolization in children. Such variants often impose some adjustments to the technique of embolization and, at times, hamper the procedure. (author)

  9. Malleolar fractures and their ligamentous injury equivalents have similar outcomes in supination-external rotation type IV fractures of the ankle treated by anatomical internal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, M B; Little, M T M; Lazaro, L E; Sculco, P K; Cymerman, R M; Daigl, M; Helfet, D L; Lorich, D G

    2012-11-01

    It has previously been suggested that among unstable ankle fractures, the presence of a malleolar fracture is associated with a worse outcome than a corresponding ligamentous injury. However, previous studies have included heterogeneous groups of injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any specific pattern of bony and/or ligamentous injury among a series of supination-external rotation type IV (SER IV) ankle fractures treated with anatomical fixation was associated with a worse outcome. We analysed a prospective cohort of 108 SER IV ankle fractures with a follow-up of one year. Pre-operative radiographs and MRIs were undertaken to characterise precisely the pattern of injury. Operative treatment included fixation of all malleolar fractures. Post-operative CT was used to assess reduction. The primary and secondary outcome measures were the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the range of movement of the ankle. There were no clinically relevant differences between the four possible SER IV fracture pattern groups with regard to the FAOS or range of movement. In this population of strictly defined SER IV ankle injuries, the presence of a malleolar fracture was not associated with a significantly worse clinical outcome than its ligamentous injury counterpart. Other factors inherent to the injury and treatment may play a more important role in predicting outcome.

  10. [Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Jiménez, M L; Chacón Fuertes, Fernando; Sueiro Abad, Manuel J

    2009-02-01

    Volunteer satisfaction: Internal structure and relationship with permanence in organizations. The concept of satisfaction is considered theoretically relevant in practically all the studies that have investigated the factors that influence the permanence of volunteer participation in organizations. However, the practical results are not conclusive, perhaps due to the wide range of ways in which the concept is understood and measured. The object of this study is: to analyse the internal structure of satisfaction and to verify its relationship with volunteer duration in organizations. The results of the factor analysis yield a three-factor structure: Satisfaction with the management of the organization, Satisfaction with the tasks, Satisfaction of motivations. The three factors allow us to differentiate between individuals who remain in the organization for a period of 12 consecutive months, and those who leave earlier. The results of structural equation model analysis show that the relationship between satisfaction and the length of time that volunteers stay with the organization is affected by the intention to remain.

  11. Studies on muon tomography for archaeological internal structures scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    Muon tomography is a potential non-invasive technique for internal structure scanning. It has already interesting applications in geophysics and can be used for archaeological purposes. Muon tomography is based on the measurement of the muon flux after crossing the structure studied. Differences on the mean density of these structures imply differences on the detected muon rate for a given direction. Based on this principle, Monte Carlo simulations represent a useful tool to provide a model of the expected muon rate and angular distribution depending on the composition of the studied object, being useful to estimate the expected detected muons and to better understand the experimental results. These simulations are mainly dependent on the geometry and composition of the studied object and on the modelling of the initial muon flux at surface. In this work, the potential of muon tomography in archaeology is presented and evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations by estimating the differences on the muon rate due to the presence of internal structures and its composition. The influence of the chosen muon model at surface in terms of energy and angular distributions in the final result has been also studied.

  12. Computer aided display of multiple soft tissue anatomical surfaces for simultaneous structural and area-dose appreciation in 3D-radiationtherapy planning. 115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Mott, D.J.; Wilkinson, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    For radiotherapy applications a 3D display that includes soft tissues is required but the presentation of all anatomical structures is often unnecessary and is potentially confusing. A tumour volume and a small number of critical organs, usually embedded within other soft tissue anatomy, are likely to be all that can be clearly displayed when presented in a 3D format. The inclusion of dose data (in the form of isodose lines or surfaces) adds to the complication of any 3D display. A solution to this problem is to incorporate the presentation of dose distribution into the technique used to provide the illusion of 3D. This illusion can be provided by either depth cueing or by the hypothetical illumination of spatially defined object surfaces. The dose distribution from irradiation fields or, in the case of brachytherapy from radioactive sources, can be regarded as a source of illumination for tumour and critical organs. The intensity of illumination at any point on a tissue surface represents the dose at that point. Such an approach also allows the variation of dose over a given surface (and by extension, over the corresponding volume) to be quantified using histogram techniques. This may be of value in analysing and comparing techniques in which vulnerable tissue surfaces are irradiated. The planning of intracavitary treatments for cervical cancer is one application which might benefit from the display approach described above. Here the variation of dose over the mucosal surfaces of the bladder and the rectum is of particular interest, since dose related morbidity has often been reported following these treatments. 7 refs.; 8 figs

  13. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  14. 4th International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book presents contributions on the most active lines of recent advanced research in the field of nonlinear mechanics and physics selected from the 4th International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis. It includes fifteen chapters by outstanding scientists, covering various aspects of applications, including road tanker dynamics and stability, simulation of abrasive wear, energy harvesting, modeling and analysis of flexoelectric nanoactuator, periodic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam problems, nonlinear stability in Hamiltonian systems, nonlinear dynamics of rotating composites, nonlinear vibrations of a shallow arch, extreme pulse dynamics in mode-locked lasers, localized structures in a photonic crystal fiber resonator, nonlinear stochastic dynamics, linearization of nonlinear resonances, treatment of a linear delay differential equation, and fractional nonlinear damping. It appeals to a wide range of experts in the field of structural nonlinear dynamics and offers researchers and engineers a...

  15. Laminated structure in internally oxidized Ru-Ta coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yung-I, E-mail: yichen@mail.ntou.edu.tw

    2012-12-01

    During the development of refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes at high temperature under oxygen-containing atmospheres, previous studies noted and examined the internal oxidation phenomenon for Mo-Ru and Ru-Ta coatings. The internally oxidized zone shows a laminated structure, consisting of alternating oxygen-rich and deficient layers stacked with a general orientation. Previous studies proposed a forming mechanism. To investigate in detail, Ru-Ta coatings were prepared with various rotating speeds of a substrate-holder. The coatings were annealed at 600 Degree-Sign C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O{sub 2}-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the laminated-layer periods. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles certified the periodical variation of the related constituents. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy proved the valence variation of Ta in the near surface, accompanied by the introduction of oxygen ions. The inward diffusion of oxygen was dominated by lattice diffusion. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Laminated Ru-Ta coatings consisted of a cyclical gradient concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited coatings showed a laminated structure with a period of 4-34 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Internal oxidation of Ru-Ta coatings executed after annealing in 1% O{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxygen inward diffusion was dominated by lattice diffusion.

  16. Institutional Structure and International Competitiveness Relationship in Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yıldırım

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of institutional structure on the international competitiveness of developed countries econometrically by employing a “Panel Data Analysis” with a sample of 21 developed countries and 23 institutional variables for the period 2000-2011. The results of the analysis indicate that while judicial independence, protection of intellectual property rights, integrity of the juridical system, marginal tax, political freedoms, black market exchange rate, restrictions on foreign investment, private sector’s share in the banking system, hiring-minimum wage, and hiring-dismissal have a positive effect; the nature of legal arrangements, government spending, transfers and subsidies, civil liberties, tariffs, regulations regarding trade barriers, collective bargaining, and military tutelage have a negative effect on the international competitiveness of developed countries.

  17. STRUCTURAL ECONOMIC CHANGE AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION FROM MEXICO AND POLAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S.; Kalter, Frank; Pren, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article we use uniquely comparable data sets from two very different settings to examine how exogenous economic transformations affect the likelihood and selectivity of international out-migration. Specifically, we use data from the Mexican Migration Project to construct event history files predicting first U.S. trips from seven communities in the state of Veracruz, which until recently sent very few migrants abroad. Similarly, using data from the Polish Migration Project, we derive comparable event history files predicting first trips to Germany from four Polish communities, which also sent few migrants abroad before the 1980s. Our analyses suggest that the onset of structural adjustment in both places had a significant effect in raising the probability of international migration, even when controlling for a set of standard variables specified by other theories to influence migration propensity, such as the size of the binational income gap and various indicators of human and social capital. PMID:21765550

  18. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake – calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Nash

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils  ∼  10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  19. Anatomical structure overrides temperature controls on magnesium uptake - calcification in the Arctic/subarctic coralline algae Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve (Rhodophyta; Corallinales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Merinda C.; Adey, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Calcified coralline red algae are ecologically key organisms in photic benthic environments. In recent decades they have become important climate proxies, especially in the Arctic and subarctic. It has been widely accepted that magnesium content in coralline tissues is directly a function of ambient temperature, and this is a primary basis for their value as a climate archive. In this paper we show for two genera of Arctic/subarctic corallines, Leptophytum laeve and Kvaleya epilaeve, that previously unrecognised complex tissue and cell wall anatomy bears a variety of basal signatures for Mg content, with the accepted temperature relationship being secondary. The interfilament carbonate has lower Mg than adjacent cell walls and the hypothallial cell walls have the highest Mg content. The internal structure of the hypothallial cell walls can differ substantially from the perithallial radial cell wall structure. Using high-magnification scanning electron microscopy and etching we expose the nanometre-scale structures within the cell walls and interfilament. Fibrils concentrate at the internal and external edges of the cell walls. Fibrils ˜ 10 nm thick appear to thread through the radial Mg-calcite grains and form concentric bands within the cell wall. This banding may control Mg distribution within the cell. Similar fibril banding is present in the hypothallial cell walls but not the interfilament. Climate archiving with corallines can achieve greater precision with recognition of these parameters.

  20. The spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma : A clinical and anatomical study with correlations to the morphology of the internal vertebral venous plexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Rob

    1997-01-01

    This thesis concerns a clinical study of the spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) and a study of the vascular anatomy of the spinal epidural space. In particular the morphology of the internal vertebral venous plexus is studied, in an attempt to find an explanation for the etiology of this

  1. Fast flexible modeling of RNA structure using internal coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Samuel Coulbourn; Sherman, Michael A; Bruns, Christopher M; Eastman, Peter; Altman, Russ Biagio

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the structure and dynamics of large macromolecules remains a critical challenge. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are expensive because they model every atom independently, and are difficult to combine with experimentally derived knowledge. Assembly of molecules using fragments from libraries relies on the database of known structures and thus may not work for novel motifs. Coarse-grained modeling methods have yielded good results on large molecules but can suffer from difficulties in creating more detailed full atomic realizations. There is therefore a need for molecular modeling algorithms that remain chemically accurate and economical for large molecules, do not rely on fragment libraries, and can incorporate experimental information. RNABuilder works in the internal coordinate space of dihedral angles and thus has time requirements proportional to the number of moving parts rather than the number of atoms. It provides accurate physics-based response to applied forces, but also allows user-specified forces for incorporating experimental information. A particular strength of RNABuilder is that all Leontis-Westhof basepairs can be specified as primitives by the user to be satisfied during model construction. We apply RNABuilder to predict the structure of an RNA molecule with 160 bases from its secondary structure, as well as experimental information. Our model matches the known structure to 10.2 Angstroms RMSD and has low computational expense.

  2. 8th international conference on electronic spectroscopy and structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Art

    2000-10-16

    Gathering from 33 countries around the world, 408 registrants and a number of local drop-in participants descended on the Clark Kerr Campus of the University of California, Berkeley, from Monday, August 7 through Saturday, August 12, 2000 for the Eighth International Conference on Electronic Structure and Spectroscopy (ICESS8). At the conference, participants benefited from an extensive scientific program comprising more than 100 oral presentations (plenary lectures and invited and contributed talks) and 330 poster presentations, as well as ample time for socializing and a tour of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at the nearby Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. [Study of the appearance difference of lower complete denture between functional and anatomic impression techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qun; Wu, Xue-yin; Shen, Qing-yi; Shen, Qing-ping

    2012-04-01

    To compare the difference in oblique external ridge, oblique internal ridge and alveolar process crest of lower complete denture base made through functional impression and anatomic impression techniques. Fifteen patients were chosen to treat with two kinds of complete dentures through functional impression and anatomic impression technique respectively. 3D laser scanner was used to scan the three-dimensional model of the denture base and the differences of the surface structural between two techniques in alveolar process crest, external and internal oblique ridges were analyzed, using paired t test with SPSS 12.0 software package. Between the two techniques, there were significant differences in the areas of internal and external oblique ridge(P0.05). The results explain why there is less tenderness when functional impression technique is applied. The differences measured also indicate that sufficient buffering should be made in external and internal oblique ridge areas in clinic.

  4. RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, H-W; Garrecht, Harald

    2014-01-01

    This book contains the contributions from the RILEM International Symposium on Materials and Joints in Timber Structures that was held in Stuttgart, Germany from October 8 to 10, 2013. It covers recent developments in the materials and the joints used in modern timber structures. Regarding basic wooden materials, the contributions highlight the widened spectrum of products comprising cross-laminated timber, glulam and LVL from hardwoods and block glued elements. Timber concrete compounds, cement bonded wood composites and innovative light-weight constructions represent increasingly employed alternatives for floors, bridges and facades. With regard to jointing technologies, considerable advances in both mechanical connections and glued joints are presented. Self-tapping screws have created unprecedented options for reliable, strong as well as ductile joints and reinforcement technologies. Regarding adhesives, which constitute the basis of the jointing/laminating technology of modern timber products, extended o...

  5. Anatomical Basis for the Cardiac Interventional Electrophysiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Sánchez-Quintana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of radiofrequency catheter ablation techniques as the mainstay in the treatment of tachycardia has renewed new interest in cardiac anatomy. The interventional arrhythmologist has drawn attention not only to the gross anatomic details of the heart but also to architectural and histological characteristics of various cardiac regions that are relevant to the development or recurrence of tachyarrhythmias and procedural related complications of catheter ablation. In this review, therefore, we discuss some anatomic landmarks commonly used in catheter ablations including the terminal crest, sinus node region, Koch’s triangle, cavotricuspid isthmus, Eustachian ridge and valve, pulmonary venous orifices, venoatrial junctions, and ventricular outflow tracts. We also discuss the anatomical features of important structures in the vicinity of the atria and pulmonary veins, such as the esophagus and phrenic nerves. This paper provides basic anatomic information to improve understanding of the mapping and ablative procedures for cardiac interventional electrophysiologists.

  6. Darlington GS vacuum building - internal structures and foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.; Brown, D.G.; Yanchula, S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of the internal structure from initial concept to final design. Fundamental changes to the original configuration were precipitated by the action of large seismic forces acting on a top-heavy configuration. Prestressing was eliminated in deference to high humidity. Aspects of the elevated water tank's peripheral support beam are discussed vis-a-vis an adjacent slipforming operation, and practical construction limitations on steel placement. Also reviewed are the shortening of peripheral columns due to shrinkage and creep, and considerations of crack control for purposes of water-tightness. The authors justify the choice of stainless steel for fabrication of the siphon system's riser pipes. The foundation slab must resist the combined effects of vacuum pressure, hydrostatic uplift, and the seismic reactions of the internal structure and perimeter wall. The dependency of a key foundation component, the gallery roof slab, on the dome tendon layout is high-lighted; and aspects of its constructability are reviewed in light of congestion of vertical tendon anchorages, and of reinforcement. The design of the air-tight slab liner is reviewed, attention focusing on weld design under vacuum and accident temperature loads; on corrosion protection; and on the related construction access bulkhead - its ASME requirements and fabrication tolerances. (orig.)

  7. PIV measurement of internal structure of diesel fuel spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Z M [Ecotechnology System Lab., Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Nishino, K [Div. of Artificial Environment and Systems, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Mizuno, S [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Torii, K [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    This paper reports particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of diesel fuel spray injected from a single-hole nozzle at injection pressures ranging from 30 to 70 MPa, which are comparable to partial-load operating conditions of commercial diesel engines. The fuel is injected into a non-combusting environment pressurized up to 2.0 MPa. A laser-induced fluorescent (LIF) technique is utilized to visualize internal structures of fuel sprays formed by densely-distributing droplets. A specially designed synchronization system is developed to acquire double-frame spray images at an arbitrary time delay after injection. A direct cross-correlation PIV technique is applied to measure instantaneous droplet velocity distribution. Unique large-scale structures in droplet concentration, called 'branch-like structures' by Azetsu et al. (1990), are observed and shown to be associated with active vortical motions, which appear to be responsible for the mixing between droplets and the surrounding gas. It is found that the droplets tend to move out of the vortical structures and accumulate in the regions of low vorticity. Some other interesting features concerning droplet velocity fields are also presented. (orig.)

  8. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  10. Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.

  11. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  12. Structural analysis of the Upper Internals Structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) provides control of core outlet flow to prevent severe thermal transients from occuring at the reactor vessel and primary heat transport outlet piping, provides instrumentation to monitor core performance, provides support for the control rod drivelines, and provides secondary holddown of the core. All of the structural analysis aspects of assuring the UIS is structurally adequate are presented including simplified and rigorous inelastic analysis methods, elevated temperature criteria, environmental effects on material properties, design techniques, and manufacturing constraints

  13. Molecular Diagnostics of the Internal Structure of Starspots and Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afram, N.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Fluri, D. M.; Solanki, S. K.; Lagg, A.; Petit, P.; Arnaud, J.

    2006-12-01

    We have analyzed the usefulness of molecules as a diagnostic tool for studying solar and stellar magnetism with the molecular Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects. In the first part we concentrate on molecules that are observed in sunspots such as MgH and TiO. We present calculated molecular line profiles obtained by assuming magnetic fields of 2-3 kG and compare these synthetic Stokes profiles with spectro-polarimetric observations in sunspots. The good agreement between the theory and observations allows us to turn our attention in the second part to starspots to gain insight into their internal structure. We investigate the temperature range in which the selected molecules can serve as indicators for magnetic fields on highly active cool stars and compare synthetic Stokes profiles with our recent observations.

  14. Nonlocal transformation of the internal quantum particle structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Samarin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the integral wave equation, having path integral kernel, has resulted, that collapse phenomenon is based on the nonlocal transformation of the internal structure of a quantum particle, considering in the form of the matter fields collection. This nonlocality allows to escape the contradiction between the reduction quantum mechanics postulate and special relativity. It is shown, that the wave function transformation, corresponding to von Neumann's reduction, has the deterministic nature and the quantum mechanics stochasticity is a consequence of a macroscopic measurer presence in the measuring process. Besides it is demonstrated, that the decogerence phenomenon has the same mechanism of the wave function transformation. EPR-type experiment is described in detail and the possibility of the faster-then light communication is proved, as well the possible rules of thumb of this communication are proposed.

  15. A proposed structure for an international convention on climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitze, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author recommends a framework convention that will stimulate policy changes without expensive emission reductions in the short term. A central task for a climate convention will be to provide the international community with a permanent mechanism for coordinating its efforts to deal with climate change. The convention should go beyond organizational structure to establish a process for updating the parties' understanding of the science and potential impacts of climate change and for building consensus on policy responses. Each party must then be required to prepare and distribute its own national plan for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for adapting to future change while achieving its development objectives. A set of targets and timetables for the reduction of greenhouse gas reductions is presented

  16. Imaging Internal Structure of Long Bones Using Wave Scattering Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Le, Lawrence H; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Lou, Edmond

    2015-11-01

    An ultrasonic wavefield imaging method is developed to reconstruct the internal geometric properties of long bones using zero-offset data acquired axially on the bone surface. The imaging algorithm based on Born scattering theory is implemented with the conjugate gradient iterative method to reconstruct an optimal image. In the case of a multilayered velocity model, ray tracing through a smooth medium is used to calculate the traveled distance and traveling time. The method has been applied to simulated and real data. The results indicate that the interfaces of the top cortex are accurately imaged and correspond favorably to the original model. The reconstructed bottom cortex below the marrow is less accurate mainly because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. The current imaging method has successfully recovered the top cortical layer, providing a potential tool to investigate the internal structures of long bone cortex for osteoporosis assessment. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain anatomical network and intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Intuitively, higher intelligence might be assumed to correspond to more efficient information transfer in the brain, but no direct evidence has been reported from the perspective of brain networks. In this study, we performed extensive analyses to test the hypothesis that individual differences in intelligence are associated with brain structural organization, and in particular that higher scores on intelligence tests are related to greater global efficiency of the brain anatomical network. We constructed binary and weighted brain anatomical networks in each of 79 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Based on their IQ test scores, all subjects were divided into general and high intelligence groups and significantly higher global efficiencies were found in the networks of the latter group. Moreover, we showed significant correlations between IQ scores and network properties across all subjects while controlling for age and gender. Specifically, higher intelligence scores corresponded to a shorter characteristic path length and a higher global efficiency of the networks, indicating a more efficient parallel information transfer in the brain. The results were consistently observed not only in the binary but also in the weighted networks, which together provide convergent evidence for our hypothesis. Our findings suggest that the efficiency of brain structural organization may be an important biological basis for intelligence.

  18. Mistakes in the usage of anatomical terminology in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir; Baca, Vaclav

    2009-06-01

    Anatomical terminology serves as a basic communication tool in all the medical fields. Therefore Latin anatomical nomenclature has been repetitively issued and revised from 1895 (Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica) until 1998, when the last version was approved and published as the Terminologia Anatomica (International Anatomical Terminology) by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. A brief history of the terminology and nomenclature development is mentioned, along with the concept and contributions of the Terminologia Anatomica including the employed abbreviations. Examples of obsolete anatomical terms and their current synonyms are listed. Clinicians entered the process of the nomenclature revision and this aspect is demonstrated with several examples of terms used in clinical fields only, some already incorporated in the Terminologia Anatomica and a few obsolete terms still alive in non-theoretical communication. Frequent mistakes in grammar and orthography are stated as well. Authors of the article strongly recommend the use of the recent revision of the Latin anatomical nomenclature both in theoretical and clinical medicine.

  19. Internal structure and swelling behaviour of in silico microgel particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Gnan, Nicoletta; Zaccarelli, Emanuela

    2018-01-01

    Microgels are soft colloids that, by virtue of their polymeric nature, can react to external stimuli such as temperature or pH by changing their size. The resulting swelling/deswelling transition can be exploited in fundamental research as well as for many diverse practical applications, ranging from art restoration to medicine. Such an extraordinary versatility stems from the complex internal structure of the individual microgels, each of which is a crosslinked polymer network. Here we employ a recently-introduced computational method to generate realistic microgel configurations and look at their structural properties, both in real and Fourier space, for several temperatures across the volume phase transition as a function of the crosslinker concentration and of the confining radius employed during the ‘in-silico’ synthesis. We find that the chain-length distribution of the resulting networks can be analytically predicted by a simple theoretical argument. In addition, we find that our results are well-fitted to the fuzzy-sphere model, which correctly reproduces the density profile of the microgels under study.

  20. Early Results of Anatomic Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Pepele

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The goal in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is to restore the normal anatomic structure and function of the knee. In the significant proportion of patients after the traditional single-bundle ACLR, complaints of instability still continue. Anatomic double bundle ACLR may provide normal kinematics in knees, much closer to the natural anatomy. The aim of this study is to clinically assess the early outcomes of our anatomical double bundle ACLR. Material and Method: In our ...

  1. Radio-guided sentinel lymph node identification by lymphoscintigraphy fused with an anatomical vector profile: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccoli Asabella, A; Antonica, F; Renna, M A; Rubini, D; Notaristefano, A; Nicoletti, A; Rubini, G

    2013-12-01

    To develop a method to fuse lymphoscintigraphic images with an adaptable anatomical vector profile and to evaluate its role in the clinical practice. We used Adobe Illustrator CS6 to create different vector profiles, we fused those profiles, using Adobe Photoshop CS6, with lymphoscintigraphic images of the patient. We processed 197 lymphoscintigraphies performed in patients with cutaneous melanomas, breast cancer or delayed lymph drainage. Our models can be adapted to every patient attitude or position and contain different levels of anatomical details ranging from external body profiles to the internal anatomical structures like bones, muscles, vessels, and lymph nodes. If needed, more new anatomical details can be added and embedded in the profile without redrawing them, saving a lot of time. Details can also be easily hidden, allowing the physician to view only relevant information and structures. Fusion times are about 85 s. The diagnostic confidence of the observers increased significantly. The validation process showed a slight shift (mean 4.9 mm). We have created a new, practical, inexpensive digital technique based on commercial software for fusing lymphoscintigraphic images with built-in anatomical reference profiles. It is easily reproducible and does not alter the original scintigraphic image. Our method allows a more meaningful interpretation of lymphoscintigraphies, an easier recognition of the anatomical site and better lymph node dissection planning.

  2. Saturn's Internal Structure: A View through its Natural Seismograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovich, Christopher; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Movshovitz, Naor

    2017-10-01

    Saturn's nonradial oscillations perturb the orbits of ring particles. The C ring is fortuitous in that it spans several resonances with Saturn's fundamental acoustic (f-) modes, and its moderate optical depth allows the characterization of wave features using stellar occultations. The growing set of C-ring waves with precise pattern frequencies and azimuthal order m measured from Cassini stellar occultations (Hedman & Nicholson 2013, 2014; French et al. 2016) provides new constraints on Saturn's internal structure, with the potential to resolve long-standing questions about the planet's distribution of helium and heavier elements, its means of internal energy transport, and its rotation state.We construct Saturn interior models and calculate mode eigenfrequencies, mapping the planet mode frequencies to resonant locations in the rings to compare with the locations of observed spiral density and vertical bending waves in the C ring. While spiral density waves at low azimuthal order (m=2-3) appear strongly affected by resonant coupling between f-modes and deep g-modes (Fuller 2014), the locations of waves with higher azimuthal order can be fit reasonably well with a spectrum of pure f-modes for Saturn models with adiabatic envelopes and realistic equations of state. In particular, four observed bending waves (Nicholson et al., DPS 2016) align with outer vertical resonances for non-sectoral (m≠l) Saturn f-modes of relatively high angular degree, and we present preliminary identifications of these. We assess the range of resonance locations in the C and D rings allowed for the spectrum of f-modes given gravity field constraints and discuss what role a realistic helium distribution in the planet might play.

  3. The comparative study of anatomical structure of stem and ovule development of four cultivars of Glycine max L. merr in water deficit stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Jonoubi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the most important limiting factors that affect different aspects of plants vegetative and reproductive growth. It is one of the most important limiting factors of crop productivity. Regarding to the importance of soybean as an oilseed plant, and in order to identify the drought tolerant cultivars as well as evaluating of the effects of drought stress on anatomical structureof four soybean cultivars (Clin, Clark, M9 and L17, two series of experiments were carried out as randomized complete design. In the first experiment, at optimum conditions, plants were irrigated after 50 mm evaporation from germination to the end of growing period, whereas the second experiment was irrigated after 150 mm (sever stress evaporation from evaporation pan. The results showed that the effect of water deficit stress on cortex thickness and number of layers, Phloem and xylem thickness, diameter of vessel elements, number of vessel element rows, number of vessel elements in stem, pith and stele thickness, stem diameter and number of trichomes were significant. Relative acceleration of embryo sac development was observed in all plants under water deficit stress except for Clark cultivar. Evaluation of anatomical factors on these cultivars showed that Clin cultivar was more tolerant to water deficit stress compared to other cultivars.

  4. TIBIAL LANDMARKS IN ACL ANATOMIC REPAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Demesсhenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify anatomical landmarks on tibial articular surface to serve as reference in preparing tibial canal with respect to the center of ACL footprint during single bundle arthroscopic repair.Materials and methods. Twelve frozen knee joint specimens and 68 unpaired macerated human tibia were studied using anatomical, morphometric, statistical methods as well as graphic simulation.Results. Center of the tibial ACL footprint was located 13,1±1,7 mm anteriorly from posterior border of intercondylar eminence, at 1/3 of the distance along the line connecting apexes of internal and external tubercles and 6,1±0,5 mm anteriorly along the perpendicular raised to this point.Conclusion. Internal and external tubercles, as well as posterior border of intercondylar eminence can be considered as anatomical references to determine the center of the tibial ACL footprint and to prepare bone canals for anatomic ligament repair.

  5. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  6. Penetration effect in internal conversion and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listengarten, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The conditions for the appearance of the anomalous internal conversion coefficients (ICC) are considered, when the contribution of the penetration matrix element (PME) is of the order of or larger than the main part of the conversion matrix element. The experimental magnitudes of the nuclear PME agree well with those calculated in the framework of simple nuclear models, provided the magnitude of PME is not decreased due to the model -dependent selection rules. The magnitude of the anomaly ( lanbda parameter ) is compared with the exclusion factor of γ-transition relative to the Weisskopf estimation. The better is the model of the nucleus the weaker is the dependence of the lambda magnitude on the exclusion factor. ICC coefficients might be anomalous for those γ-transitions for which the exclusion factor calculated in the framework of more rigorous model are of the order of unity. In the ''ideal'' model of nucleus completely adequate to the true nuclear structure the dependence of the lambda penetration parameter on the exclusion factor vanishes

  7. Anatomy and histology of the newly discovered adipose sac structure within the labia majora: international original research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrzenski, Adam; Krajewski, Pawel; Davis, Kern

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether there is any new anatomical structure present within the labia majora. A case serial study was executed on eleven consecutive fresh human female cadavers. Stratum-by-stratum dissections of the labia majora were performed. Twenty-two anatomic dissections of labia majora were completed. Eosin and Hematoxylin agents were used to stain newly discovered adipose sac's tissues of the labia majora and the cylinder-like structures, which cover condensed adipose tissues. The histology of these two structures was compared. All dissected labia majora demonstrated the presence of the anatomic existence of the adipose sac structure. Just under the dermis of the labia majora, the adipose sac was located, which was filled with lobules containing condensed fatty tissues in the form of cylinders. The histological investigation established that the well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissues represented the adipose sac. The absence of descriptions of the adipose sac within the labia majora in traditional anatomic and gynecologic textbooks was noted. In this study group, the newly discovered adipose sac is consistently present within the anatomical structure of the labia majora. The well-organized fibro-connective-adipose tissue represents microscopic characteristic features of the adipose sac.

  8. Magnetic resonance angiography: infrequent anatomic variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo, Mariano; Meli, Francisco; Lambre, Hector; Blessing, Ricardo; Gigy Traynor, Ignacio; Miguez, Victor

    2002-01-01

    We studied through RM angiography (3D TOF) with high magnetic field equipment (1.5 T) different infrequent intracerebral vascular anatomic variants. For their detection we emphasise the value of post-processed images obtained after conventional angiographic sequences. These post-processed images should be included in routine protocols for evaluation of the intracerebral vascular structures. (author)

  9. Benchmarking Academic Anatomic Pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S. Ducatman MD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above. The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative

  10. The Evolution and Internal Structure of Jupiter and Saturn with Compositional Gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vazan, A.; Helled, R.; Podolak, M.; Kovetz, A.

    2016-01-01

    The internal structure of gas giant planets may be more complex than the commonly assumed core-envelope structure with an adiabatic temperature profile. Different primordial internal structures as well as various physical processes can lead to non-homogenous compositional distributions. A

  11. Anatomical variability of the trunk wood and root tissues of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical structure of the trunk wood and the roots of A. nitida and R. racemosa, two mangrove trees from Gabon. The anatomical differences between the trunks and the roots were used to understand their bio-remediating differences through heavy metals. It was found that the ...

  12. Anatomical landmarks of radical prostatecomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen; Constantinides, Costantinos; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we review current literature and based on our experience, we present the anatomical landmarks of open and laparoscopic/endoscopic radical prostatectomy. A thorough literature search was performed with the Medline database on the anatomy and the nomenclature of the structures surrounding the prostate gland. The correct handling of puboprostatic ligaments, external urethral sphincter, prostatic fascias and neurovascular bundle is necessary for avoiding malfunction of the urogenital system after radical prostatectomy. When evaluating new prostatectomy techniques, we should always take into account both clinical and final oncological outcomes. The present review adds further knowledge to the existing "postprostatectomy anatomical hazard" debate. It emphasizes upon the role of the puboprostatic ligaments and the course of the external urethral sphincter for urinary continence. When performing an intrafascial nerve sparing prostatectomy most urologists tend to approach as close to the prostatic capsula as possible, even though there is no concurrence regarding the nomenclature of the surrounding fascias and the course of the actual neurovascular bundles. After completion of an intrafascial technique the specimen does not contain any periprostatic tissue and thus the detection of pT3a disease is not feasible. This especially becomes problematic if the tumour reaches the resection margin. Nerve sparing open and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy should aim in maintaining sexual function, recuperating early continence after surgery, without hindering the final oncological outcome to the procedure. Despite the different approaches for radical prostatectomy the key for better results is the understanding of the anatomy of the bladder neck and the urethra.

  13. Social Structures in the Economics of International Education: Perspectives from Vietnamese International Tertiary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Lien

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the findings from in-depth interviews with Vietnamese international students studying at Australian universities, this article presents insights into the sociological influences that stem from international students' social networks, at home and abroad, and how they impact on students' aspirations and engagement in international…

  14. Rotational Spectrum of 1,1-Difluoroethane: Internal Rotation Analysis and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamanan, R. M.; Chen, W. D.; Wlodarczak, G.; Demaison, J.; Lesarri, A. G.; Lopez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    1995-05-01

    The rotational spectrum of CH3CHF2 in its ground state was measured up to 653 GHz. Accurate rotational and centrifugal distortion constants were determined. The internal rotation splittings were analyzed using the internal axis method. An ab initio structure has been calculated and a near-equilibrium structure has been estimated using offsets derived empirically. This structure was compared to an experimental r0 structure. The four lowest excited states (including the methyl torsion) have also been assigned.

  15. International symposium on exotic nuclear structures. Book of abstracst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The following topics were discussed at the meeting: Physics of weakly bound nuclei, neutron skin and halo; Evolution of shell structures for neutron-rich nuclei; Collective excitations in nuclei with exotic nuclear shapes; Cluster structures; Super- and hyperdeformed nuclei, exotic structures in the actinides; Superheavy elements; Towards understanding the structure of nucleons; New experimental techniques, facilities for radioactive beams. All abstracts (75 items) were submitted as full text to the INIS database. (R.P.)

  16. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  17. Students' Knowledge about the Internal Structure of Mice and Cockroaches in Their Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine 9th class students knowledge about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches using drawings. Drawings of 122 students from the 9th class of a high school in the center of Konya about the internal structures of mice and cockroaches have been analyzed. Drawings were analyzed independently by two…

  18. International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Alexander; Krommer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The papers in this volume present and discuss the frontiers in the mechanics of controlled machines and structures. They are based on papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Dynamics and Model Based Control of Structures and Machines held in Vienna in September 2015. The workshop continues a series of international workshops held in Linz (2008) and St. Petersburg (2010).

  19. Modelling of internal structure in seismic analysis of a PHWR building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Kushawaha, H.S.; Ingle, R.K.; Subramanian, K.V.

    1991-01-01

    Seismic analysis of complex and large structures, consisting of thick shear walls, such as Reactor Building is very involved and time consuming. It is a standard practice to model the structure as a stick model to predict reasonably the dynamic behaviour of the structure. It is required to determine approximate equivalent sectional properties of Internal Structure for representation in the stick model. The restraint to warping can change the stress distribution thus affecting the centre of rigidity and torsional inertia, Hence, standard formulae does not hold good for determination of sectional properties of the Internal Structure. In this case the equivalent sectional properties for the Internal Structure are calculated using a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the Internal Structure and applying unit horizontal forces in each direction. A 3-D stick model is developed using the guidelines. Using the properties calculated by FEM and also by standard formulae, the responses of the 3-D stick model are compared. (J.P.N.)

  20. Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of various anatomic structures - Effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Jijo, E-mail: jijopaul1980@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Department of Biophysics, Goethe University, Max von Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bauer, Ralf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Maentele, Werner [Department of Biophysics, Goethe University, Max von Laue-Str.1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Goethe University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detecting various anatomic structures based on the effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. Material and methods: Forty patients underwent a CT neck with dual energy mode (DECT under a Somatom Definition flash Dual Source CT scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)). Tube voltage: 80-kV and Sn140-kV; tube current: 110 and 290 mA s; collimation-2 x 32 x 0.6 mm. Raw data were reconstructed using a soft convolution kernel (D30f). Fused images were calculated using a spectrum of weighting factors (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 0.8 and 1.0) generating different ratios between the 80- and Sn140-kV images (e.g. factor 0.6 corresponds to 60% of their information from the 80-kV image, and 40% from the Sn140-kV image). CT values and SNRs measured in the ascending aorta, thyroid gland, fat, muscle, CSF, spinal cord, bone marrow and brain. In addition, CNR values calculated for aorta, thyroid, muscle and brain. Subjective image quality evaluated using a 5-point grading scale. Results compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric-paired Wilcoxon-Wilcox-test. Results: Statistically significant increases in mean CT values noted in anatomic structures when increasing weighting factors used (all P {<=} 0.001). For example, mean CT values derived from the contrast enhanced aorta were 149.2 {+-} 12.8 Hounsfield Units (HU), 204.8 {+-} 14.4 HU, 267.5 {+-} 18.6 HU, 311.9 {+-} 22.3 HU, 347.3 {+-} 24.7 HU, when the weighting factors 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were used. The highest SNR and CNR values were found in materials when the weighting factor 0.6 used. The difference CNR between the weighting factors 0.6 and 0.3 was statistically significant in the contrast enhanced aorta and thyroid gland (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively). Visual image assessment for image quality showed the highest score for the data reconstructed using the

  1. Image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detection of various anatomic structures - Effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jijo; Bauer, Ralf W.; Maentele, Werner; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate image fusion in dual energy computed tomography for detecting various anatomic structures based on the effect on contrast enhancement, contrast-to-noise ratio, signal-to-noise ratio and image quality. Material and methods: Forty patients underwent a CT neck with dual energy mode (DECT under a Somatom Definition flash Dual Source CT scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany)). Tube voltage: 80-kV and Sn140-kV; tube current: 110 and 290 mA s; collimation-2 x 32 x 0.6 mm. Raw data were reconstructed using a soft convolution kernel (D30f). Fused images were calculated using a spectrum of weighting factors (0.0, 0.3, 0.6 0.8 and 1.0) generating different ratios between the 80- and Sn140-kV images (e.g. factor 0.6 corresponds to 60% of their information from the 80-kV image, and 40% from the Sn140-kV image). CT values and SNRs measured in the ascending aorta, thyroid gland, fat, muscle, CSF, spinal cord, bone marrow and brain. In addition, CNR values calculated for aorta, thyroid, muscle and brain. Subjective image quality evaluated using a 5-point grading scale. Results compared using paired t-tests and nonparametric-paired Wilcoxon-Wilcox-test. Results: Statistically significant increases in mean CT values noted in anatomic structures when increasing weighting factors used (all P ≤ 0.001). For example, mean CT values derived from the contrast enhanced aorta were 149.2 ± 12.8 Hounsfield Units (HU), 204.8 ± 14.4 HU, 267.5 ± 18.6 HU, 311.9 ± 22.3 HU, 347.3 ± 24.7 HU, when the weighting factors 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 were used. The highest SNR and CNR values were found in materials when the weighting factor 0.6 used. The difference CNR between the weighting factors 0.6 and 0.3 was statistically significant in the contrast enhanced aorta and thyroid gland (P = 0.012 and P = 0.016, respectively). Visual image assessment for image quality showed the highest score for the data reconstructed using the weighting factor 0

  2. INMARSAT - The International Maritime Satellite Organization: Origins and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. E.

    1977-01-01

    The third session of the International Conference on the Establishment of an International Maritime Satellite System established the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) in 1976. Its main functions are to improve maritime communications via satellite, thereby facilitating more efficient emergency communications, ship management, and maritime public correspondence services. INMARSAT's aims are similar to those of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), the main United Nations organization dealing with maritime affairs. The specific functions of INMARSAT have been established by an Intersessional Working Group (IWG) which met three times between general conference meetings. Initial investment shares for the creation of INMARSAT were shared by the United States (17%), the United Kingdom (12%), the U.S.S.R. (11%), Norway (9.50%), Japan (8.45%), Italy (4.37%), and France (3.50%).

  3. Analyzing functional, structural, and anatomical correlation of hemispheric language lateralization in healthy subjects using functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jija S; Kumari, Sheela R; Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Thomas, Bejoy; Radhkrishnan, Ashalatha; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion fiber tractography (DFT) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for lateralizing language in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to noninvasively assess hemispheric language lateralization in normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the concordance of language lateralization obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VBM to fMRI, and thus to see whether there exists an anatomical correlate for language lateralization result obtained using fMRI. This is an advanced neuroimaging study conducted in normal healthy volunteers. Fifty-seven normal healthy subjects (39 males and 18 females; age range: 15-40 years) underwent language fMRI and 30 underwent direction DTI. fMRI language laterality index (LI), fiber tract asymmetry index (AI), and tract-based statistics of dorsal and ventral language pathways were calculated. The combined results were correlated with VBM-based volumetry of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), and insula for lateralization of language function. A linear regression analysis was done to study the correlation between fMRI, DTI, and VBM measurements. A good agreement was found between language fMRI LI and fiber tract AI, more specifically for arcuate fasciculus (ArcF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The study demonstrated significant correlations (P based statistics, and PT and HG volumetry for determining language lateralization. A strong one-to-one correlation between fMRI, laterality index, DTI tractography measures, and VBM-based volumetry measures for determining language lateralization exists.

  4. A theoretical ovary position in link with the global anatomical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    anatomical structure of each human female body. Hassen ... pregnancy ovaries become really slightly displaced they would keep the proposed three- ... ovarian ligament, which anchors the ovary to the uterus; and the suspensory ligament,.

  5. Anatomic variation of cranial parasympathetic ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Siéssere

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Having broad knowledge of anatomy is essential for practicing dentistry. Certain anatomical structures call for detailed studies due to their anatomical and functional importance. Nevertheless, some structures are difficult to visualize and identify due to their small volume and complicated access. Such is the case of the parasympathetic ganglia located in the cranial part of the autonomic nervous system, which include: the ciliary ganglion (located deeply in the orbit, laterally to the optic nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion (located in the pterygopalatine fossa, the submandibular ganglion (located laterally to the hyoglossus muscle, below the lingual nerve, and the otic ganglion (located medially to the mandibular nerve, right beneath the oval foramen. The aim of this study was to present these structures in dissected anatomic specimens and perform a comparative analysis regarding location and morphology. The proximity of the ganglia and associated nerves were also analyzed, as well as the number and volume of fibers connected to them. Human heads were dissected by planes, partially removing the adjacent structures to the point we could reach the parasympathetic ganglia. With this study, we concluded that there was no significant variation regarding the location of the studied ganglia. Morphologically, our observations concur with previous classical descriptions of the parasympathetic ganglia, but we observed variations regarding the proximity of the otic ganglion to the mandibular nerve. We also observed that there were variations regarding the number and volume of fiber bundles connected to the submandibular, otic, and pterygopalatine ganglia.

  6. Corona mortis: an anatomical variation with clinical relevance. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Adrián Rivera-Cardona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The obturator artery is one of the parietal branches arising from the internal iliac artery, the anatomical variation from which this artery originates is called “The corona mortis”, generally from the external iliac artery or the inferior epigastric artery. This finding was observed bilaterally in a male cadaver during a pelvis dissection. Clinical consideration of the anatomical variation in the obturator artery, during surgical procedures, is of great importance due to the risk of pelvic hemorrhage.

  7. Relativistic Processes and the Internal Structure of Neutron Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Castillo, D. E.; Kubis, S.

    2011-01-01

    Models for the internal composition of Dense Compact Stars are reviewed as well as macroscopic properties derived by observations of relativistic processes. Modeling of pure neutron matter Neutron Stars is presented and crust properties are studied by means of a two fluid model.

  8. Getting Women Into the Physics Leadership Structure Nationally and Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elvira S.; Diaz, Lilliam Alvarez; Gebbie, Katharine B.; El-Sayed, Karimat

    2005-10-01

    The underrepresentation of women among physicists around the world, especially in leadership positions, has broad implications for industries and government agencies with a strong need for a technologically educated workforce. The dearth of women physicists in academia exacerbates the situation in that female students lack exposure to successful women in the field. Three years ago, an international group of women met for a round table discussion at the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics and discussed the importance of having women in leadership positions. They shared their experiences and successes, and drew up and reported a set of recommendations addressing the preparation of women for leadership, the selection process, and the responsibilities of institutions. They acknowledged that implementation of their recommendations would differ among countries. At the Second IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics an international group of women met again to review, revise, and move forward on revamped recommendations from the first conference. This is a report on the new set of revamped recommendations, which address why women should be in leadership positions, goal setting, best practices, commitments, and follow-up actions for the attendees of the second conference.

  9. Galen and his anatomic eponym: vein of Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, Cagatay

    2004-09-01

    Galen or Galenus was born at Pergamum (now Bergama in Turkey) in 129 A.D., and died in the year 200 A.D. He was a 2nd century Greek philosopher-physician who switched to the medical profession after his father dreamt of this calling for his son. Galen's training and experiences brought him to Alexandria and Rome and he rose quickly to fame with public demonstrations of anatomical and surgical skills. He became physician to emperor Marcus Aurelius and the emperor's ambitious son, Commodus. He wrote prodigiously and was able to preserve his medical research in 22 volumes of printed text, representing half of all Greek medical literature that is available to us today. The structures, the great cerebral vein and the communicating branch of the internal laryngeal nerve, bear his eponym.

  10. Coulomb two-body problem with internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuperin, Yu.A.; Makarov, K.A.; Mel'nikov, Yu.B.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of the theory of extensions to an enlarged Hilbert space are used to construct a model of the interaction of the external (Coulomb) and internal (quark) channels in the two-body problem. The mutual influence of the spectra of the corresponding channel Hamiltonians is studied: it leads, in particular, to a rearrangement of the spectra of hadronic atoms. An explicit representation is obtained for the S matrix, and its singularities on the energy shell are studied

  11. Reactor Structure Materials: Corrosion of Reactor Core Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyck, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on the corrosion of reactor core internals are: (1) to gain mechanistic insight into the Irradition Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) phenomenon by studying the influence of separate parameters in well controlled experiments; (2) to develop and validate a predictive capability on IASCC by model description and (3) to define and validate countermeasures and monitoring techniques for application in reactors. Progress and achievements in 1999 are described

  12. Draft I.E.C. standard for monitoring PWR internal structures; Projet de norme C.E.I. pour la surveillance des structures internes des REP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenty, A.

    1994-06-01

    EDF has proposed to the International Electrotechnical Commission a draft standard for monitoring the vessel internal structures of PWRs. The standard applies to systems used for monitoring the vibratory behavior of the internal structures of PWRs (core barrel, thermal shield, fuel assemblies) on the basis of neutron fluctuations observed outside the vessel as well as of vessel vibrations. It covers the systems characteristics and the monitoring procedures. It should facilitate standardization of monitoring and comparisons on an international level. This paper presents the main features of the draft standard: -principles of measurement: correlation between movements of internals and ex core neutron noise on the one hand, forced vibrations of the vessel on the other hand; -sampling and conditioning of the signals; -monitoring equipment and in particular spectral analysis device; -functions of the monitoring software used for spectral analysis, peak detection and calculation of structure displacement; -studies preliminary to setting up the monitoring (calculation of internal vibratory modes, defect simulation on mockup, qualification on reactor during hot test...); -monitoring procedures (periodicity of analysis and what to do in case of anomaly); -documentation necessary to the monitoring. A diagnostic procedure is given as an example. The draft standard, written in 1994, will be presented in Frankfurt (Germany) in February 1995. (author). 1 annexe.

  13. International Conference on Structural Nonlinear Dynamics and Diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    CSNDD 2012; CSNDD 2014

    2015-01-01

    This book, which presents the peer-reviewed post-proceedings of CSNDD 2012 and CSNDD 2014, addresses the important role that relevant concepts and tools from nonlinear and complex dynamics could play in present and future engineering applications. It includes 22 chapters contributed by outstanding researchers and covering various aspects of applications, including: structural health monitoring, diagnosis and damage detection, experimental methodologies, active vibration control and smart structures, passive control of structures using nonlinear energy sinks, vibro-impact dynamic MEMS/NEMS/AFM, energy-harvesting materials and structures, and time-delayed feedback control, as well as aspects of deterministic versus stochastic dynamics and control of nonlinear phenomena in physics.  Researchers and engineers interested in the challenges posed and opportunities offered by nonlinearities in the development of passive and active control strategies, energy harvesting, novel design criteria, modeling and characteriz...

  14. Poverty and Family Structure - Phase II | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding the dynamics of change in family structure is critical in poverty diagnosis, ... And, how could public social security be conceived to protect the most vulnerable? ... IDRC invites applications for the IDRC Research Awards 2019.

  15. Evaluation of CANDU NPP containment structure subjected to aging and internal pressure increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Kwon, Oh-Sung, E-mail: os.kwon@utoronto.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Bentz, Evan [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1A4 (Canada); Tcherner, Julia [Candu Energy Inc. a member of SNC-Lavalin Group, Mississauga L5K 1B1 (Canada)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The aging effects on the performance of a nuclear containment structure is evaluated. • A numerical model of the structure is subjected to increasing internal pressure. • No through-thickness cracks are predicted under the design level internal pressure. • The structure is predicted to be ductile up to large internal pressure levels. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the long-term performance of a typical CANDU® containment structure. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was built to realistically evaluate the performance of the structure under service load as well as a hypothetical beyond-design level internal pressure. Consideration is given to the time-dependent effects, such as shrinkage, creep, and relaxation of prestressing tendons, over a 60-year timeframe. In addition, the sensitivity of the response of the containment structure against support condition, internal temperature profile and temporary construction openings was also investigated. The accuracy of the numerical model was validated against structural measurements made during a routine leak rate test. The analysis results show that the containment structure would develop a ductile mechanism if the internal pressure significantly exceeded the design pressure. The pressure-deformation relationship of the structure is sensitive to the considered time-dependent parameters.

  16. Family Structure and Adolescent Substance Use: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P

    2017-11-10

    Numerous studies indicate that family structure is a key correlate of adolescent substance use. Yet there are some important limitations to this research. Studies have been conducted mainly in the United States, with relatively few studies that have compared family structure and youth substance use across nations. There is also a lack of recognition of the complexity of family types prevalent in contemporary global society. Moreover, there remains a need to consider personal, interpersonal, and macro-level characteristics that may help account for the association between family structure and youth substance use. This study uses data from 37 countries to examine several models that purport to explain the association between family structure and substance use. The data are from the 2005-2006 WHO-sponsored Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) (n = 193,202). Multilevel models, including linear, probit, and structural equation models (SEMs), were used to test several hypotheses. The results suggest that time spent with friends largely accounted for the association between specific types of family structures and frequency of alcohol use and getting drunk, but that cannabis use was negatively associated with living with both biological parents irrespective of other factors.

  17. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....... of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important...

  18. Enhancement of white light OLED efficiency by combining both internal and external light extraction structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, I.-Ling; Ku, Chun-Neng; Chen, Yi-Ping; Lin, Ding-Zheng

    2012-09-01

    We proposed an internal nanostructure with a high reflective index planarization layer to solve the optical loss due to the reflective index mismatch between ITO and glass substrate. In our experiments, we found the electrical property of OLED device was significantly influenced by the internal nanostructures without planarization layer. Moreover, the internal extraction structure (IES) is not necessarily beneficial for light extraction. Therefore, we proposed a new substrate combine both internal and external extraction structure (EES) to extract trapping light. We successfully developed a high refractive index (N 1.7) planarization material with flat surface (RMS roughness < 2 nm), and improved about 70% device efficiency compared to traditional glass substrate.

  19. Consensus guidelines for the uniform reporting of study ethics in anatomical research within the framework of the anatomical quality assurance (AQUA) checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Brandon Michael; Vikse, Jens; Pekala, Przemyslaw; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane; Walocha, Jerzy A; Jones, D Gareth; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A

    2018-05-01

    Unambiguous reporting of a study's compliance with ethical guidelines in anatomical research is imperative. As such, clear, universal, and uniform reporting guidelines for study ethics are essential. In 2016, the International Evidence-Based Anatomy Working group in collaboration with international partners established reporting guidelines for anatomical studies, the Anatomical Quality Assurance (AQUA) Checklist. In this elaboration of the AQUA Checklist, consensus guidelines for reporting study ethics in anatomical studies are provided with in the framework of the AQUA Checklist. The new guidelines are aimed to be applicable to research across the spectrum of the anatomical sciences, including studies on both living and deceased donors. The authors hope the established guidelines will improve ethical compliance and reporting in anatomical research. Clin. Anat. 31:521-524, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. International observatory on mental health systems: structure and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Harry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sustained cooperative action is required to improve the mental health of populations, particularly in low and middle-income countries where meagre mental health investment and insufficient human and other resources result in poorly performing mental health systems. The Observatory The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is a mental health systems research, education and development network that will contribute to the development of high quality mental health systems in low and middle-income countries. The work of the Observatory will be done by mental health systems research, education and development groups that are located in and managed by collaborating organisations. These groups will be supported by the IOMHS Secretariat, the International IOMHS Steering Group and a Technical Reference Group. Summary The International Observatory on Mental Health Systems is: 1 the mental health systems research, education and development groups; 2 the IOMHS Steering Group; 3 the IOMHS Technical Reference Group; and 4 the IOMHS Secretariat. The work of the Observatory will depend on free and open collaboration, sharing of knowledge and skills, and governance arrangements that are inclusive and that put the needs and interests of people with mental illness and their families at the centre of decision-making. We welcome contact from individuals and institutions that wish to contribute to achieving the goals of the Observatory. Now is the time to make it happen where it matters, by turning scientific knowledge into effective action for people's health. (J.W. Lee, in his acceptance speech on his appointment as the Director-General of the World Health Organization 1.

  1. Cylinder head fastening structure for internal combustion engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futakuchi, Y.; Oshiro, N.

    1988-01-26

    In a construction for an overhead cam internal combustion engine comprising a cylinder head adapted to be affixed to another component of the engine by at least one fastener having a tool receiving portion for tightening thereof and having a bearing cap affixed to the cylinder head and rotatably journaling the overhead camshaft, the improvement is described comprising the bearing cap having a portion overlying the fastener tool receiving portion, and means defining an access opening passing through the bearing cap and adapted to pass a tool for tightening of the fastener without removal of the bearing cap.

  2. Wage Structure and Gender Earnings Differentials: An International Comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Francine D; Kahn, Lawrence M

    1996-01-01

    Using microdata to analyze the gender pay gap in ten industrialized nations, the authors focus on the role of wage structure--the prices of labor market skills in influencing the gender gap. They find wage structure enormously important in explaining why the U.S. gender gap is higher than that in most other countries. The authors conclude that the U.S. gap would be similar to that in Sweden and Australia (the countries with the smallest gaps) if the United States had their levels of wage ineq...

  3. The Impact of Capital Structure on Stock Returns: International Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza TAHMOORESPOUR

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between capital structure and stock returns of firms in the following eight countries in the Asia Pacific regionfor a period of 22 years from 1990 to 2012. The methodology is Panel Regression. The results indicate that the effect of capital structure depends on the nature of industry as well as market. In Australia, China, and Korea, return of companies in the Basic Material industry have negative relationship with debt to common equity. Long term debt to common equity positively affects the return of firms in Australia and Korea in the Basic Material industry.

  4. Corporate strategy and the organizational structure of companies in international business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illuminate the importance of corporate strategy and organizational structure as crucial variables for successful international business. We wanted to point out that companies, in order to exploit opportunities in international environment, must develop a high level of consent between the applied strategy and the model of organizational structure. Today all organizations, no matter how big they are, are affected by the international environment and its management must consider very carefully the benefits and costs of alternative strategies and the corresponding models of organizational structure.

  5. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  6. International nuclear commerce: structure, trends and proliferation potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years a surge has taken place in international nuclear commerce and this paper analyses the new patterns that have emerged. Despite uncertainties in nuclear energy forecasting the market is huge. Projections for the industry for the period 1971-1985 estimate a worldwide investment of 250 billion dollars. Following an initial decade of cooperation, 1955-1965, the superpower monopoly has become eroded. The export market for power reactors is analysed and the growth and spread of reprocessing facilities is discussed. It is pointed out that while commercial scale reprocessing requires vast and complex chemical plant, reprocessing small amounts for bomb production may be done relatively simply. Enrichment capabilities are also becoming more generally available. The market is not only expanding, but becoming multipolar and diversified, and the entire fuel cycle is now involved. The cooperation network France - W. Germany - South Africa- Iran is discussed at some length. The role of international safeguards is also treated fairly extensively, leading to a discussion of the motives and paths in the acquisition of nuclear weapons. It is concluded that little is to be gained from the London talks on safeguard measures and commercial restraint and that the root causes of proliferation should be tackled by comprehensive disarmament schemes. (JIW)

  7. Modeling Complex Nesting Structures in International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Nielsen, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    hierarchical random coefficient models (RCM) are often used for the analysis of multilevel phenomena, IB issues often result in more complex nested structures. This paper illustrates how cross-nested multilevel modeling allowing for predictor variables and cross-level interactions at multiple (crossed) levels...

  8. Internal circle uplifts, transversality and stratified G-structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalic, Elena Mirela [Department of Theoretical Physics, National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering,Str. Reactorului no.30, P.O.BOX MG-6, Postcode 077125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Department of Physics, University of Craiova,13 Al. I. Cuza Str., Craiova 200585 (Romania); Lazaroiu, Calin Iuliu [Center for Geometry and Physics, Institute for Basic Science,Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-24

    We study stratified G-structures in N=2 compactifications of M-theory on eight-manifolds M using the uplift to the auxiliary nine-manifold M̂=M×S{sup 1}. We show that the cosmooth generalized distribution D̂ on M̂ which arises in this formalism may have pointwise transverse or non-transverse intersection with the pull-back of the tangent bundle of M, a fact which is responsible for the subtle relation between the spinor stabilizers arising on M and M̂ and for the complicated stratified G-structure on M which we uncovered in previous work. We give a direct explanation of the latter in terms of the former and relate explicitly the defining forms of the SU(2) structure which exists on the generic locus U of M to the defining forms of the SU(3) structure which exists on an open subset Û of M̂, thus providing a dictionary between the eight- and nine-dimensional formalisms.

  9. Comparison of in vivo vs. frozen vs. Thiel cadaver specimens in visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle on proton density Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; McNulty, J.; Gatt, A.; Formosa, C.; Chockalingam, N.; Evanoff, M.G.; Rainford, L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The use of cadavers for medical education purposes and for radiology research methodologies which involve subjective image quality evaluation of anatomical criteria is well documented. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of cadaver tissue preservation in producing MR images that are representative of living tissue by comparing the visualisation of anatomical structures of the ankle obtained from live and cadaver (fresh frozen and Thiel embalmed) specimens through a visual grading analysis (VGA) study. Methods: A VGA study was conducted on an image data set consisting of 4 coronal proton density weighted (PDw) sequences obtained from ankles of a live patient and those of a cadaveric specimen, of which the right ankle was frozen and the left Thiel embalmed. Results: Comparison of the image quality scores obtained from: the live patient vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the scores in favour of the Thiel specimen; between the live patient vs. the frozen specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the frozen specimen and between the frozen vs. the Thiel specimen indicate a significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) in favour of the Thiel specimen. Conclusions: The advantages of the use of cadavers (frozen or Thiel embalmed) has been shown to also apply for use with proton density (PD) MR imaging. The preservation of cadavers especially using Thiel is a suitable alternative for MRI optimisation and protocol development purposes. - Highlights: • Thiel preservation: a better alternative compared to frozen methods for MR image analysis. • VGA demonstrated an efficient research study design for the investigation of embalming methods. • Thiel embalmed cadavers: an acceptable alternative from patients for MR imaging optimisation. • Additional MR sequences and increased sample sizes are recommended for further investigation.

  10. Adaptive cellular structures and devices with internal features for enhanced structural performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Michael Eugene

    This dissertation aims to develop a family of cellular and repeatable devices that exhibit a variety of force-displacement behaviors. It is envisioned that these cellular structures might be used either as stand-alone elements, or combined and repeated to create multiple types of structures (i.e. buildings, ship hulls, vehicle subfloors, etc.) with the ability to passively or actively perform multiple functions (harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, modulus change) over a range of loading types, amplitudes, and frequencies. To accomplish this goal, this work combines repeatable structural frameworks, such as that provided by a hexagonal cellular structure, with internal structural elements such as springs, viscous dampers, buckling plates, bi-stable von Mises trusses (VMTs), and pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs). The repeatable framework serves to position damping and load carrying elements throughout the structure, and the configuration of the internal elements allow each cell to be tuned to exhibit a desired force-displacement response. Therefore, gradient structures or structures with variable load paths can be created for an optimal global response to a range of loads. This dissertation focuses on the development of cellular structures for three functions: combined load-carrying capability with harmonic energy dissipation, impact mitigation, and cell modulus variation. One or more conceptual designs are presented for devices that can perform each of these functions, and both experimental measurements and simulations are used to gain a fundamental understanding of each device. Chapter 2 begins with a presentation of a VMT model that is the basis for many of the elements. The equations of motion for the VMT are derived and the static and dynamic behavior of the VMT are discussed in detail. Next, two metrics for the energy dissipation of the VMT - hysteresis loop area and loss factor - are presented. The responses of the VMT to harmonic displacement

  11. STRUCTURE AND SHARES IN THE ROMANIAN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TOMA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of a wider range of external trade sector of Romania was carried out in this paper. Main purpose of the paper was identification of the products which have submitted during the period 2002-2011 a wide dynamic with regard to trade of Romania, the total and in particular with the EU countries. The methodology used in this respect was detailed analysis of the data, of the structure of imports and exports and the dynamics of these exchanges during the ten years. Thus, we have identified productions which have had a production upward or downward trend in the structure of total trade. It is a case of grain, milk and seeds and oleaginous fruits and tobacco, which has had a positive development in imports and exports. Tobacco and meat products for the imports and live livestock and vegetables for the exports have registered a decreased share.

  12. Coordination of international multicenter studies: governance and administrative structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangdiwala Shrikant I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A well-conducted multicenter study needs to assure standardization, uniformity of procedures, high data quality, and collaboration across sites. This manuscript describes the organization and dynamics of multicenter studies, focusing on governance and administrative structures among countries of diverse cultures. The organizational structure of a multicenter study is described, and a system for oversight and coordination, along with roles and responsibilities of participants in the multicenter study, are presented. The elements of a governance document are also reviewed, along with guidelines and policies for effective collaboration. The experience of an ongoing multi-country collaboration, the World Studies of Abuse in the Family Environment (WorldSAFE, illustrates the implementation of these guidelines. It is essential that multicenter studies have an objective coordinating center and that the investigators jointly develop a written governance document to enable collaboration and preserve collegiality among participating investigators.

  13. Gazprom: internal structure, management principles and financial flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, Valery; Moe, Arild.

    1996-01-01

    Gazprom is responsible for over 95% of total Russian natural gas production and is one of the largest companies in the world. As well as being of major importance in the Russian domestic energy balance, it is also the largest gas trader in the world, supplying about half the gas imported into western and east-central Europe. The scale of these external activities means that the terms on which it supplies gas to its customers will have an impact on business beyond the gas industry. This study investigates the roots of the company and analyses its current organisation, management structure and financial flows. The main topics covered are: the Russian gas industry in the Soviet era; the organisational structure of Gazprom after privatisation; pricing policy; the company's financial position; Gazprom in relation to the domestic economy and the outside world. (9 figures; 7 tables). (author)

  14. Reactor building with internal structure of which the movements are independent of those of the general raft and process for building these internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hista, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This reactor building includes a containment enclosure for the internal structures composed of a slab wedged on its periphery against the containment enclosure gusset and resting on the general raft by means of a peripheral bearing ring, a compressible layer being provided between the general raft and the slab [fr

  15. Financial structure, financial development and banking fragility: International evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Porras, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of financial structure and financial development on banking fragility. We develop our study by using fixed-effects panel-data regressions and by controlling the effects of certain banking indicators. We use individual and principal-components indicators of the activity, size and efficiency of intermediaries and markets. The indicators include data for 211 countries between 1990 and 2003. Our main findings suggest that banking stability is enhanced in market-based financia...

  16. International activities concerning seismic effects on underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    At the 5th Annual Meeting of the ITA in Atlanta, Georgia, on June 15-17, 1979, the General Assembly approved the formation of the Working Group Seismic Effects on Underground Structures. The objectives of this Working Group are to: (1) collect data on earthquake damage to underground facilities throughout the world; (2) collect information on aseismic design procedures used within the various countries; and (3) synthesize the information and disseminate the results to the member nations of ITA. William W. Hakala of the US was designated the Animateur of the Working Group. The Working Group decided on the following sequential course of action to achieve the stated objectives: (1) continue to develop a bibliograhy on damages to underground structures by dynamic forces. This will be an ongoing activity of the Working Group; (2) each country is to develop a summary of case histories of earthquake damage to underground structures. These case histories will be discussed at the next meeting of the Working Group in order to identify those parameters that permit or prevent such damage; (3) the state-of-the-art paper on earthquake damage to underground opening being prepared in the US (John A. Blume and Associates, Engineers) is presently being printed and will then be distributed to the membership for comment. This report will form the basis for the activities described below; (4) the above activities should lead to a textbook - like document that provides a design philosophy for underground structures subjected to seismic forces; (5) the work tasks will suggest needed research to solve the identified problems. At each Working Group meeting the member nation delegates will provide a summary of research progress in their countries. These research needs will be documented, reviewed, revised, and disseminated on an annual basis

  17. Anatomical terminology and nomenclature: past, present and highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Bozdechova, Ivana; Cech, Pavel; Musil, Vladimir

    2008-08-01

    The anatomical terminology is a base for medical communication. It is elaborated into a nomenclature in Latin. Its history goes back to 1895, when the first Latin anatomical nomenclature was published as Basiliensia Nomina Anatomica. It was followed by seven revisions (Jenaiensia Nomina Anatomica 1935, Parisiensia Nomina Anatomica 1955, Nomina Anatomica 2nd to 6th edition 1960-1989). The last revision, Terminologia Anatomica, (TA) created by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and approved by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, was published in 1998. Apart from the official Latin anatomical terminology, it includes a list of recommended English equivalents. In this article, major changes and pitfalls of the nomenclature are discussed, as well as the clinical anatomy terms. The last revision (TA) is highly recommended to the attention of not only teachers, students and researchers, but also to clinicians, doctors, translators, editors and publishers to be followed in their activities.

  18. Anatomical analysis of an aye-aye brain (Daubentonia madagascariensis, primates: Prosimii) combining histology, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion-tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jason A; Ahrens, Eric T; Laidlaw, David H; Zhang, Song; Allman, John M

    2005-11-01

    This report presents initial results of a multimodal analysis of tissue volume and microstructure in the brain of an aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis). The left hemisphere of an aye-aye brain was scanned using T2-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) prior to histological processing and staining for Nissl substance and myelinated fibers. The objectives of the experiment were to estimate the volume of gross brain regions for comparison with published data on other prosimians and to validate DTI data on fiber anisotropy with histological measurements of fiber spread. Measurements of brain structure volumes in the specimen are consistent with those reported in the literature: the aye-aye has a very large brain for its body size, a reduced volume of visual structures (V1 and LGN), and an increased volume of the olfactory lobe. This trade-off between visual and olfactory reliance is likely a reflection of the nocturnal extractive foraging behavior practiced by Daubentonia. Additionally, frontal cortex volume is large in the aye-aye, a feature that may also be related to its complex foraging behavior and sensorimotor demands. Analysis of DTI data in the anterior cingulum bundle demonstrates a strong correlation between fiber spread as measured from histological sections and fiber spread as measured from DTI. These results represent the first quantitative comparison of DTI data and fiber-stained histology in the brain. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Data envelopment analysis a handbook of modeling internal structure and network

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, Wade D

    2014-01-01

    This comprehensive handbook on state-of-the-art topics in DEA modeling of internal structures and networks presents work by leading researchers who share their results on subjects including additive efficiency decomposition and slacks-based network DEA.

  20. An investigation of structural design methodology for HTGR reactor internals with ceramic materials (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumita, Junya; Shibata, Taiju; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Iyoku, Tatsuo; Sawa, Kazuhiro

    2008-03-01

    To advance the performance and safety of HTGR, heat-resistant ceramic materials are expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. C/C composite and superplastic zirconia are the promising materials for this purpose. In order to use these new materials as reactor internals in HTGR, it is necessary to establish a structure design method to guarantee the structural integrity under environmental and load conditions. Therefore, C/C composite expected as reactor internals of VHTR is focused and an investigation on the structural design method applicable to the C/C composite and a basic applicability of the C/C composite to representative structures of HTGR were carried out in this report. As the results, it is found that the competing risk theory for the strength evaluation of the C/C composite is applicable to design method and C/C composite is expected to be used as reactor internals of HTGR. (author)

  1. Social constructivist interpretation of «agency-structure» dilemma in the science of international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Senyuk

    2017-07-01

    The scientific novelty of the article has been pointed out by accents, which allow making a comprehensive analysis and describing an alternative approach to the study of structural and subjective levels of the international system.

  2. The Persistence of Structural Inequality?: A Network Analysis of International Trade, 1965-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahutga, Matthew C.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports results from a network analysis of international trade from 1965 through 2000. It addresses the impact of changes associated with globalization and the "new international division of labor" (NIDL) on structural inequality in the world economy. To assess this impact, I ask three specific questions. (1) Do patterns of…

  3. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  4. On the internal consistency of the term structure of forecasts of housing starts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term structure of forecasts of housing starts to test for rationality of forecasts. Our test is based on the idea that short-term and long-term forecasts should be internally consistent. We test the internal consistency of forecasts using data for Australia, Canada, Japan and the United...

  5. Work Values of Lithuanian University Students: Internal Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentas Lamanauskas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Individual’s work values define his/her career purposefulness. Individual’s chosen work values allow foreseeing what activity context and career model is important for him/her, seeking to successfully realize oneself in professional activity. Planning his/her professional career an individual is searching for the activity sphere, which could conform not only to his/her personal features, but also to his/her value orientations. Work values important for the individual allow realizing if they form conditions for planning modern career (successfully solve constantly changing activity problems and to correspond to always new raised requirements for a person in the organisation or in labour market, the realisation of which in today’s constantly changing labour market and social context becomes more and more problematic. Empiric research was carried out seeking to discover the work (activity value structure. The research instrument was created by the authors of the research. Two hundred sixty five first-year students from three Lithuanian universities participated in the research. These are the main higher education institutions, preparing teachers in Lithuania. The obtained results show that work value structure of the first year students studying in social and humanitarian science programmes can be expressed by 6 main factors: responsible activity values, active work values, harmony values, reward values, activity style values, and social status values. Also, the main differences were ascertained between female and male work value structure. Responsible activity values, active work values and harmony values were much more important for female than male students.

  6. Procedures of ASME code case N-201 for KALIMER. Reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Yoo, B.

    2001-02-01

    The main objective of this report is to describe the design procedure of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Code Case N-201-4, which is an elevated temperature structural design code of the Nuclear reactor internal structures, checking the criteria of stress limit, accumulated inelastic strain and deformation, creep-fatigue damage, and buckling limit. As one of examples, the creep-fatigue damage evaluations are carried out for the KALIMER reactor internal structures of baffle annulus. This report is expected to be very useful in evaluating the structural integrity of the liquid metal reactor operating under an elevated temperature

  7. FIV Estimation for the Reactor Internal Structure of SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. W.; Jeong, K. H.; Park, J. S.; Lee, W. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    It is necessary to confirm the possibility of flow- induced vibration of upper ICI guide tubes and CRA extension guide tubes, since they are exposed to the cross flow of the coolant. This study will provide an estimation of the flow- induced vibration owing to the vortex shedding by carrying out a free-vibration analysis of the structures, not only in air but also in water using a commercial finite element analysis code, ANSYS, and also by comparison with the vortex shedding frequency.

  8. [Topographological-anatomic changes in the structure of temporo-mandibular joint in case of fracture of the mandible condylar process at cervical level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, S I; Bazhenov, D V; Semkin, V A

    2011-01-01

    Pathological changes in soft tissues surrounding the fracture site as well as in the structural elements of temporo-mandibular joint always occured in condylar process fracture with shift at cervical mandibular jaw level. Other changes were also seen in the joint on the opposite normal side. Modelling of condylar process fracture at mandibular cervical level by means of three-dimensional computer model of temporo-mandibular joint contributed to proper understanding of this pathology emergence as well as to prediction and elimination of disorders arising in adjacent to the fracture site tissues.

  9. Basilar expansion of the human sphenoidal sinus: an integrated anatomical and computerized tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haetinger, Rainer G.; Navarro, Joao A.C.; Liberti, Edson A.

    2006-01-01

    Basilar expansion of the sphenoidal sinus (BESS) was studied in order to demonstrate its critical relevance in endoscopic or microscopic endonasal surgical interventions, including access to the sphenoidal sinus itself or in transsphenoidal pituitary approaches. Direct evaluation of anatomical specimens (25 dry skulls and 25 formalin-fixed hemi heads) and the use of computerized tomography (CT) (50 dry skulls and 750 patients) showed a high BESS frequency (69%). The authors considered BESS to be critical when the posterior wall of the clivus was 2-mm thick and found a high incidence of this important anatomical variation (44%). This study also evaluated the relationship between the sinonasal septa, the clivus, and the internal carotid arteries, and a considerable regularity in the location of these structures was seen. The septa were anatomically related to the internal carotid arteries in 55% and to the clivus in 33% of the cases. In conclusion, the high frequency of critical BESS here described is relevant to endoscopic or microscopic endonasal surgical interventions, including access to the sphenoidal sinus itself or in transsphenoidal pituitary approaches. (orig.)

  10. Sun oscillations and the problem of its internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severnyj, A.B.; Kotov, V.A.; Tsap, T.T.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of global solar oscillation measurements for five years (1974-1978, more than 1000 hours of observations, 215 days) is given. It is shown that the period of oscillations is 160sup(m)x0.10+-0sup(m)x004 and the amplitude is 1 m/s. The phases of oscillations, obtained at the Crimea, Stanford, Kitt Peak and Pic du Midi, are in good agreement, thus making the assumption on ''telluric origin'' of the oscillations improbable. It has been found: 1) slow, synchronous (at Crimea and Stanford) drift of the phase of velocity maximum from year to year and 2) the dependence of amplitude on the phase of 27-day rotational period of the Sun which favours the assumption on the quadrupole character of oscillations. It is pointed out that these facts, as well as the absence of oscillation waves in the telluric line observed simultaneously with the solar line, exclude the possibility of explaining the results as a statistical artifact. It has also been shown that the differential extinction effect produces an oscillation effect which is by an order of magnitude lower than the observed one. The following preliminary results are noted: a) the appearance of synchronous oscillations of the mean solar magnetic field of the brightness of the Sun and of the solar radio emission; b) the disappearance of the oscillations from time to time, possibly due to the effect of the supergranulation passage across the solar disk. The oscillations observed imply new important restrictions on the problem of the internal constitution of the Sun, and point to the possibility of non-radiative heat-transfer inside the Sun which might help the solution of the low neutrino flux problem

  11. Diagnostic Technology Development for Core Internal Structure in CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Cheong, Y. M.; Lee, Y. S. and others

    2005-04-01

    Degradation of critical components of nuclear power plants has become important as the operating years of plants increase. The necessity of degradation study including measurement and monitoring technology has increased continuously. Because the fuel channels and the neighboring sensing tubes and control rods are particularly one of the critical components in CANDU nuclear plant, they are treated as a major research target in order to counteract the possible problems and establish the counterplan for the CANDU reactor safety improvement. To ensure the core structure integrity in CANDU nuclear plant, the following 2 research tasks were performed: Development of NDE technologies for the gap measurement between the fuel channels and LIN tubes. Development of vibration monitoring technology of the fuel channels and sensing tubes. The technologies developed in this study could contribute to the nuclear safety and estimation of the remaining life of operating CANDU nuclear power plants

  12. Vibration monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures of PWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assedo, R.; Carre, J.C.; Sol, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The internal structures of pressurized water reactors are the seat of vibrations induced by fluctuations in primary fluid flow. A knowledge of these phenomena is indispensable in order to ensure that the structures are in proper mechanical order. It can also be used for operational monitoring. This paper describes all the methods developed and the results already achieved in this domain. The first part deals with tests on mockup associated with the calculation models which afforded a good knowledge of the vibrational characteristics of the internal structures, as well as the measurements made during hot tests of certain reactors which made it possible to qualify these models on real structures. The second part describes the means of detection (neutron noise, external accelerometers) as well as the processing methods used in the follow-up. A few typical results obtained on site are then presented. Finally, the general principles of operational monitoring of the mechanical behavior of the internal structures are described [fr

  13. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-01

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification

  14. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  15. Isotopic and anatomical evidence of an herbivorous diet in the Early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis. Implications for the structure of Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, D.; Lécuyer, C.; Amiot, R.; Buffetaut, E.; Fourel, F.; Martineau, F.; Legendre, S.; Abourachid, A.; Herrel, A.

    2014-04-01

    The mode of life of the early Tertiary giant bird Gastornis has long been a matter of controversy. Although it has often been reconstructed as an apex predator feeding on small mammals, according to other interpretations, it was in fact a large herbivore. To determine the diet of this bird, we analyze here the carbon isotope composition of the bone apatite from Gastornis and contemporaneous herbivorous mammals. Based on 13C-enrichment measured between carbonate and diet of carnivorous and herbivorous modern birds, the carbonate δ13C values of Gastornis bone remains, recovered from four Paleocene and Eocene French localities, indicate that this bird fed on plants. This is confirmed by a morphofunctional study showing that the reconstructed jaw musculature of Gastornis was similar to that of living herbivorous birds and unlike that of carnivorous forms. The herbivorous Gastornis was the largest terrestrial tetrapod in the Paleocene biota of Europe, unlike the situation in North America and Asia, where Gastornis is first recorded in the early Eocene, and the largest Paleocene animals were herbivorous mammals. The structure of the Paleocene terrestrial ecosystems of Europe may have been similar to that of some large islands, notably Madagascar, prior to the arrival of humans.

  16. Structural Empowerment and Organizational Commitment of Lecturers in Private International Educational Institutions at Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to measure the level of structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers at private international educational institutions at Thailand. Further to measure the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of lecturers. The target respondents of the study were lecturers…

  17. Structure-preservingness, internal merge, and the strict locality of triads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.; Karimi, S.; Samiian, V.; Wilkins, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines Emonds’ Structure Preserving Hypothesis, and suggests that the insight behind this hypothesis survives reformulation in terms of recent minimalist theory: each structure created by internal merge can also, independently, be created by external merge. As before, this makes

  18. Coordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1984-09-01

    This meeting of the International NSDD (Nuclear Structure and Decay Data) Network dealt with problems related to both the coordination of the NSDD network of centres and groups and to physics questions related to the evaluation of NSDD. The status of the mass-chain and nuclear structure data is reviewed and the planned activities are presented

  19. Organizational Structures for International Universities: Implications for Campus Autonomy, Academic Freedom, Collegiality, and Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ron; Crosling, Glenda; Lim, Ngat-Chin

    2014-01-01

    One significant form of transnational higher education is the International Branch Campus (IBC), in effect an "outpost" of the parent institution located in another country. Its organizational structure is alignable with offshore subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). The implications of organizational structure for academic…

  20. Detection, characterization and evolution of internal repeats in Chitinases of known 3-D structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigandan Sivaji

    Full Text Available Chitinase proteins have evolved and diversified almost in all organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. During evolution, internal repeats may appear in amino acid sequences of proteins which alter the structural and functional features. Here we deciphered the internal repeats from Chitinase and characterized the structural similarities between them. Out of 24 diverse Chitinase sequences selected, six sequences (2CJL, 2DSK, 2XVP, 2Z37, 3EBV and 3HBE did not contain any internal repeats of amino acid sequences. Ten sequences contained repeats of length <50, and the remaining 8 sequences contained repeat length between 50 and 100 residues. Two Chitinase sequences, 1ITX and 3SIM, were found to be structurally similar when analyzed using secondary structure of Chitinase from secondary and 3-Dimensional structure database of Protein Data Bank. Internal repeats of 3N17 and 1O6I were also involved in the ligand-binding site of those Chitinase proteins, respectively. Our analyses enhance our understanding towards the identification of structural characteristics of internal repeats in Chitinase proteins.

  1. Co-ordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmel, H.D.

    1991-11-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the ninth meeting of the international nuclear structure and decay data network at Kuwait, 10-14 March 1990. The meeting was attended by 19 scientists from 9 Member States and two international organizations, concerned with the compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. The document contains a summary and the proceedings of the meeting, and in annexes, status reports of activities in nuclear structure and decay data from the participating centers. A separate abstract was prepared for one of the scientific lectures related to the topics of the meeting which is reproduced in full length. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Structural Changes of International Trade Flows under the Impact of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dachin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes of international trade flows indicate modifications in competitiveness of countries, in terms of production, technological upgrading and exports under the pressure of globalization. The paper aims to point out sources of competitive advantages especially in manufacturing exports of different groups of countries. The focus is on the shifts in the structure of manufacturing in the European Union and their effects on international rankings in export performances. An important issue refers to the opportunities given by the enlargement of the European Union and their impact on EU trade structures.

  3. Co-ordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    The IAEA Nuclear Data Section convened the eighth meeting of the international nuclear structure and decay data network at Ghent, Belgium, 16-20 May 1988. The meeting was attended by 21 scientists from 12 Member States and three international organizations, concerned with the compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. This document contains a summary of the meeting, the proceedings of the meeting and in appendices status reports of activities in nuclear structure and decay data from the participating centers. Refs and tabs

  4. [Project HRANAFINA--Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodanović, Marin

    2012-01-01

    HRANAFINA--Croatian Anatomical and Physiological Terminology is a project of the University of Zagreb School of Dental Medicine funded by the Croatian Science Foundation. It is performed in cooperation with other Croatian universities with medical schools. This project has a two-pronged aim: firstly, building of Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology and secondly, Croatian anatomical and physiological terminology usage popularization between health professionals, medical students, scientists and translators. Internationally recognized experts from Croatian universities with medical faculties and linguistics experts are involved in the project. All project activities are coordinated in agreement with the National Coordinator for Development of Croatian Professional Terminology. The project enhances Croatian professional terminology and Croatian language in general, increases competitiveness of Croatian scientists on international level and facilitates the involvement of Croatian scientists, health care providers and medical students in European projects.

  5. Adjustable internal structure for reconstructing gradient index profile of crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V; Pierscionek, Barbara K

    2014-03-01

    Employing advanced technologies in studying the crystalline lens of the eye has improved our understanding of the refractive index gradient of the lens. Reconstructing and studying such a complex structure requires models with adaptable internal geometry that can be altered to simulate geometrical and optical changes of the lens with aging. In this Letter, we introduce an optically well-defined, geometrical structure for modeling the gradient refractive index profile of the crystalline lens with the advantage of an adjustable internal structure that is not available with existing models. The refractive index profile assigned to this rotationally symmetric geometry is calculated numerically, yet it is shown that this does not limit the model. The study provides a basis for developing lens models with sophisticated external and internal structures without the need for analytical solutions to calculate refractive index profiles.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of anatomical variations in the knee. Part 1: ligamentous and musculotendinous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, Philippa; Datir, Abhijit; Saifuddin, Asif

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the modality of choice for the investigation of internal derangement of the knee. Technological advances, including the wider availability of stronger magnets and new sequences, allows improved visualisation of smaller structures. Normal variants must be recognised as such, so that both over-investigation and mis-diagnosis are avoided. This article reviews both the well-recognised and the less common ligamentous and musculotendinous anatomical variants within the knee and illustrates their imaging characteristics on MRI. (orig.)

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of anatomical variations in the knee. Part 1: ligamentous and musculotendinous

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Philippa [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Datir, Abhijit [Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College London, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now the modality of choice for the investigation of internal derangement of the knee. Technological advances, including the wider availability of stronger magnets and new sequences, allows improved visualisation of smaller structures. Normal variants must be recognised as such, so that both over-investigation and mis-diagnosis are avoided. This article reviews both the well-recognised and the less common ligamentous and musculotendinous anatomical variants within the knee and illustrates their imaging characteristics on MRI. (orig.)

  8. Proceedings of 18th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology was held on August 7-12, 2005 in Beijing, China, and Sponsored by International Association for Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Chinese Nuclear Society, Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, and Tsinghua University. 486 abstracts are Collected. The contents includes: opening, plenary and keynote presentations; computational mechanics; fuel and core structures; aging, life extension, and license renewal; design methods and rules for components; fracture mechanics; concrete material, containment and other structures; analysis and design for dynamic and extreme loads; seismic analysis, design and qualification; structural reliability and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); operation, inspection and maintenance; severe accident management and structural evaluation; advanced reactors and generation IV reactors; decommissioning of nuclear facilities and waste management.

  9. Uniportal anatomic combined unusual segmentectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rivas, Diego; Lirio, Francisco; Sesma, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, sublobar anatomic resections are gaining momentum as a valid alternative for early stage lung cancer. Despite being technically demanding, anatomic segmentectomies can be performed by uniportal video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach to combine the benefits of minimally invasiveness with the maximum lung sparing. This procedure can be even more complex if a combined resection of multiple segments from different lobes has to be done. Here we report five cases of combined and unusual segmentectomies done by the same experienced surgeon in high volume institutions to show uniportal VATS is a feasible approach for these complex resections and to share an excellent educational resource.

  10. Advancing viral RNA structure prediction: measuring the thermodynamics of pyrimidine-rich internal loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Andy; Mailey, Katherine; Saeki, Jessica; Gu, Xiaobo; Schroeder, Susan J

    2017-05-01

    Accurate thermodynamic parameters improve RNA structure predictions and thus accelerate understanding of RNA function and the identification of RNA drug binding sites. Many viral RNA structures, such as internal ribosome entry sites, have internal loops and bulges that are potential drug target sites. Current models used to predict internal loops are biased toward small, symmetric purine loops, and thus poorly predict asymmetric, pyrimidine-rich loops with >6 nucleotides (nt) that occur frequently in viral RNA. This article presents new thermodynamic data for 40 pyrimidine loops, many of which can form UU or protonated CC base pairs. Uracil and protonated cytosine base pairs stabilize asymmetric internal loops. Accurate prediction rules are presented that account for all thermodynamic measurements of RNA asymmetric internal loops. New loop initiation terms for loops with >6 nt are presented that do not follow previous assumptions that increasing asymmetry destabilizes loops. Since the last 2004 update, 126 new loops with asymmetry or sizes greater than 2 × 2 have been measured. These new measurements significantly deepen and diversify the thermodynamic database for RNA. These results will help better predict internal loops that are larger, pyrimidine-rich, and occur within viral structures such as internal ribosome entry sites. © 2017 Phan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Comparison of the image quality of digital radiography system and film screen system - Radiologist' rating of the visibility of normal anatomic - Structures in chest PA, Skull radiograph and K. U. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Kim, Young Goo; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Kun Sang

    1987-01-01

    Digital image acquisition and display is widely used in computed tomography, ultrasonography, digital subtraction angiography, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance image. But most of the radiological examinations performed in radiology department are made by using conventional system. The development of the digital radiography system is essential if totally digitized radiology department is desired. The advantages of digitizing the radiographic information are usually discussed in terms of PACS (picture archiving and communication system), furthermore there are many other advantages such as contrast modification, spatial filtering subtraction and superimposition of the images through the image processing by computer. Currently several approaches are under development or in clinical use, the most promising approach is the use of imaging plate composed of photostimulate phosphors such as barium fluorohalide crystal read with a He-Ne laser to produce digital radiographic images. Another promising approach is scan projection radiography. The authors performed the clinical study of comparing the image qualities of digital radiography system using scanning laser luminescence (FCR) and conventional film-screen system in chest PA, skull radiography and K. U. B. in terms of the visibility of the normal anatomic structure rating those (qualities) on a scale of 0 to 3 and obtained the following results. Normal contrast digital images are comparable to conventional film-screen images, but the images of high frequency enhancement is far superior to conventional film-screen especially in peripherally located structures such as skin, subcutaneous fat, musculoskeletal systems, nasal bone, inner and outer table of the skull including the diploic space, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx, trachea and main bronchi, mediastinal structures, retrocardiac and subphrenic vascular markings. Another promising aspects of digital radiography system is its wide exposure latitude and

  12. Study on dynamic characteristics of reduced analytical model for PWR reactor internal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Kyeong Hoe

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to establish the procedure of the reduced analytical modeling technique for the PWR reactor internal(RI) structures and to carry out the sensitivity study of the dynamic characteristics of the structures by varying the structural parameters such as the stiffness, the mass and the damping. Modeling techniques for the PWR reactor internal structures and computer programs used for the dynamic analysis of the reactor internal structures are briefly investigated. Among the many components of RI structures, the dynamic characteristics for CSB was performed. The sensitivity analysis of the dynamic characteristics for the reduced analytical model considering the variations of the stiffnesses for the lower and upper flanges of the CSB and for the RV Snubber were performed to improve the dynamic characteristics of the RI structures against the external loadings given. In order to enhance the structural design margin of the RI components, the nonlinear time history analyses were attempted for the RI reduced models to compare the structural responses between the reference model and the modified one. (Author)

  13. Effects of input structural dates for displacements and internal forces of structures in case of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of uncertainties in the modulus of elasticity of the constructional material, soil stiffness and the mass of structure on models corresponding to two typical structures in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The structure has been modelled as a beam model, and in computation of soil springs, a stiff foundation has been taken into account. Analyses show that masses must be taken into account as correctly as possible, but the effects of soil stiffness are sharply different with flexible and rigid structures. This effect in the case of flexible buildings is less important than in the case of rigid-box-like structures. (author)

  14. Surface and Internal Waves due to a Moving Load on a Very Large Floating Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kakinuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of surface/internal water waves with a floating platform is discussed with nonlinearity of fluid motion and flexibility of oscillating structure. The set of governing equations based on a variational principle is applied to a one- or two-layer fluid interacting with a horizontally very large and elastic thin plate floating on the water surface. Calculation results of surface displacements are compared with the existing experimental data, where a tsunami, in terms of a solitary wave, propagates across one-layer water with a floating thin plate. We also simulate surface and internal waves due to a point load, such as an airplane, moving on a very large floating structure in shallow water. The wave height of the surface or internal mode is amplified when the velocity of moving point load is equal to the surface- or internal-mode celerity, respectively.

  15. The Fate of Anatomical Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff, Rina; Zwijnenberg, Robert

    Almost every medical faculty possesses anatomical and/or pathological collections: human and animal preparations, wax- and other models, as well as drawings, photographs, documents and archives relating to them. In many institutions these collections are well-preserved, but in others they are poorly

  16. Safe Corridor to Access Clivus for Endoscopic Trans-Sphenoidal Surgery: A Radiological and Anatomical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Cheng

    Full Text Available Penetration of the clivus is required for surgical access of the brain stem. The endoscopic transclivus approach is a difficult procedure with high risk of injury to important neurovascular structures. We undertook a novel anatomical and radiological investigation to understand the structure of the clivus and neurovascular structures relevant to the extended trans-nasal trans-sphenoid procedure and determine a safe corridor for the penetration of the clivus.We examined the clivus region in the computed tomographic angiography (CTA images of 220 adults, magnetic resonance (MR images of 50 adults, and dry skull specimens of 10 adults. Multiplanar reconstruction (MPR of the CT images was performed, and the anatomical features of the clivus were studied in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes. The data from the images were used to determine the anatomical parameters of the clivus and neurovascular structures, such as the internal carotid artery and inferior petrosal sinus.The examination of the CTA and MR images of the enrolled subjects revealed that the thickness of the clivus helped determine the depth of the penetration, while the distance from the sagittal midline to the important neurovascular structures determined the width of the penetration. Further, data from the CTA and MR images were consistent with those retrieved from the examination of the cadaveric specimens.Our findings provided certain pointers that may be useful in guiding the surgery such that inadvertent injury to vital structures is avoided and also provided supportive information for the choice of the appropriate endoscopic equipment.

  17. Familial intracranial aneurysms: is anatomic vulnerability heritable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jason; Brown, Robert D; Moomaw, Charles J; Hornung, Richard; Sauerbeck, Laura; Woo, Daniel; Foroud, Tatiana; Gandhi, Dheeraj; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Flaherty, Matthew L; Meissner, Irene; Anderson, Craig; Rouleau, Guy; Connolly, E Sander; Deka, Ranjan; Koller, Daniel L; Abruzzo, Todd; Huston, John; Broderick, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that family members with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) often harbor IAs in similar anatomic locations. IA location is important because of its association with rupture. We tested the hypothesis that anatomic susceptibility to IA location exists using a family-based IA study. We identified all affected probands and first-degree relatives (FDRs) with a definite or probable phenotype in each family. We stratified each IA of the probands by major arterial territory and calculated each family's proband-FDR territory concordance and overall contribution to the concordance analysis. We then matched each family unit to an unrelated family unit selected randomly with replacement and performed 1001 simulations. The median concordance proportions, odds ratios (ORs), and P values from the 1001 logistic regression analyses were used to represent the final results of the analysis. There were 323 family units available for analysis, including 323 probands and 448 FDRs, with a total of 1176 IAs. IA territorial concordance was higher in the internal carotid artery (55.4% versus 45.6%; OR, 1.54 [1.04-2.27]; P=0.032), middle cerebral artery (45.8% versus 30.5%; OR, 1.99 [1.22-3.22]; P=0.006), and vertebrobasilar system (26.6% versus 11.3%; OR, 2.90 [1.05-8.24], P=0.04) distributions in the true family compared with the comparison family. Concordance was also higher when any location was considered (53.0% versus 40.7%; OR, 1.82 [1.34-2.46]; PIA development, we found that IA territorial concordance was higher when probands were compared with their own affected FDRs than with comparison FDRs, which suggests that anatomic vulnerability to IA formation exists. Future studies of IA genetics should consider stratifying cases by IA location.

  18. Calculation of DPA in the Reactor Internal Structural Materials of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Deong; Lee, Hwan Soo

    2014-01-01

    The embrittlement is mainly caused by atomic displacement damage due to irradiations with neutrons, especially fast neutrons. The integrity of the reactor internal structural materials has to be ensured over the reactor life time, threatened by the irradiation induced displacement damage. Accurate modeling and prediction of the displacement damage is a first step to evaluate the integrity of the reactor internal structural materials. Traditional approaches for analyzing the displacement damage of the materials have relied on tradition model, developed initially for simple metals, Kinchin and Pease (K-P), and the standard formulation of it by Norgett et al. , often referred to as the 'NRT' model. An alternative and complementary strategy for calculating the displacement damage is to use MCNP code. MCNP uses detailed physics and continuous-energy cross-section data in its simulations. In this paper, we have performed the evaluation of the displacement damage of the reactor internal structural materials in Kori NPP unit 1 using detailed Monte Carlo modeling and compared with predictions results of displacement damage using the classical NRT model. The evaluation of the displacement damage of the reactor internal structural materials in Kori NPP unit 1 using detailed Monte Carlo modeling has been performed. The maximum value of the DPA rate was occurred at the baffle side of the reactor internal where the node has the maximum neutron flux

  19. Method of using sacrificial materials for fabricating internal cavities in laminated dielectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kenneth A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-02-24

    A method of using sacrificial materials for fabricating internal cavities and channels in laminated dielectric structures, which can be used as dielectric substrates and package mounts for microelectronic and microfluidic devices. A sacrificial mandrel is placed in-between two or more sheets of a deformable dielectric material (e.g., unfired LTCC glass/ceramic dielectric), wherein the sacrificial mandrel is not inserted into a cutout made in any of the sheets. The stack of sheets is laminated together, which deforms the sheet or sheets around the sacrificial mandrel. After lamination, the mandrel is removed, (e.g., during LTCC burnout), thereby creating a hollow internal cavity in the monolithic ceramic structure.

  20. The changing structure of the international commercial nuclear power reactor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Hill, L.J.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the international commercial nuclear power industry today and how the industry is evolving. This industry includes reactor vendors, product lines, and utility customers. The evolving structure of the international nuclear power reactor industry implies different organizations making decisions within the nuclear power industry, different outside constraints on those decisions, and different priorities than with the previous structure. At the same time, cultural factors, technical constraints, and historical business relationships allow for an understanding of the organization of the industry, what is likely, and what is unlikely. With such a frame of reference, current trends and future directions can be more readily understood

  1. Design of complex bone internal structure using topology optimization with perimeter control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaejong; Sutradhar, Alok; Shah, Jami J; Paulino, Glaucio H

    2018-03-01

    Large facial bone loss usually requires patient-specific bone implants to restore the structural integrity and functionality that also affects the appearance of each patient. Titanium alloys (e.g., Ti-6Al-4V) are typically used in the interfacial porous coatings between the implant and the surrounding bone to promote stability. There exists a property mismatch between the two that in general leads to complications such as stress-shielding. This biomechanical discrepancy is a hurdle in the design of bone replacements. To alleviate the mismatch, the internal structure of the bone replacements should match that of the bone. Topology optimization has proven to be a good technique for designing bone replacements. However, the complex internal structure of the bone is difficult to mimic using conventional topology optimization methods without additional restrictions. In this work, the complex bone internal structure is recovered using a perimeter control based topology optimization approach. By restricting the solution space by means of the perimeter, the intricate design complexity of bones can be achieved. Three different bone regions with well-known physiological loadings are selected to illustrate the method. Additionally, we found that the target perimeter value and the pattern of the initial distribution play a vital role in obtaining the natural curvatures in the bone internal structures as well as avoiding excessive island patterns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural contingency theory and individual differences: examination of external and internal person-team fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, John R; Moon, Henry; Ellis, Aleksander P J; West, Bradley J; Ilgen, Daniel R; Sheppard, Lori; Porter, Christopher O L H; Wagner, John A

    2002-06-01

    This article develops and tests a structurally based, integrated theory of person-team fit. The theory developed is an extension of structural contingency theory and considers issues of external fit simultaneously with its examination of internal fit at the team level. Results from 80 teams working on an interdependent team task indicate that divisional structures demand high levels of cognitive ability on the part of teammembers. However, the advantages of high cognitive ability in divisional structures are neutralized when there is poor external fit between the structure and the environment. Instead, emotional stability becomes a critical factor among teammembers when a divisional structure is out of alignment with its environment. Individual differences seem to play little or no role in functional structures, regardless of the degree of external fit.

  3. Piloting a Structured Practice Audit to Assess ACGME Milestones in Written Handoff Communication in Internal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shannon K; Farnan, Jeanne M; McConville, John F; Arora, Vineet M

    2015-06-01

    Written communication skills are integral to patient care handoffs. Residency programs require feasible assessment tools that provide timely formative and summative feedback, ideally linked to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Milestones. We describe the use of 1 such tool-UPDATED-to assess written handoff communication skills in internal medicine interns. During 2012-2013, the authors piloted a structured practice audit at 1 academic institution to audit written sign-outs completed by 45 interns, using the UPDATED tool, which scores 7 aspects of sign-out communication linked to milestones. Intern sign-outs were audited by trained faculty members throughout the year. Results were incorporated into intern performance reviews and Clinical Competency Committees. A total of 136 sign-outs were audited (averaging 3.1 audits per intern). In the first trimester, 14 interns (31%) had satisfactory audit results. Five interns (11%) had critical deficiencies and received immediate feedback, and the remaining 26 (58%) were assigned future audits due to missing audits or unsatisfactory scores. In the second trimester, 21 interns (68%) had satisfactory results, 1 had critical deficiencies, and 9 (29%) required future audits. Nine of the 10 remaining interns in the final trimester had satisfactory audits. Faculty time was estimated at 10 to 15 minutes per sign-out audited. The UPDATED audit is a milestone-based tool that can be used to assess written sign-out communication skills in internal medicine residency programs. Future work is planned to adapt the tool for use by senior supervisory residents to appraise sign-outs in real time.

  4. Structural integrity and management of aging in internal components of BWR reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Presently work the bases to apply structural integrity and the handling of the aging of internal components of the pressure vessel of boiling water reactors of water are revised and is carried out an example of structural integrity in the horizontal welding H4 of the encircling one of the core of a reactor, taking data reported in the literature. It is also revised what is required to carry out the handling program or conduct of the aging (AMP). (Author)

  5. Co-ordination of the international network of nuclear structure and decay data evaluators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    1986-10-01

    The seventh meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators concentrated on the organizational aspects of the coordination of the NSDD network and on the presentation and discussion of papers related to the physics of evaluation of NSDD. The report contains short status reports from NSDD Network members, the status of the mass-chain and nuclear structure data, a discussion of evaluation rules and procedures and a short presentation of the next activities

  6. Visualization of the internal structure of Didymosphenia geminata frustules using nano X-ray tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Zglobicka, Izabela; Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Płocińska, Magdalena; Noga, Teresa; Dobosz, Romuald; Szoszkiewicz, Robert; Witkowski, Andrzej; Zschech, Ehrenfried; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, the three-dimensional (3D) internal structure of naturally produced Didymosphenia geminata frustules were nondestructively visualized at sub-100 nm resolution. The well-optimized hierarchical structures of these natural organisms provide insight that is needed to design novel, environmentally friendly functional materials. Diatoms, which are widely distributed in freshwater, seawater and wet soils, are well known for their intricate, siliceous cell walls called ?frustules?...

  7. Design and analysis of CANDU NPP internal structures for Japanese conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, T.S.; Murakami, H.

    1991-01-01

    The design and analysis approach for the CANDU 6 Internal Concrete Structure (ICS) for Japanese seismic conditions is described. The approach consists of a seismic analysis to determine the design level accelerations; followed by a detailed finite element analysis to determine the section forces for each shell element. The extent of the design modifications for the original structure to meet the Japanese design conditions is given. (author)

  8. Probing the internal structure of the asteriod Didymoon with a passive seismic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, N.; Hempel, S.; Pou, L.; Cadu, A.; Garcia, R. F.; Mimoun, D.; Margerin, L.; Karatekin, O.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding the internal structure of an asteroid has important implications for interpreting its evolutionary history, for understanding its continuing geological evolution, and also for asteroid deflection and in-situ space resource utilisation. Given the strong evidence that asteroids are seismically active, an in-situ passive seismic experiment could provide information about the asteroid surface and interior properties. Here, we discuss the natural seismic activity that may be present on Didymoon, the secondary component of asteroid (65803) Didymos. Our analysis of the tidal stresses in Didymoon shows that tidal quakes are likely to occur if the secondary has an eccentric orbit. Failure occurs most easily at the asteroid poles and close to the surface for both homogeneous and layered internal structures. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in Didymoon show that the seismic moment of even small meteoroid impacts can generate clearly observable body and surface waves if the asteroid's internal structure is homogeneous. The presence of a regolith layer over a consolidated core can result in the seismic energy becoming trapped in the regolith due to the strong impedance contrast at the regolith-core boundary. The inclusion of macro-porosity (voids) further complexifies the wavefield due to increased scattering. The most prominent seismic waves are always found to be those traveling along the surface of the asteroid and those focusing in the antipodal point of the seismic source. We find also that the waveforms and ground acceleration spectra allow discrimination between the different internal structure models. Although the science return of a passive seismic experiment would be enhanced by having multiple seismic stations, one single seismic station can already vastly improve our knowledge about the seismic environment and sub-surface structure of an asteroid. We describe several seismic measurement techniques that could be applied in order to study the

  9. Internal structure analysis of particle-double network gels used in a gel organ replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mei; Arai, Masanori; Saito, Azusa; Sakai, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Masaru; Furukawa, Hidemitsu

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, the fabrication of patient organ replicas using 3D printers has been attracting a great deal of attention in medical fields. However, the cost of these organ replicas is very high as it is necessary to employ very expensive 3D printers and printing materials. Here we present a new gel organ replica, of human kidney, fabricated with a conventional molding technique, using a particle-double network hydrogel (P-DN gel). The replica is transparent and has the feel of a real kidney. It is expected that gel organ replicas produced this way will be a useful tool for the education of trainee surgeons and clinical ultrasonography technologists. In addition to developing a gel organ replica, the internal structure of the P-DN gel used is also discussed. Because the P-DN gel has a complex structure comprised of two different types of network, it has not been possible to investigate them internally in detail. Gels have an inhomogeneous network structure. If it is able to get a more uniform structure, it is considered that this would lead to higher strength in the gel. In the present study we investigate the structure of P-DN gel, using the gel organ replica. We investigated the internal structure of P-DN gel using Scanning Microscopic Light Scattering (SMILS), a non-contacting and non-destructive.

  10. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan G.C. Wright

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101 of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders. Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Impulsivity structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.

  11. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-04

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by

  12. Inexpensive anatomical trainer for bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Domenico, Stefano; Simonassi, Claudio; Chessa, Leonardo

    2007-08-01

    Flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy is an indispensable tool for optimal management of intensive care unit patients. However, the acquisition of sufficient training in bronchoscopy is not straightforward during residency, because of technical and ethical problems. Moreover, the use of commercial simulators is limited by their high cost. In order to overcome these limitations, we realized a low-cost anatomical simulator to acquire and maintain the basic skill to perform bronchoscopy in ventilated patients. We used 1.5 mm diameter iron wire to construct the bronchial tree scaffold; glazier-putty was applied to create the anatomical model. The model was covered by several layers of newspaper strips previously immersed in water and vinilic glue. When the model completely dried up, it was detached from the scaffold by cutting it into six pieces, it was reassembled, painted and fitted with an endotracheal tube. We used very cheap material and the final cost was euro16. The trainer resulted in real-scale and anatomically accurate, with appropriate correspondence on endoscopic view between model and patients. All bronchial segments can be explored and easily identified by endoscopic and external vision. This cheap simulator is a valuable tool for practicing, particularly in a hospital with limited resources for medical training.

  13. Detailed Study of the Internal Structure of a Red-giant Star Observed with Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Mauro, M. P.; Ventura, R.; Cardini, D.

    2012-01-01

    We study the internal structure and evolutionary state of KIC 4351319, a red-giant star observed with the Kepler satellite. The use of 25 individual oscillation frequencies, together with the accurate atmospheric data provided by ground-based spectroscopic observations, allowed us to estimate the...

  14. Modelling loading and break-up of RC structure due to internal explosion of fragmenting shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Stolz, A.; Riedel, W.; Mediavilla Varas, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Klotz Group (KG), an international group of experts on explosion safety, investigates the debris throw hazard associated with the accidental detonation of ammunition in reinforced concrete (RC-) structures. Experiments are combined with engineering models but also with results of advanced

  15. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  16. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  17. Generalized internal long wave equations: construction, hamiltonian structure and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of the theory of the internal long-wave equations (ILW) are considered. A general class of the ILW type equations is constructed by means of the Zakharov-Shabat ''dressing'' method. Hamiltonian structure and infinite numbers of conservation laws are introduced. The considered equations are shown to be Hamiltonian in the so-called second Hamiltonian structu

  18. Detection of internal structure by scattered light intensity: Application to kidney cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsby, C. L.; Kunze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    Scattered light measurements in flow cytometry were sucessfully used to distinguish cells on the basis of differing morphology and internal structure. Differences in scattered light patterns due to changes in internal structure would be expected to occur at large scattering angles. Practically, the results of these calculations suggest that in experimental situations an array of detectors would be useful. Although in general the detection of the scattered light intensity at several intervals within the 10 to 60 region would be sufficient, there are many examples where increased sensitivity could be acheived at other angles. The ability to measure at many different angular intervals would allow the experimenter to empirically select the optimum intervals for the varying conditions of cell size, N/C ratio, granule size and internal structure from sample to sample. The feasibility of making scattered light measurements at many different intervals in flow cytometry was demonstrated. The implementation of simplified versions of these techniques in conjunction with independant measurements of cell size could potentially improve the usefulness of flow cytometry in the study of the internal structure of cells.

  19. Internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaInN/GaN quantum-well structures using Ag nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iida, Daisuke; Fadil, Ahmed; Chen, Yuntian

    2015-01-01

    We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantumwell structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density on the enhance......We report internal quantum efficiency enhancement of thin p-GaN green quantumwell structure using self-assembled Ag nanoparticles. Temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements are conducted to determine the internal quantum efficiency. The impact of excitation power density...

  20. Microscopic and endoscopic anatomical study of the extended transsphenoidal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Xin-tao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Traditional transsphenoidal approach has less treatment effect in invasive pituitary adenoma. To remove tumors growing outside the sella become one of the challenges in neurosurgery. This study aims to study anatomical characteristics of the extended transsphenoidal approach for clinical operation. Methods A mimetic surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaver heads through extended transsphenoidal approach by endoscopy. The study data of related anatomic structures were measured. Results The distance from sphenoidal ostium to anterior nasal spine is (59.68 ± 4.28 mm (52.62-63.16 mm, to posterior nasal aperture is (12.88 ± 1.46 mm (10.47-15.61 mm. The incidence of optic nerve and internal carotid artery protuberance in the lateral wall of sphenoidal sinus is 11/20 and 17/20, respectivly. The medial wall of the cavernous sinus is comprised of one dural layer. The incidence of anterior intercavernous sinus, posterior intercavernous sinus, inferior intercavernous sinus and basilar sinus is 17/20, 12/20, 11/20 and 20/20, respectively. The distance between the bilateral hidden segment of internal carotid artery is (15.30 ± 1.25 mm (12.42-21.76 mm, between the bilateral inferior horizontal segment midpoint is (14.03 ± 1.19 mm (10.42-18.43 mm, between the bilateral anterior vertical segment is (18.87 ± 1.44 mm (16.75-24.88 mm, and between the bilateral inner edge of tuberculum sellae is (12.73 ± 0.94 mm (9.97-16.18 mm. In 7 cases (7/20, the intracavernous carotid is in direct contact with the sellar part of the medial wall; in all cases (20/20, the venous plexus extends into the space between the intracavernous carotid and the sphenoidal part of the medial wall. The incidence of the intracavernous carotid coursing along the inferior one third of the pituitary gland is 9/20, along the inferior two thirds of the pituitary gland is 7/20, along the all the thirds of the pituitary gland is 3/20, while below the level of the sellar floor is

  1. The Integral Theory System Questionnaire: an anatomically directed questionnaire to determine pelvic floor dysfunctions in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian Martin Erich; Fröhlich, Oliver; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Weidner, Wolfgang; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2014-06-01

    Anatomical damage to pelvic floor structures may cause multiple symptoms. The Integral Theory System Questionnaire (ITSQ) is a holistic questionnaire that uses symptoms to help locate damage in specific connective tissue structures as a guide to reconstructive surgery. It is based on the integral theory, which states that pelvic floor symptoms and prolapse are both caused by lax suspensory ligaments. The aim of the present study was to psychometrically validate the ITSQ. Established psychometric properties including validity, reliability, and responsiveness were considered for evaluation. Criterion validity was assessed in a cohort of 110 women with pelvic floor dysfunctions by analyzing the correlation of questionnaire responses with objective clinical data. Test-retest was performed with questionnaires from 47 patients. Cronbach's alpha and "split-half" reliability coefficients were calculated for inner consistency analysis. Psychometric properties of ITSQ were comparable to the ones of previously validated Pelvic Floor Questionnaires. Face validity and content validity were approved by an expert group of the International Collaboration of Pelvic Floor surgeons. Convergent validity assessed using Bayesian method was at least as accurate as the expert assessment of anatomical defects. Objective data measurement in patients demonstrated significant correlations with ITSQ domains fulfilling criterion validity. Internal consistency values ranked from 0.85 to 0.89 in different scenarios. The ITSQ proofed accurate and is able to serve as a holistic Pelvic Floor Questionnaire directing symptoms to site-specific pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  2. Development and Structure of Internal Glands and External Glandular Trichomes in Pogostemon cablin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiansheng; Yuan, Yongming; Liu, Zhixue; Zhu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Pogostemon cablin possesses two morphologically and ontogenetically different types of glandular trichomes, one type of bristle hair on the surfaces of leaves and stems and one type of internal gland inside the leaves and stems. The internal gland originates from elementary meristem and is associated with the biosynthesis of oils present inside the leaves and stems. However, there is little information on mechanism for the oil biosynthesis and secretion inside the leaves and stems. In this study, we identified three kinds of glandular trichome types and two kinds of internal gland in the Pogostemon cablin. The oil secretions from internal glands of stems and leaves contained lipids, flavones and terpenes. Our results indicated that endoplasmic reticulum and plastids and vacuoles are likely involved in the biosynthesis of oils in the internal glands and the synthesized oils are transported from endoplasmic reticulum to the cell wall via connecting endoplasmic reticulum membranes to the plasma membrane. And the comparative analysis of the development, distribution, histochemistry and ultrastructures of the internal and external glands in Pogostemon cablin leads us to propose that the internal gland may be a novel secretory structure which is different from external glands. PMID:24205002

  3. Preface: 2nd International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njuguna, J; Verdejo, R

    2014-01-01

    The NANOSTRUC 2014 took place at CSIC, Madrid, Spain. The conference theme on 'Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies – Recent Advances towards Nanoproducts and Applications'. The conference aimed to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NANOSTRUC conferences brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas

  4. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda; Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  5. Anatomical variations of paranasal sinuses at multislice computed tomography: what to look for

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Christiana Maia Nobre Rocha de; Maranhao, Carol Pontes de Miranda [Clinica de Medicina Nuclear e Radiologia de Maceio (Medradius), Maceio, AL (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada; Arraes, Fabiana Maia Nobre Rocha [Clinica Sinus, Maceio, AL (Brazil); Padilha, Igor Gomes; Farias, Lucas de Padua Gomes de; Jatoba, Mayara Stephanie de Araujo; Andrade, Anna Carolina Mendonca de; Padilha, Bruno Gomes [Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2011-07-15

    Multislice computed tomography is currently the imaging modality of choice for evaluating paranasal sinuses and adjacent structures. Such a method has been increasingly utilized in the assessment of anatomical variations, allowing their accurate identification with high anatomical details. Some anatomical variations may predispose to sinusal diseases, constituting areas of high risk for injuries and complications during surgical procedures. Therefore, the recognition of such variations is critical in the preoperative evaluation for endoscopic surgery. (author)

  6. Virtual Field and Internal Structure of Half-Dressed Extended Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compagno, G.; Persico, F.

    1988-01-01

    A new method is proposed to investigate the internal geometrical structure of an extended particle surrounded by an incomplete virtual dressing field. This method involves analysing the time-dependent virtual field at large distances from the particle, without any direct interaction with the latter. As an example, the pulselike, time-dependent virtual field of an extended QED source is investigated using a model which has a well-known counterpart in meson theory. In the framework of nonrelativistic QED it is shown that, contrary to the case of a point source, the pulse has finite width and height. For the case of a spherically symmetric source, it is explicitly shown that the width and shape of the pulse at distance r from the particle depend on the parameters determining the space structure of the source. It is concluded that the study of the field of half-dressed particles may provide a new method to investigate their internal structure

  7. Internal structures of self-organized relaxed states and self-similar decay phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1992-03-01

    A thought analysis on relaxation due to nonlinear processes is presented to lead to a set of general thoughts applicable to general nonlinear dynamical systems for finding out internal structures of the self-organized relaxed state without using 'invariant'. Three applications of the set of general thoughts to energy relaxations in resistive MHD plasmas, incompressible viscous fluids, and incompressible viscous MHD fluids are shown to lead to the internal structures of the self-organized relaxed states. It is shown that all of the relaxed states in these three dynamical systems are followed by self-similar decay phase without significant change of the spatial structure. The well known relaxed state of ∇ x B = ±λ B is shown to be derived generally in the low β plasma limit. (author)

  8. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  9. Characterization of Slosh Damping for Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid Internal Tank Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westra, Douglas G.; Sansone, Marco D.; Eberhart, Chad J.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Grid stiffened tank structures such as Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid are widely used in cryogenic tanks for providing stiffening to the tank while reducing mass, compared to tank walls of constant cross-section. If the structure is internal to the tank, it will positively affect the fluid dynamic behavior of the liquid propellant, in regard to fluid slosh damping. As NASA and commercial companies endeavor to explore the solar system, vehicles will by necessity become more mass efficient, and design margin will be reduced where possible. Therefore, if the damping characteristics of the Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structure is understood, their positive damping effect can be taken into account in the systems design process. Historically, damping by internal structures has been characterized by rules of thumb and for Ortho-Grid, empirical design tools intended for slosh baffles of much larger cross-section have been used. There is little or no information available to characterize the slosh behavior of Iso-Grid internal structure. Therefore, to take advantage of these structures for their positive damping effects, there is much need for obtaining additional data and tools to characterize them. Recently, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted both sub-scale testing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of slosh damping for Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid tanks for cylindrical tanks containing water. Enhanced grid meshing techniques were applied to the geometrically detailed and complex Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structures. The Loci-STREAM CFD program with the Volume of Fluid Method module for tracking and locating the water-air fluid interface was used to conduct the simulations. The CFD simulations were validated with the test data and new empirical models for predicting damping and frequency of Ortho-Grid and Iso-Grid structures were generated.

  10. Influence of electron irradiation on internal friction and structure evolution of polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailova, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Important qualitative information on structural evolution and radiation alterations in polymer materials under the action of ionizing radiation can be obtained from the analysis of the temperature dependences of internal friction. Changing of internal friction parameters of relax maxima during irradiation is qualitative degree parameter of radiation scission-cross linking of the polymer molecules. In this work, the general phenomenological approach is realized by introduction of the effective 'observed' parameters into the simple kinetic equations. The applicability of such approach is justified by the fact that kinetics of both internal friction and scission-cross linking processes can be characterized by the same effective parameters. Temperature dependences of internal friction are experimentally studied in epoxy irradiated by 2.5 MeV pulse electron beam to different doses (D=3 MGy, 6 MGy and 9 MGy). Time dependences of internal friction characteristics associated with radiation-induced processes of polymer scission and cross-linking are analyzed and discussed. Experimental data on kinetics of structural transformations in epoxy are interpreted on the base of analytical solutions of differential equations for free radical accumulation during and after irradiation subject to the arbitrary effective order of radical recombination. It is shown that in the range of doses and dose rates under study radiation-induced scission predominates during polymer irradiation but in a certain period of time after irradiation scission changes to cross-linking. Characteristics of the kinetic curves obtained essentially depend on the dose

  11. Using structural equation modelling to integrate human resources with internal practices for lean manufacturing implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protik Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore and integrate the role of human resources with the internal practices of the Indian manufacturing industries towards successful implementation of lean manu-facturing (LM. An extensive literature survey is carried out. An attempt is made to build an ex-haustive list of all the input manifests related to human resources and internal practices necessary for LM implementation, coupled with a similar exhaustive list of the benefits accrued from its suc-cessful implementation. A structural model is thus conceptualized, which is empirically validated based on the data from the Indian manufacturing sector. Hardly any survey based empirical study in India has been found to integrate human resources with the internal processes towards success-ful LM implementation. This empirical research is thus carried out in the Indian manufacturing in-dustries. The analysis reveals six key input constructs and three output constructs, indicating that these constructs should act in unison to maximize the benefits of implementing lean. The structural model presented in this paper may be treated as a guide to integrate human resources with internal practices to successfully implement lean, leading to an optimum utilization of resources. This work is one of the very first researches to have a survey-based empirical analysis of the role of human resources and internal practices of the Indian manufacturing sector towards an effective lean im-plementation.

  12. Frustration-induced internal stresses are responsible for quasilocalized modes in structural glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Edan; Bouchbinder, Eran

    2018-03-01

    It has been recently shown [E. Lerner, G. Düring, and E. Bouchbinder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 035501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.035501] that the nonphononic vibrational modes of structural glasses at low frequencies ω are quasilocalized and follow a universal density of states D (ω ) ˜ω4 . Here we show that the gapless nature of the observed density of states depends on the existence of internal stresses that generically emerge in glasses due to frustration, thus elucidating a basic element underlying this universal behavior. Similarly to jammed particulate packings, low-frequency modes in structural glasses emerge from a balance between a local elasticity term and an internal stress term in the dynamical matrix, where the difference between them is orders of magnitude smaller than their typical magnitude. By artificially reducing the magnitude of internal stresses in a computer glass former in three dimensions, we show that a gap is formed in the density of states below which no vibrational modes exist, thus demonstrating the crucial importance of internal stresses. Finally, we show that while better annealing the glass upon cooling from the liquid state significantly reduces its internal stresses, the self-organizational processes during cooling render the gapless D (ω ) ˜ω4 density of state unaffected.

  13. Nuclear Structure: Dubna Symposium 1968. Invited Papers from the International Symposium on Nuclear Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Invited papers of a Symposium organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, supported by IUPAP and IAEA, and held in Dubna from 4 to 11 July 1968. The meeting was attended by about 450 scientists from 30 countries. The volume contains the invited papers, all by distinguished scientists, and the discussions and short contributions that followed the presentation of these papers. Contents: I. Nuclear structure at low excitations (15 papers) ; II. Nuclear structure at high excitations (6 papers): III. Open problems in nuclear physics (3 papers); IV. Equilibrium deformations (6 papers); V. General properties of nuclei (6 papers); VI. Closing remarks; List of contributions; List of seminar papers; List of participants; Author index. All papers, discussions and short contributions are in English; the abstracts are in English and Russian, which were the working languages of the Symposium. (author)

  14. Generic Structure of Discussion Sections in ESP Research Articles across International and Iranian Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reviewing literature reveals that identifying generic structure of research articles (RAs in different fields of study, especially ESP, has received much attention. The major purpose behind such trends of research has been raising researchers' awareness of the common conventions in writing RAs. Along with this universal trend, a lot of genre studies have been done in Iranian context; however, it seems that ESP RAs have not been paid due attention yet. Hence this study aimed at investigating the generic structure of ESP RAs in international and Iranian journals. Applying Kanoksilapatham's (2007 model to the compiled corpus, it was found that contextualizing the study (Move 1 and consolidating results (Move 2 were the obligatory moves in Discussion section of ESP RAs across international and Iranian journals. Evaluation of the findings was a new step found in international Discussion sections but absent in Iranian ones. Related discussion of these findings prepares the researchers for publishing in international and Iranian ESP journals. Keywords: ESP, Discussion section, Move, Step, Author presence, Generic structure

  15. Investigations of internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Minah; Choi, Shinkook; Baek, Jongduk

    2014-03-01

    To describe internal noise levels for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, Gaussian targets with four different sizes (i.e., standard deviation of 2,4,6 and 8) and three different noise structures(i.e., white, low-pass, and highpass) were generated. The generated noise images were scaled to have standard deviation of 0.15. For each noise type, target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability based on NPW, and the detectability of CHO was calculated accordingly. For human observer study, 3 trained observers performed 2AFC detection tasks, and correction rate, Pc, was calculated for each task. By adding proper internal noise level to numerical observer (i.e., NPW and CHO), detectability of human observer was matched with that of numerical observers. Even though target contrasts were adjusted to have the same detectability of NPW observer, detectability of human observer decreases as the target size increases. The internal noise level varies for different target sizes, contrasts, and noise structures, demonstrating different internal noise levels should be considered in numerical observer to predict the detection performance of human observer.

  16. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF THE INTERNAL / MANAGERIAL CONTROL STANDARD NO. 6 - ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut-Cosmin BĂLOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Our initiative of analyzing the internal control standard which deals with the organizational structure comes from the observations on the significance of these essential aspects of modern management and on the sensitivity with which this standard is treated in most of the public institutions considered representative for the Oltenia region. Although the administrators of public institutions strive to optimize the systems of internal/managerial control, they frequently face many issues concerning the misunderstanding of these standards, vaguely explained, for example throughout some guidelines or other documents. The hypothesis of our study is that most of public institutions face gaps in understanding, interpreting, adapting and implementing an effective model of organizational structure, and the causes are due to the lack of an interdependent, correlated approach of the pillars that support the internal/managerial control system: the 25 standards required by the Romanian legislation. Our study critically describes the superficial approach founded in the self-evaluation reports of the public institutions, if we refer only to the conformity of the organizational structure and the four standards that we consider inextricably related with this internal/managerial control standard. From the methodological point of view, our study tests the correlation between the level of compliance of these standards and the functionality of the system composed by them in the public organizations that we have investigated.

  17. Bounds of thermal stability of infinite cylindrical structures with non-uniform internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an overview analyses of the thermal instability or thermal viability of infinite cylindrical structures with non-linear and non-uniform internal heat generation. The structure may be subjected to different and combined boundary conditions. An analytical solution is obtained for the generalized problem in spite of the non-linearity and the non-homogeneity of the source term. Four case studies with different boundary conditions are presented. The analyses show that the critical parameter for thermal stability may be though of as an altitude of surface below which the cylindrical structure will be thermally stable and performance worthy. The results also show that the bounds of thermal stability of a cylindrical structure system (solid or hollow) is eminently determined by the boundary conditions to which the system is subjected and can significantly alter the life-span of the structure

  18. Thermo-Elastic Analysis of Internally Cooled Structures Using a Higher Order Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the thermomechanical behavior of internally cooled silicon nitride structures. Silicon nitride is under consideration for elevated temperature aerospace engine applications. and techniques for lowering the operating temperature of structures composed of this material are under development. Lowering the operating temperature provides a large payoff in terms of fatigue life and may be accomplished through the use of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) and the novel concept of included cooling channels. Herein, an in-depth study is performed on the behavior of a flame-impinged silicon nitride plate with a TBC and internal channels cooled by forced air. The analysis is performed using the higher order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), which has been developed through NASA Glenn Research Center funding over the past several years. HOTFGM was chosen over the traditional finite element approach as a prelude to an examination of functionally graded silicon nitride structures for which HOTFGM is ideally suited. To accommodate the analysis requirement% of the internally cooled plate problem, two crucial enhancements were made to the two-dimensional Cartesian-based version of HOTFGM. namely, incorporation of internal boundary capabilities and incorporation of convective boundary conditions. Results indicate the viability and large benefits of cooling the plate via forced air through cooling channels. Furthermore, cooling can positively impact the stress and displacement fields present in the plate, yielding an additional payoff in terms of fatigue life. Finally, a spin-off capability resulted from inclusion of internal boundaries within HOTFGM; the ability to simulate the thermo-elastic response of structures with curved surfaces. This new capability is demonstrated, and through comparison with an analytical solution, shown to be viable and accurate.

  19. A New International Standard for "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørum, Alf; Burcharth, Hans F.; Goda, Yoshimi

    2007-01-01

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is going to issue a new standard concerning "Actions from Waves and Currents on Coastal Structures," which becomes the first international standard in coastal engineering. It is composed of a normative part (29 pages), an informative part (80...... pages) and Bibliography ( 17 pages). The normative part describes what is considered as the norm of the matters in concern, while the informative part provides the information on recommended practice. The paper introduces the main points of the normative part and discusses the influence of the new...

  20. RCWA and FDTD modeling of light emission from internally structured OLEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Michiel Koen; Marsman, Herman; Penninck, Lieven; Peeters, Patrick; de Groot, Harry; ter Meulen, Jan Matthijs; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2014-05-05

    We report on the fabrication and simulation of a green OLED with an Internal Light Extraction (ILE) layer. The optical behavior of these devices is simulated using both Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Finite Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) methods. Results obtained using these two different techniques show excellent agreement and predict the experimental results with good precision. By verifying the validity of both simulation methods on the internal light extraction structure we pave the way to optimization of ILE layers using either of these methods.

  1. Effect of pulse electron beam characteristics on internal friction and structural alterations in epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, Yu.A.; Ismailova, G.A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature dependence of internal friction is experimentally studied in epoxy irradiated by 2.5 MeV pulse electron beam to different doses. Time dependence of internal friction characteristics associated with radiation-induced processes of polymer scission and cross-linking is analyzed and discussed. Experimental data on kinetics of structural transformations in epoxy are interpreted on the base of analytical solutions of differential equations for free radical accumulation during and after irradiation subject to the pulse irradiation mode and an arbitrary effective order of radical recombination

  2. A study on the fault diagnostic techniques for reactor internal structures using neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Jeong, Seong Ho; Park, Jin Ho; Park, Jin Suk

    1994-08-01

    The unfavorable phenomena, such as flow induced vibration and aging process in reactor internals, cause degradation of structural integrity and may result in loosing some mechanical binding components which might impact other equipments and components or cause flow blockage. Since these malfunctions and potential failures change reactor noise signal, it is necessary to analyze reactor noise signal for early fault diagnosis in the point of few of safety and plant economics. The objectives of this study are to establish fault diagnostic and TS(thermal shield), and to develop a data acquisition and signal processing software system. In the first year of this study, an analysis technique for the reactor internal vibration using the reactor noise was proposed. With the technique proposed and the reactor noise signals (ex-core neutron and acceleration), the dynamic characteristics of Ulchin-1 reactor internals were obtained, and compared with those of Tricastin-1 which is the prototype of Ulchin-1. In the second year, a PC-based expert system for reactor internals fault diagnosis is developed, which included data acquisition, signal processing, feature extraction function, and represented diagnostic knowledge by the IF-THEN rule. To know the effect of the faults, the reactor internals of Ulchin-1 is modeled using FEM and simulated with an artificial defect given in the hold-down spring. Trend in the dynamic characteristics of reactor internals is also observed during one fuel cycle to know the effect of boron concentration. 100 figs, 7 tabs, 18 refs. (Author)

  3. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (74-90 mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments. Under severe accident loading conditions, the steel containment vessel in a typical Mark-I or Mark-II plant may deform under internal pressurization such that it contacts the inner surface of a shield building wall. (Thermal expansion from increasing accident temperatures would also close the gap between the SCV and the shield building, but temperature effects are not considered in these analyses.) The amount and location of contact and the pressure at which it occurs all affect how the combined structure behaves. A preliminary finite element model has been developed to analyze a model of a typical steel containment vessel con-ling into contact with an outer structure. Both the steel containment vessel and the outer contact structure were modelled with axisymmetric shell finite elements. Of particular interest are the influence that the contact structure has on deformation and potential failure modes of the containment vessel. Furthermore, the coefficient of friction between the two structures was varied to study its effects on the behavior of the containment vessel and on the uplift loads transmitted to the contact structure. These analyses show that the material properties of an outer contact structure and the amount

  4. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism is described for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space

  5. Internal structure of an ex-vessel corium debris bed during severe accidents of LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In the aspect of the coolability assessment the configuration of the debris bed, including internal and external characteristics, has significant importance as boundary conditions for simulations, however, relatively little investigation of the sedimentation process. For the development of a debris bed, recently there have been several studies that focused on thermal characteristics of corium particles. Yakush et al. performed simulation studies and showed that two phase natural convection affects the particle settling trajectory and changes the final arrival location of particles to result more flattened bed. Those simulation results have been supported by the experimental studies of Kim et al. using simulant particles and air bubble injection. For the internal structure of a debris bed, there have been several simulation and experimental studies, which investigated the effect of internal structure on debris bed coolability. Magallon has reported the particle size distribution at three elevations of the debris bed of FARO L-31 case, where the mean particle size was bigger for the lower elevation. However, there is a lack of detailed information on the characteristics of the debris bed, including the local structure and porosity. In this study, we investigated the internal structure of the debris bed using a mixture of stainless steel particles and air bubble injection. Local particle sedimentation quantity, particle size distribution change in radial direction and axial direction, and bed porosity was measured to investigate a relationship between the internal structure and the accident condition. An experimental investigation was carried out for the internal structure of ex-vessel corium debris bed in the flooded cavity during sever accident. Moderate corium discharge in high flooding level was assumed for full fragmentation of melt jet. The test particle mixture was prepared by following an empirical correlation, which reflects the particle size distribution of

  6. Internal structure of an ex-vessel corium debris bed during severe accidents of LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Park, Hyun Sun

    2015-01-01

    In the aspect of the coolability assessment the configuration of the debris bed, including internal and external characteristics, has significant importance as boundary conditions for simulations, however, relatively little investigation of the sedimentation process. For the development of a debris bed, recently there have been several studies that focused on thermal characteristics of corium particles. Yakush et al. performed simulation studies and showed that two phase natural convection affects the particle settling trajectory and changes the final arrival location of particles to result more flattened bed. Those simulation results have been supported by the experimental studies of Kim et al. using simulant particles and air bubble injection. For the internal structure of a debris bed, there have been several simulation and experimental studies, which investigated the effect of internal structure on debris bed coolability. Magallon has reported the particle size distribution at three elevations of the debris bed of FARO L-31 case, where the mean particle size was bigger for the lower elevation. However, there is a lack of detailed information on the characteristics of the debris bed, including the local structure and porosity. In this study, we investigated the internal structure of the debris bed using a mixture of stainless steel particles and air bubble injection. Local particle sedimentation quantity, particle size distribution change in radial direction and axial direction, and bed porosity was measured to investigate a relationship between the internal structure and the accident condition. An experimental investigation was carried out for the internal structure of ex-vessel corium debris bed in the flooded cavity during sever accident. Moderate corium discharge in high flooding level was assumed for full fragmentation of melt jet. The test particle mixture was prepared by following an empirical correlation, which reflects the particle size distribution of

  7. Internal inspection of reinforced concrete for nuclear structures using shear wave tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Aging of reinforced concrete used for worldwide nuclear structures is increasing and necessitating evaluation. • Nondestructive evaluation is a tool for assessing the condition of reinforced concrete of nuclear structures. • Ultrasonic shear wave tomography as a stress wave technique has begun to be utilized for investigation of concrete material. • A study using ultrasonic shear wave tomography indicates anomalies vital to the long-term operation of the structure. • The use of this technique has shown to successfully evaluate the internal state of reinforced concrete members. - Abstract: Reinforced concrete is important for nuclear related structures. Therefore, the integrity of structural members consisting of reinforced concrete is germane to the safe operation and longevity of these facilities. Many issues that reduce the likelihood of safe operation and longevity are not visible on the surface of reinforced concrete material. Therefore, an investigation of reinforced concrete material should include techniques which will allow peering into the concrete member and determining its internal state. The performance of nondestructive evaluations is pursuant to this goal. Some of the categories of nondestructive evaluations are electrochemical, magnetism, ground penetrating radar, and ultrasonic testing. A specific ultrasonic testing technique, namely ultrasonic shear wave tomography, is used to determine presence and extent of voids, honeycombs, cracks perpendicular to the surface, and/or delamination. This technique, and others similar to it, has been utilized in the nuclear industry to determine structural conditions

  8. Examining the Dynamic Structure of Daily Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior at Multiple Levels of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G. C.; Beltz, Adriene M.; Gates, Kathleen M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Simms, Leonard J.

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing–Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic. PMID:26732546

  9. Anatomical segmentation of the human medial prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corcoles-Parada, M.; Müller, N.C.J.; Ubero, M.; Serrano-Del-Pueblo, V.M.; Mansilla, F.; Marcos-Rabal, P.; Artacho-Perula, E.; Dresler, M.; Insausti, R.; Fernandez, G.; Munoz-Lopez, M.

    2017-01-01

    The medial prefrontal areas 32, 24, 14, and 25 (mPFC) form part of the limbic memory system, but little is known about their functional specialization in humans. To add anatomical precision to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, we aimed to identify these mPFC subareas

  10. The Structure of Trade in Genetic Resources: Implications for the International ABS Regime Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikyung Yun

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensive exploitation of genetic resources at the international level has led to a negotiation of an international regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS of genetic resources. Due to lack of systematic data, little is known about the structure of trade in genetic resources to inform the negotiators. This study attempts to shed a greater insight into genetic resources trade in the pharmaceutical sector in Korea, mainly relying on interviews of industry practitioners and scientists in related fields. The study finds that Korea is mainly a genetic resource importer, but that pharmaceutical firms rarely carry out bioprospecting directly, relying on semi-processed biochemicals imports trough agents. Therefore, the impact of the to-be negotiated international ABS negotiation will be larger if derivatives are included in its scope. However, the general impact on the economy as a whole would be small, given the small share of genetic resources trade compared to total trade volumes.

  11. Estimating Rheological Parameters of Anhydrite from Folded Evaporite sequences: Implications for Internal Dynamics of Salt Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamuszek, Marta; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Urai, Janos L.; Raith, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Salt structures have been identified as a potential target for hydrocarbon, CO2, or radioactive waste storage. The most suitable locations for magazines are considered in the thick and relatively homogeneous rock salt layers. However, salt structures often consist of the evaporite sequence including rock salt intercalated with other rock types e.g.: anhydrite, gypsum, potassium and magnesium salt, calcite, dolomite, or shale. The presence of such heterogeneities causes a serious disturbance in the structure management. Detailed analysis of the internal architecture and internal dynamics of the salt structure are crucial for evaluating them as suitable repositories and also their long-term stability. The goal of this study is to analyse the influence of the presence of anhydrite layers on the internal dynamics of salt structures. Anhydrite is a common rock in evaporite sequences. Its physical and mechanical properties strongly differ from the properties of rock salt. The density of anhydrite is much higher than the density of salt, thus anhydrite is likely to sink in salt causing the disturbance of the surrounding structures. This suggestion was the starting point to the discussion about the long-term stability of the magazines in salt structures [1]. However, the other important parameter that has to be taken into account is the viscosity of anhydrite. The high viscosity ratio between salt and anhydrite can restrain the layer from sinking. The rheological behaviour of anhydrite has been studied in laboratory experiments [2], but the results only provide information about the short-term behaviour. The long-term behaviour can be best predicted using indirect methods e.g. based on the analysis of natural structures that developed over geological time scale. One of the most promising are fold structures, the shape of which is very sensitive to the rheological parameters of the deforming materials. Folds can develop in mechanically stratified materials during layer

  12. Anatomical variations and morphometric study of the optic strut and the anterior clinoid process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldan Kapur

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The optic strut and the anterior clinoid process represent bony structures that are closely related to anatomically and clinically significant elements such as the cavernous sinus, the internal carotid artery, the optic nerve and the pituitary gland. The objective of our study was to quantify dimensions of the optic strut and anterior clinoid process, and to determine variations in positions and forms of these structures. A descriptive anatomical study was performed on 200 dry human skulls. We analyzed dimensions and variations in position of the optic strut, dimensions of the anterior clinoid process as well as the incidence and forms of the caroticoclinoid foramen. The average thickness of the optic strut on skulls belonging to males was 3 mm and 2.8 mm on those belonging to females. The optic strut was most commonly attached to the anterior two fifths on the lower side of the anterior clinoid process. On the male skulls the average width of the anterior clinoid process was 9.4 mm (right and 9.1 mm (left. Its length was 9.9 and 9.3 mm. On female skulls the average width of the process was 8.7 mm (right and 8.3 mm (left, while the length measured 9.3 mm on the right and 8.9 mm on the opposite side. In our sample, a complete caroticoclinoid foramen appeared in 4.25%, a contact form in 2.75%. At last, an incomplete form of the foramen was observed in 9.75%. The anatomic variations of the investigated structures must be considered during the approaches to the cavernous sinus and neurovascular elements of the sellar region.

  13. Gauge invariance and canonical quantization applied in the study of internal structure of gauge field systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Chen Xiangsong; Lue Xiaofu; Sun Weiming; Goldman, T.

    2010-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However, we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relations, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed.

  14. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns each have a pin which rides in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring the locking plates into engagement with the housing in a raised or a lowered position of the support column such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball screw jacks. (author)

  15. Development and internal structure investigation of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a dimensional instrument to assess personality disorders based on Millon's theoretical perspective and on DSM-IV-TR diagnoses criteria, and seek validity evidence based on internal structure and reliability indexes of the factors. In order to do that, a self-report test composed of 215 items, the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (DCPI was developed and applied to 561 respondents aged between 18 and 90 years (M = 28,8; SD = 11.4, with 51.8% females. Exploratory factor analysis and verification of reliability were performed using Cronbach's alpha. Data provided validity evidence based on internal structure of the instrument according to the theory of Millon and DSM-IV-TR.

  16. Structural characteristics of proposed ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] TF [toroidal field] coil conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.R.; Miller, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of transverse loading on a cable-in-conduit conductor which has been proposed for the toroidal field coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The primary components of this conductor are a loose cable of superconducting wires, a thin-wall tube for helium containment, and a U-shaped structural channel. A method is given where the geometry of this conductor can be optimized for a given set of operating conditions. It is shown, using finite-element modeling, that the structural channel is effective in supporting loads due to transverse forces and internal pressure. In addition, it is shown that the superconducting cable is effectively shielded from external transverse loads that might otherwise degrade its current carrying capacity. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Anatomic partial nephrectomy: technique evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Raed A; Metcalfe, Charles; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-03-01

    Partial nephrectomy provides equivalent long-term oncologic and superior functional outcomes as radical nephrectomy for T1a renal masses. Herein, we review the various vascular clamping techniques employed during minimally invasive partial nephrectomy, describe the evolution of our partial nephrectomy technique and provide an update on contemporary thinking about the impact of ischemia on renal function. Recently, partial nephrectomy surgical technique has shifted away from main artery clamping and towards minimizing/eliminating global renal ischemia during partial nephrectomy. Supported by high-fidelity three-dimensional imaging, novel anatomic-based partial nephrectomy techniques have recently been developed, wherein partial nephrectomy can now be performed with segmental, minimal or zero global ischemia to the renal remnant. Sequential innovations have included early unclamping, segmental clamping, super-selective clamping and now culminating in anatomic zero-ischemia surgery. By eliminating 'under-the-gun' time pressure of ischemia for the surgeon, these techniques allow an unhurried, tightly contoured tumour excision with point-specific sutured haemostasis. Recent data indicate that zero-ischemia partial nephrectomy may provide better functional outcomes by minimizing/eliminating global ischemia and preserving greater vascularized kidney volume. Contemporary partial nephrectomy includes a spectrum of surgical techniques ranging from conventional-clamped to novel zero-ischemia approaches. Technique selection should be tailored to each individual case on the basis of tumour characteristics, surgical feasibility, surgeon experience, patient demographics and baseline renal function.

  18. Understanding comorbidity among internalizing problems: Integrating latent structural models of psychopathology and risk mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Snyder, Hannah R.; Gulley, Lauren D.; Schweizer, Tina H.; Bijttebier, Patricia; Nelis, Sabine; Toh, Gim; Vasey, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that comorbidity is the rule, not the exception, for categorically defined psychiatric disorders, and this is also the case for internalizing disorders of depression and anxiety. This theoretical review paper addresses the ubiquity of comorbidity among internalizing disorders. Our central thesis is that progress in understanding this co-occurrence can be made by employing latent dimensional structural models that organize both psychopathology as well as vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms and by connecting the multiple levels of risk and psychopathology outcomes together. Different vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms are hypothesized to predict different levels of the structural model of psychopathology. We review the present state of knowledge based on concurrent and developmental sequential comorbidity patterns among common discrete psychiatric disorders in youth, and then we advocate for the use of more recent bifactor dimensional models of psychopathology (e.g., p factor, Caspi et al., 2014) that can help to explain the co-occurrence among internalizing symptoms. In support of this relatively novel conceptual perspective, we review six exemplar vulnerabilities and risk mechanisms, including executive function, information processing biases, cognitive vulnerabilities, positive and negative affectivity aspects of temperament, and autonomic dysregulation, along with the developmental occurrence of stressors in different domains, to show how these vulnerabilities can predict the general latent psychopathology factor, a unique latent internalizing dimension, as well as specific symptom syndrome manifestations. PMID:27739389

  19. FAA/NASA International Symposium on Advanced Structural Integrity Methods for Airframe Durability and Damage Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    International technical experts in durability and damage tolerance of metallic airframe structures were assembled to present and discuss recent research findings and the development of advanced design and analysis methods, structural concepts, and advanced materials. The symposium focused on the dissemination of new knowledge and the peer-review of progress on the development of advanced methodologies. Papers were presented on: structural concepts for enhanced durability, damage tolerance, and maintainability; new metallic alloys and processing technology; fatigue crack initiation and small crack effects; fatigue crack growth models; fracture mechanics failure, criteria for ductile materials; structural mechanics methodology for residual strength and life prediction; development of flight load spectra for design and testing; and advanced approaches to resist corrosion and environmentally assisted fatigue. Separate abstracts have been indexed for articles from this report.

  20. Transactions of the 8th International Conference on Structure Mechanics in Reactor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Browzin, B.S.

    1985-06-01

    These Transactions of the JK-panel session include preprints of papers or abstracts which are listed in Volume A, ''Introduction, General Contents, Authors Index,'' Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology. These papers represent the body of the JK-panel session, ''Status of Research in Structural and Mechanical Engineering for Nuclear Power Plants,'' sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Additional papers are expected at this session, which will be available at the session. The purpose of publishing these Transactions is to inform the participants of the JK-panel session in advance on the papers to be presented and discussed at the session

  1. The Impact of Organizational Structure on Internal and External Integration: An empirical, cross-regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenophon Koufteros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the effects of organizational structure on cross-functional integration, supplier integration, and customer integration and assess whether such effects vary by geographical region. Specifically, we investigate the impact of centralization, formalization, and complexity on both internal (cross-functional and external (supplier, customer integration. Relationships are examined across Western and East Asian environments using data collected from 238 manufacturing plants in eight countries. We find that structural features have differing impacts on cross-functional, supplier, and customer integration, and these effects vary across geographical regions.

  2. Analysis of the fluid-structure dynamic interaction of reactor pressure vessel internals during blowdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Krieg, R.; Schumann, U.

    1977-01-01

    The loadings on reactor internal structures (in particular the core barrel) induced during a PWR-blowdown must not result in excessive stresses and strains. The deformations are strongly influenced by the coupling of fluid and structure dynamics and it is necessary, therefore, to develop and apply new coupled analysis tools. In this paper a survey is given over work currently in progress in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory which aim towards 'best estimate codes'. The new methods will be verified by means of the HDR-blowdown tests and other experiments. The results of several scoping calculations are presented and illustrated by movie films. (orig.) [de

  3. Method for remote diagnostics of the internal structure of layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lychagov, V V; Kal'yanov, A L; Ryabukho, V P; Lyakin, D V

    2008-01-01

    The method of autocorrelation low coherence interferometry is proposed for diagnostics of inhomogeneities and the internal structure of layered technical and biological samples. In this method the low coherence optical field reflected from the layered sample is analysed by using a Michelson interferometer. Because the object is outside the interferometer, the distance between the interferometer and the object under study is not limited and thus the object can move during the measurements. Theoretical substantiation of the autocorrelation method for media with discrete and continuous optical structure modifications is presented. (special issue devoted to application of laser technologies in biophotonics and biomedical studies)

  4. THE MECHANISM OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE TRANSFORMATION IN INNOVATION COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia S. Leontieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout article authors give algorithm of organizational culture diagnostic testing of the Hyundai Glovis Russia company, features and difficulties of her cross-cultural environment. Within research the corporate culture and history of the Hyundai Glovis Russia company is analysed. Besides, systems of norms, values and behavior models of the Korean and Russian personnel, and also set of forms of interaction between them are compared. The structural model of transformation of cultural distinctions in competitive advantages of the international enterprise structures is developed.

  5. Co-ordination of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricard-McCutchan, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dimitriou, P. [Intl Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Nichols, A. L. [Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-01

    The 21st meeting of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators was convened at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, from 20 to 24 April 2015 under the auspices of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. This meeting was attended by 36 scientists from 15 Member States, plus IAEA staff, concerned with the compilation, evaluation and dissemination of nuclear structure and decay data. A summary of the meeting, data centre reports, various proposals considered, and actions agreed by the participants, as well as recommendations/conclusions are presented within this document.

  6. Production structure and international competition position of the German environmental protection economy; Produktionsstruktur und internationale Wettbewerbsposition der deutschen Umweltschutzwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legler, Harald; Schasse, Ulrich [Niedersaechsisches Institut fuer Wirtschaftsforschung e.V., Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    There exists a connection between the economic structural orientation and international competitiveness on the one hand as well as the environmental political requirements on the other hand. The environmental protection economy fits quite well the profile that Germany is demanded in the international change. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the production structure and on the international competition position of the German environmental protection economy. The authors report on (a) the production structure and production dynamics of the environmental protection industry; (b) German environmental protection economy in the international comparison; (c) Goods, building works and services for environmental protection in Germany.

  7. Rural settlements transition (RST) in a suburban area of metropolis: Internal structure perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wenqiu; Jiang, Guanghui; Wang, Deqi; Li, Wenqing; Guo, Hongquan; Zheng, Qiuyue

    2018-02-15

    Rural settlements transition (RST) is one of the most significant indices for understanding the phenomena of rural reconstruction and urban-rural transformation in China. However, a systematic overview of RST is missing, and there is a lack of evidence regarding its characteristics from the internal structure perspectives. In this paper, we systematically explore the RST regarding spatio-temporal change characteristics of internal structure, patterns and impacts on rural environment and development by using practical survey internal land-use data from 2005 to 2015. The results show that the temporal change characteristics of the internal structure of rural settlements demonstrate a tendency for housing land to decrease and other land-use types to increase. The spatial change characteristics reveal that the structure inclines to more complexity and diversity from an exurban area to an urban-rural fringe area. Based on this finding, we identify that rapid development of rural industrialization, more agglomerate and effective industrial land-use, and improved public infrastructure construction are the general RST patterns. Spatially, there exists a physical decay pattern in the exurban area, thereby resulting in the hollowing-out of rural industries and of the population. In addition, the extensive and disorderly pattern in the suburban area causes low efficiency output and serious environmental pollution. The RST pattern in the urban hinterland promoted the "men-environment" compatible development. The study concludes that regional differentiation in patterns and impacts are significant in the process of RST. Future adaptive strategies for rural settlements adjustment should be conducted according to regional characteristics, including socio-economic status, physical geography condition and economic location to improve the rural environmental sustainability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A Structural Equation Model: India’s International Tourism Demand for Tourist Destination

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rangaswamy; Chukiat Chaiboonsri; Prasert Chaitip

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8) was used to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations (travel cost satisfaction) and tourist destination (tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management). A survey containing Likert-type scales was used in collecting data from 100 international tourists who had traveled to India. Using factor analysis, dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourism product, t...

  9. The 16th International Conference on X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwaldt, J.-D.; Hagelstein, M.; Rothe, J.

    2016-05-01

    This preface of the proceedings volume of the 16th International Conference on X- ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS16) gives a glance on the five days of cutting-edge X-ray science which were held in Karlsruhe, Germany, August 23 - 28, 2015. In addition, several satellite meetings took place in Hamburg, Berlin and Stuttgart, a Sino-German workshop, three data analysis tutorials as well as special symposia on industrial catalysis and XFELs were held at the conference venue.

  10. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  11. EFFECT OF DEXTRAN-graft-POLYACRYLAMIDE INTERNAL STRUCTURE ON FLOCCULATION PROCESS PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezugla, T.; Kutsevol, N.; Shyichuk, A.; Ziolkowska, D.

    2008-01-01

    Dextran-graft-Polyacrylamide copolymers (D-g-PAA) of brush-like architecture were tested as flocculation aids in the model kaolin suspensions. Due to expanded conformation the D-g-PAA copolymers are more effective flocculants than individual PAA with close molecular mass. The internal structure of D-g-PAA copolymers which is determined by number and length of grafted PAA chains, the distance between grafts, etc., has the significant influence on flocculation behavior of such polymers

  12. Learning about the internal structure of categories through classification and feature inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Benjamin D; Wiley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research on category learning has found that classification tasks produce representations that are skewed toward diagnostic feature dimensions, whereas feature inference tasks lead to richer representations of within-category structure. Yet, prior studies often measure category knowledge through tasks that involve identifying only the typical features of a category. This neglects an important aspect of a category's internal structure: how typical and atypical features are distributed within a category. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that inference learning results in richer knowledge of internal category structure than classification learning. We introduced several new measures to probe learners' representations of within-category structure. Experiment 1 found that participants in the inference condition learned and used a wider range of feature dimensions than classification learners. Classification learners, however, were more sensitive to the presence of atypical features within categories. Experiment 2 provided converging evidence that classification learners were more likely to incorporate atypical features into their representations. Inference learners were less likely to encode atypical category features, even in a "partial inference" condition that focused learners' attention on the feature dimensions relevant to classification. Overall, these results are contrary to the hypothesis that inference learning produces superior knowledge of within-category structure. Although inference learning promoted representations that included a broad range of category-typical features, classification learning promoted greater sensitivity to the distribution of typical and atypical features within categories.

  13. Engineering the internal structure of magnetic silica nanoparticles by thermal control

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min; Zink, Jeffrey I.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2014-01-01

    Calcination of hydrated iron salts in the pores of both spherical and rod-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs) changes the internal structure from an ordered 2D hexagonal structure into a smaller number of large voids in the particles with sizes ranging from large hollow cores down to ten nanometer voids. The voids only form when the heating rate is rapid at a rate of 30 °C min-1. The sizes of the voids are controlled reproducibly by the final calcination temperature; as the temperature is decreased the number of voids decreases as their size increases. The phase of the iron oxide NPs is α-Fe2O3 when annealed at 500 °C, and Fe3O4 when annealed at lower temperatures. The water molecules in the hydrated iron (III) chloride precursor salts appear to play important roles by hydrolyzing Si-O-Si bonding, and the resulting silanol is mobile enough to affect the reconstruction into the framed hollow structures at high temperature. Along with hexahydrates, trivalent Fe3+ ions are assumed to contribute to the structure disruption of mesoporous silica by replacing tetrahedral Si4+ ions and making Fe-O-Si bonding. Volume fraction tomography images generated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images enable precise visualization of the structures. These results provide a controllable method of engineering the internal shapes in silica matrices containing superparamagnetic NPs.

  14. Engineering the internal structure of magnetic silica nanoparticles by thermal control

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Hyon Min

    2014-09-30

    Calcination of hydrated iron salts in the pores of both spherical and rod-shaped mesoporous silica nanoparticles (NPs) changes the internal structure from an ordered 2D hexagonal structure into a smaller number of large voids in the particles with sizes ranging from large hollow cores down to ten nanometer voids. The voids only form when the heating rate is rapid at a rate of 30 °C min-1. The sizes of the voids are controlled reproducibly by the final calcination temperature; as the temperature is decreased the number of voids decreases as their size increases. The phase of the iron oxide NPs is α-Fe2O3 when annealed at 500 °C, and Fe3O4 when annealed at lower temperatures. The water molecules in the hydrated iron (III) chloride precursor salts appear to play important roles by hydrolyzing Si-O-Si bonding, and the resulting silanol is mobile enough to affect the reconstruction into the framed hollow structures at high temperature. Along with hexahydrates, trivalent Fe3+ ions are assumed to contribute to the structure disruption of mesoporous silica by replacing tetrahedral Si4+ ions and making Fe-O-Si bonding. Volume fraction tomography images generated from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images enable precise visualization of the structures. These results provide a controllable method of engineering the internal shapes in silica matrices containing superparamagnetic NPs.

  15. 46 CFR 71.50-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., underwater survey, and alternate hull exam intervals. 71.50-3 Section 71.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD...-3 Drydock examination, internal structural examination, underwater survey, and alternate hull exam... wooden hulls must undergo two drydock and two internal structural examinations within any five year...

  16. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  17. Anatomic breast coordinate system for mammogram analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal; Brandt, S.; Karssemeijer, N.

    2011-01-01

    was represented by geodesic distance (s) from nipple and parametric angle (¿) as shown in figure 1. The scoring technique called MTR (mammographic texture resemblance marker) used this breast coordinate system to extract Gaussian derivative features. The features extracted using the (x,y) and the curve......Purpose Many researchers have investigated measures also other than density in the mammogram such as measures based on texture to improve breast cancer risk assessment. However, parenchymal texture characteristics are highly dependent on the orientation of vasculature structure and fibrous tissue...... methodologies as seen from table 2 in given temporal study. Conclusion The curve-linear anatomical breast coordinate system facilitated computerized analysis of mammograms. The proposed coordinate system slightly improved the risk segregation by Mammographic Texture Resemblance and minimized the geometrical...

  18. Research into the Energy Output of Asymmetric Cylindrical Structure under Internal Explosion Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Ding

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The energy output characteristic of an asymmetric cylindrical structure under internal explosion loading has significant research value in the field of the national defense industry. This paper took the D-shaped structure as the research object. Three groups of experiments (D-90°, D-120°, D-150° were carried out. The D-shaped structure showed that fragments are concentrated in the middle and are sparse on both sides. Moreover, the fragment density decreased with the increase of the azimuth angle. The fragment velocities, which were measured from high-speed photography and an oscilloscope, coincided well with each other, and decreased with an increase in the central angle. Compared with the cylindrical structure, the fragment energy gain of the D-shaped structure is significant; the total energy and energy density of the three D-shaped structures were very close to each other. This indicates that D-120° is the optimal solution among the three D-shaped structures and it can provide guidance for the future design of D-shaped structures to achieve higher energy output.

  19. Implementation of the international structure for decommissioning costing; examples and related IAEA projects - 59313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniska, Vladimir; Laraia, Michele; O'Sullivan, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In 1999, IAEA, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the European Commission jointly proposed the standardised listing of decommissioning activities [1] to serve as a general basis for presentation of decommissioning costs and for promoting the harmonisation in decommissioning costing. The standardised listing of activities [1] was developed in three hierarchical levels based on analysis of typical decommissioning activities identified in various decommissioning projects. The structure [1] has been currently updated by the same organisations as the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing (ISDC) based on the experience gained over ten years of use of the original standardised listing [2]. First part of the paper presents the revised ISDC. The principle of the three-level original hierarchical structure has been preserved. Re-definition of the content and re-structuring was done to avoid ambiguity and to ensure comprehensiveness. Paper presents two basic approaches for implementation of the ISDC structure in costing - converting the cost data available in specific cost structures, mostly according the work breakdown structures of decommissioning projects into ISDC and implementation of the ISDC as the cost calculation structure. Examples of the second approach are given to show that this approach is feasible and may have several advantages. An ORACLE based costing model with implemented of the extended ISDC for detailed costing and an Excel based costing model for preliminary costing at IAEA for research reactors are given. (authors)

  20. What Is the "International" in the International Baccalaureate?: Three Structuring Tensions of the Early Years (1962-1973)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarc, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) emerged in the 1960s after a significant demand arose for an internationally recognized secondary school-leaving diploma among a subset of the international school community. In tension with the practical demands of producing and sustaining a mobile diploma were underlying liberal-humanist visions of a…

  1. Operational feedback on internal structure vibration in 54 French PWRs during 300 fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trenty, A.

    1995-01-01

    EDF has acquired extensive feedback on vibration of reactor vessel internals by analysing ex-core neutron noise on its 54 pressurized water reactors during the course of over 300 fuel cycles. This feedback has been built up by processing more than 3,000 vibratory signatures acquired since the startup of its reactors. These signatures are now centralized for the whole of France in the ''SINBAD'' data base. Signature processing has enabled: distinguishing between mechanical phenomena and signature variation linked to unit operation: in particular, the impact on signature level of unit operating parameters such as initial fuel enrichment and burn-up rate was assessed; among the purely mechanical phenomena, pointing up slight changes in position of vessel internals and the first signs of structural wear; relaxation (in the hold-down spring and fuel rod assemblies) and wear on surfaces of contact between internals and reactor vessel were detected; lastly and most importantly, automatic recognition of the various types of vibratory behavior of internals. It was consequently possible to draw up user requirement specifications for automated monitoring of internals, which should soon be integrated in PSAD, a system which groups several reactor monitoring functions. (author)

  2. Impact simulation in the gravity regime: Exploring the effects of parent body size and internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavidez, P. G.; Durda, D. D.; Enke, B.; Bagatin, A. Campo; Richardson, D. C.; Asphaug, E.; Bottke, W. F.

    2018-04-01

    In this work we extend the systematic investigation of impact outcomes of 100-km-diameter targets started by Durda et al. (2007) and Benavidez et al. (2012) to targets of D = 400 km using the same range of impact conditions and two internal structures: monolithic and rubble-pile. We performed a new set of simulations in the gravity regime for targets of 400 km in diameter using these same internal structures. This provides a large set of 600 simulations performed in a systematic way that permits a thorough analysis of the impact outcomes and evaluation of the main features of the size frequency distribution due mostly to self-gravity. In addition, we use the impact outcomes to attempt to constrain the impact conditions of the asteroid belt where known asteroid families with a large expected parent body were formed. We have found fairly good matches for the Eunomia and Hygiea families. In addition, we identified a potential acceptable match to the Vesta family from a monolithic parent body of 468 km. The impact conditions of the best matches suggest that these families were formed in a dynamically excited belt. The results also suggest that the parent body of the Eunomia family could be a monolithic body of 382 km diameter, while the one for Hygiea could have a rubble-pile internal structure of 416 km diameter.

  3. Proceedings of the 17th international conference on structural mechanics in reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The conference was divided into the following divisions and subdivisions: DIVISION A: Plenary lectures and panel; DIVISION B: Computational mechanics (Structural and thermal analysis; High-non linear analysis, material behaviour; Vibration and fluid dynamics analysis); DIVISION C: Fuel and core structures (Fuel vibration and fretting; Fuel design and constitutive modelling; Fuel failure under operation and accident conditions; Fuel failure under operation and accident conditions; Components and material behaviour under irradiation; Integrity of fuel systems under transient conditions); DIVISION D: Aging, Life Extension and Licence Renewal (International Regulatory and Economic Perspectives; Utility perspectives, WWER technology; Fatigue, corrosion and crack issues; Component integrity; Aging assessment and monitoring; Containment and other structures); DIVISION F: Design methods and rules for components (International codes and standards; Tube, piping codes and standards; Analyses; Fatigue and life assessment; Creep; Bolted connections and gaskets); DIVISION G: Fracture mechanics (Reactor pressure vessel integrity; Dynamic loading; Fracture considerations for various applications; Failure assessment of Zr alloy; Pipe integrity; Integrity of welds; Failure of non-metallic materials; Leak before break (LBB); Corrosion aspects); DIVISION H: Concrete Containment and Other Structures (Concrete materials and performance; Tests of scale prestressed concrete containment vessel; Shear wall test and analysis; Structural analysis and containment design; Structural integrity and analysis); DIVISION J: Analysis and design for dynamic and extreme load (Vibration of shells and plates; Impact analysis; Piping vibration; Structural dynamics; Experimental and other topics); DIVISION K: Seismic analysis, design and qualification (General seismic issues; Ground motion and sitting; Soil-structure interaction; Seismic response of structures; Seismic re-evaluation; Seismic response and

  4. Anatomical contributions to plant taxonomy II. The affinities of Hua Pierre and Afrostyrax Perkins et Gilg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, P.

    1972-01-01

    Vegetative anatomy, fruit and seed structure, and pollen morphology of Hua and Afrostyrax (tropical West and Central Africa) are described in detail. The two genera have many anatomical characters in common (see anatomical family diagnosis on p. 182) but are sufficiently different from other

  5. Structural-phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarenko, Victor A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The vocational activities of doctors and their social status do not ensure their health. And, falling ill, doctors don’t identify themselves with ordinary patients as they have a deep knowledge of medicine. Thus, the internal picture of a doctor’s illness is both a research and a practical problem: the problem of the psychoprevention of doctors’ illnesses at all stages of their professionalization. The purpose of the research was to study the phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses using the structural approach. The total number of participants was 132. The experimental group consisted of 66 sick doctors, differentiated according to their stage of professionalization: vocational training (students, professional adaptation (interns, full professionalization (doctors. The control group consisted of 66 people who did not have any medical education. All the control subjects were hospitalized with chronic diseases during the study period. The organization of the research was carried out with the use of clinical-psychological and diagnostic methods, the methods of descriptive statistics, and comparative, multidimensional, and structural analysis. The research revealed the following phenomenological features of the internal picture of doctors’ illnesses: the prevalence of some anxiety in the doctors and high awareness of their health; the doctors’ altruistic orientation; their willingness to work despite difficulties; and their ability to achieve high results in different activities. The structural features of the doctors’ image of their own diseases on the cognitive level were the following: qualitative heterogeneity during in-service activities; a high degree of image integration during in-service activities; and stereotyped perceptions of the disease. The emotional level revealed the emotional distance between doctors and their patients, and the behavioral level revealed doctors’ disregard for the

  6. Lining up device for the internal structures of a nuclear reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverblatt, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    The invention concerns a nuclear reactor of the type with a vessel, a vessel head carried at the top of this vessel by a core cylinder comprising a flange internally supported by the vessel, and an upper support structure supported between the core cylinder flange and the vessel head to align laterally the head, vessel, flange and support structure. A bottom key device is provided for lining up the flange, support structure and vessel, and an upper key device for laterally lining up support structure and the vessel head and for maintaining this alignment when they are removed simultaneously from the core cylinder and vessel. When re-assembling the reactor, the top support structure and the vessel head are lowered simultaneously so that an opening in the top alignment structure engages in the upper extension of the bottom alignment structure. A plurality of alignment stuctures may be utilised round the circumference of the reactor vessel. The disposition of the invention also facilitates the removal of the core cylinder from the reactor vessel. In this way, the alignment on re-assembly is ensured by the re-entry of the bottom extension under the flange of the core cylinder with the groove or keyway of the reactor vessel [fr

  7. Distribution and structure of internal secretory reservoirs on the vegetative organs of Inula helenium L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Sulborska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the structure and topography of endogenous secretory tissues of Inula helenium L. By using light and electron microscopy, morphological and anatomical observations of stems, leaves and rhizomes were made. It was shown that in the stems secretory cavities were situated in the vicinity of phloem and xylem bundles. The number of the reservoirs reached its maximum value (34 at shoot flowerig termination, whereas the cavities with the largest diameter were observed at full flowering stage (44.6 µm. In the leaf petioles and midribs, the reservoirs also accompanied the vascular bundles, and their number and size increased along with the growth of the assimilation organs. Observations of the cross sections of the rhizomes revealed the presence of several rings of secretory reservoirs. The measurements of the cavities showed that as a rule the reservoirs with a larger dimension were located in the phelloderm, whereas the smallest ones in the xylem area. The secretory cavities located in the stems and leaves developed by schizogenesis, whereas the rhizome reservoirs were probably formed schizolisygenously. The cells lining the reservoirs formed a one - four-layered epithelium. Observed in TEM, the secretory cells of the mature cavities located in the rhizomes were characterised by the presence of a large central vacuole, whereas the protoplast was largely degraded. Fibrous elements of osmophilic secretion and numerous different coloured vesicles could be distinguished in it. The cell walls formed, from the side of the reservoir lumen, ingrowths into the interior of the epithelial cells. Between the cell wall and the plasmalemma of the glandular cells, a brighter periplasmatic zone with secretory vesicles was observed.

  8. Feature-based morphometry: discovering group-related anatomical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Matthew; Wells, William; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents feature-based morphometry (FBM), a new fully data-driven technique for discovering patterns of group-related anatomical structure in volumetric imagery. In contrast to most morphometry methods which assume one-to-one correspondence between subjects, FBM explicitly aims to identify distinctive anatomical patterns that may only be present in subsets of subjects, due to disease or anatomical variability. The image is modeled as a collage of generic, localized image features that need not be present in all subjects. Scale-space theory is applied to analyze image features at the characteristic scale of underlying anatomical structures, instead of at arbitrary scales such as global or voxel-level. A probabilistic model describes features in terms of their appearance, geometry, and relationship to subject groups, and is automatically learned from a set of subject images and group labels. Features resulting from learning correspond to group-related anatomical structures that can potentially be used as image biomarkers of disease or as a basis for computer-aided diagnosis. The relationship between features and groups is quantified by the likelihood of feature occurrence within a specific group vs. the rest of the population, and feature significance is quantified in terms of the false discovery rate. Experiments validate FBM clinically in the analysis of normal (NC) and Alzheimer's (AD) brain images using the freely available OASIS database. FBM automatically identifies known structural differences between NC and AD subjects in a fully data-driven fashion, and an equal error classification rate of 0.80 is achieved for subjects aged 60-80 years exhibiting mild AD (CDR=1). Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Internal Structural Design of the Common Research Model Wing Box for Aeroelastic Tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Christine V.; Stanford, Bret K.; Wieseman, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    This work explores the use of alternative internal structural designs within a full-scale wing box structure for aeroelastic tailoring, with a focus on curvilinear spars, ribs, and stringers. The baseline wing model is a fully-populated, cantilevered wing box structure of the Common Research Model (CRM). Metrics of interest include the wing weight, the onset of dynamic flutter, and the static aeroelastic stresses. Twelve parametric studies alter the number of internal structural members along with their location, orientation, and curvature. Additional evaluation metrics are considered to identify design trends that lead to lighter-weight, aeroelastically stable wing designs. The best designs of the individual studies are compared and discussed, with a focus on weight reduction and flutter resistance. The largest weight reductions were obtained by removing the inner spar, and performance was maintained by shifting stringers forward and/or using curvilinear ribs: 5.6% weight reduction, a 13.9% improvement in flutter speed, but a 3.0% increase in stress levels. Flutter resistance was also maintained using straight-rotated ribs although the design had a 4.2% lower flutter speed than the curved ribs of similar weight and stress levels were higher. For some configurations, the differences between curved and straight ribs were smaller, which provides motivation for future optimization-based studies to fully exploit the trade-offs.

  10. Internal Stress Monitoring of In-Service Structural Steel Members with Ultrasonic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuohua; He, Jingbo; Teng, Jun; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Internal stress in structural steel members is an important parameter for steel structures in their design, construction, and service stages. However, it is hard to measure via traditional approaches. Among the existing non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, the ultrasonic method has received the most research attention. Longitudinal critically refracted (Lcr) waves, which propagate parallel to the surface of the material within an effective depth, have shown great potential as an effective stress measurement approach. This paper presents a systematic non-destructive evaluation method to determine the internal stress in in-service structural steel members using Lcr waves. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, a stress evaluation formula is derived. Factor of stress to acoustic time difference is used to describe the relationship between stress and measurable acoustic results. A testing facility is developed and used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Two steel members are measured by using the proposed method and the traditional strain gauge method for verification. Parametric studies are performed on three steel members and the aluminum plate to investigate the factors that influence the testing results. The results show that the proposed method is effective and accurate for determining stress in in-service structural steel members. PMID:28773347

  11. Internal Stress Monitoring of In-Service Structural Steel Members with Ultrasonic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuohua; He, Jingbo; Teng, Jun; Wang, Ying

    2016-03-23

    Internal stress in structural steel members is an important parameter for steel structures in their design, construction, and service stages. However, it is hard to measure via traditional approaches. Among the existing non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, the ultrasonic method has received the most research attention. Longitudinal critically refracted (Lcr) waves, which propagate parallel to the surface of the material within an effective depth, have shown great potential as an effective stress measurement approach. This paper presents a systematic non-destructive evaluation method to determine the internal stress in in-service structural steel members using Lcr waves. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, a stress evaluation formula is derived. Factor of stress to acoustic time difference is used to describe the relationship between stress and measurable acoustic results. A testing facility is developed and used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. Two steel members are measured by using the proposed method and the traditional strain gauge method for verification. Parametric studies are performed on three steel members and the aluminum plate to investigate the factors that influence the testing results. The results show that the proposed method is effective and accurate for determining stress in in-service structural steel members.

  12. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Červený, Č.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs

  13. Anatomical characteristics of the ossa sesamoidea phalangis proximalis in cattle (Bos primigenius f. taurus Linné 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Červený, Č. [Vysoka Skola Veterinarni, Brno, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1985-06-15

    The anatomical structure and radiography of the sesamoid bones of the proximal phalanges of cattle digits were studied on osteological material and radiograms of 18 cows and 5 bulls. On the basis of detailed anatomical description, a list of new anatomical names for important anatomical formations was proposed in order to complete the anatomical nomenclature and to provide better orientation on the bones as well as a more precise description of the different bones and determine their origin from the respective digits and/or the left or right thoratic or pelvic limbs.

  14. Contribution of SELENE-2 geodetic measurements to constrain the lunar internal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, K.; Kikuchi, F.; Yamada, R.; Iwata, T.; Kono, Y.; Tsuruta, S.; Hanada, H.; Goossens, S. J.; Ishihara, Y.; Kamata, S.; Sasaki, S.

    2012-12-01

    Internal structure and composition of the Moon provide important clue and constraints on theories for how the Moon formed and evolved. The Apollo seismic network has contributed to the internal structure modeling. Efforts have been made to detect the lunar core from the noisy Apollo data (e.g., [1], [2]), but there is scant information about the structure below the deepest moonquakes at about 1000 km depth. On the other hand, there have been geodetic studies to infer the deep structure of the Moon. For example, LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) data analyses detected a displacement of the lunar pole of rotation, indicating that dissipation is acting on the rotation arising from a fluid core [3]. Bayesian inversion using geodetic data (such as mass, moments of inertia, tidal Love numbers k2 and h2, and quality factor Q) also suggests a fluid core and partial melt in the lower mantle region [4]. Further improvements in determining the second-degree gravity coefficients (which will lead to better estimates of moments of inertia) and the Love number k2 will help us to better constrain the lunar internal structure. Differential VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique, which was used in the Japanese lunar exploration mission SELENE (Sept. 2007 - June 2009), is expected to contribute to better determining the second-degree potential Love number k2 and low-degree gravity coefficients. SELENE will be followed by the future lunar mission SELENE-2 which will carry both a lander and an orbiter. We propose to put the SELENE-type radio sources on these spacecraft in order to accurately estimate k2 and the low-degree gravity coefficients. By using the same-beam VLBI tracking technique, these parameters will be retrieved through precision orbit determination of the orbiter with respect to the lander which serves as a reference. The VLBI mission with the radio sources is currently one of the mission candidates for SELENE-2. We have conducted a preliminary simulation study on the

  15. [Position of health at international relations. Part I. Structural dimensions of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2011-01-01

    In the article, the health is perceived as complex, multidimensional concept and not as absence of disease. This is consistent with public health perspective, where public health is regarded as public as well as political activity. It aims to solve health and social problems, depends on analysis of phenomena, needs the negotiations and relies on making decision on feasible directions of changes--what, why, how, where, when and by whom should be done. Public health policy developed as a result of international relations, and UN family fora especially, is regarded as significant for creating of health position. The aim of this article was: (1) the analysis of selected concepts and definitions related to structural dimensions of health, used in UN international arrangements; (2) an attempt to explain the evolution of health structure notions at worldwide agenda. The UN main bodies, programmes and funds working on the health field are mentioned and voting rules in UN General Assembly and World Health Assembly are reminded. The following structural dimensions were considered: (a) well-being, (b) human rights, (c) everyday resource, health potential, (4) equity. All were explored in WHO Constitution, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and numerous WHA and UN GA resolutions, decisions as well as other documents. Some remarkable differences in English and Polish language versions and meanings were pointed out. It was argued that present perception of structural dimension of health is strongly derived from the preamble of the WHO Constitution adopted and signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States. It is an evidence of the strength of this document and wisdom of its authors. The greater progress is associated. with concepts and notion of organizational dimensions of health perceived as action and processes leading to health. Long-term efforts to strengthen

  16. 3D reconstruction of internal structure of animal body using near-infrared light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung Nghia; Yamamoto, Kohei; Namita, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Shimizu, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    To realize three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging of the internal structure of animal body, we have developed a new technique to reconstruct CT images from two-dimensional (2D) transillumination images. In transillumination imaging, the image is blurred due to the strong scattering in the tissue. We had developed a scattering suppression technique using the point spread function (PSF) for a fluorescent light source in the body. In this study, we have newly proposed a technique to apply this PSF for a light source to the image of unknown light-absorbing structure. The effectiveness of the proposed technique was examined in the experiments with a model phantom and a mouse. In the phantom experiment, the absorbers were placed in the tissue-equivalent medium to simulate the light-absorbing organs in mouse body. Near-infrared light was illuminated from one side of the phantom and the image was recorded with CMOS camera from another side. Using the proposed techniques, the scattering effect was efficiently suppressed and the absorbing structure can be visualized in the 2D transillumination image. Using the 2D images obtained in many different orientations, we could reconstruct the 3D image. In the mouse experiment, an anesthetized mouse was held in an acrylic cylindrical holder. We can visualize the internal organs such as kidneys through mouse's abdomen using the proposed technique. The 3D image of the kidneys and a part of the liver were reconstructed. Through these experimental studies, the feasibility of practical 3D imaging of the internal light-absorbing structure of a small animal was verified.

  17. Advertising cadavers in the republic of letters: anatomical publications in the early modern Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margócsy, Dániel

    2009-06-01

    This paper sketches how late seventeenth-century Dutch anatomists used printed publications to advertise their anatomical preparations, inventions and instructional technologies to an international clientele. It focuses on anatomists Frederik Ruysch (1638-1732) and Lodewijk de Bils (1624-69), inventors of two separate anatomical preparation methods for preserving cadavers and body parts in a lifelike state for decades or centuries. Ruysch's and de Bils's publications functioned as an 'advertisement' for their preparations. These printed volumes informed potential customers that anatomical preparations were aesthetically pleasing and scientifically important but did not divulge the trade secrets of the method of production. Thanks to this strategy of non-disclosure and advertisement, de Bils and Ruysch could create a well-working monopoly market of anatomical preparations. The 'advertising' rhetorics of anatomical publications highlight the potential dangers of equating the growth of print culture with the development of an open system of knowledge exchange.

  18. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi [Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Sánchez, Diego Paul [Senior Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Scheeres, Daniel J., E-mail: masatoshi.hirabayashi@colorado.edu [Richard Seebass Chair, Professor, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

  19. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Sánchez, Diego Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode

  20. Low-Frequency Internal Friction Study on the Structural Changes in Polymer Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Bang, Wu; Qiao-Ling, Xu; Shu-Ying, Shang; Jia-Peng, Shui; Chang-Song, Liu; Zhen-Gang, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    With the help of the low-frequency internal friction method, we investigate the structural properties of polymer melts, such as amorphous polystyrene (PS), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and semi-crystalline poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). An obvious peak of relaxation type is found in each of the internal friction curves. The peak temperature T p follows the relation T p ≈ (1.15 – 1.18) T g for PS and PMMA melts, while it follows T p ≈ 1.22T m for PEO melt, with T g being the glass transition temperature and T m the melting temperature. Based on the analysis of the features of this peak, it is found that this peak is related to the liquid-liquid transition temperature T u of polymer melts. Mechanism of the liquid-liquid transition is suggested to be thermally-activated collective relaxation through cooperation. This finding may be helpful to understand the structural changes in polymer melts. In addition, the internal friction technique proves to be effective in studying dynamics in polymer melts

  1. Identifying the community structure of the food-trade international multi-network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreggiani, S.; Mangioni, G.; Puma, M. J.; Fagiolo, G.

    2018-05-01

    Achieving international food security requires improved understanding of how international trade networks connect countries around the world through the import-export flows of food commodities. The properties of international food trade networks are still poorly documented, especially from a multi-network perspective. In particular, nothing is known about the multi-network’s community structure. Here we find that the individual crop-specific layers of the multi-network have densely connected trading groups, a consistent characteristic over the period 2001–2011. Further, the multi-network is characterized by low variability over this period but with substantial heterogeneity across layers in each year. In particular, the layers are mostly assortative: more-intensively connected countries tend to import from and export to countries that are themselves more connected. We also fit econometric models to identify social, economic and geographic factors explaining the probability that any two countries are co-present in the same community. Our estimates indicate that the probability of country pairs belonging to the same food trade community depends more on geopolitical and economic factors—such as geographical proximity and trade-agreement co-membership—than on country economic size and/or income. These community-structure findings of the multi-network are especially valuable for efforts to understand past and emerging dynamics in the global food system, especially those that examine potential ‘shocks’ to global food trade.

  2. The aims and activities of the International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Tuli, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    The International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) experts consists of a number of evaluation groups and data service centres in several countries that appreciate the merits of working together to maintain and ensure the quality and comprehensive content of the ENSDF database (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). Biennial meetings of the network are held under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assign evaluation responsibilities, monitor progress, discuss improvements and emerging difficulties, and agree on actions to be undertaken by individual members. The evaluated data and bibliographic details are made available to users via various media, such as the journals Nuclear Physics A and Nuclear Data Sheets, the World Wide Web, on CD-Rom, wall charts of the nuclides and Nuclear Wallet Cards. While the ENSDF master database is maintained by the US National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, these data are also available from other nuclear data centres including the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, in cooperation with the IAEA, organizes workshops on NSDD at regular intervals. The primary aims of these particular workshops are to provide hands-on training in the data evaluation processes, and to encourage new experts to participate in NSDD activities. The technical contents of these NSDD workshops are described, along with the rationale for the inclusion of various topics. (authors)

  3. Homogenization of the internal structures of a reactor with the cooling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbe, M.F. [CEA Saclay, SEMT, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Bliard, F. [Socotec Industrie, Service AME, 78 - Montigny le Bretonneux (France)

    2001-07-01

    To take into account the influence of a structure net among a fluid flow, without modelling exactly the structure shape, a concept of ''equivalent porosity method'' was developed. The structures are considered as solid pores inside the fluid. The structure presence is represented by three parameters: a porosity, a shape coefficient and a pressure loss coefficient. The method was studied for an Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor, but it can be applied to any problem involving fluid flow getting through a solid net. The model was implemented in the computer code CASTEM-PLEXUS and validated on an analytical shock tube test, simulating an horizontal slice of a schematic LMFBR in case of a HCDA (bubble at high pressure, liquid sodium and internal structures of the reactor). A short parametric study shows the influence of the porosity and the structure shape on the pressure wave impacting the shock tube bottom. These results were used to simulate numerically the HCDA mechanical effects in a small scale reactor mock-up. (author)

  4. Homogenization of the internal structures of a reactor with the cooling fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Bliard, F.

    2001-01-01

    To take into account the influence of a structure net among a fluid flow, without modelling exactly the structure shape, a concept of ''equivalent porosity method'' was developed. The structures are considered as solid pores inside the fluid. The structure presence is represented by three parameters: a porosity, a shape coefficient and a pressure loss coefficient. The method was studied for an Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident in a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor, but it can be applied to any problem involving fluid flow getting through a solid net. The model was implemented in the computer code CASTEM-PLEXUS and validated on an analytical shock tube test, simulating an horizontal slice of a schematic LMFBR in case of a HCDA (bubble at high pressure, liquid sodium and internal structures of the reactor). A short parametric study shows the influence of the porosity and the structure shape on the pressure wave impacting the shock tube bottom. These results were used to simulate numerically the HCDA mechanical effects in a small scale reactor mock-up. (author)

  5. [Corneal transparency: anatomical basis and evaluation methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Narbut, M N

    Being just a relatively small part of the fibrous tunic of the eyeball, the cornea is, nevertheless, unique in terms of the variety of its functions. Because the cornea differs significantly from other protective frames in its structure, it provides the possibility of light transmission and strong refraction that largely contributes to the total refraction of the eye. The development of ophthalmology is impossible without improving methods of adequate anatomical and functional assessment of the eye not only as a whole, but also as a collection of interacting structures.In this regard, examination methods of the cornea have undergone significant advances in recent years. So far, the level of corneal transparency has been judged by biomicroscopy findings or indirect characteristics (thickness, structure, etc.). Confocal microscopy of the cornea and wave-based examinations involving one of the available laser interferometers (OCT or HRT) are also used. However, the data obtained with these methods resembles that of layer-specific reflectometry, i.e. the magnitude of directed reflection of the light beam from corneal corpuscles, which does not completely agree with the classical idea of transparency.

  6. The changing structure of the international oil industry: implications for OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, K.L.; )

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the changes in international oil market structure observed in the 1980s and early 1990s and assesses possible effects on oil market conditions in the future and implications for OPEC. It focuses on the trend toward a more vertical organization mainly resulting from substantial purchases of downstream assets by state owned oil companies in major oil producing countries. While the Gulf war prevented greater horizontal concentration of oil reserves, it merely interrupted the trend toward vertical concentration in the international oil industry. The vertical integration of only some of the OPEC members will cause a further divergence of goals within the organization resulting in a lower likelihood of OPEC regaining its former position as an effective cartel. If the trend toward greater vertical concentration increases, future oil prices will, in part, be affected by decisions made by vertically integrated firms. (author)

  7. Assessing motivation for work environment improvements: internal consistency, reliability and factorial structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Ann; Ateg, Mattias; Andersson, Ing-Marie; Rosén, Gunnar

    2010-04-01

    Workers' motivation to actively take part in improvements to the work environment is assumed to be important for the efficiency of investments for that purpose. That gives rise to the need for a tool to measure this motivation. A questionnaire to measure motivation for improvements to the work environment has been designed. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the domains of the questionnaire have been measured, and the factorial structure has been explored, from the answers of 113 employees. The internal consistency is high (0.94), as well as the correlation for the total score (0.84). Three factors are identified accounting for 61.6% of the total variance. The questionnaire can be a useful tool in improving intervention methods. The expectation is that the tool can be useful, particularly with the aim of improving efficiency of companies' investments for work environment improvements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural analysis of steam generator internals following feed water main steam line break: DLF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, Vivek; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possible release of radioactivity in extreme events, some postulated accidents are analysed and studied during the design stage of Steam Generator (SG). Among the various accidents postulated, the most important are Feed Water Line Break (FWLB) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB). This report concerns with dynamic structural analysis of SG internals following FWLB/MSLB. The pressure/drag-force time histories considered were corresponding to the conditions leading to the accident of maximum potential. The SG internals were analysed using two approaches of structural dynamics. In first approach simplified DLF method was adopted. This method yields an upper bound values of stresses and deflection. In the second approach time history analysis by Mode Superposition Technique was adopted. This approach gives more realistic results. The structure was qualified as per ASME B and PV Code SecIII NB. It was concluded that in all the components except perforated flow distribution plate, the stress values based on elastic analysis are within the limits specified by ASME Code. In case of perforated flow distribution plate during the MSLB transient the stress values based on elastic analysis are higher than the ASME Code limits. Therefore, its limit load analysis had to be done. Finally, the collapse pressure evaluated using limit load analysis was shown to be within the limits of ASME B and PV Code SecIII Nb. (author). 31 refs., 94 figs., 16 tabs

  9. Nonuniform Internal Structure of Fibrin Fibers: Protein Density and Bond Density Strongly Decrease with Increasing Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.

  10. Functional and structural changes in internal pudendal arteries underlie erectile dysfunction induced by androgen deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhéure Alves-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is strongly associated with erectile dysfunction (ED. Inadequate penile arterial blood flow is one of the major causes of ED. The blood flow to the corpus cavernosum is mainly derived from the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs; however, no study has evaluated the effects of androgen deprivation on IPA′s function. We hypothesized that castration impairs IPAs reactivity and structure, contributing to ED. In our study, Wistar male rats, 8-week-old, were castrated and studied 30 days after orchiectomy. Functional and structural properties of rat IPAs were determined using wire and pressure myograph systems, respectively. Protein expression was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Plasma testosterone levels were determined using the IMMULITE 1000 Immunoassay System. Castrated rats exhibited impaired erectile function, represented by decreased intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased phenylephrine- and electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contraction and decreased acetylcholine- and EFS-induced vasodilatation. IPAs from castrated rats exhibited decreased internal diameter, external diameter, thickness of the arterial wall, and cross-sectional area. Castration decreased nNOS and α-actin expression and increased collagen expression, p38 (Thr180/Tyr182 phosphorylation, as well as caspase 3 cleavage. In conclusion, androgen deficiency is associated with impairment of IPA reactivity and structure and increased apoptosis signaling markers. Our findings suggest that androgen deficiency-induced vascular dysfunction is an event involving hypotrophic vascular remodeling of IPAs.

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Magnetosheath jets: MMS observations of internal structures and jet interactions with ambient plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaschke, F.; Karlsson, T.; Hietala, H.; Archer, M. O.; Voros, Z.; Nakamura, R.; Magnes, W.; Baumjohann, W.; Torbert, R. B.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The dayside magnetosheath downstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock is commonly permeated by high-speed jets. Under low IMF cone angle conditions, large scale jets alone (with cross-sectional diameters of over 2 Earth radii) have been found to impact the subsolar magnetopause once every 6 minutes - smaller scale jets occurring much more frequently. The consequences of jet impacts on the magnetopause can be significant: they may trigger local reconnection and waves, alter radiation belt electron drift paths, disturb the geomagnetic field, and potentially generate diffuse throat aurora at the dayside ionosphere. Although some basic statistical properties of jets are well-established, their internal structure and interactions with the surrounding magnetosheath plasma are rather unknown. We present Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) observations which reveal a rich jet-internal structure of high-amplitude plasma moment and magnetic field variations and associated currents. These variations/structures are generally found to be in thermal and magnetic pressure balance; they mostly (but not always) convect with the plasma flow. Small velocity differences between plasma and structures are revealed via four-spacecraft timing analysis. Inside a jet core region, where the plasma velocity maximizes, structures are found to propagate forward (i.e., with the jet), whereas backward propagation is found outside that core region. Although super-magnetosonic flows are detected by MMS in the spacecraft frame of reference, no fast shock is seen as the jet plasma is sub-magnetosonic with respect to the ambient magnetosheath plasma. Instead, the fast jet plasma pushes ambient magnetosheath plasma ahead of the jet out of the way, possibly generating anomalous sunward flows in the vicinity, and modifies the magnetic field aligning it with the direction of jet propagation.

  13. Structural Features Facilitating Tumor Cell Targeting and Internalization by Bleomycin and Its Disaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We have shown previously that the bleomycin (BLM) carbohydrate moiety can recapitulate the tumor cell targeting effects of the entire BLM molecule, that BLM itself is modular in nature consisting of a DNA-cleaving aglycone which is delivered selectively to the interior of tumor cells by its carbohydrate moiety, and that there are disaccharides structurally related to the BLM disaccharide which are more efficient than the natural disaccharide at tumor cell targeting/uptake. Because BLM sugars can deliver molecular cargoes selectively to tumor cells, and thus potentially form the basis for a novel antitumor strategy, it seemed important to consider additional structural features capable of affecting the efficiency of tumor cell recognition and delivery. These included the effects of sugar polyvalency and net charge (at physiological pH) on tumor cell recognition, internalization, and trafficking. Since these parameters have been shown to affect cell surface recognition, internalization, and distribution in other contexts, this study has sought to define the effects of these structural features on tumor cell recognition by bleomycin and its disaccharide. We demonstrate that both can have a significant effect on tumor cell binding/internalization, and present data which suggests that the metal ions normally bound by bleomycin following clinical administration may significantly contribute to the efficiency of tumor cell uptake, in addition to their characterized function in DNA cleavage. A BLM disaccharide-Cy5** conjugate incorporating the positively charged dipeptide d-Lys-d-Lys was found to associate with both the mitochondria and the nuclear envelope of DU145 cells, suggesting possible cellular targets for BLM disaccharide–cytotoxin conjugates. PMID:25905565

  14. Structural features facilitating tumor cell targeting and internalization by bleomycin and its disaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiqiang; Paul, Rakesh; Bhattacharya, Chandrabali; Bozeman, Trevor C; Rishel, Michael J; Hecht, Sidney M

    2015-05-19

    We have shown previously that the bleomycin (BLM) carbohydrate moiety can recapitulate the tumor cell targeting effects of the entire BLM molecule, that BLM itself is modular in nature consisting of a DNA-cleaving aglycone which is delivered selectively to the interior of tumor cells by its carbohydrate moiety, and that there are disaccharides structurally related to the BLM disaccharide which are more efficient than the natural disaccharide at tumor cell targeting/uptake. Because BLM sugars can deliver molecular cargoes selectively to tumor cells, and thus potentially form the basis for a novel antitumor strategy, it seemed important to consider additional structural features capable of affecting the efficiency of tumor cell recognition and delivery. These included the effects of sugar polyvalency and net charge (at physiological pH) on tumor cell recognition, internalization, and trafficking. Since these parameters have been shown to affect cell surface recognition, internalization, and distribution in other contexts, this study has sought to define the effects of these structural features on tumor cell recognition by bleomycin and its disaccharide. We demonstrate that both can have a significant effect on tumor cell binding/internalization, and present data which suggests that the metal ions normally bound by bleomycin following clinical administration may significantly contribute to the efficiency of tumor cell uptake, in addition to their characterized function in DNA cleavage. A BLM disaccharide-Cy5** conjugate incorporating the positively charged dipeptide d-Lys-d-Lys was found to associate with both the mitochondria and the nuclear envelope of DU145 cells, suggesting possible cellular targets for BLM disaccharide-cytotoxin conjugates.

  15. The morphodynamics and internal structure of intertidal fine-gravel dunes: Hills Flats, Severn Estuary, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, P. A.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.; Williams, J. J.; Rumble, B.; Meshkova, L.; Bell, P.; Breakspear, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the macrotidal Severn estuary, UK, the dynamics of intertidal fine-gravel dunes were investigated. These dunes are migrating across a bedrock platform. Systematic observations were made of hydraulic climate, geometry, migration rates and internal sedimentary structures of the dunes. During spring tides, the ebb flow is dominant, dunes grow in height and have ebb orientated geometry with bedrock floors in the troughs. During neap tides, a weak flood flow may dominate. Dunes then are flood orientated or symmetrical. Neap dune heights decrease and the eroded sediment is stored in the dune troughs where the bedrock becomes blanketed by muddy gravel. During spring tides, instantaneous bed shear stresses reach 8 N m - 2 , sufficient to disrupt a 9 mm-gravel armour layer. However, a sustained bed shear stress of 4 N m - 2 is required to initiate dune migration at which time the critical depth-mean velocity is 1 m s - 1 . Ebb and flood inequalities in the bed shear stress explain the changes in dune asymmetry and internal structures. During flood tides, the crests of the dunes reverse such that very mobile sedimentary 'caps' overlie a more stable dune 'core'. Because ebb tides dominate, internal structures of the caps often are characterised by ebb orientated steep open-work foresets developed by strong tidal currents and some lower angle crossbeds deposited as weaker currents degrade foresets. The foresets forming the caps may be grouped into cosets (tidal bundles) and are separated from mud-infused cores of crossbeds that lie below, by reactivation and erosion surfaces blanketed by discontinuous mud drapes. The cores often exhibit distinctive muddy toe sets that define the spacing of tidal cosets.

  16. Terminologia anatomica in the past and the future from perspective of 110th anniversary of Polish Anatomical Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielecki, J; Zurada, A; Osman, N

    2008-05-01

    Professional terminology is commonplace, particularly in the fields of mathematics, medicine, veterinary and natural sciences. The use of the terminology can be international, as it is with Anatomical Terminology (AT). In the early age of modern education, anatomists adopted Latin as the international language for AT. However, at the end of the 20th century, the English language became more predominant around the world. It can be said that the AT is a specific collection of scientific terms. One of the major flaws in early AT was that body structures were described by varying names, while some of the terms was irrational in nature, and confusing. At this time, different international committees were working on preparing a unified final version of the AT, which in the end consisted of 5,640 terms (4,286 originally from the Basle Nomina Anatomica, BNA). Also, each country wanted to have its own nomenclature. In order to accomplish this, each country based their nomenclature on the international AT, and then translated it into their own language. The history of the Polish Anatomical Terminology (PAT) is unique, and follows the events of history. It was first published in 1898, at a time when its neighbours partitioned the territory of Poland. During 150 years, the Polish culture and language was under the Russification and Germanization policy. It is important to note, that even with such difficult circumstances, the PAT was the first national AT in the world. The PAT was a union of the accepted first BNA in Latin and the original Polish anatomical equivalents. This union formed the basis for theoretical and clinical medicine in Poland.

  17. Effect of water deficiency on anatomical structure of codex in root hair zone of maize root tip%水分亏缺对玉米根毛区皮层解剖结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于涛; 李万春; 汪李宏; 岳文俊; 马旭凤; 姚雅琴; 张富仓

    2011-01-01

    【Objective】 The research was to study the effect of water deficiency on anatomical structure of codex in maize root hair zone for drought resistance mechanism.【Method】 Taking Gaonong 901 maize which has certain drought resistance in a pot experiment as four groups named control,light deficiency,moderate deficiency,severe deficiency with water treatments:75%-85% of field capacity(CK),65%-75% of field capacity(LS),55%-65% of field capacity(MS),and 45%-55% of field capacity(SS).Tissues of roots which were 10 cm distance from root tips prepared emgedded in epoxy resins were cut into half thin section for optical microscope.With green and the counterstain safranin,armour aniline blue and fluorescent dyes,the changes of cortical cell and casparian band were found through observation under Olympus BX51 microscope and calculation by image pro plus 6.0.【Result】 With increasing water deficiency,codex parenchyma cells were irregularly arranged and width of codex in root hair zone of maize seedling and jointing got thinner.Both in seedling and jointing stage,the length of endodermis in root hair zone decreased unconspicuously,and the width of endodermis changed obviously.Comparatively,the endodermis in seedling changed more obviously than that in jointing,which caused by mature casparian band enhanced mechanical strength of endodermis.Fluorescence observations showed that casparian band of axial walls of endodermis thickened on seedling stage with light deficiency.Both axial and inner tangential walls of casparian band of endodermis thickened more obviously at jointing stage with light and moderate deficiency.Endodermis which had less modified structure deformated obviously with severe deficiency.【Conclusion】 The structure of codex in root hair zone of maize at seedling was more sensitive than at jointing with water deficiency.The tolerance of roots to proper water deficit may be increased by changes such as width of codex and ligno

  18. International Expansion and Transition to the Network Structure of the Multinational Companies and Their Social Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ettaleb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is associated with growing interconnectedness, interdependence and the integration of businesses into a single economic system, improving the competitiveness of businesses, and places new demands and requirements on firms. Companies that wanted to survive in a new, dynamic and competitive environment had to apply new development strategies, whose main motto was to reduce costs and to create greater flexibility on the global market. Many large companies managed huge cost reductions in the globalized economy through international expansion to the industrial periphery and semi-periphery countries (developing countries and Central and Eastern Europe and through the transition from a pyramidal organizational structure to a network structure. The control centre of companies in a network organization deprives hierarchical and pyramidal corporate structures, rather temporarily joins a network of small suppliers, subcontractors and service providers. In the business environment networks are more flexible and adaptable than firms with a hierarchical structure. They are highly effective because they allow significant reductions in the operating costs of the company. On the other hand, the network structure of relations has a number of social consequences, such as the reduction in the number of employees, the rise in non-standard employment contracts and the abolition of responsibility.

  19. Application of electrical tomography to study the internal structure of rock glaciers in Altai

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Dyakova; V. V. Olenchenko; O. V. Ostanin

    2017-01-01

    Internal structure of rock glaciers was investigated at two key sites in Altai by means of electric tomography. It had been found that the rock glaciers of the same type, located at different altitude levels, differ in electric resistances of ice nuclei and the degree of consolidation of the ice material inside of them. Typical characteristics of the ice core of a rock glacier in the high-mountain area are the following: electrical resistivity is about 1000–2000 kOhm∙m and a high degree of th...

  20. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  1. Book of abstracts of the 3rd International conference and the 3rd International School for young scientists Interaction of hydrogen isotopes with structural materials. IHISM-07

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The book involves abstracts of presentations at the 3rd International Conference and the 3rd International School for Young Scientists Interaction of Hydrogen Isotopes with Structural Materials (IHISM-07). The activities of Russian and foreign scientific centers associated with the use of hydrogen isotopes in power engineering, national economy and basic research are considered. The presentations cover the following areas: kinetics and interaction between hydrogen isotopes and solids including effects of radiogenic helium accumulation, hydrides and hydride transformations; structural transformations and mechanical properties; equipment and research techniques [ru

  2. Book of abstracts of International Conference on Nuclear Structure and Dynamics 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prepolec, L.; Niksic, T.

    2009-01-01

    Following the long tradition of nuclear physics conferences organized by our two institutes, e.g. the Adriatic International Conference and Europhysics Study Conferences, this meeting will provide a broad discussion forum on recent experimental and theoretical advances in the physics of nuclear structure and reactions. The main focus will be on the following topics: Nuclear structure and reactions far from stability; Exotic modes of excitation and decays; Collective phenomena and symmetries; Ab initio, cluster model, and shell-model approaches; Nuclear energy density functionals; Heavy-ion reactions at near-barrier energies; Dynamics of light-ion reactions; Nuclear reactions of astrophysical interest; Weak-interaction processes. This booklet contains the abstracts of contributions which will be presented at the Conference, either as invited and contributed talks, or oral poster presentations

  3. Analyses of a steel containment vessel with an outer contact structure under severe internal overpressurization conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Many Mark-I and Mark-II BWR plants are designed with a steel vessel as the primary containment. Typically, the steel containment vessel (SCV) is enclosed within a reinforced concrete shield building with only a small gap (50--90mm) separating the two structures. This paper describes finite element analyses performed to evaluate the effects of contact and friction between a steel containment vessel and an outer contact structure when the containment vessel is subjected to large internal pressures. These computations were motivated by a joint program on containment integrity involving the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and Sandia National Laboratories for testing model containments

  4. Structures and Infrastructures of International R&D Networks: A Capability Maturity Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niang, Mohamed; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    Purpose: This paper explores the process towards globally distributing R&D activities with an emphasis on organizational maturity. It discusses emerging configurations by asking how the structure and infrastructure of international R&D networks evolve along with the move from a strong R&D center...... to dispersed development. Design/Methodology/Approach: This is a qualitative study of the process of distributing R&D. By comparing selected firms, the researchers identify a pattern of dispersion of R&D activities in three Danish firms. Findings and Discussion: Drawing from the case studies, the researchers...... present a capability maturity model. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks is viewed as a key requirement for developing organizational capabilities and formulating adequate strategies that leverage dispersed R&D. Organizational...

  5. The Internalizing and Externalizing Structure of Psychiatric Comorbidity in Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Fogler, Jason M.; Wolf, Erika J.; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the latent structure of psychiatric disorders in a sample with a high prevalence of PTSD. A series of confirmatory factor analyses tested competing models for the covariation between SCID diagnoses among 1,325 Vietnam veterans. The best fitting solution was a three-factor model that included two correlated internalizing factors: anxious-misery, defined by PTSD and major depression, and fear, defined by panic disorder/agoraphobia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The third factor, externalizing, was defined by antisocial personality disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence. Both substance-related disorders also showed significant, albeit smaller, cross-loadings on the anxious-misery factor. These findings shed new light on the structure of psychiatric comorbidity in a treatment-seeking sample characterized by high rates of PTSD. PMID:18302181

  6. Soft x-ray measurement of internal tearing mode structure in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartas, G.; Hokin, S.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of internally resonant tearing modes has been studied in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch with a soft x-ray detector system consisting of an imaging array at one toroidal location and several detectors at different toroidal locations. The toroidal mode numbers of m = 1 structures are in the range n = -5, -6, -7. The modes propagate with phase velocity v = 1--6 x 10 6 cm/s, larger than the diamagnetic drift velocity v d ∼ 5 x 10 5 cm/s. Phase locking between modes with different n in manifested as a beating of soft x-ray signals which is found to be strongest near the resonant surfaces of the modes (r/a = 0.1 -- 0.5). 15 refs., 5 figs

  7. Growth mechanism and internal structure of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Erik; Kadowaki, Masayuki; Ogura, Kazuaki; Okawa, Jun; Xiang, Rong; Zhang, Zhengyi; Yamamoto, Takahisa; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2008-11-01

    An in situ optical absorbance technique was used to monitor the growth of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWNTs) at various temperatures and pressures. The effects of the growth temperature and ethanol pressure on the initial growth rate and catalyst lifetime were investigated. It was found that the ideal pressure for VA-SWNT synthesis changes with the growth temperature, shifting toward higher pressure as the growth temperature increases. It was also found that the growth reaction is first-order below this ideal pressure. Additionally, the internal structure of the VA-SWNT film was observed at different depths into the film by transmission electron microscopy. The absence of large bundles was confirmed, and little change in the structure was observed to a depth of approximately 1 microm.

  8. Felder-Soloman's Index of Learning Styles: internal consistency, temporal stability, and factor structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosford, Charles C; Siders, William A

    2010-10-01

    Strategies to facilitate learning include using knowledge of students' learning style preferences to inform students and their teachers. Aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure, internal consistency, and temporal stability of medical student responses to the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) and determine its appropriateness as an instrument for medical education. The ILS assesses preferences on four dimensions: sensing/intuitive information perceiving, visual/verbal information receiving, active/reflective information processing, and sequential/global information understanding. Students entering the 2002-2007 classes completed the ILS; some completed the ILS again after 2 and 4 years. Analyses of responses supported the ILS's intended structure and moderate reliability. Students had moderate preferences for sensing and visual learning. This study provides evidence supporting the appropriateness of the ILS for assessing learning style preferences in medical students.

  9. Structural mapping from MSS-LANDSAT imagery: A proposed methodology for international geological correlation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Crepani, E.; Martini, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for international geological correlation studies based on LANDSAT-MSS imagery, Bullard's model of continental fit and compatible structural trends between Northeast Brazil and the West African counterpart. Six extensive lineaments in the Brazilian study area are mapped and discussed according to their regional behavior and in relation to the adjacent continental margin. Among the first conclusions, correlations were found between the Sobral Pedro II Lineament and the megafaults that surround the West African craton; and the Pernambuco Lineament with the Ngaurandere Linemanet in Cameroon. Ongoing research to complete the methodological stages includes the mapping of the West African structural framework, reconstruction of the pre-drift puzzle, and an analysis of the counterpart correlations.

  10. Anatomic variables affecting interdental papilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna A. Mahale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anatomic variables affecting the interdental papilla. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult patients were evaluated. Papilla score (PS, tooth form/shape, gingival thickness, crest bone height and keratinized gingiva/attached gingiva were recorded for 150 inter proximal sites. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package (version 7.0 and the significance level was set at 95% confidence interval. Pearson′s correlation was applied to correlate the relationship between the factors and the appearance of the papilla. Results: Competent papillae (complete fill interdentally were associated with: (1 Crown width (CW: length ≥0.87; (2 bone crest-contact point ≤5 mm; and (3 inter proximal gingival tissue thickness ≥1.5 mm. Gingival thickness correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.54 and positively with tissue height (r = 0.23-0.43. Tooth form (i.e., CW to length ratio correlated negatively with PS (r = −0.37 to −0.61. Conclusion: Gingival papilla appearance was associated significantly with tooth form/shape, crestal bone height and interproximal gingival thickness.

  11. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ručevskis, Sandris

    2015-11-01

    The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2015) took place in Riga, Latvia from 30th September - 2nd October, 2015. The first event of the conference series, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University, was held in 2013. Following the established tradition, the aim of the conference was to promote and discuss the latest results of industrial and academic research carried out in the following engineering fields: analysis and design of advanced structures and buildings; innovative, ecological and energy efficient building materials; maintenance, inspection and monitoring methods; construction technologies; structural management; sustainable and safe transport infrastructure; and geomatics and geotechnics. The conference provided an excellent opportunity for leading researchers, representatives of the industrial community, engineers, managers and students to share the latest achievements, discuss recent advances and highlight the current challenges. IMST 2015 attracted over 120 scientists from 24 countries. After rigorous reviewing, over 80 technical papers were accepted for publication in the conference proceedings. On behalf of the organizing committee I would like to thank all the speakers, authors, session chairs and reviewers for their efficient and timely effort. The 2nd International Conference on Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies was organized by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of Riga Technical University with the support of the Latvia State Research Programme under the grant agreement "INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND SMART TECHNOLOGIES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY, IMATEH". I would like to express sincere gratitude to Juris Smirnovs, Dean of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, and Andris Chate, manager of the Latvia State Research Programme. Finally, I would like to thank all those who helped to make this event happen. Special thanks go to Diana

  12. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M.G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  13. Saudi Internal Medicine Residents׳ Perceptions of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination as a Formative Assessment Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwa Alaidarous

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Saudi Commission for Health Specialties first implemented the Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE as part of the final year Internal Medicine clerkship exam during the 2007–2008 academic year. This study evaluated Internal Medicine residents׳ overall perceptions of the OSCE as a formative assessment tool. It focused on residents׳ perceptions of the OSCE stations׳ attributes, determined the acceptability of the process, and provided feedback to enhance further development of the assessment tool. The main objective was to assess Internal Medicine resident test-takers׳ perceptions and acceptance of the OSCE, and to identify its strengths and weaknesses through their feedback. Sixty six residents were involved in the studied administered on November 8th 2012 at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Overall, resident׳s evaluation of the OSCE was favorable and encouraging. To this end, we recommend that formative assessment opportunities using the OSCE for providing feedback to students should be included in the curriculum, and continuing refinement and localized adaptation of OSCEs in use should be pursued by course directors and assessment personnel.

  14. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL: THAILAND’S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND FOR TOURIST DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modelling (LISREL 8 was used to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations (travel cost satisfaction and tourist demographics and tourist destination (tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. A survey containing Likert-type scales was used in collecting data from 203 international tourists who had travelled to Thailand. Using factor analysis, dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourist demographics, tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. Results indicated that the travel cost satisfaction of international tourists had a positive influenced on tourism product attributes at 0.07 (t=1.96 with statistics significant at the level of 0.05. Also the travel cost satisfaction had a positive influence on tourism product management at 0.13 (t=4.02 with statistics significant at the level of 0.05. And the tourist demographics had a positive influenced on tourism product at 0.11(t=3.47 with statistic significant at the level of 0.05. As well as tourist demographics, which had a positive influenced on tourism management at 0.11 (t=3.57 with statistics significant at the level of 0.05. The results of the research suggested that if the tourist destinations in Thailand are improved in quality then not only will international tourist revisit Thailand but also the numbers of tourists travelling to Thailand will increase.

  15. Corrosion Risk of Reinforced Concrete Structure Arising from Internal and External Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion risk of internal chloride and external chloride from three different exposure conditions was evaluated. The initiation of corrosion was detected by monitoring the galvanic current between cathode metal and embedded steel. The chloride threshold was determined by measuring the corrosion rate of steel by the polarization technique for internal chloride and the chloride profiling test for external chloride. As the result, the initiation of corrosion was accelerated with a cyclic wet/dry condition, compared to the totally wet condition. In addition, it was found that an increase of the drying ratio in the exposure condition resulted in an increase of corrosion rate after initiation. The threshold level of external chloride ranged from 0.2 to 0.3% weight by cement and internal chloride shows higher range, equated to 1.59–3.10%. Based on these data, the chloride penetration with exposure condition was predicted to determine the service life of reinforced concrete structure.

  16. The social and professional structure of international justice: from scholarly insiders to the pull of multinational corporate law firms

    OpenAIRE

    Dezalay, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Where does international justice draw its authority in an international scene largely driven by self-regulated professional markets for the settlement of transnational disputes? To revisit this classical debate, this article connects the professional and social structure of dispute settlement mechanisms to their social credibility among users of international justice. Drawing on extensive biographical databases, it suggests that the growth of investor-state disputes is favoring a shift from a...

  17. Nodule detection in digital chest radiography: Effect of anatomical noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Boerjesson, S.; Hoeschen, C.; Tischenko, O.; Kheddache, S.; Vikgren, J.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    The image background resulting from imaged anatomy can be divided into those components that are meaningful to the observers, in the sense that they are recognised as separate structures, and those that are not. These latter components (referred to as anatomical noise) can be removed using a method developed within the RADIUS group. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the removal of the anatomical noise results in images where lung nodules with lower contrast can be detected. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was therefore conducted using two types of images: clinical chest images and chest images in which the anatomical noise had been removed. Simulated designer nodules with a full-width-at-fifth-maximum of 10 mm but with varying contrast were added to the images. The contrast needed to obtain an area under the ROC curve of 0.80, C0.8, was used as a measure of detectability (a low value of C0.8 represents a high delectability). Five regions of the chest X ray were investigated and it was found that in all regions the removal of anatomical noise led to images with lower C0.8 than the original images. On average, C0.8 was 20% higher in the original images, ranging from 7% (the lateral pulmonary regions) to 41% (the upper mediastinal regions). (authors)

  18. Anatomical approach for surgery of the male posterior urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpiaz, Orietta; Mitterberger, Michael; Kerschbaumer, Andrea; Pinggera, Germar M; Bartsch, Georg; Strasser, Hannes

    2008-11-01

    To investigate, in a morphological study, the anatomy of the male rhabdosphincter and the relation between the membranous urethra, the rhabdosphincter and the neurovascular bundles (NVBs) to provide the anatomical basis for surgical approach of the posterior urethra as successful outcomes in urethral reconstructive surgery still remain a challenging issue. In all, 11 complete pelves and four tissue blocks of prostate, rectum, membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter were studied. Besides anatomical preparations, the posterior urethra and their relationship were studied by means of serial histological sections. In the histological cross-sections, the rhabdosphincter forms an omega-shaped loop around the anterior and lateral aspects of the membranous urethra. Ventrally and laterally, it is separated from the membranous urethra by a delicate sheath of connective tissue. Through a midline approach displacing the nerves and vessels laterally, injuries to the NVBs can be avoided. With meticulous dissection of the delicate ventral connective tissue sheath between the ventral wall of the membranous urethra and the rhabdosphincter, the two structures can be separated without damage to either of them. This anatomical approach can be used for dissection of the anterior urethral wall in urethral surgery. Based on precise anatomical knowledge, the ventral wall of the posterior urethra can be dissected and exposed without injuring the rhabdosphincter and the NVBs. This approach provides the basis for sparing of the rhabdosphincter and for successful outcomes in urethral surgery for the treatment of bulbo-membranous urethral strictures.

  19. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Evaporation and Condensation Flows of a Vapor-Gas Mixture from or onto the Condensed Phase with an Internal Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Onishi, Yoshimoto; Yamada, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Transient motions of a vapor-gas mixture due to the evaporation and condensation processes from or onto the plane condensed phase, with a temperature field as its internal structure, have been studied...

  1. Application of electrical tomography to study the internal structure of rock glaciers in Altai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Dyakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal structure of rock glaciers was investigated at two key sites in Altai by means of electric tomography. It had been found that the rock glaciers of the same type, located at different altitude levels, differ in electric resistances of ice nuclei and the degree of consolidation of the ice material inside of them. Typical characteristics of the ice core of a rock glacier in the high-mountain area are the following: electrical resistivity is about 1000–2000 kOhm∙m and a high degree of the ice consolidation, while the same for the mid-mountain region: the electrical resistivity is 150–300 kOhm∙m and the presence of the talik zones within the glacier body. Using the method of electric tomography for investigation of the internal structure of the rock-glaciers makes possible to reveal presence of frozen soils and ice and to find the upper boundary of occurrence of them from anomalously high specific electric resistance. However, it is not always possible to determine a thickness of the rock-ice formation, and to estimate a degree of its consolidation that does not allow calculating the ice content volume. Limitations of this technology can be overcome by the use of electric tomography in combination with other geophysical methods.

  2. Internal structure and interfacial velocity development for bubbly two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Huang, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study of the internal structure of air-water flowing horizontally. The double-sensor resistivity probe technique was applied for measurements of local interfacial parameters, including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size distributions, bubble passing frequency and bubble interface velocity. Bubbly flow patterns at several flow conditions were examined at three axial locations, L/D=25, 148 and 253, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second and third may represent near fully developed bubbly flow patterns. The experimental results are presented in three-dimensional perspective plots of the interfacial parameters over the cross-section. These multi-dimensional presentations showed that the local values of the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble passing frequency were nearly constant over the cross-section at L/D=25, with slight local peaking close to the channel wall. Although similar local peakings were observed at the second and third locations, the internal flow structure segregation due to buoyancy appeared to be very strong in the axial direction. A simple comparison of profiles of the interfacial parameters at the three locations indicated that the flow pattern development was a continuous process. Finally, it was shown that the so-called ''fully developed'' bubbly two-phase flow pattern cannot be established in a horizontal pipe and that there was no strong correspondence between void fraction and interface velocity profiles. ((orig.))

  3. Superposition of tectonic structures leading elongated intramontane basin: the Alhabia basin (Internal Zones, Betic Cordillera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martos, Manuel; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesús; Martínez-Moreno, Francisco José; Calvo-Rayo, Raquel; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    The relief of the Betic Cordillera was formed since the late Serravallian inducing the development of intramontane basins. The Alhabia basin, situated in the central part of the Internal Zones, is located at the intersection of the Alpujarran Corridor, the Tabernas basin, both trending E-W, and the NW-SE oriented Gádor-Almería basin. The geometry of the basin has been constrained by new gravity data. The basin is limited to the North by the Sierra de Filabres and Sierra Nevada antiforms that started to develop in Serravallian times under N-S shortening and to the south by Sierra Alhamilla and Sierra de Gádor antiforms. Plate convergence in the region rotated counter-clockwise in Tortonian times favouring the formation of E-W dextral faults. In this setting, NE-SW extension, orthogonal to the shortening direction, was accommodated by normal faults on the SW edge of Sierra Alhamilla. The Alhabia basin shows a cross-shaped depocentre in the zone of synform and fault intersection. This field example serves to constrain recent counter-clockwise stress rotation during the latest stages of Neogene-Quaternary basin evolution in the Betic Cordillera Internal Zones and underlines the importance of studying the basins' deep structure and its relation with the tectonic structures interactions.

  4. German National Proficiency Scales in Biology: Internal Structure, Relations to General Cognitive Abilities and Verbal Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    KÖLLER, OLAF

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT National and international large‐scale assessments (LSA) have a major impact on educational systems, which raises fundamental questions about the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure and their relations to relevant covariates. Given its importance, research on the validity of instruments specifically developed for LSA is still sparse, especially in science and its subdomains biology, chemistry, and physics. However, policy decisions for the improvement of educational quality based on LSA can only be helpful if valid information on students’ achievement levels is provided. In the present study, the nature of the measurement instruments based on the German Educational Standards in Biology is examined. On the basis of data from 3,165 students in Grade 10, we present dimensional analyses and report the relationship between different subdimensions of biology literacy and cognitive covariates such as general cognitive abilities and verbal skills. A theory‐driven two‐dimensional model fitted the data best. Content knowledge and scientific inquiry, two subdimensions of biology literacy, are highly correlated and show differential correlational patterns to the covariates. We argue that the underlying structure of biology should be incorporated into curricula, teacher training and future assessments. PMID:27818532

  5. Anatomical Variability of the Posterior Communicating Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnal, Sandhya Arvind; Farooqui, Mujibuddin S; Wabale, Rajendra N

    2018-01-01

    Although posterior communicating artery (PCoA) is a smaller branch of the internal carotid artery, it gives the main contribution in the formation of circle of Willis (CW) by communicating with the internal carotid arterial system and the vertebro-basilar arterial system. The size of PCoA varies frequently. The present work aims to study the PCoA regarding its morphology, morphometry, and symmetry. This study was conducted on 170 human cadaveric brains. Brains were dissected carefully and delicately to expose all components of CW, especially PCoA. Morphological variations of PCoA were noted along with its morphometry and symmetry. Morphological variations of PCoA were aplasia (3.52%), hypoplasia (25.29%), fenestration (0.58%), and persistent fetal pattern (16.47%). In the present study, we found the five different types of terminations of PCoA. Type I termination was the most common type, seen in 92.94% of cases, Type II termination was seen in 1.17%, Type III and Type IV terminations both were seen in 0.58%, and Type V was seen in 1.17%. The mean length of PCoA was 15.9 mm and 15.3 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. The mean diameter of PCoA was 2.1 mm and 1.9 mm on the right and left sides, respectively. Symmetry of PCoA was seen in 65.29% and asymmetric PCoA was seen in 34.70% of cases. The present study provides the complete description of PCoA regarding its morphology, symmetry, and morphometry. Awareness of these anatomical variations is important in neurovascular procedures.

  6. Combining Vision with Voice: A Learning and Implementation Structure Promoting Teachers' Internalization of Practices Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Kaplan, Haya; Feinberg, Ofra; Tal, Karen

    2009-01-01

    We propose that self-determination theory's conceptualization of internalization may help school reformers overcome the recurrent problem of "the predictable failure of educational reform" (Sarason, 1993). Accordingly, we present a detailed learning and implementation structure to promote teachers' internalization and application of ideas and…

  7. Analyzing the Magnetopause Internal Structure: New Possibilities Offered by MMS Tested in a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezeau, L.; Belmont, G.; Manuzzo, R.; Aunai, N.; Dargent, J.

    2018-01-01

    We explore the structure of the magnetopause using a crossing observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft on 16 October 2015. Several methods (minimum variance analysis, BV method, and constant velocity analysis) are first applied to compute the normal to the magnetopause considered as a whole. The different results obtained are not identical, and we show that the whole boundary is not stationary and not planar, so that basic assumptions of these methods are not well satisfied. We then analyze more finely the internal structure for investigating the departures from planarity. Using the basic mathematical definition of what is a one-dimensional physical problem, we introduce a new single spacecraft method, called LNA (local normal analysis) for determining the varying normal, and we compare the results so obtained with those coming from the multispacecraft minimum directional derivative (MDD) tool developed by Shi et al. (2005). This last method gives the dimensionality of the magnetic variations from multipoint measurements and also allows estimating the direction of the local normal when the variations are locally 1-D. This study shows that the magnetopause does include approximate one-dimensional substructures but also two- and three-dimensional structures. It also shows that the dimensionality of the magnetic variations can differ from the variations of other fields so that, at some places, the magnetic field can have a 1-D structure although all the plasma variations do not verify the properties of a global one-dimensional problem. A generalization of the MDD tool is proposed.

  8. Etude de la structure interne du nucleon en diffusion profondement inelastique de muons sur cibles fixes.

    CERN Document Server

    Granier, Thierry

    Dans ce mémoire est présentée l'analyse, dans le but de l'extraction des fonctions de structure, d'une partie des données de diffusion profondément inélastique de muons sur cibles fixes d'hydrogène et de detérium obtenues dans l'expérience NMC (New Muon Collaboration) du CERN. Les fonctions de structure, à partir desquelles s'exprime la probabilité de diffusion à un certain angle et une certaine énergie, contiennent de l'information sur la structure interne du nucléon, plus précisément sur la distribution en énergie des quarks à l'intérieur de celui-ci. L'étude de la variation des fonctions de structure avec le degré d'inélasticité de la diffusion permet de tester la validité de la chromodynamique quantique, la théorie de jauge des interactions fortes

  9. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges. Published 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  11. Cardiac Conduction System: Delineation of Anatomic Landmarks With Multidetector CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhood Saremi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Major components of the cardiac conduction system including the sinoatrial node (SAN, atrioventricular node (AVN, the His Bundle, and the right and left bundle branches are too small to be directly visualized by multidetector CT (MDCT given the limited spatial resolution of current scanners. However, the related anatomic landmarks and variants of this system a well as the areas with special interest to electrophysiologists can be reliably demonstrated by MDCT. Some of these structures and landmarks include the right SAN artery, right atrial cavotricuspid isthmus, Koch triangle, AVN artery, interatrial muscle bundles, and pulmonary veins. In addition, MDCT has an imperative role in demarcating potential arrhythmogenic structures. The aim of this review will be to assess the extent at which MDCT can outline the described anatomic landmarks and therefore provide crucial information used in clinical practice.

  12. Analysis of anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of Iva xanthifolia nutt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Lana N.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Iva xanthifolia is a North American weed species, which was introduced and naturalized in Europe. Anatomical and micromorphological characteristics of this species were investigated, in order to get better knowledge of its biology, which could help in development of strategies for prevention of its spreading. Detailed descriptions of lamina, petiole, stem and inflorescence axis anatomical structures were given, together with micromorphological characteristics of epidermis and indumentum of lamina, petiole, stem, inflorescence axis, involucre and fruit. All vegetative organs had mesomorphic structure, with some xeromorphic adaptations. Mechanical tissue was well developed, which gave those plants additional strength and resistance. Trichomes were the most numerous on lamina and in the region of inflorescence, while rare on petiole and stem epidermis and their distribution varied according to plant organ.

  13. Internal Flow Structures in Columnar Jointed Basalt from HREPPHÓLAR, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, H. B.; Bosshard, S. A.; Hetenyi, G.; Almqvist, B.; Hirt, A. M.; Caricchi, L.; Caddick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Columnar jointed basalt from Hrepphólar in southern Iceland display spectacular internal structures when cut. These structures follow the overall orientation of the columns and display semi-circular to circular features when cross-cut. It was previously believed that these internal structures formed as a result of alteration due to circulation of meteoric water within the column-bounding fractures after emplacement. However, new field observations of viscous fingering within the columns and the fact that approximately 80% of the semi-circular features are found within the column whereas the remaining 20% are cut by the column-bounding fractures clearly shows that these internal structures must have formed prior to crack-propagation (and are thus primary features). Here we present the results of textural and petrological analyses through a cross-section of a column, in combination with magnetic susceptibility and anisotropy measurements of the same samples. The variation in textures and geochemistry can be attributed to the presence of diffuse banding caused by variations in the modal proportions of the main phenocryst phases (i.e., plagioclase, clinopyroxene, olivine and titanomagnetite/ilmenite). Orientation of plagioclase laths and titanomagnetite crystals (based on measurements in thin sections and AMS-measurements) are consistent with vertical flow alignment. Nowhere in the column can evidence for downwards flow be found (excluding the possibility of small-scale convection cells generating these features). It is proposed here, that the volume decrease associated with solidification (typically 10-15 vol.% for basaltic systems) and the increasing weight of the overlying crust results in upwelling of partially crystallized material into the centre of the columns. Preliminary numerical modeling indicates that the isotherms within individual columns become steeper with increasing depth in a lava flow (allowing for larger displacement distances). We propose that

  14. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  15. Nomenclatura anatômica em oftalmologia Anatomical nomenclature in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lamy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo são: informar os oftalmologistas sobre as diferenças existentes entre as listas em língua inglesa e portuguesa de termos equivalentes para as estruturas do olho, ambas aprovadas pela Comissão Federativa Internacional de Terminologia Anatômica; apresentar os termos anatômicos incluídos na lista de descritores publicada pela Biblioteca Nacional de Medicina Norte-Americana e traduzida pela Biblioteca Regional de Medicina (BIREME; para propor uma lista em português de termos de uso comum pelos oftalmologistas.The purposes of this article are: to inform ophthalmologists about the differences between the English and Portuguese list of equivalent terms for eye structures, approved by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology; to present the anatomical terms included in the list of medical subject headings published by the United States National Library of Medicine and translated by the Regional Library of Medicine (BIREME; propose a list of Portuguese terms of common usage by ophthalmologists.

  16. The pars intermedia: an anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response to female genital arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheryl; Cold, Christopher J; Yang, Claire C

    2013-06-01

    The pars intermedia is an area of the vulva that has been inconsistently described in the literature. We conducted anatomic studies to better describe the tissues and vascular structures of the pars intermedia and proposed a functional rationale of the pars intermedia in the female sexual response. Nine cadaveric vulvectomy specimens were used. Each was serially sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Histologic ultrastructural description of the pars intermedia. The pars intermedia contains veins traveling longitudinally in the angle of the clitoris, supported by collagen-rich stromal tissues. These veins drain the different vascular compartments of the vulva, including the clitoris, the bulbs, and labia minora; also, the interconnecting veins link the different vascular compartments. The pars intermedia is not composed of erectile tissue, distinguishing it from the erectile tissues of the corpora cavernosa of the clitoris as well as the corpus spongiosum of the clitoral (vestibular) bulbs. The venous communications of the pars intermedia, linking the erectile tissues with the other vascular compartments of the vulva, appear to provide the anatomic basis for a coordinated vascular response during female sexual arousal. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Network of anatomical texts (NAnaTex), an open-source project for visualizing the interaction between anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Ryusuke; Ohtsuka, Aiji

    2018-01-01

    Anatomy is the science and art of understanding the structure of the body and its components in relation to the functions of the whole-body system. Medicine is based on a deep understanding of anatomy, but quite a few introductory-level learners are overwhelmed by the sheer amount of anatomical terminology that must be understood, so they regard anatomy as a dull and dense subject. To help them learn anatomical terms in a more contextual way, we started a new open-source project, the Network of Anatomical Texts (NAnaTex), which visualizes relationships of body components by integrating text-based anatomical information using Cytoscape, a network visualization software platform. Here, we present a network of bones and muscles produced from literature descriptions. As this network is primarily text-based and does not require any programming knowledge, it is easy to implement new functions or provide extra information by making changes to the original text files. To facilitate collaborations, we deposited the source code files for the network into the GitHub repository ( https://github.com/ryusukemomota/nanatex ) so that anybody can participate in the evolution of the network and use it for their own non-profit purposes. This project should help not only introductory-level learners but also professional medical practitioners, who could use it as a quick reference.

  18. An interactive 3D framework for anatomical education

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Götzelmann, Timo; Hartmann, Knut; Nürnberger, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Object: This paper presents a 3D framework for Anatomy teaching. We are mainly concerned with the proper understanding of human anatomical 3D structures. Materials and methods: The main idea of our approach is taking an electronic book such as Henry Gray’s Anatomy of the human body, and a set of 3D models properly labeled, and constructing the correct linking that allows users to perform mutual searches between both media. Results: We implemented a system where learners can intera...

  19. Construction of a 3-D anatomical model for teaching temporal lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Wilson, Timothy D

    2012-06-01

    Although we live and work in 3 dimensional space, most of the anatomical teaching during medical school is done on 2-D (books, TV and computer screens, etc). 3-D spatial abilities are essential for a surgeon but teaching spatial skills in a non-threatening and safe educational environment is a much more difficult pedagogical task. Currently, initial anatomical knowledge formation or specific surgical anatomy techniques, are taught either in the OR itself, or in cadaveric labs; which means that the trainee has only limited exposure. 3-D computer models incorporated into virtual learning environments may provide an intermediate and key step in a blended learning approach for spatially challenging anatomical knowledge formation. Specific anatomical structures and their spatial orientation can be further clinically contextualized through demonstrations of surgical procedures in the 3-D digital environments. Recordings of digital models enable learner reviews, taking as much time as they want, stopping the demonstration, and/or exploring the model to understand the anatomical relation of each structure. We present here how a temporal lobectomy virtual model has been developed to aid residents and fellows conceptualization of the anatomical relationships between different cerebral structures during that procedure. We suggest in comparison to cadaveric dissection, such virtual models represent a cost effective pedagogical methodology providing excellent support for anatomical learning and surgical technique training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling internal deformation of salt structures targeted for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemia, Zurab

    2008-01-01

    This thesis uses results of systematic numerical models to argue that externally inactive salt structures, which are potential targets for radioactive waste disposal, might be internally active due to the presence of dense layers or blocks within a salt layer. The three papers that support this thesis use the Gorleben salt diapir (NW Germany), which was targeted as a future final repository for high-grade radioactive waste, as a general guideline. The first two papers present systematic studies of the parameters that control the development of a salt diapir and how it entrains a dense anhydrite layer. Results from these numerical models show that the entrainment of a dense anhydrite layer within a salt diapir depends on four parameters: sedimentation rate, viscosity of salt, perturbation width and the stratigraphic location of the dense layer. The combined effect of these four parameters, which has a direct impact on the rate of salt supply (volume/area of the salt that is supplied to the diapir with time), shape a diapir and the mode of entrainment. Salt diapirs down-built with sedimentary units of high viscosity can potentially grow with an embedded anhydrite layer and deplete their source layer (salt supply ceases). However, when salt supply decreases dramatically or ceases entirely, the entrained anhydrite layer/segments start to sink within the diapir. In inactive diapirs, sinking of the entrained anhydrite layer is inevitable and strongly depends on the rheology of the salt, which is in direct contact with the anhydrite layer. During the post-depositional stage, if the effective viscosity of salt falls below the threshold value of around 10 18 -10 19 Pa s, the mobility of anhydrite blocks might influence any repository within the diapir. However, the internal deformation of the salt diapir by the descending blocks decreases with increase in effective viscosity of salt. The results presented in this thesis suggest that it is highly likely that salt structures

  1. Optimizing the internal quantum efficiency of GaInN SQW structures for green light emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, D.; Rossow, U.; Netzel, C.; Bremers, H.; Hangleiter, A.; Ade, G.; Hinze, P.

    2006-01-01

    Ga x In 1-x N/GaN single quantum well (QW) structures emitting in the range of 450 nm to 620 nm have been grown by MOVPE. Temperature and excitation power dependent photoluminescence (PL) was used to determine the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for these structures. For the blue emitting QWs high IQE values on the order of 60% were achieved. Due to a reduced growth temperature, reduced growth rate and increased V/III ratio we obtained QWs with good morphology and high In content above 25%. Thinner QWs with high In content showed a clear improvement of IQE compared to QW-structures with larger thickness but smaller In-content emitting at the same wavelength. Between λ peak =460 nm and 530 nm we observed a slight reduction in IQE with values of 58% at 490 nm and 40% at 525 nm. But towards λ peak =620 nm IQE decreased due to the electric field induced separation of the electron and hole wavefunction down to 1%. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Intensive Care Unit Structure Variation and Implications for Early Mobilization Practices. An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhru, Rita N; McWilliams, David J; Wiebe, Douglas J; Spuhler, Vicki J; Schweickert, William D

    2016-09-01

    Early mobilization (EM) improves outcomes for mechanically ventilated patients. Variation in structure and organizational characteristics may affect implementation of EM practices. We queried intensive care unit (ICU) environment and standardized ICU practices to evaluate organizational characteristics that enable EM practice. We recruited 151 ICUs in France, 150 in Germany, 150 in the United Kingdom, and 500 in the United States by telephone. Survey domains included respondent characteristics, hospital and ICU characteristics, and ICU practices and protocols. We surveyed 1,484 ICU leaders and received a 64% response rate (951 ICUs). Eighty-eight percent of respondents were in nursing leadership roles; the remainder were physiotherapists. Surveyed ICUs were predominantly mixed medical-surgical units (67%), and 27% were medical ICUs. ICU staffing models differed significantly (P equipment were highly variable among respondents. International ICU structure and practice is quite heterogeneous, and several factors (multidisciplinary rounds, setting daily goals for patients, presence of a dedicated physiotherapist, country, and nurse/patient staffing ratio) are significantly associated with the practice of EM. Practice and barriers may be far different based upon staffing structure. To achieve successful implementation, whether through trials or quality improvement, ICU staffing and practice patterns must be taken into account.

  3. Design study for KALIMER upper internal structure and reactor refueling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Ho

    1996-09-01

    The design study for the KALIMER upper internal structure (UIS) and reactor refueling system has been described. Two distinct features are plug-in UIS and extended refueling outage. For the UIS system, the functional, structural and material requirements have been determined and the accommodation approaches to meet these functional requirements described. For the refueling system, the functional, structural, process and I and C (Instrument and Control) requirements have been established and the accommodation approaches for the functional and process requirements described. The impact on plant availability due to extension of the refueling outage has also been investigated. The accommodation approaches for UIS system show that the design concept of the system will satisfy the functional requirements with a few design issues to be resolved, such as UIS plug in/out handling system and cask design. It is also shown that the functional and process requirements of the refueling system are achievable with the design of the IVTM cask and related transfer system and the extended refueling outage has little effect (within 1%) on the plant availability if extra refueling time do not exceed 1 week. 1 refs. (Author)

  4. Deconstructing the shallow internal structure of the Moon using GRAIL gravity and LOLA topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Globally-distributed, high-resolution gravity and topography observations of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft afford the unprecedented opportunity to explore the shallow internal structure of the Moon. Gravity and topography can be combined to produce Bouguer gravity that reveals the distribution of mass in the subsurface, with high degrees in the spherical harmonic expansion of the Bouguer anomalies sensitive to shallowest structure. For isolated regions of the lunar highlands and several basins we have deconstructed the gravity field and mapped the subsurface distribution of density anomalies. While specified spherical harmonic degree ranges can be used to estimate contributions at different depths, such analyses require considerable caution in interpretation. A comparison of filtered Bouguer gravity with forward models of disk masses with plausible densities illustrates the interdependencies of the gravitational power of density anomalies with depth and spatial scale. The results have implications regarding the limits of interpretation of lunar subsurface structure.

  5. Development of Metal Plate with Internal Structure Utilizing the Metal Injection Molding (MIM Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangho Shin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we focus on making a double-sided metal plate with an internal structure, such as honeycomb. The stainless steel powder was used in the metal injection molding (MIM process. The preliminary studies were carried out for the measurement of the viscosity of the stainless steel feedstock and for the prediction of the filling behavior through Computer Aided Engineering (CAE simulation. PE (high density polyethylene (HDPE and low density polyethylene (LDPE and polypropylene (PP resins were used to make the sacrificed insert with a honeycomb structure using a plastic injection molding process. Additionally, these sacrificed insert parts were inserted in the metal injection mold, and the metal injection molding process was carried out to build a green part with rectangular shape. Subsequently, debinding and sintering processes were adopted to remove the sacrificed polymer insert. The insert had a suitable rigidity that was able to endure the filling pressure. The core shift analysis was conducted to predict the deformation of the insert part. The 17-4PH feedstock with a low melting temperature was applied. The glass transition temperature of the sacrificed polymer insert would be of a high grade, and this insert should be maintained during the MIM process. Through these processes, a square metal plate with a honeycomb structure was made.

  6. Design study for KALIMER upper internal structure and reactor refueling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    The design study for the KALIMER upper internal structure (UIS) and reactor refueling system has been described. Two distinct features are plug-in UIS and extended refueling outage. For the UIS system, the functional, structural and material requirements have been determined and the accommodation approaches to meet these functional requirements described. For the refueling system, the functional, structural, process and I and C (Instrument and Control) requirements have been established and the accommodation approaches for the functional and process requirements described. The impact on plant availability due to extension of the refueling outage has also been investigated. The accommodation approaches for UIS system show that the design concept of the system will satisfy the functional requirements with a few design issues to be resolved, such as UIS plug in/out handling system and cask design. It is also shown that the functional and process requirements of the refueling system are achievable with the design of the IVTM cask and related transfer system and the extended refueling outage has little effect (within 1%) on the plant availability if extra refueling time do not exceed 1 week. 1 refs. (Author).

  7. Gauge invariance and quantization applied to atom and nucleon internal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fan; Sun Weimin; Chen Xiangsong; LU Xiaofu; Goldman, T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing theoretical quark and gluon momentum,orbital angular momentum and spin operators, satisfy either gauge invariance or the corresponding canonical commutation relation, but one never has these operators which satisfy both except the quark spin. The conflicts between gauge invariance and the canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed.To achieve such a proper decomposition the key point is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics, and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discussed. (authors)

  8. Estimation of the internal structure of Trans-Mexican volcanic belt by gravimetric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores R, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    The regional gravimetric data of Trans-Mexican volcanic belt and surroundings, has been analyzed in order to estimate the depth of its internal structure. The short profiles with N-S orientation give a model of four shells with an average depth in the rank 24, 34, 56 and 83 kilometers. Only the profiles included between 97 West degrees to 102 West degrees give a depth of crust larger than the rest of the profiles with the same orientation. This profiles are associated with that of the Valleys of Toluca, D.F. and Puebla where the maximum crust thickness was estimated. The 3 long profiles with S-W orientation, give a model of 3 shells. The tendency of the first shell has a cortical thickness of 38 kilometers in the latitude of 18 North degrees. This tendency to increase the depth in the crust is associated with the minimum gravimetric in the map of Bouguer anomaly. (Author)

  9. Eduardo Torroja y la International Association for Shell and Spatial Structures (IASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astudillo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo Torroja’s legacy doesn’t limit to his innovative designs, or to his contributions to concrete structures and their codes development. Throw his life, he founded, or contributed to found, several associations, national and international, which as IASS (1959 are working nowadays leading the progress of civil and architectural construction.El legado de Eduardo Torroja no se limita a sus innovadores proyectos, o a sus aportaciones al cálculo y desarrollo del hormigón armado y pretensado. A lo largo de su vida, fundó, o contribuyó a fundar, diversas asociaciones, nacionales e internacionales que, como la IASS (1959, continúan vivas liderando el progreso de la construcción civil y arquitectónica.

  10. Global Justice: Building International and Supranational Structures on the Basis of Fundamental Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Lammertse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to share a few thoughts, notions and questions about regulatory and governmental structures, both national and international, with regard to the development of global justice. It will highlight the issue whether or not local wisdom can contribute to global justice. In addition, this writing will discover legal problems that arise from the idea of global society and global justice by analyzing jurisdictional aspects and by explaining a little bit about dematerialization of crime, as it has been affected by the changing of communities’ behavior in global contexts after the era of computer and information and communication technology (ICT. Progressive development in Europe, especially regarding the European Union Law, will also be explored in order to describe the respect for fundamental rights in this region.

  11. Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections in internal medicine wards: old and new drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.

  12. Widefield and total internal reflection fluorescent structured illumination microscopy with scanning galvo mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youhua; Cao, Ruizhi; Liu, Wenjie; Zhu, Dazhao; Zhang, Zhiming; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu

    2018-04-01

    We present an alternative approach to realize structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable for live cell imaging. The prototype utilizes two sets of scanning galvo mirrors, a polarization converter and a piezo-platform to generate a fast shifted, s-polarization interfered and periodic variable illumination patterns. By changing the angle of the scanning galvanometer, we can change the position of the spots at the pupil plane of the objective lens arbitrarily, making it easy to switch between widefield and total internal reflection fluorescent-SIM mode and adapting the penetration depth in the sample. Also, a twofold resolution improvement is achieved in our experiments. The prototype offers more flexibility of pattern period and illumination orientation changing than previous systems.

  13. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  15. Internal Fiber Structure of a High-Performing, Additively Manufactured Injection Molding Insert

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Baier, Sina; Trinderup, Camilla H.

    A standard mold is equipped with additively manufactured inserts in a rectangular shape produced with vat photo polymerization. While the lifetime compared to conventional materials such as brass, steel, and aluminum is reduced, the prototyping and design phase can be shortened significantly...... by using flexible and cost-effective additive manufacturing technologies. Higher production volumes still exceed the capability of additively manufactured inserts, which are overruled by the stronger performance of less-flexible but mechanically advanced materials. In this contribution, the internal...... structure of a high-performing, fiber-reinforced injection molding insert has been analyzed. The insert reached a statistically proven and reproducible lifetime of 4,500 shots, which significantly outperforms any other previously published additively manufactured inserts. Computer tomography, tensile tests...

  16. Internal structure of a vermicular ironstone as determined by X-ray computed tomography scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, Yuri Lopes, E-mail: ylzinn@dcs.ufla.br [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia do Solo; Carducci, Carla Eloize [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Curitibanos, SC (Brazil). Departamento de Agronomia; Araujo, Marla Alessandra [Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia do Solo

    2015-03-15

    Ironstones or petroplinthites are common materials in soils under humid tropical climate, generally defined as the result of Fe oxide accumulation in areas where the water table oscillates, and may exhibit considerable morphological variability. The aim of this study was to examine the internal structure and porosity of an ironstone fragment from a Petroferric Acrudox in Minas Gerais, Brazil, by computed tomography (CT) and conventional techniques. The sample analyzed had total porosity of 59.5 %, with large macropores in the form of tubular channels and irregular vughs, the latter with variable degrees of infilling by material released from the ironstone walls or the soil matrix. The CT scan also showed that the ironstone has wide variation in the density of the solid phase, most likely due to higher concentrations or thick intergrowths of hematite and magnetite/maghemite, especially in its outer rims. The implications of these results for water retention and soil formation in ironstone environments are briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete considering the structure internal force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiangyue; Peng, Minli; Lei, Fengming; Tan, Jiangxian; Shi, Huacheng

    2017-12-01

    Based on the assumptions of uniform corrosion and linear elastic expansion, an analytical model of cracking due to rebar corrosion expansion in concrete was established, which is able to consider the structure internal force. And then, by means of the complex variable function theory and series expansion technology established by Muskhelishvili, the corresponding stress component functions of concrete around the reinforcement were obtained. Also, a comparative analysis was conducted between the numerical simulation model and present model in this paper. The results show that the calculation results of both methods were consistent with each other, and the numerical deviation was less than 10%, proving that the analytical model established in this paper is reliable.

  18. Measurement of internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adloff, C.; Andreev, V.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Baehr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Behrend, H.-J.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bertrand-Coremans, G.; Biddulph, P.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Brueckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Buerger, J.; Buesser, F.W.; Buniatian, A.; Burke, S.; Buschhorn, G.; Calvet, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Carli, T.; Chabert, E.; Charlet, M.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Cocks, S.; Contreras, J.G.; Cormack, C.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; David, M.; Davidsson, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; Diaconu, C.; Dirkmann, M.; Dixon, P.; Dlugosz, W.; Donovan, K.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Ebert, J.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Elsen, E.; Enzenberger, M.; Erdmann, M.; Farh, A.B.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrarotto, F.; Fleischer, M.; Fluegge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Gaede, F.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Gorelov, I.; Grab, C.; Graessler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Griffiths, R.K.; Grindhammer, G.; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Hampel, M.; Haustein, V.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herynek, I.; Hewitt, K.; Hiller, K.H.; Hilton, C.D.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Holtom, T.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C.; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Jansen, D.M.; Joensson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kaestli, H.K.; Kander, M.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnik, O.; Katzy, J.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Keuker, C.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koehne, J.H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Kraemerkaemper, T.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kruecker, D.; Krueger, K.; Kuepper, A.; Kuester, H.; Kuhlen, M.; Kurca, T.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Langenegger, U.; Lebedev, A.; Lehner, F.; Lemaitre, V.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobo, G.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, S.; Lueke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Krueger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovsky, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.-U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; McMahon, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.-O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Newman, P.R.; Nguyen, H.K.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Niedzballa, Ch.; Niggli, H.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Oberlack, H.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Palmen, P.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Passaggio, S.; Patel, G.D.; Pawletta, H.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pieuchot, A.; Pitzl, D.; Poeschl, R.; Pope, G.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Rick, H.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rosenbauer, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rouse, F.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Schacht, P.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleif, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schoeffel, L.; Schroeder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Semenov, A.; Shekelyan, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Smith, M.; Solochenko, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Sonnenschein, L.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Squinabol, F.; Stamen, R.; Steffen, P.; Steinberg, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Ste llberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Sutton, J.P.; Swart, M.; Tapprogge, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Theissen, J.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Todenhagen, R.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Esch, P.; Van Haecke, A.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Villet, G.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; West, L.R.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Willard, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wittek, C.; Wittmann, E.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wuensch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zini, P.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    1999-01-01

    Internal jet structure in dijet production in deep-inelastic scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. Jets with transverse energies E T,Breit > 5 GeV are selected in the Breit frame employing k perpendicular and cone jet algorithms. In the kinematic region of ssquared momentum transfers 10 2 2 and Bjorken-x values 2 -4 Bj -3 , jet shapes and subjet multiplicities are measured as a function of a resolution parameter. Distributions of both observables are corrected for detector effects and presented as functions of the transverse jet energy and jet pseudo-rapidity. Dependences of the jet shape and the average number of subjets on the transverse energy and the pseudo-rapidity of the jet are observed. With increasing transverse jet energies and decreasing pseudo-rapidities, i.e. towards the photon hemisphere, the jets are more collimated. QCD models give a fair description of the data

  19. Influence of internal channel geometry of gas turbine blade on flow structure and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Telega, Janusz; Doerffer, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence of channel geometry on the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on all the walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on the heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of internal cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include a corner fillets, ribs with fillet radii and a special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which has very realistic features.

  20. A Customizable Multimodality Imaging Compound That Relates External Landmarks to Internal Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semework, Mulugeta

    2015-12-01

    Numerous research and clinical interventions, such as targeting drug deliveries or surgeries and finding blood clots, abscesses, or lesions, require accurate localization of various body parts. Individual differences in anatomy make it hard to use typical stereotactic procedures that rely on external landmarks and standardized atlases. For instance, it is not unusual to incorrectly place a craniotomy in brain surgery. This project was thus performed to find a new and easy method to correctly establish the relationship between external landmarks and medical scans of int