WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermodal rail cars

  1. On Transport Service Selection in Intermodal Rail/Road Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bierwirth

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal rail/road freight transport constitutes an alternative to long-haul road transport for the distribution of large volumes of goods. The paper introduces the intermodal transportation problem for the tactical planning of mode and service selection. In rail mode, shippers either book train capacity on a per-unit basis or charter block trains completely. Road mode is used for short-distance haulage to intermodal terminals and for direct shipments to customers. We analyze the competition of road and intermodal transportation with regard to freight consolidation and service cost on a model basis. The approach is applied to a distribution system of an industrial company serving customers in eastern Europe. The case study investigates the impact of transport cost and consolidation on the optimal modal split.

  2. A Simulation Platform for Combined Rail/Road Transport in Multiyards Intermodal Terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xuchao; He, Shiwei; Li, Tingting; Li, Yubin

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of multiyards railway intermodal terminal (MYRIT) construction in China, performance evaluation has become an important issue for terminal design and management departments. Due to the complexity of the multiyards terminal and the associated rail network, the train moving process and related terminal operations have become more complicated compared with the traditional intermodal container terminal. However, in general simulation platforms, the train moving process ...

  3. 49 CFR 210.9 - Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of a noise defective locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. 210.9 Section 210.9 Transportation Other Regulations... locomotive, rail car, or consist of a locomotive and rail cars. A locomotive, rail car, or consist of a...

  4. Fuel Savings and Aerodynamic Drag Reduction from Rail Car Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, Bruce; Salari, Kambiz; Babb, Alex

    2008-01-01

    The potential for energy savings by reducing the aerodynamic drag of rail cars is significant. A previous study of aerodynamic drag of coal cars suggests that a 25% reduction in drag of empty cars would correspond to a 5% fuel savings for a round trip [1]. Rail statistics for the United States [2] report that approximately 5.7 billion liters of diesel fuel were consumed for coal transportation in 2002, so a 5% fuel savings would total 284 million liters. This corresponds to 2% of Class I railroad fuel consumption nationwide. As part of a DOE-sponsored study, the aerodynamic drag of scale rail cars was measured in a wind tunnel. The goal of the study was to measure the drag reduction of various rail-car cover designs. The cover designs tested yielded an average drag reduction of 43% relative to empty cars corresponding to an estimated round-trip fuel savings of 9%.

  5. General Vehicle Test Plan (GVTP) for Urban Rail Transit Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    The General Vehicle Test Plan provides a system for general vehicle testing and for documenting and utilizing data and information in the testing of urban rail transit cars. Test procedures are defined for nine categories: (1) Performance; (2) Power ...

  6. Measurement of vertical track deflection from a moving rail car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The University of Nebraska has been conducting research sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development to develop a system that measures vertical track deflection/modulus from a moving rail car. Previous work ...

  7. 49 CFR 38.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. 38....175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a) All cars for high-speed rail systems, including... monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e., not used by freight trains) or guideway, in...

  8. 49 CFR 174.59 - Marking and placarding of rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking and placarding of rail cars. 174.59... RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.59 Marking and placarding of rail cars. No person may transport a rail car carrying hazardous materials unless it is marked and placarded as required by...

  9. Passenger Rail Car Egress -- TRB Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administrations (FRA) Office of Railroad Policy and Development is exploring how to enhance regulations that address the safe, timely, and effective emergency evacuation of occupants from passenger rail vehicles in various eme...

  10. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 grams of plutonium-239. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-foot cargo space are accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-foot steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gallon drums and up to 44,800 pounds gross weight. This report is a revision of an earlier document and describes improvements to inner packaging. It also reflects current shipping practices

  11. ATMX-600 rail car safety analysis report for packaging (SARP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adcock, F.E.; McCarthy, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATMX-600 series rail car is used by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, for shipping low-level radioactive waste under the provisions of DOT Special Permit 5948. Fissile Class I shipments are authorized with the car loaded to capacity with drums containing up to 200 g of 239 Pu. Inner packaging may be polyethylene-lined steel drums or fiberglass-coated plywood crates. These massive double-walled steel cars provide the equivalent protection of a Type B package. Rapid loading and unloading of the 9- by 9- by 50-ft cargo space is accomplished by prepackaging the waste in standard 20-ft steel cargo containers. The ATMX-600 rail car will hold two cargo containers, each carrying seventy 55-gal drums and up to 44,800 lb gross weight. Improvements to inner packaging and current shipping practices are discussed

  12. Hub exchange operations in intermodal hub-and spoke networks: A performance comparison of rail-rail exchange facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bontekoning, Y.M.

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of hub-and-spoke networks in intermodal transport is suggested as one of the potential solutions for helping to increase the intermodal market share. Traditionally, trains are shunted at hubs; this is a time-consuming process. Since the early 1990s a new type of intermodal terminal, specifically designed for fast tran-shipment at nodes in hub-and-spoke networks, has been introduced in Europe. These hub terminals could replace this time-consuming shunting. Studies on the new...

  13. Aerodynamic drag on intermodal railcars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinghorn, Philip; Maynes, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. This study aims to increase the efficiency of intermodal cargo trains by reducing the aerodynamic drag on the load carrying cars. For intermodal railcars a significant amount of aerodynamic drag is a result of the large distance between loads that often occurs and the resulting pressure drag resulting from the separated flow. In the present study aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the size of the intermodal containers. The experiments were performed in the BYU low speed wind tunnel and the test track utilizes two leading locomotives followed by a set of five articulated well cars with double stacked containers. The drag on a representative mid-train car is measured using an isolated load cell balance and the wind tunnel speed is varied from 20 to 100 mph. We characterize the effect that the gap distance between the containers and the container size has on the aerodynamic drag of this representative rail car and investigate methods to reduce the gap distance.

  14. Identification of promising Twin Hub networks : Report of Work Package 1 of the Intermodal rail freight Twin hub Network Northwest Europe - project (final report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreutzberger, E.D.; Konings, J.W.; Meijer, S.; Witteveen, C.; Meijers, B.M.; Pekin, E.; Macharis, C.; Kiel, J.; Kawabata, Y.; Vos, W.

    2014-01-01

    This report is the first deliverable of the project Intermodal Rail Freight Twin Hub Network Northwest Europe. We call its subject Twin hub network and the organisational entity to carry out the actions the Twin hub project. The project is funded by INTERREG NWE (programme IVb). Its work started in

  15. 49 CFR 210.29 - Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cars). 210.29 Section 210.29 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... REGULATIONS Inspection and Testing § 210.29 Operation standards (moving locomotives and rail cars). The operation standards for the noise emission levels of moving locomotives, rail cars, or consists of...

  16. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars...

  17. 36 CFR 1192.175 - High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., monorails and systems. 1192.175 Section 1192.175 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND... TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems § 1192.175 High-speed rail cars, monorails and systems. (a... steel-wheel-on-steel-rail technology, and monorail systems operating primarily on dedicated rail (i.e...

  18. 49 CFR 174.83 - Switching placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport... force than is necessary to complete the coupling; or (3) Struck by any car moving under its own momentum... its own momentum may be permitted to strike any placarded flatcar or any flatcar carrying a placarded...

  19. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82... Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.82 General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. (a) Unless...

  20. Radiation Scanning Methods for Ship-to-Rail Intermodal Cargo Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Stansbury, Paul S.; Taira, Randal Y.; Sanquist, Thomas F.; Collins, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security's (DHS) Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) runs the Rail Test Center (RTC) at the Port of Tacoma (POT). The RTC affords DNDO with the opportunity to test radiological and nuclear threat detection systems associated with the unique on-dock rail environment while in an operational seaport. DNDO selected the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to manage the RTC. The RTC is conducting various evaluation studies to assess scanning opportunities in terms of their affects on the number of container moves required and the affect that the scanning opportunity has on the time it takes to move a container through the on-dock transfer process from ship to rail. The velocity and the number of container moves are directly associated with incremental costs to the terminal operators; increases in either of these parameters help in-form the potential for incremental costs that would result from the implementation of the opportunity.

  1. Passenger train emergency systems : development of prototype railEXODUS software for U.S. passenger rail car egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT), is sponsoring a research program, which includes investigation of the applicability of time-based egress performance requirements to U.S. passenger rail cars. Th...

  2. Aerodynamic Improvements to Cargo Carrying Rail Cars due to Roof Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, Robert; Maynes, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    The aerodynamic drag associated with the transport of commodities by rail is becoming increasingly important as the cost of diesel fuel increases. We provide an assessment of the influence of the roof structure on aerodynamic performance of two dissimilar rail cars, namely automobile carrying cars and coal carrying cars. Currently, the roof material for automobile carrying rail cars is corrugated steel, with the corrugation aligned perpendicular to the direction of travel. Coal cars are currently left uncovered for loading convenience and on the return leg from the power plant are empty. Aerodynamic drag data have been obtained through wind tunnel testing on 1/29 scale models to understand the savings that may be realized by judicious modification to the tops of both these car types. For the automobile-carrying cars, testing is performed for the corrugated and smooth roof configurations. This modification alone has the potential of reducing the car drag coefficient by nominally 25%. A broader study is performed for the coal cars, with data being acquired for coal filled models, empty models, and several cover prototype configurations. The results reveal that implementation of a cover may yield reductions in the aerodynamic drag for both coal filled (nominally 7%) and empty coal cars (nominally 30%).

  3. Shock and vibration environments for large shipping containers on rail cars and trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.; Wilson, L.T.

    1977-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide definitions of shock and vibration environment to which fissile material shipping containers may be exposed during normal shipment by truck and rail cars. The definitions of vibration, shock superimposed on vibration and rail coupling shock result from existing data. The dependence of shock environment, from rail coupling operations, on parameters like cargo weight and shock attenuation couplers was also studied using spring-mass models. These studies show that for rail cars equipped with standard draft gear, the cargo response decreases with increased cargo weight until the springs bottom out. For rail cars equipped with shock attenuation couplers, cargo weight has little effect on cargo response. The study also shows the importance of matching couplers and tiedown stiffnesses to decrease the cargo response. Vibration and shock data samples have been obtained during truck shipment of heavy cargo and the data will be presented in subsequent reports. Similar data need to be obtained for rail shipment of heavy cargo and during rail coupling operations with heavy cargo

  4. Intermodal connectivity in Europe, an empirical exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, P.W.; Lases Figueroa, D.M.; van Donselaar, K.H.; Bozuwa, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the intermodal connectivity in Europe. The empirical analysis is to our knowledge the first empirical analysis of intermodal connections, and is based on a comprehensive database of intermodal connections in Europe. The paper focuses on rail and barge services, as they are

  5. Occupant Volume Integrity Evaluation in Passenger Rail Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research, which is intended to enable the growth of high-speed and intercity passenger rail transportation, was sponsored by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development, as part of the train Occupant Protection r...

  6. Fleet Composition of Rail Tank Cars That Transport Flammable Liquids: 2013-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Section 7308 of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (FAST Act; P. L. 114-94; December 4, 2015) requires the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to assemble and collect data on rail tank cars transporting Class 3 flammable liquids (box...

  7. THE MODEL OF WORK IN PROCESS INVENTORY MANAGEMENT OF RAIL CARS BUILDING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia BULGAKOVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of work-in-process management of rail-cars production by intelligent decision support software, which is based on JIT and Kanban principles, is identified. The scheme of one type cargo-flow movement between two workshops with control by electronic and traditional kanban-card is offered. For simulation of rail-cars production cargo flows Markov chain of M/M/1/1 type was applied. Simulation shows the dependence of the work-in-process on the in-flow and out-flow intensity. To determine the high level of the optimal work-in-process the stochastic inventory management model is applied.

  8. Intermodal transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, H.K.

    1983-09-01

    Concepts for transportation of spent fuel in rail casks from nuclear power plant sites with no rail service are under consideration by the US Department of Energy in the Commercial Spent Fuel Management program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report identifies and evaluates three alternative systems for intermodal transfer of spent fuel: heavy-haul truck to rail, barge to rail, and barge to heavy-haul truck. This report concludes that, with some modifications and provisions for new equipment, existing rail and marine systems can provide a transportation base for the intermodal transfer of spent fuel to federal interim storage facilities. Some needed land transportation support and loading and unloading equipment does not currently exist. There are insufficient shipping casks available at this time, but the industrial capability to meet projected needs appears adequate

  9. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... rail tank car due to chemical self-reaction and expansion of the toluene diisocyanate matter wastes. On...: Cheryl West Freeman, Division of Engineering and Research, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... catastrophically ruptured at a transfer station at the BASF Corporation chemical facility in Freeport, Texas. The...

  10. INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN EUROPE - OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wagener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Freight transport volume in ton-km in OECD countries will grow considerably up to 150 to 230 % in 2050 compared to 2010. Although the EU policy aims to shift 30% of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport by 2030 the recent trends show a stable modal split of road at approx. 75%. Conventional intermodal transport on the major European routes has shown a steady but only limited organic growth through recent years. Therefore, new innovative concepts for intermodal transport and for the shift from road to rail are needed. Methods: Definitions of intermodal transport have been clarified and the development of combined transport in Europe and in Germany and Poland in particular has been analyzed on the basis of available data sources. New innovative concepts for intermodal transport have been identified on the basis of desk research, recent relevant projects (RETRACK, SCANDRIA, Rail Baltica and market intelligence. Results: The analysis leads to the conclusion that new innovative concepts in intermodal transport comprise new forms of organization as well as new technologies and new routes. The following three innovations to facilitate the shift from road to rail by intermodal transport are being introduced and discussed: multimodal operation of ocean carriers in maritime hinterland transportation, innovative handling technologies for non-crane able trainers and freight corridors for long distance intermodal transport within the TEN-T network and on the Europe-Asia corridor. Conclusions: Further accelerated growth in the shift from road to rail through intermodal transport requires new innovative concepts beyond the traditional combined transport in Western Europe. Three promising innovative concepts have been introduced. Further research is needed and should be focused on financial and economic appraisal as well as on the effectiveness of state intervention policies. 

  11. Impact of an exploding LPG rail tank car onto a CASTOR spent fuel cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, B.; Probst, U.; Heller, W

    1999-07-01

    On 27 April 1999 a fire test was performed with a 45 m{sup 3} rail tank car partially filled with 10 m3 pressurised liquid propane. A CASTOR THTR/AVR spent fuel transport cask was positioned beside the propane tank as to suffer maximum damage from any explosion. About 17 min after fire ignition the propane tank ruptured. This resulted in a BLEVE with an expanding fireball, heat radiation, explosion overpressure, and tank fragments projected towards the cask. This imposed severe mechanical and thermal impacts directly onto the CASTOR cask, moving it 17 m from its original position. This involved rotation of the cask with the lid end travelling 10 m before it crashed into the ground. Post-test investigations of the CASTOR cask demonstrated that no loss of leaktightness or containment and shielding integrity occurred. (author)

  12. Fall Protection Procedures for Sealing Bulk Waste Shipments by Rail Cars at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Sites - 13509

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.D. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District, Buffalo, New York 14207 (United States); Fort, E. Joseph; Lorenz, William [Cabrera Services (Cabrera) East Harford, CT 06108 (United States); Mills, Andy [Shaw Environmental and Infrastructure, Inc. (Shaw) Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Rail-cars loaded with radioactive materials must be closed and fastened to comply with United States Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements before they shipped. Securing waste shipments in a manner that meets these regulations typically results in the use of a sealable rail-car liner. Workers accessing the tops of the 2.74 m high rail-cars to seal and inspect liners for compliance prior to shipment may be exposed to a fall hazard. Relatively recent revisions to the Fall Protection requirements in the Safety and Health Requirements Manual (EM385-1-1, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) have necessitated modifications to the fall protection systems previously employed for rail-car loading at Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In response these projects have developed site-specific procedures to protect workers and maintain compliance with the improved fall protection regulations. (authors)

  13. SAVIT: a dymanic model to predict vibratory motion within a spent fuel shipping cask; rail car system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, S.R.

    1978-03-01

    A dynamic model of a spent fuel shipping cask-rail car system has been developed to provide estimates of the vibratory motion of LWR spent fuel assemblies during transport and to estimate the effects of this motion on the condition of the assemblies when they arrive at receiving and storage facilities. Results of preliminary test computations are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the model

  14. Mathematical model of optimal empty rail car distribution at railway transport nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr RAKHMANGULOV

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available At present there are two trends in the market of rail freight transportation in Russia: freight owners put forward higher demands to the transportation quality (promptness of delivery in an effort to reduce storage costs by means of reducing the size of freight shipment; the structure of railcar traffic volume of the railways of Russia is getting more complex due to the reduction of the average shipment size and due to the transfer of railcar fleet ownership to a large number of operating companies. These trends significantly complicate operational management supervision of railway stations and transport nodes. Application of typical data from the information system about the railcar location at the transportation node is not enough for the dispatchers to make the best decision concerning the car traffic management. The dispatcher traffic control service needs some software-based models of efficient railcar distribution. The article is concerned with the description and development of the mathematical model of empty railcar distribution for loading at the railway transport node; this model will take into account the requirements of railcar owners in terms of their cars application, the operating work level of railroad stations of the transportation node and the possibility of adding the groups of empty railcars to the transfer trains, clean-up trains and industrial railway trains operating on a tight schedule. The developed model and the software package were implemented in the information system of the industrial railway of the major metallurgical enterprise - OJSC «Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Works», which processes up to two thousand of railcars belonging to different owners. This model made it possible to reduce the labour intensity of dispatcher operation planning the empty railcar distribution for loading and reduce the total time the railcars spend in the enterprise railway system.

  15. NYSDOT consideration of potential intermodal sites for Long Island : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    This Study was prepared in response to the Governor's directive to conduct an extensive analysis of the feasibility of a truck/rail facility on Long Island. It was designed to answer three questions: Is an intermodal truck/rail transfer facility ...

  16. NYSDOT consideration of potential intermodal sites for Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    This Study was prepared in response to the Governor's directive to conduct an extensive analysis of the feasibility of a truck/rail : facility on Long Island. It was designed to answer three questions: : Is an intermodal truck/rail transfer facil...

  17. Safety of railroad passenger vehicle dynamics : OMNISIM simulation and test correlations for passenger rail cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the work is to validate the safety assessment methodology previously developed for passenger rail vehicle dynamics, which requires the application of simulation tools as well as testing of vehicles under different track scenarios. This...

  18. Intermodal transportation of low-level radioactive waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) presently serves as a disposal site for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated by DOE-approved generators. The environmental impacts resulting from the disposal of LLW at the NTS are discussed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Nevada Test Site Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada (NTS EIS). During the formal NTS EIS scoping period, it became clear that transportation of LLW was an issue that required attention. Therefore, the Nevada Transportation Protocol Working Group (TPWG) was formed in 1995 to identify, prioritize, and understand local issues and concerns associated with the transportation of LLW to the NTS. Currently, generators of LLW ship their waste to the NTS by legal-weight truck. In 1995, the TPWG suggested the DOE could reduce transportation costs and enhance public safety by using rail transportation. The DOE announced, in October 1996, that they would study the potential for intermodal transportation of LLW to the NTS, by transferring the LLW containers from rail cars to trucks for movements to the NTS. The TPWG and DOE/NV prepared the NTS Intermodal Transportation Facility Site and Routing Evaluation Study to present basic data and analyses on alternative rail-to-truck transfer sites and related truck routes for LLW shipments to the NTS. This Environmental Assessment (EA) identifies the potential environmental impacts and transportation risks of using new intermodal transfer sites and truck routes or continuing current operations to accomplish the objectives of minimizing radiological risk, enhancing safety, and reducing cost. DOE/NV will use the results of the assessment to decide whether or not to encourage the LLW generators and their transportation contractors to change their current operations to accomplish these objectives

  19. Concept of Seikan car train; Yuro tunnel ni manabu Seikan car train koso (rail ni doroteki kino wo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirama, H.

    1997-08-15

    This paper summarizes an idea of operating a car train in the Seikan tunnel. Advantages expected from realization of this idea include assurance of mass transportation, enhancement in safety, reduction of transportation time, completion of a nationwide traffic network, and reduction of the transportation cost. A total traffic amount as sought from quantity of cargoes and number of passengers is estimated to be about 400 cars a day, and the number of trains to be operated assuming a car loading rate at 50% would be 28 trains a day. According to the profitability of this operation derived by using as calculation bases the fare revenue, expenditures and depreciation, the operation would turn into black ink in five years, clearing cumulative deficits in 17 years. In order to realize this operation, it is a prerequisite that the regulation on limitation of vehicle size (maximum width and height of vehicles) be mitigated as lax as in Eurotunnel. In addition, introduction of self-running freight cars and improvement of access roads will be necessary. Estimated economic effects may include time saving profit of 500 million yen annually, tax revenue effect of 200 million yen annually, and production inducing effect of 1.9 billion yen annually. Other expected effects may include employment effect, improvement in information transmitting function, and acceleration of different projects. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  1. Alternative transport network designs and their implications for intermodal transhipment technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Woxenius, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Six principles for operation of the rail part of intermodal rail freight transport systems are described: direct link, corridor, hub-and-spoke, connected hubs, static routes, and dynamic routes. The first part is a theoretical discussion of the characteristics of the transport network designs. The theory is then applied to intermodal freight transport by analysing how each transport network design affects the need for terminal performance. The discussion includes a classification of existing ...

  2. Ten years of common-rail injection systems for passenger cars; Gemeine Drucksache. Zehn Jahre Common-Rail-Einspritzsystem fuer Pkw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenthal, M.Y. von

    2007-07-15

    The future of the diesel engine started in 1997 with the Bosch common rail injection system which provided higher power, higher rotary momentum, lower consumption, lower noise and lower pollutant emissions. Since then, high-pressure common-rail injection systems have become state of the art. (orig.)

  3. Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Intermodal Passenger Connectivity Database (IPCD) is a nationwide data table of passenger transportation terminals, with data on the availability of connections...

  4. Transformation of a car diesel engine with direct injection and common rail into a dual fuel engine; Trasformazione di un motore automobilistico diesel ad iniezione diretta dotato di common rail in un motore dual fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Risi, A.; Laforgia, D. [Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienza dei Materiali

    1999-08-01

    The reduced polluting emissions make natural gas a quite interesting alternative fuel for automotive applications. Therefore a car diesel engine has been transformed into a dual fuel engine with pilot injection via the common rail injection system used to ignite the methane-air charge. Standard injection pumps show a certain instability at low flow rates and high engine speed. On the opposite the new common rail system allows to ignite the fuel in all conditions with an amount of gas oil less than 8% of the entire energy required by the engine was enough to ignite the fuel. Furthermore, a power increase has been obtained, with an overall efficiency equal to or even higher than a conventional engine. The article deals with a series of test carried out on 1929 cm{sup 3} direct injection turbo-charged engine and presents the preliminary results. [Italian] La riduzione delle emissioni inquinanti rende il metano un combustibile alternativo piuttosto interessante per applicazioni automobilistiche. Per quasta ragione e' stata realizzata la trasformazione di un motore automobilitico diesel ad iniezione diretta in un motore dual fuel con iniezione pilota prodotta da un sistema common rail. L'adozione del sistema common rail consente l'accensione in ogni condizione con una quantita' di combustibile inferiore all'8% dell'intera energia richiesta alla potenza nominale del motore risolvendo i problemi di instabilita' che una pompa normale presenta a basse portate e ad alta velocita'. In alcuni casi e' stato sufficiente il 3% dell'energia totale richiesta dal motore per accendere la carica. Inoltre si e' ottenuto un aumento della potenza con un'efficienza globale analoga a qualla del motore tradizionale o addirittura migliore. Si riportano i risultati di una campagna di prove condotta su un motore sovralimentato ad iniezione diretta (1929 cm{sup 3}).

  5. A system dynamics approach to intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, D.

    1996-08-01

    Intermodalism refers to interconnections among modes of transportation, e.g., road, rail, water, and air. Effective intermodal planning must cross boundaries between the public and private sectors as well as transportation modes. The development of an effective and efficient intermodal transportation system requires the identification of barriers to intermodal transportation and the investigation of the impact of proposed changes in infrastructure development, policies, regulations, and planning. A systems approach is necessary to adequately represent the interaction between the sometimes incompatible concerns of all modes and stakeholders. A systems dynamics model of intermodalism at the Port of Lewiston has been developed to highlight leverage points, hidden assumptions, second order effects resulting from feedback loops and system drivers. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the system dynamics model work.

  6. THE IMPACT OF THE CAR BODY TILT WHEN MOVING ON CURVED TRACK SECTIONS ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN WHEELS AND RAILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Yakunin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the information on calculated forces of interaction in the system "wheel-rail" is presented at movement on curve sections of a track with a speed less than 160 km/h and the change of wear of wheels is predicted.

  7. Architecture of Intermodal Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    This paper focuses on the conception and design of architecture as the work of producing media about buildings and other environmental artifacts. I approach
    the questions regarding simplicity and complexity through "interdependence" and "intermodality." I believe the two concepts offer more

  8. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area

  9. 76 FR 4250 - Operating Certain Railroad Tank Cars in Excess of 263,000 Pounds Gross Rail Load; Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ..., thicknesses, materials of construction, and working pressures were as follows: Working Tank car specification..., wheels, draft systems, springs and trucks. S-259, however, does not allow for the free interchange among...-jacketed tank cars constructed with ASTM 516-70 steel and having only the minimum plate thickness required...

  10. Dreams of pneumatic servo and rail way cars in 2010; 2010 nen noyume kukiatsu servo to tetsudo sharyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K. [Tokyo Precision Instruments Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes pneumatic servo and railway cars. The comfort of railway cars is improved by reducing excess transverse centrifugal force, and longitudinal, transverse and vertical vibration. Pneumatic system plays a large role in the comfort. Pneumatic system is used for doors because of certain open/shut operation and protecting a hand caught in a door from excess tightening pressure. Pneumatic system is also used for mechanical brakes. Pneumatic spring for car suspensions improves the comfort considerably. The orifice and auxiliary tank of a pneumatic spring reduce a spring constant, and give damping to the vibration system of car bodies and springs. To reduce an outward excess centrifugal force by tilting a car body inward at curve, a body tilting equipment is used which is adopted for a pendulum car with pneumatic servo control, and a tilting car with height control of both side pneumatic springs. For transverse damping, semi-active equipment using oil damper is in wide use, while that using pneumatic servo is also in rial use. (NEDO)

  11. Logistics in Yemen: Optimal Intermodal Frieght Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisham Najeeb Said AL-Shikh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Major roads in Yemen are not paved and its population density is high in coastal areas, implementing the idea of intermodal transportation method all over the coastline will give the product industries a huge advantages, due to its attractive solutions to the poor transportation infrastructure and its extremely limited road transportation system. The transport of goods in Yemen depends heavily on road transport in the absence of rail transport and limited movement by air transport and its high cost, the private sector provides the bulk of land transport services (goods and has accompanied the performance of road transport activities in the absence of regulation and supervision. In this research paper the author intends to analyse and develop optimal intermodal freight transportation plans for product shipping in Yemen by using two modes of transport (truck, ship without any handling of the freight itself when changing modes. Using intermodal transportation is vital for the product movement and supplies when single mode alternative becomes unusable or infeasible. The author intends to use quantitative research method, plan and execute fieldwork, collecting data form freight companies (truck, ship, local factories, Ministry of Transportation, etc. Compile preliminary maps of roads condition and population density. First the author intends to visit the Ministry of Transport to closely monitor the program and objectives of the Ministry and the secret of work and projects in which it is implemented and meet with its representative for the purpose of collecting data and evidence of the difficulties it faces in order to become familiar with it Comprehensively and directly on its problems and study the possible solutions. , the author will intend to visit Aden and Hodeida ports to view the service and facilities for a better understanding of the processes and to examine the availabilities of intermodal transportation freight and collect data of sea

  12. Coupling System Design Optimization : A Survey and Assessment of Automatic Coupling Concepts for Rail Freight Cars : Volume 1. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an independent identification, classification, and analysis of significant freight car coupling systems concepts offering potential for improved safety and operating costs over the present system. The basic met...

  13. Complex eigenvalue analysis of railway wheel/rail squeal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    Squeal noise from wheel/rail and brake disc/pad frictional contact is typical in railways. ... squeal noise by multibody simulation of a rail car running on rigid rails. ... system, traditional complex eigenvalue analysis by finite element was used.

  14. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  15. Intermodal container transport logistics to andfrom Malaysian ports : Evaluation of Customer requirements and environmental eff‡ects

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sharin

    2014-01-01

    Malaysian ports’ container volumes are expected to increase to 36.6 million TEUs in 2020 compare to 12 million TEUs in 2005. Almost 45% of the container volumes are local containers entering the Malaysian hinterland. The hinterland container transport movements are dominated by road haulage (90%), alongside road-rail intermodal that currently handles the remaining 10%. The aim of this research is to develop possible strategies for improving the logistics of the intermodal hinterland container...

  16. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  17. The concept of intermodal network development in Poland using multi-agent systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek MINDUR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The market share and the development of intermodal haulages, they are still at a very low level. It amounts in total goods transported by rail to 2,5% - 3%. The major reason for this situation is lack of coherent method for intermodal network designing. Such method should take into consideration strong relations between transport users, transport service providers, so the micro scale, as well as the regions where they are operating, so the meta scale.The aim of this paper is to present method which makes possible elimination of existing barriers in intermodal transport. The proposed method, for the sake of relations between actors involved in intermodal transport organisation, refers to multi-agent system concept. This system assumes coordinated actions in favour of concrete problem solution with support of cooperating agents, that is, in described paper, actors connected with intermodal transport.Paper presents results of the research project N509 398536, called: „Intermodal logistics network in Poland – concept of model solutions and implementation aspects” carried out by the Institute of Logistics and Warehousing under scientific leadership of professor Leszek Mindur.

  18. Intermodal Supply Chain Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Maslarić, Marinko; Brnjac, Nikolina; Bago, Drago

    2016-01-01

    Efficient and secure global supply chains contribute to the Improvement of the competitiveness of the products traded on international markets by reducing their costs and delivery time while increasing the reliability and security. Global supply chains are unthinkable without transport integration, which is usually accomplished through the form of intermodal transport systems. Intermodal transport systems are much more complex than the unimodal ones due to the number of stakeholders, included...

  19. Experiences with radiation portal detectors for international rail transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromswold, D. C.; McCormick, K.; Todd, L.; Ashbaker, E. D.; Evans, J. C.

    2006-08-01

    Radiation detectors monitored trains at two international borders to evaluate the performance of NaI(Tl) and plastic (polyvinyltoluene: PVT) gamma-ray detectors to characterize rail cargo. The detectors included a prototype NaI(Tl) radiation-portal-monitor panel having four large detectors (10-cm × 10-cm × 41-cm) and a PVT panel with a 41 cm × 173 cm × 3.8-cm detector. Spectral data from the NaI(Tl) and PVT detectors were recorded. Of particular emphasis was the identification of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and the resultant frequency of nuisance alarms. For rail monitoring, the difficulty in stopping trains to perform secondary inspection on alarming cars creates a need for reliable identification of NORM during initial screening. Approximately 30 trains were monitored, and the commodities in individual railcars were ascertained from manifest information. At one test site, the trains carried inter-modal containers that had been unloaded from ships, and at the other site, the trains contained bulk cargo in tanker cars and hopper cars or individual items in boxcars or flatbeds. NORM encountered included potash, liquefied petroleum gas, fireworks, televisions, and clay-based products (e.g., pottery). Analysis of the spectral data included the use of the template-fitting portion of the program GADRAS developed at Sandia National Laboratories. For most of the NORM, the NaI(Tl) data produced a correct identification of the radionuclides present in the railcars. The same analysis was also used for PVT data in which the spectral information (no peaks but only gradual spectral changes including Compton edges) was limited. However, the PVT analysis provided correct identification of 40K and 226Ra in many cases.

  20. European intermodal freight transport network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of market structure and concentration measures for the Intermodal Freight Transport (IFT) market is important to avoid market failure and to find the areas for policy making to promote IFT market share. This analysis can be performed for separate segments, for example, the market for

  1. Acces to railway stations and its potential in increasing rail use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, M.R.E.; Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2008-01-01

    The propensity to travel by rail, and not, for example by car, can be considered to be a factor of the rail service offered, the access to it and the characteristics of the population served. Efforts to increase rail use usually focus on the rail service itself while the accessibility of the rail

  2. Inter-modal Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel from Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, St.; Thrower, A.; Best, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plans to ship most commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) by rail in sealed transportation, aging and disposal (TAD) canisters. Based on current and projected dry SNF storage programs, DOE believes the majority of commercial nuclear sites would have the capacity to load and prepare large-capacity, canister-based dry storage canisters such as the proposed TAD systems. Thus, only a small fraction of SNF, such as odd lots and SNF not meeting TAD criteria, is projected for truck (highway) shipment. However, at some commercial facilities rail tracks do not extend to the site, or on-site rail does not extend to the site's proposed loading spot, and inter-modal transfers will be required. Advance coordination between DOE and commercial site operators, commercial carriers, specialized carriers and riggers, and state, tribal and local routing officials will be necessary to establish inter-modal transfer areas and obtain necessary permits to move heavy loads over highways. Although inter-modal transfers can involve a number of steps and several different entities acting in close coordination, such moves are commonly performed by industry and the system requirements are well-understood. (authors)

  3. A simulation model for intermodal freight transportation in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With increased emphasis on intermodal transportation development, the issue of how to evaluate an intermodal freight transportation system and provide intermodal solutions has been receiving intensive attention. In order to improve freight flow effic...

  4. Superthin resonator dye laser with THz intermode frequency separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudych, P D; Surovtsev, N V

    2014-01-01

    Two-color laser irradiation is considered an effective way to pump THz excitations for numerous scientific and applied goals. We present a design for convenient laser source with THz intermode frequency separation. The setup is based on dye laser with superthin resonator pumped by a subnanosecond pulse laser. It was proven that the superthin resonator dye laser is useful, possesses high stability and high energy conversion, and generates narrow laser modes. The ability of this laser to pump CARS processes for THz vibrations is demonstrated. (letter)

  5. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends using stationary and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  6. 49 CFR 231.24 - Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of rail. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.24 Box and other house cars with roofs, 16 feet 10 inches or more above top of.... Same as specified for “Box and Other House Cars.” (2) Dimensions. Same as specified for “Box and Other...

  7. The potential of intermodal transport projects in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorica Alexandra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport infrastructure sector is facing challenges related to the decarbonisation, financing and integrated developments, which need to be overcome so it can gain a competitive advantage among the strategic economic sectors. Known as a major pollutant, with 23.3 % of the total EU-28 GHG emissions in 2014, one of the transport policy objectives is to lower this percentage, by focusing on innovative solutions and modal shift (Eurostat, 2016. The White Paper (2011 promotes a sustainable development, aiming at a reduction by 60% by 2050 of the carbon emissions generated by the transport sector and at a modal shift from road to rail or waterborne transport for freight transport over 300 km with 30% by 2030, and more than 50% by 2050. The focus on an integrated development of the transport sector at the European level was reinforced with the adoption of the EU Regulation no. 1315/2013, marking the transition from a patchwork of different projects towards a vision for the achievement of an EU transport network. Moreover, another challenge is related to the scarce availability of the public money, making it necessary to attract private parties in the development of the transport infrastructure projects (The Investment Plan for Europe, 2014. Supporting the development of the intermodal transport is a way of surmounting the obstacles that this sector is confronting with, which is being implemented in Europe. The intermodal transport is introducing a paradigm shift, allowing the integration of the different transport modes together with their own advantages, as opposed to competing stand-alone modes and it can aid in the fight against climate change, scarce financial resources and congestion This article aims at determining the potential of Romania, as a member of European Union, to develop intermodal transport projects, to identify the funding sources, the obstacles and the solutions to promote the successful implementation of such projects.

  8. Experiences with radiation portal detectors for international rail transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, David C.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Evans, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation detectors monitored trains at two international borders to evaluate the performance of NaI(Tl) and plastic (polyvinyltoluene: PVT) gamma-ray detectors to characterize rail cargo. The detectors included a prototype NaI(Tl) radiation-portal-monitor panel having four large detectors (10-cm x 10-cm x 41-cm) and a PVT panel with a 41 cm x 173 cm x 3.8-cm detector. Spectral data from the NaI(Tl) and PVT detectors were recorded. Of particular emphasis was the identification of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and the resultant frequency of nuisance alarms. For rail monitoring, the difficulty in stopping trains to perform secondary inspection on alarming cars creates a need for reliable identification of NORM during initial screening. Approximately 30 trains were monitored, and the commodities in individual railcars were ascertained from manifest information. At one test site the trains carried inter-modal containers that had been unloaded from ships, and at the other site the trains contained bulk cargo or individual items in boxcars or flatbeds. NORM encountered included potash, liquefied petroleum gas, fireworks, televisions, and clay-based products (e.g., pottery). Analysis of the spectral data included the use of the template-fitting program GADRAS/FitToDB from Sandia National Laboratories. For much of the NORM the NaI(Tl) data produced a correct identification of the radionuclides present in the railcars. The same analysis was also used for PVT data in which the spectral information (no peaks but only gradual spectral changes including Compton edges) was limited. However, the PVT analysis provided correct identification of 40K and 226Ra in many cases

  9. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  10. Coupling System Design Optimization : A Survey and Assessment of Automatic Coupling Concepts for Rail Freight Cars : Volume 2. Text and Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an independent identification, classification, and analysis of significant freight car coupling system concepts offering potential for improved safety and operating costs over the present system. The basic meth...

  11. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  12. Atlanta Rail Yard Study (ARYS): Evaluation of local-scale air pollution trends and emissions quantification using stationary and mobile monitoring strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with ...

  13. 78 FR 31628 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI to Minneapolis, MN Rail Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... a robust intrastate and interstate intercity passenger rail system which results in improved travel... regional travel demand and provide intermodal connectivity to existing and planned transportation systems... the Twin Cities by: decreasing travel times, increasing frequency of service, and providing safe and...

  14. Intermodal Logistics Centres and Freight Corridors – Concepts and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Wagener

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available . Background: The development of international freight corridors, as the Trans European Network and new rail and inland shipping corridors in Asia and Africa, require efficient logistics centres along these corridors which serve as intermodal interfaces and provide a variety of different logistics service functions. The definition of the term logistics centre differs between countries and implies different functionalities. Locations are often selected randomly and business models are opportunity driven, especially in highly dynamic and less regulated new emerging economies. In particular Freight Villages as a special form of logistics centres have a high impact on regional development and serve as cargo generator for freight corridors. Consideration of general principles how to establish Freight Villages could improve the effectiveness of these logistics centres along freight corridors. Methods: Based on a literature review a comprehensive and hierarchical definition of logistics centres will be discussed and applied. From experiences in the development of logistics centres in several countries, especially in Germany and Lithuania, challenges and concepts concerning regulatory framework, determination of location and business and financing models are discussed. Results: Concerning the definition of logistics centres a hierarchical definition is applied which comprises different levels of logistics centres depending on the scope of the value adding and the functionality. As general principles for the development of Freight Villages the active role of the state, master planning, objective location finding, participation and co-operation of different stakeholders in the business model and a stepwise scheme for financing are introduced. Major trends for the future development of Freight Villages are the digitalization of supply chains, the application of new intermodal technologies and of innovative telematics systems, solutions for low emission and

  15. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  16. Rail transportation of Fernald remediation waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellman, R.T.; Lojek, D.A.; Motl, G.P.; Weddendorf, W.K.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald site located north of Cincinnati will generate large quantities of low-level radwaste. This volume includes approximately 1,050,000 tons of material to be removed from eight waste pits comprising Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The remedial alternative selected includes waste material excavation, drying and transportation by rail to a burial site in the arid west for disposal. Rail transportation was selected not only because rail transportation is safer than truck transportation, but also because of the sheer magnitude of the project and the availability of bulk rail car unloading facilities at a representative disposal site. Based upon current waste quantity estimates as presented in the Feasibility Study for OUI, a fully-loaded 47-car unit train would depart the Fernald site weekly for five years. This paper illustrates the steps taken to obtain agency and public acceptance of the Record of Decision for the remedy which hinged on rail transportation. A preliminary, but detailed, rail transportation plan was prepared for the project to support a series of CERCLA public meetings conducted in late 1994. Some of the major issues addressed in the plan included the following: (1) Scope of project leading to selection of rail transportation; (2) Waste classification; (3) Rail Company overview; (4) Train configuration and rail car selection; (5) Routing; (6) Safety; (7) Prior Notification Requirements (8) Emergency Response. A series of three public meetings identified a number of issues of prime concern to Fernald stakeholders. Following resolution of these issues during the public comment period, a Record of Decision (ROD) approving implementation of the rail transportation strategy was approved pending incorporation of EPA and State of Ohio comments on December 22, 1994

  17. Potential for Intermodal Transport of Chemical Goods in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagelčák Juraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with intermodal transport of chemical goods in Slovak republic. Analysis is based on information from interviews with companies and logistics service providers. The first part of the article describes importance of Intermodal transport and basic transport routes for intermodal transport. Respondents considered advantages and disadvantages of intermodal transport. Possible improvements inside companies and improvements of external framework conditions to promote modal shift are described in the second part of the paper.

  18. Identification of key target markets for intermodal freight transport solutions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joubert van Eeden

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa (AsgiSA identified South Africa's freight logistics challenges as among the key binding constraints on the country's growth aspirations. The research presented here points to the structural imbalance between road and rail freight transport as one of the key contributors to this state of affairs. Most long-distance corridor transport has been captured by road. However, long-distance transport is a market segment that is very suitable for intermodal transportation : rail is utilised for the high-density, long-distance component and road for the feeder and distribution services at the corridor end points. A market segmentation approach is developed to identify the corridors and industries that are natural candidates for such solutions, thereby paving the way for role-players and stakeholders to initiate a dialogue on the development of appropriate solutions.

  19. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values for describing dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel. Data obtained during observation of the offloading of research reactor spent fuel at Newport News Terminal in the Port of Hampton Roads, Virginia, are described. These data include estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors, and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Other workers include crane operators, scale operators, security personnel, and truck drivers. The data are compared to the default data in RADTRAN 4, and the latter are found to be conservative. The casks were loaded under IAEA supervision at their point of origin, and three separate radiological inspections of each cask were performed at the entry to the port (Hampton Roads) by the U.S. Coast Guard, the state of Virginia, and the shipping firm. As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handler exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. (author)

  20. Intermodal transfer of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Weiner, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    As a result of the international standardization of containerized cargo handling in ports around the world, maritime shipment handling is particularly uniform. Thus, handier exposure parameters will be relatively constant for ship-truck and ship-rail transfers at ports throughout the world. Inspectors' doses are expected to vary because of jurisdictional considerations. The results of this study should be applicable to truck-to-rail transfers. A study of the movement of spent fuel casks through ports, including the loading and unloading of containers from cargo vessels, afforded an opportunity to estimate the radiation doses to those individuals handling the spent fuels with doses to the public along subsequent transportation routes of the fuel. A number of states require redundant inspections and for escorts over long distances on highways; thus handlers, inspectors, escort personnel, and others who are not normally classified as radiation workers may sustain doses high enough to warrant concern about occupational safety. This paper addresses the question of radiation safety for these workers. Data were obtained during, observation of the offloading of reactor spent fuel (research reactor spent fuel, in this instance) which included estimates of exposure times and distances for handlers, inspectors and other workers during offloading and overnight storage. Exposure times and distance were also for other workers, including crane operators, scale operators, security personnel and truck drivers. RADTRAN calculational models and parameter values then facilitated estimation of the dose to workers during incident-free ship-to-truck transfer of spent fuel

  1. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  2. 75 FR 14245 - Voluntary Intermodal Sealift Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... measures so that Contingency planning information can be shared with Participants to enable them to plan... Intermodal Sealift Agreement (VISA) Table of Contents Abbreviations Definitions Preface I. Purpose II... of VISA Contingency Provisions A. General B. Notification of Activation C. Voluntary Capacity D...

  3. Analyzing competition in intermodal freight transport networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeedi, Hamid; Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad; Zuidwijk, Rob

    2017-01-01

    To cope with an intense and competitive environment, intermodal freight transport operators have increasingly adopted business practices —like horizontal and vertical business integration—which aim to reduce the operational costs, increase the profit margins, and improve their competitive position

  4. 19 CFR 123.91 - Electronic information for rail cargo required in advance of arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification number will be a unique number to be assigned by CBP upon the implementation of the Automated... implementation of the Automated Commercial Environment); (8) The place where the rail carrier takes possession of... being shipped by rail; (10) Container numbers (for containerized shipments) or the rail car numbers; and...

  5. Intercity passenger rail : the congress faces critical decisions about the role of and funding for intercity passenger rail systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-25

    With the growth in the nation's highway and aviation systems in the : previous decades, intercity passenger rail service lost its competitive edge. Highways have enabled cars to be competitive with conventional passenger trains (those operating up to...

  6. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  7. Intermodal transport as an integral part of logistics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bitkowska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The experience of companies that are successful in the carriage of goods prove that intermodal transport is now a major factor in determining the success of logistics system. A modern approach to the transport is based on intermodal transport. The article is based on the method of external observation. It presents the essence of intermodal transport and its benefits. It specifies transportation as an integral part of logistics system.

  8. A Practical Model for Inbound Container Distribution Organization in Rail-Water Transhipping Terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahao Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail-water transportation is a crucial component of intermodal transportation system. Effective operation of rail-water intermodal transportation requires not only railway network and advanced handling equipment, but also scientific and reasonable transportation organization. In this paper, we first briefly introduced the coordination area and related concepts. Then an inbound container distribution organization model (ICDOM was established taking into account many factors such as transhipping capacity, network capacity, and importance of containers, in order to minimize the total container-hours in the coordination area, which reflects the efficiency of inbound container distribution organization. Additionally, a genetic algorithm (GA was developed and the optimization results were evaluated, which showed that both of the model and the algorithm were effective.

  9. The coastal transportation in Brazil - potential for the improvement of aiming intermodality logistic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes aspects related to coastal shipping in Brazil and its main actors and intermodal factors (road, rail, fluvial transportation etc. which corroborate to the increase of logistics competitiveness and efficiency of transportation in a large country like Brazil. The purpose of the study is bibliographic research on the topic, analyzing it inside the Brazilian scenario and also how it has been implemented in some countries. The objective of the study is also analyzing legislation which defines parameters to coastal shipping. This fact interferes directly with the logistics system and its intermodal aspects. If Brazil intends to reduce its logistics costs, coastal shipping should be an effective way to contribute to the Brazilian matrix of transport. Coastal shipping is supposed to bring competitive advantage and reduction of logistic costs. The conclusion is that integration is essential among the systems of domestic transportation and coastal shipping with its outstanding role in this environment, can contribute substantially to the Brazilian maritime industry.

  10. A chance-constrained stochastic approach to intermodal container routing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Liu, Ronghui; Zhang, Xi; Whiteing, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    We consider a container routing problem with stochastic time variables in a sea-rail intermodal transportation system. The problem is formulated as a binary integer chance-constrained programming model including stochastic travel times and stochastic transfer time, with the objective of minimising the expected total cost. Two chance constraints are proposed to ensure that the container service satisfies ship fulfilment and cargo on-time delivery with pre-specified probabilities. A hybrid heuristic algorithm is employed to solve the binary integer chance-constrained programming model. Two case studies are conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed model and to analyse the impact of stochastic variables and chance-constraints on the optimal solution and total cost.

  11. Prototype design and test of a collision protection system for cab car engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in the design of rail cars can : potentially prevent the structural collapse of : space occupied by a cab car engineer : during a train collision. With adequate : survival space maintained, the next : crashworthiness objective is to mini...

  12. Prototype design of a collision protection system for cab car engineers - fabrication and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in the structural crashworthiness of passenger rail cars now make it possible to preserve the compartmentalized : space occupied by a cab car engineer during a train collision. In order to translate this additional protection into improv...

  13. Intermodal Barge Transport : Network Design, Nodes and Competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the opportunities and conditions to increase the market share of intermodal barge transport in Northwest Europe. In particular, it focuses on strategies to improve the performances of the different links of the intermodal transport chain: the barge transport services, the

  14. An approach for economic analysis of intermodal transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bahri; Yilmaz, Huseyin; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  15. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bahri; Ust, Yasin; Guneri, Ali Fuat; Gulsun, Bahadir; Turan, Eda

    2014-01-01

    A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode. PMID:25152919

  16. INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: CONSIDERATIONS IN PREFERENCE AND THE PROBLEMS BETWEEN EUROPE AND TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Balca Berfin UYGUÇ; Bengü SEVİL OFLAÇ

    2017-01-01

    Intermodal transportation has become increasingly important, as global supply chains tend to spread their activities in diversified countries. Intermodal transportation has its own issues that should be investigated in a deeper sense. Therefore, through conducting semi-structured interviews with logistics companies, this study aims to analyze the considerations in intermodal preference and problems faced during intermodal operations between Europe and Turkey.

  17. Managing rail service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Popović

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The service life of rails depends especially on the operational loads and speeds on the railway lines, as well as on the rail maintenance policy. There are multiple aspects of rail maintenance optimization. The following article considers optimisation of rail maintenance activities relating to rail head surface condition in order to reduce corrective work on track geometry, as well as to minimize the overall costs for track maintenance. The objects of this research are issues and challenges related to rail and track maintenance in curves on modern conventional railway lines for mixed traffic.

  18. Planning for Bike Share Connectivity to Rail Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Greg Phillip; Sener, Ipek Nese

    2016-01-01

    Bike sharing can play a role in providing access to transit stations and then to final destinations, but early implementation of these systems in North America has been opportunistic rather than strategic. This study evaluates local intermodal plan goals using trip data and associated infrastructure such as transit stops and bike share station locations in Austin, Texas, and Chicago, Illinois. Bike sharing use data from both cities suggest a weak relationship with existing rail stations that could be strengthened through collaborative, intermodal planning. The study suggests a planning framework and example language that could be tailored to help address the linkage between bike sharing and transit. Rather than an exhaustive study of the practice, this study provides evidence from these two cities that identify opportunities to improve intermodal planning. Cities that are planning or expanding a bike sharing system should consider carefully how to leverage this mode with existing modes of transport. Regardless of a city’s status in implementing a bike sharing system, planners can leverage information on existing transport systems for planning at regional and local levels. PMID:27872554

  19. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Metal Workers International Association (SMWIA); Tourist Railway Association, Inc.; Transport Canada... sleeping cars. Such trains are common on long- distance, intercity rail routes operated by Amtrak. On a...

  20. Top-of-Rail lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, M. F.; Fenske, G. R.; Erck, R. A.; Boparai, A. S.

    2000-07-14

    Analysis of the volatile and semivolatile fractions collected after use of the TOR lubricant indicated that other than contaminants in the collection laboratory, no compounds on the EPA's Target Compound Lists (Tables 2 and 5) were detected in these fractions. The data of these qualitative analyses, given in the various tables in the text, indicate only the relative amounts of the tentatively identified compounds. The authors recommend that quantitative analysis be performed on the volatile and semivolatile fractions to allow confirmation of the tentatively identified compounds and to obtain absolute amounts of the detected compounds. Additionally, the semivolatile fraction should be analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify compounds that are not chromatographable under the temperature program used for determination of semivolatile compounds. Introducing the top-of-rail (TOR) lubricant into the wheel/rail interface results in a reduction of almost 60% of lateral friction force over the forces encountered under dry conditions. This reveals good potential for energy savings, as well as wear reduction, for railroad companies. In TOR lubrication, an increase in the angle of attack and axle load results in increased lateral friction and rate of lubricant consumption. The most efficient TOR lubricant quantity to be used in the wheel/rail interface must be calculated precisely according to the number of cars, axle loads, train speed, and angle of attack.

  1. Rail projects gather steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    The global recession hit rail companies hard, as demand for bulk commodities such as coal was affected. But green shoots of recovery are now appearing, with many rail companies announcing new haulage contracts. 3 figs.

  2. Analytical methods and simulation models to assess innovative operational measures and technologies for rail port terminals: the case of Valencia Principe Felipe terminal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, S.

    2016-07-01

    The topic of freight transport by rail is a complex theme and, in recent years, a main issue of European policy. The legislation evolution and the White Paper 2011 have demonstrated the European intention to re-launch this sector. The challenge is to promote the intermodal transport system to the detriment of road freight transport. In this context intermodal freight terminals, play a primary role for the supply chain, they are the connection point between the various transport nodes and the nodal points where the freight are handled, stored and transferred between different modes to final customer. To achieve the purpose, it is strengthen the improvement of existing intermodal freight terminals and the development of innovative intermodal freight terminals towards higher performance (ERRAC, 2012). Many terminal performances improvements have been proposed and sometime experimented. They are normally basing on combinations of operational measures and innovative technologies (e.g. automatic horizontal and parallel storage and handling, automated gate and sensors for tracking systems data exchange) tested in various terminals, with often-contradictory results. The research work described in this paper (developed within the Capacity4Rail EU project) focusses on the assessment of effects that these innovations can have in the intermodal freight terminals combined in various alternative consistent effective scenarios. The methodological framework setup to assess these innovations is basing on a combination of analytical methods based on sequential algorithms and discrete events simulation models. The output of this assessment method are key performance indicators (KPIs) selected according to terminals typologies and related to different aspects (e.g. management, operation and organization). The present paper illustrates the application of the methodological framework, tuned on the operation of various intermodal terminals, for the validation on today operation and the

  3. Implications of system usability on intermodal facility design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Ensuring good design of intermodal transportation facilities is critical for effective and : satisfactory operation. Passenger use of the facilities is often hindered by inadequate space, a poor : layout, or lack of signage. This project aims to impr...

  4. Terminal location planning in intermodal transportation with Bayesian inference method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In this project, we consider the planning of terminal locations for intermodal transportation systems. For a given number of potential terminals and coexisted multiple service pairs, we find the set of appropriate terminals and their locations that p...

  5. Coopetition in Intermodal Freight Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the coopetition of the downstream different carriers by providing complementary transport services in intermodal freight transport chain. Considering different information structure, a two-stage dynamic game model with simultaneous actions on investment and price is first formulated. Equilibria show both parties have motivation to select coopetition even if the agreement for cooperation investment is reached in advance. When both firms agree on the specific allocation, the new coopetition with higher efficiency would be emerged. Moreover, we analyze the complexity and evolution of coopetition by repeated pricing game with finitely and infinitely time horizon. In the finitely repeated pricing game, both firms have incentive to reach a tacit understanding to alternate choosing price cooperation and competition after setting suitable allocation scheme; the repeated periods t are then going to be an issue. In the infinitely repeated pricing game, the perfect cooperation is realized by designing the suitable trigger strategy.

  6. Rails on Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Hibbs, Curt

    2007-01-01

    It's no secret that the entire Ruby onRails core team uses OS X as their preferreddevelopment environment. Becauseof this, it is very easy to findauthoritative information on the webabout using Rails on OS X. But the truthis that Windows developers using Railsprobably outnumber those using otherplatforms. A Windows development environmentcan be just as productive asany other platform. This is a guide to developing with Rubyon Rails under Windows. It won't teachyou how to write Ruby on Rails web applications,but it will show you what toolsto use and how to set them up to createa complete Rail

  7. Implications of rail electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    A model is developed to investigate possible effects of rail electrodynamics on the performance of railguns. This model describes the oscillatory nature of the rail motion in response to the Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force of material which is behind the rails. In this simple model the rails are found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The rail dynamic behavior induces local electric fields. The authors investigate the significance of these electric fields on stationary particles (lab frame) and on particles moving at the velocity of the plasma/projectile system (projectile frame)

  8. Intermode Breather Solitons in Optical Microresonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hairun; Lucas, Erwan; Pfeiffer, Martin H. P.; Karpov, Maxim; Anderson, Miles; Liu, Junqiu; Geiselmann, Michael; Jost, John D.; Kippenberg, Tobias J.

    2017-10-01

    Dissipative solitons can be found in a variety of systems resulting from the double balance between dispersion and nonlinearity, as well as gain and loss. Recently, they have been observed to spontaneously form in Kerr nonlinear microresonators driven by a continuous wave laser, providing a compact source of coherent optical frequency combs. As optical microresonators are commonly multimode, intermode interactions, which give rise to avoided mode crossings, frequently occur and can alter the soliton properties. Recent works have shown that avoided mode crossings cause the soliton to acquire a single-mode dispersive wave, a recoil in the spectrum, or lead to soliton decay. Here, we show that avoided mode crossings can also trigger the formation of breather solitons, solitons that undergo a periodic evolution in their amplitude and duration. This new breather soliton, referred to as an intermode breather soliton, occurs within a laser detuning range where conventionally stationary (i.e., stable) dissipative Kerr solitons are expected. We experimentally demonstrate the phenomenon in two microresonator platforms (crystalline magnesium fluoride and photonic chip-based silicon nitride microresonators) and theoretically describe the dynamics based on a pair of coupled Lugiato-Lefever equations. We show that the breathing is associated with a periodic energy exchange between the soliton and a second optical mode family, a behavior that can be modeled by a response function acting on dissipative solitons described by the Lugiato-Lefever model. The observation of breathing dynamics in the conventionally stable soliton regime is relevant to applications in metrology such as low-noise microwave generation, frequency synthesis, or spectroscopy.

  9. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  10. 78 FR 66326 - Hazardous Materials: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...: Rail Petitions and Recommendations To Improve the Safety of Railroad Tank Car Transportation (RRR) AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Advance Notice of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts...

  11. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF DEVELOPING INTERMODAL TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisan Radu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Transport plays a crucial role in economic and social development and its contribution goes beyond what is normally captured in traditional cost-benefit analyses. Transportation investments can have large long-term economic, social and environmental impacts. The European Commission when developing transport policy, focuses on the intermodal transport, which is seen as a sustainable mobility solution, environmentally friendly and efficient in terms of resources, especially in terms of freight. European transport policies promote co-modality - combining different modes for a single supply chain - as a solution to the adverse effects of transport: pollution, traffic congestion, energy consumption. Intermodal transport is found to be consistently cheaper than all-road solutions, and its external costs significantly lower, thereby confirming the high potential of intermodal transport in increasing the sustainability of the transport sector. So, freight intermodality is increasingly considered as major potential contributor to solving the sustainability problems of the European transport sector. This paper addresses the pricing issues specifically related to intermodal transport. The focus in on the main economical advantages of developing intermodal transport, but also on the usage limits brought by particularities of transport modes. Special attention is given to intermodal transfer terminals with solutions for activity efficiency increase, with major implications on the quality and cost of transportation. The theme discussed in this paper is of great importance, many authors and specialists developed it in their studies. Some names are needed to be mentioned: Todd Litman, Dr. Yuri V. Yevdokimov, John J. Coyle, Kenneth D. Boyer and few more. But, a special attention for this subject is paid by the European Commission and its subordinated institutions, that are interested in developing sustainable strategies and promoting concrete solutions for

  12. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  13. INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: CONSIDERATIONS IN PREFERENCE AND THE PROBLEMS BETWEEN EUROPE AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balca Berfin UYGUÇ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal transportation has become increasingly important, as global supply chains tend to spread their activities in diversified countries. Intermodal transportation has its own issues that should be investigated in a deeper sense. Therefore, through conducting semi-structured interviews with logistics companies, this study aims to analyze the considerations in intermodal preference and problems faced during intermodal operations between Europe and Turkey.

  14. Framing Light Rail Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, there has been a strong political will to implement light rail. This article contributes to the knowledge concerning policies around light rail by analysing how local actors frame light rail projects and which rationalities and arguments are present in this decision-making process....... The article draws on the socio-technical approach to mobilities studies in order to reassemble the decision-making process in three European cases: Bergen, Angers, and Bern. This article provides insights into the political, discursive and material production of light rail mobilities in a European context....... It identifies the planning rationales behind the systems and the policies that have been supportive of this light rail vision. Finally, the article identifies the practical challenges and potentials that have been connected to the different local frames of light rail mobility which can be used in future...

  15. Atlanta Rail Yard Study: Evaluation of local-scale air pollution ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intermodal rail yards are important nodes in the freight transportation network, where freight is organized and moved from one mode of transport to another, critical equipment is serviced, and freight is routed to its next destination. Rail yard environments are also areas with multiple sources of air pollutant emissions (e.g., heavy-duty vehicles, locomotives, cranes), which may affect local air quality in residential areas nearby. In order to understand emissions and related air quality impacts, two field studies took place over the time span of 2010-2012 to measure air pollution trends in close proximity to the Inman and Tilford rail yard complex in Atlanta, GA. One field study involved long-term stationary monitoring of black carbon, fine particles, and carbon dioxide at two stations nearby the rail yard. In addition, a second field study performed intensive mobile air monitoring for a one month period in the summer of 2012 at a roadway network surrounding the rail yard complex and measured a comprehensive array of pollutants. Real-time mobile particulate measurements included particle counts, extinction coefficient, black carbon via light-absorption and particle incandescence, and particle composition derived by aerosol mass spectrometry. Gas-phase measurements included oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and air toxics (e.g., benzene). Both sets of measurements determined detectable local influence from rail yard-related emissions.

  16. Rail passengers rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđev Dušanka J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legal framework of rail passengers rights is set out in a combination of international and European law: an international measure, the rather unwieldy Uniform Rules concerning the Contract for International Carriage of Passengers and Luggage by Rail, forming part of the Convention concerning International Carriage by Rail of 9 May 1980 (as amended by the Vilnius Protocol of 3 June 1999 ['CIV'], lays down a basic framework which is then fleshed out by more recent EU legislation, Regulation (EC No 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers ' Rights and Obligations. Regulation 1371/2007/EC on rail passenger rights and obligations sets out minimum quality standards that have to be guaranteed to all passengers on all lines. .

  17. RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Johne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available RailSiTe® (Rail Simulation and Testing is DLR’s rail simulation and testing laboratory (see Figure 1. It is the implementation of a fully modular concept for the simulation of on-board and trackside control and safety technology. The RailSiTe® laboratory additionally comprises the RailSET (Railway Simulation Environment for Train Drivers and Operators human-factors laboratory, a realistic environment containing a realistic train mockup including 3D simulation.

  18. A review and analysis of the investment in, and cost structure of, intermodal rail terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, Bart; Behdani, Behzad

    2018-01-01

    The results presented in this article identify the role of costs in the scientific and grey freight terminal handling literature and analyses the handling costs of different terminal sizes. The literature review shows that handling costs only play a marginal role in the scientific research in

  19. Bronze railing from Mediana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Miloje R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The hoard containing components of bronze railing was discovered in trench 7 during excavations at Mediana in 2000. Railing consists of cancelli and herms with busts of deities between them. Railing was constructed in such a way that it was possible to disassemble and reassemble it. Three cancelli one fragmented semicancellus cast together with herm and herms, one with bust of Aesculapius and other with bust of Luna. It could be concluded that railing consisted of two segments with passage between them. Male deities were represented on the left segment of the railing and female deities on the right segment. Detailed analysis revealed that Aesculapius as well as Luna bear strong mark of classical Greek and Hellenistic art, which experienced some kind of renaissance in the time of Constantine I. It is very probable that we can recognize the portrait of Faustina, Constantine’s wife in the portrait of Luna. According to the historical events the railing could have been produced before 325 AD when Constantine definitively accepted Christianity at Council of Nicaea. It is difficult to say where the railing had been produced. It had been most probably brought to Mediana during the stay of emperor Julian in Niš in 361. The sculptures found in one room of the villa with peristyle had probably been brought at the same time. The apse of triclinium of this villa had most likely been arranged as small shrine with bronze railing at its entrance. The railing was buried in 378 after battle of Adrianople and invasion of Goths in diocese Dacia.

  20. Intermodal transport and distribution patterns in ports relationship to hinterland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.; Ilie, A.; Oprea, C.

    2017-08-01

    It is of great importance to examine all interactions between ports, terminals, intermodal transport and logistic actors of distribution channels, as their optimization can lead to operational improvement. Proposed paper starts with a brief overview of different goods types and allocation of their logistic costs, with emphasis on storage component. Present trend is to optimize storage costs by means of port storage area buffer function, by making the best use of free storage time available, most of the ports offer. As a research methodology, starting point is to consider the cost structure of a generic intermodal transport (storage, handling and transport costs) and to link this to intermodal distribution patterns most frequently cast-off in port relationship to hinterland. The next step is to evaluate storage costs impact on distribution pattern selection. For a given value of port free storage time, a corresponding value of total storage time in the distribution channel can be identified, in order to substantiate a distribution pattern shift. Different scenarios for transport and handling costs variation, recorded when distribution pattern shift, are integrated in order to establish the reaction of the actors involved in port related logistic and intermodal transport costs evolution is analysed in order to optimize distribution pattern selection.

  1. Arrangements of intermodal transport in the field of conflicting conventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.F. Haak (Krijn); M.A.I.H. Hoeks (Marian)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe continuing advance of containerization emphasizes the need for a more uniform legal approach to international intermodal transport. With the current lack of a uniform instrument regulating such transport, the next best solution - both in legal theory as well as in practice - seems to

  2. Intermode traces - fundamental interference phenomenon in quantum and wave physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, A.E.; Stifter, P.; Leeuwen, van K.A.H.; Lamb, W.E.; Schleich, W.P.

    1998-01-01

    Highly regular spatio-temporal or multi-dimensional patterns in the quantum mechanical probability or classical field intensity distributions can appear due to pair interference between individual eigen-modes of the system forming the so called intermode traces. These patterns are strongly

  3. Flex Cargo Rail. Developing new service, collection and distribution concepts for the transport of freight by rail.; Flex Cargo Rail. Wege zu neuen Bedien-, Sammel- und Verteilkonzepten im Schienengueterverkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochsiek, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Materialfluss und Logistik (IML), Dortmund (Germany). Gruppe Multimodale Logistik

    2010-07-01

    FlexCargoRail is a concept for self propelled electric freight wagons. This will enhance rail operations on first and last mile. The concept can be integrated in the existing rail system, so migration is possible without any lost investments. Standard components from industry and rail are used to realise the FCR wagon. Motors, transmissions, control and batteries are available and approved. One of the effects is to enhance service for loading terminals. This can become independent from factory siding operation. From the economic point of view, FCR is realisable. This is shown by target costing. Efficiency of FCR is dependent from high frequent use of FCR rail cars and the use of the possibility to shunt also conventional freight wagons with FCR wagons. Migration should be carried out in logistical networks with frequent operations between plants and sidings with a closed wagon pool. (orig.)

  4. Development and fabrication of state-of-the-art end structures for Budd M1 cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-24

    The Volpe Center and the Federal Railroad Administration are engaged in active research aimed at improving rail vehicle crashworthiness. One component of this research is focused on improving the performance of passenger train cab cars during collisi...

  5. Rail vehicle dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Knothe, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This book on the dynamics of rail vehicles is developed from the manuscripts for a class with the same name at TU Berlin. It is directed mainly to master students with pre-knowledge in mathematics and mechanics and engineers that want to learn more. The important phenomena of the running behaviour of rail vehicles are derived and explained. Also recent research results and experience from the operation of rail vehicles are included. One focus is the description of the complex wheel-rail contact phenomena that are essential to understand the concept of running stability and curving. A reader should in the end be able to understand the background of simulation tools that are used by the railway industry and universities today.

  6. LA REORDENACIÓN DEL SISTEMA DE TRANSPORTE PÚBLICO ANTE EVENTOS ESPECIALES, UN EJERCICIO PRÁCTICO DE COORDINACIÓN INTERMODAL

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo González, Pedro; Blanco Caballero, Nuria; Moreno Muñoz, Carmen; Chico González, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    [ES] El Consorcio Regional de Transportes de Madrid (CRTM), como autoridad de transporte público de la región, coordina los más de 40 operadores públicos y privados para dar una respuesta óptima a las necesidades de movilidad de los ciudadanos. El transporte público en la Comunidad de Madrid constituye un sistema complejo de carácter intermodal, en el que operan modos de transporte urbanos e interurbanos, conectados mediante un conjunto de intercambiadores o áreas intermodales ...

  7. The comprehensive intermodal planning system in distributed environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgierd Dziamski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Goods distribution by containers has opened new opportunities for them in the global supply chain network. Standardization of transportation units allow to simplify transport logistics operations and enable the integration of different types of transport. Currently, container transport is the most popular means of transport by sea, but recent studies show an increase in its popularity in land transport. In the paper presented the concept of a comprehensive intermodal planning system in a distributed environment which enables more efficient use containers in the global transport. The aim of this paper was to formulate and develop new concept of Internet Intermodal Planning System in distribution environment, supporting the common interests of the consignors and the logistic service providers by integrating the transportation modes, routing, logistics operations and scheduling in order to create intermodal transport plans. Methods: In the paper presented and discussed the new approach to the management of logistics resources used in international intermodal transport. Detailed analysis of proposed classification of variety transportation means has been carried out along with their specific properties, which may affect the time and cost of transportation. Have been presented the modular web-based distribution planning system supporting container transportation planning. Conducted the analysis of the main planning process and curried out the discussion on the effectiveness of the new web-based container transport planning system. Result and conclusions: This paper presents a new concept of the distributed container transport planning system integrating the available on the market logistics service providers with freight exchange. Specific to container planning new transport categories has been identified which simplify and facilitate the management of intermodal planning process. The paper presents a modular structure of Integrated

  8. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  9. 77 FR 17121 - RailAmerica, Inc., Palm Beach Rail Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., RailTex, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...% of the Class A Common Units of TransRail, giving RailTex a 70% ownership interest in TransRail and control of W&C through TransRail. The MG Principals will retain the Class B Common Units of TransRail... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35605] RailAmerica, Inc...

  10. The Rail Alignment Environmental Impact Statement: An Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, R.

    2005-01-01

    scenario, the DOE would rely on a combination of rail, truck and possibly barge to transport to the repository site at Yucca Mountain up to 70,000 MTHM of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, with most of the spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste being transported by rail. This will ultimately require construction of a rail line in Nevada to the repository. In addition, the DOE has decided to select the Caliente rail corridor in which to examine potential alignments within which to construct that rail line. A corridor is a strip of land, approximately 400 meters (0.25 miles) wide, that encompasses one of several possible routes through which DOE could build a rail line. An alignment is the specific location of a rail line in a corridor, and would likely be 60 meters [200 feet] or less in width. Also on April 8, 2004, DOE issued a Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Alignment, Construction, and Operation of a Rail Line to a Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, NV. In the Notice of Intent, the Department announced its intent to prepare a Rail Alignment EIS to assist in selecting a possible alignment for construction of a rail line that would connect the repository at Yucca Mountain to an existing main rail line in Nevada. The Rail Alignment EIS also would consider the potential construction and operation of a rail-to-truck intermodal transfer facility, proposed to be located at the confluence of an existing mainline railroad and a highway, to support legal-weight truck transportation until the rail system is fully operational. This corridor is approximately 513 kilometers (319 miles) long and would cost an estimated $880 million (2001 dollars). Should DOE decide to build the Caliente corridor, it may be the longest rail line built in the United States since the Transcontinental Railroad was constructed in 1869. Some of the challenges in building this rail corridor are steep grades (the corridor

  11. Shock and vibration environments encountered during normal rail transportation of heavy cargo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnuson, C.F.

    1982-08-01

    This study was conducted to obtain vibration and superimposed shock data during normal rail shipment of heavy cargo. The data were obtained during a regularly scheduled rail shipment of a 45-tonne (50-ton) cargo which consisted of an empty spent-fuel container, its supporting structure, and associated hoisting devices. The shipment was made over rail lines which are operated by the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway Company between Denver, Colorado and Albuquerque, New Mexico. The instrumented rail car was equipped with 0.38-m (15-in.) hydraulic end-of-car coupling devices. The 99 percentile levels of vibration acceleration amplitudes and single degree-of-freedom superimposed shock response spectra for the longitudinal, transverse, and vertical axes are presented

  12. An intermodal transportation geospatial network modeling for containerized soybean shipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Containerized shipping is a growing market for agricultural exports, particularly soybeans. In order to understand the optimal strategies for improving the United States’ economic competitiveness in this emerging market, this research develops an intermodal transportation network modeling framework, focusing on U.S. soybean container shipments. Built upon detailed modal cost analyses, a Geospatial Intermodal Freight Transportation (GIFT model has been developed to understand the optimal network design for U.S. soybean exports. Based on market demand and domestic supply figures, the model is able to determine which domestically produced soybeans should go to which foreign markets, and by which transport modes. This research and its continual studies, will provide insights into future policies and practices that can improve the transportation efficiency of soybean logistics.

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 3): Paoli Rail Yard, Paoli, PA. (First remedial action), July 1992. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The 428-acre Paoli Rail Yard site is a maintenance, storage, and repair facility located north of Paoli in Chester County, Pennsylvania. Soil contamination in and around the car shop is attributed to releases of fuel oil and PCB-laden transformer fluid from rail cars during maintenance and repair activities. In 1985, EPA identified PCB contamination in soil and sediment, and on building surfaces. The rail companies agreed to address site clean-up activities, including erosion, sedimentation, and stormwater characteristics and control, decontamination, soil sampling, excavation of 3,500 cubic yards residential soil, and implementation of worker protection measures. The ROD provides a final remedy for contaminated soil (from the rail yard and residences), sediment, and structures at the Paoli Rail Yard, and contaminated ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, debris, and ground water are VOCs, including benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes; and other organics, including PCBs. The selected remedial action for the site are included

  14. A Rails / Django Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ruby on Rails (“Rails” is the dominant web programming framework for Ruby and, even outside the Ruby community, is considered the epitome of the latest generation of high-productivity, open source web development tools. Django is one of many competing web development frameworks for Python. It is notable, first, for being highly regarded amongst Python programmers, and second, for being one of the few of the new generation of framework that does not ape Ruby on Rails. Both Rails and Django claim greatly enhanced productivity, compared with more traditional web development frameworks. In this paper, we compare the two frameworks from the point of view of a developer attempting to choose one of the two frameworks for a new project.

  15. Anaheim electric vehicle car-sharing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, D. [City of Anaheim Transportation Programs Planner, Anaheim, CA (United States); Chase, B. [Costa Mesa Planning Center, Costa Mesa, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    This paper described how the city of Anaheim in California is looking into a variety of clean transportation options for visitors, employees and residents in an effort to minimize air quality and congestion impacts. The city, which attracts approximately 24 million visitors annually, is looking into an electric vehicle (EV) car-sharing program that promotes EV use in multiple applications for both short- and long-term rental opportunities. There are two components to the program which provides eight 5-passenger electric Toyota RAV4 vehicles to both local employees and visitors. The electric RAV4s include nickel-hydride batteries which provide a range of 120 miles per charge. The city has already developed a network of public accessible EV charging stations and this project is a perfect extension of the city's continued efforts to seek opportunities to apply EV technologies within its jurisdictions. The Station Car Program provides flexibility for rail commuters to get from the rail station to their place of employment. On weekdays, the EVs are available to registered commuters at two rail stations to drive to and from work. A total of 32 commuters can benefit from the program at a cost of $40 per month. On weekends, the EVs are offered to visitors through Budget Rent-a-Car Agency at a rate comparable to gasoline-fueled vehicles. So far, participant feedback has been positive and the city is looking into expanding its efforts to provide clean transportation options. tab.

  16. Rail inspection of RCF defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Popović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rail defects due to rolling contact fatigue (RCF threaten the traffic safety around the world. That hazard is more distinct on railways without adequate maintenance strategy. Realization of interoperability of European railway network demands from every infrastructure manager to have a maintenance plan for the infrastructure subsystem. Besides that, this plan includes rail inspection and strategy against RCF defects. This paper emphasizes the importance of rail inspection and early detection of RCF because the most of RCF crack should be removed in rail grinding campaigns (preventive, cyclical and corrective activities during the whole rail service life.

  17. Light rail project in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2006-01-01

    The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented and the ......The need for high class public transport service of the increasing travel across the radial urban structure of the greater Copenhagen region was examined through planning of a light rail. The exact corridor (defined as the Ring 2½ corridor) and alignment of the light rail were documented...... light rail projects...

  18. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials

  19. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Werth, Charles J.; Schaeffer, David [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Yoon, Hongkyu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Barkan, Christopher P.L. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1243 Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Comprehensive, nationwide risk assessment of hazardous material rail transportation. • Application of a novel environmental (i.e. soil and groundwater) consequence model. • Cleanup cost and total shipment distance are the most significant risk factors. • Annual risk varies from $20,000 to $560,000 for different products. • Provides information on the risk cost associated with specific product shipments. -- Abstract: An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials.

  20. An Investigation into the Non-bulk Rail Freight Transport in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghaderi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade freight transport has gained further momentum in Australia, partly through significant demand growth at both domestic and international levels and partly as the result of Australia's long term need for infrastructure decision making. Amongst the freight task, non-bulk freight is the fastest growing freight task in Australia and is forecast to grow much faster than the rate of population growth and the average national GDP growth. However, rail's share in the non-bulk market has declined significantly in the last four decades. This study therefore provides an insight into the efficiency and operational management issues facing by the Australian non-bulk rail sector by focusing on three areas; the level of track compatibility and the relevant operational issues, the demographics of non-bulk freight in Australia and the current status of intermodal terminals in relation to rail connectivity and location. As the result, a more detailed understanding of the current shortages in the Australian non-bulk rail freight sector is achieved and managerial implications are provided.

  1. Car sick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission

  2. Bootstrap for rails

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Syed Fazle

    2015-01-01

    If you are a web developer who has a basic understanding of Ruby on Rails, this is the book for you. You should definitely have previous knowledge about HTML and how it works. However, CSS and JavaScript knowledge is optional for this book.

  3. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nam Seok

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  4. Cost, carbon emissions and modal shift in intermodal network design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchery, Y.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Intermodal transportation is often presented as an efficient solution for reducing carbon emissions without compromising economic growth. In this article, we present a new intermodal network design model in which both the terminal location and the allocation between direct truck transportation and

  5. Cost, carbon emissions and modal shift in intermodal network design decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouchery, Y.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Intermodal transportation is often presented as an efficient solution for reducing carbon emissions without compromising economic growth. In this article, we present a new intermodal network design model in which both the terminal location and the allocation between direct truck transportation and

  6. STUDY OF THE EXPERIENCE OF USE OF INTERMODAL TECHNOLOGY IN THE ORGANIZATION OF PASSENGER TRANSPORTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Andreevna Paramonova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the practice of applying intermodal technology and a single transportation document in the organization of passenger transportations, contains a review of the projects on the use of intermodal technology from theoretical point of view, an analysis of the implemented models.

  7. Value of ITS information for congestion avoidance in inter-modal transportation systems : phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Our project has four major mile-stones for the second year: : Mile-stone #1: Develop Dynamic Inter-modal Transportation Optimization Models: For : mostly air-road network and inter-modal networks significant to OHIO : MICHIGAN regions and our col...

  8. The performance of intermodal inland waterway transport : Modeling conditions influencing its competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.; Konings, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, numerous obstacles have been identified which prevent the (extensive) use of intermodal transport. A major motivation to promote intermodal transport is that its cost performance is often assumed better than road-only transport. Considering that the cost of transport services remains one

  9. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  10. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  11. Dynamics of intermodal logistical systems on containerisation and road transportation in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerissa Govender

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The underlying port operations in Durban, South Africa, epitomise intense global competitiveness in the intermodal logistics chain. The link between containerisation and theroad transport network can falter as a result of the dynamics of the logistics system. The main objective of the study was to establish the extent of the intermodal challenges of logistical systems on containerisation to which the role of intermodal sea–road freight transportation enhances the logistical competitiveness. It further examined the intermodal relationship on containerised freight between the challenges of containerisation processes and the effects on road freight transport mode. The impact of containerisation on intermodalism, the sea–road freight transport network and the technological attributes of security-based systems and logistical tracking protocols influence the systematic movement of containers on Durban’s public roads.

  12. High speed rails. Fatigue behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duart, J. M.; Pero-Sanz, J. A.; Verdeja, J. I.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, passenger train speed and freight train load have increased to enhance efficiency of rail road transportation. These trends have increased the severity of rail service conditions, calling for rails with greater wear resistance, strength and fatigue behaviour. In the United Stated and Europe, track site weld rails are made entirely by aluminothermic process. This work describes the results of experimental study conducted on bending fatigue strength of plain rails and aluminothermic welded rails with preheating procedures (oxipropane and air-induced propane) approved by railways authorities. Compliance with the required fatigue strength shall be ascertained by 4 point pulsating bending test in accordance with European standards by aluminothermic welding in rails. The locati method, based in the empirical Miner's law about the cumulative damage on a fatigue tested material, allows, once known the Wohler curve of the welding process in use to settle the fatigue tensile limit at 50% with only one test. The values obtained at 2.10''6 cycles for plain rails (S f =353 MPa), oxipropane preheated aluminothermic weld rails (S f =225 MPa), and propane-air induced aluminothermic weld rails (S f =210 MPa) are very similar to those resulting from test method stated in the European Standard. From our point of view and due to its ease, speediness and savings, this is the most suitable test to check the quality and compare the aluminothermic processes in use. (Author) 15 refs

  13. Using Seaports in Distribution Logistics of Cars on the Example of the Toyota Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Lukasik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The maritime transport is an element of the intermodal transport, which makes the distribution process of automotive industry more efficient. The article presents possibilities of using the sea transport and seaports in the logistic chain of car distribution on the example of the Toyota company. Toyota is one of the largest car manufacturers in the world, having (among others its logistic centers of distribution in seaports of Grimsby (Grimsby Logistic Centre in North East Lincolnshire – England and Sagunto (Sagunto Logistic Centre in Valencia – Spain.

  14. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  15. Rail base corrosion and cracking prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...

  16. Superconducting augmented rail gun (SARG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, C.G.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Superconducting augmentation consists of a superconducting coil operating in the persistent mode closely coupled magnetically with a normally conducting rail gun. A theoretical investigation of the effect of this system on a rail gun has shown that two benefits occur. Projectile velocities and launch efficiencies increase significantly depending on the magnetic coupling between the rail and augmentation circuits. Previous work evaluated an idealized system by neglecting energy dissipation effects. In this paper, the authors extend the analysis to include the neglected terms and show improved actual launch efficiencies for the SARG configuration. In this paper, the authors discuss details of projectile design in depth and present preliminary results of rail gun performance

  17. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, Mohd Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2014-01-01

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail

  18. Probability analysis of multiple-tank-car release incidents in railway hazardous materials transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiang, E-mail: liu94@illinois.edu; Saat, Mohd Rapik, E-mail: mohdsaat@illinois.edu; Barkan, Christopher P.L., E-mail: cbarkan@illinois.edu

    2014-07-15

    Railroads play a key role in the transportation of hazardous materials in North America. Rail transport differs from highway transport in several aspects, an important one being that rail transport involves trains in which many railcars carrying hazardous materials travel together. By contrast to truck accidents, it is possible that a train accident may involve multiple hazardous materials cars derailing and releasing contents with consequently greater potential impact on human health, property and the environment. In this paper, a probabilistic model is developed to estimate the probability distribution of the number of tank cars releasing contents in a train derailment. Principal operational characteristics considered include train length, derailment speed, accident cause, position of the first car derailed, number and placement of tank cars in a train and tank car safety design. The effect of train speed, tank car safety design and tank car positions in a train were evaluated regarding the number of cars that release their contents in a derailment. This research provides insights regarding the circumstances affecting multiple-tank-car release incidents and potential strategies to reduce their occurrences. The model can be incorporated into a larger risk management framework to enable better local, regional and national safety management of hazardous materials transportation by rail.

  19. Mechanics of inter-modal tunneling in nonlinear waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Weijian; Gonella, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    In this article, we investigate the mechanics of nonlinearly induced inter-modal energy tunneling between flexurally-dominated and axially-dominated modes in phononic waveguides. Special attention is devoted to elucidating the role played by the coupling between axial and flexural degrees of freedom in the determination of the available mode hopping conditions and the associated mechanisms of deformation. Waveguides offer an ideal test bed to investigate the mechanics of nonlinear energy tunneling, due to the fact that they naturally feature, even at low frequencies, families of modes (flexural and axial) that are intrinsically characterized by extreme complementarity. Moreover, thanks to their geometric simplicity, their behavior can be explained by resorting to intuitive structural mechanics models that effectively capture the dichotomy and interplay between flexural and axial mechanisms. After having delineated the fundamental mechanics of flexural-to-axial hopping using the benchmark example of a homogeneous structure, we adapt the analysis to the case of periodic waveguides, in which the complex dispersive behavior due to periodicity results in additional richness of mode hopping mechanisms. We finally extend the analysis to periodic waveguides with internal resonators, in which the availability of locally-resonant bandgaps implies the possibility to activate the resonators even at relatively low frequencies, thus increasing the degree of modal complementarity that is available in the acoustic range. In this context, inter-modal tunneling provides an unprecedented mechanism to transfer conspicuous packets of energy to the resonating microstructure.

  20. Rails - Spears and Didion Ranches [ds310

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — These data are the detections of Virginia rail (Rallus limicola), Sora (Porzana carolina), and California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis) from 13 survey points...

  1. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  2. On the rail-based freight corridor between CE and SEE regions and the main obstacles on Romanian territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The project “Freight and Logistics Advancement in Central/South-EastEurope - Validation of trade and transport processes, Implementation of improvementactions, Application of co-coordinated structures” (in short - FLAVIA is carried outunder the Central Europe – Cooperation for Success Programme, cofunded by theEuropean Regional Development Fund. One of the main objectives of FLAVIA project isto consolidate a logistic corridor from Central Europe (CE to the South-East Europe(SEE and the Black Sea Region, based on rail and inland waterways intermodaltransport. In this paper we discuss the partial outputs of FLAVIA project, mainly relatedto the identified actual status of rail-based intermodal transport and trade obstacles of thefreight flows on the Romanian territory and the used methodology. Several operationaland long-term measures to improve the trade and intermodal transport are listed,considering the advantages of the geo-strategic potential of Romania location, connectedwith the several improvement directions already considered into the new releasedintermodal strategy.

  3. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  4. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  5. Free Rail Tickets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Harder, Henrik; Nielsen, Thomas Thomas Alexander Sick

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the potential of Bluetooth and WiFi sensor network tracking to estimate the flow of passengers on rails. The article shows that this technology makes it possible to estimate the relative flow in the network, even when used in a setup with a minimum of sensors on selected...... railway stations, and also how free tickets influence the relative flow on routes in the network. This paper presents the first contribution where Bluetooth and WiFi tracking data has been used to estimate the impact of free tickets on railways in Denmark....

  6. Web Services on Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This PDF will show you how your small business or enterprise can publish its APIs (application programming interface) to a developer community just like the behemoths of the Internet--Google, Yahoo!, eBay, and Amazon. These giants already offer their APIs to other programmers and allow for add-on services and mash-ups to develop from them--but until recently, the capability for most enterprises to do the same was limited by a myriad of competing standards and a lack of easy-to-use tools to accomplish the task. Ruby on Rails levels the playing field for companies by simplifying the process

  7. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  8. The importance of inter-modal transport system in Nigeria with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of inter-modal transport system in Nigeria with reference to the Asaba-Onitsha transport corridor since the pre-colonial period. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. The Joint Modular Intermodal Container, is this the Future of Naval Logistics?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Mark E

    2005-01-01

    .... One mission area that is prime for manpower reduction is naval logistics. JMIC, the Joint Military Intermodal Container is a combined Naval Sea Systems Command/ Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (NAVSEA/OPNAV...

  10. Quantitative research regarding performance measures for intermodal freight transportation : executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide information relative to the development of a set of performance measures for intermodal freight transportation. To accomplish this objective, data was collected, processed, and analyzed on the basis o...

  11. The Cargo Fare Class Mix problem for an intermodal corridor : revenue management in synchromodal container transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riessen, B.; Negenborn, R.R.; Dekker, Rommert

    2017-01-01

    The intermodal hinterland transportation of maritime containers is under pressure from port authorities and shippers to achieve a more integrated, efficient network operation. Current optimisation methods in literature yield limited results in practice, though, as the transportation product

  12. The Cargo Fare Class Mix problem for an intermodal corridor: revenue management in synchromodal container transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe intermodal hinterland transportation of maritime containers is under pressure from port authorities and shippers to achieve a more integrated, efficient network operation. Current optimisation methods in literature yield limited results in practice, though, as the transportation

  13. Harvesting vibrational energy due to intermodal systems via nano coated piezo electric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Vibrational energy resulting from intermodal transport systems can be recovered through the use of energy harvesting system consisting of PZT piezo electric material as the primary energy harvesting component. The ability of traditional PZT piezo ele...

  14. Feasibility of using cellular telephone data to determine the truckshed of intermodal facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    In order to determine the feasibility of using cellular telephone location data in deriving the geographic extent : (truckshed) from intermodal facilities, this study was conducted to determine the feasibility analysis in three aspects: : technology,...

  15. Updating and improving methodology for prioritizing highway project locations on the strategic intermodal system (SIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) District One developed the Congestion Management Process : (CMP) system to prioritize low-cost, near-term highway improvements on the Strategic Intermodal System (SIS). : The existing CMP system is desi...

  16. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  17. 75 FR 76520 - Tennessee Southern Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... family by converting two of its subsidiaries from corporations into limited liability companies: (1... Railroad Company, Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.--Corporate Family... Railroad Company (TSRR), Patriot Rail, LLC (PRL) and its subsidiaries, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC (PRH) and...

  18. High-energy fiber lasers at non-traditional colours, via intermodal nonlinearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Chen, Y.; Steinvurzel, P.

    2012-01-01

    We propose exploiting intermodal four-wave mixing for energy-scalable tuneable fiber lasers, hitherto restricted to low powers, constrained by dispersion-tailoring limitations in PCFs. Conversion over an octave, at mJ-energy-levels, appears feasible.......We propose exploiting intermodal four-wave mixing for energy-scalable tuneable fiber lasers, hitherto restricted to low powers, constrained by dispersion-tailoring limitations in PCFs. Conversion over an octave, at mJ-energy-levels, appears feasible....

  19. Intermodal parametric gain of degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2013-01-01

    Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process.......Intermodal degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated numerically in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. The dispersion is controlled independently of core size, and thus allows for power scaling of the FWM process....

  20. 46 CFR 108.221 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 108.221 Section 108.221 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Rails § 108.221 Storm rails. Each unit must have a storm rail in the following...

  1. 46 CFR 169.329 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 169.329 Section 169.329 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Rails and Guards § 169.329 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  2. 46 CFR 177.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 177.920 Section 177.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be...

  3. 46 CFR 127.320 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 127.320 Section 127.320 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Rails and Guards § 127.320 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails must be installed in each passageway and at...

  4. 78 FR 10581 - Rail Vehicles Access Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity rail). We are establishing a... vehicles that operate on fixed guideway systems (e.g., rapid rail, light rail, commuter rail, and intercity... for their service. We may pay travel expenses for a limited number of persons who would otherwise be...

  5. Head first rails a learner's companion to ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David

    2009-01-01

    Ready to transport your web applications into the Web 2.0 era? Head First Rails takes your programming -- and productivity -- to the max. You'll learn everything from the fundamentals of Rails scaffolding to building customized interactive web apps using Rails' rich set of tools and the MVC framework. By the time you're finished, you'll have learned more than just another web framework. You'll master database interactions, integration with Ajax and XML, rich content, and even dynamic graphing of your data -- all in a fraction of the time it takes to build the same apps with Java, PHP, ASP.NE

  6. SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY OF INTERMODAL TERMINALS IN BRAZIL: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Palheta Nery

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian agribusiness excels in international trade, but it has some problems as the concentration of roads in the country's transport matrix, which reduces the competitiveness of the sector. The intermodality is a solution to this problem because it uses the advantages of various modes of transport. Moreover, intermodality becomes logistics more sustainable by reducing the environmental impacts of its activities. Intermodal terminals are the links that allow intermodality, however, studies about the sustainability of the terminals are scarce. This research intended to fill this gap aiming to analyze the socio-environmental sustainability of Brazil's grains logistics intermodal terminals. The specific objectives were: to raise variables about socio-environmental sustainability in logistics terminals and to identify socio-environmental sustainability practices in logistics terminals surveyed. This used an exploratory approach. The sample was composed of 31 Brazilian intermodal terminals. It was found that the terminals are prioritizing social practices, but further studies are needed to confirm or refute the findings.

  7. Scheduling freight trains in rail-rail transshipment yards

    OpenAIRE

    Nils Boysen; Erwin Pesch

    2008-01-01

    Transshipment yards, where gantry cranes allow for an effcient transshipment of containers between different freight trains, are important entities in modern railway systems and facilitate the general shift from point-to-point transport to hub-and-spoke railway systems. Modern rail-rail transshipment yards accelerate container handling, so that multiple smaller trains with equal destination can be consolidated to a reduced number of trains without jeopardizing on time deliveries. An important...

  8. Review on Malaysian Rail Transit Operation and Management System: Issues and Solution in Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Salin, Aminah Mohd; Zainorabidin, Adnan; Martin, David; Samsuddin, Norshakina

    2017-08-01

    In any context, operation and management of transportation systems are key issues which may affect both life quality and economic development. In large urban agglomerations, an efficient public transportation system may help abate the negative externalities of private car use such as congestion, air and noise pollution, accident and fuel consumption, without excessively penalizing user travel times or zone accessibility. Thus, this study is conducted to appraise the Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system, which are considered important as there are many issues and solution in integration of the services that need to be tackled more conscientiously. The purpose of this paper is to describe some of the most important issues on integration of services and rail transit system in Malaysian and how to solve or reduce these problems and conflicts. In this paper, it consists of the historical development of rail transit construction in Malaysia. This paper also attempts to identify the important issues related to rail transit services and integration in Malaysian rural rail operation and management system. Comparison is also conducted with other countries such as UK, France, and Japan. Finally, a critical analysis is presented in this paper by looking at the possible application for future Malaysian rail transit operation system and management, especially focusing on enhancing the quality of Malaysian rural rail transit. In conclusion, this paper is expected to successfully review and appraise the existing Malaysian rural rail transit operation and management system pertaining to issues & solution in integration. It is also hoped that reformation or transformation of present service delivery quality of the rail transit operation and management will enable Malaysia to succeed in transforming Malaysian transportation system to greater heights.

  9. Global Trade, Local Impacts: Lessons from California on Health Impacts and Environmental Justice Concerns for Residents Living near Freight Rail Yards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricko, Andrea; Rowland, Glovioell; Eckel, Sandrah; Logan, Angelo; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John

    2014-01-01

    Global trade has increased nearly 100-fold since 1950, according to the World Trade Organization. Today, major changes in trade are occurring with the advent of mega-ships that can transport thousands more containers than cargo ships now in use. Because global trade is expected to increase dramatically, the railroad industry—in the U.S. alone—has invested more than $5 billion a year over the past decade to expand rail yards and enhance rail routes to transport goods from ports to retail destinations. This article describes cancer risks for residents living in close proximity to rail yards with emissions of diesel particulate matter pollution from locomotives, trucks and yard equipment. The article examines the demographics (income, race/ethnicity) of populations living in the highest estimated cancer risk zones near 18 major rail yards in California, concluding that the majority are over-represented by either lower-income or minority residents (or both). The authors also describe a review of the news media and environmental impact reports to determine if rail yards are still being constructed or expanded in close proximity to homes and schools or in working class/working poor communities of color. The paper suggests policy efforts that might provide more public health protection and result in more “environmentally just” siting of rail yards. The authors conclude that diesel pollution from rail yards, which creates significant diesel cancer risks for those living near the facilities, is an often overlooked public health, health disparities and environmental justice issue in the U.S. The conclusions are relevant to other countries where international trade is increasing and large new intermodal rail facilities are being considered. PMID:24518649

  10. Ruby on Rails for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Burd

    2007-01-01

    Quickly create Web sites with this poweful tool Use this free and easy programming language for e-commerce sites and blogs If you need to build Web and database applications quickly but you don''t dream in computer code, take heart! Ruby on Rails was created for you, and this book will have you up and running in no time. The Ruby scripting language and the Rails framework let you create full-featured Web applications fast. It''s even fun! Discover how toInstall and run Ruby and RailsUse the RadRails IDECreate a blog with RubyConnect your Web site to a databaseBuild a shopping cartExplore Ruby'

  11. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard; Marder, Barry M.

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  12. Light Rails to Sustainable Mobility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette

    that there is not one overall rationale for implementing light rail, many arguments are evident in various contexts. Furthermore, findings in this paper show that planners, policy makers and other stakeholders shape stories for or against the implementation of light rail through the use of narratives that are linked...... infrastructure projects and urban interventions through the political process and secure the outcome of these projects are recognisable in proportion to the visionary concept....

  13. Analysis of railroad tank car releases using a generalized binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hong, Yili

    2015-11-01

    The United States is experiencing an unprecedented boom in shale oil production, leading to a dramatic growth in petroleum crude oil traffic by rail. In 2014, U.S. railroads carried over 500,000 tank carloads of petroleum crude oil, up from 9500 in 2008 (a 5300% increase). In light of continual growth in crude oil by rail, there is an urgent national need to manage this emerging risk. This need has been underscored in the wake of several recent crude oil release incidents. In contrast to highway transport, which usually involves a tank trailer, a crude oil train can carry a large number of tank cars, having the potential for a large, multiple-tank-car release incident. Previous studies exclusively assumed that railroad tank car releases in the same train accident are mutually independent, thereby estimating the number of tank cars releasing given the total number of tank cars derailed based on a binomial model. This paper specifically accounts for dependent tank car releases within a train accident. We estimate the number of tank cars releasing given the number of tank cars derailed based on a generalized binomial model. The generalized binomial model provides a significantly better description for the empirical tank car accident data through our numerical case study. This research aims to provide a new methodology and new insights regarding the further development of risk management strategies for improving railroad crude oil transportation safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VeriTainer radiation detector for intermodal shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redus, R.H.; Alioto, M.; Sperry, D.; Pantazis, T.

    2007-01-01

    The VeriSpreader TM radiation detection system will monitor every container passing through a shipping terminal without impeding the flow of commerce by making the radiation measurements during normal container handling. This is accomplished by integrating neutron and spectroscopic γ-ray detectors into a container crane spreader bar, the part of the crane that directly engages the intermodal shipping containers while moving from ship to shore and vice versa. The use of a spectroscopic γ-detector reduces the rate of nuisance alarms due to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The combination of γ and neutron detection reduces the effectiveness of shielding and countermeasures. The challenges in this spreader bar-based approach arise from the harsh environment, particularly the mechanical shock and the vibration of the moving spreader bar, since the measurement is taken while the container is moving. The electrical interfaces in the port environment, from the crane to a central monitoring office, present further challenges. It is the packaging, electronic interfaces, and data processing software that distinguish this system, which is based on conventional radiation sensors. The core of the system is Amptek's GAMMA-RAD, which integrates a ruggedized scintillator/PMT, digital pulse shaping electronics, electronics for the neutron detector, power supplies, and an Ethernet interface. The design of the VeriTainer system and results from both the laboratory and a proof-of-concept test at the Port of Oakland, California will be presented

  15. Study of inter-modal four wave mixing in two few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmigiani, F.; Jung, Y.; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally study inter-modal four-wave mixing (FWM) in few-mode fibres with different phase matching properties. The possibility of transmitting two spatial modes without intermodal FWM cross-talk in the C-band is presented....

  16. Detailed phase matching characterization of inter-modal four-wave mixing in a two-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Jung, Y.; Begleris, I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups.......We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups....

  17. To the question of modeling of wheels and rails wear processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Myamlin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. There is a need of wear process modeling in the wheel-rail system. This is related to the fact that the wear processes in this system are absolutely different in the initial and final stages. The profile change of rail and, especially, of the wheels caused by the wear significantly affects the rolling stock dynamics, traffic safety and the resource of the wheels and rails. Wear modeling and the traffic safety evaluation requires the accounting of the low frequency component forces (including the modeling of transitional areas affecting the wheel on the side of the rail and carriage in motion of rolling stock, so the statistical analysis is not possible. Methodology. The method of mathematical modeling of the wheel set and the rail interaction was used during the research conducting. Findings. As a result of the modeling of the wheel set motion on the rail track, the mathematic model with 19 freedom degrees was obtained. This model takes into account the axle torque and studies wheels constructions as the components of the mechanical systems, consisting of a hub and tire. Originality. The mathematic model allows evaluating the wear degree of the wheels and rails when using on the rolling stock not only all-metal wheel sets, but also compound ones with the use of spring wheels and independent rotation of semi-axes with the wheels. Practical value. The development of the improved mathematical model of freight car wheel set motion with differential rotation of the wheels and compound axles allows studying the wear processes of wheels and rails.

  18. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  19. Some design aspects of a two-stage rail-to-rail CMOS op amp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1999-01-01

    A two-stage low-voltage CMOS op amp with rail-to-rail input and output voltage ranges is presented. The circuit uses complementary differential input pairs to achieve the rail-to-rail common-mode input voltage range. The differential pairs operate in strong inversion, and the constant

  20. Rail tiedown tests with heavy casks for radioactive shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, S.F.

    1980-08-01

    A rail tiedown test program was conducted at the Savannah River Plant in July and August 1978. For each test, a 40- or 70-ton cask was secured on a railcar. The railcar was pushed to speeds up to 11 mph and allowed to couple to parked railcars simulating ordinary railyard operations. The test car carrying the cask was heavily instrumented to measure the accelerations and forces generated at strategically selected places. Eighteen test runs were made with different combinations of railcars, couplers, casks, speeds, and tiedown configurations. The major objectives of the test program were to (1) provide test data as a basis to develop a tiedown standard for rail cask shipments of radioactive materials and (2) collect dynamic data to support analytical models of the railcar cask tiedown system. The optimum tiedown configuration demonstrated for heavy casks was a combination of welded, fixed stops to secure the cask longitudinally and flexible cables to restrain vertical and lateral cask movement. Cables alone were inadequate to secure a heavy cask to a standard railcar, and bolting was found disadvantageous in several respects. The use of cushioning coupler mechanisms dramatically reduced the tiedown requirements for the rail coupling operation. The test program and general conclusions are discussed

  1. INVESTIGATION OF DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF GONDOLA CARS ON PERSPECTIVE BOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper, it is necessary to examine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies, model 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of a track. Methodology. The calculations were performed using the object-oriented programming on the program "Dynamics of Rail Vehicles" ("DYNRAIL" Myamlin S.V. registered 20.03.2003. Mathematical models of a gondola car and bogies 18-100 and 18-711 were created for the calculations. Findings. Dynamic performances comparison of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 and the gondola car with bogies 18-100, obtained by calculation method was carried out. Originality. Firstly calculations in order to determine the dynamic properties of the gondola car with bogies 18-1711 when it moves on straight and curved sections of track were performed. At the same time an assessment of the dynamic characteristics of the gondola car was made. The following dynamic standards were determined: the coefficient of vertical dynamics (Cdv, the coefficient of horizontal dynamics (Cdh, and the safety factor against derailment (SFd. Track irregularities in vertical and horizontal transverse planes were assigned as perturbations. They should be so that the dynamic indexes of the widely used in operation gondola car on bogies model 18-100 keep in admissible range of speeds up to 80km / h for the empty gondola car and at speeds up to 90km / h for the loaded gondola cars. Practical value. As a result of the calculations and comparisons of their results, we have findings that the use of bogies with bilinear characteristic of the central suspension will improve the dynamic performances of gondola cars, currently operating on bogies, model 18-100. And by improving the dynamic performances it is possible to increase the permissible speeds of these cars motion.

  2. Environmental impact assessment of rail infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-29

    This project resulted in three products: a comprehensive "Sustainable Rail Checklist," a rail planning GIS database, and a web GIS tool that integrates sustainability metrics and facilitates a rapid assessment before a formal NEPA process is implemen...

  3. 78 FR 71724 - Rail Depreciation Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Rail Depreciation Studies AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of OMB Approval of Information Collection. SUMMARY... collection, Rail Depreciation Studies. See 78 FR 18676 (Mar. 27, 2013). This collection, codified at 49 CFR...

  4. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  5. Vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Králíček J.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the vibroacoustical analysis of rail vehicle and is the extension of the previously presented work “Modelování podvozku kolejového vozidla s poddajným rámem”. The vibroacoustical analysis uses the outcomes of the dynamical analysis of rail vehicle bogie i.e. surface velocities of the bogie frame to compute the acoustic power radiated by the bogie frame and forces acting in the bogie-body interface. The radiated power and the force spectra are then used as the excitation to the rail body model in the environment Auto-SEA to compute the interior acoustic quantities.

  6. Undergraduate Certificate in Rail Transportation/Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-05

    A shift in the U.S. transportation environment has led to a revival in rail transport, especially in : freight rail1. In the meantime, an aging rail employee demographic presents a severe threat to : sufficient level of individuals equipped to handle...

  7. 78 FR 57450 - State Rail Plan Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... of impact assessment required for the rail infrastructure, facilities, and service improvements contained in State rail plans. Other issues raised by commenters included the importance of involving... to emphasize the importance of preparing State rail plans within the policy and procedural contexts...

  8. 46 CFR 116.920 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 116.920 Section 116.920 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... and Guards § 116.920 Storm rails. Suitable storm rails or hand grabs must be installed where necessary...

  9. 46 CFR 177.900 - Deck rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) high. (4) While engaged in big game angling, the minimum rail height may be reduced to not less than... section as applicable must be installed when big game angling is not being conducted. (e) Where the... that a higher rail would interfere with the fishing operation and the lower rail would not...

  10. Intermodal Matching on the Example of Sound and Color Connection in Norm and Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyachenko A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the initial period of research of synesthesia and further work, experimental and theoretical, related to the study of various intermodal correspondences. Information about the presence of a statistically significant phenomenon of various intermodal correspondences in healthy people (which includes for example the connection of sound and color is provided. Present experiment reveals that the phenomenon of sound-color correspondences undergoes destructive changes in patients with schizophrenia compared with that in healthy individuals, but does not detect new distinct patterns.

  11. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  12. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  13. A CMOS rail-to-rail linear VI-converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, P.P.; Vervoort, P.P.; Wassenaar, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    A linear CMOS VI-converter operating in strong inversion with a common-mode input range from the negative to the positive supply rail is presented. The circuit consists of three linear VI-converters based on the difference of squares principle. Two of these perform the actual V to I conversion,

  14. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  15. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  16. THE BAINITIC STEELS FOR RAILS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Hlavatý

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Actual trends of worldwide railway transport development are characterized by increasing speed and growth of railway’s axels load. Increasing load together with transverse, longitudinal wheel displacement and braking on the rails results into heavy surface tension. One of many applications for bainitic steel is in railway transport for highly strength and wear resistant rails. Rail steel must be designed to be able to resist plastic deformation, wear, rolling contact fatigue, bending stress and thermal stress during rail welding process and rails resurfacing.

  17. Personal interests hinder Rail Baltica

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Läti seimi liige Janis Reirs leiab, et Rail Baltica ehitus on Moskva ja Riia vahelise raudtee ehitusest prioriteetsem, kuna esimest võib potentsiaalselt finantseerida Euroopa Liit. Transpordiminister Uldis Augulis kohtub oma Venemaa kolleegi Igor Levitiniga 7. aprillil. Peaminister Valdis Dombrovskise sõnul vajavad mõlemad projektid majandusanalüüsi

  18. Analyzing the United States Department of Transportation's Implementation Strategy for High Speed Rail: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ryan

    High-speed rail (HSR) has become a major contributor to the transportation sector with a strong push by the Obama Administration and the Department of Transportation to implement high-speed rail in the United States. High-speed rail is a costly transportation alternative that has the potential displace some car and airport travel while increase energy security and environmental sustainability. This thesis will examine the United States high-speed rail implementation strategy by comparing it to the implementation strategies of France, Japan, and Germany in a multiple case study under four main criteria of success: economic profitability, reliability, safety, and ridership. Analysis will conclude with lessons to be taken away from the case studies and applied to the United States strategy. It is important to understand that this project has not been established to create a comprehensive implementation plan for high-speed rail in the United States; rather, this project is intended to observe the depth and quality of the current United States implementation strategy and make additional recommendations by comparing it with France, Japan, and Germany.

  19. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  20. Analyzing the impact of intermodal facilities to the design and management of biofuels supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact that an intermodal facility has on location and transportation : decisions for biofuel production plants. Location decisions impact the management of the in-bound and out-bound logistics of a plant. We model this supply...

  1. Optimizing Intermodal Train Schedules with a Design Balanced Network Design Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Berliner; Crainic, Teodor Gabriel

    We present a modeling approach for optimizing intermodal trains schedules based on an infrastructure divided into time-dependent train paths. The formulation can be generalized to a capacitated multi commodity network design model with additional design balance constraints. We present a Tabu Search...

  2. Auditory-Visual Intermodal Matching of Small Numerosities in 6-Month-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tessei; Hiraki, Kazuo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that preverbal infants are able to discriminate between numerosities of sets presented within a particular modality. There is still debate, however, over whether they are able to perform intermodal numerosity matching, i.e. to relate numerosities of sets presented with different sensory modalities. The present study…

  3. How Uncertain Information on Service Capacity Influences the Intermodal Routing Decision: A Fuzzy Programming Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Capacity uncertainty is a common issue in the transportation planning field. However, few studies discuss the intermodal routing problem with service capacity uncertainty. Based on our previous study on the intermodal routing under deterministic capacity consideration, we systematically explore how service capacity uncertainty influences the intermodal routing decision. First of all, we adopt trapezoidal fuzzy numbers to describe the uncertain information of the service capacity, and further transform the deterministic capacity constraint into a fuzzy chance constraint based on fuzzy credibility measure. We then integrate such fuzzy chance constraint into the mixed-integer linear programming (MILP model proposed in our previous study to develop a fuzzy chance-constrained programming model. To enable the improved model to be effectively programmed in the standard mathematical programming software and solved by exact solution algorithms, a crisp equivalent linear reformulation of the fuzzy chance constraint is generated. Finally, we modify the empirical case presented in our previous study by replacing the deterministic service capacities with trapezoidal fuzzy ones. Using the modified empirical case, we utilize sensitivity analysis and fuzzy simulation to analyze the influence of service capacity uncertainty on the intermodal routing decision, and summarize some interesting insights that are helpful for decision makers.

  4. 76 FR 32906 - Inspection, Repair, and Maintenance; Driver-Vehicle Inspection Report for Intermodal Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... Administration FMCSRs Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations IANA Intermodal Association of North America IEP... required to report to the IEP or the providers' designated agent any actual damage or defect in the IME of which the driver or motor carrier is aware at the time the IME is returned to the IEP or the provider's...

  5. Impact of intermodal facilities to the design of supply chains for biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-15

    This paper analyzes the impact that an intermodal facility has on location and transportation decisions for biofuel production plants. Location decisions impact the management of the in-bound and out-bound logistics of a plant. We model this supply c...

  6. Comparison of Urban and Suburban Rail Transport in Germany and in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidenglanz Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is an environmentally friendly form of passenger transport which can be utilized effectively also in urban and suburban transport systems. The paper describes the urban and suburban rail transport system including comparison of selected Czech (Prague, Brno and Ostrava and German metropolitan regions (Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden. Its aim is to analyze the importance of various factors influencing the differences between the situation in Germany and in the Czech Republic. Therefore, the research question is whether these differences are primarily caused by a different liberalization stage, or whether they are a result of other factors such as available infrastructure, investment level, rail transport services budget, structure and activity of ordering bodies and coordinators or geographical context. The supply of city and suburban rail transport is quite good in Germany and in the Czech Republic, although trains in Munich, Nuremberg and Dresden run more frequently, faster and are better interconnected with car transport. German rail transport sector is at a higher stage of liberalization, and tendering procedures are the preferred selection method for contractor carriers. However, a degree of liberalization of the railway sector is not the key marker indicating a better standard of urban and suburban rail transport in Germany because it is the high standard which is achieved as the consequence of the professional activity of the ordering bodies and train service coordinators in combination with geographical conditions, available financial sources and effective transport infrastructure. On the other hand, the importance of liberalization cannot be totally overlooked as tenders are a tool for the ordering bodies to strongly affect the price and quality of transport services in their area. The supply of better quality and attractive transport to passengers could increase the usage of rail transport in metropolitan regions and could

  7. Changes in Service and Associated Ridership Impacts near a New Light Rail Transit Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Los Angeles (LA, for many years a city with limited rail transit, is substantially expanding its public transit system. This paradigm change in transportation policy and investment creates new requirements for monitoring. One area needing evaluation is whether new, high quality transit options, such as light rail, near existing transit services increase sustainable transportation mode shares and reduce car travel. Few studies have explored light rail’s role as a catalyst to increase overall transit use and achieve sustainability goals within an auto-oriented city like LA. Metro’s data show that trips taken on its bus and rail system dropped overall by 10.5% between 2009 and 2016, but its rail ridership grew 21% during the same period due to the debut of the Gold Line and Expo Line extensions. We analyze changes to bus service and associated ridership impacts that resulted from the opening of these two LRT lines in LA. The immediate effect of the city’s bus service changes along the Gold Line light rail extension appear to be associated with a net “bus plus rail” ridership decline in that corridor. In contrast, the Expo Line corridor experienced an initial increase in ridership during the two years immediately after its opening, possibly because the bus service was not reduced by the same magnitude as along the Gold Line extension. Our findings indicate that changes in bus service made to coincide with the introduction of new light rail transit (LRT can negatively affect the overall transit ridership in the corridor. Planners and policy makers should closely monitor changes in bus service and ridership associated with new rail transit to ensure investments results in an overall net increase in more sustainable travel.

  8. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  9. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  10. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  11. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  12. 49 CFR 214.523 - Hi-rail vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hi-rail vehicles. 214.523 Section 214.523..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY On-Track Roadway Maintenance Machines and Hi-Rail Vehicles § 214.523 Hi-rail vehicles. (a) The hi-rail gear of all hi-rail vehicles shall be inspected for...

  13. Rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.; Villecco, R.A.; Graham, F.R.

    1991-01-01

    A model is developed to investigate rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun. This model describes the rail motion in response to the transitory Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force from the material which is between the rails and the containment structure. In this model the distance between the rails is found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The magnetic field and the dynamic behavior of the rails induce local electric fields. We investigate the significance of these electric fields in the laboratory frame and in the projectile frame. In the lab frame, rail electrodynamics induces local electric fields which have maximums spaced behind the projectile at locations where βt p is an odd multiple of π, where t p is the time since the projectile has passed an axial location on the rails. When the projectile is accelerating, rail dynamics induce electric fields in the projectile frame which have maximums where βt p is an even multiple of π. As the projectile velocity increases, the locations of the peak voltages move farther behind the projectile. For the CHECMATE railgun, calculations indicate that the rail displacement is on the order of 2 mm, the rail velocity is on the order of 50 m/s, and the voltages induced in the projectile frame are on the order of 20--40 V

  14. Integration of car-body flexibility into train-track coupling system dynamics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liang; Zhang, Qing; Xiao, Xinbiao; Wen, Zefeng; Jin, Xuesong

    2018-04-01

    The resonance vibration of flexible car-bodies greatly affects the dynamics performances of high-speed trains. In this paper, we report a three-dimensional train-track model to capture the flexible vibration features of high-speed train carriages based on the flexible multi-body dynamics approach. The flexible car-body is modelled using both the finite element method (FEM) and the multi-body dynamics (MBD) approach, in which the rigid motions are obtained by using the MBD theory and the structure deformation is calculated by the FEM and the modal superposition method. The proposed model is applied to investigate the influence of the flexible vibration of car-bodies on the dynamics performances of train-track systems. The dynamics performances of a high-speed train running on a slab track, including the car-body vibration behaviour, the ride comfort, and the running safety, calculated by the numerical models with rigid and flexible car-bodies are compared in detail. The results show that the car-body flexibility not only significantly affects the vibration behaviour and ride comfort of rail carriages, but also can has an important influence on the running safety of trains. The rigid car-body model underestimates the vibration level and ride comfort of rail vehicles, and ignoring carriage torsional flexibility in the curving safety evaluation of trains is conservative.

  15. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  16. Determination of rail wear and short-time wear measurements of rails applying radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic model has been developed for calculating rail wear. Short-time wear tests on rails after surface activation and following activity measurements showed a good agreement with the calculated values

  17. Identification of a leadership competency model for use in the development, recruitment & retention of intermodal transportation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the competencies that predict highly effective : performance in intermodal transportation managers and that will pave the way for development : of a core competency model that can be used to recruit, trai...

  18. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  19. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  20. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  1. Hybrid rail gun electromagnetic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.W.; Hachen, H.; Lee, A.; Legh, G.; Lin, T.; Mattay, S.; Wipf, S.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations on hybrid rail accelerators are presented. It is shown that the side surface areas and in some cases sabots of the projectile can be used to provide substantial amount of additional thrust. Moreover, it is shown that in most cases examined, external magnetic fields can be conveniently incorporated in the accelerator designs to supplement the rail-induced fields. Total thrusts in excess of 10 MN for kilogram-sized projectiles can in principle be established with driving currents of the order of 1 MA. No obvious stress limitations are foreseen. The percentages of thrust from external magnetic fields are sufficiently high that the use of which should be encouraged. The increased flexibility in the projectile shapes available permits the use of the proposed hybrid electromagnetic launcher technology in a variety of new areas, such as thrust boosts in conventional chemical rockets and other similar applications. Furthermore, the additional thrust obtained from the use of side surface areas greatly increases the maximum permissable thrust otherwise limited by material strength considerations. Thrust analyses for projectiles in several hybrid rail accelerator designs are discussed. Some laboratory experimental observations are presented

  2. Outcome of rail fixator system in reconstructing bone gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lakhani

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: All patients well tolerated rail fixator with good functional results and gap reconstruction. Easy application of rail fixator and comfortable distraction procedure suggest rail fixator a good alternative for gap reconstruction of limbs.

  3. Excitation of Surface Electromagnetic Waves on Railroad Rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-31

    UMTA's Office of Rail Technology research programs aim to improve urban rail transportation systems safety. This rail-transit research study attempts to develop an onboard, separate and independent obstacle-detection system--Surface Electromagnetic W...

  4. Potential scenarios of concern for high speed rail operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Currently, multiple operating authorities are proposing the : introduction of high-speed rail service in the United States. : While high-speed rail service shares a number of basic : principles with conventional-speed rail service, the operational : ...

  5. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... the proposed construction is to enable U. S. Rail to serve the BRT as a common carrier and to deliver... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35141] U. S. Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  6. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  7. A time-dependent vehicle routing problem in the service area of intermodal terminals

    OpenAIRE

    Braekers, K.; Caris, A.; Janssens, G.K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the operational planning of drayage operations in the service area of intermodal container terminals. Drayage operations refer to the full truckload container transpot activities that take place on a regional scale around these terminals. They involve the transport of loaded and empty containers between container terminals, container depots, consignees and shippers. Drayage operations are mostly performed by truck and constitute a large part of total costs of an intermo...

  8. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  9. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  10. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  11. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  12. 49 CFR 213.113 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... smooth, bright, or dark, round or oval surface substantially at a right angle to the length of the rail... in the head of the rail as a smooth, bright, or dark surface progressing until substantially at a... head, and extending into or through it. A crack or rust streak may show under the head close to the web...

  13. 75 FR 17203 - National Rail Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Rail Plan AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... input into the development of the long-range National Rail Plan (NRP) through an open docket. In addition, the notice presents the overall plan design, Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) goals in...

  14. A low-voltage Op Amp with rail-to-rail constant-gm input stage and a class AB rail-to-rail output stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botma, J.H.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper a low-voltage two-stage Op Amp is presented. The Op Amp features rail-to-rail operation and has an @put stage with a constant transconductance (%) over the entire common-mode input range. The input stage consists of an n- and a PMOS differential pair connected in parallel. The constant

  15. The physics of wheel-rail stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-05-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure.

  16. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  17. Method for Predicting Thermal Buckling in Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A method is proposed herein for predicting the onset of thermal buckling in rails in such a way as to provide a means of avoiding this type of potentially devastating failure. The method consists of the development of a thermomechanical model of rail...

  18. Buckling analysis of continuous welded rail track

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Continuous welded rail track, compared to jointed track not only reduces maintenance costs, but also increases life time of track components and the comfort of passengers. Since expansion of the rails is hardly possible in CWR-track, a temperature increase will result in high compressive stresses

  19. The Physics of Wheel-Rail Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, B. T. G.

    2018-01-01

    This article discusses, at a simple level, the dynamics of the wheel-rail interface, which is fundamental to the stability of rail vehicles. The physics underlying this topic deserves to be better known by physicists and physics students, as it underpins such an important part of our technological infrastructure

  20. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm to Solve the Intermodal Terminal Location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Oudani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of the flow of goods and passengers, fragility of certain products and the need for the optimization of transport costs impose on carriers to use more and more multimodal transport. In addition, the need for intermodal transport policy has been strongly driven by environmental concerns and to benefit from the combination of different modes of transport to cope with the increased economic competition. This research is mainly concerned with the Intermodal Terminal Location Problem introduced recently in scientific literature which consists to determine a set of potential sites to open and how to route requests to a set of customers through the network while minimizing the total cost of transportation. We begin by presenting a description of the problem. Then, we present a mathematical formulation of the problem and discuss the sense of its constraints. The objective function to minimize is the sum of road costs and railroad combined transportation costs. As the Intermodal Terminal Location Problemproblem is NP-hard, we propose an efficient real coded genetic algorithm for solving the problem. Our solutions are compared to CPLEX and also to the heuristics reported in the literature. Numerical results show that our approach outperforms the other approaches.

  1. Intramodality and intermodality agreement in radiography and computed tomography of equine distal limb fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, C P; Martens, A; Bergman, H-J; van der Veen, H; Duchateau, L; van Bree, H J J; Gielen, I M V L

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly accessible in equine referral hospitals. To document the level of agreement within and between radiography and CT in characterising equine distal limb fractures. Retrospective descriptive study. Images from horses that underwent radiographic and CT evaluation for suspected distal limb fractures were reviewed, including 27 horses and 3 negative controls. Using Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa analysis, the level of agreement among 4 observers for a predefined set of diagnostic characteristics for radiography and CT separately and for the level of agreement between the 2 imaging modalities were documented. Both CT and radiography had very good intramodality agreement in identifying fractures, but intermodality agreement was lower. There was good intermodality and intramodality agreement for anatomical localisation and the identification of fracture displacement. Agreement for articular involvement, fracture comminution and fracture fragment number was towards the lower limit of good agreement. There was poor to fair intermodality agreement regarding fracture orientation, fracture width and coalescing cracks; intramodality agreement was higher for CT than for radiography for these features. Further studies, including comparisons with surgical and/or post mortem findings, are required to determine the sensitivity and specificity of CT and radiography in the diagnosis and characterisation of equine distal limb fractures. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  2. Quality management in intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Foscaches

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermodal terminals play a key role in the logistics system, since they are an important link between food production and distribution. In the agrifood chain, quality management isn´t seen as a competitive advantage, but as an issue of survival. This study thus aims to identify the quality management phase in which the intermodal terminals of the Brazilian grains logistics chain are found. To this end, interviews were conducted, using semi-structured questionnaires, with the managers of 28 intermodal terminals located in the Midwest, South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions. It was found that most terminals are in the Strategic Quality Management era, the fourth era of quality management. In addition, it was observed that the specific tools of the agrifood sector are widely used by terminals. In addition, many terminals use tools from the first and second quality era. Among the tools of the fourth era, product tracking is the most widely used. Finally, it was possible to determine that the terminals in the third quality era, Quality Assurance, have a higher average operating efficiency than terminals in the fourth era, Strategic Quality Management.

  3. The Malaysian Intermodal Terminal System: The Implication on the Malaysian Maritime Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rosni Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The maritime sector in Malaysia is best known globally due to the Straits of Malacca and being a nation surrounded by sea. Malaysia also has a substantial maritime industry consisting of numerous shipyards, ports and terminal faculties, ship services and a plethora of other companies and institutions with maritime oriented activities and become essential components of the Malaysia's maritime clusters. Issues such as underutilised intermodal terminals, uneven proportions in the freight transport infrastructure and road and seaport congestions prevent Malaysian seaports from achieving their full potential in serving their respective hinterlands. The key factors to improve Malaysian dry port or intermodal terminals are transport network; container planning; competition; location and, externalities. The paper does not only present the critical challenges faced by Malaysian intermodal terminals especially dry ports and the implications for seaport competency but it also provides strategies to utilise the Malaysian freight multimodal system to amplify seaports
tm performance in serving their hinterlands. As such, this may warrant policy makers to devise a comprehensive national master plan for the maritime sector in order for Malaysia to further develop her maritime industry and economies.

  4. Rail inspection using noncontact laser ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Hyeon; Sohn, Hoon; Han, Soon Woo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a noncontact laser ultrasonic system is proposed for rail defect detection. An Nd Yag pulse laser is used for generation of ultrasonic waves, and the corresponding ultrasonic responses are measured by a laser Doppler vibrometer. For the detection of rail surface damages, the shape of the excitation laser beam is transformed into a line. On the other hand, a point source laser beam is used for the inspection of defects inside a rail head. Then, the interactions of propagating ultrasonic waves with defects are examined using actual rail specimens. Amplitude attenuation was mainly observed for a surface crack, and reflections were most noticeable from an internal damage. Finally, opportunities and challenges associated with real time rail inspection from a high speed train are discussed

  5. NREL Model Car Competitions | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    work together building cars with guidance from a parent, teacher, or coach to compete in race and Solar and Lithium Ion model car races in Colorado. Building solar- and battery-powered cars requires listPDF for Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium-Ion Battery model cars. Junior Solar Sprint Solar Made Pitsco

  6. Sectional Rail System as Base for a Plate Covering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention concerns a sectional rail system which is constructed with the known outer rails with U-shaped cross-section and intermediate rails with C-shaped cross-section, and which is peculiar in that each of the retention means of the outer rail includes at least one stop pin which i...

  7. Assessment of Rail Seat Abrasion Patterns and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Rail seat abrasion (RSA) of concrete ties is manifested by the loss of material under the rail seat area and, in extreme cases, results in loss of rail clip holding power, reverse rail cant, and gauge widening. RSA was measured in several curves on t...

  8. Analysis of minimum rail size in heavy axle load environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The effects of increasing axle loads on rail integrity are examined in this paper. In the present context, rail integrity refers to the prevention and control of rail failures. Rail failures usually occur because cracks or defects develop and grow fr...

  9. 46 CFR 190.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 190.25-10 Section 190.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 190.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  10. 46 CFR 72.40-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 72.40-10 Section 72.40-10 Shipping COAST... and Guards § 72.40-10 Storm rails. (a) Suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where passengers or crew might have normal access. Storm rails shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 92.25-10 - Storm rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Storm rails. 92.25-10 Section 92.25-10 Shipping COAST... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 92.25-10 Storm rails. (a) On vessels in ocean and coastwise service, suitable storm rails shall be installed in all passageways and at the deckhouse sides where persons on board...

  12. Model for predicting the frequency of broken rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vesković

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Broken rails can cause train delays, trains cancelations and, unfortunately, they are common causes of accidents. This affects planning of a resources, budget and organization of railway track maintenance. Planning of railway track maintenance cannot be done without an estimation of number of rails that will be replaced due to the broken rail incidents. There are many factors that influence broken rails and the most common are: rail age, annual gross tonnage, degree of curve and temperature in the time of breakage. The fuzzy logic model uses acquired data as input variables to predict the frequency of broken rails for the certain rail types on some Sections.

  13. Perspectives in high-speed transport: Maglev and/or wheel-and-rail techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochbruck, H

    1985-03-01

    Proceeding from a consideration of possible system structures, a technically and economically meaning-full top speed for a railway system is developed which offers, in competition with the airplane and the private car, good chances of winning an appropriate share of the traffic where the distances are in the range of about 400 to 600 km. It is deduced from the present state of developments in high-speed wheel/rail systems and in maglev technology that the wheel/rail mode has clear advantages where a network is concerned. Maglev technology is now being brought to the stage of operational readiness and its first applications are likely to be for point-to-point or direct-line links.

  14. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  15. Experimental generation of discrete ultraviolet wavelength by cascaded intermodal four-wave mixing in a multimode photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jinhui; Kang, Zhe; Li, Feng; Zhang, Xianting; Mei, Chao; Zhou, Guiyao; Sang, Xinzhu; Wu, Qiang; Yan, Binbin; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Farrell, Gerald; Lu, Chao; Tam, Hwa Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2017-09-15

    In this Letter, we demonstrate experimentally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, discrete ultraviolet (UV) wavelength generation by cascaded intermodal FWM when femtosecond pump pulses at 800 nm are launched into the deeply normal dispersion region of the fundamental guided mode of a multimode photonic crystal fiber (MPCF). For pump pulses at average input powers of P av =450, 550, and 650 mW, the first anti-Stokes waves are generated at the visible wavelength of 538.1 nm through intermodal phase matching between the fundamental and second-order guided mode of the MPCF. The first anti-Stokes waves generated then serve as the secondary pump for the next intermodal FWM process. The second anti-Stokes waves in the form of the third-order guided mode are generated at the UV wavelength of 375.8 nm. The maximum output power is above 10 mW for P av =650  mW. We also confirm that the influences of fiber bending and intermodal walk-offs on the cascaded intermodal FWM-based frequency conversion process are negligible.

  16. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  17. Rail-induced Traffic in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of China’s railway has exerted an enormous influence on the intercity passenger transport structure in recent years. However, it has not satisfied the passengers’ travel demand due to induced traffic. This paper is committed to solving such issue, with the aim of satisfying the current travel demand, and of anticipating the demand of the predicted traffic growth over the next 20 to 30 years. The paper has considered the increase in rail passenger kilometres caused by the growth of rail kilometres as rail-induced traffic. Based on the concept and former research of induced traffic, the panel data of 26 provinces and 3 municipalities of China between the year 2000 and 2014 were collected, and the elasticity models (including elasticity-based model, distributed lag model, high-speed rail (HSR elasticity model and rail efficiency model have been constructed. The results show the importance of model formation incorporation of rail-induced traffic. It is better to get the correct value in divided zones with different train frequencies or incorporation rail efficiency in cities or provinces. The lag time and rail types also need to be considered. In summary, the results analysis not only confirms the existence of rail-induced traffic, but also provides substantial recommendations to train operation planning.

  18. An assessment of the viability of storing FFTF sodium in tank cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Burke, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Current FFTF Transition Project plans call for construction of a Sodium Storage Facility to store the plant sodium until it is processed either as product or waste. This report evaluates an alternative concept which would store the sodium in rail tank cars. It is concluded that utilizing a simple facility for offloading the FFTF sodium to standard industrial tank cars is not technically viable. Mitigation of potential radioactive sodium spills requires that the offload facility incorporate many of the features of the sodium storage facility. With these mitigation features incorporated, there is no significant cost or schedule advantage for the option of storing the FFTF sodium in tank cars when compared to the currently planned SSF. In addition, it is believed that the tank car option results in higher risk to project success because of unknowns associated with technical, regulatory, and public perception issues. It is therefore recommended that the project proceed with definitive design of the SSF

  19. Electrodynamic wear of rails in high current density rail gun discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.T.; Caldwell, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high current, high speed power sources, has in recent years allowed rail guns to produce very high velocity (> 10 km/sec) macroscopic particles (> 1/10 grams). A continuing problem is the structural integrity of the components under these loadings and in particular, the rail wear due to the high current density plasma contacts. In this investigation a small bore rail gun (6x5 mm) was used with a 10.6 kjoule capacitor energy source to examine the modes of rail damage. The rails were constructed of 110 copper base material. These rails were used in an uncoated condition and also with plasma sprayed coatings of W and W/WC. The resulting surface wear was characterized by standard metallurgical techniques and analyzed for the various coatings

  20. Active current management for four-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.; Weldon, W.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a system of auxiliary conductors designed to reduce current density peaks in railgun rails for four-rail, round-bore railguns is described. The effects on rail current density and projectile force are discussed. Railgun cross-sectional designs are presented for round-bore, four-rail railguns which operate at lower peak current densities and develop greater projectile forces than conventional two-rail, round-bore railguns

  1. Rail gun powered by an integral explosive generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Fowler, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    We propose the use of a rail gun powered by an explosive magnetic flux compression generator built into the rail gun itself in which the rails of the gun are driven together behind the projectile by explosives. The magnetic field established between the rails by an initial current supplied by an external source at the breech of the gun is trapped and compressed by the collapsing rails to accelerate the projectile down the bore of the gun

  2. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  3. Electric rail gun application to space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of using the DC electric gun principles as a space vehicle propulsion system, capable of producing intermediate thrust levels. The application of an electromagnetic launch technique, called the DC electric rail gun, to the space propulsion concept of O'Neill, is examined. It is determined that the DC electric rail gun offers very high projectile accelerations and a very significant potential for reducing the size and mass of a reaction motor for space application. A detailed description of rail gun principles is given and some simple expressions for the accelerating force, gun impedance, power supply requirements, and system performance are discussed

  4. Electromagnetic acceleration studies with augmented rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruo, T.; Fujioka, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Okamoto, A.; Ikuta, K.; Nemoto, K.

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study of electromagnetic acceleration in the rail-type accelerators with two kinds of rail geometry was carried out experimentally. The accelerators were energized by 200kJ capacitor bank and the weight of loaded projectiles was about 1.3 grams with 10mm x 10mm square bore. The attained velocity was 4.3km/s in the augmented accelerator, while it was 3.8km/s in the classical device. In this paper these differences in attained velocity are briefly discussed. A theoretical understanding of the rail erosion is also described

  5. Multiphysics modeling of a rail gun launcher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y W Kwon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A finite element based multiphysics modeling was conducted for a rail gunlauncher to predict the exit velocity of the launch object, and temperaturedistribution. For this modeling, electromagnetic field analysis, heat transferanalysis, thermal stress analysis, and dynamic analysis were conducted fora system consisting of two parallel rails and a moving armature. In particular,an emphasis was given to model the contact interface between rails andthe armature. A contact theory was used to estimate the electric as well asthermal conductivities at the interface. Using the developed model, aparametric study was conducted to understand effects of variousparameters on the exit velocity as well as the temperature distribution in therail gun launcher.

  6. Capistrano and the Rails Application Lifecycle

    CERN Document Server

    Mornini, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to make your Rails deployments pain-free with Capistrano! This Short Cut shows you how to use Capistrano to automate the deployment of your Rails applications. It teaches you the basics, but also goes far beyond. It shows you realistic deployment scenarios, including some with complex server farms. It includes a quick reference to Capistrano. As your Rails applications grow, it becomes increasingly important to automate deployment and to keep your development environment well organized. Capistrano is the right tool for the job, and this PDF shows you how to use it effectively.

  7. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  8. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    A fully differential rail-to-rail Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with improved DC-gain and reduced power consumption is proposed in this paper. By using the adaptive biasing circuit and two differential inputs, a low stand-by current can be obtained together with reduced power...... consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  9. Impact of the rail-pad multi-discrete model upon the prediction of the rail response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazilu, T.; Leu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Wheel/rail vibration has many technical effects such as wear of the rolling surfaces, rolling noise, settlement of the ballast and subgrade etc. This vibration is depending on the rail pad characteristic and subsequently, it is important to have an accurate overview on the relation between the rail pad characteristic and the level of the wheel/rail vibration. To this end, much theoretical and experimental research has been developed in the past, and for the theoretical approach the track model, in general, and, particularly, the rail pad model is of crucial importance. Usually, the rail pad model is discrete model one, neglecting the length of the rail pad. This fact is questionable because the sleepers span is only 4 times the rail pad length. Using the rail pad discrete model, the rail response is overestimated when the frequency of the excitation equals the pinned-pinned resonance frequency. In this paper, a multi-discrete model for the rail pad, consisting in many Kelvin-Voigt parallel systems, is inserted into an analytical model of the track. The track model is reduced to a rail taken as infinite Timoshenko beam, discretely supported via rail pad, sleeper and ballast. The influence of the number of Kelvin-Voigt systems of the rail pad model on the rail response is analysed.

  10. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  11. Assessment of rail long-pitch corrugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valehrach, Jan; Guziur, Petr; Riha, Tomas; Plasek, Otto

    2017-09-01

    The paper focuses on defects of the running surface of the rail, namely the rail corrugation defect and specifically long-pitch corrugation in curves of small radii. These defects cause a shorter life of the rails, greater maintenance costs and increase the noise and vibration pollution. Therefore, it is very important to understand the formation and development of the imperfection of the rails. In the paper, various sections of railway tracks in the Czech Republic are listed, each of them completed with comparison of defect development, the particular track superstructure, rolling stock, axle load, traffic load etc. Based on performed measurements, defect development has been proved as different on sections with similar (or even same) parameters. The paper assumes that a train velocity is the significant circumstance for defect development rates. Assessment of track section with under sleeper pads, which are expected to be the one of the possible ways to suppress the corrugation defect development, is included in evaluation.

  12. Quantifying economic benefits for rail infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This project identifies metrics for measuring the benefit of rail infrastructure projects for key : stakeholders. It is important that stakeholders with an interest in community economic development play an active : role in the development of the rai...

  13. Rail Baltica waiting at the station

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi transpordi asekantsleri Eero Pärgmäe sõnul on Eesti 2012. aastal valmis Tallinn-Riia rongiliini avamiseks. Tallinn-Berliini rongiliinist. Siim Kallas lubas aidata edendada Rail Baltica projekti

  14. Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Rail Gun Soft Recovery Facility accommodates a 155mm Howitzer, fired horizontally into a 104-foot long water trough to slow the projectile and recover...

  15. Erastaja varjas osalusi Rail Estonias / Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2001-01-01

    Eesti Päevalehe andmeil on Eesti Raudtee erastamiskonkursi võitnud Rail Estonia suurim aktsionär John Orrison. Vt. samas "Töötasid koos Bushi kabinetis". Väidetavalt salgab J. Orrison Tony Massei tundmise maha

  16. Electron emission at the rail surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, L.; Battech, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the processes by which current is transferred from the cathode rail to the plasma armature in an arc-driven railgun. Three electron emission mechanisms are considered, namely thermionic emission, field-enhanced thermionic emission (or Schottky emission), and photoemission. The author's calculations show that the dominant electron emission mechanism depends, to a great extent, on the work function of the rail surface, the rail surface temperature, the electric field at the rail surface, and the effective radiation temperature of the plasma. For conditions that are considered to be typical of a railgun armature, Schottky emission is the dominant electron emission mechanism, providing current densities on the order of 10 9 A/m 2

  17. Highway-Rail Crossings Inventory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The entire National Highway-Rail Crossing Inventory is available in three separate downloadble files. There is a file of all current Public-at-Grade crossings. There...

  18. Rail Engineering and Education Symposium Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    The objective of this project is to develop curricular materials for the Rail Engineering and Education : Symposia held in the summers of 2012 and 2014. : Description of Activities : The main approach to accomplish the activity is to develop and deli...

  19. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  20. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  1. Race Car Rally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  2. Lego Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Familiar toys can be used to scaffold young children's learning about basic physics as well as guide scientific inquiry. Teachers looking for resources to engage young children and develop science inquiry skills need look no further than the toy box. In this two-part activity, children first construct a Lego® car and use it to explore the effects…

  3. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  4. EEG investigations of duration discrimination: the intermodal effect is induced by an attentional bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Gontier

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicated that empty time intervals are better discriminated in the auditory than in the visual modality, and when delimited by signals delivered from the same (intramodal intervals rather than from different sensory modalities (intermodal intervals. The present electrophysiological study was conducted to determine the mechanisms which modulated the performances in inter- and intramodal conditions. Participants were asked to categorise as short or long empty intervals marked by auditory (A and/or visual (V signals (intramodal intervals: AA, VV; intermodal intervals: AV, VA. Behavioural data revealed that the performances were higher for the AA intervals than for the three other intervals and lower for inter- compared to intramodal intervals. Electrophysiological results indicated that the CNV amplitude recorded at fronto-central electrodes increased significantly until the end of the presentation of the long intervals in the AA conditions, while no significant change in the time course of this component was observed for the other three modalities of presentation. They also indicated that the N1 and P2 amplitudes recorded after the presentation of the signals which delimited the beginning of the intervals were higher for the inter- (AV/VA compared to the intramodal intervals (AA/VV. The time course of the CNV revealed that the high performances observed with AA intervals would be related to the effectiveness of the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of the ongoing interval. The greater amplitude of the N1 and P2 components during the intermodal intervals suggests that the weak performances observed in these conditions would be caused by an attentional bias induced by the cognitive load and the necessity to switch between modalities.

  5. Identification and prioritization of rail squat defects in the field using rail magnetisation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat

    2015-04-01

    Inevitably, rail squats and studs are continuing to be a serious problem for railway organisations around the world in the 21st century. They are typically classified as the growth of any cracks that have grown longitudinally through the subsurface and some of the cracks propagating to the bottom of rails transversely, and have branched from initial longitudinal cracks with a depression of rail surface. The horizontal crack, which results in a depression of rail surface, induces increased maintenance level, more frequent monitoring, compromised rail testing (as the crack shields the signal echoes), and possible broken rails. This paper presents field investigations using a magnetised-rail testing device developed by MRX Technologies to identify and prioritise the rail squats. Most of the in situ squats were found on the high rail of the transition (variable-radius curved track), which is associated with rolling contact fatigue (RCF). This investigation highlights the field performance of the MRX's surface crack detection technology in comparison with the traditional ultrasonic method and detailed walking inspection. Visually, it was found in the field that the size of the RCF squats varies from very small to moderate. The predicted crack data were obtained by scanning the magnitised rails. The comparison of the actual crack depths (ultrasonic) and the predicted crack depths (MRX device) shows: • A possible correlation for small RCF/ squat cracks. • Poor interpretation of larger defects and welds. The field assessment also suggests some practical issues required for further development, including the detection of rail spalling, deep transverse crack, welding, and so on.

  6. High-strength chromium--molybdenum rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Y.E.; Sawhill, J.M. Jr.; Cias, W.W.; Eldis, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted with the aim of developing an as-rolled rail of over 100 ksi (689 N/mm 2 ) yield strength. A series of compositions providing both pearlitic and bainitic microstructures was evaluated. A fine pearlitic structure was developed in a 0.73 percent C -- 0.83 percent Mn -- 0.16 percent Si -- 0.75 percent Cr -- 0.21 percent Mo steel by simulating the mill cooling rate of 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Two 100-ton commercial heats were made of this approximate composition and processed into 132-lb/yd (65.5-kg/m) rail. Samples tested in the laboratory ranged from 109 to 125 ksi (750 to 860 N/mm 2 ) in yield strength. The chromium-molybdenum rails also exhibited excellent fracture toughness and fatigue properties. Sections of the rail were joined by both flash-butt welding and thermite welding. The hardness peaks produced in the flash-butt welds could be reduced by applying either a postweld current or an induction heating cycle. The high-strength chromium-molybdenum rails have been in service for over eight months in curved sections of an ore railway that carries over 55 million gross long tons per year. 7 tables, 18 figs

  7. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  8. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  9. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  10. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating

  11. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  12. Rail-guided robotic end-effector position error due to rail compliance and ship motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgerink, Dian; Stegenga, J.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Woertche, H.J.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    A rail-guided robotic system is currently being designed for the inspection of ballast water tanks in ships. This robotic system will manipulate sensors toward the interior walls of the tank. In this paper, the influence of rail compliance on the end-effector position error due to ship movement is

  13. Rail-to-rail low-power fully differential OTA utilizing adaptive biasing and partial feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuan Vu, Cao; Wisland, Dag T.; Lande, Tor Sverre

    consumption. The DC-gain of the proposed OTA is improved by adding a partial feedback loop. A Common-Mode Feedback (CMFB) circuit is required for fully differential rail-to-rail operation. Simulations show that the OTA topology has a low stand-by power consumption of 96μW and a high FoM of 3.84 [(V...

  14. Factors affecting radiation doses from dedicated rail transport of spent reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports there are two exposure control concerns associated with the shipment of spent reactor fuel in dedicated trains -- compliance with transportation regulations for maximum allowable radiation levels, and minimizing the dose received by the general public. This article examines the methods used to calculate the dose equivalent rates alongside stationary (transport regulations) and moving trains (public exposure) of various lengths. The factors examined include the source term, the effect of overlapping radiation fields, the speed of the train, and the location of the population relative to the train. Trains made up of series of cars that individually meet transport regulations can, as a whole, exceed transport vehicle dose equivalent rate limits by up to 23% due to overlapping radiation fields. For moving trains and the worst case analyzed -- a person located 20 feet from the tracks and a train speed of 5 mph --- 141 rail cars would have to pass by to deliver a dose equivalent of 1 mrem

  15. Resisting momentum in the abutment to rotating of freight car bogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavels GAVRILOVS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the Latvian railway, derailments of freight cars take place in the course of shunting work on marshalling yards. A number of factors during shunting work on marshalling yards may contribute to the derailments of rolling stock: longitudinal dynamics during braking of cars with the turned off brakes by locomotive, hauling down cars from a marshalling hill with braking position controlled by an operator, dry internal rails in curves, absence of greasing in the pivot unit of freight bogies. At present, measures allowing elimination of the car derailments during shunting work are developed.During the period between repairs, the abutment unit of freight car often works in conditions of dry friction. Our observations suggest that at the time of taking a car into repair, there is often an absence of greasing between trail bearing and center plate of the abutment, and a presence of sandy dust. It increases a friction and, together with high contact pressures and dynamic influence, hinders the turn of bogie at motion of car.In this paper, the results of studying the resisting moment in the abutment to turning of bogie is reported. The study was conducted on the basis of freight bogie of type 18-100; the body was leant on the center plate unit of the abutment, on the center plate unit, and on the sliders. Experiments were conducted, with the use of greasing and at the dry friction of center plate unit.

  16. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  17. CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...

  18. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  19. Mega hub for intermodal transport - the planning of the most advanced container terminal in the world; Mega-Drehscheibe fuer den Kombinierten Verkehr - Planung des modernsten Containerbahnhofes der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, K.P. [Noell Stahl- und Maschinenbau GmbH, Wuerzburg (Germany). Abt. Hafentechnik

    1998-12-31

    The introduction of innovative mega hub systems for the operation of cargo trains is a promising starting point for increasing the efficiency of intermodal transport. A first mega hub as it is known has been planned for Northern Germany with its centre in Lehrte near Hannover. Instead of shunting the waggons, containers will be transferred from train to train at the mega hub. This is not only faster, but also more economical and thus more attractive to rail transport clients. No other known system can achieve such high transhipment/shunting capacities per surface unit. The design of the system guarantees the maximum degree of flexibility in transhipment operations. A high degree of automation will ensure the quality and speed of transhipment. The technical development of the fast transhipment system (FTS) by Noell has been completed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein vielversprechender Ansatz fuer die Steigerung der Leistungsfaehigkeit des Kombinierten Verkehrs (KV) ist die Einfuehrung von innovativen Drehscheibensystemen fuer den Betrieb der Cargo-Zuege. Eine erste sogenannte Mega-Drehscheibe wurde fuer den Norden Deutschlands mit Zentrum Lehrte bei Hannover geplant. Statt zu rangieren sollen in der Mega-Drehscheibe die Behaelter zwischen den Zuegen umsteigen. Das ist schneller, kostenguenstiger und damit attraktiver fuer den Bahnkunden. Darueber hinaus ist kein System bekannt, bei dem eine so hohe Umschlag-/Umstelleistung je Flaecheneinheit realisiert werden kann. Die Gestaltung der Anlage gewaehrt eine maximale Flexibilitaet im Umschlagbetrieb. Ein hoher Automatisierungsgrad wird Qualitaet und Schnelligkeit des Umschlages sichern. Die technische Entwicklung der Schnellumschlagtechnik seitens Noell ist abgeschlossen. (orig.)

  20. Design of Low Voltage Low Power CMOS OP-AMPS with Rail-to-Rail Input/Output Swing

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalaiah, SV; Shivaprasad, AP; Panigrahi, Sukanta K

    2004-01-01

    A novel input and output biasing circuit to extend the input common mode (CM) voltage range and the output swing to rail-to-rail in a low voltage op-amp in standard CMOS technology is presented. The input biasing circuit uses a Switched Capacitor Based Attenuator (SCBA) approach to establish rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. And the output biasing circuit uses an Output Driver (OD), with floating bias to give the rail-to-rail swing at output stage. Three different OD schemes in op...

  1. Phonological Contribution during Visual Word Recognition in Child Readers. An Intermodal Priming Study in Grades 3 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauval, Karinne; Casalis, Séverine; Perre, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological contribution during visual word recognition in child readers as a function of general reading expertise (third and fifth grades) and specific word exposure (frequent and less-frequent words). An intermodal priming in lexical decision task was performed. Auditory primes (identical and unrelated) were used in…

  2. Determination of the primary technical parameters of the test bench for controlling the temperature of rails and rail bars of continuous welded rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertychnyi Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors determining the reliability and safety of operation of the continuous welded rail track is the temperature of the rails. All conditions of laying, repair and maintenance of the track during the entire cycle of rails operation depend on it. The existing rail temperature monitoring method does not take into account a few significant factors and that leads to significant errors in determining the actual temperature of the rail bar. The authors propose a new rail temperature measurement method on a special test bench which maximally simulates possible environmental operating conditions for the rail bars, the profile of the roadway (embankment or cut, as well as the actual spatial latitude and meridian location of the rail slabs. At the bench, the studied rails are fastened with the help of rail braces on half ties, in the ballast bed, with sizes in accordance with the existing reference documents. At the first stage, the most common KB-65 intermediate fastener for the continuous welded rail in Ukraine will be used, while in subsequent stages KPP-5 fastening will be used.

  3. Rail travel: Conceptualizing a study on slow tourism approaches in sustaining rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Noor Farah Atiqah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rail transportation in Peninsular Malaysia is a popular transportation mode for locals to return to their hometown but is not frequently used as the mode of transport when travelling for holidays. Rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia have immense opportunity to be promoted as a popular tourism destination without the need of intense modern development. Using train rather than taking a car or a bus would endorse the concept of slowness during travel enabling tourists to enjoy the time taken to travel rather than rushing to travel to a destination. Encouragement of travelling by rail to the rural towns will enable improved utilization of the existing rail network and further uplift the travel appeal to rural towns in Peninsular Malaysia. In order to promote the concept of slow tourism that would benefit the rural towns’ sustainability, the perception of tourists on travelling slowly by train should first be understood and taken for consideration. A qualitative methodology of in depth interviews with domestic and international tourists whom have travel on trains to the rural towns will be conducted.

  4. Characterization of deformed pearlitic rail steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikas, Dimitrios; Meyer, Knut Andreas; Ahlström, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Pearlitic steels are commonly used for railway rails because they combine good strength and wear properties. During service, the passage of trains results in a large accumulation of shear strains in the surface layer of the rail, leading to crack initiation. Knowledge of the material properties in this region is therefore important for fatigue life prediction. As the strain is limited to a thin surface layer, very large strain gradients can be found. This makes it very difficult to quantify changes in material behavior. In this study hardness measurements were performed close to the surface using the Knoop hardness test method. The orientation of the pearlitic lamellas was measured to give an overview of the deformed microstructure in the surface of the rail. Microstructural characterization of the material was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate the changes in the microstructure due to the large deformation. A strong gradient can be observed in the top 50 μm of the rail, while deeper into the rail the microstructure of the base material is preserved.

  5. Structural response of a rail acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The transient response of a 0.4 by 0.6 cm rectangular bore rail accelerator was analyzed by a three dimensional finite element code. The copper rail deflected to a peak value of 0.08 mm in compression and then oscillated at an amplitude of 0.02 mm. Simultaneously the insulating side wall of glass fabric base, epoxy resin laminate (G-10) was compressed to a peak value of 0.13 mm and rebounded to a steady state in extension. Projectile pinch or blowby due to the rail extension or compression, respectively, can be identified by examining the time history of the rail displacement. The effect of blowby was most significant at the side wall characterized by mm size displacement in compression. Dynamic stress calculations indicate that the G-10 supporting material behind the rail is subjected to over 21 MPa at which the G-10 could fail if the laminate was not carefully oriented. Results for a polycarbonate resin (Lexan) side wall show much larger displacements and stresses than for G-10. The tradeoff between the transparency of Lexan and the mechanical strength of G-10 for sidewall material is obvious. Displacement calculations from the modal method are smaller than the results from the direct integration method by almost an order of magnitude, because the high frequency effect is neglected. 12 references

  6. Hard-driven rail-gun tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.; Adams, D.F.; Cummings, C.E.; Fowler, C.M.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Marsh, S.P.; Parker, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    A number of prototype rail-gun designs have been tested, powered by explosive magnetic flux compression generators. Peak currents as high as 1.3 MA were delivered. Rail guns with 50-mm-thick Kevlar fiberwound structural shells were able to survive these high currents with minimum mechanical damage and were refired after enlarging the bores 0.2 to 0.4 mm to remove arc damage. In some tests, mechanical damage occurred that was apparently caused by the rebound of the gun after firing. Although the Kevlar shells had more than adequate strength, they appeared to lack sufficient stiffness, allowing excessive deflections. The use of a steel structural shell with a Kevlar sleeve was an improvement. Intrusion into the seams of the rail guns and condensation of material from the plasma armature were observed. Improved sealing of seams is indicated. In some cases, we suspect maldistribution of current within the gun; that is, not all the current delivered to the breech of the gun seemed to reach the plasma armature. Experiments are being designed to quantify the effects discussed. Rail guns of advanced design are being fabricated. An 18-g titanium projectile was accelerated to 2.4 km/s in a 16-mm-round-bore, 0.6-m-long gun, 4-6 g polycarbonate projectiles were accelerated to 3.5 km/s in 13-mm-square-bore, 1.2-m-long rail guns. All tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure

  7. The literature of the California black rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Sanford R.

    1974-01-01

    Few birds have remained so little known as the California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus). Although first collected in 1859 or before and reported in 1874 (Ridgway 1874), its life history, distribution, and status have remained so obscure that even a sight record of the bird is deemed worthy of a report in some ornithological publications. Because degradation and loss of freshwater and saltwater marshlands in California may be detrimentally affecting the black rail, both the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife (1973) and the California Department of Fish and Game (1972) have classified it as rare and worthy of further study. The 84 papers and notes both summarized in this report and included in its bibliography include essentially all that is currently known about the California black rail. Only 11 of these papers consider the life history of this rail in any detail. The rest are distribution notes and some of the more important papers on the closely related eastern black rail (L. j. jamaicensis). The latter are included for comparative purposes, or because they may lend clues to currently unknown facets of the life history of the western race.

  8. Prototype Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application Project Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This report is the Project Report for the Rail Crossing Violation Warning (RCVW) safety application developed for the project on Rail Crossing Violation Warning Application and Infrastructure Connection, providing a means for equipped connected vehic...

  9. Phase I development of an aesthetic, precast concrete bridge rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Precast concrete bridge rail systems offer several advantages over traditional cast-in-place rail designs, including reduced construction : time and costs, installation in a wide range of environmental conditions, easier maintenance and repair, impro...

  10. Rail Base Corrosion and Cracking Prevention: Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    EWI was engaged by the Federal Railroad Administration to research rail treatments to prevent rail base corrosion in corrosive environments. A coating system was selected in Phase 1 and recommended for field trials. In Phase 2, four railroads sponsor...

  11. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  12. An automated system for rail transit infrastructure inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This project applied commercial remote sensing and spatial information (CRS&SI) : technologies such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), laser, GIS, and GPS to passenger rail : inspections. An integrated rail inspection system that can be mounted on hi...

  13. 77 FR 17121 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, Department of Transportation. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. [[Page 17122

  14. Rail renaissance based on strategic market segmentation principles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rail renaissance, market segmentation, South Africa, state of logistics, ... The modal imbalance is the result of a historical rail investment backlog, with ..... vector that can be thought of as a chromosome in genetic terms, while the values used.

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF THE DEFINITION OF EMPTY CARS STABILITY FROM SQUEEZING THEIR LONGITUDINAL FORCES IN THE FREIGHT TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Despite of the implementation various programs to improve the safety of train traffic problem of reducing gatherings rolling stock off the rails is still relevant. The study aims to clarify the existing method of determining the factor of stability from the tire longitudinal forces to ensure the sustainability of cars with increasing speeds of the rolling stock. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved track sections. Findings. Analysis of the results shows that, for all selected freight cars for the calculation, the value of the safety factor by squeezing is smaller than the formulas of Standards. Corrections made to the formula for determining the safety factor by squeezing longitudinal forces, would achieve: 1 a higher safety factor of lightweight cars, excluding them squeezing longitudinal forces in the entire range of speeds of freight trains; 2 to develop and implement measures to prevent squeezing of cars in the entire range of motion; 3 to determine the degree of stability of the empty car in the head, middle and tail laden trains; 4 to offer optimal scheme of mixed trains formation. Originality. The analysis of existing methods for determining stability coefficient cars in freight trains from squeezing their longitudinal forces is presented in studies. Proposals are developed for the refinement of the design phase, construction and operation. Practical value. This study clarifies the existing method of determining the safety factor of stability from the squeezing longitudinal forces, as well as the influence on the magnitude of the coefficient of speed of movement of the rolling stock. Developed proposals for the refinement of existing methods for determining stability coefficient of longitudinal forces squeezing cars in a train, can reduce the number of retirements cars derailed by taking into account in the

  16. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    announced that it will expand the capacity on its aging high speed line between Tokyo and Osaka, the most heavily traveled intercity rail segment in the...United States, in most of these countries intercity rail travel (including both conventional and high speed rail) represents less than 10% of all...that is sometimes mentioned by its advocates. Intercity passenger rail transport is relatively safe, at least compared with highway travel . And HSR in

  17. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  18. Linear friction welding for constructing and repairing rail for high speed and intercity passenger service rail : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This project developed a solid-state welding process based on linear friction welding (LFW) technology. While resistance flash welding or : thermite techniques are tried and true methods for joining rails and performing partial rail replacement repai...

  19. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  20. 77 FR 69769 - Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...] Solid Waste Rail Transfer Facilities AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: These final rules govern land-use-exemption permits for solid waste rail transfer facilities. The... Transportation Board over solid waste rail transfer facilities. The Act also added three new statutory provisions...

  1. Fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Kaixia

    2018-02-01

    The condition detection of rails in high-speed railway is one of the important means to ensure the safety of railway transportation. In order to replace the traditional manual inspection, save manpower and material resources, and improve the detection speed and accuracy, it is of great significance to develop a machine vision system for locating and identifying defects on rails automatically. Rail defects exhibit different properties and are divided into various categories related to the type and position of flaws on the rail. Several kinds of interrelated factors cause rail defects such as type of rail, construction conditions, and speed and/or frequency of trains using the rail. Rail corrugation is a particular kind of defects that produce an undulatory deformation on the rail heads. In high speed train, the corrugation induces harmful vibrations on wheels and its components and reduces the lifetime of rails. This type of defects should be detected to avoid rail fractures. In this paper, a novel method for fast rail corrugation detection based on texture filtering was proposed.

  2. Grinding induced martensite on the surface of rails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, C.J.; Zhang, Xiaodan; Danielsen, Hilmar Kjartansson

    2014-01-01

    determined. Two different rail types R260 and R350HT that both had been ground by a grinding train were investigated. The rail sections, studied using optical and scanning electron microscopy, showed that the surface of both types of rails is covered with WELs. The hardness of the WEL is increased compared...

  3. A big data analysis approach for rail failure risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamshidi, A.; Faghih Roohi, S.; Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Babuska, R.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.; Li, Z.; De Schutter, B.H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by

  4. 75 FR 35877 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... available on our Web site, http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting...-3)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2010 rail cost...

  5. 77 FR 58910 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  6. 76 FR 37191 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... our Web site, http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  7. 75 FR 80895 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  8. 77 FR 37958 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the third quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment...

  9. 78 FR 37660 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board approves the third quarter 2013 Rail Cost Adjustment Factor...

  10. 78 FR 17764 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2013 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  11. 76 FR 59483 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  12. 76 FR 16037 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2011 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  13. 75 FR 17462 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public Assistance, Governmental Affairs, and...-2)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the second quarter 2010 Rail Cost...

  14. 75 FR 58019 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., http://www.stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the office of Public...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the fourth quarter 2010 Rail Cost Adjustment...

  15. 76 FR 80448 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. EP 290 (Sub-No. 5) (2012-1)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the first quarter 2012 rail cost adjustment factor (RCAF...

  16. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  17. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  18. Practical reporting with Ruby and Rails

    CERN Document Server

    Berube, David

    2008-01-01

    Business intelligence and real time reporting mechanisms play a major role in any of today s forward looking business plans. With many of these solutions being moved to the Web, the popular Rails framework and its underlying Ruby language are playing a major role alongside web services in building the reporting solutions of tomorrow. Practical Reporting with Ruby and Rails is the first book to comprehensively introduce this popular framework, guiding readers through a wide ranging array of features. Note this isn t a staid guide to generating traditional reports, but rather it shows you how th

  19. 40 CFR 442.40 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT CLEANING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tanks Transporting Food Grade Cargos § 442.40 Applicability. This subpart applies to discharges resulting from the cleaning of tank trucks, intermodal tank containers, rail tank cars, tank barges and ocean/sea tankers which have been used to transport food grade...

  20. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  1. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  2. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  3. 75 FR 53734 - Patriot Rail, LLC, Patriot Rail Holdings LLC, and Patriot Rail Corp.-Continuance in Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... noncarrier limited liability company that owns not less than 51% of the equity interests in PRH. PRH owns 100% of the stock of Patriot. Patriot is a noncarrier holding company that owns 100% of the stock of six...). Patriot currently controls the following six Class III rail carriers: Tennessee Southern Railroad Company...

  4. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  5. Primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije / SWOT analysis of the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan S. Pamučar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazana primena SWOT analize na sistem integralnog transporta Vojske Srbije. Kao rezultat analize predstavljeni su ciljevi daljeg usavršavanja integralnog transporta, kao i mogući problemi generisani strateškim upravljanjem. / This work presents the SWOT analysis application to the intermodal transportation system in the Army of Serbia. The analysis resulted in defining goals for the future development of intermodal transportation, as well as possible problems generated by strategic management.

  6. A Current-Mode Common-Mode Feedback Circuit (CMFB) with Rail-to-Rail Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadet, Apirak; Kasemsuwan, Varakorn

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a current-mode common-mode feedback (CMFB) circuit with rail-to-rail operation. The CMFB is a stand-alone circuit, which can be connected to any low voltage transconductor without changing or upsetting the existing circuit. The proposed CMFB employs current mirrors, operating as common-mode detector and current amplifier to enhance the loop gain of the CMFB. The circuit employs positive feedback to enhance the output impedance and gain. The circuit has been designed using a 0.18 μm CMOS technology under 1V supply and analyzed using HSPICE with BSIM3V3 device models. A pseudo-differential amplifier using two common sources and the proposed CMFB shows rail to rail output swing (± 0.7 V) with low common-mode gain (-36 dB) and power dissipation of 390 μW.

  7. Photon-Pair Sources Based on Intermodal Four-Wave Mixing in Few-Mode Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Rottwitt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Four-wave mixing in optical fibers has been proven to have many applications within processing of classical optical signals. In addition, recent developments in multimode fibers have made it possible to achieve the necessary phase-matching for efficient four-wave mixing over a very wide bandwidth. Thus, the combination of multimode fiber optics and four-wave mixing is very attractive for various applications. This is especially the case for applications in quantum communication, for example in photon-pair generation. This is the subject of this work, where we discuss the impact of fluctuations in core radius on the quality of the heralded single-photon states and demonstrate experimental results of intermodal spontaneous four-wave mixing for photon-pair generation.

  8. Facial Expression and Vocal Pitch Height: Evidence of an Intermodal Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-four participants were asked to sing moderate, high, and low pitches while their faces were photographed. In a two-alternative forced choice task, independent judges selected the high-pitch faces as more friendly than the low-pitch faces. When photographs were cropped to show only the eye region, judges still rated the high-pitch faces friendlier than the low-pitch faces. These results are consistent with prior research showing that vocal pitch height is used to signal aggression (low pitch or appeasement (high pitch. An analysis of the facial features shows a strong correlation between eyebrow position and sung pitch—consistent with the role of eyebrows in signaling aggression and appeasement. Overall, the results are consistent with an inter-modal linkage between vocal and facial expressions.

  9. 75 FR 76778 - Environmental Impact Statement for the Milwaukee, WI (Milwaukee Intermodal Station) to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ...-Build Alternative represents other transportation modes such as auto, air travel, intercity bus, and... EIS is to evaluate potential intercity passenger rail route alternatives at the corridor level and... of this MWRRI project are to meet current and future regional travel needs through significant...

  10. Can cars and trucks coexist peacefully on highways? Analyzing the effectiveness of road safety policies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Manzano, José I; Castro-Nuño, Mercedes; Fageda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    We examine the impact on the traffic accident rate of the interaction between trucks and cars on Europe's roads using a panel data set that covers the period 1999-2010. We find that rising motorization rates for trucks lead to higher traffic fatalities, while rising motorization rates for cars do not. Empirically, the model we build predicts the positive impact of stricter speed limit legislation for trucks in the reduction of road fatalities. These findings lend support to European strategies and aimed at promoting alternative modes of freight transport, including rail and maritime transport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the

  12. How to Park Freight Trains on Rail-Rail Transshipment Yards: The Train Location Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Kellner; Nils Boysen; Malte Fliedner

    2010-01-01

    In modern rail-rail transshipment yards huge gantry cranes spanning all railway tracks allow for an efficent transshipment of containers between different freight trains. This way, multiple trains loaded with cargo for varying destinations can be consolidated to a reduced number of homogeneous trains, which is an essential requirement of hub-and-spoke railway systems. An important problem during the daily operations of such a transshipment yard is the train location problem, which assigns eac...

  13. DETERMINATION OF THE ISSUE CONCERNING THE LIFT RESISTANCE FACTOR OF LIGHTWEIGHT CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The analytical study of the connection between the longitudinal force, acting on the light-weight car, lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail» with the lift resistance factor value is to provide a simple relationships between them. Methodology. Research was conducted by the method of mathematical modeling of loading the freight car when driving at different speeds on straight and curved sections of a track. Findings. Even in the absence of «lift» accordingly the classical train stability theory, as the hinge-rod system, the presence of the longitudinal compressive forces may become a factor provoking cars derailment. The main reason of wheel climbing on rails is the combination of processes of dynamic interaction between the hunting vehicle and the track with simultaneous action of longitudinal compressive forces, and not the destabilization of train as a hingedrod system. To assess the impact of the longitudinal forces value on the lift resistance factor there are presented the calculation results for the empty gondola car motion, model No. 12-532, on 250 m radius curve with 150 mm rise and cross starting of car underframe relating to the track axis in 50 mm guiding section. The calculations were made in such a curve excluding the inertial forces from outstanding acceleration and taking into account the unbalanced acceleration with the permissible speed of 65 km/h. Originality. This study provides the technique of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces, which is somewhat different from the standard one, as well as evaluates impact of rolling stock speed on this factor. Practical value. The authors clarify the current method of determining the lift resistance factor by longitudinal forces and assess the impact of rolling stock speed on the value of this factor. From these studies one can conclude that because of cars hunting their lift is possible even when the train as

  14. Performance criteria for EM rail launchers with solid or transition armatures and laminated rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Velocity limitations of EM Rail Launchers with solid armatures due to the velocity skin-effect are assessed for a range of homogeneous materials (copper, aluminium, molybdenum and tungsten). Performance criteria as limited by armature melting in the region adjacent to the rail/armature contact surface and by rail surface melting are deduced analytically based on defined electro-thermal reference conditions. The performance criteria predict the reference transition velocity at which the solid contact surface changes to mainly a melted contact surface which is shown to be a fundamental property of the materials. The paper shows that the critical factors in obtaining a high transition velocity are a relatively high resistivity armature material combined with high temperature rail surface coatings. For example a transition velocity of >2.0 km/s for a molybdenum armature and a tungsten rail surface coating on a copper rail are predicted compared with <0.5 km/s for the aluminium/copper combination frequently used

  15. Immersive visualization of rail simulation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The prime objective of this project was to create scientific, immersive visualizations of a Rail-simulation. This project is a part of a larger initiative that consists of three distinct parts. The first step consists of performing a finite element a...

  16. Microscopic investigation of surface layers on rails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, Yvonna; Svoboda, Jiří; Schneeweiss, Oldřich; Daves, W.; Fischer, F. D.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 239, č. 2 (2005), s. 132-141 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS2041105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Mössbauer phase analysis * TEM * rail Subject RIV: JO - Structural Engineering Impact factor: 1.263, year: 2005

  17. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  18. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  19. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  20. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  1. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  2. Perceptions of transport corridors and intermodal transport - as ways to control the space of freight transport flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical findings and results from a study conducted as a part of an INTERREG IIIB project on intermodal transport solutions and corridors in the North Sea Region (SUTRANET - Sustainable Transport Research & Development Network in the North Sea Region (Hansen et.al., 2007......; Kristiansen et.al., 2005 and http://www.sutranet.org/ ). The aim of the study has been to explore possibilities and barriers for the development of intermodal transport solutions in selected corridors in the North Sea Region. The North Sea Region is one among several regions appointed by the EU......-Commission to exemplify the operationalisation of the concept Motorways of the Sea (European Commission, 2004). The policies of promoting Motorways of the Sea is aiming at revitalise the short-sea-shipping within Europe as a transport industry, but also to relieve the heavily congested road network in central regions...

  3. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  4. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...

  5. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  6. A Study in Sea-Air Intermodal Port Selection: Strategic Decision Making for United States Southern Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    commerce ( B2B EC) and electronic data interchange (EDI) enabled by internet connectivity are leading the way in industry innovation. Business can profit...points. Companies like Bon-Ton Stores Inc. are rethinking their supply chains and are using intermodal for the first time ever. In this case, they...W. (1997). Strategic Decision Making: Multiobjective Decision Analysis with Spreadsheets. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company

  7. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-02-01

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  8. 49 CFR 1580.103 - Location and shipping information for certain rail cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the following methods: (1) Electronic data transmission in spreadsheet format. (2) Electronic data transmission in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format. (3) Electronic data transmission in Extensible Markup Language (XML). (4) Facsimile transmission of a hard copy spreadsheet in tabular format. (5) Posting the...

  9. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  10. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  11. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  12. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  13. Public expenditure competition in the transport sector: intermodal and spatial considerations for Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore Tsekeris

    2011-01-01

    The development of transport networks requires public investments, in terms of government expenditure, on several types of (road, rail, port, airport, and urban public transport) infrastructure, including their operational and maintenance services. This paper develops and implements a system-wide spatioeconomic model to analyze the expenditure competition among different types of investment in the Greek transport sector. The suggested approach can offer valuable insight into the economies of ...

  14. Návrh Rail-to-Rail proudového konvejoru v technologii CMOS

    OpenAIRE

    Hudzik, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práca sa zaoberá návrhom rail-to-rail prúdového konvejora druhej generácie v technológii CMOS. Opisuje princípy funkcie jednotlivých generácii prúdových konvejorov a taktiež základný princíp návrhu prúdového konvejora druhej generácie založeného na operačnom zosilňovači. Venuje sa obvodovému riešeniu vstupného rail-to-rail stupňa a koncového stupňa v triede AB. Cieľom tejto práce je navrhnúť, charakterizovať vlastnosti a vytvoriť topológiu prúdového konvejora druhej generácie s rail...

  15. Simply rails 2 the ultimate beginner's guide to Ruby on rails

    CERN Document Server

    Lenz, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Want to learn all about Ruby on Rails 2.0, the web application framework that is inspiring developers around the world? The second edition of this practical, hands on book will: show you how to install Ruby on Rails on Windows, Mac, or Linux walk you, step by step, through the development of a Web 2.0 social news application, just like digg.com show you how to test, debug, benchmark, and deploy your Rails application Unlike other Rails books, this book doesn't assume that you are an experienced web developer, or that you've used Ruby before. An entire chapter is devoted to learning Ruby in a fun way, using the interactive Ruby console, so you can follow along at home. You'll be an accomplished Ruby programmer in no time! The example application that the book builds - a user-generated news web site - is built upon with each following chapter, and concepts such as sessions, cookies and basic AJAX usage are gradually introduced. Different aspects of Rails, such as user authentication, session cookies, and automa...

  16. Applying the polluter-pays principle to rail: Environmental differentiation of rail access charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pons-Rigat, A.; Turro Calvet, M.; Ubalde Claver, Ll.

    2016-07-01

    Environmental charges to rail service operators are still at an early stage of implementation in Europe. Current schemes are dissimilar and most of them have a very limited scope or do not provide effective incentives to abate environmental impacts. This is due to several practical difficulties in implementing internalisation pricing schemes in the railway sector. The first difficulty arises from the lack of internalisation in other transport modes and the small competitive margin of railways. Increasing the overall level of rail charges could affect their survival. A second difficulty is due to the uncertainties in the valuation of external costs and in the establishment of the optimal level of charges. On top of that, the imperfect competition in the rail market and its operational and financial rigidities imply that pricing decisions could be unfair and produce undesired demand effects. These difficulties should not prevent, however, advancing towards the application to rail of adequate charging methods for its environmental costs. This paper addresses the problem of setting environmentally differentiated rail charges through an analytical approach. A generalised formulation is developed that sets the level of charges as a function of the degree of internalisation in other modes. Then, the optimal trade-off in the level of differentiation is assessed to extract general guidelines. Based on this, both the derived overall costs and benefits and the impacts on each agent are quantified. (Author)

  17. Analysis of rail welding methods for mine rail access with the use of modern technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoltsev, A. A.; Shevchenko, R. A.; Kozyrev, N. A.; Kriukov, R. E.; Shishkin, P. E.

    2017-09-01

    Welded joint zones are weak sections of the railway track for all traffic cases (in the case of high-speed traffic and heavy traffic). In the paper advantages and disadvantages of the basic ways of rails welding, which are widely used today, are considered: electrocontact and aluminothermic. Carefully selected mode of differentially thermally strengthened rails string will allow the process of correction after heat treatment to be minimized and internal residual compressive stresses to be kept. Particular attention should be paid to the method of rails welding, in which after rails welding during their cooling it is offered to perform quasi-isothermal exposure in the temperature range of fine structure formation by passing pulses of alternating electric current through the welded joint maintaining this temperature until the end of the transformation. The use of quasi-isothermal exposure at a temperature of 600 - 650 °C makes it possible to obtain a finely dispersed structure of the welded seam of rails without additional heat treatment.

  18. Optimization of wheel-rail interface friction using top-of-rail friction modifiers: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Roshan; Dasaka, Satyanarayana Murty

    2018-05-01

    High Speed Railways and Dedicated Freight Corridors are the need of the day for fast and efficient transportation of the ever growing population and freight across long distances of travel. With the increase in speeds and axle loads carried by these trains, wearing out of rails and train wheel sections are a common issue, which is due to the increase in friction at the wheel-rail interfaces. For the cases where the wheel-rail interface friction is less than optimum, as in case of high speed trains with very low axle loads, wheel-slips are imminent and loss of traction occurs when the trains accelerate rapidly or brake all of a sudden. These vast variety of traction problems around the wheel-rail interface friction need to be mitigated carefully, so that the contact interface friction neither ascents too high to cause material wear and need for added locomotive power, nor be on the lower side to cause wheel-slips and loss of traction at high speeds. Top-of-rail friction modifiers are engineered surface coatings applied on top of rails, to maintain an optimum frictional contact between the train wheels and the rails. Extensive research works in the area of wheel-rail tribology have revealed that the optimum frictional coefficients at wheel-rail interfaces lie at a value of around 0.35. Application of top-of-rail (TOR) friction modifiers on rail surfaces add an extra layer of material coating on top of the rails, with a surface frictional coefficient of the desired range. This study reviews the common types of rail friction modifiers, the methods for their application, issues related with the application of friction modifiers, and a guideline on selection of the right class of coating material based on site specific requirements of the railway networks.

  19. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  20. INFRASTRUCTURE IN RAIL TRANSPORT IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Brito dos Santos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rail transport is the second mode most used in the country, due to the low cost of transporting large volumes over long distances. Although there was no investment in the expansion for a long time, after privatization there was a resumption of maintenance and expansion of the railways, but it is far from achieving international quality and performance indices. The objective of this work was a study on the rail transport in the country, to raise the structure of the Brazilian railway network. For the development of this article, the method used was bibliographic research in books, articles and websites. Although the Brazilian railway network is just over 12% of the railroad network in the United States, after the privatization of the sector, growth has resumed. The Bioceanic, a railroad that will connect the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, will improve the flow of agricultural production to overseas

  1. A novel permanent magnetic rail for HTS levitation propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, F.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Li, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Halbach Array has a characteristic advantage that the spatial fundamental field is canceled on one side of the array while the field intensity on the other side is enhanced. So this array could be used in the design of high temperature superconducting permanent magnetic levitation rail to improve the surface magnetic field and levitation force. This paper compared the surface magnetic field of the Halbach Array rail and two conventional levitation rails at first. Then proposed the potential advantages of Halbach Array applied in permanent magnetic rail system. But the Halbach Array rail is mechanical instability. An novel improved Halbach Array rail is proposed in this paper. The new structure combined the advantages of traditional structure and Halbach Array structure, solved the problem of mechanical instability, and carried on the advantage of Halbach Array on the magnetic field distribution at the same time.

  2. Future energy and emissions policy scenarios in Ireland for private car transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Hannah E.; Ó Gallachóir, Brian P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use a technological model of Ireland's future car stock to simulate the impact of a range of policy measures on the baseline trend in energy demand in the period to 2030. The policies and measures modelled comprise meeting deployment targets for electric vehicles and compressed natural gas vehicles, an EU regulation for the improvement of vehicle efficiency, implementation of a national biofuel obligation, as well as several behavioural measures (encouraging modal shifting and reduced travel demand). The impact of the different measures simulated is measured in terms of their contribution to meeting Ireland's ambitious targets for energy savings, for renewable energy penetration and for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions. The results point to a possible improvement of 32% in car stock efficiency, the achievement of 7.8% renewable energy share of road and rail transport and a 22% reduction in non-ETS private car CO 2 emissions relative to 2009 levels. A scenario analysis on meeting the EV penetration target shows a significant range of CO 2 emissions reductions depending on the cars (and mileage) displaced and on the electricity generation portfolio. - Highlights: ► Private car policy scenarios for Ireland modelled. ► Impact of vehicle efficiency, fuel switching and behavioural measures evaluated. ► Highlights distance to EU non-ETS emissions and renewable energy targets. ► Analysis of EV target shows that GHG mitigation potential is very sensitive.

  3. Rail Impact Testing. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-15

    impact test. The rail impact test is used to verify structural integrity of the test item and the adequacy of the tie-down system and tie-down...strength of provisions, connection and supporting structural frame, paragraph 5.2.3 ** Superscript...parts, to include outriggers and booms) without advanced approval by SDDCTEA. Torque nuts on wire rope clips to their correct value. Torque cable

  4. DIAGNOSTICS AND REGENERATION OF COMMON RAIL INJECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz KONIECZNY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the methodology of Common Rail injector diagnostic, regeneration and regulation with use of professional test stands. The EPS 815 machine can be used to test and repair all BOSCH injectors fully satisfying the producer requirements and standards. The article describes an example injector diagnosis with use of such test stand and additionally presents appropriate injector regeneration and encoding techniques

  5. Market size and vertical structure in the rail way industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Noriaki; Mizutani, Fumitoshi

    2011-01-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to discuss the relation between market size and vertical structure in the railway industry. The framework is based on a simple downstream monopoly model with two input suppliers, labor forces and the rail infrastructure firm. The operation of the downstream firm (i.e., the train operating firm) generates costs on the rail infrastructure firm. We show that the downstream firm with a larger market size is more likely to integrate with the rail infrastructure f...

  6. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team's analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor

  7. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  8. Control of rolling contact fatigue on premium rails in revenue service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Effective rail maintenance strategies are : essential for controlling rolling contact fatigue : (RCF) and reducing wear of rails under heavy : axle load (HAL) operations. In an effort to : optimize rail maintenance strategies in revenue : service, Tr...

  9. In-Service Performance and Costs of Methods to Control Urban Rail System Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    This study evaluates the acoustic and economic effectiveness of five methods of controlling wheel/rail noise and vibration on urban rail transit systems, namely: rail grinding, wheel truing, resilient wheels, ring-damped wheels, and welded vs. jointe...

  10. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  11. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  12. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  13. Adaptation Model for Corporate Car Sharing in the Car Rental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was on developing an adaption model for implementing a corporate car sharing service within the existing infrastructure of a car rental company. The investigated case companies were a leading Finnish car rental franchisee and an international car sharing subsidiary, largely owned by the car rental franchisor, which offers corporate car sharing solutions in major European countries. Adapting this new service in Finland will help the car rental franchisee to assert its ...

  14. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... electric utilities (including at least one rural electric cooperative and one state- or municipally-owned..., and distributors; 2 representatives from private car owners, car lessors, or car manufacturers; and, 1...

  15. Fatigue crack growth and fracture behavior of bainitic rail steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    "The microstructuremechanical properties relationships, fracture toughness, fatigue crack growth and fracture surface morphology of J6 bainitic, manganese, and pearlitic rail steels were studied. Microstructuremechanical properties correlation ...

  16. A Big Data Analysis Approach for Rail Failure Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Ali; Faghih-Roohi, Shahrzad; Hajizadeh, Siamak; Núñez, Alfredo; Babuska, Robert; Dollevoet, Rolf; Li, Zili; De Schutter, Bart

    2017-08-01

    Railway infrastructure monitoring is a vital task to ensure rail transportation safety. A rail failure could result in not only a considerable impact on train delays and maintenance costs, but also on safety of passengers. In this article, the aim is to assess the risk of a rail failure by analyzing a type of rail surface defect called squats that are detected automatically among the huge number of records from video cameras. We propose an image processing approach for automatic detection of squats, especially severe types that are prone to rail breaks. We measure the visual length of the squats and use them to model the failure risk. For the assessment of the rail failure risk, we estimate the probability of rail failure based on the growth of squats. Moreover, we perform severity and crack growth analyses to consider the impact of rail traffic loads on defects in three different growth scenarios. The failure risk estimations are provided for several samples of squats with different crack growth lengths on a busy rail track of the Dutch railway network. The results illustrate the practicality and efficiency of the proposed approach. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Operations Research Approaches to Asset Management in Freight Rail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Michael F.; Harrod, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail.......This article describes operations research methodologies as they apply to asset management in freight rail. We describe state-of-the-art methods for locomotive, crew, railcar, line and yard planning and management. We conclude with emerging areas of research in rail....

  18. Attractive Mobile Corridors - The Power of Light Rail Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Light rail is a popular tool in urban development strategies in many European cities. One argument for choosing a rail-based solution is that it signals stability to investors and will attract development and investments in the corridor. The choice of corridor in the various light rail cities...... and redistributes urban space. Furthermore light rail is not only a physical infrastructure but also an infrastructure of power that is carefully planned and designed creating both mental and physical patterns of mobilities and immobilities. Hence it is important to underline that mobility systems, such as light...

  19. NASTRAN buckling study of a linear induction motor reaction rail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    NASTRAN was used to study problems associated with the installation of a linear induction motor reaction rail test track. Specific problems studied include determination of the critical axial compressive buckling stress and establishment of the lateral stiffness of the reaction rail under combined loads. NASTRAN results were compared with experimentally obtained values and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The reaction rail was found to buckle at an axial compressive stress of 11,400 pounds per square inch. The results of this investigation were used to select procedures for installation of the reaction rail.

  20. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  1. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  2. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  3. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  4. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  5. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...

  6. Dual Neutral Particle Beam Interrogation of Intermodal Shipping Containers for Special Nuclear Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Rodney Lyman

    Intermodal shipping containers entering the United States provide an avenue to smuggle unsecured or stolen special nuclear material (SNM). The only direct method fielded to indicate the presence of SNM is by passive photon/neutron radiation detection. Active interrogation using neutral particle beams to induce fission in SNM is a method under consideration. One by-product of fission is the creation of fragments that undergo radioactive decay over a time period on the order of tens of seconds after the initial event. The "delayed" gamma-rays emitted from these fragments over this period are considered a hallmark for the presence of SNM. A fundamental model is developed using homogenized cargos with a SNM target embedded at the center and computationally interrogated using simultaneous neutron and photon beams. Findings from analysis of the delayed gamma emissions from these experiments are intended to mitigate the effects of poor quality information about the composition and disposition of suspect cargo before examination in an active interrogation portal.

  7. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  8. Fleet servicing facilities for testing and maintaining rail and truck radioactive waste transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.D.; Hudson, B.J.; Preston, M.K.; Keith, D.A.; McCreery, P.N.; Knox, W.; Easterling, E.M.; Lamprey, A.S.; Wiedemann, G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines feasibility design concepts and feasibility studies of Fleet Servicing Facilities (FSF). Such facilities are intended to be used for routine servicing, preventive maintenance, and for performing requalification license compliance tests and inspections, minor repairs, and decontamination of both the transportation casks and their associated rail cars or tractor-trailers. None of the waste handling plants in the United States presently receiving radioactive wastes have an onsite FSF, nor is there an existing third party facility providing all of these services. This situation has caused the General Accounting Office to express concern regarding the quality of waste transport system maintenance once the transport system is placed into service. Thus a need is indicated for FSFs or their equivalent at various radioactive materials receiving sites. This paper also compares the respective capital costs and operating characteristics of the following three concepts of a spent fuel cask transportation FSF; integrated FSF, colocated FSF, and independent FSF

  9. Definition of an On-Board Comfort Index (Rail for the Railway Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Barone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of collective transport is strongly influenced by the quality of offered service. One of the overriding factors that affect the modal shift process is the quality of transport systems. To increase the attractiveness of collective transport services and therefore reduce the use of cars, authorities in collaboration with transport companies should take steps to ensure a high level of service quality in the public transport system. The provided quality is the level of quality achieved on daily basis and measured by the customer/user point of view. This research aims to relate service quality perceived by the user to measurements of two environmental indicators, that is, vibration, in reference to which the acceleration transmitted to the body by the vehicle motion and by its vibration will be measured, and noise, in reference to which the Equivalent Sound Pressure Level—Leq (A—will be measured. Finally, a Comfort Index (CI (rail is specified, calibrated, and validated.

  10. A Methodology for Long-Term Analysis of Innovative Signalling Systems on Regional Rail Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca D'Acierno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A rail system may be considered a useful tool for reducing vehicular flows on a road system (i.e. cars and trucks, especially in high-density contexts such as urban and metropolitan areas where greenhouse gas emissions need to be abated. In particular, since travellers maximise their own utility, variations in mobility choices can be induced only by significantly improving the level-of-service of public transport. Our specific proposal is to identify the economic and environmental effects of implementing an innovative signalling system (which would reduce passenger waiting times by performing a cost-benefit analysis based on a feasibility threshold approach. Hence, it is necessary to calculate long-term benefits and compare them with intervention costs. In this context, a key factor to be considered is travel demand estimation in current and future conditions. This approach was tested on a regional rail line in southern Italy to show the feasibility and utility of the proposed methodology.

  11. INTERMODAL TAŞIMACILIĞIN MALİYET AVANTAJLARI: KARAYOLU-DENİZYOLU ENTEGRASYONU ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA - COST BENEFITS OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: A RESEARCH ON ROAD AND MARITIME INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıtkı SAYGILI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetDünya üzerinde uluslararası ticaret her geçen gün gelişmektedir. Küresel pazarlardaki yoğun rekabet ortamında işletmeler kar marjlarını arttırmak için ticari bakış açılarında ve yöntemlerinde değişiklikler yapmaktadır. Toplam maliyetlerin düşürülmesi ve zaman faktörü açısından, günümüzde üreticiler tarafından lojistik hizmetlerin önemi daha iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda üreticilerin talepleri lojistik işletmelerinin operasyonlarına da etki etmektedir.Lojistik işletmelerinin müşterilerine rekabet avantajı oluşturacak bir taşıma fiyatı sunabilmesi için finansal durumlarını analiz etmeleri ve maliyetlerini kontrol altında tutmaları gerekmektedir. Taşıma maliyetlerinin düşürülmesi ile birlikte çevreye verilen zararın azaltılması için tüm taşıma türlerinin üstün yönlerinden yararlanarak birden fazla taşıma türünü bir araya getiren intermodal taşıma sistemi önem kazanmaktadır.Bu araştırma kapsamında öncelikle intermodal taşımacılıkla ilgili temel konular açıklanarak, taşıma türlerinin entegrasyonunda etkili olan etmeler ortaya konulmaktadır. Lojistik işletmelerinin maliyet yönetimi hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. Intermodal taşımacılıkta taşıma maliyetlerinin analizine yönelik karayolu taşımacılığına alternatif olarak karayolu-denizyolu entegrasyonu üzerine güzergah maliyetlerinin karşılaştırılması açısından örnek bir uygulama yapılmaktadır.AbstractInternational trade globally develops day by day. In highly competitive global markets, companies make changes in their trading perspectives and methods in order to increase their profit margin. Currently, suppliers recognize the importance of logistics services better in terms of diminishing total costs and time factor. In this sense, demands of suppliers also influence operations of logistics companies.Logistics companies are supposed to analyze their financial

  12. INTERMODAL TAŞIMACILIĞIN MALİYET AVANTAJLARI: KARAYOLU-DENİZYOLU ENTEGRASYONU ÜZERİNE BİR ARAŞTIRMA - COST BENEFITS OF INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION: A RESEARCH ON ROAD AND MARITIME INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sıtkı SAYGILI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetDünya üzerinde uluslararası ticaret her geçen gün gelişmektedir. Küresel pazarlardaki yoğun rekabet ortamında işletmeler kar marjlarını arttırmak için ticari bakış açılarında ve yöntemlerinde değişiklikler yapmaktadır. Toplam maliyetlerin düşürülmesi ve zaman faktörü açısından, günümüzde üreticiler tarafından lojistik hizmetlerin önemi daha iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda üreticilerin talepleri lojistik işletmelerinin operasyonlarına da etki etmektedir.Lojistik işletmelerinin müşterilerine rekabet avantajı oluşturacak bir taşıma fiyatı sunabilmesi için finansal durumlarını analiz etmeleri ve maliyetlerini kontrol altında tutmaları gerekmektedir. Taşıma maliyetlerinin düşürülmesi ile birlikte çevreye verilen zararın azaltılması için tüm taşıma türlerinin üstün yönlerinden yararlanarak birden fazla taşıma türünü bir araya getiren intermodal taşıma sistemi önem kazanmaktadır.Bu araştırma kapsamında öncelikle intermodal taşımacılıkla ilgili temel konular açıklanarak, taşıma türlerinin entegrasyonunda etkili olan etmeler ortaya konulmaktadır. Lojistik işletmelerinin maliyet yönetimi hakkında bilgi verilmektedir. Intermodal taşımacılıkta taşıma maliyetlerinin analizine yönelik karayolu taşımacılığına alternatif olarak karayolu-denizyolu entegrasyonu üzerine güzergah maliyetlerinin karşılaştırılması açısından örnek bir uygulama yapılmaktadır.AbstractInternational trade globally develops day by day. In highly competitive global markets, companies make changes in their trading perspectives and methods in order to increase their profit margin. Currently, suppliers recognize the importance of logistics services better in terms of diminishing total costs and time factor. In this sense, demands of suppliers also influence operations of logistics companies.Logistics companies are supposed to analyze their financial

  13. A survey of wheel-rail contact models for rail vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meymand, Sajjad Z.; Keylin, Alexander; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Accurate and efficient contact models for wheel-rail interaction are essential for the study of the dynamic behaviour of a railway vehicle. Assessment of the contact forces and moments, as well as contact geometry provide a fundamental foundation for such tasks as design of braking and traction control systems, prediction of wheel and rail wear, and evaluation of ride safety and comfort. This paper discusses the evolution and the current state of the theories for solving the wheel-rail contact problem for rolling stock. The well-known theories for modelling both normal contact (Hertzian and non-Hertzian) and tangential contact (Kalker's linear theory, FASTSIM, CONTACT, Polach's theory, etc.) are reviewed. The paper discusses the simplifying assumptions for developing these models and compares their functionality. The experimental studies for evaluation of contact models are also reviewed. This paper concludes with discussing open areas in contact mechanics that require further research for developing better models to represent the wheel-rail interaction.

  14. Keeping rail on track: preliminary findings on safety culture in Australian rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Verna; Rainbird, Sophia; Dorrian, Jill; Paterson, Jessica; Cattani, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    'Safety culture' is identified in the literature as a critical element of healthy and safe workplaces. How can rail organizations ensure that consistently effective work health and safety cultures are maintained across the diversity of their operations? This paper reports on research that is currently underway in the Australian rail industry aimed at producing a Model of Best Practice in Safety Culture for the industry. Located in rail organizations dedicated to the mining industry as well as urban rail and national freight operations, the research examines the constructs of organizational culture that impact on the development and maintenance of healthy and safe workplaces. The research uses a multi-method approach incorporating quantitative (survey) and qualitative (focus groups, interviews and document analysis) methods along with a participative process to identify interventions to improve the organization and develop plans for their implementation. The research uses as its analytical framework the 10 Platinum Rules, from the findings of earlier research in the New South Wales (Australia) mining industry, Digging Deeper. Data collection is underway at the time of writing and preliminary findings are presented at this stage. The research method may be adapted for use as a form of organizational review of safety and health in organizational culture.

  15. Rail for inspection/maintenance device in TOKAMAK type container of a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    A circular rail divided into four arcuate parts for an inspection/maintenance device which runs in a TOKAMAK type container is disposed. Each of the divided rails is supported at the center of the outer surface rotatably by extendable rail supporting shafts. Each of the divided rail is constituted such that it can be contained between limiters disposed at the outer side of the TOKAMAK container when each of the rail support shafts is contracted. With such a constitution, each of the rail support shafts and arcuate rail is contracted and rotated from the outside of the TOKAMAK type container by an actuator. In order to form a circular rail, each of the rail support shafts is extended toward the center of the TOKAMAK type container, and then each of the arcuate rails is rotated into a horizontal state. Then, the joint portions of each of the arcuate rails are connected by using remote controllable locking rods. (I.S.)

  16. Kinematic analysis on rail development into vacuum vessel for ITER blanket maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    The vehicle manipulator system for blanket maintenance is used as a main driving mechanism for rail development, and three driving mechanisms d1, d2 (or d2') and d3 are used as cycle sequence of the repeated operations for rail development. This repeated operation can develop the articulated rail into the vacuum vessel. The rail development scenario, kinematic analysis model for rail development without any driving mechanisms in the rail joints, equations defined the angular between two rail links, identification of rail link at repeated operation, numerical analysis results on rail deployment under the forced position control of l i+1 , new rail development scenario using two driving mechanisms d1 and d2''under one cycle sequence of the repeated operations, and rail development test are reported. (S.Y.)

  17. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  18. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  19. Groningen Seaports : An Examination of Public Rail Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Gert

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the value of the public rail infrastructure of Groningen Seaports, the port authority of Delfzijl and Eemshaven. There is substantial strategic value of public rail infrastructure due to the public good character, the mission of Groningen Seaports, the image of full port

  20. Procedure and applications of combined wheel/rail roughness measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittrich, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Wheel-rail roughness is known to be the main excitation source of railway rolling noise. Besides the already standardised method for direct roughness measurement, it is also possible to measure combined wheel-rail roughness from vertical railhead vibration during a train pass-by. This is a different

  1. Unistuste Rail Baltic - ilus ja kallis / Mikk Salu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Salu, Mikk, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    Rail Balticu puhul on tähtsaim küsimus, kas uut raudteeühendust on üldse vaja, mitte aga see, kas tee läheb läbi Tartu või Pärnu. Konsutatsioonifirma AECOM koostatud raportist Rail Balticu tasuvuse kohta

  2. Tartu ihkab Rail Baltica kiirraudteed endale / Madis Aesma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aesma, Madis

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta sügisel alustatakse uuringuid, et välja selgitada, millisest Eesti linnast - Tartust, Pärnust või Viljandist - peaks tulevikus läbi minema kiirraudtee Rail Baltica, mis viib kuue tunniga Tallinnast Varssavisse. Kaart: Kiirraudtee Rail Baltica kolm võimalikku suunda. Kommenteerib Andrus Ansip

  3. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  4. Semi-supervised rail defect detection from imbalanced image data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajizadeh, S.; Nunez Vicencio, Alfredo; Tax, D.M.J.; Acarman, Tankut

    2016-01-01

    Rail defect detection by video cameras has recently gained much attention in both
    academia and industry. Rail image data has two properties. It is highly imbalanced towards the non-defective class and it has a large number of unlabeled data samples available for semisupervised learning

  5. 76 FR 77716 - Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...-0108; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-AC19 Alternate Passenger Rail Service Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal... rule is in response to a statutory mandate that FRA complete a rulemaking proceeding to develop a pilot... enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008. The final rule develops this pilot...

  6. 49 CFR 213.343 - Continuous welded rail (CWR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TRACK SAFETY STANDARDS Train Operations at Track Classes 6 and...) Designation of a desired rail installation temperature range for the geographic area in which the CWR is... installation temperature range when adjusting CWR. (b) Rail anchoring or fastening requirements that will...

  7. Causal analysis of passenger train accidents on freight rail corridors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    A number of economic, technical and political factors have limited the development of new, dedicated, very-high-speed rail systems in North America. Consequently, most, near-term development of improved or expanded passenger rail service in the U.S. ...

  8. 77 FR 76169 - Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ....stb.dot.gov . Copies of the decision may be purchased by contacting the Office of Public Assistance...)] Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Approval of rail cost adjustment factor. SUMMARY: The Board has approved the AAR's proposed rebasing calculations and...

  9. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  10. The Homogeneity Research of Urban Rail Transit Network Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Fu-jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban Rail Transit is an important part of the public transit, it is necessary to carry out the corresponding network function analysis. Previous studies mainly about network performance analysis of a single city rail transit, lacking of horizontal comparison between the multi-city, it is difficult to find inner unity of different Urban Rail Transit network functions. Taking into account the Urban Rail Transit network is a typical complex networks, so this paper proposes the application of complex network theory to research the homogeneity of Urban Rail Transit network performance. This paper selects rail networks of Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou as calculation case, gave them a complex network mapping through the L, P Space method and had a static topological analysis using complex network theory, Network characteristics in three cities were calculated and analyzed form node degree distribution and node connection preference. Finally, this paper studied the network efficiency changes of Urban Rail Transit system under different attack mode. The results showed that, although rail transport network size, model construction and construction planning of the three cities are different, but their network performance in many aspects showed high homogeneity.

  11. Rail freight transportation concerns of developing economies: A Namibian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Saruchera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rail transport appears to be well established and outperforming other transport modes in Europe and beyond, in the majority of developing economies it was observed that firms and travellers were, on the contrary, shunning from the rail. Despite considerable infrastructural investments in the African rail systems, the sector has been deteriorating over the years. Objectives: This study identifies the freight rail transportation problems faced by African developing economies, focusing on Namibia, and examines the potential actions and factors for minimising such problems, drawing lessons from some of the developed world’s success stories. Method: The objectives of this study are achieved through a survey of Windhoek-based industrial and logistics firms operating in Namibia. Self-administered survey questionnaires were distributed through the aid of trained research assistants. Results: The study’s results show that some of the reasons of shunning rail transport are a matter of attitude, whereas some are related to operational challenges. The study confirms that the transport mode used and ownership of the freight transport services used can affect the degree of satisfaction for the transportation of goods in Namibia. Conclusion: Namibian industrial and logistics firms avoid using rail, owing to its low level of satisfaction obtained from its use. Besides engaging in Public Private Partnerships (PPPs in rail transport operations, the study contends that rail transport should receive attention similar to that given to other transport modes for African economies such as Namibia to overcome the costs associated with the increasing road congestion.

  12. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  13. Optimal Placement Method of RFID Readers in Industrial Rail Transport for Uneven Rail Traflc Volume Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr; Muravev, Dmitri; Mishkurov, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The issue of operative data reception on location and movement of railcars is significant the constantly growing requirements of the provision of timely and safe transportation. The technical solution for efficiency improvement of data collection on rail rolling stock is the implementation of an identification system. Nowadays, there are several such systems, distinguished in working principle. In the authors' opinion, the most promising for rail transportation is the RFID technology, proposing the equipping of the railway tracks by the stationary points of data reading (RFID readers) from the onboard sensors on the railcars. However, regardless of a specific type and manufacturer of these systems, their implementation is affiliated with the significant financing costs for large, industrial, rail transport systems, owning the extensive network of special railway tracks with a large number of stations and loading areas. To reduce the investment costs for creation, the identification system of rolling stock on the special railway tracks of industrial enterprises has developed the method based on the idea of priority installation of the RFID readers on railway hauls, where rail traffic volumes are uneven in structure and power, parameters of which is difficult or impossible to predict on the basis of existing data in an information system. To select the optimal locations of RFID readers, the mathematical model of the staged installation of such readers has developed depending on the non-uniformity value of rail traffic volumes, passing through the specific railway hauls. As a result of that approach, installation of the numerous RFID readers at all station tracks and loading areas of industrial railway stations might be not necessary,which reduces the total cost of the rolling stock identification and the implementation of the method for optimal management of transportation process.

  14. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  15. The latest technical solutions in rail vehicles drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejewski Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the latest trends and solutions used in the offers of rail vehicles manufacturers. The study is mainly concerned with the technical solutions used in hybrid rail vehicles, whose development has become one of the priorities for the development of rail vehicles in the European Union in recent years. Stricter emissions standards for harmful compounds in the European Union have forced manufacturers to use increasingly sophisticated technology, including hybrid drives and alternative fuels. The products and solutions offered by the major manufacturers on the market, along with their capabilities and future applications are described. The predicted trends in the development of propulsion technology for rail and road-rail vehicles are also indicated in view of the current legislative aspirations among the EU Member States.

  16. Simulations of roughness initiation and growth on railway rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X.; Thompson, D. J.; Jones, C. J. C.; Xie, G.; Iwnicki, S. D.; Allen, P.; Hsu, S. S.

    2006-06-01

    A model for the prediction of the initiation and growth of roughness on the rail is presented. The vertical interaction between a train and the track is calculated as a time history for single or multiple wheels moving on periodically supported rails, using a wavenumber-based approach. This vertical dynamic wheel/rail force arises from the varying stiffness due to discrete supports (i.e. parametric excitation) and the roughness excitation on the railhead. The tangential contact problem between the wheel and rail is modelled using an unsteady two-dimensional approach and also using the three-dimensional contact model, FASTSIM. This enables the slip and stick regions in the contact patch to be identified from the input geometry and creepage between the wheel and rail. The long-term wear growth is then predicted by applying repeated passages of the vehicle wheelsets, as part of an iterative solution.

  17. Environmental Factors and Intermodal Freight Transportation: Analysis of the Decision Bases in the Case of Spanish Motorways of the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel López-Navarro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, there is widespread consensus about the notable, yet simultaneously growing, negative environmental impacts generated by the transportation sector. Experts working in a number of different fields consider the current situation to be unsustainable and possible measures to reduce emissions and foster sustainability are being encouraged. The European Commission has highlighted the need to shift away from unimodal road transport toward a greater use of intermodal transport through, for example, motorways of the sea, in light of the evidence that the former makes a significant contribution to increased CO2 emissions. However, although there is a general perception that sea transport is environmentally preferable to road transport, recent studies are beginning to question this assumption. Moreover, little research has been conducted to quantify environmental aspects and incorporate them into the decision-making processes involved in the modal shift. This study first reviews the existing literature to examine the extent to which environmental aspects are relevant in the modal choice in the case of short sea shipping and motorways of the sea. Related to this, the study also evaluates the role that different agents may play in making decisions about choice of mode, taking into consideration environmental aspects. Secondly, we use the values the European Commission provides to calculate external costs for the Marco Polo freight transport project proposals (call 2013 to estimate the environmental costs for several routes (a total of 72, comparing the use of road haulage with the intermodal option that incorporates the Spanish motorways of the sea. The results of this comparative analysis show that the intermodal option is not always the best choice in environmental terms. Consequently, the traditional environmental argument to justify this alternative must be used carefully.

  18. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  19. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  20. Investigation of the stresses in rails : Secondary effects associated with the bending of a centrically loaded rail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolvoort, A.J.; Woestenburg, T.

    1982-01-01

    The flexural behaviour of a rail under purely vertical load acting in the plane of symmetry is investigated in this paper. For this purpose a rail ofNP 46 standard section was subjected to experimental research with the aid of electrical resistance strain gauges in the Laboratory for Highway and

  1. A low-offset low-voltage CMOS Op Amp with rail-to-rail input and output ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzmann, Peter J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Wassenaar, R.F.; Stroet, Peter; Stroet, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    A low voltage CMOS op amp is presented. The circuit uses complementary input pairs to achieve a rail-to-rail common mode input voltage range. Special attention has been given to the reduction of the op amp's systematic offset voltage. Gain boost amplifiers are connected in a special way to provide

  2. Three-dimensional rail-current distribution near the armature of simple, square-bore, two-rail railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beno, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper vector potential is solved as a three dimensional, boundary value problem for a conductor geometry consisting of square-bore railgun rails and a stationary armature. Conductors are infinitely conducting and perfect contact is assumed between rails and the armature. From the vector potential solution, surface current distribution is inferred

  3. The influence of friction coefficient and wheel/rail profiles on energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idarraga Alarcon, G.A.; Burgelman, N.D.M.; Meza Meza, J.; Toro, A.; Li, Z.

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the energy dissipation in a wheel/rail system through friction work modeling. In order to identify the effect of the friction coefficient on the energy dissipation in the wheel/rail contact, several simulations were performed using a 3D multibody model of a railway vehicle

  4. Computation of wheel-rail contact force for non-mapping wheel-rail profile of Translohr tram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuanjin; Ren, Lihui; Zhou, Jinsong

    2017-09-01

    Translohr tram has steel wheels, in V-like arrangements, as guide wheels. These operate over the guide rails in inverted-V arrangements. However, the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the guide wheels and guide rails are not always mapped one-to-one. In this study, a simplified elastic method is proposed in order to calculate the contact points between the wheels and the rails. By transforming the coordinates, the non-mapping geometric relationship between wheel and rail is converted into a mapping relationship. Considering the Translohr tram's multi-point contact between the guide wheel and the guide rail, the elastic-contact hypothesis take into account the existence of contact patches between the bodies, and the location of the contact points is calculated using a simplified elastic method. In order to speed up the calculation, a multi-dimensional contact table is generated, enabling the use of simulation for Translohr tram running on curvatures with different radii.

  5. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  6. 77 FR 65937 - Pioneer Railcorp-Continuation in Control Exemption-Rail Switching Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... control of Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS), upon RSS's becoming a Class III rail carrier. \\1\\ Pioneer states that it owns 100% of the common stock of its 17 Class III rail carrier subsidiaries: West Michigan...--Continuation in Control Exemption--Rail Switching Services, Inc. Pioneer Railcorp (Pioneer) and its...

  7. 75 FR 51160 - Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.-Lease and Operation Exemption-BDB Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... truck-rail transfer facility on the property and provide associated rail common carrier services. \\1... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35399] Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P.--Lease and Operation Exemption--BDB Company Swanson Rail Transfer, L.P. (SRT), a noncarrier...

  8. 77 FR 65446 - Turtle Creek Industrial Railroad, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Consolidated Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... common carrier providing interstate rail service, primarily for Dura-Bond, without first obtaining... Industrial Railroad, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Consolidated Rail Corporation Turtle Creek... Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) and to operate approximately 9.8 miles of rail line between milepost 0...

  9. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  10. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  11. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DYNAMIC QUALITIES OF FREIGHT CARS WITH BOGIES OF DIFFERENT DESIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. With the advent of new designs of freright cars the task of designing the more modern bogies, assessment of their dynamic properties depending on the type and structure of pecularities, accounting the axle loadings, providing the dynamic and running characteristics, meeting the conditions of impact on the track, stability, and frame forces intensity etc. becomes especially important. In order to launch the new production into manufacture and to assess the dynamic properties using different designs of bogies the running testes were conducted. They allowed one to compare the dynamic performance of the new bogie with the existing models. Methodology. The study was conducted using the method of numerical integration and mathematical modeling of dynamic loading of freight cars using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. The results of studies of dynamic characteristics of open cars with new and worn wheels of bogie models 18-9771, 18-9770 and 18-578 in graphical and tabular form are presented. All figures are within the normative values and do not exceed the maximum admissible ones. Originality. When designing the bogie for loading 23.5 t/axle almost all available technical solutions to improve the characteristics of the freight car bogies (elastic bearers, cassette bearing in axle boxes, axle boxe adapter of original design, bilinear central spring suspension, etc. were used. Practical value. As a result of the engineering works on projecting and manufacturing of the improved designs of freight car bogies a new design was received. It is highly competitive with the dynamic qualities of the best ones. Made choice of rational values of elastic-dissipative parameters of the bogie allows one to create standard series of running gears for freight cars for promising operating conditions.The results are of practical importance. They have found reflection in the number of author’spublications in special and

  13. RoadRail: An economically viable infrastructure which facilitates the transition from oil to electricity for all forms of road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    to convert road transport from oil to electricity. This involves the electrification of major roads so that electric cars, vans, busses, and trucks can use electricity as their primary fuel over long distance, which in this study is referred to as ‘RoadRail’. This is a new and radical alternative......In recent decades, economic renewable energy technologies have been developed for the electricity and heat sectors. Although there has been some development in the transport sector, there is still no well-establish sustainable alternatives to oil. In this study, a new alternative is proposed...... and electricity/oil costs, Denmark is presented as a case study for the installation of RoadRail. The results indicate that based on 2020 cost assumptions, RoadRail is a more socio-economic alternative than a business-as-usual using oil. This is primarily due to decreasing electric vehicle costs, decreasing...

  14. Transit Car Performance Comparison, State-of-the-Art Car vs. PATCO Transit Car, NYCTA R-46, MBTA Silverbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...

  15. Rail Vehicle Vibrations Control Using Parameters Adaptive PID Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer Metin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, vertical rail vehicle vibrations are controlled by the use of conventional PID and parameters which are adaptive to PID controllers. A parameters adaptive PID controller is designed to improve the passenger comfort by intuitional usage of this method that renews the parameters online and sensitively under variable track inputs. Sinusoidal vertical rail misalignment and measured real rail irregularity are considered as two different disruptive effects of the system. Active vibration control is applied to the system through the secondary suspension. The active suspension application of rail vehicle is examined by using 5-DOF quarter-rail vehicle model by using Manchester benchmark dynamic parameters. The new parameters of adaptive controller are optimized by means of genetic algorithm toolbox of MATLAB. Simulations are performed at maximum urban transportation speed (90 km/h of the rail vehicle with ±5% load changes of rail vehicle body to test the robustness of controllers. As a result, superior performance of parameters of adaptive controller is determined in time and frequency domain.

  16. Momentum equation for arc-driven rail guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batteh, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    In several models of arc-driven rail guns, the rails are assumed to be infinitely high to simplify the calculation of the electromagnetic fields which appear in the momentum equation for the arc. This assumption leads to overestimates of the arc pressures and accelerations by approximately a factor of 2 for typical rail-gun geometries. In this paper, we develop a simple method for modifying the momentum equation to account for the effect of finite-height rails on the performance of the rail gun and the properties of the arc. The modification is based on an integration of the Lorentz force across the arc cross section at each axial location in the arc. Application of this technique suggests that, for typical rail-gun geometries and moderately long arcs, the momentum equation appropriate for infinite-height rails can be retained provided that the magnetic pressure term in the equation is scaled by a factor which depends on the effective inductance of the gun. The analysis also indicates that the magnetic pressure gradient actually changes sign near the arc/projectile boundary because of the magnetic fields associated with the arc current

  17. Revisiting the reasons for contact fatigue defects in rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darenskiy Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As it is known rail is one of the most significant elements of the whole railway construction. Operation under alternating loads from wheels of the rolling stock and different ambient temperatures lead to appearance and development of rail defects and damages. A great variety of operational factors (freight traffic density, axial loads, traffic speeds, track layout and profile as well as special features of manufacturing and thermal treatment of rails create certain difficulties while identifying reasons for defects and damages. The article deals with an attempt to estimate influence of track layout and lateral forces on appearance of defects and damages in rails on the base of long-term observations of rail operation in Kharkiv Metro. On the basis of the vehicle/track mathematical model which considers structural features of both rolling stock and permanent way in underground systems, the level of lateral forces in curves was calculated. The coefficients of correlation between the track curvature, the level of forces and the amount of defected rails removed were later obtained, that made it possible to determine the dominant factor which may lead to appearance and development of contact fatigue defects in rails laid in curves.

  18. The Intermodal Bike: multi-modal integration of cycling mobility through product and process innovations in bicycle design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Francesca; Belli, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Tucci, Grazia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the early results of the UE-FP7 project "The Intermodal Bike". The research aim is to provide a super-compactable, super-lightweight folding bicycle as a realistic solution to graft the cycling mode onto the root of the public or private transportation systems. The folding bikes now on the international market reach weighs between 12-15 kg, with a variable footprint but occupying -when compacted- an average volume of about 100 liters. To encourage the use of this vehicle and to extend it to a larger number of users with different characteristics, the research project has set its goal in increasing as possible compactness and light weight, creating a bicycle with a volume when compacted of 20 liters (reduction factor =5), with a shape of 48 × 36 × 12 cm and a weight of 5 kg. max., ensuring stability and improving vehicle usability and efficiency, during the ride and in the phase of bike folding. To achieve this goal ergonomic and usability tests have been carried out. The tests allowed to find a posture that would ensure efficiency and comfort in the ride to as many users as possible. Parallel tests were made on the vehicle usability in the urban transport system and intermodal. The need for light weight has required special studies on the optimization of the vehicle's architecture and research on super-lightweight materials.

  19. Short-term forecasting of intermodal freight using ANNs and SVR: Case of the Port of Algeciras Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso Lopez, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Forecasting of future intermodal traffic demand is very important for decision making in ports operations management. The use of accurate prediction tools is an issue that awakens a lot of interest among transport researchers. Intermodal freight forecasting plays an important role in ports management and in the planning of the principal port activities. Hence, the study is carried out under the motivation of knowing that modeling the freight transport flows could facilitate the management of the infrastructure and optimize the resources of the ports facilities. The use of advanced models for freight forecasting is essential to improve the port level-service and competitiveness. In this paper, two forecasting-models are presented and compared to predict the freight volume. The models developed and tested are based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machines. Both techniques are based in a historical data and these methods forecast the daily weight of the freight with one week in advance. The performance of the models is evaluated on real data from Ro-Ro freight transport in the Port of Algeciras Bay. This work proposes and compares different approaches to determine the best prediction. In order to select the best model a multicomparison procedure is developed using several statistical test. The results of the assessed models show a promising tool to predict Ro-Ro transport flows with accuracy. (Author)

  20. Can urban rail transit curb automobile energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of China's economy and the speed of urbanization, China's automobile sector has experienced rapid development. The rapid development of the automobile sector has increased energy consumption. According to the results of this paper, automobile energy consumption accounted for about 10.73% of total energy consumption in China in 2015, about 3.6 times the proportion a decade ago. With the deterioration of urban traffic conditions, relying on expanding the amount of vehicles and city road network cannot solve the problem. Urban rail transit is energy-saving and less-polluting, uses less space, has large capacity, and secure. Urban rail transit, according to the principle of sustainable development, is a green transportation system and should be especially adopted for large and medium-sized cities. The paper uses the binary choice model (Probit and Logit) to analyze the main factors influencing the development of rail transit in Chinese cities, and whether automobile energy consumption is the reason for the construction of urban rail transit. Secondly, we analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption using DID model. The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly, with continuous impact in the second year. - Highlights: • Investigate the main factors influencing the building of rail transit for Chinese cities. • Analyze the influence of urban rail transit on automobile energy consumption by DID model. • The results indicate that the construction of urban rail traffic can restrain automobile energy consumption significantly.

  1. A systems approach to reduce urban rail energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Gil, A.; Palacin, R.; Batty, P.; Powell, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An insightful overview of energy usage in urban rail systems is given. • The principal measures to reduce urban rail energy consumption are appraised. • A methodology is proposed to help implement energy saving schemes in urban rail. • Regenerative braking is shown to offer the greatest energy saving potential. - Abstract: There is increasing interest in the potential of urban rail to reduce the impact of metropolitan transportation due to its high capacity, reliability and absence of local emissions. However, in a context characterised by increasing capacity demands and rising energy costs, and where other transport modes are considerably improving their environmental performance, urban rail must minimise its energy use without affecting its service quality. Urban rail energy consumption is defined by a wide range of interdependent factors; therefore, a system wide perspective is required, rather than focusing on energy savings at subsystem level. This paper contributes to the current literature by proposing an holistic approach to reduce the overall energy consumption of urban rail. Firstly, a general description of this transport mode is given, which includes an assessment of its typical energy breakdown. Secondly, a comprehensive appraisal of the main practices, strategies and technologies currently available to minimise its energy use is provided. These comprise: regenerative braking, energy-efficient driving, traction losses reduction, comfort functions optimisation, energy metering, smart power management and renewable energy micro-generation. Finally, a clear, logical methodology is described to optimally define and implement energy saving schemes in urban rail systems. This includes general guidelines for a qualitative assessment and comparison of measures alongside a discussion on the principal interdependences between them. As a hypothetical example of application, the paper concludes that the energy consumption in existing urban

  2. DETERMINATION OF FRICTION PERFORMANCE INFLUENCE IN THE SYSTEM "BODY–BOGIE" ON THE FREIGHT CAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The main requirements for the design of a new generation of cars, according to the Program of rolling stock renovation, are the requirements reducing the operating costs and increasing the cost-effectiveness of their use, taking into account the achievements of scientific and technical thought. Due to the urgency of this subject the paper is devoted to the study of the friction coefficient influence in the bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers»of freight cars on their main dynamic parameters – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, body acceleration, frame strength, derailment stability factor. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package «Dynamics of Rail Vehicles» («DYNRAIL». Findings. Investigations have shown that the safety movement parameters are influenced by both the friction parameters in bearing connection «center plate – center bowl – bearers» of freight cars in empty and loaded state with bogies TSNII-X3 (model 18-100. Effect have other components of freight car dynamics, namely: radii of curved track sections, height of outer rail, etc. Originality. The author investigated the friction influence on the car dynamic loading using new approaches to solving the problem of predicting the rolling stock dynamics. Prediction was carried out on the basis of significantly updated theoretical material that covers all history of the friction theory and includes the results of recent experimental studies because of the speed on the straights and curves of small-and medium-range sections of the road.Practical value. The obtained results have practical orientation. During the research and after modeling with the improved method of accounting of friction processes dependencies of main dynamic parameters of a four-freight gondola on the value of the friction coefficient in the "body

  3. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  4. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  5. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  6. SELECTED MODELS OF RAIL MARKETS IN THE CONTEXT OF LIBERALIZATION OF THE RAIL MARKET IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Pietrzak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author has made an attempt at presenting problems of the operation of European railway transport market against the background of changes taking place in the European Union transport market. These changes are the result of processes aimed at liberalizing the market. In addition, this article defines the conditions of reforms in the Eu-ropean rail market by highlighting various models of its functioning.

  7. LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF THE GLASS RAILING ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Šamec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some basic physical and mechanical properties of glass as structural material are presented. This research is about specifically manufactured glass railing element that will be a part of a pedestrian bridge construction in Zagreb, Croatia. Load bearing capacity test of the glass railing element is conducted within the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb and obtained experimental results are discussed and compared to the ones provided by the numerical model. Taking into account the behaviour of laminated glass and results of experimental and numerical testing, glass railing element can be regarded as safe.

  8. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  9. RAIL TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lazarević

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available European transport policy, defined in the White Paper, supports shift from road to rail and waterborne transport. The hypothesis of the paper is that changes in the economic environment influence rail traffic volume. Therefore, a model for prediction of rail traffic volume applied in different economic contexts could be a valuable tool for the transport planners. The model was built using common Machine Learning techniques that learn from the past experience. In the model preparation, world development indicators defined by the World Bank were used as input parameters.

  10. Laser vibrometer measurement of guided wave modes in rail track

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ) in the laboratory and on an operational rail track (with S-4 60-SAR profile) and example results are presented in this section. The measurements 5 were performed using a Polytec PSV-400-M2-20 high frequency scanning vibrometer 6 equipped with the VD-09 velocity...Hz on operational rail track and to identify the modes that are capable of 16 propagating large distances. 17 18 KEYWORDS: Semi-analytical finite element method; modes of guided wave 19 propagation; laser vibrometer measurement; rail track 20 PACs...

  11. Simulation and Measurement of Wheel on Rail Fatigue and Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Babette

    2015-01-01

    The life of railway wheels and rails has been decreasing in recent years. This is mainly caused by more traffic and running at higher vehicle speed. A higher speed usually generates higher forces, unless compensated by improved track and vehicle designs, in the wheel-rail contact, resulting in more wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) damage to the wheels and rails. As recently as 15 years ago, RCF was not recognised as a serious problem. Nowadays it is a serious problem in many countries a...

  12. Rail inspection system based on iGPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mulan; Wen, Xiuping

    2018-05-01

    Track parameters include gauge, super elevation, cross level and so on, which could be calculated through the three-dimensional coordinates of the track. The rail inspection system based on iGPS (indoor/infrared GPS) was composed of base station, receiver, rail inspection frame, wireless communication unit, display and control unit and data processing unit. With the continuous movement of the inspection frame, the system could accurately inspect the coordinates of rail; realize the intelligent detection and precision measurement. According to principle of angle intersection measurement, the inspection model was structured, and detection process was given.

  13. Cost and time models for the evaluation of intermodal chains by using short sea shipping in the North Sea Region: the Rosyth-Zeebrugge route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez, Alba Martínez; Kronbak, Jacob; Jiang, Liping

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed in the context of the EU Interreg IVB North Sea Region project Food Port. In line with this project, this paper aims to define mathematically cost and time models able to provide realistic information about the performances of road haulage and of intermodal chains using short...

  14. Service network design for an intermodal container network with flexible due dates/times and the possibility of using subcontracted transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Riessen (Bart); R.R. Negenborn (Rudy); R. Dekker (Rommert); G. Lodewijks (Gabriel)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAn intermodal container transportation network is being developed between Rotterdam and several inland terminals in North West Europe: the EUROPEAN GATEWAY SERVICES (EGS) network. This network is developed and operated by the seaports of EUROPE CONTAINER TERMINALS (ECT). To use this

  15. Active deceleration support in car following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A haptic gas pedal feedback system is developed that provides car-following information via haptic cues from the gas pedal. During normal car-following situations, the haptic feedback (HF) cues were sufficient to reduce control activity and improve car-following performance. However, in more

  16. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A; Hatakeyama, S; Sugiura, S; Shinoda, S; Daigo, Y; Fujihara, Y; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  17. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  18. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  19. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.S.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm 2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs

  20. Robotics virtual rail system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruemmer, David J [Idaho Falls, ID; Few, Douglas A [Idaho Falls, ID; Walton, Miles C [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-07-05

    A virtual track or rail system and method is described for execution by a robot. A user, through a user interface, generates a desired path comprised of at least one segment representative of the virtual track for the robot. Start and end points are assigned to the desired path and velocities are also associated with each of the at least one segment of the desired path. A waypoint file is generated including positions along the virtual track representing the desired path with the positions beginning from the start point to the end point including the velocities of each of the at least one segment. The waypoint file is sent to the robot for traversing along the virtual track.