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Sample records for intermetallic layer growth

  1. Growth of intermetallics between Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horváth, Barbara; Illés, Balázs; Shinohara, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    Intermetallic growth mechanisms and rates are investigated in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. An 8–10 μm thick Sn surface finish layer was electroplated onto a Cu substrate with a 1.5–2 μm thick Ni or Ag barrier layer. In order to induce intermetallic layer growth, the samples were aged in elevated temperatures: 50 °C and 125 °C. Intermetallic layer growth was checked by focused ion beam–scanning ion microscope. The microstructures and chemical compositions of the intermetallic layers were observed with a transmission electron microscope. It has been found that Ni barrier layers can effectively block the development of Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics. The intermetallic growth characteristics in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems are very similar. The intermetallic layer grows towards the Sn layer and forms a discrete layer. Differences were observed only in the growth gradients and surface roughness of the intermetallic layer which may explain the different tin whiskering properties. It was observed that the intermetallic layer growth mechanisms are completely different in the Ag barrier layers compared to the Ni layers. In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems, the Sn and Cu diffused through the Ag layer, formed Cu 6 Sn 5 intermetallics mainly at the Sn/Ag interface and consumed the Ag barrier layer. - Highlights: • Intermetallic growth was characterised in Sn/Ni/Cu, Sn/Ag/Cu and Sn/Cu layer systems. • Intermetallic growth rates and roughness are similar in the Sn/Cu and Sn/Ni/Cu systems. • Sn/Ni/Cu system contains the following intermetallic layer structure Sn–Ni3Sn4–Ni3Sn2–Ni3Sn–Ni. • In the case of Sn/Ag/Cu systems the Sn and Cu diffusion consumes the Ag barrier layer. • When Cu reaches the Sn/Ag interface a large amount of Cu 6 Sn 5 forms above the Ag layer

  2. Characterization of intermetallic compounds in Cu-Al ball bonds: layer growth, mechanical properties and oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; O'Halloran, O.; Rongen, R.

    2011-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1 st level interconnects and therefore subjected to severe functional requirements. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds may deteriorate the

  3. The nucleation and growth of intermetallic Al-Pt phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, A.; Barna, P.B.; Labar, J. l.

    2002-01-01

    The nucleation and growth of intermetallic Al-Pt phases on amorphous carbon was investigated by half shadow technique in co-deposited thin films. In such experimental condition, the composition of the deposited films varied in the range of Al x Pt 1-x (0≤x≤0.6). The coexistence of Al 5 Pt, Al 2 Pt, Al 3 Pt 2 intermetallic phases have been found in the whole range with varying ratio. Vapour depositions were performed in an UHV system. The Al and Pt components were evaporated simultaneously onto amorphous carbon layer supported by TEM micro-grids. Deposition rates were controlled separately by quartz crystal monitors. Substrate temperature during deposition was 350 grad C. A special evaporation arrangement made possible to create a half shadow area on the substrate in which the quantity one of the components increased from zero to the wanted composition of the sample. The composition of the zones was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in TEM. The intermetallic phases developed in the sample were investigated by analytical TEM (Philips CM20) and high resolution TEM (JEOL 3010 UHR). The electron diffraction patterns have been evaluated by ProcessDiffraction program. (Authors)

  4. Intermetallics Synthesis in the Fe–Al System via Layer by Layer 3D Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floran Missemer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallide phase formation was studied in a powdered Fe–Al system under layer by layer laser cladding with the aim of fabricating the gradient of properties by means of changing the Fe–Al concentration ratio in the powder mixture from layer to layer. The relationships between the laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures in the consecutively cladded layers were determined. In order to study the structure formation an optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, measurement of microhardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy analysis were used after the laser synthesis of intermetallic compounds.

  5. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Grain growth behaviour of the nanocrystalline CoAl intermetallic compound synthesized by mechanical alloying has been studied by isothermal annealing at different temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction method was employed to investigate structural evolutions during mechanical alloying and annealing processes.

  6. Nanoscale grain growth behaviour of CoAl intermetallic synthesized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Grain growth behaviour of the nanocrystalline CoAl intermetallic compound synthesized by mechanical alloying has been studied by isothermal annealing at different temperatures and durations. X-ray diffraction method was employed to investigate structural evolutions during mechanical alloying and anneal-.

  7. Influence of intermetallic growth on the mechanical properties of Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi/Cu solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Fei; Yao, Jia; Liang, Jingwei; Qiu, Xiaoming, E-mail: qiuxm13@163.com

    2015-11-15

    The formation of intermetallic reaction layers and their influence on shear strength and fractography was investigated between the Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi (ZSCB) and Cu substrate during the liquid state reaction at 450 °C after 10–90 s. Results showed that reliable solder joints could be obtained at 450 °C after 15–30 s of wetting, accompanied by the creation of scallop ε-CuZn{sub 5}, flat γ-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} and β-CuZn intermetallic layers in ZSCB/Cu interface. However, with excess increase of soldering time, a transient intermetallic ε-CuZn{sub 4} phase was nuclear and grew at ε-CuZn{sub 5}/γ-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} interface, which apparently deteriorated the shear strength of solder joints from 76.5 MPa to 51.6 MPa. The sensitivity of the fracture proportion was gradually transformed from monotonic ε-CuZn{sub 5} to the mixture of ε-CuZn{sub 4} and ε-CuZn{sub 5} intermetallic cleavage. Furthermore, the growth mechanism of ε-CuZn{sub 4} intermetallic phase at the ZSCB/Cu interface was discussed. - Highlights: • There are four interfacial intermetallic layers formed at the Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi/Cu interface. • The growth mechanism of ε-CuZn{sub 4} intermetallic phase was discussed. • The wetting time of Zn–Sn–Cu–Bi solder in contact with Cu substrate is a key parameter.

  8. Effect of Flux onto Intermetallic Compound Formation and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Siti Rabiatull Aisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different composition of no-clean flux onto intermetallic compound (IMC formation and growth was investigated. The solder joint between Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu solder alloy and printed circuit board (PCB was made through reflow soldering. They were further aged at 125°C and 150°C for up to 1000 hours. Results showed that fluxes significantly affect the IMC thickness and growth. In addition, during aging, the scallop and columnar morphology of IMC changed to a more planar type for both type of flux during isothermal aging. It was observed that the growth behavior of IMC was closely related to initial soldering condition.

  9. Microstructure and properties of Ti-Al intermetallic/Al2O3 layers produced on Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy by PACVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, R.; Bolek, T.; Mizera, J.

    2018-04-01

    The paper presents investigation of microstructure and corrosion resistance of the multi-component surface layers built of intermetallic phases of the Ti-Al system and an outer Al2O3 ceramic sub-layer. The layers were produced on a two phase (α + β) Ti6Al2Mo2Cr titanium alloy using the PACVD method with the participation of trimethylaluminum vapors. The layers are characterized by a high surface hardness and good corrosion, better than that of these materials in the starting state. In order to find the correlation between their structure and properties, the layers were subjected to examinations using optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), surface analysis by XPS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyses of the chemical composition (EDS). The properties examined included: the corrosion resistance and the hydrogen absorptiveness. Moreover growth of the Al2O3 ceramic layer and its influence on the residual stress distribution was simulated using finite element method [FEM]. The results showed that the produced layer has amorphous-nano-crystalline structure, improved corrosion resistance and reduces the permeability of hydrogen as compared with the base material of Ti6Al2Mo2Cr -titanium alloy.

  10. Behavior of palladium and its impact on intermetallic growth in palladium-coated Cu wire bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Qin, Ivy; Clauberg, Horst; Chylak, Bob; Acoff, Viola L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of palladium in palladium-coated Cu (PdCu) wire bonding and its impact on bond reliability by utilizing transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A Pd layer approximately 80 nm thick, which is coated on the surface of Cu wire, dissolves into the Cu matrix during ball formation (under N 2 gas protection) when the wire tip is melted to form a ball. As a result of dissolving the very thin Pd layer into the ball, Pd is almost undetectable along the entire bond interface between the ball and the Al pad. The behavior of Pd during thermal aging in air, however, is different for central and peripheral interfaces. At the central interface, less than 5 at.% Pd is present after 168 h aging at 175 °C. At the periphery, however, Pd diffuses back and congregates, reaching a level of ∼12 at.% after 24 h, and a Pd-rich (Cu,Pd) 9 Al 4 layer (>40 at.% Pd) forms after 168 h. Pd acts substitutionally in Cu 9 Al 4 but cannot penetrate into the CuAl 2 or CuAl. By comparison of intermetallic thickness and interfacial morphology between PdCu and bare Cu wire bonds, it is concluded that the presence of Pd reduces intermetallic growth rate, and is associated with numerous nanovoids in PdCu bonds.

  11. Single crystal growth of europium and ytterbium based intermetallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The difference between an intermetallic compound and a regular metal (e.g., ... intriguing properties, there have not been any reports of thorough investigations of .... scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive ...

  12. An Investigation of the Microstructure of an Intermetallic Layer in Welding Aluminum Alloys to Steel by MIG Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Huang, Shyh-Chour

    2015-12-02

    Butt joints of A5052 aluminum alloy and SS400 steel, with a new type of chamfered edge, are welded by means of metal inert gas welding and ER4043 Al-Si filler metal. The microhardness and microstructure of the joint are investigated. An intermetallic layer is found on the surface of the welding seam and SS400 steel sheet. The hardness of the intermetallic layer is examined using the Vickers hardness test. The average hardness values at the Intermetallic (IMC) layer zone and without the IMC layer zone were higher than that of the welding wire ER4043. The tensile strength test showed a fracture at the intermetallic layer when the tensile strength is 225.9 MPa. The tensile value test indicated the average of welds was equivalent to the 85% tensile strength of the A5052 aluminum alloy. The thickness of the intermetallic layers is non-uniform at different positions with the ranges from 1.95 to 5 μm. The quality of the butt joint is better if the intermetallic layer is minimized. The Si crystals which appeared at the welding seam, indicating that this element participated actively during the welding process, also contributed to the IMC layer's formation.

  13. DOE-EPSCoR. Exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeClair, Patrick R. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Gary, Mankey J. [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States)

    2015-05-25

    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamental understanding of the exchange interactions in epitaxial intermetallic alloy thin films and multilayers, including films and multilayers of Fe-Pt, Co-Pt and Fe-P-Rh alloys deposited on MgO and Al2O3 substrates. Our prior results have revealed that these materials have a rich variety of ferromagnetic, paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases which are sensitive functions of composition, substrate symmetry and layer thickness. Epitaxial antiferromagnetic films of FePt alloys exhibit a different phase diagram than bulk alloys. The antiferromagnetism of these materials has both spin ordering transitions and spin orienting transitions. The objectives include the study of exchange-inversion materials and the interface of these materials with ferromagnets. Our aim is to formulate a complete understanding of the magnetic ordering in these materials, as well as developing an understanding of how the spin structure is modified through contact with a ferromagnetic material at the interface. The ultimate goal is to develop the ability to tune the phase diagram of the materials to produce layered structures with tunable magnetic properties. The alloy systems that we will study have a degree of complexity and richness of magnetic phases that requires the use of the advanced tools offered by the DOE-operated national laboratory facilities, such as neutron and x-ray scattering to measure spin ordering, spin orientations, and element-specific magnetic moments. We plan to contribute to DOE’s mission of producing “Materials by Design” with properties determined by alloy composition and crystal structure. We have developed the methods for fabricating and have performed neutron diffraction experiments on some of the most interesting phases, and our work will serve to answer questions raised about the element-specific magnetizations using the magnetic x-ray dichroism techniques and interface magnetism in layered structures

  14. Intermetallic Compound Growth and Stress Development in Al-Cu Diffusion Couple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, M.; Ouvarov-Bancalero, V.; Chae, Seung H.; Nguyen, Luu; Kim, Choong-Un

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports experimental observations evidencing that the intermetallic compound phase interfaced with Cu in the Al-Cu diffusion couple is most likely α2-Cu3Al phase, not γ-Cu9Al4 phase as previously assumed, and that its growth to a critical thickness may result in interface failure by stress-driven fracture. These conclusions are made based on an interdiffusion study of a diffusion couple made of a thick Cu plate coated with ˜ 2- μm-thick Al thin film. The interface microstructure and lattice parameter were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. Specimens aged at temperature between 623 K (350°C) and 723 K (450°C) for various hours produced consistent results supporting the main conclusions. It is found that disordered α2-Cu3Al phase grows in a similar manner to solid-state epitaxy, probably owing to its structural similarity to the Cu lattice. The increase in the interface strain that accompanies the α2-Cu3Al phase growth ultimately leads to interface fracture proceeding from crack initiation and growth along the interface. This mechanism provides the most consistent explanation for interface failures observed in other studies.

  15. Influence of Filler Alloy Composition and Process Parameters on the Intermetallic Layer Thickness in Single-Sided Cold Metal Transfer Welding of Aluminum-Steel Blanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvayeh, Zahra; Vallant, Rudolf; Sommitsch, Christof; Götzinger, Bruno; Karner, Werner; Hartmann, Matthias

    2017-11-01

    Hybrid components made of aluminum alloys and high-strength steels are typically used in automotive lightweight applications. Dissimilar joining of these materials is quite challenging; however, it is mandatory in order to produce multimaterial car body structures. Since especially welding of tailored blanks is of utmost interest, single-sided Cold Metal Transfer butt welding of thin sheets of aluminum alloy EN AW 6014 T4 and galvanized dual-phase steel HCT 450 X + ZE 75/75 was experimentally investigated in this study. The influence of different filler alloy compositions and welding process parameters on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, which forms between the weld seam and the steel sheet, was studied. The microstructures of the weld seam and of the intermetallic layer were characterized using conventional optical light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal that increasing the heat input and decreasing the cooling intensity tend to increase the layer thickness. The silicon content of the filler alloy has the strongest influence on the thickness of the intermetallic layer, whereas the magnesium and scandium contents of the filler alloy influence the cracking tendency. The layer thickness is not uniform and shows spatial variations along the bonding interface. The thinnest intermetallic layer (mean thickness < 4 µm) is obtained using the silicon-rich filler Al-3Si-1Mn, but the layer is more than twice as thick when different low-silicon fillers are used.

  16. INVESTIGATING THE fFORMATION OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS AND THE VARIATION OF BOND STRENGTH BETWEEN Al-Cu LAYERS AFTER ANNEALING IN PRESENCE OF NICKEL BETWEEN LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of post-rolling annealing heat treatment on the formation of intermetallic compounds between Al-Cu strips, in the presence of nickel coating on the Cu strips, was investigated. In addition, the effect of post-rolling annealing and intermetallic compounds on the bond strength of Al-Cu strips was evaluated. In order to prepare samples, Cu strips were coated with nickel by electroplating process. After surface preparing, Cu strips were placed between two Al strips and roll bonded. This method is used for producing Al-Ni-Cu composites. Then the samples were annealed at 773K for 2 h. The formation of intermetallic compounds was studied using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Also, in order to investigate bond strength of Al-Cu after post-rolling annealing heat treatment, samples were produced using nickel powder and nickel coating. Then bond strength of strips was investigated using peeling test. The results revealed that by post-rolling annealing of layers, the bond strength between Al-Cu strips decreases dramatically.

  17. Experimental and computational study of the morphological evolution of intermetallic compound (Cu6Sn5) layers at the Cu/Sn interface under isothermal soldering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.S.; Stephenson, M.K.; Shannon, C.; Cáceres Díaz, L.A.; Hudspeth, K.A.; Gibbons, S.L.; Muñoz-Saldaña, J.; Arróyave, R.

    2012-01-01

    Cu/Sn soldering alloys have emerged as a viable alternative to Pb-based solders, and thus have been extensively explored in the past decade, although the fine-scale behavior of the resulting intermetallic compounds (IMCs), particularly during the early stages of interface formation, is still a source of debate. In this work, the microstructural evolution of Cu 6 Sn 5 , in a Cu/Sn soldering reaction at 523 K, was experimentally investigated by dipping a single Cu sample into molten Sn at a near-constant speed, yielding a continuous set of time evolution samples. The thickness, coarsening and morphology evolution of the Cu 6 Sn 5 layer is investigated through the use of scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results are also compared to phase-field simulations of the microstructural evolution of the Cu 6 Sn 5 layer. The influence of model parameters on the kinetics and morphological evolution of the IMC layer was examined. In general, good qualitative agreement is found between experiments and simulations and for a limited parameter set there appears to be good quantitative agreement between the growth kinetics of the Cu 6 Sn 5 layer, the grain boundary (GB) effect on grain coarsening, and the substrate/IMC interface roughness evolution. Furthermore, the parametric investigations of the model suggests that good agreement between experiments and simulations is achieved when the dominant transport mechanism for the reacting elements (Cu and Sn) is GB diffusion.

  18. Concurrent nucleation, formation and growth of two intermetallic compounds (Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn) during the early stages of lead-free soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, M.S.; Arróyave, R.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the concurrent nucleation, formation and growth of two intermetallic compounds (IMCs), Cu 6 Sn 5 (η) and Cu 3 Sn (ε), during the early stages of soldering in the Cu–Sn system. The nucleation, formation and growth of the IMC layers is simulated through a multiphase-field model in which the concurrent nucleation of both IMC phases is considered to be a stochastic Poisson process with nucleation rates calculated from classical nucleation theory. CALPHAD thermodynamic models are used to calculate the local contributions to the free energy of the system and the driving forces for precipitation of the IMC phases. The nucleation parameters of the η phase are estimated from experimental results and those of the ε phase are assumed to be similar. A parametric investigation of the effects of model parameters (e.g. grain boundary (GB) diffusion rates, interfacial and GB energies) on morphological evolution and IMC layer growth rate is presented and compared with previous works in which nucleation was ignored . In addition, the resulting growth rates are compared with the available literature and it is found that, for a certain range in the model parameters, the agreement is quite satisfactory. This work provides valuable insight into the dominant mechanisms for mass transport as well as morphological evolution and growth of IMC layers during early stages of Pb-free soldering.

  19. Intermetallic Growth and Interfacial Properties of the Grain Refiners in Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Cheng, Nanpu; Chen, Zhiqian; Xie, Zhongjing; Hui, Liangliang

    2018-01-01

    Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) particles acting as effective grain refiners for Al alloys have been receiving extensive attention these days. In order to judge their nucleation behaviors, first-principles calculations are used to investigate their intermetallic and interfacial properties. Based on energy analysis, Al3Zr and Al3Sc are more suitable for use as grain refiners than the other two intermetallic compounds. Interfacial properties show that Al/Al3TM(TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Sc) interfaces in I-ter interfacial mode exhibit better interface wetting effects due to larger Griffith rupture work and a smaller interface energy. Among these, Al/Al3Sc achieves the lowest interfacial energy, which shows that Sc atoms should get priority for occupying interfacial sites. Additionally, Sc-doped Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) interfacial properties show that Sc can effectively improve the Al/Al3(Zr, Sc) binding strength with the Al matrix. By combining the characteristics of interfaces with the properties of intermetallics, the core-shell structure with Al3Zr-core or Al3Zr(Sc1-1)-core encircled with an Sc-rich shell forms. PMID:29677155

  20. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  1. Post-heat treatment of arc-sprayed coating prepared by the wires combination of Mg-cathode and Al-anode to form protective intermetallic layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rongzheng; Song Gang

    2011-01-01

    A Mg-Al intermetallic compounds coating was prepared on the surface of Mg-steel lap joint by arc-sprayed Al-Mg composite coating (Mg-cathode and Al-anode) and its post-heat treatment (PHT). The effect of PHT temperature on the phase transition, microstructure and mechanical properties of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscope and microhardness test. The result shows that the intermetallic compounds layer that is mainly composed of Al 3 Mg 2 and Mg 17 Al 12 is formed by the self-diffusion reaction of Mg and Al splats in the coating after PHT for 4 h at 430 deg. C.

  2. Quantifying the dependence of Ni(P) thickness in ultrathin-ENEPIG metallization on the growth of Cu–Sn intermetallic compounds in soldering reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Cheng-Ying; Duh, Jenq-Gong, E-mail: jgd@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-11-14

    A new multilayer metallization, ENEPIG (Electroless Ni(P)/Electroless Pd/Immersion Au) with ultrathin Ni(P) deposit (ultrathin-ENEPIG), was designed to be used in high frequency electronic packaging in this study because of its ultra-low electrical impedance. Sequential interfacial microstructures of commercial Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solders reflowed on ultarthin-ENEPIG with Ni(P) deposit thickness ranged from 4.79 μm to 0.05 μm were first investigated. Accelerated thermal aging test was then conducted to evaluate the long-term thermal stabilization of solder joints. The results showed that P-rich intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formed when the Ni(P) thickness was greater than a critical vale (about 0.18 μm). Besides, it is interesting to mention that the growth of (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and (Cu,Ni){sub 3}Sn IMCs was suppressed with the formation of P-rich layer, i.e., Ni{sub 3}P and Ni{sub 2}Sn{sub 1+x}P{sub 1−x} phase, even though the electroless-plated Ni(P) layer was exhausted at initial stage of reflow process. The atomic Cu flux in solder joints without P-rich layer was calculated to be several times larger than that with P-rich layer formation after calculation, which implies that the P-rich layer and ultrathin Ni(P) deposit in ENEPIG served as diffusion barrier against rapid Cu diffusion. - Highlights: • Microstructures in ultrathin-ENEPIG with various Ni(P) thickness are investigated. • P-rich IMC layer formed when the Ni(P) thickness is greater than 0.18 μm. • Secondary (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} formed when the Ni(P) thickness is between 0.18 and 0.31 μm. • Cu diffusion flux without P-rich layer is larger than those with P-rich layer. • P-rich layer in ultrathin-ENEPIG exhibits good diffusion barrier characteristic.

  3. Method of production multifilamentary intermetallic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marancik, W.G.; Young, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of making A-15 type intermetallic superconductors is disclosed which features elimination of numerous annealing steps. Nb or V filaments are embedded in Cu matrices; annular layers of Sn or Ga, respectively, separated from each other by Cu layers, provide the other component of the intermetallic superconductors Nb3Sn and V3Ga

  4. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Meng [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Xian Aiping, E-mail: ap.xian@imr.ac.c [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Science, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2009-11-03

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn{sub 3}, NdIn{sub 3}, and LaPb{sub 3} is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn{sub 3} is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb{sub 3} is the secondary and NdIn{sub 3} is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH){sub 3} after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  5. Spontaneous growth of whiskers on RE-bearing intermetallic compounds of Sn-RE, In-RE, and Pb-RE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Meng; Xian Aiping

    2009-01-01

    A phenomenon of the whiskers growth on the bulk rare earth (RE)-intermetallic compounds of NdSn 3 , NdIn 3 , and LaPb 3 is reported. The whiskers formed spontaneously on all of the RE-intermetallic compounds after exposed to room ambience (21-28 deg. C/20-56% RH, relative humidity) for several days. Among the samples, the propensity of whisker growth for NdSn 3 is the strongest, on which the tin whiskers were flourishing and covered all of the surfaces after exposed to room ambience for 22 days; while LaPb 3 is the secondary and NdIn 3 is the last one. Observed by SEM, the whiskers were exhibited as different morphology, size, and number density. The XRD analysis confirms the existence of RE(OH) 3 after whiskers formed, also, the weight gain curve of the samples exposed to room ambience supports that a spontaneous chemical reaction of the RE-intermetallic compounds with water in room ambience takes place. In discussion, it is proposed that the fresh metal atoms released by the chemical reaction could be causative to result in nucleation and spontaneous growth of the whiskers, while the anisotropy of crystal structure could be a reason to understand the difference of the whisker growth behaviors between Sn and Pb.

  6. Nucleation and growth of intermetallic precipitates in Zircaloy-2 and zircaloy-4 and correlation to nodular corrosion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maussner, G.; Steinberg, E.; Tenckhoff, E.

    1987-01-01

    One of the fundamental aspects in the history of the development of zirconium alloys for nuclear applications is the corrosion behavior under in-pile conditions. In boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) the zirconium alloys Zircaloy-2 and Zircaloy-4 are the most commonly used materials, permitting attainment of a very high level of integrity and reliability. Nevertheless, efforts are required to optimize these well-established alloys with regard to their resistance to nodular corrosion, where improvements will give long-term advantages in fuel integrity and fuel economy. Phenomenological studies allow correlation of the nodular corrosion behavior with the morphological appearance of precipitated intermetallic phases in the microstructures of Zry-2 and Zry-4. To understand the fundamental processes of precipitation, particle nucleation-and-growth studies were made with Zry-2 and Zry-4 in different fabrication dimensions and with variations in β-quenching rates followed by isothermal and isochronical heat treatments. The microstructural characteristics of the precipitates were investigated by optical and transmission-electron microscopy. The macroscopic behavior was studied by electrical-resistivity measurements and hardness measurements. The nodular-corrosion susceptibility was determined by weight-gain and nodule distribution measurements after a 500 0 C laboratory-autoclave test

  7. Epitaxial growth of silicon for layer transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M

    2015-03-24

    Methods of preparing a thin crystalline silicon film for transfer and devices utilizing a transferred crystalline silicon film are disclosed. The methods include preparing a silicon growth substrate which has an interface defining substance associated with an exterior surface. The methods further include depositing an epitaxial layer of silicon on the silicon growth substrate at the surface and separating the epitaxial layer from the substrate substantially along the plane or other surface defined by the interface defining substance. The epitaxial layer may be utilized as a thin film of crystalline silicon in any type of semiconductor device which requires a crystalline silicon layer. In use, the epitaxial transfer layer may be associated with a secondary substrate.

  8. Internal equilibrium layer growth over forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2000-01-01

    the magnitude of the scatter. Different theoretical friction velocity profiles for the Internal Boundary Layer (IBL) are tested against the forest data. The results yield information on the Internal Equilibrium Layer (IEL) growth and an equation for the IEL height fur neutral conditions is derived. For stable...... conditions the results indicate that very long fetches are required in order to measure parameters in equilibrium with the actual surface....

  9. Crystal growth of the intermetallic compound Nd{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y. [IFW Dresden, Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01171 Dresden (Germany); State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Loeser, W.; Blum, C.G.F.; Buechner, B. [IFW Dresden, Leibniz-Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Tang, F. [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Liu, L. [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Nd{sub 2}PdSi{sub 3} single crystals were grown by a vertical floating zone method with radiation heating at a zone traveling rate of 3 mm/h. The compound exhibits congruent melting behavior at a liquidus temperature of about 1790 C. The actual crystal composition (35.3 {+-} 0.5) at.% Nd, (16.2 {+-} 0.5) at.% Pd, and (48.5 {+-} 0.5) at.% Si is slightly depleted in Pd and Si with respect to the nominal stoichiometry. Therefore, the gradual accumulation of these elements in the traveling zone led to a decrease of the operating temperature during the growth process. Single crystalline samples exhibit a large anisotropy due to the crystal electric field effect and order ferromagnetically below the Curie temperature T{sub C}=15.1 K. The [001] orientation was identified as the magnetic easy axis at low temperatures. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. PMID:27877786

  11. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn–Ag–Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting Tan, Ai; Wen Tan, Ai; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-01-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn–Ag–Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided. (review)

  12. Synthesis, growth, and studies (crystal chemistry, magnetic chemistry) of actinide-based intermetallic compounds and alloys with a 1.1.1 stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kergadallan, Yann

    1993-01-01

    The first part of this research thesis reports the study of the synthesis and reactivity of intermetallic compounds with a 1.1.1 stoichiometry. It presents the thermal properties of 1.1.1 compounds: general presentation of physical transitions, and of solid solutions and formation heat, application to actinides (reactivity analysis from phase diagrams, techniques of crystal synthesis and crystal growth. It describes experimental techniques: synthesis, determination of fusion temperature by dilatometry, methods used for crystal growth, characterisation techniques (metallography, X ray diffraction on powders, dilatometry). It discusses the obtained results in terms of characterisation of synthesised samples, of crystal growth, and of measurements of fusion temperature. The second part addresses crystal chemistry studies: structure of compounds with a 1.1.1 stoichiometry (Laves structures, Zr, Ti and Pu compounds), techniques of analysis by X-ray diffraction (on powders and on single crystals), result interpretation (UNiX compounds, AnTAl compounds with T being a metal from group VIII, AnTGa compounds, AnNiGe compounds, distance comparison, structure modifications under pressure). The third part concerns physical issues. The author addresses the following topics: physical properties of intermetallic 1.1.1 compounds (magnetism of yttrium phases, behaviour of uranium-based Laves phases, analysis of pseudo-binary diagrams, physical characteristics of uranium-based 1.1.1 compounds, predictions of physical measurements), analysis techniques (Moessbauer spectroscopy, SQUID for Superconducting Quantum Interference Device), and result interpretation

  13. X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy characterization of intermetallics formed in Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers during thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.L.; Peng, T.X.; Cao, B.S.; Lei, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Intermetallics formation in the Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers magnetron-sputtering deposited on Si(100) substrate during thermal annealing at 623-873 K was investigated by using small and wide angle X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Fe/Ti nanometer-scale multilayers were constructed with bilayer thickness of 16.2 nm and the sublayer thickness ratio of 1:1. At the annealing temperature of 623 K, intermetallics FeTi were formed by nucleation at the triple joins of α-Fe(Ti)/α-Ti interface and α-Ti grain boundary with an orientational correlation of FeTi(110)//α-Ti(100) and FeTi[001]//α-Ti[001] to adjacent α-Ti grains. The lateral growth of intermetallics FeTi which is dependent on the diffusion path of Ti led to a coalescence into an intermetallic layer. With an increase in the annealing temperature, intermetallics Fe 2 Ti were formed between the intermetallics FeTi and the excess Fe due to the limitation of Fe and Ti atomic concentrations, resulting in the coexistence of intermetallics FeTi and Fe 2 Ti. It was found that the low energy interface as well as the dominant diffusion path constrained the nucleation and growth of intermetallics during interfacial reaction in the nanometer-scale metallic multilayers.

  14. Optimization of parameters in the simulation of the interdiffusion layer growth in Al-U couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniznik, Laura; Alonso, Paula R.; Gargano, Pablo H.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    2009-01-01

    U-Mo alloy dispersed in aluminum is considered as a high U density fuel for research reactors. In and out of pile experiments showed a reaction layer in U-Mo/Al interphase with formation of intermetallics compounds: Al 2 U, Al 3 U and Al 4 U. Under irradiation, porosities originate an unacceptable swelling of the fuel plate. The kinetics of growth of the intermetallic compounds in the U-Mo/Al interphase is treated in the Al 3 U/Al couple as a planar moving boundary problem due to diffusion of Al and U atoms in the direction perpendicular to the interphase surface. Using data from literature, we built a thermodynamic database to be read by the Thermocalc code to calculate phase equilibria. The diffusion problem was carried out by the DICTRA simulation package which articulates data evaluated by Thermocalc with a mobility database. In a previous work we built preliminary databases, for both free energy and mobilities. In the present work, we adjust the parameters from experimental thermodynamic equilibria and concentration profiles existing in literature, and we simulate satisfactorily the growth of the Al 4 U phase. (author)

  15. Optimal Growth in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2016-01-01

    The linear form of the parabolized linear stability equations is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, nonmodal disturbance growth in boundary-layer flows. This paper investigates the optimal growth characteristics in the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high-enthalpy effects. The influence of wall cooling is studied, with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the spanwise wave number that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary-layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous- inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. Using the full Navier-Stokes mean flow is shown to result in further reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on the self-similar approximation to the base flow.

  16. Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.

  17. Growth of the interaction layer around fuel particles in dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olander, D.

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion of uranium particles in dispersion fuel by the aluminum matrix produces interaction layers (an intermetallic-compound corrosion product) around the shrinking fuel spheres. The rate of this process was modeled as series resistances due to Al diffusion through the interaction layer and reaction of aluminum with uranium in the fuel particle to produce UAl x . The overall kinetics are governed by the relative rates of these two steps, the slowest of which is reaction at the interface between Al in the interaction layer and U in the fuel particle. The substantial volume change as uranium is transferred from the fuel to the interaction layer was accounted for. The model was compared to literature data on in-reactor growth of the interaction layer and the Al/U gradient in this layer, the latter measured in ex-reactor experiments. The rate constant of the Al-U interface reaction and the diffusivity of Al in the interaction layer were obtained from this fitting procedure. The second feature of the corrosion process is the transfer of fission products from the fuel particle to the interaction layer due to the reaction. It is commonly assumed that the observed swelling of irradiated fuel elements of this type is due to release of fission gas in the interaction layer to form large bubbles. This hypothesis was tested by using the model to compute the quantity of fission gas available from this source and comparing the pressure of the resulting gas with the observed swelling of fuel plates. It was determined that the gas pressure so generated is too small to account for the observed delamination of the fuel

  18. Applied model for the growth of the daytime mixed layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    1991-01-01

    numerically. When the mixed layer is shallow or the atmosphere nearly neutrally stratified, the growth is controlled mainly by mechanical turbulence. When the layer is deep, its growth is controlled mainly by convective turbulence. The model is applied on a data set of the evolution of the height of the mixed...... layer in the morning hours, when both mechanical and convective turbulence contribute to the growth process. Realistic mixed-layer developments are obtained....

  19. Influence of Difference Solders Volume on Intermetallic Growth of Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu/ENEPIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliza Azlina O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, portable electronic packaging products such as smart phones, tablets, notebooks and other gadgets have been developed with reduced size of component packaging, light weight, high speed and with enhanced performance. Thus, flip chip technology with smaller solder sphere sizes that would produce fine solder joint interconnections have become essential in order to fulfill these miniaturization requirements. This study investigates the interfacial reactions and intermetallics formation during reflow soldering and isothermal aging between Sn-4.0Ag-0.5Cu (SAC405 and electroless nickel/immersion palladium/immersion gold (EN(PEPIG. Solder diameters of 300 μm and 700 μm were used to compare the effect of solder volume on the solder joint microstructure. The solid state isothermal aging was performed at 125°C starting from 250 hours until 2000 hours. The results revealed that only (Cu,Ni6Sn5 IMC was found at the interface during reflow soldering while both (Cu,Ni6Sn5 and (Ni,Cu3Sn4 IMC have been observed after aging process. Smaller solder sizes produced thinner IMC than larger solder joints investigated after reflow soldering, whereas the larger solders produced thinner IMC than the smaller solders after isothermal aging. Aging duration of solder joints has been found to be increase the IMC’s thickness and changed the IMC morphologies to spherical-shaped, compacted and larger grain size.

  20. Composite Layers “MgAl Intermetalic Layer / PVD Coating” Obtained On The AZ91D Magnesium Alloy By Different Hybrid Surface Treatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolik J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloys have very interesting physical properties which make them ‘materials of the future’ for tools and machine components in many industry areas. However, very low corrosion and tribological resistance of magnesium alloys hampers the implementation of this material in the industry. One of the methods to improve the properties of magnesium alloys is the application of the solutions of surface engineering like hybrid technologies. In this paper, the authors compare the tribological and corrosion properties of two types of “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers obtained by two different hybrid surface treatment technologies. In the first configuration, the “MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layer was obtained by multisource hybrid surface treatment technology combining magnetron sputtering (MS, arc evaporation (AE and vacuum heating methods. The second type of a composite layer was prepared using a hybrid technology combined with a diffusion treatment process in Al-powder and the electron beam evaporation (EB method. The authors conclude, that even though the application of „MgAlitermetalic / PVD coating” composite layers can be an effective solution to increase the abrasive wear resistance of magnesium alloys, it is not a good solution to increase its corrosion resistance.

  1. Tetradymite layer assisted heteroepitaxial growth and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Vladimir A.; Endicott, Lynn; Clarke, Roy; Uher, Ctirad

    2017-08-01

    A multilayer stack including a substrate, an active layer, and a tetradymite buffer layer positioned between the substrate and the active layer is disclosed. A method for fabricating a multilayer stack including a substrate, a tetradymite buffer layer and an active layer is also disclosed. Use of such stacks may be in photovoltaics, solar cells, light emitting diodes, and night vision arrays, among other applications.

  2. Crack Growth along Interfaces in Porous Ceramic Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Horsewell, Andy

    2001-01-01

    Crack growth along porous ceramic layers was studied experimentally. Double cantilever beam sandwich specimens were loaded with pure bending moments to obtain stable crack growth. The experiments were conducted in an environmental scanning electron microscope enabling in situ observations...

  3. Influence of the volume-contact area ratio on the growth behavior of the Cu-Sn intermetallic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddaluri, Venkatakamakshi Supraja

    Solder Joints play a very important role in electronic packaging industry by serving as mechanical support and provides integrity to the device. The increasing demand for high performance, environmental and economic feasibility and miniaturization led to the development of high density interconnects. With the reduction in the size/standoff height of the solder reliability issues in the surface mount assemblies and packaging structures under various rigorous environments are becoming significant. One of the most important impact factors that affect the solder joint reliability is the growth rate IMC formed between the solder and substrate with reduction in joint size. IMC formation is required to ensure good bonding and connectivity of the device in packaging. However excess IMC growth rate is detrimental to the device from mechanical aspects due to its brittle nature. Thus there is a need to study effect the IMC growth rate behavior with the solder joint size/standoff height. In this present study, two solder joints of different standoff heights and same composition (pure Sn solder) are used subjected to reflow process at 270°C for 1--7 min to study solid liquid interfacial reaction on joint size and the same experiment is repeated with SAC alloy of composition (96.5% Sn, 3.0% Ag, 0.5% Cu) to investigate the effect of joint size and initial copper concentration on IMC growth rate. The IMC thickness of the Sn 15microm solder joint at 1 min and 7 min is found to be 1.52microm and 2.86microm respectively while that of Sn 150microm solder joint is 1.31microm and 3.16 microm. The thickness is high in low standoff height sample at the early stage of reaction with decrease in IMC growth rate as the time of reflow increases. In case of 25microm SAC alloy solder joint the IMC thickness from 1 and 7 min is found to be 2.1microm and 3.5microm while that of 250microm SAC alloy solder joint its 1.43microm and3.235microm. Similar trend is observed but the IMC thickness is more

  4. Growth of high purity semiconductor epitaxial layers by liquid phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    semiconductor materials in high purity form by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique. Various possible sources of impurities in such ... reference to the growth of GaAs layers. The technique of growing very high purity layers ... the inner walls of the gas lines and (e) the containers for storing, handling and cleaning of the mate-.

  5. Influence of heat treatment on hardness and kinetics of growth of intermetallic compound interlayer in titanium-steel composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmorgun, V.G.; Slaustin, O.V.; Trykov, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment conditions on microhardness and diffusion interlayer thickness is studied for composite material of titanium VT1-O + steel 08kp + titanium VT1-O. Heat treatments are carried out at temperatures of 800-1000 deg C and holding at heat for 3 h in a vacuum furnace (1 x 10 -4 mmHg) as well as in an electric furnace with coating a dual protective layer. It is stated that the hardness and the thickness of the interlayer are higher after heat treatment in an ordinary electric furnaces as compared to vacuum heating. all other things being equal. Annealed in electric furnace specimens are water quenched from temperatures of 600-950 deg C. It is shown that the hardness of the interlayer increases sharply when hardening from 650 deg C comparing with annealed specimens (from 4.5-5.2 to 7-9 GPa). The quenching from 700 and 800 deg C results in an interlayer hardness decrease down to 4.8-5.4 and 3.1-3 GPa respectively. A quenching temperature increase up to 800-900 deg C is accompanied by a monotonic enhancement of hardness from 3.5-4.8 up to 5.1-6.8 GPa [ru

  6. Prediction of intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhanov, Gennady S; Kiselyova, N N

    2009-01-01

    The problems of predicting not yet synthesized intermetallic compounds are discussed. It is noted that the use of classical physicochemical analysis in the study of multicomponent metallic systems is faced with the complexity of presenting multidimensional phase diagrams. One way of predicting new intermetallics with specified properties is the use of modern processing technology with application of teaching of image recognition by the computer. The algorithms used most often in these methods are briefly considered and the efficiency of their use for predicting new compounds is demonstrated.

  7. Layered growth model and epitaxial growth structures for SiCAlN alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhaoqing; Ni Jun; Su Xiaoao; Dai Zhenhong

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial growth structures for (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys are studied using a layered growth model. First-principle calculations are used to determine the parameters in the layered growth model. The phase diagrams of epitaxial growth are given. There is a rich variety of the new metastable polytype structures at x=1/6 ,1/5 ,1/4 ,1/3 , and 1/2 in the layered growth phase diagrams. We have also calculated the electronic properties of the short periodical SiCAlN alloys predicted by our layered growth model. The results show that various ordered structures of (SiC) 1-x (AlN) x alloys with the band gaps over a wide range are possible to be synthesized by epitaxial growth.

  8. Layered growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays by pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongrui; Liang Erjun; Ding Pei; Chao Mingju

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of reaction temperature and duration of the growth of aligned carbon nanotube arrays, layered aligned multi-wall carbon nanotube (MWNT) films grown directly around a reaction quartz tube in an Ar/H 2 atmosphere by pyrolysis of ferrocene in xylene in a suitable reaction furnace with the help of cobalt powder. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope images indicated that the obtained arrays were composed of many separated layers with MWNTs. The reaction temperature significantly influenced the alignment of the MWNTs, and an appropriate reaction temperature range for growth was 800-900 deg. C. The diameter of the carbon nanotube increased from 46 to 75 nm with the growth temperature. Besides temperature, the reaction duration influenced the length of the well-aligned carbon nanotubes. There was no significant relation between the growth time and the diameter of the carbon nanotubes in the array

  9. Multiphase layered oxide growth on pure metals. I. General formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromhold, A.T. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A general formulation for the simultaneous growth of any number of layered planar oxide phases on a pure metal under diffusion-controlled conditions has been developed. Four individual situations have been developed in detail, namely, situations in which the predominant mode of ion transport is by cation interstitials, cation vacancies, anion interstitials, or anion vacancies. The generalized formulation enables the determination of quasi-steady-state growth kinetics following step function changes in the experimental conditions such as ambient oxygen pressure or temperature. Numerical evaluation of the coupled growth equations for the individual phases is required to deduce the general predictions of the theory. In the limit of two-layer growth by cation interstitial diffusion, the present formulation reproduces the earlier results of Fromhold and Sato

  10. Crystal Growth and Characterization of MT2Si2 Ternary Intermetallics (M = U, RE and T = 3d, 4d, 5d Transition Metals)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, A.A.; Moleman, A.C.; Snel, G.E.; Gortenmulder, T.J.; Palstra, T.T.M.

    1986-01-01

    Bulk single crystals of the ternary intermetallic compounds UT2Si2 (T = Ni, Pd, Pt and Ru), LaT2Si2 (T = Pd and Rh) and LuPd2Si2 have been grown from the melt with a modified “tri-arc” Czochralski method. The as-grown crystals were characterized by X-ray, microprobe and chemical analyses. The

  11. Nucleation and Early Stages of Layer-by-Layer Growth of Metal Organic Frameworks on Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) is used to resolve the evolution of crystallites of a metal organic framework (HKUST-1) grown on Au(111) using a liquid-phase layer-by-layer methodology. The nucleation and faceting of individual crystallites is followed by repeatedly imaging the same submicron region after each cycle of growth and we find that the growing surface is terminated by {111} facets leading to the formation of pyramidal nanostructures for [100] oriented crystallites, and triangular [111] islands with typical lateral dimensions of tens of nanometres. AFM images reveal that crystallites can grow by 5–10 layers in each cycle. The growth rate depends on crystallographic orientation and the morphology of the gold substrate, and we demonstrate that under these conditions the growth is nanocrystalline with a morphology determined by the minimum energy surface. PMID:26709359

  12. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  13. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  14. Growth features of HgCdTe LPE layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseynov, E.K.; Eminov, Sh.O.; Ibragimov, T.I.; Ismaylov, N.J.; Rajabli, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The results of growth of Hg 1 -xCd x Te (MCT) layers by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) from Te-rich solutions (molar fraction (Hg 1 -zCd z )(1.y)Te y , z=0.054, y=0.805 for TL=501 degrees Celsium) obtained by the tipping method in closed system is presented. Epitaxial layers with different compositions (x=0.20-0.22) and thicknesses (10-20 μm) suitable for manufacturing the photodiode structures operable at 8-14 μm spectrum range were grown on B oriented Cd 0 .96Zn 0 ,04Te polished and repolished substrates. The growth was carried out in the temperature range 500-480 degrees Celsium with cooling rates 0.05-0.1 degrees Celsium/min in a sealed quartz ampoule using the original apparatus for LPE. The attention was paid mainly to the surface morphological quality, good decantation from the layers, uniformity of composition and thickness of films. One of the limitations of the most LPE growth apparatus (cassettes) with slider or tipping system is their impossibility to wipe the last drop of growth solution from the surface of just-grown epilayer. Some remnant or residual of the growth solution tends to adhere to the surface of the epilayer after growth in such apparatus and strongly affect the surface quality. The novel apparatus for LPE providing the surface without unwanted residual drops of melt solution of Hg, Cd and Te was developed with the aim of solving such a problem. The effect of different steps of LPE growth on morphology and composition of epitaxial layers was studied. By holding the CdZnTe substrate inside the growth ampoule at the melt homogenization temperature during of 15-50 min without contact with the melt resulted in visually (using the Leitzorthoplan microscopes x 500-1000) observed surface roughness. Using the expressions for the Te-angle of Hg-Cd-Te phase diagram the effect of the preliminary synthesis of the source on liquidus temperature and composition of the epilayers was numerically evaluated. HgCdTe layers were characterized using

  15. Intermetallic semiconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Wieder, H H

    1970-01-01

    Intermetallic Semiconducting Films introduces the physics and technology of AшВv compound films. This material is a type of a polycrystalline semiconductor that is used for galvanomagnetic device applications. Such material has a high electron mobility that is ideal for generators and magnetoresistors. The book discusses the available references on the preparation and identification of the material. An assessment of its device applications and other possible use is also enumerated. The book describes the structures and physical parts of different films. A section of the book covers the three t

  16. Abrasive wear of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, J.A.; Alman, D.E.; Wilson, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the wear behavior of a variety of advanced materials. Among the many materials under evaluation are intermetallic alloys based on the compounds: Fe 3 Al, Ti 3 Al, TiAl, Al 3 Ti, NiAl and MoSi 2 . The high hardness, high modulus, low density, and superior environmental stability of these compounds make them attractive for wear materials. This paper reports on the abrasive wear of alloys and composites based on the above compounds. The abrasive wear behavior of these alloys and composites are compared to other engineering materials used in wear applications

  17. Fatigue of superalloys and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoloff, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue behavior of intermetallic alloys and their composites is contrasted to that of nickel-base superalloys. The roles of microstructure and slip planarity are emphasized. Obstacles to use of intermetallics under cyclic loading conditions are described and future research directions are suggested

  18. Carbon nanotube forests growth using catalysts from atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Bingan; Zhang, Can; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Xie, Rongsi; Zhong, Guofang; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Sincrotone Trieste S.C.p.A., s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR Laboratorio TASC, s.s. 14, km 163.4, I-34012 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-04-14

    We have grown carbon nanotubes using Fe and Ni catalyst films deposited by atomic layer deposition. Both metals lead to catalytically active nanoparticles for growing vertically aligned nanotube forests or carbon fibres, depending on the growth conditions and whether the substrate is alumina or silica. The resulting nanotubes have narrow diameter and wall number distributions that are as narrow as those grown from sputtered catalysts. The state of the catalyst is studied by in-situ and ex-situ X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. We demonstrate multi-directional nanotube growth on a porous alumina foam coated with Fe prepared by atomic layer deposition. This deposition technique can be useful for nanotube applications in microelectronics, filter technology, and energy storage.

  19. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments. Their attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at elevated temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past ten years, considerable effort has been devoted to the research and development of ordered intermetallic alloys, and good progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel efforts on alloy design have led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni(3)Al, NiAl, Fe(3)Al, FeAl, Ti(3)Al and TiAl systems for structural applications. (orig.)

  20. Controlling the Growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis by Layer-By-Layer Encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Alain M; Glinel, Karine; Behrens, Adam; Anselmo, Aaron C; Langer, Robert S; Jaklenec, Ana

    2018-05-16

    Commensal skin bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis are currently being considered as possible components in skin-care and skin-health products. However, considering the potentially adverse effects of commensal skin bacteria if left free to proliferate, it is crucial to develop methodologies that are capable of maintaining bacteria viability while controlling their proliferation. Here, we encapsulate S. epidermidis in shells of increasing thickness using layer-by-layer assembly, with either a pair of synthetic polyelectrolytes or a pair of oppositely charged polysaccharides. We study the viability of the cells and their delay of growth depending on the composition of the shell, its thickness, the charge of the last deposited layer, and the degree of aggregation of the bacteria which is varied using different coating procedures-among which is a new scalable process that easily leads to large amounts of nonaggregated bacteria. We demonstrate that the growth of bacteria is not controlled by the mechanical properties of the shell but by the bacteriostatic effect of the polyelectrolyte complex, which depends on the shell thickness and charge of its outmost layer, and involves the diffusion of unpaired amine sites through the shell. The lag times of growth are sufficient to prevent proliferation for daily topical applications.

  1. Growth and characterization of oxide layers on zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, A.J.G.; Bordoni, R.; Villegas, M.; Olmedo, A.M.; Blesa, M.A.; Iglesias, A.; Koenig, P.

    1996-01-01

    In the range 265-435 C Zr-2.5Nb corrosion takes place in two stages, as opposed to the cyclic behaviour of Zry-4. The Zry-4 corrosion stages are described by a single equation, in terms of the dense oxide layer thickness that decreases sharply at each transition. Tetragonal zirconia is present in the oxide layers of both alloys. In Zry-4, its volume fraction decreases as the oxide grows; it is barely discernible in Zr-2.5Nb in films below 1 μm, to later increase up to the transition. In both alloys, compressive stresses are developed associated with the oxide growth. Their relaxation at the transition correlates with the transformation of ZrO 2 (t) to ZrO 2 (m) and with the decrease of the dense oxide layer. In Zr-2.5Nb, oxide ridges form on the β-Zr phase filaments, at the very onset of film growth. The cyclic behaviour associated with the periodical breakdown of the dense oxide layer is therefore blurred, although optical microscopy shows that the scale retains the multilayered structure typical of Zry-4. (orig.)

  2. The effect of the phase composition of compound layer on the growth kinetics of the nitrided layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratajski, J.; Olik, R.; Suszko, T.; Tacikowski, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a part of research work on the kinetics of formation and growth of nitrided layers on 40HM steel that was conducted within the research project devoted to the control of gaseous nitriding processes. The purpose of the research was to find answers to still opened questions connected with the optimization of the growth kinetics of nitrided layer. It has been demonstrated in particular how important in diffusion layer kinetics of growth on steel is the role-played by compound layer phase composition. Mainly, this refers to designing changes of parameters in processes where accurate formation of layer on precise parts with required tolerance of size changes is demanded. It comes out of the presented research that proper diffusion layer growth kinetics can be achieved when phase ε dominates in the compound layer. This domination of the phase ε influences speed of growth of the compound layer and first of all growth of diffusion layer. The obtained results are also a starting point of for working-out of good functional relations which could create good basis for design of algorithms of potential values changes in the function of the process time which provides the optimal kinetics of the growth of the layers. In this respect it has been achieved very good qualitative relation between the simulated distribution of nitrogen concentration in the layer and experimentally established distribution of hardness. (author)

  3. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation...... of the effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  4. Dynamic nanomechanical properties of novel Si-rich intermetallic coatings growth on a medical 316 LVM steel by hot dipping in a hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frutos, E; González-Carrasco, J L

    2015-06-01

    This aim of this study is to determine the elastoplastic properties of Ni-free Al3FeSi2 intermetallic coatings grown on medical stainless steel under different experimental conditions. Elastoplastic properties are defined by the plasticity index (PI), which correlates the hardness and the Young's modulus. Special emphasis is devoted to correlate the PI with the wear resistance under sliding contact, determined by scratch testing, and fracture toughness, determined by using a novel method based on successive impacts with small loads. With regard to the substrate, the developed coatings are harder and exhibit a lower Young's reduced modulus, irrespective of the experimental conditions. It has been shown that preheating of the samples prior to hot dipping and immersion influences the type and volume fraction of precipitates, which in turn also affect the nanomechanical properties. The higher the preheating temperature is, the greater the Young's reduced modulus is. For a given preheating condition, an increase of the immersion time yields a decrease in hardness. Although apparent friction coefficients of coated specimens are smaller than those obtained on AISI 316 LVM, they increase when using preheating or higher immersion times during processing, which correlates with the PI. The presence of precipitates produces an increase in fracture toughness, with values greater than those presented by samples processed on melted AlSi alloys with lower Si content (12 wt%). Therefore, these intermetallic coatings could be considered "hard but tough", suitable to enhance the wear resistance, especially when using short periods of immersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth of hydrated gel layers in nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.M.; Machiels, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The hydration kinetics of waste glasses in contact with an aqueous solution has been studied by using three different approaches. Emphasis has been placed on modeling processes in the transition zone defined as the region in which the nature of the glass changes from the original dry glass to an open hydrated structure. The first model relies on concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients to obtain a transition zone in which the ions mobility is extremely low compared to that in the gel layer. In the second model, the transition zone and hydrated layer are treated as distinct phases and it is assumed that ion exchange at their common boundary is the rate-controlling process. The third model treats the transition zone as a thin film of constant thickness and low diffusivity. In the absence of appreciable network dissolution, all three models indicate that growth of the gel layer becomes eventually proportional to the square root of time; however, as long as processes in the transition zone are rate controlling, growth is linearly proportional to time

  6. 2. Intermetallic compounds with lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemans, J.B.A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical considerations are given concerning the structures of intermetallic compounds of the lanthanides and thorium (R) on the one hand, and with Fe, Co or Ni (M) on the other. They all derive from the parent composition RM 5 with the CaCu 5 hexagonal structure. This consists of alternate layers in which the M atoms are distinguished as M 1 and M 2 . The other compounds whose structures are studied are obtained by systematic replacement of R by M, or vice versa. In the first type, every third R is replaced by two M's yielding R 2 M 17 compounds. The substitution may be truly random or structured in two ways: so that either the hexagonal structure is maintained or that it is converted into a rhombihedral one. In the second type, one M (in a M 1 position) out of every five is replaced by one R, giving rise to RM 2 compounds which form Laves phases. In the third type, the M 1 's are replaced by R's, resulting in compounds RM 3 . In the fourth type, every third M is replaced by R, yielding R 2 M 7 compounds. With M = Co and R a light lanthanide, the compounds are ferromagnets; with R yttrium, thorium, or a heavy lanthanide, they are ferrimagnets. The preparation of the compounds in an arc-melting apparatus under an Ar-atmosphere followed by annealing is described

  7. Effect of Al added to a NiCrMo alloy on the development of the oxide layer of intermetallic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Oliveira, A.S.C.M.; Cangue, F.J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Components performance in different environment is strongly dependent on oxides that develop on their surfaces. This study analyzed the oxide layer that develops on coatings processed with mixtures of an atomized Hastelloy C alloy with Al powders. Powder mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30wt%Al were deposited on AISI 1020 and AISI304 steel plates. Coatings were subsequently exposed to 850 deg C for two hours in a low PO 2 environment. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases that developed in the coating during processing and Raman analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the oxide layers. The results showed that coatings processed with the richer Al mixtures, 30wt%Al, which developed NiAl aluminides, reduced the development of α alumina when processing was done on AISI 304. Coatings processed on AISI 1020 with the three powder mixtures tested developed the different allotropic forms of alumina, as predicted for the tested temperature. (author)

  8. Effects of Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic layers on cross-interaction between Pd and Ni in solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Yong-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Advanced Circuit Interconnect, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-743 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Bo-Mook [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Research and Development, KPM TECH, Ansan 425-090 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Sik [Division of Advanced Circuit Interconnect, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon 443-743 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jaeho [Department of Advanced Metal and Materials Engineering, Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung 210-702 (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Joo-Youl, E-mail: jyhuh@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-05

    Highlights: •Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} acts as a source of Ni atoms, leading to a strong cross-interaction with Pd. •(Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} is an effective Ni diffusion barrier, inhibiting Pd resettlement. •Dissolution kinetics of (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} was interpreted based on the Sn–Ni–Pd isotherm. •Cu addition to solder alleviates the (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4}-related risk of reliability deterioration. -- Abstract: We examined the effects of layers of intermetallic compound (IMC) Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} and (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} formed at the solder/Ni interface, on the cross-interactions between Pd and Ni during solid-state aging and reflow soldering. Two types of diffusion couples, Pd/Sn/Ni and Pd/Sn–Cu/Ni, were aged at 150 °C to study the solid-state interactions. In contrast to the Pd/Sn/Ni couples in which a Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} layer formed at the Ni interface, the Pd/Sn–Cu/Ni couple where a (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer formed at the Ni interface exhibited no significant interaction between Pd and Ni. The (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer acted as an effective barrier against Ni diffusion and thus inhibited the resettlement of (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} onto the Ni interface. For the interaction during reflow, Sn–3.5Ag and Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls were isothermally reflowed on an electroless Ni(P)/electroless Pd/immersion Au (ENEPIG) surface finish at 250 °C, and the dissolution kinetics of the (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} particles converted from the 0.2-μm-thick Pd-finish layer were examined. The spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} particles very quickly dissolved into the molten solder when the IMC layer formed on the Ni substrate was (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} rather than Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4}. The dependence of the dissolution kinetics of the spalled (Pd,Ni)Sn{sub 4} particles on the IMC layers was rationalized on the basis of a Sn–Ni–Pd isotherm at 250 °C. The present study suggests that the formation of a dense (Cu,Ni){sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer at the solder/Ni interface can effectively

  9. Phase transformations in intermetallic phases in zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, V. P., E-mail: vpfilippov@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, V. G. [Kharkiv National Karazin University (Ukraine); Salomasov, V. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Khasanov, A. M. [University of North Carolina – Asheville, Chemistry Department (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Phase change was analyzed in intermetallic compounds of zirconium alloys (Zr – 1.03 at.% Fe; Zr – 0.51 at.% Fe; Zr – 0.51 at.% Fe – M(M = Nb, Sn). Mössbauer spectroscopy on {sup 57}Fe nuclei in backscattering geometry with the registration of the internal conversion electrons and XRD were used. Four types of iron bearing intermetallic compounds with Nb were detected. A relationship was found between the growth process of intermetallic inclusions and segregation of these phases. The growth kinetics of inclusions possibly is not controlled by bulk diffusion, and a lower value of the iron atom’s activation energy of migration can be attributed to the existence of enhanced diffusion paths and interface boundaries.

  10. Transformation of iron containing constituent intermetallic particles during hydrothermal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgaonkar, Shruti; Din, Rameez Ud; Kasama, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    in the alloys. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis revealed that the during the steam treatment, the Fe enriched areas of the Al (Fe-Si) Mn type intermetallic particles were transformed into Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 phases, while energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line profile measurements...... by scanning transmission electron microscope showed that Mn and Si were leached out and incorporated into the surrounding oxide layer. Further, the part of intermetallic phase was transformed into polycrystalline material....

  11. Epitaxial growth of tungsten layers on MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Pengyuan; Ozsdolay, Brian D.; Gall, Daniel, E-mail: galld@rpi.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Smooth single crystal W(001) layers were grown on MgO(001) substrates by magnetron sputtering at 900 °C. X-ray diffraction ω–2θ scans, ω-rocking curves, pole figures, and reciprocal space maps indicate a 45°-rotated epitaxial relationship: (001){sub W}‖(001){sub MgO} and [010]{sub W}‖[110]{sub MgO}, and a relaxed lattice constant of 3.167 ± 0.001 nm. A residual in-plane biaxial compressive strain is primarily attributed to differential thermal contraction after growth and decreases from −0.012 ± 0.001 to −0.001 ± 0.001 with increasing layer thickness d = 4.8–390 nm, suggesting relaxation during cooling by misfit dislocation growth through threading dislocation glide. The in-plane x-ray coherence length increases from 3.4 to 33.6 nm for d = 4.8–390 nm, while the out-of-plane x-ray coherence length is identical to the layer thickness for d ≤ 20 nm, but is smaller than d for d ≥ 49.7 nm, indicating local strain variations along the film growth direction. X-ray reflectivity analyses indicate that the root-mean-square surface roughness increases from 0.50 ± 0.05 to 0.95 ± 0.05 nm for d = 4.8–19.9 nm, suggesting a roughness exponent of 0.38, but remains relatively constant for d > 20 nm with a roughness of 1.00 ± 0.05 nm at d = 47.9 nm.

  12. Growth kinetics and initial stage growth during plasma-enhanced Ti atomic layer deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the growth kinetics of plasma-enhanced Ti atomic layer deposition (ALD) using a quartz crystal microbalance. Ti ALD films were grown at temperatures from 20 to 200 deg. C using TiCl sub 4 as a source gas and rf plasma-produced atomic H as the reducing agent. Postdeposition ex situ chemical analyses of thin films showed that the main impurity is oxygen, mostly incorporated during the air exposure prior to analysis. The thickness per cycle, corresponding to the growth rate, was measured by quartz crystal microbalance as a function of various key growth parameters, including TiCl sub 4 and H exposure time, rf plasma power, and sample temperature. The growth rates were independent of TiCl sub 4 exposure above 1x10 sup 3 L, indicating typical ALD mode growth. The key kinetic parameters for Cl extraction reaction and TiCl sub 4 adsorption kinetics were obtained and the growth kinetics were modeled to predict the growth rates based upon these results. Also, the dependency of growth kinetics on d...

  13. Studies on layer growth and interfaces on Ta-base thin layers by means of XPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zier, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis studies on the growth and on the formation of the interfaces of Ta and TaN layers on Si and SiO 2 were performed. In the system TaN on SiO 2 no reaction on the interface could be found. As the system with the mostly disturbed interface Ta on SiO 2 was proved. Here a reduction of the SiO 2 at simultaneous oxidation of the Ta was to be observed. Additionally tantalum silicide was formed to be considered concerning the bonding state as Ta 5 Si 3 , from which a double layer of a tantalum silicide and a tantalum suboxide resulted. A whole thickness of the double layer of above 1 nm resulted. In the system Ta on Si at the deposition of the film on the interface a tantalum silicide was formed to be characterized concerning the bonding state as TaSi 2 . The thickness of the interlayer growed thereby up to 0.8 nm in form of islands. Finally in the system TaN on Si a silicon nitride formation during the deposition was observed, which was attributed to the insertion of adsorbed nitrogen from the sputtering atmosphere by recoil implantation of the sputtered Ta atoms. The silicon nitride interlayer growed thereby up to a thickness of 0.8 nm

  14. Nucleation and Growth of Cu-Al Intermetallics in Al-Modified Sn-Cu and Sn-Ag-Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2015-03-01

    Lead-free solder alloys Sn-Cu (SC) and Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) are widely used by the microelectronics industry, but enhanced control of the microstructure is needed to improve solder performance. For such control, nucleation and stability of Cu-Al intermetallic compound (IMC) solidification catalysts were investigated by variation of the Cu (0.7-3.0 wt.%) and Al (0.0-0.4 wt.%) content of SC + Al and SAC + Al alloys, and of SAC + Al ball-grid array (BGA) solder joints. All of the Al-modified alloys produced Cu-Al IMC particles with different morphologies and phases (occasionally non-equilibrium phases). A trend of increasing Cu-Al IMC volume fraction with increasing Al content was established. Because of solidification of non-equilibrium phases in wire alloy structures, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments revealed delayed, non-equilibrium melting at high temperatures related to quenched-in Cu-Al phases; a final liquidus of 960-1200°C was recorded. During cooling from 1200°C, the DSC samples had the solidification behavior expected from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Solidification of the ternary alloys commenced with formation of ternary β and Cu-Al δ phases at 450-550°C; this was followed by β-Sn, and, finally, Cu6Sn5 and Cu-Al γ1. Because of the presence of the retained, high-temperature phases in the alloys, particle size and volume fraction of the room temperature Cu-Al IMC phases were observed to increase when the alloy casting temperature was reduced from 1200°C to 800°C, even though both temperatures are above the calculated liquidus temperature of the alloys. Preliminary electron backscatter diffraction results seemed to show Sn grain refinement in the SAC + Al BGA alloy.

  15. Superplastic ceramics and intermetallics and their potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in the basic understanding of superplasticity and superplastic forming of ceramics and intermetallics are reviewed. Fine-grained superplastic ceramics, including yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Y- or MgO-doped Al 2 O 3 Hydroxyapatite, β-spodumene glass ceramics, Al 2 0 3 -YTZP two-phase composites, SiC-Si 3 N 4 and Fe-Fe 3 C composites, are discussed. Superplasticity in the nickel-base (e.g., Ni 3 Al and Ni 3 Si) and titanium-base intermetallics (TiAl and T1 3 Al), is described. Deformation mechanisms as well as microstructural requirements and effects such as grain size, grain growth, and grain-boundary phases, on the superplastic deformation behavior am addressed. Factors that control the superplastic tensile elongation of ceramics are discussed. Superplastic forming, and particularly biaxial gas-pressure forming, of several ceramics and intermetallics are presented with comments on the likelihood of commercial application

  16. Impact of GaN transition layers in the growth of GaN epitaxial layer on silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Danmei; Zhao Degang; Jiang Desheng; Liu Zongshun; Zhu Jianjun; Chen Ping; Liu Wei; Li Xiang; Shi Ming

    2015-01-01

    A method for growing GaN epitaxial layer on Si (111) substrate is investigated. Due to the large lattice mismatch between GaN and AlN, GaN grown directly above an AlN buffer layer on the Si substrate turns out to be of poor quality. In this study, a GaN transition layer is grown additionally on the AlN buffer before the GaN epitaxial growth. By changing the growth conditions of the GaN transition layer, we can control the growth and merging of islands and control the transfer time from 3D to 2D growth mode. With this method, the crystalline quality of the GaN epitaxial layer can be improved and the crack density is reduced. Here, we have investigated the impact of a transition layer on the crystalline quality and stress evolution of a GaN epitaxial layer with methods of X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and in situ reflectivity trace. With the increasing thickness of transition layer, the crack decreases and the crystalline quality is improved. But when the transition layer exceeds a critical thickness, the crystalline quality of the epilayer becomes lower and the crack density increases. (paper)

  17. Growth cycle of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucous layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Teruko

    2002-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori bacterium is characterized by its strong urease activity. Our studies on the role of H. pylori urease revealed; (i) it is essential for colonization, (ii) exogenous urea is required for acid resistance, (iii) the bacteria have the ability to move toward urea and sodium bicarbonate, (iv) urea hydrolysis accelerates chemotactic locomotion, and (v) decay of urease mRNA to accomplish the active center is pH-regulated; i.e., the mRNA is stabilized and destabilized under acidic and neutral conditions, respectively. Based on the above results, I propose the growth cycle of H. pylori in gastric mucous layer. H. pylori bacteria proliferate on the epithelial cell surface by utilizing nutrients derived from degraded cells. Proliferated bacteria leave the cell surface to pH-variable region where they encounter strong acid. Urease is activated with simultaneous opening of UreI channel so that urea is hydrolyzed to neutralize acid. Chemotaxis of H. pylori toward urea and sodium bicarbonate that are abundant on the cell surface is accelerated by urea hydrolysis so that the bacteria go back to the cell surface for the next round of proliferation. This growth cycle may allow the bacteria to infect persistently in the stomach.

  18. Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue in Ti3Al based and TiAl based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.W.; Chave, R.A.; Hippsley, C.A.; Bowen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Micromechanisms of fracture and fatigue crack growth resistance in specific Ti 3 Al based and TiAl based intermetallics are reviewed. Effects of test temperature, environment and microstructure on crack growth resistance are considered in detail for several Ti 3 Al and Ti'Al based intermetallic systems under development. The implications of these studies for the structural reliability of these materials is also addressed briefly. (orig.)

  19. Growth kinetics of the intermetallic phase in diffusion-soldered (Cu-5 at.%Ni)/Sn/(Cu-5 at.%Ni) interconnections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierzbicka-Miernik, A.; Miernik, K.; Wojewoda-Budka, J.; Szyszkiewicz, K.; Filipek, R.; Litynska-Dobrzynska, L.; Kodentsov, A.; Zieba, P.

    2013-01-01

    A stereological analysis was carried out in order to obtain the kinetics parameters of the (Cu1-xNix)6Sn5 growth in the diffusion soldered (Cu–5 at.%Ni)/Sn/(Cu–5 at.%Ni) interconnections where previously anomalous fast growth of this phase was described. The n-parameter in the equation x = ktn was

  20. Phase segregation, interfacial intermetallic growth and electromigration-induced failure in Cu/In–48Sn/Cu solder interconnects under current stressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Lim, Adeline B.Y.; Luo, Kaiming; Chen, Zhong; Wu, Fengshun; Chan, Y.C.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of microstructure in Cu/In–48Sn/Cu solder bump interconnects at a current density of 0.7 × 10"4 A/cm"2 and ambient temperature of 55 °C has been investigated. During electromigration, tin (Sn) atoms migrated from cathode to anode, while indium (In) atoms migrated from anode to cathode. As a result, the segregation of the Sn-rich phase and the In-rich phase occurred. A Sn-rich layer and an In-rich layer were formed at the anode and the cathode, respectively. The accumulation rate of the Sn-rich layer was 1.98 × 10"−"9 cm/s. The atomic flux of Sn was calculated to be approximately 1.83 × 10"1"3 atoms/cm"2s. The product of the diffusivity and the effective charge number of Sn was determined to be approximately 3.13 × 10"−"1"0 cm"2/s. The In–48Sn/Cu IMC showed a two layer structure of Cu_6(Sn,In)_5, adjacent to the Cu, and Cu(In,Sn)_2, adjacent to the solder. Both the cathode IMC and the anode IMC thickened with increasing electromigration time. The IMC evolution during electromigration was strongly influenced by the migration of Cu atoms from cathode to anode and the accumulation of Sn-rich and In-rich layers. During electromigration, the Cu(In,Sn)_2 at the cathode interface thickened significantly, with a spalling characteristic, due to the accumulation of In-rich layer and the migration of Cu atoms - while the Cu(In,Sn)_2 at the anode interface reduced obviously, due to the accumulation of Sn-rich layer. The mechanism of electromigration-induced failure in Cu/In–48Sn/Cu interconnects was the cathode Cu dissolution-induced solder melt, which led to the rapid consumption of Cu in the cathode pad during liquid-state electromigration and this finally led to the failure. - Highlights: • Sn migrates to the anode, while In migrates to the cathode, during EM in Cu/In–48Sn/Cu. • The atomic flux of Sn has been calculated. • The interfacial IMCs were identified as: Cu_6(Sn,In)_5 + Cu(In,Sn)_2. • The interface evolution is strongly

  1. Kinetics of intermetallic phase formation at the interface of Sn-Ag-Cu-X (X = Bi, In) solders with Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodulova, Erika; Palcut, Marian; Lechovic, Emil; Simekova, Beata; Ulrich, Koloman

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In substitutes Sn in intermetallic compounds formed at the Cu-solder interface. → Bi and In decrease the parabolic rate constant of Cu 3 Sn layer growth. → In increases the parabolic rate constant of Cu 6 Sn 5 layer growth. → High In concentrations should be avoided since they may lead to a pre-mature solder joint degradation. - Abstract: The effects of Bi and In additions on intermetallic phase formation in lead-free solder joints of Sn-3.7Ag-0.7Cu; Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-1.0Bi and Sn-1.5Ag-0.7Cu-9.5In (composition given in weight %) with copper substrate are studied. Soldering of copper plate was conducted at 250 deg. C for 5 s. The joints were subsequently aged at temperatures of 130-170 deg. C for 2-16 days in a convection oven. The aged interfaces were analyzed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) microanalysis. Two intermetallic layers are observed at the interface - Cu 3 Sn and Cu 6 Sn 5 . Cu 6 Sn 5 is formed during soldering. Cu 3 Sn is formed during solid state ageing. Bi and In decrease the growth rate of Cu 3 Sn since they appear to inhibit tin diffusion through the grain boundaries. Furthermore, indium was found to produce a new phase - Cu 6 (Sn,In) 5 instead of Cu 6 Sn 5 , with a higher rate constant. The mechanism of the Cu 6 (Sn,In) 5 layer growth is discussed and the conclusions for the optimal solder chemical composition are presented.

  2. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, G.K.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu 6 Sn 5 from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping of flux

  3. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujan, G.K., E-mail: sgkumer@gmail.com; Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Afifi, A.B.M., E-mail: amalina@um.edu.my

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  4. The effect of barrier layer-mediated catalytic deactivation in vertically aligned carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patole, S P; Yu, Seong-Man; Shin, Dong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Beom; Kim, Ha-Jin; Han, In-Taek; Kwon, Kee-Won

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Al-barrier layer-mediated Fe-catalytic deactivation in vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. The substrate surface morphology, catalytic diffusion and barrier layer oxidation were found to be dependent on the annealing temperature of the barrier layer, which ultimately affects CNT growth. The annealed barrier layer without complete oxidation was found to be suitable for top to bottom super aligned CNT arrays. The highest average CNT growth rate of up to 3.88 μm s -1 was observed using this simple approach. Details of the analysis are also presented.

  5. Reaction kinetics of the formation of intermetallic Fe – Zn during hot - dip galvanizing of steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pokorny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly describes the composition of intermetallic Fe - Zn, i.e. zeta (ζ, delta (δ1k + δ1p, gamma1 (Γ1 and gamma (Γ on galvanized steel during low temperature galvanization (t ~ 450 °C. It gives detailed the formation, growth of individual phases during galvanization and their interaction. In terms of the kinetics, the formation of the coating is defined by a parabolic kinetic equation of the growth of different intermetallic phases under ideal conditions. From the available literature the rate constants of the formation of individual intermetallic phases and also for the total coating are cited. The composition of the intermetallic phases, iron content, crystal structure, and group symmetry in which the surface of galvanized steel forms.

  6. Electron molecular beam epitaxy: Layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides via pulsed electron-beam deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comes, Ryan; Liu Hongxue; Lu Jiwei; Gu, Man; Khokhlov, Mikhail; Wolf, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    Complex oxide epitaxial film growth is a rich and exciting field, owing to the wide variety of physical properties present in oxides. These properties include ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, spin-polarization, and a variety of other correlated phenomena. Traditionally, high quality epitaxial oxide films have been grown via oxide molecular beam epitaxy or pulsed laser deposition. Here, we present the growth of high quality epitaxial films using an alternative approach, the pulsed electron-beam deposition technique. We demonstrate all three epitaxial growth modes in different oxide systems: Frank-van der Merwe (layer-by-layer); Stranski-Krastanov (layer-then-island); and Volmer-Weber (island). Analysis of film quality and morphology is presented and techniques to optimize the morphology of films are discussed.

  7. Growth and properties of epitaxial iron oxide layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt, F.C; Fujii, T; Hibma, T; Zhang, G.L.; Smulders, P.J M

    1996-01-01

    Epitaxial layers of iron oxides have been grown on a MgO(001) substrate by evaporating natural Fe or Fe-57 from Knudsen cells in the presence of a NO2 flow directed to the substrate. The resulting layers have been investigated in situ with LEED, RHEED, AES and XPS and ex situ with GEMS and ion beam

  8. Synthesis and microstructural characterization of growth direction controlled ZnO nanorods using a buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dong Jun; Kim, Dong Chan; Lee, Jeong Yong; Cho, Hyung Koun

    2006-01-01

    The growth direction and morphology of one-dimensional ZnO nanostructures grown by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) were modulated by changing the growth temperature of previously deposited ZnO buffer layers that were used as a template. The ZnO nanorods grown on the low-temperature deposited buffer layer were regularly inclined with respect to the substrate surface and show in-plane alignment with azimuthally six-fold symmetry. In contrast, deposition of the buffer layer at higher growth temperature led to the formation of vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods. In addition, the ZnO nanorods grown on the buffer layer deposited at low growth temperature show a growth direction of [1 0 1-bar 0], unlike the conventional ZnO nanorods showing a growth direction of [0001]. The microstructural analysis and atomic modelling of the formation of regularly inclined nanorods using transmission electron microscopy are presented

  9. Diffusion mechanisms in intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larikov, L N [ANU, Inst. Metallofiziki, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1992-08-01

    Recent research aimed at the identification of the principal mechanisms of diffusion in intermetallics is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to the effect of the type of interatomic bond on the contribution of different mechanisms to diffusion in ordered metallic compounds. Results of an analysis of experimental determinations of diffusion coefficients D(A) and D(B) in binary intermetallics (CuZn, Cu3Sn, AuCd, AgZn, AgMg, InSb, GaSb, AlSb, Fe3Al, FeAl, FeAl3, Ni3Al, Ni3Nb, FeSn, FeSn2, Ni3Sn2, Ni3Sn4, Co3Sn2, CoSn, CoSn2, and CoGa) are presented, and it is shown that the D(A)/D(B) ratio differs substantially for different diffusion mechanisms. 60 refs.

  10. Atom probe tomography of intermetallic phases and interfaces formed in dissimilar joining between Al alloys and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmens, B.; Springer, H.; Duarte, M.J.; De Graeve, I.; De Strycker, J.; Raabe, D.; Verbeken, K.

    2016-01-01

    While Si additions to Al are widely used to reduce the thickness of the brittle intermetallic seam formed at the interface during joining of Al alloys to steel, the underlying mechanisms are not clarified yet. The developed approach for the site specific atom probe tomography analysis revealed Si enrichments at grain and phase boundaries between the θ (Fe 4 Al 13 ) and η (Fe 2 Al 5 ) phase, up to about ten times that of the concentration in Al. The increase in Si concentration could play an important role for the growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases formed for example in hot-dip aluminizing of steel. - Highlights: •Si additions to Al reduce thickness of intermetallic seam in joining with steel. •Approach developed for the site specific APT analysis of the intermetallic seam •Si enrichment at grain and phase boundaries possibly affects growth of intermetallics.

  11. Homoepitaxial VPE growth of SiC active layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, A.A. Jr. [Northrop Grumman Electron. Sensors and Syst. Div., Baltimore, MD (United States); Rowland, L.B. [Northrop Grumman Sci. and Technol. Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    SiC active layers of tailored thickness and doping form the heart of all SiC electronic devices. These layers are most conveniently formed by vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Exacting requirements are placed upon the SiC-VPE layers` material properties by both semiconductor device physics and available methods of device processing. In this paper, the current ability of the SiC-VPE process to meet these requirements is described along with continuing improvements in SiC epitaxial reactors, processes and materials. (orig.) 48 refs.

  12. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  13. MODELING OF INTERACTION LAYER GROWTH BETWEEN U-Mo PARTICLES AND AN Al MATRIX

    OpenAIRE

    YEON SOO KIM; G.L. HOFMAN; HO JIN RYU; JONG MAN PARK; A.B. ROBINSON; D.M. WACHS

    2013-01-01

    Interaction layer growth between U-Mo alloy fuel particles and Al in a dispersion fuel is a concern due to the volume expansion and other unfavorable irradiation behavior of the interaction product. To reduce interaction layer (IL) growth, a small amount of Si is added to the Al. As a result, IL growth is affected by the Si content in the Al matrix. In order to predict IL growth during fabrication and irradiation, empirical models were developed. For IL growth prediction during fabrication an...

  14. The effect of graphene on the intermetallic and joint strength of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayappan, R.; Salleh, A.; Andas, J.

    2017-09-01

    Solder has been widely used in electronic industry as interconnection for electronic packaging. European Union and Japan have restricted the use of Sn-Pb solder as it contains lead which can harmful to human health and environment. Due to this, many researches have been done in order to find a suitable replacement for the lead solder. Although many lead-free solders are available, the Sn-3.5Ag solder with the addition of graphene seem to be a suitable candidate. In this study, a 0.07 wt% graphene nanosheet was added into the Sn-3.5Ag solder and this composite solder was prepared under powder metallurgy method. The solder was reacted with copper substrate at 250 °C for one minute. For joint strength analysis, two copper strips were soldered together. The solder joint was aged at temperature 100 °C for 500 hours. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used to observe the interfacial reaction and Instron machine was used to determine the joint strength. Cu6Sn5 intermetallic layer was formed at the interface between the Cu substrate and the solders. Composite solder showed the retardation of the intermetallic growth compared to the plain solder. The thickness value of the intermetallic was used to calculate the growth rate the IMC. The graphene nanosheets added solder has lower growth rate which is 3.86 × 10-15 cm2/s compared to the plain solder 7.15 × 10-15 cm2/s. Shear strength analysis show that the composite solder has higher joint compared to the plain solder.

  15. Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    boundary-layer flow warrants attention. .... double prime indicates a dummy variable, while R and S respectively denote integration in the ..... (labelled) but it also features an unstable structural mode labelled S that ..... theory and experiment.

  16. Growth characteristics of (100)HgCdTe layers in low-temperature MOVPE with ditertiarybutyltelluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Hatano, H.; Ferid, T.; Minamide, M.; Maejima, T.; Kawamoto, K.

    1996-09-01

    Low-temperature growth of (100)HgCdTe (MCT) layers in MOVPE has been studied using ditertiarybutyltelluride (DtBTe), dimethylcadmium (DMCd), and elementary mercury as precursors. MCT layers were grown at 275°C on (100)GaAs substrates. Growths were carried out in a vertical growth cell which has a narrow spacing between the substrate and cell ceiling. Using the growth cell, the Cd-composition ( x) of MCT layers was controlled over a wide range from 0 to 0.98 by the DMCd flow. The growth rate of the MCT layers was constant at 5 μm h -1 for the increased DMCd flow. Preferential Cd-incorporation into MCT layers and an increase of the growth rate were observed in the presence of mercury vapor. The growth characteristics were considered to be due to the alkyl-exchange reaction between DMCd and mercury. The electrical properties and crystallinity of grown layers were also evaluated, which showed that layers with high quality can be grown at 275°C.

  17. The effect of inducing uniform Cu growth on formation of electroless Cu seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Myung Jun; Park, Kyung Ju; Kim, Kwang Hwan; Choe, Seunghoe; Lee, Young-Soo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    2014-01-01

    The uniformity of Cu growth on Pd nanocatalysts was controlled by using organic additives in the formation of electroless Cu seed layers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw. 8000) not only reduced the deposition rate but also improved the uniformity of Cu growth on each Pd nanocatalyst during the seed layer formation. The stronger suppression effect of PEG on Cu than on Pd reduced the difference in the deposition rate between the two surfaces, resulting in the uniform deposition. Meanwhile, bis(3-sulfopropyl) disulfide degraded the uniformity by strong and nonselective suppression. The sheet resistance measurement and atomic force microscopy imaging revealed that the uniform Cu growth by PEG was more advantageous for the formation of a thin and smooth Cu seed layer than the non-uniform growth. The uniform Cu growth also had a positive influence on the subsequent Cu electrodeposition: the 60-nm-thick electrodeposited Cu film on the Cu seed layer showed low resistivity (2.70 μΩ·cm), low surface roughness (6.98 nm), and good adhesion strength. - Highlights: • Uniform Cu growth on Pd was achieved in formation of electroless Cu seed layer. • PEG addition to electroless bath improved the uniformity of Cu growth on Pd. • A thin, smooth and continuous Cu seed layer was obtained with PEG. • Adhesion strength of the Cu seed layer was also improved with PEG. • The uniformity improvement positively affected subsequent Cu electrodeposition

  18. Amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon layered structures resulting from film growth energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Barbour, J. C.; Provencio, P. N.; Tallant, D. R.; Friedmann, T. A.

    1998-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon (a-tC) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on Si(100) consist of three-to-four layers, depending on the growth energetics. We estimate the density of each layer using both HRTEM image contrast and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The first carbon layer and final surface layer have relatively low density. The bulk of the film between these two layers has higher density. For films grown under the most energetic conditions, there exists a superdense a-tC layer between the interface and bulk layers. The density of all four layers, and the thickness of the surface and interfacial layers, correlate well with the energetics of the depositing carbon species.

  19. Electronic structure and properties of rare earth and actinide intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayr, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    There are 188 contributions, experimental and theoretical, a few on rare earth and actinide elements but mostly on rare earth and actinide intermetallic compounds and alloys. The properties dealt with include 1) crystal structure, 2) magnetic properties and magnetic structure, 3) magnetic phase transformations and valence fluctuations, 4) electrical properties and superconductivity and their temperature, pressure and magnetic field dependence. A few papers deal with crystal growth and novel measuring methods. (G.Q.)

  20. Studies of void growth in a thin ductile layer between ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1997-01-01

    The growth of voids in a thin ductile layer between ceramics is analysed numerically, using an axisymmetric cell model to represent an array of uniformly distributed spherical voids at the central plane of the layer. The purpose is to determine the full traction-separation law relevant to crack...... growth by a ductile mechanism along the thin layer. Plastic flow in the layer is highly constrained by the ceramics, so that a high. level of triaxial tension develops, leading in some cases to cavitation instabilities. The computations are continued to a state near the occurrence of void coalescence....

  1. Single crystal growth and characterization of the intermetallic cubic cage system YCo1.82Mn0.18Zn20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Baez, M.; Finatti, B. F.; Rettori, C.; Avila, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    We report on the growth of YCo2-xMnxZn20 cubic single crystals (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.18) and their characterization through elemental analysis, x-ray diffraction, magnetization and heat capacity. Mn intermediate and/or mixed-valence-like behavior was observed in the magnetic response of YCo1.82Mn0.18Zn20 (and all other samples) at temperatures between 100 K and 200 K, and a spin-glass state is established at low temperatures. Specific heat results for x = 0.18 show an increased Sommerfeld coefficient of γ ≈ 100 mJ / mol .K2 compared to that of the undoped compound (18 mJ / mol .K2) suggesting an enhancement of the quasiparticle effective mass ignoring spin-glass effects at very low temperatures. The combination of different experimental data provides a better understanding of the Mn2+ effects in the weakly correlated electron compound of YCo2Zn20, the first case in this family of compounds where local magnetic moments come exclusively from the transition metal.

  2. Interferometric measurements of a dendritic growth front solutal diffusion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John A.; Mccay, T. D.; Mccay, Mary H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to measure solutal distributions in the diffusion layer produced during the vertical directional solidification (VDS) of an ammonium chloride - water (NH4Cl-H2O) solution. Interferometry was used to obtain concentration measurements in the 1-2 millimeter region defining the diffusion layer. These measurements were fitted to an exponential form to extract the characteristic diffusion parameter for various times after the start of solidification. The diffusion parameters are within the limits predicted by steady state theory and suggest that the effective solutal diffusivity is increasing as solidification progresses.

  3. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  4. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni3Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Cieślak, Grzegorz; Norek, Małgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domańska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jóźwik, Paweł; Bojar, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy anodization. ► The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. ► Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. ► No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 μm/h was found for the anodization at 0 °C and 2.0 V. The highest one – 2.29 μm/h – was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 °C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 °C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 °C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/μm 2 (2.0 V, 0 °C) to 94.9 pores/μm 2 (12.0 V, 0 °C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni 3 Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the operating conditions.

  5. Steady-state solution growth of microcrystalline silicon on nanocrystalline seed layers on glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansen, R.; Ehlers, C.; Teubner, Th.; Boeck, T.

    2016-09-01

    The growth of polycrystalline silicon layers on glass from tin solutions at low temperatures is presented. This approach is based on the steady-state solution growth of Si crystallites on nanocrystalline seed layers, which are prepared in a preceding process step. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations reveal details about the seed layer surfaces, which consist of small hillocks, as well as about Sn inclusions and gaps along the glass substrate after solution growth. The successful growth of continuous microcrystalline Si layers with grain sizes up to several ten micrometers shows the feasibility of the process and makes it interesting for photovoltaics. Project supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) (No. BO 1129/5-1).

  6. Atomic Layer Control of Thin Film Growth Using Binary Reaction Sequence Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Our research is focusing on the atomic layer control of thin film growth. Our goal is to deposit films with precise control of thickness and conformality on both flat and high aspect ratio structures...

  7. Layer-by-Layer Method for the Synthesis and Growth of Surface Mounted Metal-Organic Frameworks (SURMOFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Shekhah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A layer-by-layer method has been developed for the synthesis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs and their deposition on functionalized organic surfaces. The approach is based on the sequential immersion of functionalized organic surfaces into solutions of the building blocks of the MOF, i.e., the organic ligand and the inorganic unit. The synthesis and growth of different types of MOFs on substrates with different functionalization, like COOH, OH and pyridine terminated surfaces, were studied and characterized with different surface characterization techniques. A controlled and highly oriented growth of very homogenous films was obtained using this method. The layer-by-layer method offered also the possibility to study the kinetics of film formation in more detail using surface plasmon resonance and quartz crystal microbalance. In addition, this method demonstrates the potential to synthesize new classes of MOFs not accessible by conventional methods. Finally, the controlled growth of MOF thin films is important for many applications like chemical sensors, membranes and related electrodes.

  8. Intermetallic alloys: Deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, B.

    1988-01-01

    The state of the art in intermetallic alloys development with particular emphasis on deformation, mechanical and fracture behaviour is documented. This review paper is prepared to lay the ground stones for a future work on mechanical property characterization and fracture behaviour of intermetallic alloys at GKSS. (orig.)

  9. Monolithic growth of partly cured polydimethylsiloxane thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2014-01-01

    at different curing times. The monolithic films are investigated by rheology, scanning electron microscope, mechanical testing, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology, mechanical and dielectric properties, as well...... to enable interlayer crosslinking reactions either by application of an adhesion promoter or by ensuring that there are reactive, complementary sites available on the two surfaces. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a widely used polymer for DEAPs. In this work, two-layered PDMS films are adhered together...... as thermal stabilities of the bilayer elastomer films are observed to change with the curing time of the monolayers before lamination. The objective of this work is to create adhesion of two layers without destroying the original viscoelastic properties of the PDMS films, and hence enable, for example...

  10. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan

    2017-07-06

    Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

  11. A simple model for quantifying the degree of layer-by-layer growth in low energy ion deposition of thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtamaeki, T.; Jahma, M.O.; Koponen, I.T.

    2007-01-01

    Layer-by-layer growth of thin films can be promoted by using low energy ion deposition (LEID) techniques. The basic process affecting the growth are often quite diverse, but often the ion impact induced inter layer mass transfer processes due to adatom insertion to lower step edges or pile-ups to step edges above dominate. In this paper we propose a simple phenomenological model which describes the growth of thin films in LEID under these conditions. The model makes possible to distinguish the dominant growth, the detection of the transition from the 3D growth to 2D growth, and it can be used to quantify the degree of layer-by-layer growth. The model contains only two parameters, which can be phenomenologically related to the properties of the bombarding ion beam

  12. Intermetallics structures, properties, and statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Steurer, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this book is clearly on the statistics, topology, and geometry of crystal structures and crystal structure types. This allows one to uncover important structural relationships and to illustrate the relative simplicity of most of the general structural building principles. It also allows one to show that a large variety of actual structures can be related to a rather small number of aristotypes. It is important that this book is readable and beneficial in the one way or another for everyone interested in intermetallic phases, from graduate students to experts in solid-state chemistry/physics/materials science. For that purpose it avoids using an enigmatic abstract terminology for the classification of structures. The focus on the statistical analysis of structures and structure types should be seen as an attempt to draw the background of the big picture of intermetallics, and to point to the white spots in it, which could be worthwhile exploring. This book was not planned as a textbook; rather, it...

  13. Valence instabilities in cerium intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkman, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation was to study the magnetic behaviour of cerium in intermetallic compounds, that show an IV behaviour, e.g. CeSn 3 . In the progress of the investigations, it became of interest to study the effect of changes in the lattice of the IV compound by substituting La or Y for Ce, thus constituting the Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)Sn 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)Sn 3 quasibinary systems. A second purpose was to examine the possibility of introducing instabilities in the valency of a trivalent intermetallic cerium compound: CeIn 3 , also by La and Y-substitutions in the lattice. Measurements on the resulting Cesub(1-x)Lasub(x)In 3 and Cesub(1-x)Ysub(x)In 3 quasibinaries are described. A third purpose was to study the (gradual) transition from a trivalent cerium compound into an IV cerium compound. This was done by examining the magnetic properties of the CeInsub(x)Snsub(3-x) and CePbsub(x)Snsub(3-x) systems. Finally a new possibility was investigated: that of the occurrence of IV behaviour in CeSi 2 , CeSi, and in CeGa 2 . (Auth.)

  14. The effect of crop residue layers on evapotranspiration, growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observations of crop growth (stalk population, stalk height, canopy cover), cane yield and evapotranspiration for these treatments were compared to that of a bare soil treatment. The data were also used to derive values of crop evaporation coefficients for different development phases and these were compared to FAO56 ...

  15. Simulating the growth process of aromatic polyamide layer by monomer concentration controlling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yan [Vontron Technology Co., Ltd., Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China); Liang, Songmiao, E-mail: liangsongmiao@vontron.com.cn [Vontron Technology Co., Ltd., Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China); Wu, Zongce; Cai, Zhiqi [Vontron Technology Co., Ltd., Guiyang 550018, Guizhou (China); Zhao, Ning [National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ICCAS), Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • A concentration controlling method to simulate the growth process of polyamide layer was developed. • The surface structure features and properties of polyamide layer at its different growth stages were systematically investigated. • Structure transition from spherical aggregator to leaf-like to typical ridge-and-valley was observed. • The performance of RO membrane is closely related to the structure of polyamide. - Abstract: With the wide distribution and gradual increase of TMC concentration (C{sub TMC}) from 1 × 10{sup −4} wt% to 2.5 × 10{sup −1} wt%, the main purpose of this work is to simulate the surface structure and properties of polyamide layer of reverse osmosis membranes at its different growth stage. The surface structure and properties of the resulted membranes were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, drop shape analysis system and electrokinetic analyzer. The structure growth of polyamide layer underwent in turn three different stages including spherical aggregator, leaf-like and typical ridge-valley structure. Spherical aggregator is the intrinsic structure in the inner layer of polyamide while leaf-like structure is transitional on the outmost polyamide layer. Furthermore, to clarify the effect of the structure change on the properties of polyamide layer, contact angle and zeta potential in the surface of polyamide layer were studied. Hydrophilic surface of polyamide layer is accessible at higher TMC concentration because of the presence of negative charged groups. Performances of the membranes were further measured with an emphasis on studying its structure–performance relationship during the growth process of polyamide layer.

  16. Time variant layer control in atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based growth of graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is a semi-metallic, transparent, atomic crystal structure material which is promising for its high mobility, strength and transparency - potentially applicable for radio frequency (RF) circuitry and energy harvesting and storage applications. Uniform (same number of layers), continuous (not torn or discontinuous), large area (100 mm to 200 mm wafer scale), low-cost, reliable growth are the first hand challenges for its commercialization prospect. We show a time variant uniform (layer control) growth of bi- to multi-layer graphene using atmospheric chemical vapor deposition system. We use Raman spectroscopy for physical characterization supported by electrical property analysis. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Time variant layer control in atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition based growth of graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Qaisi, Ramy M.

    2013-04-01

    Graphene is a semi-metallic, transparent, atomic crystal structure material which is promising for its high mobility, strength and transparency - potentially applicable for radio frequency (RF) circuitry and energy harvesting and storage applications. Uniform (same number of layers), continuous (not torn or discontinuous), large area (100 mm to 200 mm wafer scale), low-cost, reliable growth are the first hand challenges for its commercialization prospect. We show a time variant uniform (layer control) growth of bi- to multi-layer graphene using atmospheric chemical vapor deposition system. We use Raman spectroscopy for physical characterization supported by electrical property analysis. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. The growth and electronic structure of azobenzene-based functional molecules on layered crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwicki, J; Ludwig, E; Buck, J; Kalläne, M; Kipp, L; Rossnagel, K; Köhler, F; Herges, R

    2012-01-01

    In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study the growth of ultrathin films of azobenzene-based functional molecules (azobenzene, Disperse Orange 3 and a triazatriangulenium platform with an attached functional azo-group) on the layered metal TiTe 2 and on the layered semiconductor HfS 2 at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Effects of intermolecular interactions, of the substrate electronic structure, and of the thermal energy of the sublimated molecules on the growth process and on the adsorbate electronic structure are identified and discussed. A weak adsorbate-substrate interaction is particularly observed for the layered semiconducting substrate, holding the promise of efficient molecular photoswitching.

  19. Development of intermetallic coatings for fusion power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Domenico, T.; Dragel, G.; Clark, R.

    1994-03-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems, corrosion resistance of structural materials and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural walls. Vanadium and V-base alloys are potential materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Insulator coatings inside the tubing are required when the system is cooled by liquid metals. Various intermetallic films were produced on V, V-t, and V-20 Ti, V-5Cr-t and V-15Cr-t, and Ti, and Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium of 3--5 at.% and containing dissolved metallic solutes at temperatures of 416--880 degrees C. Subsequently, electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium or by air oxidation under controlled conditions at 600--1000 degrees C. These reactions converted the intermetallic layers to electrically insulating oxide/nitride or oxy-nitride layers. This coating method could be applied to a commercial product. The liquid metal can be used over and over because only the solutes are consumed within the liquid metal. The technique can be applied to various shapes because the coating is formed by liquid-phase reaction. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid lithium at high temperatures

  20. Growth and characterization of titanium oxide by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Li, Jingqi; Wang, Qingxiao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Long; LI, LIANG

    2013-01-01

    The growth of TiO2 films by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using Star-Ti as a precursor has been systematically studied. The conversion from amorphous to crystalline TiO2 was observed either during high temperature growth or annealing

  1. GePb Alloy Growth Using Layer Inversion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Hakimah; Mosleh, Aboozar; Alher, Murtadha; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Fahimeh; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Al-Kabi, Sattar; Du, Wei; Li, Bauhoa; Yu, Shui-Qing; Naseem, Hameed A.

    2018-04-01

    Germanium-lead films have been investigated as a new direct-bandgap group IV alloy. GePb films were deposited on Si via thermal evaporation of Ge and Pb solid sources using the layer inversion metal-induced crystallization method for comparison with the current laser-induced recrystallization method. Material characterization of the films using x-ray diffraction analysis revealed highly oriented crystallinity and Pb incorporation as high as 13.5% before and 5.2% after annealing. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray mapping of the samples revealed uniform incorporation of elements and complete layer inversion. Optical characterization of the GePb films by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence techniques showed that annealing the samples resulted in higher crystalline quality as well as bandgap reduction. The bandgap reduction from 0.67 eV to 0.547 eV observed for the highest-quality material confirms the achievement of a direct-bandgap material.

  2. GePb Alloy Growth Using Layer Inversion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahmad, Hakimah; Mosleh, Aboozar; Alher, Murtadha; Banihashemian, Seyedeh Fahimeh; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Al-Kabi, Sattar; Du, Wei; Li, Bauhoa; Yu, Shui-Qing; Naseem, Hameed A.

    2018-07-01

    Germanium-lead films have been investigated as a new direct-bandgap group IV alloy. GePb films were deposited on Si via thermal evaporation of Ge and Pb solid sources using the layer inversion metal-induced crystallization method for comparison with the current laser-induced recrystallization method. Material characterization of the films using x-ray diffraction analysis revealed highly oriented crystallinity and Pb incorporation as high as 13.5% before and 5.2% after annealing. Transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray mapping of the samples revealed uniform incorporation of elements and complete layer inversion. Optical characterization of the GePb films by Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence techniques showed that annealing the samples resulted in higher crystalline quality as well as bandgap reduction. The bandgap reduction from 0.67 eV to 0.547 eV observed for the highest-quality material confirms the achievement of a direct-bandgap material.

  3. The kinetic boundary layer around an absorbing sphere and the growth of small droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widder, M.E.; Titulaer, U.M.

    1989-01-01

    Deviations from the classical Smoluchowski expression for the growth rate of a droplet in a supersaturated vapor can be expected when the droplet radius is not large compared to the mean free path of a vapor molecule. The growth rate then depends significantly on the structure of the kinetic boundary layer around a sphere. The authors consider this kinetic boundary layer for a dilute system of Brownian particles. For this system a large class of boundary layer problems for a planar wall have been solved. They show how the spherical boundary layer can be treated by a perturbation expansion in the reciprocal droplet radius. In each order one has to solve a finite number of planar boundary layer problems. The first two corrections to the planar problem are calculated explicitly. For radii down to about two velocity persistence lengths (the analog of the mean free path for a Brownian particle) the successive approximations for the growth rate agree to within a few percent. A reasonable estimate of the growth rate for all radii can be obtained by extrapolating toward the exactly known value at zero radius. Kinetic boundary layer effects increase the time needed for growth from 0 to 10 (or 2 1/2) velocity persistence lengths by roughly 35% (or 175%)

  4. Convective growth of broadband turbulence in the plasma sheet boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Convective growth of slow and fast beam acoustic waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) is investigated. It has been shown previously that a could ion population must be present in order to excite beam acoustic waves in the PSBL. However, growth rates are significantly enhanced when warm plasma sheet boundary layer ions are present. Net wave growth along a ray path is determined by convective growth. This quantity is calculated for particle distribution models consistent with the PSBL where the intensity of broadband turbulence is observed to peak. Total number density dependence on beam acoustic convective growth is evaluated, and it is found that even for low density conditions of ∼0.01 cm -3 , a measurable level of broadband turbulence is expected. Relative drift effects between cold and warm ion populations are also considered. In particular, it is found that slow mode convective growth can be enhanced when slowly streaming cold ions are present, compared to fast ion streams

  5. Understanding the Growth Mechanism of GaN Epitaxial Layers on Mechanically Exfoliated Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Gan, Lin; Xu, Bingshe; Jiang, Haiwei

    2018-04-27

    The growth mechanism of GaN epitaxial layers on mechanically exfoliated graphite is explained in detail based on classic nucleation theory. The number of defects on the graphite surface can be increased via O-plasma treatment, leading to increased nucleation density on the graphite surface. The addition of elemental Al can effectively improve the nucleation rate, which can promote the formation of dense nucleation layers and the lateral growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The surface morphologies of the nucleation layers, annealed layers and epitaxial layers were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, where the evolution of the surface morphology coincided with a 3D-to-2D growth mechanism. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the microstructure of GaN. Fast Fourier transform diffraction patterns showed that cubic phase (zinc-blend structure) GaN grains were obtained using conventional GaN nucleation layers, while the hexagonal phase (wurtzite structure) GaN films were formed using AlGaN nucleation layers. Our work opens new avenues for using highly oriented pyrolytic graphite as a substrate to fabricate transferable optoelectronic devices.

  6. Influence of strain on the growth of thick InGaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmach, J.; Leyer, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of high quality InGaN alloys is critical for a number of various optoelectronic device applications like LEDs and laser diodes. Nevertheless, the exact growth mechanisms of InGaN with high indium content is still not fully understood. In the present study the growth of thick InGaN layers was systematically investigated. InGaN films with thicknesses between ∝35 nm and ∝200 nm were grown on GaN templates with metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The group III partial pressures of 1.1 Pa for TMGa, 0.45 Pa for TMIn and the V/III-ratio of 1600 were kept constant. The growth temperature was varied between 750 C and 800 C. The growth of InGaN layer was characterized by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Up to temperatures of 790 C structural analysis by XRD showed two strained layers with different indium content. The formation of the layer structure was investigated by varying the growth times at 770 C. In the first 500 s (35 nm) a rough (rms=9 nm) and pseudomorphically strained InGaN layer with low indium content (4%) is formed. Between 500 s and 1000 s this strained layer becomes smoother (rms=3.4 nm). For thicknesses beyond the In content increases (8% at 84 nm) and reaches 11% at 200 nm. We propose that the transition from a first layer with a low indium content to a second layer with an higher indium content is due to a gradual release of strain

  7. The formation of intermetallic compounds during interdiffusion of Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Jiahong; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xin; Yang, Qingshan; Dong, Hanwu; Xia, Xiangsheng; Pan, Fusheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Al–Ce intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed in Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples. During the whole diffusion process, Al was the dominant diffusing species, and it substituted for Mg atoms of the Mg–Ce substrate. Five Al–Ce IMCs of Al 4 Ce, Al 11 Ce 3 , Al 3 Ce, Al 2 Ce, and AlCe were formed via the reaction of Al and Ce. - Highlights: • Al–Ce IMCs formation in the Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples was studied. • Formation of Al 4 Ce as the first phase was rationalized using the Gibbs free energy. • The activation energy for the growth of the diffusion reaction zones was 36.6 kJ/mol. - Abstract: The formation of Al–Ce intermetallic compounds (IMCs) during interdiffusion of Mg–Al/Mg–Ce diffusion couples prepared by solid–liquid contact method was investigated at 623 K, 648 K and 673 K for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. During the whole diffusion process, Al was the dominant diffusing species, and it substituted for Mg of the Mg–Ce substrate. Five Al–Ce IMCs of Al 4 Ce, Al 11 Ce 3 , Al 3 Ce, Al 2 Ce and AlCe were formed via the reaction of Al and Ce. The formation of Al 4 Ce as the first kind of IMC was rationalized on the basis of an effective Gibbs free energy model. The activation energy for the growth of the total diffusion reaction layer was 36.6 kJ/mol

  8. Growth of Cu thin films by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, S.; Ruuskanen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelae, M.

    2004-01-01

    Copper thin films were grown on reduced indium tin oxide, molybdenum and polymer substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. Copper films were grown sequentially in a controlled way using simple copper salt and basic solution of formaldehyde as precursors. The copper films were polycrystalline with no preferred orientation as characterised by X-ray diffraction. On all substrates, the growth was clearly island growth in the beginning but after the whole surface was covered, the growth was more homogeneous

  9. Spiral growth of few-layer MoS{sub 2} by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, X.; Yan, C.; Tomer, D.; Li, L., E-mail: lianli@uwm.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Li, C. H. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Growth spirals exhibit appealing properties due to a preferred layer stacking and lack of inversion symmetry. Here, we report spiral growth of MoS{sub 2} during chemical vapor deposition on SiO{sub 2}/Si and epitaxial graphene/SiC substrates, and their physical and electronic properties. We determine the layer-dependence of the MoS{sub 2} bandgap, ranging from 2.4 eV for the monolayer to a constant of 1.3 eV beyond the fifth layer. We further observe that spirals predominantly initiate at the step edges of the SiC substrate, based on which we propose a growth mechanism driven by screw dislocation created by the coalescence of two growth fronts at steps.

  10. Preparation and biological evaluation of a fibroblast growth factor-2-apatite composite layer on polymeric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Kenkichi; Kamitakahara, Masanobu; Ioku, Koji [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-20, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Oyane, Ayako [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 4, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Hyodo, Koji [Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564 (Japan); Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu, E-mail: a-oyane@aist.go.j [Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Central 6, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    A polymeric percutaneous device with good biocompatibility and resistance to bacterial infection is required clinically. In this study, a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-hydroxyapatite (HAp) composite layer (FHAp layer) was formed on the surfaces of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) specimens using a coating process in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution supplemented with FGF-2. FGF-2 in the FHAp layer retained its biological activity to promote proliferation of fibroblasts. The EVOH specimens coated with HAp and FHAp layers were percutaneously implanted in the scalp of rats. Not only the HAp layer but also the FHAp layer showed good biocompatibility, and FGF-2 showed no harmful effects on the skin tissue responses to the implanted specimen as long as 14 d. No significantly higher infection resistance was verified for the FHAp layer over the HAp layer, although an FHAp layer coated on a metallic percutaneous device for bone fixation demonstrated higher resistance to bacterial infection over an HAp layer in the previous study. The efficacy of FHAp layers coated on percutaneous implants in resistance to bacterial infection depends on physical factors including fixation condition, stiffness and movement of implants.

  11. Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al–U alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascuet, M.I. [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernández, J.R., E-mail: julrfern@cnea.gov.ar [CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CAC-CNEA, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina); UNSAM, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, 1650 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-12-15

    Interaction for both pure Al and Al–U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al–U interaction fits various properties of the Al{sub 2}U, Al{sub 3}U and Al{sub 4}U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al{sub 3}U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence. - Highlights: • Potential parameters for Al and Al–U systems are obtained. • Intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties. • Point defect diffusivities are calculated for the three intermetallics. • Growth of the Al{sub 3}U intermetallic is shown to occur in the Al/U interface as in the real alloy.

  12. Atomic interaction of the MEAM type for the study of intermetallics in the Al–U alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascuet, M.I.; Fernández, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Interaction for both pure Al and Al–U alloys of the MEAM type are developed. The obtained Al interatomic potential assures its compatibility with the details of the framework presently adopted. The Al–U interaction fits various properties of the Al_2U, Al_3U and Al_4U intermetallics. The potential verifies the stability of the intermetallic structures in a temperature range compatible with that observed in the phase diagram, and also takes into account the greater stability of these structures relative to others that are competitive in energy. The intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties and point defect parameters. Molecular dynamics simulations show a growth of the Al_3U intermetallic in the Al/U interface in agreement with experimental evidence. - Highlights: • Potential parameters for Al and Al–U systems are obtained. • Intermetallics are characterized by calculating elastic and thermal properties. • Point defect diffusivities are calculated for the three intermetallics. • Growth of the Al_3U intermetallic is shown to occur in the Al/U interface as in the real alloy.

  13. In situ ceramic layer growth on coated fuel particles dispersed in a zirconium metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrani, K. A.; Silva, C. M.; Kiggans, J. O.; Cai, Z.; Shin, D.; Snead, L. L.

    2013-06-01

    The extent and nature of the chemical interaction between the outermost coating layer of coated fuel particles embedded in zirconium metal during fabrication of metal matrix microencapsulated fuels were examined. Various particles with outermost coating layers of pyrocarbon, SiC, and ZrC have been investigated in this study. ZrC-Zr interaction was the least substantial, while the PyC-Zr reaction can be exploited to produce a ZrC layer at the interface in an in situ manner. The thickness of the ZrC layer in the latter case can be controlled by adjusting the time and temperature during processing. The kinetics of ZrC layer growth is significantly faster from what is predicted using literature carbon diffusivity data in ZrC. SiC-Zr interaction is more complex and results in formation of various chemical phases in a layered aggregate morphology at the interface.

  14. Growth and characterization of oxide layers on zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroto, A.J.G.; Bordoni, R.; Villegas, M.; Blesa, M.A.; Olmedo, A.M.; Iglesias, A.; Rigotti, G.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion behaviour in aqueous media at high temperature of zirconium alloys has been extensively studied in order to elucidate the corrosion mechanism and kinetics. The characterization of the morphology and microstructure of these oxides through the different stages of oxide growth may contribute to understand their corrosion mechanism. Argentina has initiated a research program to correlate long term in and out-reactor corrosion of these alloys. This paper reports a comparative study of out of pile oxidation of Zr-2.5Nb and Zry-4, which are structural materials of in-core components of nuclear power plants. Kinetic data at different temperatures and microstructural characterization of the oxide films are presented. (author). 25 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab

  15. Growth and characterization of oxide layers on zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, A J.G.; Bordoni, R; Villegas, M; Blesa, M A; Olmedo, A M; Iglesias, A; Rigotti, G [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion behaviour in aqueous media at high temperature of zirconium alloys has been extensively studied in order to elucidate the corrosion mechanism and kinetics. The characterization of the morphology and microstructure of these oxides through the different stages of oxide growth may contribute to understand their corrosion mechanism. Argentina has initiated a research program to correlate long term in and out-reactor corrosion of these alloys. This paper reports a comparative study of out of pile oxidation of Zr-2.5Nb and Zry-4, which are structural materials of in-core components of nuclear power plants. Kinetic data at different temperatures and microstructural characterization of the oxide films are presented. (author). 25 refs, 18 figs, 1 tab.

  16. Intermetallics: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris, D. G.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallics have seen extensive world-wide attention over the past decades. For the most part these studies have examined multi-phase aluminide based alloys, because of their high stiffness, combined with reasonable strength and ductility, good structural stability and oxidation resistance, and attempted to improve current Ni-base superalloys, Ti-base alloys, or Fe-base stainless steels for structural aerospace applications. The current status of development and application of such materials is briefly reviewed. Future developments are taking intermetallics from the realm of "improved high-temperature but low-ductility metallic alloys" into the realm of "improved aggressive-environment, high-toughness ceramic-like alloys". Such evolution will be outlined.

    Durante los últimos décadas ha habido un desarrollo de los intermetálicos, sobre todo por aplicaciones estructurales a alta temperatura en aplicaciones aeroespaciales, donde, por su rigidez alta, en combinación con una resistencia mecánica y ductilidad razonable, su buena estabilidad estructural y resistencia a la oxidación, han sido vistos como versiones avanzadas y mejoradas de las aleaciones metálicas como, por ejemplo, las superaleaciones a base de nitrógeno y las aleaciones de titanio. Se discute el desarrollo importante durante las últimas décadas, y también los nuevos desarrollos probables durante los próximos años. Se podrían ver los intermetálicos como versiones mejoradas de los cerámicos.

  17. Effects of filling material and laser power on the formation of intermetallic compounds during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of steel and aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xinjiang; Jin, Xiangzhong; Peng, Nanxiang; Ye, Ying; Wu, Sigen; Dai, Houfu

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, two kinds of materials, Ni and Zn, are selected as filling material during laser-assisted friction stir butt welding of Q235 steel and 6061-T6 aluminum alloy, and their influences on the formation of intermetallic compounds on the steel/aluminum interface of the joints were first studied. SEM was used to analyze the profile of the intermetallic compound layer and the fractography of tensile fracture surfaces. In addition, EDS was applied to investigate the types of the intermetallic compounds. The results indicate that a thin iron-abundant intermetallic compound layer forms and ductile fracture mode occurs when Ni is added, but a thick aluminum-abundant intermetallic compound layer generates and brittle fracture mode occurs when Zn is added. So the tensile strength of the welds with Ni as filling material is greater than that with Zn as filling material. Besides, the effect of laser power on the formation of intermetallic compound layer when Ni is added was investigated. The preheated temperature field produced by laser beam in the cross section of workpiece was calculated, and the tensile strength of the joints at different laser powers was tested. Results show that only when suitable laser power is adopted, can suitable preheating temperature of the steel reach, then can thin intermetallic compound layer form and high tensile strength of the joints reach. Either excessive or insufficient laser power will reduce the tensile strength of the joints.

  18. Layer by Layer Growth of 2D Quantum Superlattices (NBIT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-28

    structure in our films. Having a defined in- plane crystal orientation would enable studies of many lattice-related properties. Moreover, we can hence...control the out-of- plane crystal structure of the stacked film in a simple way and produce unique properties such as circular dichroism (See part D...growth is not optimized. To confirm the contact resistance Rc , we performed a transfer length measurement (TLM) to extract the value as shown in Fig

  19. Nonlinear optical activity in Bridgman growth layered compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M.I., E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au [Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2010-02-15

    Layered semiconductor compound CdI{sub 2} has been grown with the Bridgman technique and studied by nonlinear transmittance spectroscopy. The optical absorption in CdI{sub 2} shows a nonlinear transmission of the incident laser power (P{sub 0}) within a lower power limit. The transmission, however, is found to saturate at high powers, giving a clamped output. The value of the incident power (P{sub 0C}) at which clamping starts is also found to depend on the crystal temperature (T{sub L}). The values of P{sub OC} ranges from 55 to 65 MW cm{sup -2} for T{sub L} = 4.2-180 K. The dynamic range (D{sub R}) as a function of T{sub L} is calculated and the values are found to range from D{sub R} = 2 to 1.6. The optical limiting mechanisms are discussed. The two-photon absorption (TPA) coefficient ({beta}) of the optical nonlinear process in CdI{sub 2} is estimated. The values are found to be within a range from {beta} = 47 to 25 cm GW{sup -1} and be decreasing with increasing T{sub L}. As expected for the TPA process, the experimental data within a certain range follows the linear relation: log (P{sub 0}/P{sub T}) = A{sub G} + {Omega}(P{sub 0} - P{sub T}), where P{sub T} is the transmitted power, A{sub G} is the absorbance of the ground state and {Omega} is a constant depending on the absorption cross-section and the relaxation time. The values of A{sub G} and {Omega} estimated from the fits to the measured data vary with T{sub L}. The findings resulting from this investigation might have potential applications in optical sensors protection.

  20. Intermetallics as innovative CRM-free materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novák, Pavel; Jaworska, Lucyna; Cabibbo, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Many of currently used technical materials cannot be imagined without the use of critical raw materials. They require chromium (e.g. in stainless and tool steels), tungsten and cobalt (tool materials, heat resistant alloys), niobium (steels and modern biomaterials). Therefore there is a need to find substitutes to help the European economy. A promising solution can be the application of intermetallics. These materials offer wide variety of interesting properties, such as high hardness and wear resistance or high chemical resistance. In this paper, the overview of possible substitute materials among intermetallics is presented. Intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides are shown as corrosion resistant materials, composites composed of ceramics in intermetallic matrix as possible tool materials. The manufacturing processes are being developed to minimize the disadvantages of these materials, mainly the room-temperature brittleness.

  1. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This patent describes a sintered product having substantially stable permanent magnet properties in air at room temperature. It comprises compacted particulate cobalt--rare earth alloy consisting essentially of a Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase, where R is a rare earth metal. The Co 5 R intermetallic phase is present in an amount of at least 65 percent by weight of the sintered product and the CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase is present in a positive amount having a value ranging up to about 35 percent by weight of the product. The sintered product has a density of at least 87 percent and has pores which are substantially noninterconnecting and wherein the component grains have an average size less than 30 microns

  2. The Effects of Oxidation Layer, Temperature, and Stress on Tin Whisker Growth: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahim, Z.; Salleh, M. A. A.; Khor, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In order to reduce the Tin (Sn) whisker growth phenomenon in solder alloys, the researcher all the world has studied the factor of this behaviour. However, this phenomenon still hunted the electronic devices and industries. The whiskers growth were able to cause the electrical short, which would lead to the catastrophic such as plane crush, the failure of heart pacemaker, and the lost satellite connection. This article focuses on the three factors that influence the whiskers growth in solder alloys which is stress, oxidation layer and temperature. This findings were allowed the researchers to develop various method on how to reduce the growth of the Sn whiskers.

  3. Growth behaviors of bacteria in biofouling cake layer in a dead-end microfiltration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Zhang, Tong

    2011-01-01

    The growth behaviors of three bacterial species, i.e. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Aquabaculum hongkongensis, in biofouling cake layer (attached form) were investigated using an unstirred dead-end continuous microfiltration system, and were compared with those in suspended form. Results showed that all the three bacteria had larger average growth rates in suspended form than in attached form under high substrates levels. Under oligotrophic conditions, the average growth rates in the attached form were faster than those in the suspended form, especially for A. hongkongensis. The growth behaviors analysis presented the same results due to all the tested bacteria had higher maximum growth rate and saturation constant in suspended form than attached form, indicating the dominant growth mode would be shifted from attached form to suspended form with substrate concentration increase. Finally, total filtration resistance determined in the experiments increased significantly with the bacterial growth in filtration system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Layer-by-Layer Epitaxial Growth of Defect-Engineered Strontium Cobaltites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Tassie K. [Materials Science; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Cook, Seyoung [Materials Science; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Wan, Gang [Materials Science; Hong, Hawoong [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Marks, Laurence D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Fong, Dillon D. [Materials Science

    2018-01-31

    Control over structure and composition of (ABO(3)) perovskite oxides offers exciting opportunities since these materials possess unique, tunable properties. Perovskite oxides with cobalt B-site cations are particularly promising, as the range of the cations stable oxidation states leads to many possible structural frameworks. Here, we report growth of strontium cobalt oxide thin films by molecular beam epitaxy, and conditions necessary to stabilize different defect concentration phases. In situ X-ray scattering is used to monitor structural evolution during growth, while in situ X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy is used to probe oxidation state and measure changes to oxygen vacancy concentration as a function of film thickness. Experimental results are compared to kinetically limited thermodynamic predictions, in particular, solute trapping, with semiquantitative agreement. Agreement between observations of dependence of cobaltite phase on oxidation activity and deposition rate, and predictions indicates that a combined experimental/theoretical approach is key to understanding phase behavior in the strontium cobalt oxide system.

  5. Controlling single and few-layer graphene crystals growth in a solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papon, Remi; Sharma, Subash; Shinde, Sachin M.; Vishwakarma, Riteshkumar; Tanemura, Masaki; Kalita, Golap

    2014-01-01

    Here, we reveal the growth process of single and few-layer graphene crystals in the solid carbon source based chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Nucleation and growth of graphene crystals on a polycrystalline Cu foil are significantly affected by the injection of carbon atoms with pyrolysis rate of the carbon source. We observe micron length ribbons like growth front as well as saturated growth edges of graphene crystals depending on growth conditions. Controlling the pyrolysis rate of carbon source, monolayer and few-layer crystals and corresponding continuous films are obtained. In a controlled process, we observed growth of large monolayer graphene crystals, which interconnect and merge together to form a continuous film. On the other hand, adlayer growth is observed with an increased pyrolysis rate, resulting few-layer graphene crystal structure and merged continuous film. The understanding of monolayer and few-layer crystals growth in the developed CVD process can be significant to grow graphene with controlled layer numbers.

  6. Thermal stress effects in intermetallic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, P. K.; Sensmeier, M. D.; Kupperman, D. S.; Wadley, H. N. G.

    1993-01-01

    Intermetallic matrix composites develop residual stresses from the large thermal expansion mismatch (delta-alpha) between the fibers and matrix. This work was undertaken to: establish improved techniques to measure these thermal stresses in IMC's; determine residual stresses in a variety of IMC systems by experiments and modeling; and, determine the effect of residual stresses on selected mechanical properties of an IMC. X ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction (ND), synchrotron XRD (SXRD), and ultrasonics (US) techniques for measuring thermal stresses in IMC were examined and ND was selected as the most promising technique. ND was demonstrated on a variety of IMC systems encompassing Ti- and Ni-base matrices, SiC, W, and Al2O3 fibers, and different fiber fractions (Vf). Experimental results on these systems agreed with predictions of a concentric cylinder model. In SiC/Ti-base systems, little yielding was found and stresses were controlled primarily by delta-alpha and Vf. In Ni-base matrix systems, yield strength of the matrix and Vf controlled stress levels. The longitudinal residual stresses in SCS-6/Ti-24Al-llNb composite were modified by thermomechanical processing. Increasing residual stress decreased ultimate tensile strength in agreement with model predictions. Fiber pushout strength showed an unexpected inverse correlation with residual stress. In-plane shear yield strength showed no dependence on residual stress. Higher levels of residual tension led to higher fatigue crack growth rates, as suggested by matrix mean stress effects.

  7. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Henan; Li, Ying; Aljarb, Areej; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Lain-Jong

    2017-01-01

    to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches

  8. Growth of ZnO layers for transparent and flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, A.S.; Postels, B.; Suleiman, M.; Elshaer, A.; Waag, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have deposited and characterised ZnO on flexible and transparent plastic polymer. We employed a specially designed vapour phase growth system with elemental sources for zinc and oxygen and deposited thin ZnO films at temperatures below 400 deg. C. Basic photoluminescence characterisation confirms ZnO. Ohmic contacts were fabricated on these layers and the layers exhibit significantly high electron concentration with carrier mobility μ of up to 10.78 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Furthermore, we show how these layers can be processed with conventional device processing techniques

  9. Growth of ZnO layers for transparent and flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofor, A.C.; Bakin, A.S.; Postels, B.; Suleiman, M.; Elshaer, A.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2008-02-15

    We have deposited and characterised ZnO on flexible and transparent plastic polymer. We employed a specially designed vapour phase growth system with elemental sources for zinc and oxygen and deposited thin ZnO films at temperatures below 400 deg. C. Basic photoluminescence characterisation confirms ZnO. Ohmic contacts were fabricated on these layers and the layers exhibit significantly high electron concentration with carrier mobility {mu} of up to 10.78 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Furthermore, we show how these layers can be processed with conventional device processing techniques.

  10. Influence of Ni Catalyst Layer and TiN Diffusion Barrier on Carbon Nanotube Growth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mérel Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dense, vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were synthesized on TiN electrode layers for infrared sensing applications. Microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and Ni catalyst were used for the nanotubes synthesis. The resultant nanotubes were characterized by SEM, AFM, and TEM. Since the length of the nanotubes influences sensor characteristics, we study in details the effects of changing Ni and TiN thickness on the physical properties of the nanotubes. In this paper, we report the observation of a threshold Ni thickness of about 4 nm, when the average CNT growth rate switches from an increasing to a decreasing function of increasing Ni thickness, for a process temperature of 700°C. This behavior is likely related to a transition in the growth mode from a predominantly “base growth” to that of a “tip growth.” For Ni layer greater than 9 nm the growth rate, as well as the CNT diameter, variations become insignificant. We have also observed that a TiN barrier layer appears to favor the growth of thinner CNTs compared to a SiO2 layer.

  11. Evidence for moving of threading dislocations during the VPE growth in GaN thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwano, Noriyuki [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Department of Applied Science for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507 (Japan); Amano, Hiroshi [Graduate School of Engineering, Akasaki Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Akasaki, Isamu [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tempaku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation was performed in detail to analyze the morphology of threading dislocations (TDs) in GaN thin layers with various thicknesses. The GaN layers were overgrown on an Al{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}N layer by the metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method. In a GaN layer about 50 nm in thickness, TDs running up in the AlGaN layer pass into the GaN layer and most of them reach the top surface without bending. In thicker GaN layers, on the other hand, many of TDs form a hairpin-configuration on or above the interface of GaN and AlGaN to be annihilated. This difference in morphology of TDs indicates that the TDs have moved down inside the GaN layer. Since the formation of hairpins is attributed to a stress-relief, there should be an extra half-plane between the paired TDs. Therefore, the movement of TDs should be of ''climb motion''. Another example of possible TD movement inside a GaN layer is also described. It is emphasized that the possibility of TD-movements inside the thin film crystal during the growth should be taken into account in analysis of thin-layer growth through the behavior of TDs (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. A thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jung-Soo; Park, Kyung-Chul; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Ja; Kwon, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jung-Min; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Youn, Hee-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2010-08-01

    Several attempts have been successful in liquid cultivation of Helicobaccter pylori. However, there is a need to improve the growth of H. pylori in liquid media in order to get affluent growth and a simple approach for examining bacterial properties. We introduce here a thin-layer liquid culture technique for the growth of H. pylori. A thin-layer liquid culture system was established by adding liquid media to a 90-mm diameter Petri dish. Optimal conditions for bacterial growth were investigated and then viability, growth curve, and released proteins were examined. Maximal growth of H. pylori was obtained by adding 3 mL of brucella broth supplemented with 10% horse to a Petri dish. H. pylori grew in both DMEM and RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 0.5% yeast extract. Serum-free RPMI-1640 supported the growth of H. pylori when supplemented with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (200 microg/mL) and 1% yeast extract. Under optimal growth, H. pylori grew exponentially for 28 hours, reaching a density of 3.4 OD(600) with a generation time of 3.3 hours. After 24 hours, cultures at a cell density of 1.0 OD(600) contained 1.3 +/- 0.1 x 10(9 )CFU/mL. gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase, nuclease, superoxide dismutase, and urease were not detected in culture supernatants at 24 hours in thin-layer liquid culture, but were present at 48 hours, whereas alcohol dehydrogenase, alkylhydroperoxide reductase, catalase, and vacuolating cytotoxin were detected at 24 hours. Thin-layer liquid culture technique is feasible, and can serve as a versatile liquid culture technique for investigating bacterial properties of H. pylori.

  13. Effect of intermetallic phases on the anodic oxidation and corrosion of 5A06 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-mei; Li, Ying-dong; Zhang, You; Liu, Jian-hua; Yu, Mei

    2015-02-01

    Intermetallic phases were found to influence the anodic oxidation and corrosion behavior of 5A06 aluminum alloy. Scattered intermetallic particles were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) after pretreatment. The anodic film was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and its corrosion resistance was analyzed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel polarization in NaCl solution. The results show that the size of Al-Fe-Mg-Mn particles gradually decreases with the iron content. During anodizing, these intermetallic particles are gradually dissolved, leading to the complex porosity in the anodic film beneath the particles. After anodizing, the residual particles are mainly silicon-containing phases, which are embedded in the anodic film. Electrochemical measurements indicate that the porous anodic film layer is easily penetrated, and the barrier plays a dominant role in the overall protection. Meanwhile, self-healing behavior is observed during the long immersion time.

  14. Dependence of intermetallic compound formation on the sublayer stacking sequence in Ag–Sn bilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.J.; Zotov, N.; Bischoff, E.; Mittemeijer, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation in thermally-evaporated Ag–Sn bilayer thin films has been investigated employing especially X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (S)TEM methods. The specific IMCs that are present in the as-deposited state depend sensitively on the stacking sequence of the sublayers. In case of Sn on top of Ag, predominantly Ag 3 Sn is formed, whereas Ag 4 Sn is predominantly present in the as-deposited state for Ag on top of Sn. In the latter case this is accompanied by an extremely fast uptake of a large amount of Sn by the Ag sublayer, leaving behind macroscopic voids in the Sn sublayer. The results are discussed on the basis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of (IMC) product-layer growth in thin films. It is shown that both thermodynamic and kinetic arguments explain the contrasting phenomena observed.

  15. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Yuan, H.; Houwman, Evert Pieter; Dekkers, Jan M.; Koster, Gertjan; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ca2Nb3O10 (CNOns) and Ti0.87O2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns,

  16. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  17. Preservation of the Pt(100) surface reconstruction after growth of a continuous layer of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Bjerre, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that a layer of graphene can be grown on the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface and that the reconstruction is preserved after growth. A continuous sheet of graphene can be grown across domain boundaries and step edges without loss of periodicity or change in di...

  18. Growth and micro structural studies on Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, S.; Bhatnagar, A.K. [Univ. of Hyderabad (India); Pinto, R. [Solid State Electronics Group, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Microstructure of Yittria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) and Strontium Titanate (STO) of radio frequency magnetron sputtered buffer layers was studied at various sputtering conditions on Si<100>, Sapphire and LaAlO{sub 3} <100> substrates. The effect of substrate temperatures upto 800 C and sputtering gas pressures in the range of 50 mTorr. of growth conditions was studied. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed a strong tendency for columnar structure with variation growth conditions. The buffer layers of YSZ and STO showed orientation. The tendency for columnar growth was observed above 15 mTorr sputtering gas pressure and at high substrate temperatures. Post annealing of these films in oxygen atmosphere reduced the oxygen deficiency and strain generated during growth of the films. Strong c-axis oriented superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 9}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) thin films were obtained on these buffer layers using pulsed laser ablation technique. YBCO films deposited on multilayers of YSZ and STO were shown to have better superconducting properties.

  19. Magnetic properties of rare-earth intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmayr, H.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of the concepts at present used to explain the magnetic properties of rare-earth intermetallics which have been the subject of numerous investigations in recent years. Rare-earth intermetallics with the formula Rsub(a)Bsub(b) are divided according to the magnetic moment of the B atom(s). If there is no magnetic moment present at the B-site, the exchange is only between the magnetic moments at the R-sites, which can only be of indirect character. One possible model is still the RKKY model, although it usually gives in practice only a qualitative description of the magnetic properties. Typical R-B compounds with the B-moment equal to zero are (for instance) the RA1 2 compounds, and related compounds such as the RZn and RCd compounds as well as compounds of the general formula RB 2 (B = Ni, Os, Ir, Pd, Ru or Rh). Of all intermetallics with nonzero B-moment, the R-3d intermetallics are the most important. These intermetallics can be formed with Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. In these systems there exist in principle three interactions, namely between the R-R, R-3d and 3d-3d atoms. The most important is usually the latter interaction. After a short discussion of the crystal structures which occur with R-3d intermetallics, the basic magnetic properties of R-3d intermetallics are presented. These properties are discussed with respect to the formation of a magnetic moment at the 3d site in the framework of present band theories. Special emphasis is given to a discussion of the localized or itinerant character of 3d electrons. (author)

  20. Growth and characterization of titanium oxide by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Chao

    2013-09-01

    The growth of TiO2 films by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition using Star-Ti as a precursor has been systematically studied. The conversion from amorphous to crystalline TiO2 was observed either during high temperature growth or annealing process of the films. The refractive index and bandgap of TiO2 films changed with the growth and annealing temperatures. The optimization of the annealing conditions for TiO2 films was also done by morphology and density studies. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF IRON AND NICKEL ALUMINIDES ON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Voděrová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediary phases Ni-Al and Fe-Al are promising materials due to their superior properties such as hardness and good resistance against oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, Fe-Al phases are resistant in sulphur - containing atmospheres. Because of these characteristics, the above mentioned intermetallic phases seem to be prospective for the use in many technical applications such as energetics, chemical or automotive industry in a form of a bulk material or coatings. Presently, the protective aluminide layer is usually prepared by thermal spraying. Nevertheless, this method is not suitable for complex-shaped components. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find an alternative way to prepare layers consisting of nickel or iron aluminides by other technique than thermal spraying. At first, carbon steel samples were coated using galvanic or electroless nickel plating. Coated samples were subsequently submerged into molten aluminium at various temperatures and process durations. The influence of the temperature and duration on the intermetallic phase growth was studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Thickness and microhardness of the intermetallic layer was also measured.

  2. PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF IRON AND NICKEL ALUMINIDES ON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Voderova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediary phases Ni-Al and Fe-Al are promising materials due to their superior properties such as hardness and good resistance against oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, Fe-Al phases are resistant in sulphur - containing atmospheres. Because of these characteristics, the above mentioned intermetallic phases seem to be prospective for the use in many technical applications such as energetics, chemical or automotive industry in a form of a bulk material or coatings. Presently, the protective aluminide layer is usually prepared by thermal spraying. Nevertheless, this method is not suitable for complex-shaped components. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find an alternative way to prepare layers consisting of nickel or iron aluminides by other technique than thermal spraying. At first, carbon steel samples were coated using galvanic or electroless nickel plating. Coated samples were subsequently submerged into molten aluminium at various temperatures and process durations. The influence of the temperature and duration on the intermetallic phase growth was studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Thickness and microhardness of the intermetallic layer was also measured.

  3. Control of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Fe–Al joining by Zn addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [Key Laboratory of Robot and Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Li, Y.L., E-mail: liyulong1112ster@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Robot and Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Zhang, H. [Key Laboratory of Robot and Welding Automation of Jiangxi Province, School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031 (China); Guo, W. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials Joining, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-10-01

    By Zn addition to the fusion zone, the interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of laser Al/steel joint changed from layered Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and needle-like FeAl{sub 3} to layered Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5−x}Zn{sub x} and dispersed FeZn{sub 10} with minor Al-rich amorphous phase. This resulted in an improvement in the joint strength and the change of failure mode.

  4. Mechanical properties of intermetallics formed during thermal aging of Cu-Al ball bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; O'Halloran, O.; Rongen, R.; Weltevreden, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1st level interconnects and therefore subjected to severe functional requirements. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds may deteriorate the

  5. Zirconium intermetallics and hydrogen uptake during corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.

    1987-04-01

    The routes by which hydrogen can enter zirconium alloys containing second phase particles during corrosion are discussed. Both direct diffusion through the bulk of the oxide film, and migration through second phase particles that intersect the surface are considered. An examination of results for hydrogen uptake by zirconium alloys during the early stages of oxidation, when the oxide film is still coherent, suggests that for Zr, Zr-1%Cu and Zr-1%Fe the hydrogen enters by diffusing through the bulk ZrO 2 film, whereas for the Zircaloys the primary migration route may be through the intermetallics. The steps in the latter process are discussed and the evidence available on the properties of the intermetallics collated. A comparison of these data with results for hydrogen uptake by two series of ternary alloys (Zr-1%Nb - 1%X, Zr-1%Cu - 1%X) suggests that high hydrogen uptakes often correlate with intermetallics with high hydrogen solubilities and vice versa. The properties of Zr(Fe/Cr) 2+x intermetallics are examined in an attempt to understand the behaviour of the Zircaloys, and it is concluded that present data establishing composition and unit cell dimensions for such intermetallic particles are not of sufficient accuracy to permit a correlation

  6. Structural and functional intermetallics - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varin, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    This overview presents the current status of the research and development of both structural and functional intermetallics. On the one hand, the discussion is focused on commercialization and existing industrial applications of intermetallics. Within this frame the applications of titanium aluminides (TiAl) for turbocharger rotors and exhaust valves in automotive industry are being discussed. Advances in the applications of TiAl alloys for the next generation of turbine blades in aerospace/aircraft segment are also presented. The entire spectrum of nickel and iron aluminide alloys developed commercially by the Oak Ridge national Laboratory (USA) and the examples of their application in various segments of industry are thoroughly discussed. Some inroads made in the application of directionally solidified (DS) multiphase niobium silicides (Nb 3 Si+Nb 5 Si 3 ) in situ intermetallic composites with the goal of pushing the service temperature envelope of turbine blades to ∼ 1200-1300 o C are also discussed. On the other hand, various topics in basic or curiosity driven research of titanium aluminides and trialuminides, iron aluminides and high temperature structural silicides are discussed. Some very recent findings on the improvements in fracture toughness and strength of titanium trialuminides and magnetic behaviour of unconventionally cold - worked iron aluminides are highlighted. The topic of functional intermetallics is limited to the systems must suitable for hydrogen storage applications. A perspective on the directions of future research and development of intermetallics is also provided. (author)

  7. Sintered cobalt-rare earth intermetallic product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benz, M.C.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for preparing novel sintered cobalt--rare earth intermetallic products which can be magnetized to form permanent magnets having stable improved magnetic properties. A cobalt--rare earth metal alloy is formed having a composition which at sintering temperature falls outside the composition covered by the single Co 5 R intermetallic phase on the rare earth richer side. The alloy contains a major amount of the Co 5 R intermetallic phase and a second solid CoR phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase. The specific cobalt and rare earth metal content of the alloy is substantially the same as that desired in the sintered product. The alloy, in particulate form, is pressed into compacts and sintered to the desired density. The sintered product is comprised of a major amount of the Co 5 R solid intermetallic phase and up to about 35 percent of the product of the second solid CoR intermetallic phase which is richer in rare earth metal content than the Co 5 R phase

  8. Size and temperature consideration in the liquid layer growth from nanovoids and the melting model construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Liang, X.H.; Li, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new model for the solid melting point T m (D) from nanovoids is proposed through considering the liquid layer growth behavior. This model, which does not have any adjustable parameter, introduces the classical thermodynamic treatment, i.e., the liquid nucleation and growth theory, for nanoparticle melting. With increased void diameter D, T m (D) approaches to T m0 . Moreover, T m (D) > T m0 for a small void (T m0 is the bulk melting point). In other words, the solid can be significantly superheated especially when D decreases, even if the difference of interface energy is larger than zero. This finding can be expected from the negatively curved surface of the void. The model predictions are consistent with the molecular dynamic (MD) simulation results for argon solids. Moreover, the growth of liquid layer from void surface relies on both size and temperature, which directly determine liquid layer thickness, and only when liquid layer thickness reaches to a critical value, can void become instable. - Highlights: • A united model for the crystal melting point from nanovoids is established. • Melting point increases with decreased void size. • The result is expected from the negatively curved surface of the void. • The prediction is agreed well with the MD simulation results

  9. Successful implementation of the stepwise layer-by-layer growth of MOF thin films on confined surfaces: Mesoporous silica foam as a first case study

    KAUST Repository

    Shekhah, Osama; Fu, Lei; Sougrat, Rachid; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the successful growth of highly crystalline homogeneous MOF thin films of HKUST-1 and ZIF-8 on mesoporous silica foam, by employing a layer-by-layer (LBL) method. The ability to control and direct the growth of MOF thin films on confined surfaces, using the stepwise LBL method, paves the way for new prospective applications of such hybrid systems. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Nanoporous alumina formed by self-organized two-step anodization of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy in citric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepniowski, Wojciech J., E-mail: wstepniowski@wat.edu.pl [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland); Cieslak, Grzegorz; Norek, Malgorzata; Karczewski, Krzysztof; Michalska-Domanska, Marta; Zasada, Dariusz; Polkowski, Wojciech; Jozwik, Pawel; Bojar, Zbigniew [Department of Advanced Materials and Technology, Faculty of New Technologies and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2 Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anodic porous alumina was formed by Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy anodization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anodizations were conducted in 0.3 M citric acid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanopores geometry depends on anodizing voltage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No barrier layer was formed during anodization. - Abstract: Formation of the nanoporous alumina on the surface of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy has been studied in details and compared with anodization of aluminum. Successful self-organized anodization of this alloy was performed in 0.3 M citric acid at voltages ranging from 2.0 to 12.0 V using a typical two-electrode cell. Current density records revealed different mechanism of the porous oxide growth when compared to the mechanism pertinent for the anodization of aluminum. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy experiments confirmed the differences in anodic oxide growth. Surface and cross-sections of the Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy with anodic oxide were observed with field-emission scanning electron microscope and characterized with appropriate software. Nanoporous oxide growth rate was estimated from cross-sectional FE-SEM images. The lowest growth rate of 0.14 {mu}m/h was found for the anodization at 0 Degree-Sign C and 2.0 V. The highest one - 2.29 {mu}m/h - was noticed for 10.0 V and 30 Degree-Sign C. Pore diameter was ranging from 18.9 nm (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 32.0 nm (12.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C). Interpore distance of the nanoporous alumina was ranging from 56.6 nm (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 177.9 nm (12.0 V, 30 Degree-Sign C). Pore density (number of pore occupying given area) was decreasing with anodizing voltage increase from 394.5 pores/{mu}m{sup 2} (2.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C) to 94.9 pores/{mu}m{sup 2} (12.0 V, 0 Degree-Sign C). All the geometrical features of the anodic alumina formed by two-step self-organized anodization of Ni{sub 3}Al intermetallic alloy are depending on the

  11. Behavior of aluminum oxide, intermetallics and voids in Cu-Al wire bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.; Liu, C.; Silberschmidt, V.V.; Pramana, S.S.; White, T.J.; Chen, Z.; Acoff, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nanoscale interfacial evolution in Cu-Al wire bonds during isothermal annealing from 175 deg. C to 250 deg. C was investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The native aluminum oxide film (∼5 nm thick) of the Al pad migrates towards the Cu ball during annealing. The formation of intermetallic compounds (IMC) is controlled by Cu diffusion, where the kinetics obey a parabolic growth law until complete consumption of the Al pad. The activation energies to initiate crystallization of CuAl 2 and Cu 9 Al 4 are 60.66 kJ mol -1 and 75.61 kJ mol -1 , respectively. During IMC development, Cu 9 Al 4 emerges as a second layer and grows together with the initial CuAl 2 . When Al is completely consumed, CuAl 2 transforms to Cu 9 Al 4 , which is the terminal product. Unlike the excessive void growth in Au-Al bonds, only a few voids nucleate in Cu-Al bonds after long-term annealing at high temperatures (e.g., 250 o C for 25 h), and their diameters are usually in the range of tens of nanometers. This is due to the lower oxidation rate and volumetric shrinkage of Cu-Al IMC compared with Au-Al IMC.

  12. Fatigue crack growth monitoring in multi-layered structures using guided ultrasonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostson, E; Fromme, P

    2009-01-01

    This contribution investigates the application of low frequency guided ultrasonic waves for monitoring fatigue crack growth at fastener holes in the 2nd layer of multi-layered plate structures, a common problem in aerospace industry. The model multi-layered structure investigated consists of two aluminum plate-strips adhesively bonded using a structural paste adhesive. Guided ultrasonic waves were excited using multiple piezoelectric discs bonded to the surface of the multi-layered structure. The wave propagation in the tensile specimen was measured using a laser interferometer and compared to numerical simulations. Thickness and width mode shapes of the excited flexural waves were identified from Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) calculations. Experiments and 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations show a change in the scattered field around fastener holes caused by a defect in the 2nd layer. The amplitude of the guided ultrasonic wave was monitored during fatigue experiments at a single point. The measured changes in the amplitude of the ultrasonic signal due to fatigue crack growth agree well with FE simulations.

  13. Optimizing pentacene thin-film transistor performance: Temperature and surface condition induced layer growth modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R; Hollerer, M; Striedinger, B; Fian, A; Stadlober, B; Winkler, A

    2015-11-01

    In this work we present in situ electrical and surface analytical, as well as ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on temperature and surface condition induced pentacene layer growth modifications, leading to the selection of optimized deposition conditions and entailing performance improvements. We prepared p ++ -silicon/silicon dioxide bottom-gate, gold bottom-contact transistor samples and evaluated the pentacene layer growth for three different surface conditions (sputtered, sputtered + carbon and unsputtered + carbon) at sample temperatures during deposition of 200 K, 300 K and 350 K. The AFM investigations focused on the gold contacts, the silicon dioxide channel region and the highly critical transition area. Evaluations of coverage dependent saturation mobilities, threshold voltages and corresponding AFM analysis were able to confirm that the first 3-4 full monolayers contribute to the majority of charge transport within the channel region. At high temperatures and on sputtered surfaces uniform layer formation in the contact-channel transition area is limited by dewetting, leading to the formation of trenches and the partial development of double layer islands within the channel region instead of full wetting layers. By combining the advantages of an initial high temperature deposition (well-ordered islands in the channel) and a subsequent low temperature deposition (continuous film formation for low contact resistance) we were able to prepare very thin (8 ML) pentacene transistors of comparably high mobility.

  14. SiC epitaxial layer growth in a novel multi-wafer VPE reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burk, A.A. Jr.; O`Loughlin, M.J. [Northrop Grumman Advanced Technology Lab., Baltimore, MD (United States); Mani, S.S. [Northrop Grumman Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Preliminary results are presented for SiC epitaxial layer growth employing a unique planetary SiC-VPE reactor. The high-throughput, multi-wafer (7 x 2-inch) reactor, was designed for atmospheric and reduced pressure operation at temperatures up to and exceeding 1600 C. Specular epitaxial layers have been grown in the reactor at growth rates from 3-5 {mu}m/hr. The thickest layer grown to data was 42 {mu}m. The layers exhibit minimum unintentional n-type doping of {proportional_to}1 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, room temperature mobilities of {proportional_to}1000 cm{sup 2}/Vs, and intentional n-type doping from {proportional_to}5 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} to >1 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. Intrawafer thickness and doping uniformities of 4% and 7% (standard deviation/mean) have been obtained, respectively, on 35 mm diameter substrates. Recently, 3% thickness uniformity has been demonstrated on a 50 mm substrate. Within a run, wafer-to-wafer thickness deviation is {proportional_to}4-14%. Doping variation is currently larger, ranging as much as a factor of two from the highest to the lowest doped wafer. Continuing efforts to improve the susceptor temperature uniformity and reduce unintentional hydrocarbon generation to improve layer uniformity and reproducibility, are presented. (orig.) 18 refs.

  15. Transient Growth Analysis of Compressible Boundary Layers with Parabolized Stability Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2016-01-01

    The linear form of parabolized linear stability equations (PSE) is used in a variational approach to extend the previous body of results for the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in boundary layer flows. This methodology includes the non-parallel effects associated with the spatial development of boundary layer flows. As noted in literature, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating stream-wise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of stream-wise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The parameter space for optimal growth is extended to the hypersonic Mach number regime without any high enthalpy effects, and the effect of wall cooling is studied with particular emphasis on the role of the initial disturbance location and the value of the span-wise wavenumber that leads to the maximum energy growth up to a specified location. Unlike previous predictions that used a basic state obtained from a self-similar solution to the boundary layer equations, mean flow solutions based on the full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used in select cases to help account for the viscous-inviscid interaction near the leading edge of the plate and also for the weak shock wave emanating from that region. These differences in the base flow lead to an increasing reduction with Mach number in the magnitude of optimal growth relative to the predictions based on self-similar mean-flow approximation. Finally, the maximum optimal energy gain for the favorable pressure gradient boundary layer near a planar stagnation point is found to be substantially weaker than that in a zero pressure gradient Blasius boundary layer.

  16. Wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate of the Es layer instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cosgrove

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown, by computation of the linear growth rate, that midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers are subject to a large scale electrodynamic instability. This instability is a logical candidate to explain certain frontal structuring events, and polarization electric fields, which have been observed in Es layers by ionosondes, by coherent scatter radars, and by rockets. However, the original growth rate derivation assumed an infinitely thin Es layer, and therefore did not address the short wavelength cutoff. Also, the same derivation ignored the effects of F region loading, which is a significant wavelength dependent effect. Herein is given a generalized derivation that remedies both these short comings, and thereby allows a computation of the wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate, as well as computations of various threshold conditions. The wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate is compared with observed periodicities, and the role of the zeroth order meridional wind is explored. A three-dimensional paper model is used to explain the instability geometry, which has been defined formally in previous works.

  17. Cover layers to the growth of trees and shrobs over a sulfide spoil from gold mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rodrigues de Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was done at a gold mine company in Paracatu, MG, Brazil, and was conducted from March 2000 to November 2005. The substrate (spoil studied was a phillite rock which contains sulfides such as pyrite and arsenopyrite. This study aimed to evaluate the survival and growth of plant species on different combinations of substrate layers over the spoil. These layers were a cover layer and a sealing layer, both deposited over the spoil. The treatment 1 had saprolite (B1 in the sealing layer (SL and B1 with liming (B1L in the cover layer (CL. The treatment 2 had B1 in SL and B1L + soil with liming (SoL in the CL. The treatment 3 had B1 + SoL in the SL and B1L in the CL. The treatment 4 had B1 + SoL in the SL and B1L + SoL in the CL. The plant species used were Acacia farnesiana, A. holosericea, A. polyphylla, Albizia lebbeck, Clitoria fairchildiana, Flemingia sp., Mimosa artemisiana, M. bimucronata e Enterolobium contortisiliquum. Forty and 57 months after planting, collardiameter, height, and living plants were evaluated. The greatest survival rate was oobservedintreatmentwith B horizon of an Oxisoil in both layers, with 80 %. In general, M. bimucronata and A. farnesiana species showed the highest survival rate. The arsenic-content by Mehlich 3 in the cover layer ranged from 0.00 to 14.69 mg dm- 3 among treatments. The experimental results suggest that layers combinations above the sulfide substrate allow the rapid revegetation of the spoil.

  18. Rapid growth of single-layer graphene on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Dai, D.; Chen, G.X.; Yu, J.H. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Nishimura, K. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Advanced Nano-processing Engineering Lab, Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kogakuin University (Japan); Lin, C.-T. [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Jiang, N., E-mail: jiangnan@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Zhan, Z.L., E-mail: zl_zhan@sohu.com [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A rapid thermal CVD process has been developed to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates. • The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. • Single-layer and few-layer graphene can be formed on quartz and SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates, respectively. • The formation of thinner graphene at the interface is due to the fast precipitation rate of carbon atoms during cooling. - Abstract: The advance of CVD technique to directly grow graphene on the insulating substrates is particularly significant for further device fabrication. As graphene is catalytically grown on metal foils, the degradation of the sample properties is unavoidable during transfer of graphene on the dielectric layer. Moreover, shortening the treatment time as possible, while achieving single-layer growth of graphene, is worthy to be investigated for promoting the efficiency of mass production. Here we performed a rapid heating/cooling process to grow graphene films directly on the insulating substrates by thermal CVD. The treating time consumed is ≈25% compared to conventional CVD procedure. In addition, we found that high-quality, single-layer graphene can be formed on quartz, but on SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate only few-layer graphene can be obtained. The pronounced substrate effect is attributed to the different dewetting behavior of Ni films on the both substrates at 950 °C.

  19. Growth optimization for thick crack-free GaN layers on sapphire with HVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, E.; Hennig, Ch.; Kissel, H.; Sonia, G.; Zeimer, U.; Weyers, M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut fuer Hoechstfrequenztechnik, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Conditions for optimized growth of thick GaN layers with crack-free surfaces by HVPE are reported. It was found that a 1:1 mixture of H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} as carrier gas leads to the lowest density of cracks in the surface. Crack formation also depends on the properties of the GaN/sapphire templates used. Best results have been obtained for 5 {mu}m thick GaN/sapphire templates grown by MOVPE with medium compressive strain {epsilon}{sub zz} of about 0.05%. But there is no simple dependence of the crack formation on the strain status of the starting layer indicating that the HVPE growth of GaN can itself introduce strong tensile strain. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant. This technique consists in spraying an Eu-solution on stainless steel samples. The specimens are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser after which the steel samples are placed in a 873 K furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, as well as by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm–4.5 μm depending on the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides had a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean concentration of the order of 6 × 1016 atoms/cm2 (15 μg/cm2 of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevented the oxide growth in the furnace. Nevertheless, the presence of the contamination had no impact on the thickness of the oxide layers obtained by preliminary laser treatment. These oxide layers were used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  1. Epitaxial Growth of Hard Ferrimagnetic Mn3Ge Film on Rhodium Buffer Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Sugihara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mn\\(_3\\Ge has a tetragonal Heusler-like D0\\(_{22}\\ crystal structure, exhibiting a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and small saturation magnetization due to its ferrimagnetic spin structure; thus, it is a hard ferrimagnet. In this report, epitaxial growth of a Mn\\(_3\\Ge film on a Rh buffer layer was investigated for comparison with that of a film on a Cr buffer layer in terms of the lattice mismatch between Mn\\(_3\\Ge and the buffer layer. The film grown on Rh had much better crystalline quality than that grown on Cr, which can be attributed to the small lattice mismatch. Epitaxial films of Mn\\(_3\\Ge on Rh show somewhat small coercivity (\\(H_{\\rm c}\\ = 12.6 kOe and a large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (\\(K_{\\rm u}\\ = 11.6 Merg/cm\\(^3\\, comparable to that of the film grown on Cr.

  2. Growth of α-sexithiophene nanostructures on C60 thin film layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Madsen, Morten; Balzer, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Organic molecular beam grown -sexithiophene (-6T) forms nanostructured thin films on buckminsterfullerene (C60) thin film layers. At substrate temperatures of 300K during growth a rough continuous film is observed, which develop to larger elongated islands and dendritic- as well as needle like ...... fluorescence polarimetry measurements the in-plane orientation of the crystalline sites within the needle like structures is determined. The polarimetry investigations strongly indicate that the needle like structures consist of lying molecules....

  3. Chemical vapour deposition growth and Raman characterization of graphene layers and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Y.-C.; Rafailov, P. M.; Vlaikova, E.; Marinova, V.; Lin, S. H.; Yu, P.; Yu, S.-C.; Chi, G. C.; Dimitrov, D.; Sveshtarov, P.; Mehandjiev, V.; Gospodinov, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Single-layer graphene films were grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on Cu foil. The CVD process was complemented by plasma enhancement to grow also vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes using Ni nanoparticles as catalyst. The obtained samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy analysis. Nature of defects in the samples and optimal growth conditions leading to achieve high quality of graphene and carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  4. Growth of highly textured SnS on mica using an SnSe buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.F.; Fong, W.K.; Wang, W.; Surya, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the growth of SnS thin films on mica substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Excellent 2D layered structure and strong (001) texture were observed with a record low rocking curve full width at half maximum of ∼ 0.101° for the SnS(004) diffraction. An interface model is used to investigate the nucleation of SnS on mica which indicates the co-existence of six pairs of lateral growth orientations and is in excellent agreement with the experimental Φ-scan measurements indicating 12 peaks separated by 30° from each other. To control the lateral growth of the SnS epilayers we investigate the utilization of a thin SnSe buffer layer deposited on the mica substrate prior to the growth of the SnS thin film. The excellent lattice match between SnSe and mica enhances the alignment of the nucleation of SnS and suppresses the minor lateral orientations along the mica[110] direction and its orthogonal axis. Detailed low-frequency noise measurement was performed to characterize the trap density in the films and our results clearly demonstrate substantial reduction in the density of the localized states in the SnS epilayer with the use of an SnSe buffer layer. - Highlights: • A record low rocking curve FWHM for deposited SnS on mica • Investigation of the nucleation of SnS on mica using the interface model • Investigation of nucleation mechanism by phi-scan measurement • Grain boundary formation from crystallites of various nucleation orientations • Suppression of nucleation orientations using an SnSe buffer layer

  5. Structure evolution of multilayer materials of heat-resistant intermetallic compounds under the influence of temperature in the process of diffusion welding under pressure and their mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzhov, Valeriy P.; Karpov, Michael I.; Prokhorov, Dmitriy V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Multilayer materials of high-resistant intermetallic compounds of some transition metals with aluminum and silicon were obtained by diffusion welding of packages, collected from a large number of the respective foils, such as niobium and aluminum. Materials of intermetallics with silicon were obtained by the welding of packages built from metal foils with Si-coating. The change in the structure according to the temperature of the welding was studied, and the high-temperature bending strength was determined. Key words: multilayer composite, high-resistant material, intermetallic compound, diffusion welding, package rolling, layered structure, bending strength.

  6. TiN films by Atomic Layer Deposition: Growth and electrical characterization down to sub-nm thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the growth and characterization of TiN thib films obtained by atomic layer deposition at 350-425 ◦C. We observe a growth of the continuous layers from the very beginning of the process, i.e. for a thickness of 0.65 nm, which is equivalent to 3 monolayers of TiN. The film growth

  7. Ion-induced crystal damage during plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, V.; Heinke, H.; Birkle, U.; Einfeldt, S.; Hommel, D.; Selke, H.; Ryder, P. L.

    1998-12-01

    Gallium nitride layers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy on (0001)-oriented sapphire substrates using an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and a radio frequency (rf) plasma source. An applied substrate bias was varied from -200 to +250 V, resulting in a change of the density and energy of nitrogen ions impinging the growth surface. The layers were investigated by high-resolution x-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Applying a negative bias during growth has a marked detrimental effect on the crystal perfection of the layers grown with an ECR plasma source. This is indicated by a change in shape and width of (0002) and (202¯5) reciprocal lattice points as monitored by triple axis x-ray measurements. In HRTEM images, isolated basal plane stacking faults were found, which probably result from precipitation of interstitial atoms. The crystal damage in layers grown with a highly negative substrate bias is comparable to that observed for ion implantation processes at orders of magnitude larger ion energies. This is attributed to the impact of ions on the growing surface. None of the described phenomena was observed for the samples grown with the rf plasma source.

  8. Growth kinetics of borided layers: Artificial neural network and least square approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, I.; Islas, M.; Ramírez, G.; VillaVelázquez, C.; Mota, C.

    2007-05-01

    The present study evaluates the growth kinetics of the boride layer Fe 2B in AISI 1045 steel, by means of neural networks and the least square techniques. The Fe 2B phase was formed at the material surface using the paste boriding process. The surface boron potential was modified considering different boron paste thicknesses, with exposure times of 2, 4 and 6 h, and treatment temperatures of 1193, 1223 and 1273 K. The neural network and the least square models were set by the layer thickness of Fe 2B phase, and assuming that the growth of the boride layer follows a parabolic law. The reliability of the techniques used is compared with a set of experiments at a temperature of 1223 K with 5 h of treatment time and boron potentials of 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm. The results of the Fe 2B layer thicknesses show a mean error of 5.31% for the neural network and 3.42% for the least square method.

  9. Influence of layering on the formation and growth of solution pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine ePetrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In karst systems, hydraulic conduits called solution pipes (or wormholes are formed as a result of the dissolution of limestone rocks by the water surcharged with CO2. The solution pipes are the end result of a positive feedback between spatial variations in porosity in the rock matrix and the local dissolution rate. Here, we investigate numerically the effect of rock stratification on the solution pipe growth, using a simple model system with a number of horizontal layers, which are less porous than the rest of the matrix. Stratification is shown to affect the resulting piping patterns in a variety of ways. First of all, it enhances the competition between the pipes, impeding the growth of the shorter ones and enhancing the flow in the longer ones, which therefore grow longer. This is reflected in the change of the pipe length distribution, which becomes steeper as the porosity contrast between the layers is increased. Additionally, stratification affects the shapes of individual solution pipes, with characteristic widening of the profiles in between the layers and narrowing within the layers. These results are in qualitative agreement with the piping morphologies observed in nature.

  10. Chemical vapor deposition growth of boron-carbon-nitrogen layers from methylamine borane thermolysis products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardini, Fabrice; Flores, Eduardo; Galvis E, Andrés R.; Ferrer, Isabel J.; Ramón Ares, José; Sánchez, Carlos; Molina, Pablo; van der Meulen, Herko P.; Gómez Navarro, Cristina; López Polin, Guillermo; Urbanos, Fernando J.; Granados, Daniel; García-García, F. Javier; Demirci, Umit B.; Yot, Pascal G.; Mastrangelo, Filippo; Grazia Betti, Maria; Mariani, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates the growth of B-C-N layers by chemical vapor deposition using methylamine borane (MeAB) as the single-source precursor. MeAB has been synthesized and characterized, paying particular attention to the analysis of its thermolysis products, which are the gaseous precursors for B-C-N growth. Samples have been grown on Cu foils and transferred onto different substrates for their morphological, structural, chemical, electronic and optical characterizations. The results of these characterizations indicate a segregation of h-BN and graphene-like (Gr) domains. However, there is an important presence of B and N interactions with C at the Gr borders, and of C interacting at the h-BN-edges, respectively, in the obtained nano-layers. In particular, there is a significant presence of C-N bonds, at Gr/h-BN borders and in the form of N doping of Gr domains. The overall B:C:N contents in the layers is close to 1:3:1.5. A careful analysis of the optical bandgap determination of the obtained B-C-N layers is presented, discussed and compared with previous seminal works with samples of similar composition.

  11. Effects of porosity in a model of corrosion and passive layer growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D.A. Aarão Reis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a stochastic lattice model to investigate the effects of pore formation in a passive layer grown with products of metal corrosion. It considers that an anionic species diffuses across that layer and reacts at the corrosion front (metal-oxide interface, producing a random distribution of compact regions and large pores, respectively represented by O (oxide and P (pore sites. O sites are assumed to have very small pores, so that the fraction Φ of P sites is an estimate of the porosity, and the ratio between anion diffusion coefficients in those regions is D_r0 and D_r≪1, significant changes are observed in passive layer growth and corrosion front roughness. For small Φ, a slowdown of the growth rate is observed, which is interpreted as a consequence of the confinement of anions in isolated pores for long times. However, the presence of large pores near the corrosion front increases the frequency of reactions at those regions, which leads to an increase in the roughness of that front. This model may be a first step to represent defects in a passive layer which favor pitting corrosion.

  12. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdueza-Felip, S.; Ibáñez, J.; Monroy, E.; González-Herráez, M.; Artús, L.; Naranjo, F.B.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of ∼ 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at ∼ 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: ► Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. ► Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. ► Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. ► InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  13. Improvement of InN layers deposited on Si(111) by RF sputtering using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdueza-Felip, S., E-mail: sirona.valdueza@depeca.uah.es [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ibanez, J. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M/NPSC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Artus, L. [Institut de Ciencies de la Terra Jaume Almera, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), c/Lluis Sole Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Naranjo, F.B. [Electronics Dept., Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Madrid-Barcelona Road, km 33.6, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-31

    We investigate the influence of a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer on structural and optical properties of wurtzite nanocrystalline InN films deposited on Si(111) substrates by reactive radio-frequency sputtering. The deposition conditions of the InN buffer layer were optimized in terms of morphological and structural quality, leading to films with surface root-mean-square roughness of {approx} 1 nm under low-growth-rate conditions (60 nm/h). The use of the developed InN buffer layer improves the crystalline quality of the subsequent InN thick films deposited at high growth rate (180 nm/h), as confirmed by the narrowing of X-ray diffraction peaks and the increase of the average grain size of the layers. This improvement of the structural quality is further confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements. Room temperature PL emission peaking at {approx} 1.58 eV is observed for InN samples grown with the developed buffer layer. The crystal and optical quality obtained for InN films grown on Si(111) using the low-growth-rate InN buffer layer become comparable to high-quality InN films deposited directly on GaN templates by RF sputtering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved RF-sputtered InN films on Si(111) using a low-growth-rate InN buffer layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enhanced structural quality confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Room-temperature photoluminescence emission at 1.58 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InN films deposited with buffer layer on Si comparable to InN LAYERS on GaN templates.

  14. Chemistry and Properties of Complex Intermetallics from Metallic Fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-03-28

    This project investigated the reaction chemistry and synthesis of new intermetallic materials with complex compositions and structures using metallic fluxes as solvents. It was found that the metallic fluxes offer several key advantages in facilitating the formation and crystal growth of new materials. The fluxes mostly explored were liquid aluminum, gallium and indium. The main purpose of this project was to exploit the potential of metallic fluxes as high temperature solvent for materials discovery in the broad class of intermetallics. This work opened new paths to compound formation. We discovered many new Si (or Ge)-based compounds with novel structures, bonding and physicochemical properties. We created new insights about the reaction chemistry that is responsible for stabilizing the new materials. We also studied the structural and compositional relationships to understand their properties. We investigated the use of Group-13 metals Al, Ga and In as solvents and have generated a wide variety of new results including several new ternary and quaternary materials with fascinating structures and properties as well as new insights as to how these systems are stabilized in the fluxes. The project focused on reactions of metals from the rare earth element family in combination with transition metals with Si and Ge. For example molten gallium has serves both as a reactive and non-reactive solvent in the preparation and crystallization of intermetallics in the system RE/M/Ga/Ge(Si). Molten indium behaves similarly in that it too is an excellent reaction medium, but it gives compounds that are different from those obtained from gallium. Some of the new phase identified in the aluminide class are complex phases and may be present in many advanced Al-matrix alloys. Such phases play a key role in determining (either beneficially or detrimentally) the mechanical properties of advanced Al-matrix alloys. This project enhanced our basic knowledge of the solid state chemistry

  15. Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, Chad [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

  16. Toughening and creep in multiphase intermetallics through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has however often been the case that the process of ductilisation or toughening has also led to a decrease in high temperature properties, especially creep. In this paper we describe approaches to the ductilisation of two different classes of intermetallic alloys through alloying to introduce beneficial, second phase effects.

  17. Growth of High-Quality GaAs on Ge by Controlling the Thickness and Growth Temperature of Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Liang; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Yu, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Yan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    High-quality GaAs thin films grown on miscut Ge substrates are crucial for GaAs-based devices on silicon. We investigate the effect of different thicknesses and temperatures of GaAs buffer layers on the crystal quality and surface morphology of GaAs on Ge by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Through high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that the full width at half maximum for the GaAs epilayer (Ge substrate) peak could achieve 19.3 (11.0) arcsec. The value of etch pit density could be 4×104 cm-2. At the same time, GaAs surfaces with no pyramid-shaped pits are obtained when the buffer layer growth temperature is lower than 360°C, due to effective inhibition of initial nucleation at terraces of the Ge surface. In addition, it is shown that large island formation at the initial stage of epitaxial growth is a significant factor for the final rough surface and that this initial stage should be carefully controlled when a device quality GaAs surface is desired.

  18. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luisa; Pacquentin, Wilfried; Tabarant, Michel; Maskrot, Hicham; Semerok, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu) as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a `duplex structure' with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  19. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless steel 304L with europium (Eu as contaminant marker. In this method, an Eu-solution is sprayed on the stainless steel samples. The specimen are firstly treated with a pulsed nanosecond laser and secondly the steel samples are exposed to a 600°C furnace for various durations in order to grow an oxide layer. The oxide structure and in-depth distribution of Eu in the oxide layer are analysed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer, and by glow discharge optical emission or mass spectrometry. The oxide layers were grown to thicknesses in the range of 200 nm to 4.5 μm regarding to the laser treatment parameters and the heating duration. These contaminated oxides have a ‘duplex structure’ with a mean weight percentage of 0.5% of europium in the volume of the oxide layer. It appears that europium implementation prevents the oxide growth by furnace but has no impact on laser heating. These oxide layers are used to study the decontamination of metallic surfaces such as stainless steel 304L using a nanosecond pulsed laser.

  20. Characterization of oxidation products on a ZrFe2-type laves intermetallic exposed to 200degreeC steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D. P.; Dietz, N.; Finnegan, N.

    2000-01-01

    The release of radioactive elements from the stainless steel-15 wt% zirconium (SS-15Zr) metal waste form will be governed by the corrosion behavior of ZrFe 2 -type intermetallics phases present in the alloy. In this article, oxidation products that formed on a ZrFe 2 -type intermetallic sample exposed to 200 C steam were characterized by Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The data revealed two oxide layers on the sample surface: an outer crystalline iron-oxide layer and an inner amorphous zirconium-rich layer believed to be zirconium oxide. Thermodynamic considerations indicate that the zirconium-rich layer formed first. The iron-oxide layer appears to have resulted from the diffusion of iron through the zirconium-rich layer to the oxide-vapor interface

  1. From atoms to layers: in situ gold cluster growth kinetics during sputter deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Buffet, Adeline; Körstgens, Volker; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Schlage, Kai; Benecke, Gunthard; Perlich, Jan; Rawolle, Monika; Rothkirch, André; Heidmann, Berit; Herzog, Gerd; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Röhlsberger, Ralf; Gehrke, Rainer; Stribeck, Norbert; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-05-01

    The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction of morphological real space parameters, such as cluster size and shape, correlation distance, layer porosity and surface coverage, directly from reciprocal space scattering data. This approach enables a large variety of future investigations of the influence of different process parameters on the thin metal film morphology. Furthermore, our study allows for deducing the wetting behavior of gold cluster films on solid substrates and provides a better understanding of the growth kinetics in general, which is essential for optimization of manufacturing parameters, saving energy and resources.The adjustment of size-dependent catalytic, electrical and optical properties of gold cluster assemblies is a very significant issue in modern applied nanotechnology. We present a real-time investigation of the growth kinetics of gold nanostructures from small nuclei to a complete gold layer during magnetron sputter deposition with high time resolution by means of in situ microbeam grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (μGISAXS). We specify the four-stage growth including their thresholds with sub-monolayer resolution and identify phase transitions monitored in Yoneda intensity as a material-specific characteristic. An innovative and flexible geometrical model enables the extraction

  2. Modeling of interaction layer growth between U-Mo particles and an Al matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Horman, G. L.; Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Man; Robinson, A. B.; Wachs, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Interaction layer growth between U-Mo alloy fuel particles and Al in a dispersion fuel is a concern due to the volume expansion and other unfavorable irradiation behavior of the interaction product. To reduce interaction layer (IL) growth, a small amount of Si is added to the Al. As a result, IL growth is affected by the Si content in the Al matrix. In order to predict IL growth during fabrication and irradiation, empirical models were developed. For IL growth prediction during fabrication and any follow-on heating process before irradiation, out-of-pile heating test data were used to develop kinetic correlations. Two out-of-pile correlations, one for the pure Al matrix and the other for the Al matrix with Si addition, respectively, were developed, which are Arrhenius equations that include temperature and time. For IL growth predictions during irradiation, the out-of-pile correlations were modified to include a fission-rate term to consider fission enhanced diffusion, and multiplication factors to incorporate the Si addition effect and the effect of the Mo content. The in-pile correlation is applicable for a pure Al matrix and an Al matrix with the Si content up to 8 wt%, for fuel temperatures up to 200 .deg. C, and for Mo content in the range of 6 - 10wt%. In order to cover these ranges, in-pile data were included in modeling from various tests, such as the US RERTR-4, -5, -6, -7 and -9 tests and Korea's KOMO-4 test, that were designed to systematically examine the effects of the fission rate, temperature, Si content in Al matrix, and Mo content in U-Mo particles. A model converting the IL thickness to the IL volume fraction in the meat was also developed

  3. MODELING OF INTERACTION LAYER GROWTH BETWEEN U-Mo PARTICLES AND AN Al MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YEON SOO KIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Interaction layer growth between U-Mo alloy fuel particles and Al in a dispersion fuel is a concern due to the volume expansion and other unfavorable irradiation behavior of the interaction product. To reduce interaction layer (IL growth, a small amount of Si is added to the Al. As a result, IL growth is affected by the Si content in the Al matrix. In order to predict IL growth during fabrication and irradiation, empirical models were developed. For IL growth prediction during fabrication and any follow-on heating process before irradiation, out-of-pile heating test data were used to develop kinetic correlations. Two out-of-pile correlations, one for the pure Al matrix and the other for the Al matrix with Si addition, respectively, were developed, which are Arrhenius equations that include temperature and time. For IL growth predictions during irradiation, the out-of-pile correlations were modified to include a fission-rate term to consider fission enhanced diffusion, and multiplication factors to incorporate the Si addition effect and the effect of the Mo content. The in-pile correlation is applicable for a pure Al matrix and an Al matrix with the Si content up to 8 wt%, for fuel temperatures up to 200 °C, and for Mo content in the range of 6 – 10wt%. In order to cover these ranges, in-pile data were included in modeling from various tests, such as the US RERTR-4, -5, -6, -7 and -9 tests and Korea's KOMO-4 test, that were designed to systematically examine the effects of the fission rate, temperature, Si content in Al matrix, and Mo content in U-Mo particles. A model converting the IL thickness to the IL volume fraction in the meat was also developed.

  4. Surfactant-induced layered growth in homoepitaxy of Fe on Fe(100)-c(2 x 2)O reconstruction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiko, Masao; Mizuno, Hiroyuki; Chihaya, Hiroaki; Xu, Junhua; Kojima, Isao; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effects of several surfactants (Pb, Bi, and Ag) on the homoepitaxial growth of Fe(100) were studied and compared. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements clearly reveal that these surfactants enhance the layer-by-layer growth of Fe on an Fe(100)-c(2 x 2)O reconstruction surface. The dependence of growth on the surfactant layer thickness suggests that there exists a suitable amount of surfactant layer that induces a smoother layer-by-layer growth. Comparisons between the atomic force microscopy images reveal that the root-mean-square surface roughness of Fe films mediated by Pb and Bi surfactants are considerably smaller than those of the films mediated by Ag surfactant. The Auger electron spectra show that Pb and Bi segregate at the top of the surface. It has been concluded that Pb and Bi are effective surfactants for enhancing layer-by-layer growth in Fe homoepitaxy. Ag has the same effect, but it is less efficient due to the weak surface segregation of Ag

  5. Simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun

    2014-06-25

    A large-scale simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer is performed and analyzed with the aim of elucidating the key processes involved. A cold gaseous stream is mixed with a hot stream of vapor, nanometer sized droplets nucleate as the vapor becomes supersaturated, and subsequently grow as more vapor condenses on their surface. All length and time scales of fluid motion and mixing are resolved and the quadrature method of moments is used to describe the dynamics of the condensing, non-inertial droplets. The results show that a region of high nucleation rate is located near the cold, dry stream, while particles undergo intense growth via condensation on the hot, humid vapor side. Supersaturation and residence times are such that number densities are low and neither coagulation nor vapor scavenging due to condensation are significant. The difference in Schmidt numbers of aerosol particles (approximated as infinity) and temperature and vapor (near unity) causes a drift of the aerosol particles in scalar space and contributes to a large scatter in the conditional statistics of aerosol quantities. The spatial distribution of the aerosol reveals high volume fraction on the hot side of the mixing layer. This distribution is due to drift against the mean and is related to turbulent mixing, which displaces particles from the nucleation region (cold side) into the growth region (hot side). Such a mechanism is absent in laminar flows and is a distinct feature of turbulent condensing aerosols.

  6. Capping hazardous red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite for plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2014-01-01

    A nearly three-year microcosm experiment was conducted to test the effectiveness of capping red mud using acidic soil with an embedded layer of zeolite in sustaining the growth of a grass species. This 'sandwich-structured' design allowed self-sustaining growth of the plants under rain-fed conditions no matter whether the underlying red mud was neutralized or not. During the initial stage, the plants grew better when the red mud was not neutralized with MgCl2 probably due to pH rise in the root zone. Neutralization of red mud led to salinization and pH decrease in the root zone. However, the difference in plant growth performance between these scenarios became less remarkable over time due to gradual improvement of soil conditions in the neutralized scenarios. Continuous leaching of soluble salts and alkali by rainwater extended the root zone to the red mud layer. As a result of vegetative production, soil organic matter rapidly accumulated. This, combined with increase in pH and decrease in salinity, markedly facilitated microbial activities and consequently improved the supply of nutrients. This study provides abasis for field-scale experimental design that will have implications for effectively establishing vegetative cover in red mud disposal sites to control dust hazards.

  7. Hydraulic Fracture Growth in a Layered Formation based on Fracturing Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Tong, Zhou; Ning, Li; Ming, Chen; Sihai, Li; Yinuo, Zhang; Han, Li

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) height containment tends to occur in layered formations, and it significantly influences the entire HF geometry or the stimulated reservoir volume. This study aims to explore the influence of preexisting bedding planes (BPs) on the HF height growth in layered formations. Laboratory fracturing experiments were performed to confirm the occurrence of HF height containment in natural shale that contains multiple weak and high-permeability BPs under triaxial stresses. Numerical simulations were then conducted to further illustrate the manner in which vertical stress, BP permeability, BP density(or spacing), pump rate, and fluid viscosity control HF height growth using a 3D discrete element method-based fracturing model. In this model, the rock matrix was considered transversely isotropic and multiple BPs can be explicitly represented. Experimental and numerical results show that the vertically growing HF tends to be limited by multi-high-permeability BPs, even under higher vertical stress. When the vertically growing HF intersects with the multi-high-permeability BPs, the injection pressure will be sharply reduced. If a low pumping rate or a low-viscosity fluid is used, the excess fracturing fluid leak-off into the BPs obviously decreases the rate of pressure build up, which will then limit the growth of HF. Otherwise, a higher pumping rate and/or a higher viscosity will reduce the leak-off time and fluid volume, but increase the injection pressure to drive the HF to grow and to penetrate through the BPs.

  8. Simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Kun; Attili, Antonio; Alshaarawi, Amjad; Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    A large-scale simulation of aerosol nucleation and growth in a turbulent mixing layer is performed and analyzed with the aim of elucidating the key processes involved. A cold gaseous stream is mixed with a hot stream of vapor, nanometer sized droplets nucleate as the vapor becomes supersaturated, and subsequently grow as more vapor condenses on their surface. All length and time scales of fluid motion and mixing are resolved and the quadrature method of moments is used to describe the dynamics of the condensing, non-inertial droplets. The results show that a region of high nucleation rate is located near the cold, dry stream, while particles undergo intense growth via condensation on the hot, humid vapor side. Supersaturation and residence times are such that number densities are low and neither coagulation nor vapor scavenging due to condensation are significant. The difference in Schmidt numbers of aerosol particles (approximated as infinity) and temperature and vapor (near unity) causes a drift of the aerosol particles in scalar space and contributes to a large scatter in the conditional statistics of aerosol quantities. The spatial distribution of the aerosol reveals high volume fraction on the hot side of the mixing layer. This distribution is due to drift against the mean and is related to turbulent mixing, which displaces particles from the nucleation region (cold side) into the growth region (hot side). Such a mechanism is absent in laminar flows and is a distinct feature of turbulent condensing aerosols.

  9. Reduced interaction layer growth of U-Mo dispersion in Al-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Development of high U-density U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U-Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to {approx}50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at {approx}200 Degree-Sign C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U-Mo/Al-Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0-8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL-matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  10. Reduced interaction layer growth of U–Mo dispersion in Al–Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong; Hofman, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of high U-density U–Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U–Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to ∼50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at ∼200 °C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U–Mo/Al–Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0–8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL–matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  11. Effects of the shear layer growth rate on the supersonic jet noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Yuta; Nonomura, Taku; Oyama, Akira; Mamori, Hiroya; Fukushima, Naoya; Yamamoto, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    Strong acoustic waves emitted from rocket plume might damage to rocket payloads because their payloads consist of fragile structure. Therefore, understanding and prediction of acoustic wave generation are of importance not only in science, but also in engineering. The present study makes experiments of a supersonic jet flow at the Mach number of 2.0 and investigates a relationship between growth rate of a shear layer and noise generation of the supersonic jet. We conducted particle image velocimetry (PIV) and acoustic measurements for three different shaped nozzles. These nozzles were employed to control the condition of a shear layer of the supersonic jet flow. We applied single-pixel ensemble correlation method (Westerweel et al., 2004) for the PIV images to obtain high-resolution averaged velocity profiles. This correlation method enabled us to obtain detailed data of the shear layer. For all cases, acoustic measurements clearly shows the noise source position at the end of a potential core of the jet. In the case where laminar to turbulent transition occurred in the shear layer, the sound pressure level increased by 4 dB at the maximum. This research is partially supported by Presto, JST (JPMJPR1678) and KAKENHI (25709009 and 17H03473).

  12. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi{sub 2} films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, N.V., E-mail: denisov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Matetskiy, A.V.; Tupkalo, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} is layered material with advanced properties of topological superconductor. • We present a method for growing β-PdBi{sub 2} films of a desired thickness. • Method utilizes MBE growth of β-PdBi{sub 2}, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. • Electronic and superconducting properties of the films are similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi{sub 2} films from a single β-PdBi{sub 2} triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi{sub 2} films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  13. The role of Ag buffer layer in Fe islands growth on Ge (111) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tsu-Yi, E-mail: phtifu@phy.ntnu.edu.tw; Wu, Jia-Yuan; Jhou, Ming-Kuan; Hsu, Hung-Chan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, 88, Sec. 4, Ting-Chou Rd, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-07

    Sub-monolayer iron atoms were deposited at room temperature on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates with and without Ag buffer layers. The behavior of Fe islands growth was investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope (STM) after different annealing temperatures. STM images show that iron atoms will cause defects and holes on substrates at room temperature. As the annealing temperature rises, iron atoms pull out germanium to form various kinds of alloyed islands. However, the silver layer can protect the Ag/Ge(111)-(√3×√3) reconstruction from forming defects. The phase diagram shows that ring, dot, and triangular defects were only found on Ge (111)-c(2 × 8) substrates. The kinds of islands found in Fe/Ge system are similar to Fe/Ag/Ge system. It indicates that Ge atoms were pulled out to form islands at high annealing temperatures whether there was a Ag layer or not. But a few differences in big pyramidal or strip islands show that the silver layer affects the development of islands by changing the surface symmetry and diffusion coefficient. The structure characters of various islands are also discussed.

  14. Birth order dependent growth cone segregation determines synaptic layer identity in the Drosophila visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Abhishek; Ertekin, Deniz; Lee, Chi-Hon; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-03-17

    The precise recognition of appropriate synaptic partner neurons is a critical step during neural circuit assembly. However, little is known about the developmental context in which recognition specificity is important to establish synaptic contacts. We show that in the Drosophila visual system, sequential segregation of photoreceptor afferents, reflecting their birth order, lead to differential positioning of their growth cones in the early target region. By combining loss- and gain-of-function analyses we demonstrate that relative differences in the expression of the transcription factor Sequoia regulate R cell growth cone segregation. This initial growth cone positioning is consolidated via cell-adhesion molecule Capricious in R8 axons. Further, we show that the initial growth cone positioning determines synaptic layer selection through proximity-based axon-target interactions. Taken together, we demonstrate that birth order dependent pre-patterning of afferent growth cones is an essential pre-requisite for the identification of synaptic partner neurons during visual map formation in Drosophila.

  15. A Two-Layer Gene Circuit for Decoupling Cell Growth from Metabolite Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Tat-Ming; Chng, Si Hui; Teo, Wei Suong; Cho, Han-Saem; Chang, Matthew Wook

    2016-08-01

    We present a synthetic gene circuit for decoupling cell growth from metabolite production through autonomous regulation of enzymatic pathways by integrated modules that sense nutrient and substrate. The two-layer circuit allows Escherichia coli to selectively utilize target substrates in a mixed pool; channel metabolic resources to growth by delaying enzymatic conversion until nutrient depletion; and activate, terminate, and re-activate conversion upon substrate availability. We developed two versions of controller, both of which have glucose nutrient sensors but differ in their substrate-sensing modules. One controller is specific for hydroxycinnamic acid and the other for oleic acid. Our hydroxycinnamic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 2-fold and productivity 5-fold, whereas our oleic acid controller lowered metabolic stress 2-fold and increased the growth rate 1.3-fold and productivity 2.4-fold. These results demonstrate the potential for engineering strategies that decouple growth and production to make bio-based production more economical and sustainable. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Frazil-ice growth rate and dynamics in mixed layers and sub-ice-shelf plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees Jones, David W.; Wells, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    The growth of frazil or granular ice is an important mode of ice formation in the cryosphere. Recent advances have improved our understanding of the microphysical processes that control the rate of ice-crystal growth when water is cooled beneath its freezing temperature. These advances suggest that crystals grow much faster than previously thought. In this paper, we consider models of a population of ice crystals with different sizes to provide insight into the treatment of frazil ice in large-scale models. We consider the role of crystal growth alongside the other physical processes that determine the dynamics of frazil ice. We apply our model to a simple mixed layer (such as at the surface of the ocean) and to a buoyant plume under a floating ice shelf. We provide numerical calculations and scaling arguments to predict the occurrence of frazil-ice explosions, which we show are controlled by crystal growth, nucleation, and gravitational removal. Faster crystal growth, higher secondary nucleation, and slower gravitational removal make frazil-ice explosions more likely. We identify steady-state crystal size distributions, which are largely insensitive to crystal growth rate but are affected by the relative importance of secondary nucleation to gravitational removal. Finally, we show that the fate of plumes underneath ice shelves is dramatically affected by frazil-ice dynamics. Differences in the parameterization of crystal growth and nucleation give rise to radically different predictions of basal accretion and plume dynamics, and can even impact whether a plume reaches the end of the ice shelf or intrudes at depth.

  17. Growth mode transition of tetrahydrofuran clathrate hydrates in the guest/host concentration boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabase, Yuichiro; Nagashima, Kazushige

    2009-11-19

    Clathrate hydrates are known to form a thin film along a guest/host boundary. We present here the first report of tetrahydrofuran (THF) clathrate hydrate formation in a THF/water concentration boundary layer. We found that the THF-water system also forms a hydrate film separating the guest/host phases. The lateral growth rate of the film increases as supercooling increases. The thickness of the film at the growth tip decreases as supercooling and the lateral growth rate increase. These tendencies are consistent with reports of experiments for other hydrates and predictions of heat-transfer models. After film formation and slight melting, two types of growth modes are observed, depending on temperature T. At T = 3.0 degrees C, the film slowly thickens. The thickening rate is much lower than the lateral growth rate, as reported for other hydrates. At T agglomerate of small polycrystalline hydrates forms in each phase. Grain boundaries in the film and pore spaces in the agglomerate act as paths for permeation of each liquid. Timing when continuous nucleation starts is dominantly controlled by the time of initiation of liquid permeation through the film. Digital particle image velocimetry analysis of the agglomerate shows that it expands not by growth at the advancing front but rather by continuous nucleation in the interior. Expansion rates of the agglomerate tend to be higher for the cases of multipermeation paths in the film and the thinner film. We suppose that the growth mode transition to continuous nucleation is caused by the memory effect due to slight melting of the hydrate film.

  18. Highly Oriented Growth of Piezoelectric Thin Films on Silicon Using Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Growth Template Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh D; Yuan, Huiyu; Houwman, Evert P; Dekkers, Matthijn; Koster, Gertjan; Ten Elshof, Johan E; Rijnders, Guus

    2016-11-16

    Ca 2 Nb 3 O 10 (CNOns) and Ti 0.87 O 2 (TiOns) metal oxide nanosheets (ns) are used as a buffer layer for epitaxial growth of piezoelectric capacitor stacks on Si and Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (Pt/Si) substrates. Highly (001)- and (110)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) films are achieved by utilizing CNOns and TiOns, respectively. The piezoelectric capacitors are characterized by polarization and piezoelectric hysteresis loops and by fatigue measurements. The devices fabricated with SrRuO 3 top and bottom electrodes directly on nanosheets/Si have ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties well comparable with devices that use more conventional oxide buffer layers (stacks) such as YSZ, CeO 2 /YSZ, or SrTiO 3 on Si. The devices grown on nanosheets/Pt/Si with Pt top electrodes show significantly improved polarization fatigue properties over those of similar devices grown directly on Pt/Si. The differences in properties are ascribed to differences in the crystalline structures and the density of the films. These results show a route toward the fabrication of single crystal piezoelectric thin films and devices with high quality, long-lifetime piezoelectric capacitor structures on nonperovskite and even noncrystalline substrates such as glass or polished metal surfaces.

  19. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghandi, R.; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J.; Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans; Radamson, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si 1-x Ge x (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers

  20. Effect of strain, substrate surface and growth rate on B-doping in selectively grown SiGe layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandi, R. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)], E-mail: ghandi@kth.se; Kolahdouz, M.; Hallstedt, J. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden); Wise, R.; Wejtmans, Hans [Texas Instrument, 13121 TI Boulevard, Dallas, Tx 75243 (United States); Radamson, H.H. [School of Information and Communication Technology, KTH (Royal Institute of Technology), Isafjordsg. 22-26, Electrum 229, 16640 Kista (Sweden)

    2008-11-03

    In this work, the role of strain and growth rate on boron incorporation in selective epitaxial growth (SEG) of B-doped Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} (x = 0.15-0.25) layers in recessed or unprocessed (elevated) openings for source/drain applications in CMOS has been studied. A focus has been made on the strain distribution and B incorporation in SEG of SiGe layers.

  1. Corrosion Study and Intermetallics Formation in Gold and Copper Wire Bonding in Microelectronics Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Breach

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparison study on the reliability of gold (Au and copper (Cu wire bonding is conducted to determine their corrosion and oxidation behavior in different environmental conditions. The corrosion and oxidation behaviors of Au and Cu wire bonding are determined through soaking in sodium chloride (NaCl solution and high temperature storage (HTS at 175 °C, 200 °C and 225 °C. Galvanic corrosion is more intense in Cu wire bonding as compared to Au wire bonding in NaCl solution due to the minimal formation of intermetallics in the former. At all three HTS annealing temperatures, the rate of Cu-Al intermetallic formation is found to be three to five times slower than Au-Al intermetallics. The faster intermetallic growth rate and lower activation energy found in this work for both Au/Al and Cu/Al as compared to literature could be due to the thicker Al pad metallization which removed the rate-determining step in previous studies due to deficit in Al material.

  2. Mechanism of forming interfacial intermetallic compounds at interface for solid state diffusion bonding of dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, P.; Liu, D.

    2006-01-01

    The formation of brittle intermetallic compounds at the interfaces of diffusion bonds is the main cause which leads to poor bond strength. Therefore, it is very important to study and establish the formation and growth model of intermetallic compounds at the interfaces for the control process of diffusion bonding. In this paper, according to the diffusion kinetics and the thermodynamics, the principle of formation of intermetallic compounds at interfaces in the multi-component diffusion couple, the flux-energy principle, is put forward. In the light of diffusion theory, the formation capacity of the phase at the interfaces is determined by specific properties of the composition in the diffusion couple and the composition ratio of the formed phase is in agreement with the diffusion flux. In accordance with the flux-energy principle, the microstructure of the Ni/TC4 interface is Ni/TiNi 3 /TiNi/Ti 2 Ni/TC4, the microstructure of the TC4/00Cr18Ni9Ti interface is 00Cr18Ni9Ti/TiFe 2 /TiFe/Ti 2 Fe/TC4, and the microstructure of the TiAl/40Cr interface is 40Cr/TiC/Ti 3 Al + FeAl + FeAl 2 /TiAl. Multi-intermetallic compounds with the equivalent flux-energy can be formed at the interfaces at the same time

  3. Salix polaris growth responses to active layer detachment and solifluction processes in High Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekacz, Liliana

    2015-04-01

    The work is dedicated to demonstrate the potential of Salix polaris grow properties in the dendrogemorphologic image, analyzing periglacially induced slope processes in the high Arctic.. Observed anatomical and morphological plants responses to solifluction and active layer detachment processes are presented qualitatively and quantitatively as a summary of presented features frequency. The results are discussed against the background of the other research results in this field. The investigations was performed in Ebba valley, in the vicinity of Petunia Bay, northernmost part of Billefjorden in central Spitsbergen (Svalbard). Environmental conditions are characterized by annual precipitation sum lower than 200 mm (Hagen et al.,1993) and average summer temperature of about 5°C, with maximum daily temperatures rarely exceeding 10°C (Rachlewicz, 2009). Collected shrub material was prepared according to the methods presented by Schweingruber and Poschlod (2005). Thin (approx. 15-20μm) sections of the whole cross-section were prepared with a sledge microtome, stained with Safranine and Astra blue and finally permanently fixed on microslides with Canada balsam and dried. Snapshots were taken partially for each cross-section with digital camera (ColorView III, Olympus) connected to a microscope (Olympus BX41) and merged into one, high resolution image. After all, ring widths were measured in 3-4 radii in every single cross-section using ImageJ software. Analyzed plants revealed extremely harsh environmental conditions of their growth. Buchwał et al. (2013) provided quantitative data concerning missing rings and partially missing rings in shrubs growing on Ebba valley floor. Mean ring width at the level of 79μm represents one of the smallest values of yearly growth ever noted. The share of missing rings and partially missing rings was 11,2% and 13,6% respectively. Plants growing on Ebba valley slope indicate almost twice smaller values of ring width (41μm), and higher

  4. Growth of bi- and tri-layered graphene on silicon carbide substrate via molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Tjun Kit; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Melaka Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with simulated annealing method is used to study the growth process of bi- and tri-layered graphene on a 6H-SiC (0001) substrate via molecular dynamics simulation. Tersoff-Albe-Erhart (TEA) potential is used to describe the inter-atomic interactions among the atoms in the system. The formation temperature, averaged carbon-carbon bond length, pair correlation function, binding energy and the distance between the graphene formed and the SiC substrate are quantified. The growth mechanism, graphitization of graphene on the SiC substrate and characteristics of the surface morphology of the graphene sheet obtained in our MD simulation compare well to that observed in epitaxially grown graphene experiments and other simulation works.

  5. Editors' Choice Growth of Layered WS2Electrocatalysts for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Production Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Alsabban, Merfat M.

    2016-08-18

    Seeking more economical alternative electrocatalysts without sacrificing much in performance to replace precious metal Pt is one of the major research topics in hydrogen evolution reactions (HER). Tungsten disulfide (WS2) has been recognized as a promising substitute for Pt owing to its high efficiency and low-cost. Since most existing works adopt solution-synthesized WS2 crystallites for HER, direct growth of WS2 layered materials on conducting substrates should offer new opportunities. The growth of WS2 by the thermolysis of ammonium tetrathiotungstate (NH4)(2)WS4 was examined under various gaseous environments. Structural analysis and electrochemical studies show that the H2S environment leads to the WS2 catalysts with superior HER performance with an extremely low overpotential (eta(10) = 184 mV). (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  6. Editors' Choice Growth of Layered WS2Electrocatalysts for Highly Efficient Hydrogen Production Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Alsabban, Merfat M.; Min, Shixiong; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ming, Jun; Li, Lain-Jong; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Seeking more economical alternative electrocatalysts without sacrificing much in performance to replace precious metal Pt is one of the major research topics in hydrogen evolution reactions (HER). Tungsten disulfide (WS2) has been recognized as a promising substitute for Pt owing to its high efficiency and low-cost. Since most existing works adopt solution-synthesized WS2 crystallites for HER, direct growth of WS2 layered materials on conducting substrates should offer new opportunities. The growth of WS2 by the thermolysis of ammonium tetrathiotungstate (NH4)(2)WS4 was examined under various gaseous environments. Structural analysis and electrochemical studies show that the H2S environment leads to the WS2 catalysts with superior HER performance with an extremely low overpotential (eta(10) = 184 mV). (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of input data layers for the FARSITE fire growth model for the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Complex, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Janice L. Garner; Kirsten M. Schmidt; Donald G. Long; James P. Menakis; Mark A. Finney

    1998-01-01

    Fuel and vegetation spatial data layers required by the spatially explicit fire growth model FARSITE were developed for all lands in and around the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area in Idaho and Montana. Satellite imagery and terrain modeling were used to create the three base vegetation spatial data layers of potential vegetation, cover type, and structural stage....

  8. Cerium intermetallics CeTX. Review III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poettgen, Rainer; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Chevalier, Bernard [Bordeaux Univ., Pessac (France). Inst. de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux

    2016-05-01

    The structure-property relationships of CeTX intermetallics with structures other than the ZrNiAl and TiNiSi type are systematically reviewed. These CeTX phases form with electron-poor and electron-rich transition metals (T) and X = Mg, Zn, Cd, Hg, Al, Ga, In, Tl, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb, P, As, Sb, and Bi. The review focusses on the crystal chemistry, the chemical bonding peculiarities, and the magnetic and transport properties. Furthermore {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopic data, high-pressure studies, hydrogenation reactions and the formation of solid solutions are reviewed. This paper is the third of a series of four reviews on equiatomic intermetallic cerium compound [Part I: R. Poettgen, B. Chevalier, Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 289; Part II: R. Poettgen, B. Chevalier, Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 695].

  9. Pressure-induced phenomena in U intermetallics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sechovský, V.; Honda, F.; Prokeš, K.; Syshchenko, O.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Kamarád, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2003), s. 1377-1386 ISSN 0587-4254. [International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 02). Cracow, 10.07.2002-13.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/0739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914; CEZ:MSM 113200002 Keywords : pressure effect * intermetallics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.752, year: 2003

  10. Composites having an intermetallic containing matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.C.; Brupbacher, J.M.; Christodoulou, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a composite material. It comprises: a dispersion of in-situ precipitated second phase particles selected from the group consisting of borides, carbides, nitrides, and sulfides, in an intermetallic containing matrix selected from the group consisting of the aluminides, silicides, and beryllides of nickel, copper, titanium, cobalt, iron, platinum, gold, silver, niobium, tantalum, zinc, molybdenum, hafnium, tin, tungsten, lithium, magnesium, thorium, chromium, vanadium, zirconium, and manganese

  11. A tem investigation on intermetallic particles in zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarminto, Harini Sosiati; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Oki, Kensuke

    1996-01-01

    Tem investigation were conducted on the heat treated zircaloy-2 having the composition of Zr containing 1.6% Sn, 0.2% Fe, 0.1% Cr and 0.05% Ni (%wt) in order tostudy the characteristics of intermetallic particles related to the microstructural basis on the corrosion effect. Forged zircaloy-2 was annealed in the β-phase at 1050 C degrees for various isothermally in the α-phase region at 650 and 750 C degrees, followed by water quenching. The size precipates, the lower became their number. By increasing the annealing temperature, the growth of precipitates formed in this zircaloy-2 were of the Zr(Cr,Fe) 2 and Zr 2 (Fe,Cr,Ni) types. These kinds of precipitates and the ratios of Fe/Cr were independent of size and shape of precipitates and annealing time and temperature. (author), 16 refs, 2 tabs, 5 figs

  12. The impact of boundary layer turbulence on snow growth and precipitation: Idealized Large Eddy Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xia; Xue, Lulin; Geerts, Bart; Kosović, Branko

    2018-05-01

    Ice particles and supercooled droplets often co-exist in planetary boundary-layer (PBL) clouds. The question examined in this numerical study is how large turbulent PBL eddies affect snow growth and surface precipitation from mixed-phase PBL clouds. In order to simplify this question, this study assumes an idealized BL with well-developed turbulence but no surface heat fluxes or radiative heat exchanges. Large Eddy Simulations with and without resolved PBL turbulence are compared. This comparison demonstrates that the impact on snow growth in mixed-phase clouds is controlled by two opposing mechanisms, a microphysical and a dynamical one. The cloud microphysical impact of large turbulent eddies is based on the difference in saturation vapor pressure over water and over ice. The net outcome of alternating turbulent up- and downdrafts is snow growth by diffusion and/or accretion (riming). On the other hand, turbulence-induced entrainment and detrainment may suppress snow growth. In the case presented herein, the net effect of these microphysical and dynamical processes is positive, but in general the net effect depends on ambient conditions, in particular the profiles of temperature, humidity, and wind.

  13. Digestive ripening facilitated atomic diffusion at nanosize regime: Case of AuIn{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}In intermetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Neha [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Jagirdar, Balaji R., E-mail: jagirdar@ipc.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Klabunde, Kenneth J. [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A digestive ripening facilitated interatomic diffusion process is presented. • Nearly monodisperse AuIn{sub 2} and Ag{sub 3}In intermetallic nanoparticles were synthesized. • Optimization of reaction temperature facilitates interatomic transfer. • Presence of excess ligand plays a crucial role in the digestive ripening process. - Abstract: Monodisperse colloidal gold–indium (AuIn{sub 2}) intermetallic nanoparticles have been synthesized from Au and In colloids using the digestive ripening process. Formation of the intermetallic proceeds via digestive ripening facilitated atomic diffusion of Au and In atoms from the Au and In nanoparticles followed simultaneously by their growth in the solution. Optimization of the reaction temperature was found to be crucial for the formation of AuIn{sub 2} intermetallic from gold and indium nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of nearly monodisperse nanoparticles of Au and AuIn{sub 2} with particle size distribution of 3.7 ± 1.0 nm and 5.0 ± 1.6 nm, respectively. UV–visible spectral studies brought out the absence of SPR band in pure AuIn{sub 2} intermetallic nanoparticles. Optical study and electron microscopy, in combination with powder X-ray diffraction established phase pure AuIn{sub 2} intermetallic nanoparticles unambiguously. The potential of such an unprecedented approach has been further exploited in the synthesis of Ag{sub 3}In intermetallic nanoparticles with the dimension of less than 10 nm.

  14. Thin film growth into the ion track structures in polyimide by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mättö, L.; Malm, J.; Arstila, K.; Sajavaara, T.

    2017-09-01

    High-aspect ratio porous structures with controllable pore diameters and without a stiff substrate can be fabricated using the ion track technique. Atomic layer deposition is an ideal technique for depositing thin films and functional surfaces on complicated 3D structures due to the high conformality of the films. In this work, we studied Al2O3 and TiO2 films grown by ALD on pristine polyimide (Kapton HN) membranes as well as polyimide membranes etched in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and boric acid (BO3) solution by means of RBS, PIXE, SEM-EDX and helium ion microcopy (HIM). The focus was on the first ALD growth cycles. The areal density of Al2O3 film in the 400 cycle sample was determined to be 51 ± 3 × 1016 at./cm2, corresponding to the thickness of 55 ± 3 nm. Furthermore, the growth per cycle was 1.4 Å/cycle. The growth is highly linear from the first cycles. In the case of TiO2, the growth per cycle is clearly slower during the first 200 cycles but then it increases significantly. The growth rate based on RBS measurements is 0.24 Å/cycle from 3 to 200 cycles and then 0.6 Å/cycle between 200 and 400 cycles. The final areal density of TiO2 film after 400 cycles is 148 ± 3 × 1015 at./cm2 which corresponds to the thickness of 17.4 ± 0.4 nm. The modification of the polyimide surface by etching prior to the deposition did not have an effect on the Al2O3 and TiO2 growth.

  15. GaN growth on silane exposed AlN seed layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Zepeda, F. [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Km. 107 Carret, Tijuana-Ensenada, C.P. 22860, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Contreras, O. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condesada, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 356, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico); Dadgar, A.; Krost, A. [Otto-von-Guericke-Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW-IEP, Universitaetsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The microstructure and surface morphology of GaN films grown on AlN seed layers exposed to silane flow has been studied by TEM and AFM. The epilayers were grown on silicon(111) substrates by MOCVD. The AlN seed layer surface was treated at different SiH{sub 4} exposure times prior to the growth of the GaN film. A reduction in the density of threading dislocations is observed in the GaN films and their surface roughness is minimized for an optimal SiH{sub 4} exposure time between 75-90 sec. At this optimal condition a step-flow growth mode of GaN film is predominant. The improvement of the surface and structure quality of the epilayers is observed to be related to an annihilation process of threading dislocations done by SiN{sub x} masking. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Age determination in manatees using growth-layer-group counts in bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmontel, M.; O'Shea, T.J.; Kochman, H.I.; Humphrey, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    Growth layers were observed in histological preparations of bones of known-age, known minimum-age, and tetracycline-marked free-ranging and captive Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris), substantiating earlier preliminary findings of other studies. Detailed analysis of 17 new case histories showed that growth-layer group (GLG) counts in the periotic bone were consistent with known age, or time since tetracycline administration, but were less reliable in other bones. GLG counts were also made in periotic bones of 1,196 Florida manatees of unknown age found dead from 1974 through 1991. These counts were conducted in order to assess variability and to determine relationships among estimated age, size, sex, and degree of bone resorption. Resorption can interfere with accuracy of GLG counts. This effect does not occur until ages greater than about 15 yr and body lengths greater than 300 cm are attained. GLGs were also observed in periotic bones of Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) but were not validated against known-age specimens. Use of GLG counts in the periotic bone is suitable for application to studies of population dynamics and other age-related aspects of manatee biology.

  17. MBE growth of Topological Isolators based on strained semi-metallic HgCdTe layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grendysa, J.; Tomaka, G.; Sliz, P.; Becker, C. R.; Trzyna, M.; Wojnarowska-Nowak, R.; Bobko, E.; Sheregii, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Particularities of Molecular Beam Epitaxial (MBE) technology for the growth of Topological Insulators (TI) based on the semi-metal Hg1-xCdx Te are presented. A series of strained layers grown on GaAs substrates with a composition close to the 3D Dirac point were studied. The composition of the layers was verified by means of the position of the E1 maximum in optical reflectivity in the visible region. The surface morphology was determined via atomic force and electron microscopy. Magneto-transport measurements show quantized Hall resistance curves and Shubnikov de Hass oscillations (up to 50 K). It has been demonstrated that a well-developed MBE technology enables one to grow strained Hg1-xCdx Te layers on GaAs/CdTe substrates with a well-defined composition near the 3D Dirac point and consequently allows one to produce a 3D topological Dirac semimetal - 3D analogy of graphene - for future applications.

  18. Fracture and fatigue considerations in the development of ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The salient microstructural factors influencing fracture and fatigue-crack growth resistance of ductile-particle reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites at ambient temperature are reviewed through examples from the Nb/MoSi 2 , TiNb/TiAl, Nb/TiAl and Nb/Nb 3 Al systems; specific emphasis is placed on properties and morphology of the reinforcement and its interfacial properties with the matrix. It is shown that composites must be fabricated with a high aspect ratio ductile-reinforcement morphology in order to promote crack-particle interception and resultant crack bridging for improved fracture and fatigue properties. Concurrently, however, the ductile phases have contrasting effects on crack growth under monotonic vs. cyclic loading suggesting that composite microstructures tailored for optimal toughness may not necessarily yield optimal fatigue resistance. Perspectives for the future development of damage-tolerant intermetallic-composite microstructures are discussed

  19. Growth of nanocrystalline silicon thin film with layer-by-layer technique for fast photo-detecting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y.; Fang, Y.-K.; Chen, S.-F.; Lin, P.-C.; Lin, C.-S.; Chou, T.-H; Hwang, J.S.; Lin, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    High mobility nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films with layer-by-layer technique for fast photo-detecting applications were studied. The structure and morphology of films were studied by means of XRD, micro-Raman scattering, SEM and AFM. The Hall mobility and absorption properties have been investigated and found they were seriously affected by the number of layers in growing, i.e., with increasing of layer number, Hall mobility increased but absorption coefficient decreased. The optimum layer number of nc-Si films for fast near-IR photo-detecting is 7 with film thickness of 1400 nm, while that for fast visible photo-detecting is 17 with film thickness of 3400 nm

  20. MBE growth of few-layer 2H-MoTe2 on 3D substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanath, Suresh; Sundar, Aditya; Liu, Xinyu; Azcatl, Angelica; Lochocki, Edward; Woll, Arthur R.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Hwang, Wan Sik; Lu, Ning; Peng, Xin; Lien, Huai-Hsun; Weisenberger, John; McDonnell, Stephen; Kim, Moon J.; Dobrowolska, Margaret; Furdyna, Jacek K.; Shen, Kyle; Wallace, Robert M.; Jena, Debdeep; Xing, Huili Grace

    2018-01-01

    MoTe2 is the least explored material in the Molybdenum-chalcogen family. Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) provides a unique opportunity to tackle the small electronegativity difference between Mo and Te while growing layer by layer away from thermodynamic equilibrium. We find that for a few-layer MoTe2 grown at a moderate rate of ∼6 min per monolayer, a narrow window in temperature (above Te cell temperature) and Te:Mo ratio exists, where we can obtain pure phase 2H-MoTe2. This is confirmed using reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). For growth on CaF2, Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD) reveals a grain size of ∼90 Å and presence of twinned grains. In this work, we hypothesis the presence of excess Te incorporation in MBE grown few layer 2H-MoTe2. For film on CaF2, it is based on >2 Te:Mo stoichiometry using XPS as well as 'a' and 'c' lattice spacing greater than bulk 2H-MoTe2. On GaAs, its based on observations of Te crystallite formation on film surface, 2 × 2 superstructure observed in RHEED and low energy electron diffraction, larger than bulk c-lattice spacing as well as the lack of electrical conductivity modulation by field effect. Finally, thermal stability and air sensitivity of MBE 2H-MoTe2 is investigated by temperature dependent XRD and XPS, respectively.

  1. Steps in growth of Nb-doped layered titanates with very high surface area suitable for water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanović, Marija; Nikolić, Ljubica M.; Stijepović, Ivan; Kontos, Athanassios G.; Giannakopoulos, Konstantinos P.

    2014-01-01

    Nb-doped layered titanates, as highly efficient adsorbents, have been synthesized by hydrothermal reaction for variable duration and at 150 °C in a highly alkaline solution with NbCl 5 as the Nb source. The results have shown the formation of nanosheets already after 1 h of hydrothermal processing, but morphology and phase composition change as the reaction proceeds. The prepared layered titanates have been structurally investigated via scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The steps of layered titanate growth have been followed and an intermediate layered anatase phase is identified. Thus optimized growth of mesoporous titanate materials with 10% Nb atomic content present very high specific surface area of 345.3 m 2  g −1 , and perform as very efficient adsorbents for wastewater treatment applications. - Highlights: • Nb-doped layered titanates have been prepared by a hydrothermal procedure. • Introduction of Nb to precursor lowers the rate of layered titanate formation. • Steps in growth of Nb-doped layered titanates are considered. • Nb-doped layered titanates show high/fast MB adsorption from concentrated solution

  2. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  3. MBE growth and characterization of GaAs1-x Sb x epitaxial layers on Si (0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, T.; Nishino, F.; Kato, A.; Kambayashi, T.; Jinbo, Y.; Uchitomi, N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the growth of GaAs 1- x Sb x (x=1.0, 0.82, 0.69, 0.44, 0.0) layers on Si (0 0 1) substrates using AlSb as a buffer layer. Epilayers were grown as a function of As beam equivalent pressure (BEP) under a constant Sb BEP, and they were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman scattering analysis. We confirmed that GaAs 1- x Sb x layers have been successfully grown on Si substrates by introducing AlSb layers

  4. Multi-Directional Growth of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Over Catalyst Film Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structure of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs severely depends on the properties of pre-prepared catalyst films. Aiming for the preparation of precisely controlled catalyst film, atomic layer deposition (ALD was employed to deposit uniform Fe2O3 film for the growth of CNT arrays on planar substrate surfaces as well as the curved ones. Iron acetylacetonate and ozone were introduced into the reactor alternately as precursors to realize the formation of catalyst films. By varying the deposition cycles, uniform and smooth Fe2O3 catalyst films with different thicknesses were obtained on Si/SiO2 substrate, which supported the growth of highly oriented few-walled CNT arrays. Utilizing the advantage of ALD process in coating non-planar surfaces, uniform catalyst films can also be successfully deposited onto quartz fibers. Aligned few-walled CNTs can be grafted on the quartz fibers, and they self-organized into a leaf-shaped structure due to the curved surface morphology. The growth of aligned CNTs on non-planar surfaces holds promise in constructing hierarchical CNT architectures in future.

  5. In situ observation of carbon nanotube layer growth on microbolometers with substrates at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatoš, Vojtěch; Gablech, Imrich; Ilic, B. Robert; Pekárek, Jan; Neužil, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have near unity infrared (IR) absorption efficiency, making them extremely attractive for IR imaging devices. Since CNT growth occurs at elevated temperatures, the integration of CNTs with IR imaging devices is challenging and has not yet been achieved. Here, we show a strategy for implementing CNTs as IR absorbers using differential heating of thermally isolated microbolometer membranes in a C2H2 environment. During the process, CNTs were catalytically grown on the surface of a locally heated membrane, while the substrate was maintained at an ambient temperature. CNT growth was monitored in situ in real time using optical microscopy. During growth, we measured the intensity of light emission and the reflected light from the heated microbolometer. Our measurements of bolometer performance show that the CNT layer on the surface of the microbolometer membrane increases the IR response by a factor of (2.3 ± 0.1) (mean ± one standard deviation of the least-squares fit parameters). This work opens the door to integrating near unity IR absorption, CNT-based, IR absorbers with hybrid complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor focal plane array architectures.

  6. Joining thick section aluminum to steel with suppressed FeAl intermetallic formation via friction stir dovetailing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reza-E-Rabby, Md.; Ross, Kenneth; Overman, Nicole R.; Olszta, Matthew J.; McDonnell, Martin; Whalen, Scott A.

    2018-04-01

    A new solid-phase technique called friction stir dovetailing (FSD) has been developed for joining thick section aluminum to steel. In FSD, mechanical interlocks are formed at the aluminum-steel interface and are reinforced by metallurgical bonds where intermetallic growth has been uniquely suppressed. Lap shear testing shows superior strength and extension at failure compared to popular friction stir approaches where metallurgical bonding is the only joining mechanism. High resolution microscopy revealed the presence of a 40-70 nm interlayer having a composition of 76.4 at% Al, 18.4 at% Fe, and 5.2 at% Si, suggestive of limited FeAl3 intermetallic formation.

  7. Characterization of intermetallic compounds in Cu-Al ball bonds: thermo-mechanical properties, interface delamination and corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, G.H.M.; Kouters, M.H.M.; Dos Santos Ferreira, O.

    2012-01-01

    In high power automotive electronics copper wire bonding is regarded as the most promising alternative for gold wire bonding in 1st level interconnects. In the Cu-Al ball bond interface the growth of intermetallic compounds can deteriorate the electrical and mechanical properties of the

  8. Electron-Poor Polar Intermetallics: Complex Structures, Novel Clusters, and Intriguing Bonding with Pronounced Electron Delocalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qisheng; Miller, Gordon J

    2018-01-16

    Intermetallic compounds represent an extensive pool of candidates for energy related applications stemming from magnetic, electric, optic, caloric, and catalytic properties. The discovery of novel intermetallic compounds can enhance understanding of the chemical principles that govern structural stability and chemical bonding as well as finding new applications. Valence electron-poor polar intermetallics with valence electron concentrations (VECs) between 2.0 and 3.0 e - /atom show a plethora of unprecedented and fascinating structural motifs and bonding features. Therefore, establishing simple structure-bonding-property relationships is especially challenging for this compound class because commonly accepted valence electron counting rules are inappropriate. During our efforts to find quasicrystals and crystalline approximants by valence electron tuning near 2.0 e - /atom, we observed that compositions close to those of quasicrystals are exceptional sources for unprecedented valence electron-poor polar intermetallics, e.g., Ca 4 Au 10 In 3 containing (Au 10 In 3 ) wavy layers, Li 14.7 Mg 36.8 Cu 21.5 Ga 66 adopting a type IV clathrate framework, and Sc 4 Mg x Cu 15-x Ga 7.5 that is incommensurately modulated. In particular, exploratory syntheses of AAu 3 T (A = Ca, Sr, Ba and T = Ge, Sn) phases led to interesting bonding features for Au, such as columns, layers, and lonsdaleite-type tetrahedral frameworks. Overall, the breadth of Au-rich polar intermetallics originates, in part, from significant relativistics effect on the valence electrons of Au, effects which result in greater 6s/5d orbital mixing, a small effective metallic radius, and an enhanced Mulliken electronegativity, all leading to ultimate enhanced binding with nearly all metals including itself. Two other successful strategies to mine electron-poor polar intermetallics include lithiation and "cation-rich" phases. Along these lines, we have studied lithiated Zn-rich compounds in which structural

  9. A metastable HCP intermetallic phase in Cu-Al bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Limei

    2006-07-01

    For the present study, three kinds of layered Cu/Al films have been fabricated. The first kind of samples were multilayered Cu/Al films deposited by sputtering on (001)Si. The individual layer thicknesses were 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm, while the total film thickness of 800 nm was kept constant, thus leading to multilayer systems with 8, 4 and 2 layers, respectively. The second type of samples were Cu/Al bilayer films grown on (0001) sapphire by sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses of 400 nm. The third type of samples were bilayer films (100 nm Cu and 100 nm Al) deposited on (0001)sapphire by MBE at room temperature. Applying conventional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, different epitaxial growth behaviors were found in these films. All multilayer films from the first type were polycrystalline. The second type of films show a (111) FCC texture and possess intermetallic phases at the interfaces. HRTEM investigations displayed that along [111]FCC, the atomic structure of the interlayer has an ABAB stacking sequence, which is identical with a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure in [0001] direction, but not with the ABCABC stacking sequence of Cu and Al in [111]FCC. The lattice parameters of the HCP structure at the interlayer were determined from a model which gave the best agreement between the experimental and simulated images. The parameters are: a=b=0.256 nm, c=0.419 nm, ?=120 , with the space group of P6m2. Furthermore, lattice distortion analysis revealed that the lattice parameters of the HCP phase are increasing from the near-Cu-side to the near-Al-side. The chemical composition of the interlayer was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS linescans were performed from pure Al to pure Cu layers. In order to examine the stability of this HCP phase, in-situ heating experiments were performed in the HRTEM at {proportional_to}600 C. Ex-situ heating experiments were performed at different temperatures to

  10. Correlation study between intermetallic layer and drop test for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymer core coated lead-free solder ball is one of an alternative in integrated circuit (IC) packaging interconnection. In order to verify the performance of polymer core coated solder balls, the reliability comparison of Nickel (Ni)-coated polymer core solder ball with non-coated polymer solder ball is carried out. The polymer ...

  11. A novel, ultra sensible biosensor built by layer-by-layer covalent attachment of a receptor for diagnosis of tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uygun, Zihni Onur; Sezgintuerk, Mustafa Kemal

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Vascular Entothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 was used as a biorecognition element as a first time in the literature. → Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, as a measurement principle was used for analysis of VEGF-R1/VEGF interaction as a first time. → A layer-by-layer immobilization procedure enhanced the sensibility of the biosensor. → The biosensor could detect vascular endothelial growth factor in the range of 100-600 femtogram mL -1 . - Abstract: In the presented research, a novel, ultra sensitive biosensor for the impedimetric detection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is introduced. The human vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGF-R1, Flt-1) was used as a biorecognition element for the first time. The immobilization of VEGF-R1 on glassy carbon electrodes was carried out using layer-by-layer covalent attachment of VEGF-R1. The electrochemical properties of the layers constructed on the electrodes were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The differences in electron transfer resistance (R et ) between the working solution and the biosensor surface, recorded by the redox probe K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]/K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ], confirmed the binding of VEGF to VEGF-R1. The new biosensor allowed a detection limit of 100 fg mL -1 with a linear range of 100-600 fg mL -1 to be obtained. The biosensor also exhibited good repeatability (with a correlation coefficient of 1.95%), and reproducibility.

  12. Atomic layer deposition: an enabling technology for the growth of functional nanoscale semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyikli, Necmi; Haider, Ali

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present the progress in the growth of nanoscale semiconductors grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD). After the adoption by semiconductor chip industry, ALD became a widespread tool to grow functional films and conformal ultra-thin coatings for various applications. Based on self-limiting and ligand-exchange-based surface reactions, ALD enabled the low-temperature growth of nanoscale dielectric, metal, and semiconductor materials. Being able to deposit wafer-scale uniform semiconductor films at relatively low-temperatures, with sub-monolayer thickness control and ultimate conformality, makes ALD attractive for semiconductor device applications. Towards this end, precursors and low-temperature growth recipes are developed to deposit crystalline thin films for compound and elemental semiconductors. Conventional thermal ALD as well as plasma-assisted and radical-enhanced techniques have been exploited to achieve device-compatible film quality. Metal-oxides, III-nitrides, sulfides, and selenides are among the most popular semiconductor material families studied via ALD technology. Besides thin films, ALD can grow nanostructured semiconductors as well using either template-assisted growth methods or bottom-up controlled nucleation mechanisms. Among the demonstrated semiconductor nanostructures are nanoparticles, nano/quantum-dots, nanowires, nanotubes, nanofibers, nanopillars, hollow and core-shell versions of the afore-mentioned nanostructures, and 2D materials including transition metal dichalcogenides and graphene. ALD-grown nanoscale semiconductor materials find applications in a vast amount of applications including functional coatings, catalysis and photocatalysis, renewable energy conversion and storage, chemical sensing, opto-electronics, and flexible electronics. In this review, we give an overview of the current state-of-the-art in ALD-based nanoscale semiconductor research including the already demonstrated and future applications.

  13. Growth of polyaniline nanofibers for supercapacitor applications using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, P. R.; Pusawale, S. N.; Shinde, N. M.; Lokhande, C. D. [Shivaji University, Kolhapur (India)

    2014-07-15

    We report the synthesis of polyaniline nanofibers using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The structural study shows the amorphous nature of polyaniline. The formation of polyaniline nanofibers has been revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas the confirmation of polyaniline material is obtained from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. A plausible explanation illustrating the growth mechanism is presented. A maximum specific capacitance of 1078 F·g{sup -1} at a scan rate of 5 mV·s{sup -1} is obtained. The charge-discharge behavior shows a maximum specific power of 1.2 kW·kg{sup -1} and specific energy of 64 Wh·kg{sup -1}. The ease of the synthesis and the interesting electrochemical properties indicate that polyaniline nanofibers are promising materials for supercapacitor applications.

  14. Growth of polyaniline nanofibers for supercapacitor applications using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, P. R.; Pusawale, S. N.; Shinde, N. M.; Lokhande, C. D.

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis of polyaniline nanofibers using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The structural study shows the amorphous nature of polyaniline. The formation of polyaniline nanofibers has been revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas the confirmation of polyaniline material is obtained from Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. A plausible explanation illustrating the growth mechanism is presented. A maximum specific capacitance of 1078 F·g -1 at a scan rate of 5 mV·s -1 is obtained. The charge-discharge behavior shows a maximum specific power of 1.2 kW·kg -1 and specific energy of 64 Wh·kg -1 . The ease of the synthesis and the interesting electrochemical properties indicate that polyaniline nanofibers are promising materials for supercapacitor applications.

  15. Epitaxial growth and characterization of CoO/Fe(001) thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, A.; Sessi, P.; Cantoni, M.; Duo, L.; Finazzi, M.; Ciccacci, F.

    2008-01-01

    By means of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction, we show that it is possible to grow good quality thin epitaxial CoO films on Fe(001) substrates, through deposition in oxygen atmosphere. In particular, the composition and the structure of CoO(001)/Fe(001) bilayer systems and Fe(001)/CoO(001)/Fe(001) trilayer systems have been investigated by monitoring the evolution of the chemical interactions at the interfaces as a function of CoO thickness and growth temperature. We observe the presence of Fe oxides at the CoO/Fe interface and of a thin layer of metallic cobalt at the upper Fe/CoO interface of trilayer systems

  16. Sublattice-specific ordering of ZnO layers during the heteroepitaxial growth at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Cubero, A.; Vinnichenko, M.; Muecklich, A.; Kolitsch, A.; Krause, M.; Munoz, E.; Gago, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the substrate temperature on the sublattice ordering in ZnO layers grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering on sapphire has been investigated by different techniques. The improvement of the crystal quality and heteroepitaxial growth at relatively low temperatures (550 deg. C) is verified by x-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS/C), and Raman spectroscopy. Sublattice-resolved analysis by resonant RBS/C and Raman spectroscopy reveals that the progressive transition to the single crystal phase is accomplished in a faster way for Zn- than for O-sublattice. This behavior is attributed to the preferential annealing of defects in the Zn sublattice at low temperatures when compared to those of the O sublattice.

  17. Solvability conditions for dendritic growth in the boundary-layer model with capillary anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, J. S.; Hong, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned primarily with the development of an analytic approach to the theory of steady-state velocity selection in the boundary-layer model of dendritic solidification. The two-dimensional version of this model with a fourfold crystalline anisotropy alpha in the surface tension is considered. By extending a WKB method introduced in an earlier paper, the alpha dependence of the selected growth rate is determined in the limit of small alpha; and this rate is studied for large alphas in the limit in which the dimensionless undercooling approaches unity. Portions of the paper are devoted to a reinterpretation of the mathematical structure of the solvability condition in problems of this kind.

  18. Transcriptional analysis of liver from chickens with fast (meat bird), moderate (F1 layer x meat bird cross) and low (layer bird) growth potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Nicky-Lee; Forder, Rebecca E A; Tearle, Rick; Williams, John L; Hughes, Robert J; Nattrass, Greg S; Hynd, Philip I

    2018-05-02

    Divergent selection for meat and egg production in poultry has resulted in strains of birds differing widely in traits related to these products. Modern strains of meat birds can reach live weights of 2 kg in 35 d, while layer strains are now capable of producing more than 300 eggs per annum but grow slowly. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to investigate hepatic gene expression between three groups of birds with large differences in growth potential; meat bird, layer strain as well as an F1 layer x meat bird. The objective was to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes between all three strains to elucidate biological factors underpinning variations in growth performance. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA extracted from the liver of meat bird (n = 6), F1 layer x meat bird cross (n = 6) and layer strain (n = 6), males. Differential expression of genes were considered significant at P layers (19%), 2935 DE between meat birds and the cross (9.6%) and 493 DE between the cross and layers (1.6%). Comparisons between the three groups identified 155 significant DE genes. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis of the 155 DE genes showed the FoxO signalling pathway was most enriched (P = 0.001), including genes related to cell cycle regulation and insulin signalling. Significant GO terms included 'positive regulation of glucose import' and 'cellular response to oxidative stress', which is also consistent with FoxOs regulation of glucose metabolism. There were high correlations between FoxO pathway genes and bodyweight, as well as genes related to glycolysis and bodyweight. This study revealed large transcriptome differences between meat and layer birds. There was significant evidence implicating the FoxO signalling pathway (via cell cycle regulation and altered metabolism) as an active driver of growth variations in chicken. Functional analysis of the FoxO genes is required to

  19. Experimental Analysis of Hydraulic Fracture Growth and Acoustic Emission Response in a Layered Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Shicheng, Zhang; Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shan, Wu; Yinuo, Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Microseismic/acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is an essential technology for understanding hydraulic fracture (HF) geometry and stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) during hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs. To investigate HF growth mechanisms and features of induced microseismic/AE events in a layered formation, laboratory fracturing experiments were performed on shale specimens (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm) with multiple bedding planes (BPs) under triaxial stresses. AE monitoring was used to reveal the spatial distribution and hypocenter mechanisms of AE events induced by rock failure. Computerized tomography scanning was used to observe the internal fracture geometry. Experimental results showed that the various HF geometries could be obviously distinguished based on injection pressure curves and AE responses. Fracture complexity was notably increased when vertically growing HFs connected with and opened more BPs. The formation of a complex fracture network was generally indicated by frequent fluctuations in injection pressure curves, intense AE activity, and three-dimensionally distributed AE events. Investigations of the hypocenter mechanisms revealed that shear failure/event dominated in shale specimens. Shear and tensile events were induced in hydraulically connected regions, and shear events also occurred around BPs that were not hydraulically connected. This led to an overestimation of HF height and SRV in layered formations based on the AE location results. The results also showed that variable injection rate and using plugging agent were conducive in promoting HF to penetrate through the weak and high-permeability BPs, thereby increasing the fracture height.

  20. Investigating the Effect of Growth Phase on the Surface-Layer Associated Proteome of Lactobacillus acidophilus Using Quantitative Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Klotz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial surface-layers (S-layers are semi-porous crystalline arrays that self-assemble to form the outermost layer of some cell envelopes. S-layers have been shown to act as scaffolding structures for the display of auxiliary proteins externally. These S-layer associated proteins have recently gained attention in probiotics due to their direct physical contact with the intestinal mucosa and potential role in cell proliferation, adhesion, and immunomodulation. A number of studies have attempted to catalog the S-layer associated proteome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM under a single condition. However, due to the versatility of the cell surface, we chose to employ a multiplexing-based approach with the intention of accurately contrasting multiple conditions. In this study, a previously described lithium chloride isolation protocol was used to release proteins bound to the L. acidophilus S-layer during logarithmic and early stationary growth phases. Protein quantification values were obtained via TMT (tandem mass tag labeling combined with a triple-stage mass spectrometry (MS3 method. Results showed significant growth stage-dependent alterations to the surface-associated proteome while simultaneously highlighting the sensitivity and reproducibility of the technology. Thus, this study establishes a framework for quantifying condition-dependent changes to cell surface proteins that can easily be applied to other S-layer forming bacteria.

  1. Growth of AlN/Pt heterostructures on amorphous substrates at low temperatures via atomic layer epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, N.; Goswami, R.; Qadri, S.B.; Mahadik, N.A.; Kub, F.J.; Eddy, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results on atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) growth and characterization of (0 0 0 1)AlN on highly oriented (1 1 1)Pt layers on amorphous HfO 2 /Si(1 0 0) are reported. HfO 2 was deposited by atomic layer deposition on Si(1 0 0) followed by ALE growth of Pt(15 nm) and, subsequently, AlN(60 nm) at 500 °C. Based on the X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements, the Pt and AlN layers are highly oriented along the (1 1 1) and (0 0 0 2) directions, respectively. Demonstrations of AlN/Pt heterostructures open up the possibility of new state-of-the-art microelectromechanical systems devices

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Compressible Reacting Boundary Layer using a Temporal Slow Growth Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalian, Victor; Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A DNS of a compressible, reacting boundary layer flow at Reθ ~ 430 was performed using a temporal slow-growth homogenization, for a multispecies flow model of air at supersonic regime. The overall scenario parameters are related to those of the flow over an ablating surface of a space capsule upon Earth's atmospheric re-entry. The simulation algorithm features Fourier spatial discretization in the streamwise and spanwise directions, B-splines in the wall normal direction, and is marched semi-implicitly in time using the SMR91 scheme. Flow statistics will be presented for relevant flow quantities, in particular those related with RANS modeling. Since analogous slow growth computations can be performed using RANS to predict the flow mean profiles, the use of data gathered from this type of simulation as a vehicle for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of RANS models will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  3. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C., E-mail: jc.chen@ostendo.com; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li [EPI Lab, Ostendo Technologies, Inc., 679 Brea Canyon Rd, Walnut, CA 91789 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  4. Growth of monolithic full-color GaN-based LED with intermediate carrier blocking layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghoroury, Hussein S.; Yeh, Milton; Chen, J. C.; Li, X.; Chuang, Chih-Li

    2016-01-01

    Specially designed intermediate carrier blocking layers (ICBLs) in multi-active regions of III-nitride LEDs were shown to be effective in controlling the carrier injection distribution across the active regions. In principle, the majority of carriers, both holes and electrons, can be guided into targeted quantum wells and recombine to generate light of specific wavelengths at controlled current-densities. Accordingly we proposed and demonstrated a novel monolithic InGaN-based LED to achieve three primary colors of light from one device at selected current densities. This LED structure, which has three different sets of quantum wells separated with ICBLs for three primary red-green-blue (RGB) colors, was grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Results show that this LED can emit light ranging from 460 to 650 nm to cover the entire visible spectrum. The emission wavelength starts at 650 nm and then decreases to 460 nm or lower as the injection current increases. In addition to three primary colors, many other colors can be obtained by color mixing techniques. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of monolithic full-color LED grown by a simple growth technique without using re-growth process.

  5. Layered growth with bottom-spray granulation for spray deposition of drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Dawn Z L; Liew, Celine V; Heng, Paul W S

    2009-07-30

    The gap in scientific knowledge on bottom-spray fluidized bed granulation has emphasized the need for more studies in this area. This paper comparatively studied the applicability of a modified bottom-spray process and the conventional top-spray process for the spray deposition of a micronized drug during granulation. The differences in circulation pattern, mode of growth and resultant granule properties between the two processes were highlighted. The more ordered and consistent circulation pattern of particles in a bottom-spray fluidized bed was observed to give rise to layered granule growth. This resulted in better drug content uniformity among the granule batches and within a granule batch. The processes' sensitivities to wetting and feed material characteristics were also compared and found to differ markedly. Less robustness to differing process conditions was observed for the top-spray process. The resultant bottom-spray granules formed were observed to be less porous, more spherical and had good flow properties. The bottom-spray technique can thus be potentially applied for the spray deposition of drug during granulation and was observed to be a good alternative to the conventional technique for preparing granules.

  6. In-situ ellipsometric characterization of the growth of porous anisotropic nanocrystalline ZnO layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laha, P., E-mail: plaha@vub.ac.be; Terryn, H.; Ustarroz, J., E-mail: justarro@vub.ac.be [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Elsene, Brussels (Belgium); Nazarkin, M. Y., E-mail: mikleo@mail.ru; Gavrilov, S. A. [Department of Materials of Functional Electronics (MFE), National Research University of Electronic Technology, Bld. 5, Pas. 4806, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation); Volkova, A. V.; Simunin, M. M. [Department of Quantum Physics and Nanoelectronics (QPN), National Research University of Electronic Technology, Bld. 5, Pas. 4806, Zelenograd, Moscow 124498 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-09

    ZnO films have increasingly been in the spotlight due to their largely varied electro-physical and optical properties. For several applications, porous anisotropic nanocrystalline layers are especially interesting. To study the growth kinetics of such films during different fabrication processes, a powerful non-destructive in-situ technique is required. In this work, both ex-situ and in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry are used along with advanced modelling techniques that are able to take both the anisotropy and the porosity of the films into account. Scanning electron microscopy, along with nitrogen absorption methods for measuring porosity, validated the ellipsometric data and proposed model. The film, grown by chemical bath deposition, was monitored from around 700 to 1800 nm in thickness. This same principle can now be used to monitor any other porous and/or anisotropic structure in an effective in-situ manner, e.g., growth of porous anodic aluminium oxides, nano-porous silica films, etc.

  7. The vertical growth of MoS2 layers at the initial stage of CVD from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiong-Xiong; Feng, Yexin; Chen, Keqiu; Zhang, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the highly preferred method for mass production of transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layers, yet the atomic-scale knowledge is still lacking about the nucleation and growth. In this study, by using first-principles calculations, we show that, on Au(111) surface, one-dimensional (1D) MoxSy chains are first formed by coalescing of smaller feeding species and are energetically favored at the early stage of nucleation. Two-dimensional (2D) layers can be stabilized only after the number of Mo atoms exceeds ˜12. A vertical growth mode is revealed which accomplishes the structural transformation from the 1D chains to the 2D layers for the clusters while growing. The competition between intralayer and interlayer interactions is the key. These findings serve as new insights for better understanding the atomistic mechanism of the nucleation and growth of TMDs on the surface.

  8. Supercapacitor electrodes by direct growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes on Al: a study of performance versus layer growth evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fu; Vicenzo, Antonello; Hashempour, Mazdak; Bestetti, Massimiliano

    2014-01-01

    Supercapacitor electrodes were fabricated by direct growth of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on Al current collectors via a chemical vapor deposition process in the presence of a spin-coated Co-Mo catalyst. A detailed study of the dependence of the CNT layer structure and thickness on growth time set the basis for the assessment of supercapacitors assembled with the CNTs/Al electrodes. As the main features of the layer growth evolution, an increase in the population of finer CNTs and a shift from a random entanglement to a rough vertical alignment of nanotubes were noted with proceeding growth. The growth time influence on the performance of supercapacitors was in fact apparent. Particularly, the specific capacitance of CNTs/Al electrodes in 0.5 M K 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte increased from 35 to 80 F g −1 as the CNT layer thickness varied from 20 to 60 μm, with a concurrent loss in rate capability (knee frequency from 1 kHz to 60 Hz). The latter was excellent in general, arguably due to both a fast ion transport through the interconnected CNT network and a negligible contribution of the active layer/current collector contact to the equivalent series resistance (0.15–0.22 mΩ g), a distinct advantage of the direct growth fabrication method. Overall, a relatively simple process of direct growth of CNTs on Al foils is shown to be an effective method to fabricate supercapacitor electrodes, notably in the absence of special measures and processing steps finalized to a tight control of nanotubes growth and organization

  9. Characterization and growth mechanism of nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers grown on patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Narihito; Tadatomo, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers with markedly improved crystalline quality can be obtained by selective-area growth from the sapphire sidewalls of patterned sapphire substrates (PSSs). In this paper, we review the crystalline qualities of GaN layers grown on PSSs and their growth mechanism. We grew semipolar {1 1 −2 2} and {1 0 −1 1} GaN layers on r- and n-PSSs. The crystalline qualities of the GaN layers grown on the PSSs were higher than those of GaN layers grown directly on heteroepitaxial substrates. To reveal the growth mechanism of GaN layers grown on PSSs, we also grew various nonpolar and semipolar GaN layers such as m-GaN on a-PSS, {1 1 −2 2} GaN on r-PSS, {1 0 − 1  1} GaN on n-PSS, m-GaN on c-PSS and a-GaN on m-PSS. It was found that the nucleation of GaN on the c-plane-like sapphire sidewall results in selective growth from the sapphire sidewall, and nonpolar or semipolar GaN can be obtained. Finally, we demonstrated a light-emitting diode fabricated on a {1 1 −2 2} GaN layer grown on an r-PSS. (paper)

  10. Titanium modified with layer-by-layer sol-gel tantalum oxide and an organodiphosphonic acid: a coating for hydroxyapatite growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnould, C; Volcke, C; Lamarque, C; Thiry, P A; Delhalle, J; Mekhalif, Z

    2009-08-15

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used in surgical implants due to their appropriate properties like corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and load bearing. Unfortunately when metals are used for orthopedic and dental implants there is the possibility of loosening over a long period of time. Surface modification is a good way to counter this problem. A thin tantalum oxide layer obtained by layer-by-layer (LBL) sol-gel deposition on top of a titanium surface is expected to improve biocorrosion resistance in the body fluid, biocompatibility, and radio-opacity. This elaboration step is followed by a modification of the tantalum oxide surface with an organodiphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer, capable of chemically binding to the oxide surface, and also improving hydroxyapatite growth. The different steps of this proposed process are characterized by surfaces techniques like contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  11. Growth and rooting of Solanecio mannii: comparison of seedlings and air layers on a 24-month trial in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Meunier

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative propagation of trees remains understudied in Africa. Such methods however provide potential for producing trees and shrubs with high social and economic value. Air layering is one of these techniques and can be used in Uganda for the domestication of underutilized multipurpose trees. The main purposes of this trial were to compare the growth rates of 30 Solanecio mannii plants grown from seed and 30 plants grown from air layering, and to observe the main morphological differences that affected the growth and root system of those 60 plants. This 24-month preliminary and prospective trial was conducted to compare the growth characteristics of seedlings and air layers, by measuring their height, diameter, precocity to flower and fruit, and their root system quality. Air layers were stronger, quickly reaching maturity but showing weakness in their root systems, while seedlings seemingly smaller and slower showed more stability with a well-structured root system. Air layering could be used to reproduce desirable genotypes. Due to their unbalanced root system observed in the field after two years, the air layers, once transplanted into a nursery, should be propagated by cuttings or grafting only.

  12. Subdaily growth patterns and organo-mineral nanostructure of the growth layers in the calcitic prisms of the shell of Concholepas concholepas Bruguière, 1789 (Gastropoda, Muricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Nury; Ball, Alexander D; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Dauphin, Yannicke; Denis, Alain; Ortlieb, Luc

    2007-10-01

    Fluorochrome marking of the gastropod Concholepas concholepas has shown that the prismatic units of the shell are built by superimposition of isochronic growth layers of about 2 mum. Fluorescent growth marks make it possible to establish the high periodicity of the cyclic biomineralization process at a standard growth rhythm of about 45 layers a day. Sulphated polysaccharides have been identified within the growth layers by using synchrotron radiation, whereas high resolution mapping enables the banding pattern of the mineral phase to be correlated with the layered distribution of polysaccharides. Atomic force microscopy has shown that the layers are made of nanograins densely packed in an organic component.

  13. Aspartic acid racemization rate in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) eye lens nuclei estimated by counting of growth layers in tusks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Ages of marine mammals have traditionally been estimated by counting dentinal growth layers in teeth. However, this method is difficult to use on narwhals (Monodon monoceros) because of their special tooth structures. Alternative methods are therefore needed. The aspartic acid racemization (AAR......) technique has been used in age estimation studies of cetaceans, including narwhals. The purpose of this study was to estimate a species-specific racemization rate for narwhals by regressing aspartic acid D/L ratios in eye lens nuclei against growth layer groups in tusks (n=9). Two racemization rates were...

  14. ToF-SIMS study of growth behavior in all-nanoparticle multilayer films using a novel indicator layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.-J.; Yin, Y.-S.; Ling, Y.-C.

    2008-01-01

    All-nanoparticle multilayer films found novel applications in the areas of photonics, catalysis, sensors, and biomaterials. The assembly of nanoparticles into conformal and uniform films with precise control over chemical and physical properties poses a significant challenge. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), we have investigated the growth behavior in all-nanoparticle multilayer films using a novel indicator layer. The all-nanoparticle multilayer films were prepared by dipping the polyester substrate with electrostatic charges alternatively into solutions containing three different types of nanoparticles (TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and SiO 2 ). Upon the deposition of each layer, ToF-SIMS was employed to determine the surface chemical composition of intermediate products. The intermixing extent of TiO 2 indicator layer was used to reveal the stratification of each layer. Combining with zeta-potential measurements, the solvation and deposition of the under-layer species in the aqueous environment during fresh layer formation was proposed as a plausible cause for mutilayers not stratified into well-defined layers but displaying a nonlinear growth behavior.

  15. Influence of the ion implantation on the nanoscale intermetallic phases formation in Ni-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikov, M.P.; Kurzina, I.A.; Bozhko, I.A.; Kozlov, E.V.; Fortuna, S.V.; Sivin, D.O.; Stepanov, I.B.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The ion implantation at a high intensity mode is an effective method for modification of the surface properties of metals and alloys. Improvement of mechanical and tribological properties of irradiated materials using the high intensity implantation is connected with an element composition and microstructure modification of the surface and subsurface layers. One shows a great interest in intermetallic phase's synthesis by ion implantation, because of unique physical-mechanical properties of the intermetallic compounds. The influence of the irradiation conditions on the structural state and surface properties of implanted materials is not clear enough. The study of the factors influencing on the formation of the surface ion - alloyed layers of metal targets having the high tribological and mechanical properties by high intensity ion implantation is actual. The aim of the present work is a study of the microstructure, phase composition, physical and mechanical properties of the ion-alloyed Ni surfaces formed at high intensity implantation of Ti ions. The implantation Ti ions into Ni samples at high intensity mode was realized using ion source 'Raduga - 5'. The implantation Ti ions into Ni was carried out at accelerating voltage 20 kV for 2 h. The regimes were differed in the samples temperature (580 - 700 K), the distance from the ion implanted samples to the ion source (0.43-0.93 m) and the dose of irradiated ions (0.3·10 18 -2.9·10 18 ion/cm -2 ). The element composition of the implanted samples was analyzed by the electron spectroscopy. The structural-phase state of the Ni ion-modified layers was investigated by the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. Additionally, the investigation of mechanical and tribological properties of the implanted Ni samples was carried out. It was established that the maximum thickness of the ion-alloyed nickel layers at high intensity mode allows forming the nanoscale intermetallic phases (Ni

  16. Growth model and structure evolution of Ag layers deposited on Ge films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Górecka, Ewa; Kierdaszuk, Jakub; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the crystallinity and optical parameters of silver layers of 10-35 nm thickness as a function 2-10 nm thick Ge wetting films deposited on SiO 2 substrates. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements proved that segregation of germanium into the surface of the silver film is a result of the gradient growth of silver crystals. The free energy of Ge atoms is reduced by their migration from boundaries of larger grains at the Ag/SiO 2 interface to boundaries of smaller grains near the Ag surface. Annealing at different temperatures and various durations allowed for a controlled distribution of crystal dimensions, thus influencing the segregation rate. Furthermore, using ellipsometric and optical transmission measurements we determined the time-dependent evolution of the film structure. If stored under ambient conditions for the first week after deposition, the changes in the transmission spectra are smaller than the measurement accuracy. Over the course of the following three weeks, the segregation-induced effects result in considerably modified transmission spectra. Two months after deposition, the slope of the silver layer density profile derived from the XRR spectra was found to be inverted due to the completed segregation process, and the optical transmission spectra increased uniformly due to the roughened surfaces, corrosion of silver and ongoing recrystallization. The Raman spectra of the Ge wetted Ag films were measured immediately after deposition and ten days later and demonstrated that the Ge atoms at the Ag grain boundaries form clusters of a few atoms where the Ge-Ge bonds are still present.

  17. Role of intermetallics on the mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al ball bond interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassnig, A., E-mail: alice.lassnig@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); Pelzer, R. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Siemensstrae 2, 9500 Villach (Austria); Gammer, C. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien (Austria); National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Khatibi, G. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology and Analytics, Getreidemarkt 9, 1060 Wien (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al interfaces occurring in thermosonic ball bonds –typically used in microelectronic packages for automotive applications – is investigated by means of a specially designed fatigue test technique. Fully reversed cyclic shear stresses are induced at the bond interface, leading to subsequent fatigue lift off failure and revealing the weakest site of the bond. A special focus is set on the role of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC) on the fatigue performance of such interfaces. Therefore fatigue life curves were obtained for three representative microstructural states: The as-bonded state is compared to two annealed states at 200 °C for 200 h and at 200 °C for 2000 h respectively. In the moderately annealed state two IMC layers (Al{sub 2}Cu, Al{sub 4}Cu{sub 9}) could be identified, whereas in the highly aged state the original pad metallization was almost entirely consumed and AlCu is formed as a third IMC. Finally, the crack path is traced back as a function of interfacial microstructure by means of electron microscopy techniques. Whereas conventional static shear tests reveal no significant decrease of the bond shear force with increased IMC formation the fatigue tests prove a clear degradation in the cyclic mechanical performance. It can be concluded that during cycling the crack deflects easily into the formed intermetallics, leading to early failure of the ball bonds due to their brittle nature. - Highlights: • High cycle fatigue of various miniaturized Cu–Al interfaces is investigated. • Interfacial intermetallic compounds consist of Al2Cu, AlCu and Al4Cu9. • Static shear strength shows minor dependency on interfacial phase formation. • Fatigue tests prove significant degradation with intermetallic compound evolution. • Fatigue fracture surface analysis reveal microstructure dependent crack path.

  18. Role of intermetallics on the mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al ball bond interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassnig, A.; Pelzer, R.; Gammer, C.; Khatibi, G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical fatigue behavior of Cu–Al interfaces occurring in thermosonic ball bonds –typically used in microelectronic packages for automotive applications – is investigated by means of a specially designed fatigue test technique. Fully reversed cyclic shear stresses are induced at the bond interface, leading to subsequent fatigue lift off failure and revealing the weakest site of the bond. A special focus is set on the role of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMC) on the fatigue performance of such interfaces. Therefore fatigue life curves were obtained for three representative microstructural states: The as-bonded state is compared to two annealed states at 200 °C for 200 h and at 200 °C for 2000 h respectively. In the moderately annealed state two IMC layers (Al 2 Cu, Al 4 Cu 9 ) could be identified, whereas in the highly aged state the original pad metallization was almost entirely consumed and AlCu is formed as a third IMC. Finally, the crack path is traced back as a function of interfacial microstructure by means of electron microscopy techniques. Whereas conventional static shear tests reveal no significant decrease of the bond shear force with increased IMC formation the fatigue tests prove a clear degradation in the cyclic mechanical performance. It can be concluded that during cycling the crack deflects easily into the formed intermetallics, leading to early failure of the ball bonds due to their brittle nature. - Highlights: • High cycle fatigue of various miniaturized Cu–Al interfaces is investigated. • Interfacial intermetallic compounds consist of Al2Cu, AlCu and Al4Cu9. • Static shear strength shows minor dependency on interfacial phase formation. • Fatigue tests prove significant degradation with intermetallic compound evolution. • Fatigue fracture surface analysis reveal microstructure dependent crack path

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Nanoparticles of Intermetallic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiSalvo, Francis J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The research program from 2010 to the end of the grant focused on understanding the factors important to the synthesis of single phase intermetallic nano-particles (NPs), their size, crystalline order, surface properties and electrochemical activity. The synthetic method developed is a co-reduction of mixtures of single metal precursors by strong, soluble reducing agents in a non-protic solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). With some exceptions, the particles obtained by room temperature reduction are random alloys that need to be annealed at modest temperatures (200 to 600 °C) in order to develop an ordered structure. To avoid significant particle size growth and agglomeration, the particles must be protected by surface coatings. We developed a novel method of coating the metal nanoparticles with KCl, a by-product of the reduction reaction if the proper reducing agents are employed. In that case, a composite product containing individual metal nanoparticles in a KCl matrix is obtained. The composite can be heated to at least 600 °C without significant agglomeration or growth in particle size. Washing the annealed product in the presence of catalyst supports in ethylene glycol removes the KCl and deposits the particles on the support. Six publications present the method and its application to producing and studying new catalyst/support combinations for fuel cell applications. Three publications concern the use of related methods to explore new lithium-sulfur battery concepts.

  20. Study of annealing effect on the growth of ZnO nanorods on ZnO seed layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannakashappanavar, Basavaraj S.; Pattanashetti, Nandini A.; Byrareddy, C. R.; Yadav, Aniruddh Bahadur

    2018-04-01

    A zinc oxide (ZnO) seed layer was deposited on the SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering. To study the effect of annealing, the seed layers were classified into annealed and unannealed thin films. Annealing of the seed layers was carried at 450°C. Surface morphology of the seed layers were studied by Atomic force microscopy. ZnO nanorods were then grown on both the types of seed layer by hydrothermal method. The morphology and the structural properties of the nanorods were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscopy. The effect of seed layer annealing on the growth and orientation of the ZnO nanorods were clearly examined on comparing with the nanorods grown on unannealed seed layer. The nanorods grown on annealed seed layers were found to be well aligned and oriented. Further, the I-V characteristic study was carried out on these aligned nanorods. The results supports positively for the future work to further enhance the properties of developed nanorods for their wide applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Growth and thermal oxidation of Ru and ZrO2 thin films as oxidation protective layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coloma Ribera, R.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of physical and chemical processes occurring during growth and thermal oxidation of Ru and ZrO2 thin films. Acting as oxidation resistant capping materials to prevent oxidation of layers underneath, these films have several applications, i.e., in microelectronics

  2. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  3. Cold-walled UHV/CVD batch reactor for the growth of Si1_x/Gex layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Erik Vilain; Christensen, Carsten; Andersen, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    A novel cold-walled, lamp-heated, ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV/CVD) batch system for the growth of SiGe layers is presented. This system combines the batch capability of the standard UHV/CVD furnace with the temperature processing available in rapid thermal processing (Rm...

  4. The growth of various buffer layer structures and their influence on the quality of (CdHg)Te epilayers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, GJ

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of various buffer layer structures on (100) GaAs for (CdHg)Te growth by organometallic vapour phase epitaxy (OMVPE) was investigated. The preferred epitaxial orientation of (100) GaAs/ (lll) CdTe was found to be unsuitable due...

  5. Thermally oxidized aluminum as catalyst-support layer for vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotube growth using ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Mohd Asyadi, E-mail: asyadi@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Fujiwara, Akihiko [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Shimoda, Tatsuya [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2011-11-01

    Characteristics and role of Al oxide (Al-O) films used as catalyst-support layer for vertical growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were studied. EB-deposited Al films (20 nm) were thermally oxidized at 400 deg. C (10 min, static air) to produce the most appropriate surface structure of Al-O. Al-O catalyst-support layers were characterized using various analytical measurements, i.e., atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and spectroscopy ellipsometry (SE). The thermally oxidized Al-O has a highly roughened surface, and also has the most suitable surface chemical states compared to other type of Al-O support layers. We suggest that the surface of thermally oxidized Al-O characterized in this work enhanced Co catalyst activity to promote the vertically aligned SWCNT growth.

  6. Growth of GaN layers using Ga2O vapor obtained from Ga and H2O vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Juta, Masami; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Isemura, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed growth of GaN layers using Ga 2 O vapor synthesized from Ga and H 2 O vapor. In this process, we employed H 2 O vapor instead of HCl gas in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) to synthesize Ga source gas. In the synthesis reaction of Ga 2 O, a Ga 2 O 3 whisker formed and covered Ga, which impeded the synthesis reaction of Ga 2 O. The formation of the Ga 2 O 3 whisker was suppressed in H 2 ambient at high temperatures. Then, we adopted this process to supply a group III precursor and obtained an epitaxial layer. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement revealed that the epitaxial layer was single-crystalline GaN. Growth rate increased linearly with Ga 2 O partial pressure and reached 104 µm/h. (author)

  7. Containerless automated processing of intermetallic compounds and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. R.; Joslin, S. M.; Reviere, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    An automated containerless processing system has been developed to directionally solidify high temperature materials, intermetallic compounds, and intermetallic/metallic composites. The system incorporates a wide range of ultra-high purity chemical processing conditions. The utilization of image processing for automated control negates the need for temperature measurements for process control. The list of recent systems that have been processed includes Cr, Mo, Mn, Nb, Ni, Ti, V, and Zr containing aluminides. Possible uses of the system, process control approaches, and properties and structures of recently processed intermetallics are reviewed.

  8. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich single-walled carbon nanotubes from perpendicular layered double hydroxide film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jia-Qi; Nie, Jing-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-04-07

    Direct bulk growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with required properties, such as diameter, length, and chirality, is the first step to realize their advanced applications in electrical and optical devices, transparent conductive films, and high-performance field-effect transistors. Preferential growth of short aligned, metallic-rich SWCNTs is a great challenge to the carbon nanotube community. We report the bulk preferential growth of short aligned SWCNTs from perpendicular Mo-containing FeMgAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) film by a facile thermal chemical vapor deposition with CH(4) as carbon source. The growth of the short aligned SWCNTs showed a decreased growth velocity with an initial value of 1.9 nm s(-1). Such a low growth velocity made it possible to get aligned SWCNTs shorter than 1 μm with a growth duration less than 15 min. Raman spectra with different excitation wavelengths indicated that the as-grown short aligned SWCNTs showed high selectivity of metallic SWCNTs. Various kinds of materials, such as mica, quartz, Cu foil, and carbon fiber, can serve as the substrates for the growth of perpendicular FeMoMgAl LDH films and also the growth of the short aligned SWCNTs subsequently. These findings highlight the easy route for bulk preferential growth of aligned metallic-rich SWCNTs with well defined length for further bulk characterization and applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Diffusion in substitutionally disordered B2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, I.V.; Murch, G.E.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive diffusion kinetics theory is formulated to describe seamlessly tracer and chemical diffusion in antistructurally disordered B2 intermetallics showing positive and negative deviations from stoichiometry. The theory is based around unit processes consisting of six-jump cycles that can be assisted by intrinsic and extrinsic antistructural atoms of either atomic species. The Ising alloy model is used to illustrate the formalism, but the formalism can be adapted to other models. Expressions are developed for the tracer diffusion coefficients, the phenomenological coefficients, the intrinsic diffusion coefficients, the interdiffusion coefficient and the various correlation factor components. Results for the tracer and collective correlation factors and the vacancy wind factor (in interdiffusion) are in excellent agreement with results from Monte Carlo computer simulations based around single vacancy jumps. (author)

  10. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of GaSb layers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Zhang Yang; Zhang Yuwei; Wang Baoqiang; Zhu Zhanping; Zeng Yiping

    2012-01-01

    We report on the growth of GaSb layers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We investigate the influence of the GaAs substrate surface treatment, growth temperature, and V/III flux ratios on the crystal quality and the surface morphology of GaSb epilayers. Comparing to Ga-rich GaAs surface preparation, the Sb-rich GaAs surface preparation can promote the growth of higher-quality GaSb material. It is found that the crystal quality, electrical properties, and surface morphology of the GaSb epilayers are highly dependent on the growth temperature, and Sb/Ga flux ratios. Under the optimized growth conditions, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of high quality GaSb layers on GaAs substrates. The p-type nature of the unintentionally doped GaSb is studied and from the growth conditions dependence of the hole concentrations of the GaSb, we deduce that the main native acceptor in the GaSb is the Ga antisite (Ga Sb ) defect.

  11. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-08-31

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, In{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N and In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures.

  12. Growth and characterization of III-N ternary thin films by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal, Neeraj; Anderson, Virginia R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Eddy, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the growth and characterization of III-nitride ternary thin films (Al x Ga 1−x N, In x Al 1−x N and In x Ga 1−x N) at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy (PA-ALE) over a wide stoichiometric range including the range where phase separation has been an issue for films grown by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The composition of these ternaries was intentionally varied through alterations in the cycle ratios of the III-nitride binary layers (AlN, GaN, and InN). By this digital alloy growth method, we are able to grow III-nitride ternaries by PA-ALE over nearly the entire stoichiometry range including in the spinodal decomposition region (x = 15–85%). These early efforts suggest great promise of PA-ALE at low temperatures for addressing miscibility gap challenges encountered with conventional growth methods and realizing high performance optoelectronic and electronic devices involving ternary/binary heterojunctions, which are not currently possible. - Highlights: • III-N ternaries grown at ≤ 500 °C by plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy • Growth of InGaN and AlInN in the spinodal decomposition region (15–85%) • Epitaxial, smooth and uniform III-N film growth at low temperatures

  13. Role of boundary layer diffusion in vapor deposition growth of chalcogenide nanosheets: the case of GeS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Huang, Liang; Snigdha, Gayatri Pongur; Yu, Yifei; Cao, Linyou

    2012-10-23

    We report a synthesis of single-crystalline two-dimensional GeS nanosheets using vapor deposition processes and show that the growth behavior of the nanosheet is substantially different from those of other nanomaterials and thin films grown by vapor depositions. The nanosheet growth is subject to strong influences of the diffusion of source materials through the boundary layer of gas flows. This boundary layer diffusion is found to be the rate-determining step of the growth under typical experimental conditions, evidenced by a substantial dependence of the nanosheet's size on diffusion fluxes. We also find that high-quality GeS nanosheets can grow only in the diffusion-limited regime, as the crystalline quality substantially deteriorates when the rate-determining step is changed away from the boundary layer diffusion. We establish a simple model to analyze the diffusion dynamics in experiments. Our analysis uncovers an intuitive correlation of diffusion flux with the partial pressure of source materials, the flow rate of carrier gas, and the total pressure in the synthetic setup. The observed significant role of boundary layer diffusions in the growth is unique for nanosheets. It may be correlated with the high growth rate of GeS nanosheets, ~3-5 μm/min, which is 1 order of magnitude higher than other nanomaterials (such as nanowires) and thin films. This fundamental understanding of the effect of boundary layer diffusions may generally apply to other chalcogenide nanosheets that can grow rapidly. It can provide useful guidance for the development of general paradigms to control the synthesis of nanosheets.

  14. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  15. Intermetallic and electrical insulator coatings on high-temperature alloys in liquid-lithium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.

    1994-06-01

    In the design of liquid-metal cooling systems for fusion-reactor blanket, applications, the corrosion resistance of structural materials and the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) force and its subsequent influence on thermal hydraulics and corrosion are major concerns. When the system is cooled by liquid metals, insulator coatings are required on piping surfaces in contact with the coolant. The objective of this study is to develop stable corrosion-resistant electrical insulator coatings at the liquid-metal/structural-material interface, with emphasis on electrically insulating coatings that prevent adverse MHD-generated currents from passing through the structural wall, and Be-V intermetallic coatings for first-wall components that face the plasma. Vanadium and V-base alloys are leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor. Various intermetallic films were produced on V-alloys and on Types 304 and 316 stainless steel. The intermetallic layers were developed by exposure of the materials to liquid Li containing 2 at temperatures of 500--1030 degree C. CaO electrical insulator coatings were produced by reaction of the oxygen-rich layer with <5 at. % Ca dissolved in liquid Li at 400--700 degree C. The reaction converted the oxygen-rich layer to an electrically insulating film. This coating method is applicable to reactor components because the liquid metal can be used over and over; only the solute within the liquid metal is consumed. This paper will discuss initial results on the nature of the coatings and their in-situ electrical resistivity characteristics in liquid Li at high temperatures

  16. Investigation of different mechanisms of GaN growth induced on AlN and GaN nucleation layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasco, V.; Campa, A.; Tarantini, I.; Passaseo, A.; Gonzalez-Posada, F.; Munoz, E.; Redondo-Cubero, A.; Lorenz, K.; Franco, N.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of GaN growth on AlN and GaN nucleation layers is compared through morphological and structural analyses, including ion beam analysis. By using AlN nucleation layer grown at high temperature, improved crystalline quality is exhibited by 300 nm thin GaN epilayers. GaN (002) x-ray rocking curve as narrow as 168 arc sec and atomic-step surface morphology characterize such a thin GaN film on AlN. Defects are strongly confined into the first 50 nm of growth, whereas a fast laterally coherent growth is observed when increasing thickness, as an effect of high temperature AlN surface morphology and Ga adatom dynamics over this template

  17. Phase inversion and frequency doubling of reflection high-energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations in the layer-by-layer growth of complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhangwen; Guo, Wei; Ji, Dianxiang; Zhang, Tianwei; Gu, Chenyi; Tang, Chao; Gu, Zhengbin; Nie*, Yuefeng; Pan, Xiaoqing

    In situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and its intensity oscillations are extremely important for the growth of epitaxial thin films with atomic precision. The RHEED intensity oscillations of complex oxides are, however, rather complicated and a general model is still lacking. Here, we report the unusual phase inversion and frequency doubling of RHEED intensity oscillations observed in the layer-by-layer growth of SrTiO3 using oxide molecular beam epitaxy. In contacts to the common understanding that the maximum(minimum) intensity occurs at SrO(TiO2) termination, respectively, we found that both maximum or minimum intensities can occur at SrO, TiO2, or even incomplete terminations depending on the incident angle of the electron beam, which raises a fundamental question if one can rely on the RHEED intensity oscillations to precisely control the growth of thin films. A general model including surface roughness and termination dependent mean inner potential qualitatively explains the observed phenomena, and provides the answer to the question how to prepare atomically and chemically precise surface/interfaces using RHEED oscillations for complex oxides. We thank National Basic Research Program of China (No. 11574135, 2015CB654901) and the National Thousand-Young-Talents Program.

  18. Tuning cell adhesion and growth on biomimetic polyelectrolyte multilayers by variation of pH during layer-by-layer assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neha; Altgärde, Noomi; Svedhem, Sofia; Michanetzis, Georgios; Missirlis, Yannis; Groth, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers of chitosan and heparin are assembled on glass where heparin is applied at pH = 4, 9 and 4 during the formation of the first layers followed by pH = 9 at the last steps (denoted pH 4 + 9). Measurements of wetting properties, layer mass, and topography show that multilayers formed at pH = 4 are thicker, contain more water and have a smoother surface compared to those prepared at pH = 9 while the pH = 4 + 9 multilayers expressed intermediate properties. pH = 9 multilayers are more cell adhesive and support growth of C2C12 cells better than pH = 4 ones. However, pH 4 + 9 conditions improve the bioactivity to a similar level of pH = 9 layers. Multilayers prepared using pH 4 + 9 conditions form thick enough layers that may allow efficient loading of bioactive molecules. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Colloidal Gold--Collagen Protein Core--Shell Nanoconjugate: One-Step Biomimetic Synthesis, Layer-by-Layer Assembled Film, and Controlled Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Yan, Linyin; Ma, Guanghui; Liu, Lei; Dai, Luru; Li, Junbai; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-11-11

    The biogenic synthesis of biomolecule-gold nanoconjugates is of key importance for a broad range of biomedical applications. In this work, a one-step, green, and condition-gentle strategy is presented to synthesize stable colloidal gold-collagen core-shell nanoconjugates in an aqueous solution at room temperature, without use of any reducing agents and stabilizing agents. It is discovered that electrostatic binding between gold ions and collagen proteins and concomitant in situ reduction by hydroxyproline residues are critically responsible for the formation of the core-shell nanoconjugates. The film formed by layer-by-layer assembly of such colloidal gold-collagen nanoconjugates can notably improve the mechanical properties and promote cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation. Thus, the colloidal gold-collagen nanoconjugates synthesized by such a straightforward and clean manner, analogous to a biomineralization pathway, provide new alternatives for developing biologically based hybrid biomaterials toward a range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  20. Continuous growth of low-temperature Si epitaxial layer with heavy phosphorous and boron doping using photoepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Minakata, H.; Ito, T.

    1990-01-01

    The authors grew p + -n + silicon epitaxial layers, heavily doped with phosphorus and boron, continuously at 650 degrees C using low-temperature photoepitaxy. Then N + photoepitaxial layer with a phosphorus concentration above 10 17 cm -3 grown on p - substrate shows high-density surface pits, and as a result, poor crystal quality. However, when this n + photoepitaxial layer is grown continuously on a heavily boron-doped p + photoepitaxial layer, these surface pits are drastically decreased, disappearing completely above a hole concentration of 10 19 cm -3 in the p + photoepitaxial layer. The phosphorus activation ratio and electron Hall mobility in the heavily phosphorus-doped n + photoexpitaxial layer were also greatly improved. The authors investigated the cause of the surface pitting using a scanning transmission electron microscope, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. They characterized the precipitation of phosphorus atoms on the crystal surface at the initial stage of the heavily phosphorus-doped n + photoexpitaxial layer growth

  1. Effectiveness of a Layer-by-Layer Microbubbles-Based Delivery System for Applying Minoxidil to Enhance Hair Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Lu, Ying-Jui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hang-Kang; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Minoxidil (Mx) is a conventional drug for treating androgenetic alopecia, preventing hair loss, and promoting hair growth. The solubility of Mx has been improved using chemical enhancement methods to increase its skin permeability over the long term. This study created a new ultrasound (US) contrast agent-albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) that absorb chitosan oligosaccharide lactate (COL) and Mx-and combined it with sonication by US energy in the water phase to enhance hair growth while shortening the treatment period. COL and Mx grafted with MBs (mean diameter of 1480 nm) were synthesized into self-assembled complexes of COL-MBs and Mx-COL-MBs that had mean diameters of 4150 and 4500 nm, respectively. The US was applied at 3 W/cm(2) for 1 min, and combined with Mx-COL-MBs containing 0.3% Mx. The diffusion of Mx through the dialysis membrane from Mx-COL-MB during US (US+Mx-COL-MB) was more rapid at pH 4 than at pH 7.4, which is favorable given that the environment of the scalp is mildly acidic (pH=4.5-5.5). In Franz diffusion experiments performed in vitro, the release rates at 18 hours in the US+Mx-COL-MBs and US+MBs+Mx groups resulted in 2.3 and 1.7 times the penetration and deposition, respectively, of Mx relative to the group with Mx alone. During 21 days treatment in animal experiments, the growth rates at days 10 and 14 in the US+Mx-COL-MBs group increased by 22.6% and 64.7%, respectively, and there were clear significant differences (p<0.05) between the US+Mx-COL-MBs group and the other four groups. The use of US+Mx-COL-MB in the water phase can increased the effects of Mx so as to shorten the telogen phase, and also increase both the diameter of keratinized hair shafts and the size of hair follicles without causing skin damage.

  2. Reaction layer growth and reaction heat of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels using centrifugally atomized powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Han, Young Soo; Park, Jong Man; Park, Soon Dal; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2003-01-01

    The growth behavior of reaction layers and heat generation during the reaction between U-Mo powders and the Al matrix in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels were investigated. Annealing of 10 vol.% U-10Mo/Al dispersion fuels at temperatures from 500 to 550 deg. C was carried out for 10 min to 36 h to measure the growth rate and the activation energy for the growth of reaction layers. The concentration profiles of reaction layers between the U-10Mo vs. Al diffusion couples were measured and the integrated interdiffusion coefficients were calculated for the U and Al in the reaction layers. Heat generation of U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels with 10-50 vol.% of U-Mo fuel during the thermal cycle from room temperature to 700 deg. C was measured employing the differential scanning calorimetry. Exothermic heat from the reaction between U-Mo and the Al matrix is the largest when the volume fraction of U-Mo fuel is about 30 vol.%. The unreacted fraction in the U-Mo powders increases as the volume fraction of U-Mo fuel increases from 30 to 50 vol.%

  3. Persistent local chemical bonds in intermetallic phase formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yanwen [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Bian, Xiufang, E-mail: xfbian@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Qin, Xubo [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Zhang, Shuo; Huang, Yuying [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We found a direct evidence for the existence of the local chemical Bi–In bonds in the BiIn{sub 2} melt. These bonds are strong and prevail, dominating the structure evolution of the intermetallic clusters. From the local structure of the melt-quenched BiIn{sub 2} ribbon, the chemical Bi–In bonds strengthen compared with those in the equilibrium solidified alloy. The chemical bonds in BiIn{sub 2} melt retain to solid during a rapid quenching process. The results suggest that the intermetallic clusters in the melt evolve into the as-quenched intermetallic phase, and the intermetallic phase originates from the chemical bonds between unlike atoms in the melt. The chemical bonds preserve the chemical ordered clusters and dominate the clusters evolution.

  4. Magnetocaloric effect in rare-earth intermetallics: Recent trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... intermetallic hydrides, manganite oxides, Ni–Mn–Sb-type shape memory ... With the help of temperature-dependent heat capacity information in various applied .... for relative cooling power and a wide working temperature range of about ...

  5. Effects of ductile phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti-Al3Ti metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard D.; Jiang Fengchun; Kulin, Robb M.; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Residual Al improves the mechanical properties of Ti-Al 3 Ti MIL composites. → Residual Al can eliminate intermetallic centerline delaminations in MILs. → Low levels of residual Al increase fracture toughness in MIL composites. → MIL stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness can be optimized at low Al levels. - Abstract: Metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites consisting of alternating layers of Ti, Al, and the intermetallic Al 3 Ti have been fabricated by reactive foil sintering in open air. Six initially identical stacks of alternating Ti-3Al-2.5 V and 1100-Al foils were processed for different lengths of time, yielding specimens with different metal and intermetallic volume fractions. Their mechanical properties have been investigated with an emphasis on the effect of residual Al at the intermetallic centerline on composite strength and fracture toughness, as well as fracture and failure modes. Samples were cut from each composite plate (in layer orientations parallel and perpendicular to the intended load direction) for mechanical testing in compression and four-point bending under quasi-static and high-rate loading conditions. Examination of the damaged specimens and their fracture surfaces by optical and scanning electron microscopy was performed to establish a correlation between the failure mechanisms present, composite strength, and microstructure. Results indicated that regardless of loading direction, cracks always initiated in the intermetallic region, rarely at the centerline, and crack propagation and failure were heavily influenced by the thickness of the residual aluminum layers. There is an ideal residual aluminum volume fraction that represents the amount of ductile reinforcement that maximizes the combined properties of strength, toughness and stiffness.

  6. Real-time optical modelling and investigation of inorganic nano-layer growth onto flexible polymeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskarakis, A.; Georgiou, D.; Logothetidis, S.

    2010-01-01

    A major factor for the achievement of the desirable performance, efficiency and lifetime of flexible organic electronic devices is the optimization of the encapsulation layers that protect the device active layers by atmospheric gas molecule permeation. The active layers consisted of small molecule and/or polymer organic semiconductors as well as the organic conductors need to be encapsulated into a transparent medium that will provide the necessary protection and maintain their charge generation and transport characteristics. The encapsulation layers are generally consisted of inorganic thin films (silicon oxide-SiO x and aluminium oxide-AlO x ) deposited onto the polymeric substrates, such as PolyEthylene Terephthalate (PET). In this work, in situ and real-time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the ultraviolet spectral region has been implemented in order to investigate the growth of inorganic SiO x and AlO x nano-layers onto PET flexible polymeric substrates as well as the PET/inorganic interface effects during the early stages of growth. The analysis of the pseudodielectric function that was measured in real-time in very short time scales (in the order of hundreds of ms) has provided detailed information on the time evolution of the thickness and deposition rate of the inorganic nano-layers during their growth process as well as on their optical and electronic properties. This work proposes a methodology for using real-time optical monitoring technique with the aim to tailor and control the functionality of these materials for application in flexible electronic devices.

  7. The intermetallic ThRh5: microstructure and enthalpy increments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Joshi, A.R.; Kaity, Santu; Mishra, R.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Actinide intermetallics are one of the most interesting and important series of compounds. Thermochemistry of these compounds play significant role in understand the nature of bonding in alloys and nuclear fuel performance. In the present paper we report synthesis and characterization of thorium based intermetallic compound ThRh 5 (s) by SEM/EDX technique. The mechanical properties and enthalpy increment as a function of temperature of the alloy has been measured. (author)

  8. Stability of molybdenum nanoparticles in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder during multiple reflow and their influence on interfacial intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A., E-mail: haseeb@um.edu.my; Arafat, M.M., E-mail: arafat_mahmood@yahoo.com; Johan, Mohd Rafie, E-mail: mrafiej@um.edu.my

    2012-02-15

    This work investigates the effects of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder and copper substrate during multiple reflow. Molybdenum nanoparticles were mixed with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder paste by manual mixing. Solder samples were reflowed on a copper substrate in a 250 Degree-Sign C reflow oven up to six times. The molybdenum content of the bulk solder was determined by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. It is found that upon the addition of molybdenum nanoparticles to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, the interfacial intermetallic compound thickness and scallop diameter decreases under all reflow conditions. Molybdenum nanoparticles do not appear to dissolve or react with the solder. They tend to adsorb preferentially at the interface between solder and the intermetallic compound scallops. It is suggested that molybdenum nanoparticles impart their influence on the interfacial intermetallic compound as discrete particles. The intact, discrete nanoparticles, by absorbing preferentially at the interface, hinder the diffusion flux of the substrate and thereby suppress the intermetallic compound growth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles do not dissolve or react with the SAC solder during reflow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Mo nanoparticles results smaller IMC thickness and scallop diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles influence the interfacial IMC through discrete particle effect.

  9. Impact of AlN seeding layer growth rate in MOVPE growth of semi-polar gallium nitride structures on high index silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravash, Roghaiyeh; Blaesing, Juergen; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Dadgar, Armin; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, FNW/IEP/AHE, Postfach 4120, 39016 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    We present metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of semi-polar GaN structures on high index silicon surfaces. The crystallographic structure of GaN grown on Si(112), (115), and (117) substrates is investigated by X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction was performed in Bragg Brentano geometry as well as pole figure measurements. The results demonstrate that the orientation of GaN crystallites on Si is significantly dependent on thickness of the AlN seeding layer and TMAl-flow rate. We observe that the crystallographic structures of GaN by applying thin AlN seeding layers grown with high TMAl-flow rate depend on Si surface direction while they are independent for thicker layers. By applying such seeding layer we obtain single crystalline semi-polar GaN on Si(112), while GaN structures grown with the same growth parameters on Si(117) show four components of GaN(0002). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Modeling growth kinetics of thin films made by atomic layer deposition in lateral high-aspect-ratio structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylilammi, Markku; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.; Puurunen, Riikka L.

    2018-05-01

    The conformality of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) is studied using all-silicon test structures with long narrow lateral channels. A diffusion model, developed in this work, is used for studying the propagation of ALD growth in narrow channels. The diffusion model takes into account the gas transportation at low pressures, the dynamic Langmuir adsorption model for the film growth and the effect of channel narrowing due to film growth. The film growth is calculated by solving the diffusion equation with surface reactions. An efficient analytic approximate solution of the diffusion equation is developed for fitting the model to the measured thickness profile. The fitting gives the equilibrium constant of adsorption and the sticking coefficient. This model and Gordon's plug flow model are compared. The simulations predict the experimental measurement results quite well for Al2O3 and TiO2 ALD processes.

  11. Studies on layer growth and interfaces on Ta-base thin layers by means of XPS; Untersuchungen zu Schichtwachstum und Grenzflaechen an Ta-basierten Duennschichten mittels XPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zier, M.

    2007-11-02

    In this thesis studies on the growth and on the formation of the interfaces of Ta and TaN layers on Si and SiO{sub 2} were performed. In the system TaN on SiO{sub 2} no reaction on the interface could be found. As the system with the mostly disturbed interface Ta on SiO{sub 2} was proved. Here a reduction of the SiO{sub 2} at simultaneous oxidation of the Ta was to be observed. Additionally tantalum silicide was formed to be considered concerning the bonding state as Ta{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, from which a double layer of a tantalum silicide and a tantalum suboxide resulted. A whole thickness of the double layer of above 1 nm resulted. In the system Ta on Si at the deposition of the film on the interface a tantalum silicide was formed to be characterized concerning the bonding state as TaSi{sub 2}. The thickness of the interlayer growed thereby up to 0.8 nm in form of islands. Finally in the system TaN on Si a silicon nitride formation during the deposition was observed, which was attributed to the insertion of adsorbed nitrogen from the sputtering atmosphere by recoil implantation of the sputtered Ta atoms. The silicon nitride interlayer growed thereby up to a thickness of 0.8 nm.

  12. Rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Sebastian; Kersting, Marcel; Heletta, Lukas; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie

    2017-07-01

    Eight new intermetallic rare earth-ruthenium-magnesium compounds have been synthesized from the elements in sealed niobium ampoules using different annealing sequences in muffle furnaces. The compounds have been characterized by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Sm{sub 9.2}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.8} (a=939.6(2), c=1779(1) pm), Gd{sub 11}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16} (a=951.9(2), c=1756.8(8) pm), and Tb{sub 10.5}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 16.5} (a=942.5(1), c=1758.3(4) pm) crystallize with the tetragonal Nd{sub 9.34}Ru{sub 6}Mg{sub 17.66} type structure, space group I4/mmm. This structure exhibits a complex condensation pattern of square-prisms and square-antiprisms around the magnesium and ruthenium atoms, respectively. Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=344.0(1), c=2019(1) pm) and Tb{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} (a=341.43(6), c=2054.2(7) pm) adopt the Er{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} structure and Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg (a=337.72(9), c=1129.8(4) pm) is isotypic with Sc{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg. Tm{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=337.35(9), c=2671(1) pm) and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} (a=335.83(5), c=2652.2(5) pm) are the first ternary ordered variants of the Ti{sub 3}Cu{sub 4} type, space group I4/mmm. These five compounds belong to a large family of intermetallics which are completely ordered superstructures of the bcc subcell. The group-subgroup scheme for Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} is presented. The common structural motif of all three structure types are ruthenium-centered rare earth cubes reminicent of the CsCl type. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Y{sub 2}RuMg{sub 2} and Lu{sub 3}Ru{sub 2}Mg{sub 2} samples revealed Pauli paramagnetism of the conduction electrons.

  13. Effects of fin pitch and array of the frost layer growth on extended surface of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Dong Keun; Lee, Kwan Soo

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of the fin array and pitch on the frost layer growth of a heat exchanger. The numerical results are compared with experimental data of a cold plate to validate the present model, and agree well with experimental data within a maximum error of 8%. The characteristics of the frost formation on staggered fin array are somewhat different from those of in-line array. For fin pitch below 10 mm, the frost layer growth of second fin in the staggered array is affected by that of first fin. The heat transfer of single fin deteriorate with decreasing fin pitch regardless of fin array, however, the thermal performance of a heat exchanger, considering increase of heat surface area, becomes better

  14. Epitaxial growth of ZnO layers on (111) GaAs substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jian; Zhang Di; Konomi, Takaharu; Saito, Katsuhiko; Guo Qixin

    2012-01-01

    ZnO layers were grown on (111) GaAs substrates by laser molecular epitaxy at substrate temperatures between 200 and 550 °C. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that c-axis of ZnO epilayer with a wurtzite structure is perpendicular to the substrate surface. X-ray rocking curves and Raman spectroscopy showed that the crystal quality of ZnO epilayers depends on the substrate temperature during the growth. Strong near-band-edge emission in the UV region without any deep-level emissions was observed from the ZnO epilayers at room temperature. The results indicate that laser molecular beam epitaxy is a promising growth method for obtaining high-quality ZnO layers on (111) GaAs substrates.

  15. Investigations on the growth of a-oriented layers of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodtke, E.

    1992-10-01

    The properties of a-oriented YBaCuO and PrBaCuO layers were investigated. The layers are grown in a modified template method and analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and Hall measurements. (WL)

  16. Controllable growth of stable germanium dioxide ultra-thin layer by means of capacitively driven radio frequency discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarnas, P., E-mail: svarnas@ece.upatras.gr [High Voltage Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504, Patras (Greece); Botzakaki, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Skoulatakis, G.; Kennou, S.; Ladas, S. [Surface Science Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece); Tsamis, C. [NCSR “Demokritos”, Institute of Advanced Materials, Physicochemical Processes, Nanotechnology & Microsystems, Aghia Paraskevi 15 310, Athens (Greece); Georga, S.N.; Krontiras, C.A. [Department of Physics, University of Patras, Rion 26 504 (Greece)

    2016-01-29

    It is well recognized that native oxide of germanium is hygroscopic and water soluble, while germanium dioxide is thermally unstable and it is converted to volatile germanium oxide at approximately 400 °C. Different techniques, implementing quite complicated plasma setups, gas mixtures and substrate heating, have been used in order to grow a stable germanium oxide. In the present work a traditional “RF diode” is used for germanium oxidation by cold plasma. Following growth, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates that traditional capacitively driven radio frequency discharges, using molecular oxygen as sole feedstock gas, provide the possibility of germanium dioxide layer growth in a fully reproducible and controllable manner. Post treatment ex-situ analyses on day-scale periods disclose the stability of germanium oxide at room ambient conditions, offering thus the ability to grow (ex-situ) ultra-thin high-k dielectrics on top of germanium oxide layers. Atomic force microscopy excludes any morphological modification in respect to the bare germanium surface. These results suggest a simple method for a controllable and stable germanium oxide growth, and contribute to the challenge to switch to high-k dielectrics as gate insulators for high-performance metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors and to exploit in large scale the superior properties of germanium as an alternative channel material in future technology nodes. - Highlights: • Simple one-frequency reactive ion etcher develops GeO{sub 2} thin layers controllably. • The layers remain chemically stable at ambient conditions over day-scale periods. • The layers are unaffected by the ex-situ deposition of high-k dielectrics onto them. • GeO{sub 2} oxidation and high-k deposition don't affect the Ge morphology significantly. • These conditions contribute to improved Ge-based MOS structure fabrication.

  17. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  18. Growth and microstructure of iron nitride layers and pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middendorf, C.; Mader, W. [Univ. Bonn, Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie, Bonn (Germany)

    2003-03-01

    Layers of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N and {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N on ferrite were produced by nitriding iron single crystals or rolled sheets of iron in flowing ammonia at 520 C. The nitride layers were characterised using X-ray diffraction, light microscopy as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The compound layer consists of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N at the surface and of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N facing the ferrite. After 4 h of nitriding, pores develop in the near surface region of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N showing more or less open porosity. Growth of the entire compound layer as well as of the massive and the porous {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N sublayer is diffusion-controlled and follows a parabolic growth rate. The {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N layer is formed as a transition phase within a narrow interval of nitrogen activity, and it shows little growth in thickness. The transformation of {gamma}'-Fe{sub 4}N to {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N is topotactic, where the orientation of the closed-packed iron layers of the crystal structures is preserved. Determination of lattice plane spacings was possible by X-ray diffraction, and this was correlated to the nitrogen content of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N. While the porous layer exhibits an enhanced nitrogen content corresponding to the chemical composition Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1}, the massive e Fe{sub 3}N layer corresponds to Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0}. The pore formation in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.1} is concluded to be the result of excess nitrogen atoms on non-structural sites, which have a high mobility. Therefore, recombination of excess nitrogen to molecular N{sub 2} at lattice defects is preferred in {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N with high nitrogen content compared to stoichiometric {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N{sub 1.0} with nitrogen on only structural sites. (orig.)

  19. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O.; Maydannik, Philipp; Cameron, David C.; Lahtinen, Kimmo; Johansson, Petri; Kuusipalo, Jurkka

    2011-01-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O 2 TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O 2 TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  20. Atomic layer deposition on polymer based flexible packaging materials: Growth characteristics and diffusion barrier properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Tommi O., E-mail: tommi.kaariainen@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Maydannik, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.maydannik@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Cameron, David C., E-mail: david.cameron@lut.f [ASTRaL, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Prikaatinkatu 3 E, 50100 Mikkeli (Finland); Lahtinen, Kimmo, E-mail: kimmo.lahtinen@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Johansson, Petri, E-mail: petri.johansson@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland); Kuusipalo, Jurkka, E-mail: jurkka.kuusipalo@tut.f [Tampere University of Technology, Paper Converting and Packaging Technology, P.O. Box 541, 33101 Tampere (Finland)

    2011-03-01

    One of the most promising areas for the industrial application of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is for gas barrier layers on polymers. In this work, a packaging material system with improved diffusion barrier properties has been developed and studied by applying ALD on flexible polymer based packaging materials. Nanometer scale metal oxide films have been applied to polymer-coated papers and their diffusion barrier properties have been studied by means of water vapor and oxygen transmission rates. The materials for the study were constructed in two stages: the paper was firstly extrusion coated with polymer film, which was then followed by the ALD deposition of oxide layer. The polymers used as extrusion coatings were polypropylene, low and high density polyethylene, polylactide and polyethylene terephthalate. Water vapor transmission rates (WVTRs) were measured according to method SCAN-P 22:68 and oxygen transmission rates (O{sub 2}TRs) according to a standard ASTM D 3985. According to the results a 10 nm oxide layer already decreased the oxygen transmission by a factor of 10 compared to uncoated material. WVTR with 40 nm ALD layer was better than the level currently required for most common dry flexible packaging applications. When the oxide layer thickness was increased to 100 nm and above, the measured WVTRs were limited by the measurement set up. Using an ALD layer allowed the polymer thickness on flexible packaging materials to be reduced. Once the ALD layer was 40 nm thick, WVTRs and O{sub 2}TRs were no longer dependent on polymer layer thickness. Thus, nanometer scale ALD oxide layers have shown their feasibility as high quality diffusion barriers on flexible packaging materials.

  1. Direct Growth of High-Quality InP Layers on GaAs Substrates by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Yarn

    2003-01-01

    group V partial pressure, growth rate and V/III ratios. A mirror-like, uniform surface and high crystal quality of the metamorphic buffer layer directly grown on a GaAs substrate can be achieved. Finally, to investigate the performance of the metamorphic microwave devices, we also fabricate the InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic HEMT on GaAs substrates.

  2. Growth of thermal oxide layers on GaAs and InP in the presence of ammonium heptamolybdate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittova, I.Ya.; Lavrushina, S.S.; Afonchikova, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Processes of thermal oxidation of GaAs and InP in the presence of ammonium heptamolybdate were studied using the methods of X-ray fluorescence analysis and IR spectroscopy at temperatures 480-580 Deg C. It was ascertained that introduction of the activator into the system results in accelerated growth of layers on semiconductors due to participation of anionic component of the chemostimulator in oxidation processes. The activator is integrated into the salts formed [ru

  3. Thermodynamic data for uranium and thorium intermetallic compounds: A historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcock, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of quantitative information concerning the stabilities of uranium and thorium intermetallic compounds since the publication of Rough and Bauer's phase diagram compilation are reviewed. During this era a number of high temperature measurement techniques have been developed, from gas/solid equilibration to mass spectrometry and from high temperature calorimetry to solid state electrochemistry, and the growth of quantitative information has run parallel to this evolution. The amount of experimental effort now appears to be declining, and the task presently of major importance is to integrate and rationalize the quantitative information, an effort which will undoubtedly lead to new experimental initiatives. (orig.)

  4. Nucleation and growth kinetics for intercalated islands during deposition on layered materials with isolated pointlike surface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yong; Lii-Rosales, A.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, C.-J.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and stochastic lattice-gas modeling is developed for the formation of intercalated metal islands in the gallery between the top layer and the underlying layer at the surface of layered materials. Our model for this process involves deposition of atoms, some fraction of which then enter the gallery through well-separated pointlike defects in the top layer. Subsequently, these atoms diffuse within the subsurface gallery leading to nucleation and growth of intercalated islands nearby the defect point source. For the case of a single point defect, continuum diffusion equation analysis provides insight into the nucleation kinetics. However, complementary tailored lattice-gas modeling produces a more comprehensive and quantitative characterization. We analyze the large spread in nucleation times and positions relative to the defect for the first nucleated island. We also consider the formation of subsequent islands and the evolution of island growth shapes. The shapes reflect in part our natural adoption of a hexagonal close-packed island structure. As a result, motivation and support for the model is provided by scanning tunneling microscopy observations of the formation of intercalated metal islands in highly-ordered pyrolytic graphite at higher temperatures.

  5. Ground state searches in fcc intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D.; Ceder, G.; Dreysse, H.

    1991-12-01

    A cluster expansion is used to predict the fcc ground states, i.e., the stable phases at zero Kelvin as a function of composition, for alloy systems. The intermetallic structures are not assumed, but derived regorously by minimizing the configurational energy subject to linear constraints. This ground state search includes pair and multiplet interactions which spatially extend to fourth nearest neighbor. A large number of these concentration-independent interactions are computed by the method of direct configurational averaging using a linearized-muffin-tin orbital Hamiltonian cast into tight binding form (TB-LMTO). The interactions, derived without the use of any adjustable or experimentally obtained parameters, are compared to those calculated via the generalized perturbation method extention of the coherent potential approximation within the context of a KKR Hamiltonian (KKR-CPA-GPM). Agreement with the KKR-CPA-GPM results is quite excellent, as is the comparison of the ground state results with the fcc-based portions of the experimentally-determined phase diagrams under consideration

  6. Spin polarization in rare earth intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenwijk, F.J. van

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis the results of Moessbauer experiments performed on a series of intermetallic compounds of europium and gadolinium are reported. For each of these compounds the magnetic hyperfine field, the electric field gradient at the nuclear site and the isomer shift were determined. For most of the compounds the magnetic ordering temperature was also measured. For some of the europium compounds (e.g. EuAu 5 , EuAg 5 , and EuCu 5 ) it could be derived from the measurements that the easy direction of magnetization falls along the crystallographic c-axis. In a number of compounds (e.g. EuCu 5 , EuZn 5 , EuAu 2 and GdCu 5 ), the various contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field were disentangled by the investigation of suitable pseudobinary compounds that are dilute in Eu. The neighbour contribution Hsub(N) and the paramagnetic Curie temperature thetasub(p) were compared with each other in terms of the RKKY model for EuCu 5 and GdCu 5 . Since the correspondence was found to be poor it was concluded that the magnetic behaviour in these compounds cannot be described by a simple free electron picture as is the basis for the RKKY model

  7. Irregular Homogeneity Domains in Ternary Intermetallic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Joubert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary intermetallic A–B–C systems sometimes have unexpected behaviors. The present paper examines situations in which there is a tendency to simultaneously form the compounds ABx, ACx and BCx with the same crystal structure. This causes irregular shapes of the phase homogeneity domains and, from a structural point of view, a complete reversal of site occupancies for the B atom when crossing the homogeneity domain. This work reviews previous studies done in the systems Fe–Nb–Zr, Hf–Mo–Re, Hf–Re–W, Mo–Re–Zr, Re–W–Zr, Cr–Mn–Si, Cr–Mo–Re, and Mo–Ni–Re, and involving the topologically close-packed Laves, χ and σ phases. These systems have been studied using ternary isothermal section determination, DFT calculations, site occupancy measurement using joint X-ray, and neutron diffraction Rietveld refinement. Conclusions are drawn concerning this phenomenon. The paper also reports new experimental or calculated data on Co–Cr–Re and Fe–Nb–Zr systems.

  8. Graphene growth by transfer-free chemical vapour deposition on a cobalt layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macháč, Petr; Hejna, Ondřej; Slepička, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The contribution deals with the preparation of graphene films by a transfer-free chemical vapour deposition process utilizing a thin cobalt layer. This method allows growing graphene directly on a dielectric substrate. The process was carried out in a cold-wall reactor with methane as carbon precursor. We managed to prepare bilayer graphene. The best results were obtained for a structure with a cobalt layer with a thickness of 50 nm. The quality of prepared graphene films and of the number of graphene layers were estimated using Raman spectroscopy. with a minimal dots diameter of 180 nm and spacing of 1000 nm were successfully developed.

  9. Evidence for possible quantum dot interdiffusion induced by cap layer growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, J.; Czeczott, M.; Gladysz, A.; Babinski, A.; Kozubowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Self-organised InGaAs quantum dots were grown on (001) GaAs substrates and covered with two different types of cap layers grown at significantly different temperatures. In order to determine quantum dot emission energy and dot size distribution, photoluminescence and transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out on such samples. Simple theoretical model neglecting effect of interdiffusion allowed for correlation between quantum dot size and photoluminescence emission energy only in the case of dots covered by cap layers grown at the lower temperature. For dots covered by layers grown at the higher temperature such correlation was possible only when strong interdiffusion was assumed. (author)

  10. Toward an understanding of surface layer formation, growth, and transformation at the glass-fluid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, J.; Eskelsen, J. R.; Chiu, M.; Ievlev, A. V.; Ovchinnikova, O. S.; Leonard, D.; Pierce, E. M.

    2018-05-01

    Silicate glass is a metastable and durable solid that has application to a number of energy and environmental challenges (e.g., microelectronics, fiber optics, and nuclear waste storage). If allowed to react with water over time silicate glass develops an altered layer at the solid-fluid interface. In this study, we used borosilicate glass (LAWB45) as a model material to develop a robust understanding of altered layer formation (i.e., amorphous hydrated surface layer and crystalline reaction products). Experiments were conducted at high surface area-to-volume ratio (∼200,000 m-1) and 90 °C in the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus for 1.5-years to facilitate the formation of thick altered layers and allow for the effluent solution chemistry to be monitored continuously. A variety of microscopy techniques were used to characterize reacted grains and suggest the average altered layer thickness is 13.2 ± 8.3 μm with the hydrated and clay layer representing 74.8% and 25.2% of the total altered layer, respectively. The estimate of hydrated layer thickness is within the experimental error of the value estimated from the B release rate data (∼10 ± 1 μm/yr) over the 1.5-year duration. PeakForce® quantitative nanomechanical mapping results suggest the hydrated layer has a modulus that ranges between ∼20 and 40 GPa, which is in the range of porous silica that contains from ∼20 to ∼50% porosity, yet significantly lower than dense silica (∼70-80 GPa). Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) images confirm the presence of pores and an analysis of a higher resolution image provides a qualitative estimate of ≥22% porosity in the hydrated layer with variations in void volume with increasing distance from the unaltered glass. Chemical composition analyses, based on a combination of time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and STEM-EDS, clearly show

  11. A phase-field model for non-equilibrium solidification of intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assadi, H.

    2007-01-01

    Intermetallics may exhibit unique solidification behaviour-including slow growth kinetics, anomalous partitioning and formation of unusual growth morphologies-because of departure from local equilibrium. A phase-field model is developed and used to illustrate these non-equilibrium effects in solidification of a prototype B2 intermetallic phase. The model takes sublattice compositions as primary field variables, from which chemical long-range order is derived. The diffusive reactions between the two sublattices, and those between each sublattice and the liquid phase are taken as 'internal' kinetic processes, which take place within control volumes of the system. The model can thus capture solute and disorder trapping effects, which are consistent-over a wide range of the solid/liquid interface thickness-with the predictions of the sharp-interface theory of solute and disorder trapping. The present model can also take account of solid-state ordering and thus illustrate the effects of chemical ordering on microstructure formation and crystal growth kinetics

  12. Effect of H, O intentionally doping on photoelectric properties in MOVPE-growth GaN layers

    KAUST Repository

    Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-10-24

    GaN crystal growth requires higher purity of materials. Some contaminants in NH3 gas could be the causal factor of defects in GaN crystals. These atoms act as donor or acceptor. In order to clearly demonstrate the effect of gaseous impurities such as H2O on the properties of undoped-GaN layer, high purity NH3 (N70) was used as NH3 source. The concentration of H2O in NH3 was varied at 32, 49, 75, 142, 266, 489, and 899 ppb, respectively. Under the same recipe, we deposited undoped-GaN epitaxial layer with purifier, and H2O-doped GaN series layers. As similar to the results of CO and CO2-doped GaN series, the increase tendency of carrier density changing with increasing H2O concentration. The FWHMs of XRC around (0002) remain stable, witnessing that the crystal quality of GaN layer remain good. LT (15K) PL of undoped-GaN and H2O-doped GaN were measured, the D0X emission peak intensity of all H2O-doped GaN are decreased drastically compared with undoped-GaN. H2O impurity was doped into GaN layer, which not only effects electrical properties and but also effects the radiative emission and furthermore effects PL intensity, its mechanism is discussed.

  13. Interfacial Reaction and IMC Growth of an Ultrasonically Soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu Structure during Isothermal Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to accelerate the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC layers in a soldering structure, Cu/SAC305/Cu was first ultrasonically spot soldered and then subjected to isothermal aging. Relatively short vibration times, i.e., 400 ms and 800 ms, were used for the ultrasonic soldering. The isothermal aging was conducted at 150 °C for 0, 120, 240, and 360 h. The evolution of microstructure, the IMC layer growth mechanism during aging, and the shear strength of the joints after aging were systemically investigated. Results showed the following. (i Formation of intermetallic compounds was accelerated by ultrasonic cavitation and streaming effects, the thickness of the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer increased with aging time, and a thin Cu3Sn layer was identified after aging for 360 h. (ii The growth of the interfacial IMC layer of the ultrasonically soldered Cu/SAC305/Cu joints followed a linear function of the square root of the aging time, revealing a diffusion-controlled mechanism. (iii The tensile shear strength of the joint decreased to a small extent with increasing aging time, owing to the combined effects of IMC grain coarsening and the increase of the interfacial IMC. (iv Finally, although the fracture surfaces and failure locations of the joint soldered with 400 ms and 800 ms vibration times show similar characteristics, they are influenced by the aging time.

  14. Mocvd Growth of Group-III Nitrides on Silicon Carbide: From Thin Films to Atomically Thin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.

    Group-III nitride semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN and their alloys) are considered one of the most important class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. This is not limited to the blue light-emitting diode (LED) used for efficient solid-state lighting, but other applications as well, such as solar cells, radar and a variety of high frequency power electronics, which are all prime examples of the technological importance of nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors in our daily lives. The goal of this dissertation work was to explore and establish new growth schemes to improve the structural and optical properties of thick to atomically thin films of group-III nitrides grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC substrates for future novel devices. The first research focus of this dissertation was on the growth of indium gallium nitride (InGaN). This wide bandgap semiconductor has attracted much research attention as an active layer in LEDs and recently as an absorber material for solar cells. InGaN has superior material properties for solar cells due to its wavelength absorption tunability that nearly covers the entire solar spectrum. This can be achieved by controlling the indium content in thick grown material. Thick InGaN films are also of interest as strain reducing based layers for deep-green and red light emitters. The growth of thick films of InGaN is, however, hindered by several combined problems. This includes poor incorporation of indium in alloys, high density of structural and morphological defects, as well as challenges associated with the segregation of indium in thick films. Overcoming some of these material challenges is essential in order integrate thick InGaN films into future optoelectronics. Therefore, this dissertation research investigated the growth mechanism of InGaN layers grown in the N-polar direction by MOCVD as a route to improve the structural and optical properties of thick InGaN films. The growth

  15. Titania seed layers for PZT thin film growth on copper-coated Kapton films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Volkonskiy, O.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Adolphi, B.; Bertram, M.; Gerlach, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2009), s. 57-66 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/09/J017; GA AV ČR KJB100100703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : copper coated Kapton * seed layer * seed layer * plasma deposition * XPS Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.329, year: 2009

  16. Growth of micrometric oxide layers to explore laser decontamination of metallic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in terms of hazard level, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop safe techniques for dismantling and for decontamination, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. In this paper we propose a method for the creation of oxide layers on stai...

  17. Growth of micrometric oxide layers for the study of metallic surfaces decontamination by laser

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Luisa; Pacquentin Wilfried; Tabarant Michel; Maskrot Hicham; Semerok Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear industry produces a wide range of radioactive waste in term of level of hazard, contaminants and material. For metallic equipment like steam generators, the radioactivity is mainly located in the oxide surface. In order to study and develop techniques for dismantling and for decontamination in a safe way, it is important to have access to oxide layers with a representative distribution of non-radioactive contaminants. We propose a method of formation of oxide layer on stainless st...

  18. In vitro growth of flat aragonite crystals between the layers of the insoluble organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis laevigata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Katharina I.; Heinemann, Fabian; Rosenauer, Andreas; Fritz, Monika

    2012-11-01

    Nacre of abalone shells consists of aragonite platelets and organic material, the so-called organic matrix. During the growth process of the shell the aragonite platelets grow into a scaffold formed by the organic matrix. In this work we tried to mimic this growth process by placing a piece of the insoluble organic matrix (which is a part of the organic matrix) of the abalone Haliotis laevigata in a crystallization device which was flowed through by CaCl2 and NaHCO3 solutions. Using this setup amongst others flat aragonite crystals grow on the insoluble organic matrix. When investigating these crystals in a transmission electron microscope it is possible to recognize similarities to the structure of nacre, like the formation of mineral bridges and growth between layers of the insoluble organic matrix. These similarities are presented in this paper.

  19. Effect of grain refiner on intermetallic phase formation in directional solidification of 6xxx series wrought Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sha, G.; O' Reilly, K.; Cantor, B. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Adv. Mat. and Composites; Hamerton, R.; Worth, J.

    2000-07-01

    The effect of a grain refiner on the formation of intermetallic phases in a directionally solidified (Bridgman grown) model 6xxx series wrought Al alloy has been investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A base alloy with and without Al-Ti-B grain refiner was directionally solidified in a Bridgman furnace at growth velocities in the range of 5-120 mm/min. In both cases, the Fe-containing intermetallic phases present were found to be mainly {alpha}-AlFeSi and {beta}-AlFeSi. However, in the alloy with grain refiner solidified at 5mm/min, Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} was also observed. Quantitative XRD results indicated that the addition of Al-Ti-B grain refiner has a strong influence on the relative quantities of intermetallic phases forming during solidification at different growth velocities, which was also confirmed by TEM observations. TEM observations also show that depending on where the {beta}-AlFeSi particles solidified e.g. grain boundaries or triple grain junctions, the size and morphology of the particles may change dramatically. TiB{sub 2} particles were observed to nucleate {beta}-AlFeSi at low and high growth velocities in the 6xxx series Al alloys. (orig.)

  20. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  1. Multiscale modeling of the influence of Fe content in a Al-Si-Cu alloy on the size distribution of intermetallic phases and micropores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junsheng; Lee, Peter D.; Li Mei; Allison, John

    2010-01-01

    A multiscale model was developed to simulate the formation of Fe-rich intermetallics and pores in quaternary Al-Si-Cu-Fe alloys. At the microscale, the multicomponent diffusion equations were solved for multiphase (liquid-solid-gas) materials via a finite difference framework to predict microstructure formation. A fast and robust decentered plate algorithm was developed to simulate the strong anisotropy of the solid/liquid interfacial energy for the Fe-rich intermetallic phase. The growth of porosity was controlled by local pressure drop due to solidification and interactions with surrounding solid phases, in addition to hydrogen diffusion. The microscale model was implemented as a subroutine in a commercial finite element package, producing a coupled multiscale model. This allows the influence of varying casting conditions on the Fe-rich intermetallics, the pores, and their interactions to be predicted. Synchrotron x-ray tomography experiments were performed to validate the model by comparing the three-dimensional morphology and size distribution of Fe-rich intermetallics as a function of Fe content. Large platelike Fe-rich β intermetallics were successfully simulated by the multiscale model and their influence on pore size distribution in shape castings was predicted as a function of casting conditions.

  2. Growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers: Impact of O-content and surface structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayachandran, Suseendran, E-mail: suseendran.jayachandran@imec.be [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Billen, Arne [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Douhard, Bastien; Conard, Thierry; Meersschaut, Johan; Moussa, Alain; Caymax, Matty; Bender, Hugo [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, Wilfried [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Heyns, Marc [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Metallurgy and Materials, Castle Arenberg 44, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Delabie, Annelies [Imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven (University of Leuven), Department of Chemistry, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • O{sub 3} or O{sub 2} exposures on H-Si(100) result in O ALs with different surface structures. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 3} process is by direct epitaxial growth mechanism. • Si-EPI on O AL using O{sub 2} process is by epitaxial lateral overgrowth mechanism. • Distortions by O AL, SiH{sub 4} flux rate and Si thickness has an impact on Si-EPI quality. - Abstract: The epitaxial growth of Si layers on Si substrates in the presence of O atoms is generally considered a challenge, as O atoms degrade the epitaxial quality by generating defects. Here, we investigate the growth mechanisms for Si epitaxy on O atomic layers (ALs) with different O-contents and structures. O ALs are deposited by ozone (O{sub 3}) or oxygen (O{sub 2}) exposure on H-terminated Si at 50 °C and 300 °C respectively. Epitaxial Si is deposited by chemical vapor deposition using silane (SiH{sub 4}) at 500 °C. After O{sub 3} exposure, the O atoms are uniformly distributed in Si-Si dimer/back bonds. This O layer still allows epitaxial seeding of Si. The epitaxial quality is enhanced by lowering the surface distortions due to O atoms and by decreasing the arrival rate of SiH{sub 4} reactants, allowing more time for surface diffusion. After O{sub 2} exposure, the O atoms are present in the form of SiO{sub x} clusters. Regions of hydrogen-terminated Si remain present between the SiO{sub x} clusters. The epitaxial seeding of Si in these structures is realized on H-Si regions, and an epitaxial layer grows by a lateral overgrowth mechanism. A breakdown in the epitaxial ordering occurs at a critical Si thickness, presumably by accumulation of surface roughness.

  3. Magnetization and specific heat study of metamagnetism in Lu.sub.2./sub.Fe.sub.17./sub.-based intermetallic compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tereshina, Evgeniya; Andreev, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2010), 1205-1210 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : rare-earth intermetallics * magnetic properties * single crystal growth Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.327, year: 2010

  4. Surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl{sub 24}Nb{sub 10} intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Rahman, A.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmedphys96@hotmail.com; Maitz, M.F. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany); Kassem, M.A. [Department of Materials and Metals Engineering, Faculty of Petroleum and Mining Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); El-Hossary, F.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University (Egypt); Prokert, F.; Reuther, H.; Pham, M.T.; Richter, E. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (Germany)

    2007-09-30

    The present work describes the surface improvement and biocompatibility of TiAl{sub 24}Nb{sub 10} intermetallic alloy using rf plasma nitriding. The nitriding process was carried out at different plasma power from 400 W to 650 W where the other plasma conditions were fixed. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), tribometer and a nanohardness tester were employed to characterize the nitrided layer. Further potentiodynamic polarization method was used to describe the corrosion behavior of the un-nitrided and nitrided alloy. It has been found that the Vickers hardness (HV) and corrosion resistance values of the nitrided layers increase with increasing plasma power while the wear rates of the nitrided layers reduce by two orders of magnitude as compared to those of the un-nitrided layer. This improvement in surface properties of the intermetallic alloy is due to formation of a thin modified layer which is composed of titanium nitride in the alloy surface. Moreover, all modified layers were tested for their sustainability as a biocompatible material. Concerning the application area of biocompatibility, the present treated alloy show good surface properties especially for the nitrided alloy at low plasma power of 400 W.

  5. Microstructure and properties of hot roll bonding layer of dissimilar metals. 2. Bonding interface microstructure of Zr/stainless steel by hot roll bonding and its controlling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuyama, Masanori; Ogawa, Kazuhiro; Taka, Takao; Nakasuji, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Kazutoshi.

    1996-01-01

    The hot roll bonding of zirconium and stainless steel inserted with tantalium was investigated using the newly developed rolling mill. The effect of hot rolling temperatures of zirconium/stainless steel joints on bonding interface structure was evaluated. Intermetallic compound layer containing cracks was observed at the bonding interface between stainless steel and tantalium when the rolling temperature was above 1373K. The hardness of the bonding layer of zirconium and tantalium bonded above 1273K was higher than tantalium or zirconium base metal in spite of absence of intermetallic compound. The growth of reaction layer at the stainless steel and tantalium interface and at the tantalium and zirconium interface was conforming a parabolic low when that was isothermally heated after hot roll bonding, and the growth rate was almost same as that of static diffusion bonding without using hot roll bonding process. It is estimated that the strain caused by hot roll bonding gives no effect on the growth of reaction layer. It was confirmed that the dissimilar joint of zirconium and stainless steel with insert of tantalium having the sound bonding interface were obtained at the suitable bonding temperature of 1173K by the usage of the newly developed hot roll bonding process. (author)

  6. Mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, B.; Garcia-Escorial, A.; Ibanez, J.; Lieblich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this work 2124 aluminium matrix composites reinforced with Ni 3 Al, NiAl, MoSi 2 and Cr 3 Si intermetallic powder particles have been investigated. For comparison purposes, un reinforced 2124 and reinforced with SiC have also been studied. In all cases, the same powder metallurgy route was used, i. e. the 2124 alloy was obtained by rapid solidification and the intermetallic particles by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The matrix and the intermetallics were mechanically blended, cold compacted and finally hot extruded. Tensile tests were carried out in T1 and T4 treatments. Results indicate that mechanical properties depend strongly on the tendency to form new phases at the matrix-intermetallic interface during processing and/or further thermal treatments. The materials which present better properties are those that present less reaction between matrix and intermetallic reinforcement, i. e. MoSi 2 and SiC reinforced composites. (Author) 9 refs

  7. Aqueous phase synthesis of upconversion nanocrystals through layer-by-layer epitaxial growth for in vivo X-ray computed tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Feifei

    2013-05-21

    Lanthanide-doped core-shell upconversion nanocrystals (UCNCs) have tremendous potential for applications in many fields, especially in bio-imaging and medical therapy. As core-shell UCNCs are mostly synthesized in organic solvents, tedious organic-aqueous phase transfer processes are usually needed for their use in bio-applications. Herein, we demonstrate the first example of one-step synthesis of highly luminescent core-shell UCNCs in the "aqueous" phase under mild conditions using innocuous reagents. A microwave-assisted approach allowed for layer-by-layer epitaxial growth of a hydrophilic NaGdF4 shell on NaYF4:Yb, Er cores. During this process, surface defects of the nanocrystals could be gradually passivated by the homogeneous shell deposition, resulting in obvious enhancement in the overall upconversion emission efficiency. In addition, the up-down conversion dual-mode luminescent NaYF4:Yb, Er@NaGdF4:Ce, Ln (Eu, Tb, Sm, Dy) nanocrystals were also synthesized to further validate the successful formation of the core-shell structure. More significantly, based on their superior solubility and stability in water solution, high upconversion efficiency and Gd-doped predominant X-ray absorption, the as-prepared NaYF4:Yb, Er@NaGdF4 core-shell UCNCs exhibited high contrast in in vitro cell imaging and in vivo X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging, demonstrating great potential as multiplexed luminescent biolabels and CT contrast agents.

  8. Determination of regional heat fluxes from the growth of the mixed layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Batchvarova, E. [National Inst. of Meteorology and Hydrology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-10-01

    The distribution of surface sensible heat flux is a critical factor in producing and modifying the mesoscale atmospheric flows, turbulence and evaporation. Parameterizations that assume homogeneous land characteristics are inappropriate to represent the spatial variability often found in nature. One possibility to overcome this problem is to increase the resolution of the model grid which demands unrealistic computing resources and data for model initialization. Area averaged fluxes can be obtained from aircraft measurements. It is essential that the flights are performed at a height where the individual surface features are not felt. A large number of flights and appropriate pattern to meet the task are needed in order to achieve a fair statistics. The mixed layer grows in response to the regional turbulent fluxes including the aggregation and small scale processes. The region of influence in upwind direction is typically 20 times the height of the mixed layer for convective and 100 times the height of the mixed layer for atmospheric near neutral conditions. In this study we determine the regional integrated sensible heat flux from information on the evolution of the mixed layer over the area. The required information to use the method can be derived from wind speed and temperature profiles obtained by radio-soundings when performed frequently enough to provide a reasonably detailed structure of the development of the mixed-layer. The method is applied to estimate the regional heat flux over the NOPEX experimental area for three days during the campaign in 1994. (au)

  9. Effect of nickel seed layer on growth of α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanostructured thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Kant, Chandra; Kumar, Prabhat; Singh, Megha, E-mail: meghasingh-08@yahoo.com; Reddy, G. B. [Thin film Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-110016 (India)

    2015-08-28

    In this communication, we reported the role of Ni seed layer on the growth of vanadium pentoxide (α-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) nanostructured thin films (NSTs) using plasma assisted sublimation process (PASP). Two different substrates, simple glass substrate and the Ni coated glass substrate (Ni thickness ∼ 100 nm) are employing in the present work. The influence of seed layer on structural, morphological, and vibrational properties have been studied systematically. The structural analysis divulged that both films deposited on simple glass as well as on Ni coated glass shown purely orthorhombic phase, no other phases are detected. The morphological studies of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} film deposited on both substrates are carried out by SEM, revealed that features of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} NSTs is completely modified in presence of Ni seed layer and the film possessing the excellent growth of nanorods (NRs) on Ni coated glass rather than simple glass. The HRTEM analysis of NRs is performed at very high magnification, shows very fine fringe pattern, which confirmed the single crystalline nature of nanorods. The vibrational study of NRs is performed using micro-Raman spectroscopy, which strongly support the XRD observations.

  10. Growth modes of InN (000-1) on GaN buffer layers on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bing; Kitajima, Takeshi; Chen Dongxue; Leone, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, using atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy, we study the surface morphologies of epitaxial InN films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy with intervening GaN buffer layers on sapphire substrates. On smooth GaN buffer layers, nucleation and evolution of three-dimensional InN islands at various coverages and growth temperatures are investigated. The shapes of the InN islands are observed to be predominantly mesalike with large flat (000-1) tops, which suggests a possible role of indium as a surfactant. Rough GaN buffer layers composed of dense small GaN islands are found to significantly improve uniform InN wetting of the substrates, on which atomically smooth InN films are obtained that show the characteristics of step-flow growth. Scanning tunneling microscopy imaging reveals the defect-mediated surface morphology of smooth InN films, including surface terminations of screw dislocations and a high density of shallow surface pits with depths less than 0.3 nm. The mechanisms of the three-dimensional island size and shape evolution and formation of defects on smooth surfaces are considered

  11. Epitaxial TiN(001) wetting layer for growth of thin single-crystal Cu(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, J. S.; Zhang, X. Y.; Gall, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Single-crystal Cu(001) layers, 4-1400 nm thick, were deposited on MgO(001) with and without a 2.5-nm-thick TiN(001) buffer layer. X-ray diffraction and reflection indicate that the TiN(001) surface suppresses Cu-dewetting, yielding a 4 x lower defect density and a 9 x smaller surface roughness than if grown on MgO(001) at 25 deg. C. In situ and low temperature electron transport measurements indicate that ultra-thin (4 nm) Cu(001) remains continuous and exhibits partial specular scattering at the Cu-vacuum boundary with a Fuchs-Sondheimer specularity parameter p = 0.6 {+-} 0.2, suggesting that the use of epitaxial wetting layers is a promising approach to create low-resistivity single-crystal Cu nanoelectronic interconnects.

  12. Few-layer graphene growth from polystyrene as solid carbon source utilizing simple APCVD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Shahrokh; Afzalzadeh, Reza

    2016-07-01

    This research article presents development of an economical, simple, immune and environment friendly process to grow few-layer graphene by controlling evaporation rate of polystyrene on copper foil as catalyst and substrate utilizing atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) method. Evaporation rate of polystyrene depends on molecular structure, amount of used material and temperature. We have found controlling rate of evaporation of polystyrene by controlling the source temperature is easier than controlling the material weight. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as Raman Spectroscopy has been used for characterization of the layers. The frequency of G‧ to G band ratio intensity in some samples varied between 0.8 and 1.6 corresponding to few-layer graphene. Topography characterization by atomic force microscopy confirmed Raman results.

  13. The Impact of Wet Soil and Canopy Temperatures on Daytime Boundary-Layer Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, M.; Garratt, J. R.; Kallos, G.; Pielke, R. A.

    1989-12-01

    The impact of very wet soil and canopy temperatures on the surface sensible heat flux, and on related daytime boundary-layer properties is evaluated. For very wet soils, two winter situations are considered, related to significant changes in soil surface temperature: (1) due to weather perturbations at a given location, and (2) due to the climatological north-south temperature gradient. Analyses and scaling of the various boundary-layer properties, and soil surface fluxes affecting the sensible beat flux, have been made; related evaluations show that changes in the sensible heat flux at a given location by a factor of 2 to 3 due to temperature changes related to weather perturbations is not uncommon. These changes result in significant alterations in the boundary-layer depth; in the atmospheric boundary-layer warming; and in the break-up time of the nocturnal surface temperature inversion. Investigation of the impact of the winter latitudinal temperature gradient on the above characteristics indicated that the relative increase in very wet soil sensible heat flux, due to the climatological reduction in the surface temperature in northern latitudes, moderates to some extent its reduction due to the corresponding decrease in solar radiation. Numerical model simulations confirmed these analytical evaluations.In addition, the impact of synoptic temperature perturbations during the transition seasons (fall and spring) on canopy sensible heal fluxes, and the related boundary-layer characteristics mentioned above, was evaluated. Analogous features to those found for very wet soil surfaces occurred also for the canopy situations. Likewise, evaluations were also carried out to explore the impact of high midlatitude foreste areas on the boundary-layer characteristics during the winter as compared to those during the summer. Similar impacts were found in both seasons, regardless of the substantial difference in the daily total solar radiation.

  14. Simulation of nucleation and growth of atomic layer deposition phosphorus for doping of advanced FinFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Thomas E.; Goldberg, Alexander; Halls, Mat D.; Current, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations for the nucleation and growth of phosphorus films were carried out using density functional theory. The surface was represented by a Si 9 H 12 truncated cluster surface model with 2 × 1-reconstructured (100) Si-OH terminations for the initial reaction sites. Chemistries included phosphorous halides (PF 3 , PCl 3 , and PBr 3 ) and disilane (Si 2 H 6 ). Atomic layer deposition (ALD) reaction sequences were illustrated with three-dimensional molecular models using sequential PF 3 and Si 2 H 6 reactions and featuring SiFH 3 as a byproduct. Exothermic reaction pathways were developed for both nucleation and growth for a Si-OH surface. Energetically favorable reactions for the deposition of four phosphorus atoms including lateral P–P bonding were simulated. This paper suggests energetically favorable thermodynamic reactions for the growth of elemental phosphorus on (100) silicon. Phosphorus layers made by ALD are an option for doping advanced fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs). Phosphorus may be thermally diffused into the silicon or recoil knocked in; simulations of the recoil profile of phosphorus into a FinFET surface are illustrated

  15. Growth, microstructure, and hard magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B layers; Wachstum, Mikrostruktur und hartmagnetische Eigenschaften von Nd-Fe-B-Schichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, U.

    2004-07-01

    In this thesis with pulsed laser deposition Nd-Fe-B layers were deposited. The Nd-Fe-B layers were deposited both on chromium and on tantalum buffers. The layers, which were deposed on tantalum buffers, showed a strong dependence of the nicrostructure and the magnetic properties on the deposition temperature. On layers which were deposited at deposition temperatures around 630 C on the tantalum buffer, the epitactical growth of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B could be observed. Summarizingly these layers can be described as micrometer-large and parallely oriented single crystals.

  16. Biochar impact on improving root growth and water retention capacity in Norfolk hard setting subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Norfolk soil series is a well-drained soil used commonly for agricultural production in the Eastern Carolinas. Certain profile features such as a hard setting subsoil layer with high bulk density, low water holding capacity and meager soil fertility characteristics makes this soil less producti...

  17. Fabrication of Nanolaminates with Ultrathin Nanolayers Using Atomic Layer Deposition: Nucleation & Growth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Tecnologia de Superficies y Materiales (SMCTSM), XXVII Congreso Nacional, Oaxaca, Oaxaca, Mexico, September 26, 2007. 26. "Atomic Layer Deposition of...Nanolaminates: Fabrication and Properties" (Plenary Lecture), Sociedad Mexicana de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Superficies y Materiales (SMCTSM), XXVII

  18. Low temperature growth of gallium oxide thin films via plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Rechmann, J.; Aghaee, M.; Rogalla, D.; Becker, H.-W.; Creatore, M.; Wieck, A.D.; Devi, A.P.K.

    2017-01-01

    Herein we describe an efficient low temperature (60–160 °C) plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process for gallium oxide (Ga2O3) thin films using hexakis(dimethylamido)digallium [Ga(NMe2)3]2 with oxygen (O2) plasma on Si(100). The use of O2 plasma was found to have a significant

  19. Approximate analytical solution to diurnal atmospheric boundary-layer growth under well-watered conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The system of governing equations of a simplified slab model of the uniformly-mixed, purely convective, diurnal atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is shown to allow immediate solutions for the potential temperature and specific humidity as functions of the ABL height and net radiation when expressed i...

  20. Intermetallic Al-, Fe-, Co- and Ni-Based Thermal Barrier Coatings Prepared by Cold Spray for Applications on Low Heat Rejection Diesel Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchinsky, E.; Sobiesiak, A.; Maev, R.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat insulating topcoat. They possess the desired low thermal conductivity, but at the same time they are very brittle and sensitive to thermal shock and thermal cycling due to the inherently low coefficient of thermal expansion. Recent research activities are focused on the developing of multilayer TBC structures obtained using cold spraying and following annealing. Aluminum intermetallics have demonstrated thermal and mechanical properties that allow them to be used as the alternative TBC materials, while the intermetallic layers can be additionally optimized to achieve superior thermal physical properties. One example is the six layer TBC structure in which cold sprayed Al-based intermetallics are synthesized by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. These multilayer coating systems demonstrated an improved thermal fatigue capability as compared to conventional ceramic TBC. The microstructures and properties of the coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS and mechanical tests to define the TBC material properties and intermetallic formation mechanisms.

  1. High performance CaS solar-blind ultraviolet photodiodes fabricated by seed-layer-assisted growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qing Lin; Lai, Ying Hoi; Sou, Iam Keong; Liu, Yi; Beltjens, Emeline; Qi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    CaS, with a direct bandgap of 5.38 eV, is expected to be a strong candidate as the active-layer of high performance solar-blind UV photodiodes that have important applications in both civilian and military sectors. Here, we report that a seed-layer-assisted growth approach via molecular beam epitaxy can result in high crystalline quality rocksalt CaS thin films on zincblende GaAs substrates. The Au/CaS/GaAs solar-blind photodiodes demonstrated , more than five orders in its visible rejection power, a photoresponse of 36.8 mA/w at zero bias and a corresponding quantum efficiency as high as 19% at 235 nm

  2. Topotactic growth, selective adsorption, and adsorption-driven photocatalysis of protonated layered titanate nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qili; Yang, Xianfeng; Liu, Jia; Nie, Xin; Huang, Yongliang; Wen, Yuping; Khan, Javid; Khan, Wasim U; Wu, Mingmei; An, Taicheng

    2014-10-22

    Layered titanates with selective adsorption ability and adsorption-driven photocatalytic property can be quite attractive due to their potential applications in water purification. In this work, lepidocrocite-like layered protonated titanate (H2Ti2O5·H2O, denoted as HTO) nanosheets were successfully synthesized by an ion-exchange process. It turns out that this layered structure displays an abundant and selective adsorption toward the fluoroquinolone pharmaceutical compared with some large dye molecules due to a size selectivity of the interlayer spacing of HTO and the molecular horizontal size, as well as their electrostatic interaction. The uptake ability of HTO could be readily controlled through adjusting the pH values of adsorbate solution, and the maximum uptake capacity was achieved at the pH value of about 5.5 for ciprofloxacin (CIP) and 6.5 for moxifloxacin (MOX). The adsorption amount of smaller nalidixic acid (NAL) showed an increasing tendency as the pH value decreased. Moreover, the two-dimensional layered crystal structure also permits such HTO nanosheets to have a large percentage of (010) faces exposed, which is considerably provided by the interlayer surfaces of these nanosheets. The (010) surface has a similar Ti and O atomic arrangement as to the highly reactive anatase TiO2(001) one. Due to these specific characteristics, these HTO nanosheets show excellent photocatalytic activity in degrading CIP under UV light irradiation as well as possess a superior adsorption ability to remove CIP from aqueous solution selectively and efficiently. The photocatalytic reaction is believed to be mainly conducted on the active anatase (001)-like interlayer (010) surfaces of the layered structures since the as-prepared HTO performs an adsorption-driven molecular recognitive photocatalytic reaction.

  3. Highly resolving Rutherford-scattering spectrometry for the study of ZrO2 layer growth in the beginning stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieluf, Maik

    2010-06-01

    By means of High Resolution Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (HR-RBS) the diffusion behaviour and layer growth of ZrO 2 on SiO 2 and TiN in the initial regime were investigated. The analysis of concentration profiles in ultrathin layers and interfaces was the focus of this work, made possible by the excellent depth resolution of less than 0.3 nm near the surface. For the first time a two-dimensional position sensitive semiconductor detector was implemented and characterized in the setup of the HR-RBS for the improvement of the quality of the measurement results. Furthermore, a measurement procedure was put into operation that allowed the reduction of ion induced damage. Through the optimization of the experimental conditions and the development of a program package for the support of the analyst, an efficient measurement procedure could be routinely ensured. At the time of a binary collision between the incident ion and the target element with a small impact factor, the charge state changes frequently, especially due to the abruptly decreasing ion velocity of the projectile and the overlapping of the electron clouds. For HR-RBS with an energy-separating dipole magnet, the charge state distribution of the scattered ions must be known for the interpretation of the measured spectra. For the first time a significant dependence of the charge state distribution of the scattered C ions on the layer thickness as well as atomic number of the detected target elements, here from the fourth subgroup, was demonstrated. This new knowledge allowed systematic investigations of the ZrO 2 layer growth in the initial regime. The ZrO 2 layers were produced by means of the atomic layer deposition (ALD). Based on the evidence for agglomeration of ZrO 2 on SiO 2 a method was introduced, which takes local thickness variations into account during the simulation of the HR-RBS spectra. An accurate statement about the ZrO 2 /SiO 2 interface was possible due to the extraction of the

  4. Anatomy of a metabentonite: nucleation and growth of illite crystals and their colescence into mixed-layer illite/smectite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberl, D.D.; Blum, A.E.; Serravezza, M.

    2011-01-01

    The illite layer content of mixed-layer illite/smectite (I/S) in a 2.5 m thick, zoned, metabentonite bed from Montana decreases regularly from the edges to the center of the bed. Traditional X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern modeling using Markovian statistics indicated that this zonation results from a mixing in different proportions of smectite-rich R0 I/S and illite-rich R1 I/S, with each phase having a relatively constant illite layer content. However, a new method for modeling XRD patterns of I/S indicates that R0 and R1 I/S in these samples are not separate phases (in the mineralogical sense of the word), but that the samples are composed of illite crystals that have continuous distributions of crystal thicknesses, and of 1 nm thick smectite crystals. The shapes of these distributions indicate that the crystals were formed by simultaneous nucleation and growth. XRD patterns for R0 and R1 I/S arise by interparticle diffraction from a random stacking of the crystals, with swelling interlayers formed at interfaces between crystals from water or glycol that is sorbed on crystal surfaces. It is the thickness distributions of smectite and illite crystals (also termed fundamental particles, or Nadeau particles), rather than XRD patterns for mixed-layer I/S, that are the more reliable indicators of geologic history, because such distributions are composed of well-defined crystals that are not affected by differences in surface sorption and particle arrangements, and because their thickness distribution shapes conform to the predictions of crystal growth theory, which describes their genesis.

  5. Selective growth of Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Wakana; Washizu, Tomoya; Ike, Shinichi; Nakatsuka, Osamu; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2018-01-01

    We have investigated the selective growth of a Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on a line/space-patterned SiO2/Si substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We examined the behavior of a Sn precursor of tributyl(vinyl)tin (TBVSn) during the growth on Si and SiO2 substrates and investigated the effect of the Sn precursor on the selective growth. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer was performed under various total pressures and growth temperatures of 300 and 350 °C. The selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer on the patterned Si region is achieved at a low total pressure without Ge1- x Sn x growth on the SiO2 region. In addition, we found that the Sn content in the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer increases with width of the SiO2 region for a fixed Si width even with low total pressure. To control the Sn content in the selective growth of the Ge1- x Sn x epitaxial layer, it is important to suppress the decomposition and migration of Sn and Ge precursors.

  6. Crystal field in rare-earth metals and intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    Reasons for the success of the crystal-field model for the rare-earth metals and intermetallic compounds are discussed. A review of some of the available experimental results is made with emphasis on cubic intermetallic compounds. Various sources of the origin of the crystal field in these metals are discussed in the background of the recent APW picture of the conduction electrons. The importance of the non-spherical part of the muffin-tin potential on the single-ion anisotropy is stressed. (author)

  7. High temperature oxidation behavior of TiAl-based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, M.F.; Sunderkoetter, J.D.; Haanappel, V.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    TiAl-based intermetallic compounds have attracted considerable interest as structural materials for high-temperature applications due to their low density and substantial mechanical strength at high temperatures. However, one major drawback hindering industrial application arises from the insufficient oxidation resistance at temperatures beyond 700 C. In the present contribution some general aspects of high temperature oxidation of TiAl-based intermetallics will be presented. This will be followed by a discussion of the influence of alloying elements, in particular niobium, and of the effect of nitrogen in the oxidizing environment on the high temperature oxidation behavior of such materials

  8. Effect of the nand p-type Si(100) substrates with a SiC buffer layer on the growth mechanism and structure of epitaxial layers of semipolar AlN and GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessolov, V. N.; Grashchenko, A. S.; Konenkova, E. V.; Myasoedov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Red'kov, A. V.; Rodin, S. N.; Rubets, V. P.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    A new effect of the n-and p-type doping of the Si(100) substrate with a SiC film on the growth mechanism and structure of AlN and GaN epitaxial layers has been revealed. It has been experimentally shown that the mechanism of AlN and GaN layer growth on the surface of a SiC layer synthesized by substituting atoms on n- and p-Si substrates is fundamentally different. It has been found that semipolar AlN and GaN layers on the SiC/Si(100) surface grow in the epitaxial and polycrystalline structures on p-Si and n-Si substrates, respectively. A new method for synthesizing epitaxial semipolar AlN and GaN layers by chloride-hydride epitaxy on silicon substrates has been proposed.

  9. The influence of pressure on diffusion leading to intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adda, Y.; Beyeler, M.; Kirianenko, A.; Pernot, B.

    1961-01-01

    Some investigators A.D. LE CLAIRE, J.L. ZAMBROW, L. CASTLEMAN, have shown that the application of uniaxial pressure parallel to the direction of diffusion may notably modify the kinetics of growth of the intermediate phases which can be formed in this direction. The interpretation of this phenomenon being obscure, an attempt is made to explain it by detailed analysis of the experimental facts. The microscopic studies of the kinetics of growth of the zones formed shows particularly in the couples Uranium-Copper and Uranium-Nickel that it is influenced in a similar manner by a uniaxial pressure and a hydrostatic one. On the other hand the rate of growth of these zones increases as a function of the applied pressure in the systems Uranium-Copper, Uranium-Nickel and Uranium-Aluminium (this effect being particularly marked in Uranium-Aluminium). To determine with precision the limits of the range of stability of the intermetallic compounds, the curves of concentration penetration characteristics of the diffusion have been established by means of the CASTAING electronic microanalyser. The examination of the results indicates that when diffusion takes place without external pressure (couples U-Cu and U-Ni) or with a pressure less than 300 kg/cm 2 (couple U-Al) the concentration varies notably in the compounds obtained, which theoretically are stoichiometric. Thus, when crossing the zone of diffusion of one base metal to another one notes a continual passage of: UCu 4.70 to UCu 5.25 in the couple U-Cu; UNi 4.75 to UNi 5.25 in the couple U-Ni; UAl 2.2 to UAl 3.3 in the couple U-Al. If an uniaxial or hydrostatic pressure above 500 kg/cm 2 is applied to the couples U-Cu and U-Ni, or above 1000 kg/cm 2 for the couple U-Al, the composition is then constant in the zones formed. It corresponds to: UCu 5 in the couple U-Cu; UNi 5 in the couple U-Ni; UAl 3 in the couple U-Al. These results are confirmed by an X-ray diffraction study, mainly in the U-Cu system. Experiments in

  10. One unit-cell seed layer induced epitaxial growth of heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T L; Hirose, Y; Hitosugi, T; Hasegawa, T [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan)], E-mail: chen@ksp.or.jp

    2008-03-21

    We present a novel way to obtain heavily nitrogen doped anatase TiO{sub 2} films by using a solid-state nitrogen source. Epitaxial growth of the films was realized by introducing one unit-cell seed layer, which was indicated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction as intensity oscillation. Results of x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the films were in the anatase phase heavily doped with nitrogen of {approx}15 at%. The films obtained exhibited considerable narrowing of the optical bandgap, resulting in an enhancement of absorption in the visible-light region. (fast track communication)

  11. Quaternary borocarbides: New class of intermetallic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L. C.; Dhar, S. K.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Hossain, Zakir; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C.; Padalia, B. D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Our recent discovery of superconductivity (SC) in the four-element multiphase Y-Ni-B-C system at an elevated temperature (TC approximately 12 K) has opened up great possibilities of identifying new superconducting materials and generating new physics. Superconductivity with Tc (greater than 20 K) higher than that known so far in bulk intermetallics has been observed in multiphase Y-Pd-B-C and Th-Pd-B-C systems and a family of single phase materials RENi2B2C (RE= Y, rare earth) have been found. Our investigations show YNi2B2C to be a strong coupling hard type-II SC. HC2(T) exhibits an unconventional temperature dependence. Specific heat and magnetization studies reveal coexistence of SC and magnetism in RNi2B2C (R = Ho, Er, Tm) with magnetic ordering temperatures (Tc approximately 8 K, 10.5 K, 11 K and Tm approximately 5 K, approximately 7K, approximately 4 K respectively) that are remarkably higher than those in known magnetic superconductors . Mu-SR studies suggest the possibility of Ni atoms carrying a moment in TmNi2B2C. Resistivity results suggests a double re-entrant transition (SC-normal-SC) in HoNi2B2C. RENi2B2C (RE = Ce, Nd, Gd) do not show SC down to 4.2 K. The Nd- and Gd-compounds order magnetically at approximately 4.5 K and approximately 19.5 K, respectively. Two SC transitions are observed in Y-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 22 K, approximately 10 K) and in Th-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 20 K, approximately 14 K) systems, which indicate that there are at least two structures which support SC in these borocarbides. In our multiphase ThNi2B2C we observe SC at approximately 6 K. No SC was seen in multiphase UNi2B2C, UPd2B2C, UOs2Ge2C and UPd5B3C(0.35) down to 4.2 K. Tc in YNi2B2C is depressed by substitutions (Gd, Th and U at Y-sites and Fe, Co at Ni-sites).

  12. Growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods with low temperature calcinated seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rudrashish; Samal, Rudranarayan; Khatua, Lizina; Das, Susanta Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we demonstrate the growth of thin film containing high density ZnO nanorods by using drop casting of the seed layer calcinated at a low temperature of 132 °C. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) method is used to grow the nanorods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are performed for the structural and morphological characterizations of the nanorods. The average diameter and length of nanorods are found to be 33 nm and 270 nm respectively. The bandgap of the material is estimated to be 3.2 eV from the UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The reported method is much more cost-effective and can be used for growth of ZnO nanorods for various applications.

  13. Heteroepitaxial growth of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} inhibition layer in hot-dip galvanizing of an interstitial-free steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Kuang-Kuo [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Chang, Liuwen, E-mail: lwchang@mail.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Gan, Dershin; Wang, Hung-Ping [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)

    2010-02-01

    This work presents characterization results on inhibition layers formed on a TiNb-stabilized interstitial-free steel after short time galvanizing. The Fe-Al and steel interface was free from oxide, so that the Fe-Al intermetallic compound could directly nucleate on ferrite grains. Electron diffraction performed in a transmission electron microscope showed that only Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} was formed and it had a well-defined orientation relationship of [110]{sub Fe(sub/2)Al(sub/5)}// [111]{sub Fe}, (001){sub Fe(sub/2)Al(sub/5)}//(011){sub Fe} and (110){sub Fe(sub/2)Al(sub/5)}//(211){sub Fe} with Fe substrate. The structure of the interfaces between Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and Fe is discussed. The epitaxially nucleated Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} grains on Fe substrate had very small grain size, 20 nm or less, and several variants were intimately mixed. The grains grew rapidly to hundreds of nanometers toward the Zn side.

  14. Ultrafast and Highly Reversible Sodium Storage in Zinc-Antimony Intermetallic Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Anmin [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Gan, Li-yong [Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, (China). Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology of Materials; Cheng, Yingchun [Nanjing Univ. of Technology (China). Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM); Tao, Xinyong [Zhejiang Univ. of Technology, Hangzhou (China). College of Materials Science and Engineering; Yuan, Yifei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Sharifi-Asl, Soroosh [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; He, Kun [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Asayesh-Ardakani, Hasti [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Vasiraju, Venkata [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering; Lu, Jun [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Mashayek, Farzad [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department; Klie, Robert [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Department of Physics; Vaddiraju, Sreeram [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering; Schwingenschlögl, Udo [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia); Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department

    2015-12-17

    The progress on sodium-ion battery technology faces many grand challenges, one of which is the considerably lower rate of sodium insertion/deinsertion in electrode materials due to the larger size of sodium (Na) ions and complicated redox reactions compared to the lithium-ion systems. Here, it is demonstrated that sodium ions can be reversibly stored in Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires at speeds that can exceed 295 nm s-1. Remarkably, these values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the sodiation rate of other nanowires electrochemically tested with in situ transmission electron micro­scopy. It is found that the nanowires display about 161% volume expansion after the first sodiation and then cycle with an 83% reversible volume expansion. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled without any cracking or facture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. Additionally, most of the phases involved in the sodiation/desodiation process possess high electrical conductivity. More specifically, the NaZnSb exhibits a layered structure, which provides channels for fast Na+ diffusion. This observation indicates that Zn-Sb intermetallic nanomaterials offer great promise as high rate and good cycling stability anodic materials for the next generation of sodium-ion batteries.

  15. Oxidation behavior of niobium aluminide intermetallics protected by aluminide and silicide diffusion coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Soboyejo, W.; Rapp, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of a new class of damage-tolerant niobium aluminide (Nb 3 Al-xTi-yCr) intermetallics is studied between 650 C and 850 C. Protective diffusion coatings were deposited by pack cementation to achieve the siliciding or aluminizing of substrates with or without intervening Mo or Ni layers, respectively. The compositions and microstructures of the resulting coatings and oxidized surfaces were characterized. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation kinetics indicate that uncoated Nb-40Ti-15Al-based intermetallics may be used up to ∼750 C. Alloying with Cr improves the isothermal oxidation resistance between 650 C and 850 C. The most significant improvement in oxidation resistance is achieved by the aluminization of electroplated Ni interlayers. The results suggest that the high-temperature limit of niobium aluminide-based alloys may be increased to 800 C to 850 C by aluminide-based diffusion coatings on ductile Ni interlayers. Indentation fracture experiments also indicate that the ductile nickel interlayers are resistant to crack propagation in multilayered aluminide-based coatings

  16. The effect of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer growth on observed and modeled surface ozone in the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, L.; Patton, E. G.; Pfister, G. G.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Flocke, F.; Thompson, A. M.; Stauffer, R. M.; Halliday, H. S.

    2017-06-01

    Ozone concentrations at the Earth's surface are controlled by meteorological and chemical processes and are a function of advection, entrainment, deposition, and net chemical production/loss. The relative contributions of these processes vary in time and space. Understanding the relative importance of these processes controlling surface ozone concentrations is an essential component for designing effective regulatory strategies. Here we focus on the diurnal cycle of entrainment through atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) growth in the Colorado Front Range. Aircraft soundings and surface observations collected in July/August 2014 during the DISCOVER-AQ/FRAPPÉ (Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality/Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment) campaigns and equivalent data simulated by a regional chemical transport model are analyzed. Entrainment through ABL growth is most important in the early morning, fumigating the surface at a rate of 5 ppbv/h. The fumigation effect weakens near noon and changes sign to become a small dilution effect in the afternoon on the order of -1 ppbv/h. The chemical transport model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting Model with chemistry) underestimates ozone at all altitudes during this study on the order of 10-15 ppbv. The entrainment through ABL growth is overestimated by the model in the order of 0.6-0.8 ppbv/h. This results from differences in boundary layer growth in the morning and ozone concentration jump across the ABL top in the afternoon. This implicates stronger modeled fumigation in the morning and weaker modeled dilution after 11:00 LT.

  17. In-situ atomic layer deposition growth of Hf-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavaev, Konstantin

    2010-01-01

    We have grown HfO 2 on Si(001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using HfCl 4 , TEMAHf, TDMAHf and H 2 O as precursors. The early stages of the ALD were investigated with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We observed the changes occurring in the Si 2p, O 1s, Hf 4f, Hf 4d, and Cl 2p (for HfCl 4 experiment) core level lines after each ALD cycle up to the complete formation of two layers of HfO 2 . The investigation was carried out in situ giving the possibility to determine the properties of the grown film after every ALD cycle or even after a half cycle. This work focused on the advantages in-situ approach in comparison with ex-situ experiments. The study provides to follow the evolution of the important properties of HfO 2 : contamination level, density and stoichiometry, and influence of the experimental parameters to the interface layer formation during ALD. Our investigation shows that in-situ XPS approach for ALD gives much more information than ex-situ experiments. (orig.)

  18. In-situ atomic layer deposition growth of Hf-oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavaev, Konstantin

    2010-06-17

    We have grown HfO{sub 2} on Si(001) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using HfCl{sub 4}, TEMAHf, TDMAHf and H{sub 2}O as precursors. The early stages of the ALD were investigated with high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We observed the changes occurring in the Si 2p, O 1s, Hf 4f, Hf 4d, and Cl 2p (for HfCl{sub 4} experiment) core level lines after each ALD cycle up to the complete formation of two layers of HfO{sub 2}. The investigation was carried out in situ giving the possibility to determine the properties of the grown film after every ALD cycle or even after a half cycle. This work focused on the advantages in-situ approach in comparison with ex-situ experiments. The study provides to follow the evolution of the important properties of HfO{sub 2}: contamination level, density and stoichiometry, and influence of the experimental parameters to the interface layer formation during ALD. Our investigation shows that in-situ XPS approach for ALD gives much more information than ex-situ experiments. (orig.)

  19. Growth of Transgressive Sills in Mechanically Layered Media: Faroe Islands, NE Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Igneous sills represent an important contribution to upper crustal magma transport, acting as magma conduits and stores (i.e. as sill networks, or as nascent magma chambers). Complex sill-network intrusion in basin settings can have significant impact on subsurface fluid flow (e.g., water aquifer and hydrocarbon systems), geothermal systems, the maturation of hydrocarbons, and methane release. Models for these effects are critically dependent on the models for sill emplacement. This study focuses on staircase-geometry sills in the Faroe Islands, on the European Atlantic Margin, which are hosted in mechanically layered lavas (1-20 m thick) and basaltic volcaniclastic units (1-30 m thick). The sills range from 20-50 m thick, with each covering ~17 km2, and transgressing a vertical range of ~480 m. Steps in the sills are elliptical in cross section, and discontinuous laterally, forming smooth transgressive ramps, hence are interpreted as representing initial stages of sill propagation as magma fingers, which inflate through time to create a through-going sheet. Although steps correspond to the position of some host rock layer interfaces and volcaniclastic horizons, most interfaces are bypassed. The overall geometry of the sills is consistent with ENE-WSW compression, and NNW-SSE extension, and stress anisotropy-induced transgression. Local morphology indicates that mechanical layering suppressed tensile stress ahead of the crack tip, leading to a switch in minimum and intermediate stress axes, facilitating lateral sill propagation as fingers, and resulting in a stepped transgressive geometry.

  20. CBE growth of high-quality ZnO epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shaer, A.; Bakin, A.; Mofor, A.C.; Kreye, M.; Waag, A. [Institute of Semiconductor Technology, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Blaesing, J.; Krost, A. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg (Germany); Stoimenos, J. [Physics Department, Aristotele University, Univ. Campus, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pecz, B. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary); Heuken, M. [Aixtron AG, Kackertstr. 15-17, 52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Further improvements on the recently reported novel approach to zinc oxide Chemical Beam Epitaxy (CBE) are presented. Hydrogen peroxide is employed as a very efficient novel oxidant. ZnO layers with a thickness from 100 nm to 600 nm were grown on c-sapphire using a MgO buffer. PL-mapping as well as conductivity mapping shows a good uniformity across the 2 inch ZnO-on-sapphire epiwafers. The measured surface roughness for the best layers is as low as 0.26 nm. HRXRD measurements of the obtained ZnO layers show excellent quality of the single crystalline ZnO. The FWHM of the HRXRD (0002) rocking curves measured for the 2 inch ZnO-on-sapphire wafers is as low as 27 arcsec with a very high lateral homogeneity across the whole wafer. Plane view HRTEM observations reveal the very good quality of the ZnO films. The results indicate that CBE is a suitable technique to fabricate ZnO of very high structural quality, which can eventually be used as an alternative to bulk ZnO substrates. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Role of ç-elements in the growth of InP layers for radiation detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Olga; Zavadil, Jiří; Žďánský, Karel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 36, 8/10 (2001), s. 979-987 ISSN 0232-1300. [Polish Conference on Crystal Growth /PCCG 6./. Poznan, 20.05.2001-23.05.2001] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/0341; GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Projekt 04/01:4043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : liquid phase epitaxial growth * rare earth metals * semiconductor materials Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.536, year: 2001

  2. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Glenn; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-01-01

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu_3Sn and Cu_6Sn_5 intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu_3Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu_3Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu_3Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu_6Sn_5. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu_3Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu_3Sn to be consumed by Cu_6Sn_5.

  3. Interfaces in Si/Ge atomic layer superlattices on (001)Si: Effect of growth temperature and wafer misorientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baribeau, J.-M.; Lockwood, D. J.; Syme, R. W. G.

    1996-08-01

    We have used x-ray diffraction, specular reflectivity, and diffuse scattering, complemented by Raman spectroscopy, to study the interfaces in a series of (0.5 nm Ge/2 nm Si)50 atomic layer superlattices on (001)Si grown by molecular beam epitaxy in the temperature range 150-650 °C. X-ray specular reflectivity revealed that the structures have a well-defined periodicity with interface widths of about 0.2-0.3 nm in the 300-590 °C temperature range. Offset reflectivity scans showed that the diffuse scattering peaks at values of perpendicular wave vector transfer corresponding to the superlattice satellite peaks, indicating that the interfaces are vertically correlated. Transverse rocking scans of satellite peaks showed a diffuse component corresponding to an interface corrugation of typical length scale of ˜0.5 μm. The wavelength of the undulations is a minimum along the miscut direction and is typically 30-40 times larger than the surface average terrace width assuming monolayer steps, independently of the magnitude of the wafer misorientation. The amplitude of the undulation evolves with growth temperature and is minimum for growth at ˜460 °C and peaks at ˜520 °C. Raman scattering showed the chemical abruptness of the interfaces at low growth temperatures and indicated a change in the growth mode near 450 °C.

  4. Validation of Growth Layer Group (GLG depositional rate using daily incremental growth lines in the dentin of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas (Pallas, 1776 teeth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Waugh

    Full Text Available Counts of Growth Layer Groups (GLGs in the dentin of marine mammal teeth are widely used as indicators of age. In most marine mammals, observations document that GLGs are deposited yearly, but in beluga whales, some studies have supported the view that two GLGs are deposited each year. Our understanding of beluga life-history differs substantially depending on assumptions regarding the timing of GLG deposition; therefore, resolving this issue has important considerations for population assessments. In this study, we used incremental lines that represent daily pulses of dentin mineralization to test the hypothesis that GLGs in beluga dentin are deposited on a yearly basis. Our estimate of the number of daily growth lines within one GLG is remarkably close to 365 days within error, supporting the hypothesis that GLGs are deposited annually in beluga. We show that measurement of daily growth increments can be used to validate the time represented by GLGs in beluga. Furthermore, we believe this methodology may have broader applications to age estimation in other taxa.

  5. Characterization of intermetallics in aluminum to zinc coated interstitial free steel joining by pulsed MIG brazing for automotive application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basak, Sushovan, E-mail: sushovanbasak@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700032 (India); Das, Hrishikesh, E-mail: hrishichem@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700032 (India); Pal, Tapan Kumar, E-mail: tkpal.ju@gmail.com [Metallurgical and Material Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata–700032 (India); Shome, Mahadev, E-mail: mshome@tatasteel.com [Material Characterization & Joining Group, R & D, Tata Steel, Jamshedpur–831007 (India)

    2016-02-15

    In order to meet the demand for lighter and more fuel efficient vehicles, a significant attempt is currently being focused toward the substitution of aluminum for steel in the car body structure. It generates vital challenge with respect to the methods of joining to be used for fabrication. However, the conventional fusion joining has its own difficulty owing to formation of the brittle intermetallic phases. In this present study AA6061-T6 of 2 mm and HIF-GA steel sheet of 1 mm thick are metal inert gas (MIG) brazed with 0.8 mm Al–5Si filler wire under three different heat inputs. The effect of the heat inputs on bead geometry, microstructure and joint properties of MIG brazed Al-steel joints were exclusively studied and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) assisted X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and selective area diffraction pattern. Finally microstructures were correlated with the performance of the joint. Diffusion induced intermetallic thickness measured by FESEM image and concentration profile agreed well with the numerically calculated one. HRTEM assisted EDS study was used to identify the large size FeAl{sub 3} and small size Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} type intermetallic compounds at the interface. The growth of these two phases in A2 (heat input: 182 J mm{sup −1}) is attributed to the slower cooling rate with higher diffusion time (~ 61 s) along the interface in comparison to the same for A1 (heat input: 155 J mm{sup −1}) with faster cooling rate and shorter diffusion time (~ 24 s). The joint efficiency as high as 65% of steel base metal is achieved for A2 which is the optimized parameter in the present study. - Highlights: • AA 6061 and HIF-GA could be successfully joined by MIG brazing. • Intermetallics are exclusively studied and characterized by XRD, FESEM and EPMA. • Intermetallic formation by diffusion is

  6. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth and Characterization of Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Two-Dimensional Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Renjing

    Van der Waals (vdW) materials (also called as two-dimensional (2D) material in some literature) systems have received extensive attention recently due to their potential applications in next-generation electronics platform. Exciting properties have been discovered in this field, however, the performance and properties of the systems rely on the materials' quality and interface significantly, leading to the urgent need for scalable synthesis of high-quality vdW crystals and heterostructures. Toward this direction, this dissertation is devoted on the study of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth and various characterization of vdW materials and heterostructures, especially graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The goal is to achieve high-quality vdW materials and related heterostructures. There are mainly four projects discussed in this dissertation. The first project (Chapter 2) is about MBE growth of large-area h-BN on copper foil. After the growth, the film was transferred onto SiO2 substrate for characterization. It is observed that as-grown film gives evident h-BN Raman spectrum; what's more, h-BN peak intensity and position is dependent on film thickness. N-1s and B-1s XPS peaks further suggest the formation of h-BN. AFM and SEM images show the film is flat and continuous over large area. Our synthesis method shows it's possible to use MBE to achieve h-BN growth and could also pave a way for some unique structure, such as h-BN/graphene heterostructures and doped h-BN films by MBE. The second project (Chapter 3) is focused on establishment of grapehene/h-BN heterostructure on cobalt (Co) film. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN heterostructures on Co film substrate was achieved by using plasma-assisted MBE. The direct graphene/h-BN vertical stacking structures were demonstrated and further confirmed by various characterizations, such as Raman spectroscopy, SEM, XPS and TEM. Large area heterostructures consisting of single- /bilayer graphene and

  7. Local solid phase growth of few-layer graphene on silicon carbide from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo-Cousin, Enrique; Vassilevski, Konstantin; Hopf, Toby; Wright, Nick; O'Neill, Anthony; Horsfall, Alton; Goss, Jonathan; Cumpson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Patterned few-layer graphene (FLG) films were obtained by local solid phase growth from nickel silicide supersaturated with carbon, following a fabrication scheme, which allows the formation of self-aligned ohmic contacts on FLG and is compatible with conventional SiC device processing methods. The process was realised by the deposition and patterning of thin Ni films on semi-insulating 6H-SiC wafers followed by annealing and the selective removal of the resulting nickel silicide by wet chemistry. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to confirm both the formation and subsequent removal of nickel silicide. The impact of process parameters such as the thickness of the initial Ni layer, annealing temperature, and cooling rates on the FLG films was assessed by Raman spectroscopy, XPS, and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the final FLG film estimated from the Raman spectra varied from 1 to 4 monolayers for initial Ni layers between 3 and 20 nm thick. Self-aligned contacts were formed on these patterned films by contact photolithography and wet etching of nickel silicide, which enabled the fabrication of test structures to measure the carrier concentration and mobility in the FLG films. A simple model of diffusion-driven solid phase chemical reaction was used to explain formation of the FLG film at the interface between nickel silicide and silicon carbide.

  8. Growth and optical characteristics of Tm-doped AlGaN layer grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsu, J.; Fuji, R.; Tatebayashi, J.; Timmerman, D.; Lesage, A.; Gregorkiewicz, T.; Fujiwara, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We report on the growth and optical properties of Tm-doped AlGaN layers by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The morphological and optical properties of Tm-doped GaN (GaN:Tm) and Tm-doped AlGaN (AlGaN:Tm) were investigated by Nomarski differential interference contrast microscopy and photoluminescence (PL) characterization. Nomarski images reveal an increase of surface roughness upon doping Tm into both GaN and AlGaN layers. The PL characterization of GaN:Tm shows emission in the near-infrared range originating from intra-4f shell transitions of Tm3+ ions. In contrast, AlGaN:Tm also exhibits blue light emission from Tm3+ ions. In that case, the wider band gap of the AlGaN host allows energy transfer to higher states of the Tm3+ ions. With time-resolved PL measurements, we could distinguish three types of luminescent sites of Tm3+ in the AlGaN:Tm layer, having different decay times. Our results confirm that Tm ions can be doped into GaN and AlGaN by OMVPE, and show potential for the fabrication of novel high-color-purity blue light emitting diodes.

  9. High-pressure structural stability of the ductile intermetallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Murnaghan equation of state fit to the pressure, volume data yielded a bulk modulus of 67∙6 GPa with the pressure derivative of bulk modulus fixed at 4. Keywords. Intermetallics; X-ray ... ners of the unit cell cube occupied by the 'M' element and cube centre occupied by the 'R' element. Although some ductility has been ...

  10. Magnetic properties of RNi5-xCux intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchin, A.G.; Ermolenko, A.S.; Kulikov, Yu.A.; Khrabrov, V.I.; Rosenfeld, E.V.; Makarova, G.M.; Lapina, T.P.; Belozerov, Ye.V.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties have been studied for the series of RNi 5-x Cu x intermetallics with R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Lu; x= 5-x Cu x but GdNi 5-x Cu x . These results are explained in the frame of band magnetism, random local crystal field, and domain wall pinning theories

  11. Investigation on thixojoining to produce hybrid components with intermetallic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyboldt, Christoph; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    Current research activities at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology of the University of Stuttgart are focusing on the manufacturing of hybrid components using semi-solid forming strategies. One process investigated is the joining of different materials in the semi-solid state and is so called "thixojoining". In this process, metallic inlays are inserted into the semi-solid forming die before the actual forming process and are then joined with a material which was heated up to its semi-solid state. Earlier investigations have shown that using this process a very well-shaped form closure can be produced. Furthermore, it was found that sometimes intermetallic phases are built between the different materials, which decisively influence the part properties of such hybrid components for its future application. Within the framework presented in this paper, inlays made of aluminum, brass and steel were joined with aluminum in the semi-solid state. The aim of the investigations was to create an intermetallic bond between the different materials. For this investigations the liquid phase fraction of the aluminum and the temperature of the inlay were varied in order to determine the influence on the formation of the intermetallic phase. Forming trials were performed using a semi-solid forming die with a disk shaped design. Furthermore, the intermetallic phase built was investigated using microsections.

  12. Crack resistance behaviour of an intermetallic Ti-Al-Si-Nb alloy at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittkowsky, B.U.; Pfuff, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The room temperature crack growth behaviour of a Ti-Al-Si-Nb alloy consisting of the two intermetallic phases (Ti, Nb) 3 (Al, Si) and (Ti, Nb) 5 (Si, Al) 3 is investigated in the present paper. The material exhibits a heterogeneous disordered microstructure and fails in a brittle manner. Crack growth is associated with a pronounced crack resistance behaviour. For a sample of nominally identical specimens the R-curves scatter around a mean curve with a standard deviation which remains roughly constant as the crack grows. A natural extension of the bundle model introduced in a previous paper is used to simulate R-curves and their scatter is in reasonably good agreement with the experimental findings. (orig.)

  13. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-12-01

    The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed.

  14. Intermetallic compounds in 3D integrated circuits technology: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annuar, Syahira; Mahmoodian, Reza; Hamdi, Mohd; Tu, King-Ning

    2017-01-01

    The high performance and downsizing technology of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) for mobile consumer electronic products have gained much attention in the microelectronics industry. This has been driven by the utilization of chip stacking by through-Si-via and solder microbumps. Pb-free solder microbumps are intended to replace conventional Pb-containing solder joints due to the rising awareness of environmental preservation. The use of low-volume solder microbumps has led to crucial constraints that cause several reliability issues, including excessive intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation and solder microbump embrittlement due to IMCs growth. This article reviews technologies related to 3D-ICs, IMCs formation mechanisms and reliability issues concerning IMCs with Pb-free solder microbumps. Finally, future outlook on the potential growth of research in this area is discussed.

  15. Low-Temperature Synthesis Routes to Intermetallic Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaak, Raymond E

    2008-01-08

    Over the past few years, our group has gained expertise at developing low-temperature solution-based synthetic pathways to complex nanoscale solids, with particular emphasis on nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds. Our synthetic capabilities are providing tools to reproducibly generate intermetallic nanostructures with simultaneous control over crystal structure, composition, and morphology. This DOE-funded project aims to expand these capabilities to intermetallic superconductors. This could represent an important addition to the tools that are available for the synthesis and processing of intermetallic superconductors, which traditionally utilize high-temperature, high-pressure, thin film, or gas-phase vacuum deposition methods. Our current knowledge of intermetallic superconductors suggests that significant enhancements could result from the inherent benefits of low-temperature solution synthesis, e.g. metastable phase formation, control over nanoscale morphology to facilitate size-dependent property studies, robust and inexpensive processability, low-temperature annealing and consolidation, and impurity incorporation (for doping, stoichiometry control, flux pinning, and improving the critical fields). Our focus is on understanding the superconducting properties as a function of synthetic route, crystal structure, crystallite size, and morphology, and developing the synthetic tools necessary to accomplish this. This research program can currently be divided into two classes of superconducting materials: intermetallics (transition metal/post transition metal) and metal carbides/borides. Both involve the development and exploitation of low-temperature synthesis routes followed by detailed characterization of structures and properties, with the goal of understanding how the synthetic pathways influence key superconducting properties of selected target materials. Because of the low-temperature methods used to synthesize them and the nanocrystalline morphologies

  16. Steel billet reheat simulation with growth of oxide layer and investigation on zone temperature sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Satish Kumar; Srinivasan, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional heat conduction numerical model and simulation of steel billet reheating in a reheat furnace. The model considers the growth of oxide scale on the billet surfaces. Control-volume approach and implicit scheme of finite difference method are used to discretize the transient heat conduction equation. The model is validated with analytical results subject to limited conditions. Simulations are carried out for predictions of three-dimensional temperature filed in the billet and oxide scale growth on the billet surfaces. The model predictions are in agreement with expected trends. It was found that the effect of oxide scale on billet heating is considerable. In order to investigate the effect of zone temperatures on the responses, a parametric sensitivity subject to six responses of interest are carried out using analysis of mean approach. The simulation approach and parametric study presented will be useful and applicable to the steel industry.

  17. Effects of spacer layer on growth, stress and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.F.; Lubitz, P.; Zheng, Y.; Edelstein, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEMS) flux concentrator (J. Appl. phys. 91 (2002) 7795), is a device that will minimize 1/f noise in magnetic sensors by modulating the magnetic field at the position of the sensor. This requires high permeability and low stress permalloy (Py) films to be deposited on the MEMS flaps (J. Appl. phys. 91 (2002) 7795). Py (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) films from 100 to 560 nm thick were deposited on Si substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of deposition conditions on the grain morphology, texture, stress and magnetic properties were studied. Lower sputtering pressure changes film stress from tension to compression and increases the out of film plane texture, while higher power increases tension and texture. Neutral film stress was obtained with 100 W of sputtering power and 1.25 mTorr of Ar gas pressure. With increasing thickness, the Py film was found to develop a stripe-like domain configuration at low fields because of strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy. The critical thickness is around 180 nm.This may be explained by a competition between planar demagnetization fields and columnar magnetic anisotropy. Adding 5 nm of Ta or Cr layer as spacer successfully broke up the continuity of the magnetic structure and allowed us to produce high-permeability films by fabricating (Ta/Py) or (Cr/Py) multilayer films with each Py layer thinner than the critical thickness

  18. Role of hydrogen in the chemical vapor deposition growth of MoS2 atomic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Li, Xinming; Zang, Xiaobei; Zhu, Miao; He, Yijia; Wang, Kunlin; Xie, Dan; Zhu, Hongwei

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogen plays a crucial role in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of graphene. Here, we have revealed the roles of hydrogen in the two-step CVD growth of MoS2. Our study demonstrates that hydrogen acts as the following: (i) an inhibitor of the thermal-induced etching effect in the continuous film growth process; and (ii) a promoter of the desulfurization reaction by decreasing the S/Mo atomic ratio and the oxidation reaction of the obtained MoSx (0 desulfurization reaction by decreasing the S/Mo atomic ratio and the oxidation reaction of the obtained MoSx (0 < x < 2) films. A high hydrogen content of more than 100% in argon forms nano-sized circle-like defects and damages the continuity and uniformity of the film. Continuous MoS2 films with a high crystallinity and a nearly perfect S/Mo atomic ratio were finally obtained after sulfurization annealing with a hydrogen content in the range of 20%-80%. This insightful understanding reveals the crucial roles of hydrogen in the CVD growth of MoS2 and paves the way for the controllable synthesis of two-dimensional materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Low-magnification optical images; Raman spectra of 0% and 5% H2 samples; AFM characterization; Schematic of the film before and after sulfurization annealing; Schematic illustrations of two typical Raman-active phonon modes (E12g, A1g); Raman (mapping) spectra for 40% and 80% H2 samples before and after sulfurization annealing; PL spectra. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00904a

  19. Influence of rare earth admixtures on growth rate of InP layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grym, Jan; Procházková, Olga; Šrobár, Fedor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2005), s. 170-170 ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd chemických spoločností /57./. Tatranské Matliare, 04.09.2005-08.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/03/0379 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : liquid phase epitaxial growth * semiconductors * rare earth compounds Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  20. Thin film evolution equations from (evaporating) dewetting liquid layers to epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, U

    2010-01-01

    In the present contribution we review basic mathematical results for three physical systems involving self-organizing solid or liquid films at solid surfaces. The films may undergo a structuring process by dewetting, evaporation/condensation or epitaxial growth, respectively. We highlight similarities and differences of the three systems based on the observation that in certain limits all of them may be described using models of similar form, i.e. time evolution equations for the film thickness profile. Those equations represent gradient dynamics characterized by mobility functions and an underlying energy functional. Two basic steps of mathematical analysis are used to compare the different systems. First, we discuss the linear stability of homogeneous steady states, i.e. flat films, and second the systematics of non-trivial steady states, i.e. drop/hole states for dewetting films and quantum-dot states in epitaxial growth, respectively. Our aim is to illustrate that the underlying solution structure might be very complex as in the case of epitaxial growth but can be better understood when comparing the much simpler results for the dewetting liquid film. We furthermore show that the numerical continuation techniques employed can shed some light on this structure in a more convenient way than time-stepping methods. Finally we discuss that the usage of the employed general formulation does not only relate seemingly unrelated physical systems mathematically, but does allow as well for discussing model extensions in a more unified way.

  1. Growth and biomass productivity of Scenedesmus vacuolatus on a twin layer system and a comparison with other types of cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Dora Allegra; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Pollio, Antonino; Gabriele; Melkonian, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Scenedesmus is a genus of microalgae employed for several industrial uses. Industrial cultivations are performed in open ponds or in closed photobioreactors (PBRs). In the last years, a novel type of PBR based on immobilized microalgae has been developed termed porous substrate photobioreactors (PSBR) to achieve significant higher biomass density during cultivation in comparison to classical PBRs. This work presents a study of the growth of Scenedesmus vacuolatus in a Twin Layer System PSBR at different light intensities (600 μmol photons m -2  s -1 or 1000 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ), different types and concentrations of the nitrogen sources (nitrate or urea), and at two CO 2 levels in the gas phase (2% or 0.04% v/v). The microalgal growth was followed by monitoring the attached biomass density as dry weight, the specific growth rate and pigment accumulation. The highest productivity (29 g m -2 d -1 ) was observed at a light intensity of 600 μmol photons m -2  s -1 and 2% CO 2 . The types and concentrations of nitrogen sources did not influence the biomass productivity. Instead, the higher light intensity of 1000 μmol photons m -2  s -1 and an ambient CO 2 concentration (0.04%) resulted in a significant decrease of productivity to 18 and 10-12 g m -2 d -1 , respectively. When compared to the performance of similar cultivation systems (15-30 g m -2 d -1 ), these results indicate that the Twin Layer cultivation System is a competitive technique for intensified microalgal cultivation in terms of productivity and, at the same time, biomass density.

  2. Growth factor expression pattern of homologous feeder layer for culturing buffalo embryonic stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Kamble, Nitin M; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Singla, Suresh; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the expression profile of buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) used as a feeder layer for embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. The expression of important growth factors was detected in cells at different passages. Mitomycin-C inactivation increased relative expression levels of ACTIVIN-A, TGF-β1, BMP-4 and GREMLIN but not of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). The expression level of ACTIVIN-A, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and FGF-2 was similar in buffalo fetal fibroblast (BFF) cultured in stem cell medium (SCM), SCM+1000IU mL(-1) leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), SCM+5 ngmL(-1) FGF-2 or SCM+LIF+FGF-2 for 24 h whereas GREMLIN expression was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups. In spent medium, the concentration of ACTIVIN-A was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups whereas that of TGF-β1 was similar in SCM and LIF+FGF-2, which was higher than when either LIF or FGF-2 was used alone. Following culture of ES cell-like cells on a feeder layer for 24 h, the TGF-β1 concentration was higher with LIF+FGF-2 than with LIF or FGF-2 alone which, in turn, was higher than that in SCM. In the LIF+FGF-2 group, the concentration of TGF-β1 was lower and that of ACTIVIN-A was higher in spent medium at 24 h than at 48 h of culture. These results suggest that BFF produce signalling molecules that may help in self-renewal of buffalo ES cell-like cells.

  3. Thermodynamics and kinetics of the formation of rare earth intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deodhar, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    Heats of reaction of rare earth intermetallics with iron, cobalt and nickel were determined using Differential Thermal Analysis technique. The intermetallic compounds studied were of MgCu 2 type Laves phases and the rare earth elements studied were praseodymium, gadolinium, dyprosium and erbium. The reactions were exothermic and the heats of reaction were generally high. They varied from the low of -2.5 kcal/g mole for Fe 2 Gd to the high of -35.3 kcal/g mole for Ni 2 Er. The magnitudes of heats of reaction were always greater for the intermetallics of heavy rare earth elements. The rare earth intermetallics studied were either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. The variations in the magnetic moments and the heats of reaction with respect to the atomic number of the rare earth elements followed certain trends. The similarities were observed in the trends of two properties. Electronic configuration for the MgCu 2 type rare earth intermetallics is proposed using Engel--Brewer correlation for metallic structures and the structural features of the Laves phase compounds. Kinetics of the reactions between the rare earth elements and iron, cobalt, and nickel was studied. The rate of reaction was diffusion controlled in each case. The Valensi--Carter equation for the diffusion mechanism satisfactorily described the kinetic behavior. The magnitudes of activation energies and frequency factors were determined. The reactions can be characterized by their reaction temperatures since they always begin at definite temperatures. It was observed that the reaction began at a higher temperature if the activation energy for the reaction was high

  4. In situ characterization of delamination and crack growth of a CGO–LSM multi-layer ceramic sample investigated by X-ray tomographic microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Esposito, Vincenzo; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal

    2014-01-01

    The densification, delamination and crack growth behavior in a Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) and (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) multi-layer ceramic sample was studied using in situ X-ray tomographic microscopy (microtomography) to investigate the critical dynamics of crack propagation and delamination...... in a multilayered sample. Naturally occurring defects, caused by the sample preparation process, are shown not to be critical in sample degradation. Instead defects are nucleated during the debinding step. Crack growth is significantly faster along the material layers than perpendicular to them, and crack growth...

  5. Growth and electronic structure of single-layered transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dendzik, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    only a weak interaction between SL MoS2 and graphene, which leads to a quasi-freestanding band structure, but also to the coexistence of multiple rotational domains. Measurements of SL WS2 on Ag(111), on the other hand, reveals formation of interesting in-gap states which make WS2 metallic. Low...... different from graphene’s. For example, semiconducting TMDCs undergo an indirectdirect band gap transition when thinned to a single layer (SL); this results in greatly enhanced photoluminescence, making those materials attractive for applications in optoelectronics. Furthermore, metallic TMDCs can host......-quality SL TMDCs. We demonstrate the synthesis of SL MoS2, WS2 and TaS2 on Au(111), Ag(111) and graphene on SiC. The morphology and crystal structure of the synthesized materials is characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The electronic structure of SL...

  6. Evaluation of Alternative Atomistic Models for the Incipient Growth of ZnO by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Manh-Hung; Tian, Liang; Chaker, Ahmad; Skopin, Evgenii; Cantelli, Valentina; Ouled, Toufik; Boichot, Raphaël; Crisci, Alexandre; Lay, Sabine; Richard, Marie-Ingrid; Thomas, Olivier; Deschanvres, Jean-Luc; Renevier, Hubert; Fong, Dillon; Ciatto, Gianluca

    2017-03-20

    ZnO thin films are interesting for applications in several technological fields, including optoelectronics and renewable energies. Nanodevice applications require controlled synthesis of ZnO structures at nanometer scale, which can be achieved via atomic layer deposition (ALD). However, the mechanisms governing the initial stages of ALD had not been addressed until very recently. Investigations into the initial nucleation and growth as well as the atomic structure of the heterointerface are crucial to optimize the ALD process and understand the structure-property relationships for ZnO. We have used a complementary suite of in situ synchrotron x-ray techniques to investigate both the structural and chemical evolution during ZnO growth by ALD on two different substrates, i.e., SiO2 and Al2O3, which led us to formulate an atomistic model of the incipient growth of ZnO. The model relies on the formation of nanoscale islands of different size and aspect ratio and consequent disorder induced in the Zn neighbors' distribution. However, endorsement of our model requires testing and discussion of possible alternative models which could account for the experimental results. In this work, we review, test, and rule out several alternative models; the results confirm our view of the atomistic mechanisms at play, which influence the overall microstructure and resulting properties of the final thin film.

  7. The effect of growth temperature on the irreversibility line of MPMG YBCO bulk with Y2O3 layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnaz, Sedat; Çakır, Bakiye; Aydıner, Alev

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three kinds of YBCO samples which are named Y1040, Y1050 and Y1060 were fabricated by Melt-Powder-Melt-Growth (MPMG) method without a seed crystal. Samples seem to be single crystal. The compacted powders were located on a crucible with a buffer layer of Y2O3 to avoid liquid to spread on the furnace plate and also to support crystal growth. YBCO samples were investigated by magnetoresistivity (ρ-T) and magnetization (M-T) measurements in dc magnetic fields (parallel to c-axis) up to 5 T. Irreversibility fields (Hirr) and upper critical fields (Hc2) were obtained using 10% and 90% criteria of the normal state resistivity value from ρ-T curves. M-T measurements were carried out using the zero field cooling (ZFC) and field cooling (FC) processes to get irreversible temperature (Tirr). Fitting of the irreversibility line results to giant flux creep and vortex glass models were discussed. The results were found to be consistent with the results of the samples fabricated using a seed crystal. At the fabrication of MPMG YBCO, optimized temperature for crystal growth was determined to be around 1050-1060 °C.

  8. Microstructural and wear characteristics of cobalt free, nickel base intermetallic alloy deposited by laser cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awasthi, Reena; Kumar, Santosh; Viswanadham, C.S.; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Limaye, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the microstructural and wear characteristics of Ni base intermetallic hardfacing alloy (Tribaloy-700) deposited on stainless steel-316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Cobalt base hardfacing alloys have been most commonly used hardfacing alloys for application involving wear, corrosion and high temperature resistance. However, the high cost and scarcity of cobalt led to the development of cobalt free hardfacing alloys. Further, in the nuclear industry, the use of cobalt base alloys is limited due to the induced activity of long lived radioisotope 60 Co formed. These difficulties led to the development of various nickel and iron base alloys to replace cobalt base hardfacing alloys. In the present study Ni base intermetallic alloy, free of Cobalt was deposited on stainless steel- 316 L substrate by laser cladding technique. Traditionally, welding and thermal spraying are the most commonly employed hardfacing techniques. Laser cladding has been explored for the deposition of less diluted and fusion-bonded Nickel base clad layer on stainless steel substrate with a low heat input. The laser cladding parameters (Laser power density: 200 W/mm 2 , scanning speed: 430 mm/min, and powder feed rate: 14 gm/min) resulted in defect free clad with minimal dilution of the substrate. The microstructure of the clad layer was examined by Optical microscopy, Scanning electron microscopy, with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffraction technique. The clad layer exhibited sharp substrate/clad interface in the order of planar, cellular, and dendritic from the interface upwards. Dilution of clad with Fe from substrate was very low passing from ∼ 15% at the interface (∼ 40 μm) to ∼ 6% in the clad layer. The clad layer was characterized by the presence of hexagonal closed packed (hcp, MgZn 2 type) intermetallic Laves phase dispersed in the eutectic of Laves and face centered cubic (fcc) gamma solid solution. The

  9. Toward the growth of an aligned single-layer MoS2 film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeho; Sun, Dezheng; Lu, Wenhao; Cheng, Zhihai; Zhu, Yeming; Le, Duy; Rahman, Talat S; Bartels, Ludwig

    2011-09-20

    Molybdenum disulfide (molybdenite) monolayer islands and flakes have been grown on a copper surface at comparatively low temperature and mild conditions through sulfur loading of the substrate using thiophenol (benzenethiol) followed by the evaporation of Mo atoms and annealing. The MoS(2) islands show a regular Moiré pattern in scanning tunneling microscopy, attesting to their atomic ordering and high quality. They are all aligned with the substrate high-symmetry directions providing for rotational-domain-free monolayer growth. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Layers and Multilayers of Self-Assembled Polymers: Tunable Engineered Extracellular Matrix Coatings for Neural Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Michael J; Rollet, Frédéric-Guillaume; Kennedy, Timothy E; Barrett, Christopher J

    2018-03-12

    Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of the extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile and are difficult to adhere to and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate. In this review, we highlight the current state of the art and overview recent developments of new artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) surfaces for in vitro neural cell culture. Notably, these materials aim to strike a balance between being hydrophilic and soft while also being thick, stable, robust, and bound well to the underlying surface to provide an effective surface to support long-term cell growth. We focus on improved surface and scaffold coating systems that can mimic the natural physicochemical properties that enhance neuronal survival and growth, applied as soft hydrophilic polymer coatings for both in vitro cell culture and for implantable neural probes and 3-D matrixes that aim to enhance stability and longevity to promote neural biocompatibility in vivo. With respect to future developments, we outline four emerging principles that serve to guide the development of polymer assemblies that function well as artificial ECMs: (a) design inspired by biological systems and (b) the employment of principles of aqueous soft bonding and self-assembly to achieve (c) a high-water-content gel-like coating that is stable over time in a biological environment and possesses (d) a low modulus to more closely mimic soft, compliant real biological tissue. We then highlight two emerging classes of thick material coatings that

  11. Competitive growth mechanisms of InAs quantum dots on InxGa1-xAs layer during post growth interruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Changjae; Kim, Jungsub; Sim, Uk; Lee, Jaeyel; Choi, Won Jun; Yoon, Euijoon

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the post growth interruption (GI) on InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on In x Ga 1-x As strained buffer layers (SBL). When QDs were grown on the 5 and 10% In content SBLs by using post GI, the size of QDs increased as its density decreased. Based on the 50 meV red-shift of PL in these cases, the transport of materials between QDs leads to the increase of QD size with maintaining its composition during the post GI. On the other hand, when using SBLs with the 15 and 20% In contents, the size of QDs increased, but its density was a little reduced. In addition, PL results were observed blue-shifted by about 20 meV and 2 meV, respectively. Considering the interruption of source gases during the post GI, these observations are strong evidence of the Ga incorporation from 15 and 20% In content SBLs. Therefore, these results imply that the dominant mechanism which increases the size of QDs during the post GI depends on the growth condition of SBL.

  12. A proposed mechanism for investigating the effect of porous silicon buffer layer on TiO{sub 2} nanorods growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, N. [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dariani, R.S., E-mail: dariani@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran, 1993893973 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabi, M. [Deparment of Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran 3353136846 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) are synthesized on silicon and porous silicon (PS) substrates by hydrothermal method. • TiO{sub 2} NRs grown on PS substrates have a better growth compared to those grown on silicon. • Also increasing substrate porosity leads to an increase in density of the NRs. • We proposed a growth mechanism to explain how can control the local surface chemical potential. - Abstract: In this study, we have synthesized TiO{sub 2} nanorods (NRs) on silicon and porous silicon (PS) substrates by hydrothermal method. The PS substrates with different porosities were fabricated by electrochemical anodization on silicon. According to the field emission electron microscopy images, TiO{sub 2} NRs grown on PS substrates have a better growth compared to those grown on silicon. Also increasing substrate porosity leads to an increase in density of the NRs. Atomic force microscopy observation demonstrates that porous layer formation due to etching of silicon surface leads to an increase of its roughness. Results indicate surface roughness evolution with porosity increasing enhances TiO{sub 2} nucleation on substrate and thus increases TiO{sub 2} NRs density. We propose a growth mechanism to explain how we can control the local surface chemical potential and thus the nucleation and alignment of TiO{sub 2} NRs by surface roughness variation. Also, photoluminescence studies show a red-shift in band gap energy of NRs compared to that of common bulk TiO{sub 2}.

  13. Transient heating effects on tungsten: Ablation of Be layers and enhanced fuzz growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.H.; Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Dittmar, T.; Hakola, A.; Höschen, T.; Likonen, J.; Nishijima, D.; Toudeshki, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed laser in the PISCES-B facility is used to simulate transient heating events such as ELMs and disruptions on W. The first study of enhanced nano-scale W tendril growth (“fuzz”) due to cyclic fast transient heating of W exposed to low energy (E He+ ∼ 30 eV) He + ions is presented. Fuzz due to transient heating is up to ∼10× thicker than the steady state fuzz thickness with no laser heating. A general thermal activation model yields higher values for the activation energy and pre-exponential factor than previously reported in steady state experiments with E He+ ∼ 60 eV. Transient heating of W exposed to D plasma with Be seeding shows that the removal threshold of Be follows simple energy considerations based on the heat of formation of Be

  14. Thickness dependent growth of low temperature atomic layer deposited zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel-González, Z.; Castelo-González, O.A.; Aguilar-Gama, M.T.; Ramírez-Morales, E.; Hu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline columnar ZnO thin films deposited by ALD at low temperatures. • Higher deposition temperature leads to a greater surface roughness in the ALD ZnO films. • Higher temperature originates larger refractive index values of the ALD ZnO films. • ZnO thin films were denser as the numbers of ALD deposition cycles were larger. • XPS analysis revels mayor extent of the DEZ reaction during the ALD process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide films are promising to improve the performance of electronic devices, including those based on organic materials. However, the dependence of the ZnO properties on the preparation conditions represents a challenge to obtain homogeneous thin films that satisfy specific applications. Here, we prepared ZnO films of a wide range of thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at relatively low temperatures, 150 and 175 °C. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry it is concluded that the polycrystalline structure of the wurtzite is the main phase of the ALD samples, with OH groups on their surface. Ellipsometry revealed that the temperature and the deposition cycles have a strong effect on the films roughness. Scanning electron micrographs evidenced such effect, through the large pyramids developed at the surface of the films. It is concluded that crystalline ZnO thin films within a broad range of thickness and roughness can be obtained for optic or optoelectronic applications.

  15. Growth of Fe2O3 thin films by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lie, M.; Fjellvag, H.; Kjekshus, A.

    2005-01-01

    Thin films of α-Fe 2 O 3 (α-Al 2 O 3 -type crystal structure) and γ-Fe 2 O 3 (defect-spinel-type crystal structure) have been grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique with Fe(thd) 3 (iron derivative of Hthd = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dione) and ozone as precursors. It has been shown that an ALD window exists between 160 and 210 deg. C. The films have been characterized by various techniques and are shown to comprise (001)-oriented columns of α-Fe 2 O 3 with no in-plane orientation when grown on soda-lime-glass and Si(100) substrates. Good quality films have been made with thicknesses ranging from 10 to 130 nm. Films grown on α-Al 2 O 3 (001) and MgO(100) substrates have the α-Fe 2 O 3 and γ-Fe 2 O 3 crystal structure, respectively, and consist of highly oriented columns with in-plane orientations matching those of the substrates

  16. Intermetallic Strengthened Alumina-Forming Austenitic Steels for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Baker, Ian [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    In order to achieve energy conversion efficiencies of >50 % for steam turbines/boilers in power generation systems, the materials required must be strong, corrosion-resistant at high temperatures (>700°C), and economically viable. Austenitic steels strengthened with Laves phase and L12 precipitates, and alloyed with aluminum to improve oxidation resistance, are potential candidate materials for these applications. The creep resistance of these alloys is significantly improved through intermetallic strengthening (Laves-Fe2Nb + L12-Ni3Al precipitates) without harmful effects on oxidation resistance. Microstructural and microchemical analyses of the recently developed alumina-forming austenitic (AFA) steels (Fe-14Cr-32Ni-3Nb-3Al-2Ti-based) indicated they are strengthened by Ni3Al(Ti) L12, NiAl B2, Fe2Nb Laves phase and MC carbide precipitates. Different thermomechanical treatments (TMTs) were performed on these stainless steels in an attempt to further improve their mechanical properties. The thermo-mechanical processing produced nanocrystalline grains in AFA alloys and dramatically increased their yield strength at room temperature. Unfortunately, the TMTs didn’t increase the yield strengths of AFA alloys at ≥700ºC. At these temperatures, dislocation climb is the dominant mechanism for deformation of TMT alloys according to strain rate jump tests. After the characterization of aged AFA alloys, we found that the largest strengthening effect from L12 precipitates can be obtained by aging for less than 24 h. The coarsening behavior of the L12 precipitates was not influenced by carbon and boron additions. Failure analysis and post-mortem TEM analysis were performed to study the creep failure mechanisms of these AFA steels after creep tests. Though the Laves and B2-NiAl phase precipitated along the boundaries can improve the creep properties, cracks were

  17. Deterioration of reflecting coatings by intermetallic diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W R; Mikes, T L; Hass, G

    1972-07-01

    Gold diffraction gratings overcoated with Al + MgF(2) to increase their efficiency in the vacuum ultraviolet suffered a severe loss in efficiency within six months to a year after coating; for example, from 50% to 2% at lambda1216 A. The cause of this loss was assumed to be interdiffusion of Au and Al; therefore, a more complete study of Au-Al film combinations was performed. The coatings were aged at room and elevated temperatures. Reflectance measurements were made in the visible and vacuum ultraviolet spectral regions. For wavelengths longer than lambda900 A, the measurements show very little change until the diffusion boundary reaches the penetration depth of the radiation. If Al is the first surface layer, however, reflectance measurements at lambda584 A permit measuring the progress of the diffusion boundary toward the Al surface because of the low absorptance of Al at this wavelength. Interdiffusion can be effectively eliminated by the use of thin dielectric layers uch as SiO and the natural oxide of Al. Such protected coatings have been exposed for one week at a temperature of 170 degrees C with no visible sign of diffusion, whereas a similar coating without the barrier layer would become useless in less than 1 h. Some preliminary studies have been made with Pt-Al film combinations.

  18. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain; Khun, Kimleang; Eriksson, Martin; AlSalhi, Mohammad; Atif, Muhammad; Ansari, Anees; Willander, Magnus

    2013-08-19

    Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c -axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002) peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  19. The growth of InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattices for use in infrared emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biefeld, R.M.; Allerman, A.A.; Kurtz, S.R. [and others

    1997-06-01

    We describe the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth of InAsSb/InAsP strained-layer superlattice (SLS) active regions for use in mid-infrared emitters. These SLSs were grown at 500{degrees}C, and 200 torr in a horizontal quartz reactor using TMIn, TESb, AsH{sub 3},and PH{sub 3}. By changing the layer thickness and composition we have prepared structures with low temperature ({le}20K) photoluminescence wavelengths ranging from 3.2 to 4.4 {mu}m. Excellent performance was observed for an SLS LED and both optically pumped and electrically injected SLS lasers. An optically pumped, double heterostructure laser emitted at 3.86 {mu}m with a maximum operating temperature of 240 K and a characteristic temperature of 33 K. We have also made electrically injected lasers and LEDs utilizing a GaAsSb/InAs semi-metal injection scheme. The semi-metal injected, broadband LED emitted at 4 {mu}m with 80 {mu}W of power at 300K and 200 mA average current. The InAsSb/InAsP SLS injection laser emitted at 3.6 gm at 120 K.

  20. Hydrothermal Growth of Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorods Using a Biocomposite Seed Layer of ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Hussain Ibupoto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Well aligned ZnO nanorods have been prepared by a low temperature aqueous chemical growth method, using a biocomposite seed layer of ZnO nanoparticles prepared in starch and cellulose bio polymers. The effect of different concentrations of biocomposite seed layer on the alignment of ZnO nanorods has been investigated. ZnO nanorods grown on a gold-coated glass substrate have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM techniques. These techniques have shown that the ZnO nanorods are well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate, and grown with a high density and uniformity on the substrate. Moreover, ZnO nanorods can be grown with an orientation along the c-axis of the substrate and exhibit a wurtzite crystal structure with a dominant (002 peak in an XRD spectrum and possessed a high crystal quality. A photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy study of the ZnO nanorods has revealed a conventional near band edge ultraviolet emission, along with emission in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum due to defect emission. This study provides an alternative method for the fabrication of well aligned ZnO nanorods. This method can be helpful in improving the performance of devices where alignment plays a significant role.

  1. Growth, structure, and tribological behavior of atomic layer-deposited tungsten disulphide solid lubricant coatings with applications to MEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharf, T.W.; Prasad, S.V.; Dugger, M.T.; Kotula, P.G.; Goeke, R.S.; Grubbs, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis, structure, and tribological behavior of nanocomposite tungsten disulphide (WS 2 ) solid lubricant films grown by atomic layer deposition. A new catalytic route, incorporating a diethyl zinc catalyst, was established to promote the adsorption and growth of WS 2 . The films were grown down to 8 nm in thickness by sequential exposures of WF 6 and H 2 S gases in a viscous flow reactor on Si, SiO 2 , stainless steel, and polycrystalline Si and electroplated Ni microelectromechanical systems structures. Films were studied by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) with Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis (AXSIA) software for X-ray spectral images and X-ray diffraction to determine the coating conformality and crystallinity. The coatings exhibited a hexagonal layered structure with predominant preferentially orientated (0 0 2) basal planes. Regardless of orientation to the substrate surface, these basal planes when sheared imparted low friction with a steady-state friction coefficient as low as 0.008 to 50,000 cycles in a dry nitrogen environment. The formation of smooth transfer films during wear provided low interfacial shear stresses during sliding thus achieving low friction and wear. The XTEM combined with AXSIA of the wear tracks identified this mechanism and the effects of vapor phase reaction by-product etching on insulating and native polycrystalline Si and Ni surfaces

  2. Growth of β-FeSi2 layers on Si (111) by solid phase and reactive deposition epitaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miquita, D.R.; Paniago, R.; Rodrigues, W.N.; Moreira, M.V.B.; Pfannes, H.-D.; Oliveira, A.G. de

    2005-01-01

    Iron silicides were grown on Si (111) substrates by Solid Phase Epitaxy (SPE) and Reactive Deposition Epitaxy (RDE) to identify the optimum conditions to obtain the semiconducting β-FeSi 2 phase. The films were produced under different growth and annealing conditions and analyzed in situ and ex situ by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and ex situ by Conversion Electron Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The use of these techniques allowed the investigation of different depth regions of the grown layer. Films of the ε-FeSi and β-FeSi 2 phases were obtained as well as the mixtures Fe 3 Si + ε-FeSi and ε-FeSi + β-FeSi 2 . The sequence Fe 3 Si→ε-FeSi→β-FeSi 2 was found upon annealing, where the phase transformation occurred due to the migration of silicon atoms from the substrate to the surface region of the grown layer. The best conditions for the phase transformation in SPE samples were met after annealing in the range 700 - 800 deg. C. For the RDE samples, the transition to the beta phase occurred between 600 and 700 deg. C, but pure β-FeSi 2 was obtained only after two hours of annealing at 700 deg. C

  3. Growth and characterization of polar and nonpolar ZnO film grown on sapphire substrates by using atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Son, Hyo-Soo; Choi, Nak-Jung; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Sung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the electrical and the optical properties of polar and nonpolar ZnO films grown on sapphire substrates with different crystallographic planes. High resolution X-ray results revealed that polar c-plane (0001), nonpolar m-plane (10-10) and a-plane (11-20) ZnO thin films were grown on c-plane, m- and r-sapphire substrates by atomic layer deposition, respectively. Compared with the c-plane ZnO film, nonpolar m-plane and a-plane ZnO films showed smaller surface roughness and anisotropic surface structures. Regardless of ZnO crystal planes, room temperature photoluminescence spectra represented two emissions which consisted of the near bandedge (∼ 380 nm) and the deep level emission (∼ 500 nm). The a-plane ZnO films represented better optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO, while m-plane ZnO films exhibited poorer optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO. - Highlights: • Growth and characterization of a-, c- and m-plane ZnO film by atomic layer deposition. • The a-plane ZnO represented better optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO. • The m-plane ZnO exhibited poorer optical and electrical properties than c-plane ZnO

  4. A Numerical Study of 2-D Surface Roughness Effects on the Growth of Wave Modes in Hypersonic Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kahei Danny

    The current understanding and research efforts on surface roughness effects in hypersonic boundary-layer flows focus, almost exclusively, on how roughness elements trip a hypersonic boundary layer to turbulence. However, there were a few reports in the literature suggesting that roughness elements in hypersonic boundary-layer flows could sometimes suppress the transition process and delay the formation of turbulent flow. These reports were not common and had not attracted much attention from the research community. Furthermore, the mechanisms of how the delay and stabilization happened were unknown. A recent study by Duan et al. showed that when 2-D roughness elements were placed downstream of the so-called synchronization point, the unstable second-mode wave in a hypersonic boundary layer was damped. Since the second-mode wave is typically the most dangerous and dominant unstable mode in a hypersonic boundary layer for sharp geometries at a zero angle of attack, this result has pointed to an explanation on how roughness elements delay transition in a hypersonic boundary layer. Such an understanding can potentially have significant practical applications for the development of passive flow control techniques to suppress hypersonic boundary-layer transition, for the purpose of aero-heating reduction. Nevertheless, the previous study was preliminary because only one particular flow condition with one fixed roughness parameter was considered. The study also lacked an examination on the mechanism of the damping effect of the second mode by roughness. Hence, the objective of the current research is to conduct an extensive investigation of the effects of 2-D roughness elements on the growth of instability waves in a hypersonic boundary layer. The goal is to provide a full physical picture of how and when 2-D roughness elements stabilize a hypersonic boundary layer. Rigorous parametric studies using numerical simulation, linear stability theory (LST), and parabolized

  5. The role of temperature ramp-up time before barrier layer growth in optical and structural properties of InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yao; Zhao, Degang; Jiang, Desheng; Liu, Zongshun; Zhu, Jianjun; Chen, Ping; Yang, Jing; Liu, Wei; Liang, Feng; Liu, Shuangtao; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Wenjie; Li, Mo; Zhang, Yuantao; Du, Guotong

    2018-05-01

    In InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs), a low temperature cap (LT-cap) layer is grown between the InGaN well layer and low temperature GaN barrier layer. During the growth, a temperature ramp-up and ramp-down process is added between LT-cap and barrier layer growth. The effect of temperature ramp-up time duration on structural and optical properties of quantum wells is studied. It is found that as the ramp-up time increases, the Indium floating layer on the top of the well layer can be diminished effectively, leading to a better interface quality between well and barrier layers, and the carrier localization effect is enhanced, thereby the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of QWs increases surprisingly. However, if the ramp-up time is too long, the carrier localization effect is weaker, which may increase the probabilities of carriers to meet with nonradiative recombination centers. Meanwhile, more nonradiative recombination centers will be introduced into well layers due to the indium evaporation. Both of them will lead to a reduction of internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of MQWs.

  6. Effects of AlN nucleation layers on the growth of AlN films using high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaji, M.; Claudel, A.; Fellmann, V.; Gélard, I.; Blanquet, E.; Boichot, R.; Pierret, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Growth of AlN Nucleation layers and its effect on high temperature AlN films quality were investigated. ► AlN nucleation layers stabilizes the epitaxial growth of AlN and improves the surface morphology of AlN films. ► Increasing growth temperature of AlN NLs as well as AlN films improves the structural quality and limits the formation of cracks. - Abstract: AlN layers were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates with AlN nucleation layers (NLs) using high temperature hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HT-HVPE). Insertion of low temperature NLs, as those typically used in MOVPE process, prior to the high temperature AlN (HT-AlN) layers has been investigated. The NLs surface morphology was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and NLs thickness was measured by X-ray reflectivity. Increasing nucleation layer deposition temperature from 650 to 850 °C has been found to promote the growth of c-oriented epitaxial HT-AlN layers instead of polycrystalline layers. The growth of polycrystalline layers has been related to the formation of dis-oriented crystallites. The density of such disoriented crystallites has been found to decrease while increasing NLs deposition temperature. The HT-AlN layers have been characterized by X-ray diffraction θ − 2θ scan and (0 0 0 2) rocking curve measurement, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies, AFM and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Increasing the growth temperature of HT-AlN layers from 1200 to 1400 °C using a NL grown at 850 °C improves the structural quality as well as the surface morphology. As a matter of fact, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 0 0 0 2 reflections was improved from 1900 to 864 arcsec for 1200 °C and 1400 °C, respectively. Related RMS roughness also found to decrease from 10 to 5.6 nm.

  7. Effect of Dynamic Flow on the Structure of Inhibition Layer in Hot-dip Galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young Sool; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Su Young [POSCO Technical Research Labs., Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Doo Jin [POSCO Kwangyang Steel Works, Gwangyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The effect of dynamic flow or forced convection were investigated and compared on the formation of inhibition layer, galvanizing and galvannealing reactions through the hot-dip galvanizing simulator with the oscillation of specimen in zinc bath, continuous galvanizing pilot plant with zinc pumping system through the snout and continuous galvanizing operation with Dynamic Galvanizing{sup TR} system. The interfacial Al pick-up was not consistent between the results of simulator, pilot plant and line operation, but the morphology of inhibition layer became compact and refined by the forced convection. The growth of Fe-Zn intermetallics at the interface was inhibited by the forced convection, whereas the galvannealing rate would be a little promoted.

  8. Effect of Dynamic Flow on the Structure of Inhibition Layer in Hot-dip Galvanizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Young Sool; Kim, Myung Soo; Kim, Su Young; Paik, Doo Jin

    2011-01-01

    The effect of dynamic flow or forced convection were investigated and compared on the formation of inhibition layer, galvanizing and galvannealing reactions through the hot-dip galvanizing simulator with the oscillation of specimen in zinc bath, continuous galvanizing pilot plant with zinc pumping system through the snout and continuous galvanizing operation with Dynamic Galvanizing TR system. The interfacial Al pick-up was not consistent between the results of simulator, pilot plant and line operation, but the morphology of inhibition layer became compact and refined by the forced convection. The growth of Fe-Zn intermetallics at the interface was inhibited by the forced convection, whereas the galvannealing rate would be a little promoted

  9. Impact of growth and annealing conditions on the parameters of Ge/Si(001) relaxed layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurasov, D. V., E-mail: Inquisitor@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Bobrov, A. I. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Daniltsev, V. M.; Novikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Pavlov, D. A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skorokhodov, E. V.; Shaleev, M. V.; Yunin, P. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    Influence of the Ge layer thickness and annealing conditions on the parameters of relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy via two-stage growth is investigated. The dependences of the threading dislocation density and surface roughness on the Ge layer thickness, annealing temperature and time, and the presence of a hydrogen atmosphere are obtained. As a result of optimization of the growth and annealing conditions, relaxed Ge/Si(001) layers which are thinner than 1 μm with a low threading dislocation density on the order of 10{sup 7} cm{sup –2} and a root mean square roughness of less than 1 nm are obtained.

  10. The growth of manganese layers on Si(1 0 0) at room temperature: A photoelectron spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolph, C.A. [University of Virgina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 395 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Vescovo, E. [National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Reinke, P., E-mail: pr6e@virginia.edu [University of Virgina, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 395 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The combination of spin-and charge based electronics in future devices requires the magnetic doping of group IV semiconductors, and the formation of ferromagnetic contacts. The doping of Mn with Si is one of the material systems which is discussed in this context. The present study focuses on the growth of Mn on a Si(100)(2x1) surface, and the evolution of the surface was observed as a function of Mn coverage with synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy. The reaction of Mn with the Si(100) surface at room temperature leads the formation of silicide at the boundary between the Si substrate and the Mn-overlayer, presumably with MnSi stoichiometry. The residual sub-oxide reacts with the Mn and therefore incorporates a few percent of Mn-O-Si at the interface. The analysis of the sub-oxide composition indicates that the Si{sup +1} component is the most reactive oxidation state. The overlayer is dominated by Mn, either as Mn-metal or as a Mn-rich silicide phase, and the metallic layer introduces a band bending in Si. As a consequence of our observations, including information from a recent STM study, the formation of ferromagnetic contacts which require ideally a flat and compositionally homogenous overlayer, cannot be achieved through room temperature deposition of Mn on the Si(100) (2x1) surface. The influence of residual oxides and surface defects on the growth process will be further investigated.

  11. Hydrogenations of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavra, Z.

    1981-08-01

    A kinetic and thermodynamic study of the hydrogenation of alloys and intermetallic compounds of magnesium is presented. It was established that the addition of elements of the IIIA group (Al, Ga, In) to magnesium catalyses its hydrogenation. This is explained by the mechanism of diffusion of magnesium cation vacancies. The hydride Mg 2 NiH 4 was characterized by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction and NMR measurements. The possibility of forming pseudo-binary compounds of Mg 2 Ni by the substitution of nickel or magnesium was examined. The hydrogenation of the inter-metallic compounds of the Mg-Al system was investigated. It was found that the addition of indium and nickel affected the hydrogenation kinetics. A preliminary study of the hydrogenation of various binary and ternary alloys of magnesium was carried out. (Author)

  12. Cerium intermetallics with TiNiSi-type structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janka, Oliver; Niehaus, Oliver; Poettgen, Rainer [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Chevalier, Bernard [Bordeaux Univ. CNRS (UPR 9048), Pessac (France). Inst. de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux (ICMCB)

    2016-08-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the equiatomic composition CeTX that crystallize with the orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure can be synthesized with electron-rich transition metals (T) and X = Zn, Al, Ga, Si, Ge, Sn, As, Sb, and Bi. The present review focusses on the crystal chemistry and chemical bonding of these CeTX phases and on their physical properties, {sup 119}Sn and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra, high-pressure effects, hydrogenation reactions and the formation of solid solutions in order to elucidate structure-property relationships. This paper is the final one of a series of four reviews on equiatomic intermetallic cerium compounds [Part I: Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 289; Part II: Z. Naturforsch. 2015, 70b, 695; Part III: Z. Naturforsch. 2016, 71b, 165].

  13. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  14. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  15. Environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建民; 张瑞林; S.H.YU; 余瑞璜

    1996-01-01

    First,it is proposed that hydrogen atoms occupy the interstitial sites in Fe3Al and FeAl.Then the environmental embrittlement of intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys is studied in the light of calculated valence electron structures and bond energy of Fe3Al and FeAl containing hydrogen atoms.From the analyses it is found that the states of metal atoms will change,in which more lattice electrons will become covalent electrons to bond with hydrogen atoms when the atomic hydrogen diffuses into the intermetallic compounds in Fe-Al alloys,which will result in the decrease of local metallicity in Fe3Al and FeAl.Meanwhile,it is found that the crystal will easily cleave since solute hydrogen bonds with metal atoms and severely anisotropic bonds form.As a conclusion,these factors result in the environmental embrittlement of Fe3Al and FeAl.

  16. Theoretical energy release of thermites, intermetallics, and combustible metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1998-06-01

    Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, the authors review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  17. Development and construction of a novel MOCVD facility for the growth of ferroelectric thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, P.R.

    2002-02-01

    This thesis deals with the production of ferroelectric thin films using the MOCVD technology. The main focus is put on the design and construction of a complete MOCVD research system that is equipped with a novel non-contact vaporizer system. The precursors are nebulized in an ultrasonic atomizer and injected into a hot gas stream, so they can vaporize without getting into contact with a hot surface. Hence, one of the biggest disadvantages of conventional vaporizer concepts, the contamination of the vaporizing element with decomposing chemicals, could be avoided completely, resulting in a nearly maintenance-free system. In a direct comparison with the well-established Direct Liquid Injection Subsystem DLI-25C from MKS Instruments, the advantages of non-contact evaporation were clearly demonstrated. Additionally, the scope of this work included the development of standard deposition processes for the ternary oxides SrTiO 3 , BaTiO 3 und PbTiO 3 and growth studies were performed. Electrical measurements performed on MIM structures with Pt electrodes and SrTiO 3 as dielectric indicate a high film quality comparable with results presented in the literature. Furthermore, for the first time the solid solution (Pb x Ba 1-x )TiO 3 has been deposited by MOCVD. This material system is widely unknown in thin film form and it is well suited as a model system to investigate the influence of mechanical stresses on the film properties, because it represents a transition between the (as a thin film) superparaelectric barium titanate and the ferroelectric lead titanate. Through variation of the lead/barium ratio the tetragonal distortion of the lattice cell could be adjusted in a wide range. (orig.)

  18. Layer growth and electronic defect properties of CuInS{sub 2} absorber layers from the sequence process; Schichtwachstum und elektronische Defekteigenschaften von CuInS{sub 2}-Absorberschichten aus dem sequentiellen Prozess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemer, K.

    2000-10-01

    The following topics were covered: synthesis of CuInS{sub 2} solar cells, layer growth of CuInS{sub 2} absorbers, electrical characterization, C-V and DLTS spectroscopy, defect spectroscopy of CuInS{sub 2} solar cells.

  19. Investigations on Ce- and Yb-based intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenbaas, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The author describes investigations on a number of cerium- and ytterbium-based intermetallic compounds and alloys, yielding a lot of experimental results which could not always be put in a quantitative picture. All experimental data are consistent with a single-ion behaviour, where the 4f state is more or less modified by the conduction electrons. In the investigated systems several different features of the magnetism of cerium atoms in metals were studied. (Auth.)

  20. Oxygen stabilized rare-earth iron intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dariel, M.P.; Malekzadeh, M.; Pickus, M.R.

    1975-10-01

    A new, oxygen-stabilized intermetallic compound was identified in sintered, pre-alloyed rare-earth iron powder samples. Its composition corresponds to formula R 12 Fe 32 O 2 and its crystal structure belongs to space group Im3m. The presence of these compounds was observed, so far, in several R--Fe--O systems, with R = Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Y

  1. Lattice and magnetic anisotropies in uranium intermetallic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havela, L.; Mašková, S.; Adamska, A.

    2013-01-01

    Examples of UNiAlD and UCoGe illustrate that the soft crystallographic direction coincides quite generally with the shortest U-U links in U intermetallics. Added to existing experimental evidence on U compounds it leads to a simple rule, that the easy magnetization direction and the soft crystall...... crystallographic direction (in the sense of highest compressibility under hydrostatic pressure) must be mutually orthogonal....

  2. Study of the structure and development of the set of reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Chabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of research: There are two sizes (several microns and nanodimensional of strengthening j'-phase in single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys, used for making blades of modern gas turbine engines (GTD. For in-depth study of structural and phase condition of such alloys not only qualitative description of created structure is necessary, but quantitative analysis of alloy components geometrical characteristics. Purpose of the work: Development of reference material sets of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloy composition and structure. Research methods: To address the measurement problem of control of structural and geometrical characteristics of single-crystal heat resisting and intermetallic alloys by analytical microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis the research was carried out using certified measurement techniques on facilities, entered in the Register of Measurement Means of the Russian Federation. The research was carried out on microsections, foils and plates, cut in the plane {100}. Results: It is established that key parameters, defining the properties of these alloys are particle size of strengthening j' -phase, the layer thickness of j-phase between them and parameters of phases lattice. Metrological requirements for reference materials of composition and structure of heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys are formulated. The necessary and sufficient reference material set providing the possibility to determine the composition and structure parameters of single-crystal heat resisting nickel and intermetallic alloys is defined. The developed RM sets are certified as in-plant reference materials. Conclusion: The reference materials can be used for graduation of spectral equipment when conducting element analysis of specified class alloys; for calibration of means of measuring alloy structure parameters; for measurement of alloys phases lattice parameters; for structure reference pictures

  3. Direct observation of organic layer growth by dynamic spectro-microscopy using high-brilliance synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, E.

    2004-01-01

    It was always the dream of scientists to watch microscopic objects directly on an atomic scale, to follow their dynamical behaviour, and to know everything about them, i.e. to get as much spectroscopic information as possible. While instruments have become available which may fulfill two of these wishes simultaneously, it is much more difficult to get all three at once. The development of so called spectro-microscopes which operate at 3rd generation synchrotron sources nourishes the hope that this dream will become true in the near future. The talk intends to show how much can be learned about organic thin films and interfaces if high-brilliance synchrotron radiation is combined with new instruments, for instance a high energy resolution beamline and a high-spatial resolution spectro-microscope. While the former is standard technology of today, the latter is a new development, combining brilliant undulator radiation of variable polarization with a specially developed, energy-filtered low energy electron microscope. First, it will be shown that many new details about the electronic structure of organic materials and their interaction with one another or with an interface can be obtained using high-resolution photoemission and x-ray absorption. For instance, from a careful analysis of the fine structure of photoemission spectra one can derive details about the interface bonding, about the interaction between molecules, and about the dynamic response of the molecular system upon creation of a core hole. Or, from a careful analysis of the fine structure of high resolution x-ray absorption spectra one gets insight into the intermolecular interaction, the coupling between electronic and vibronic excitations, and even about the shapes of potential curves. Second, the dynamic growth of highly-ordered organic thin films will be followed as a function of molecule and preparation conditions. The formation of islands, the inner structure of organic crystallites, diffusion

  4. Production of nanograined intermetallics using high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamidi, Ali; Edalati, Kaveh; Horita, Zenji, E-mail: horita@zaiko.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2013-11-01

    Formation of intermetallics is generally feasible at high temperatures when the lattice diffusion is fast enough to form the ordered phases. This study shows that nanograined intermetallics are formed at a low temperature as 573 K in Al- 25 mol% Ni, Al- 50 mol.% Ni and Al- 50 mol% Ti powder mixtures through powder consolidation using high-pressure torsion (HPT). For the three compositions, the hardness gradually increases with straining but saturates to the levels as high as 550-920 Hv. In addition to the high hardness, the TiAl material exhibits high yield strength as {approx}3 GPa with good ductility as {approx}23%, when they are examined by micropillar compression tests. X-ray diffraction analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveal that the significant increase in hardness and strength is due to the formation of nanograined intermetallics such as Al{sub 3}Ni, Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}, TiAl{sub 3}, TiAl{sub 2} and TiAl with average grain sizes of 20-40 nm (author)

  5. First principles study of halogens adsorption on intermetallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Quanxi; Wang, Shao-qing

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The linear relation between adsorbates induced work function change and dipole moment change also exists for intermetallic surfaces. • It is just a common linear relationship rather than a directly proportion. • A new weight parameter β is proposed to describe different factors effect on work function shift. - Abstract: Halides are often present at electrochemical environment, they can directly influence the electrode potential or zero charge potential through the induced work-function change. In this work, we focused in particular on the halogen-induced work function change as a function of the coverage of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine on Al_2Au and Al_2Pt (110) surfaces. Results show that the real relation between work function change and dipole moment change for halogens adsorption on intermetallic surfaces is just a common linear relationship rather than a directly proportion. Besides, the different slopes between fitted lines and the theoretical slope employed in pure metal surfaces demonstrating that the halogens adsorption on intermetallic surfaces are more complicated. We also present a weight parameter β to describe different factors effect on work function shift and finally qualify which factor dominates the shift direction.

  6. The behavior of intermetallic compounds at large plastic strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, G.T.; Embury, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of a broad study of intermetallics which includes the following materials, Ni 3 Al, Ti-48Al-1V, Ti-24Al-11Nb, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, and Ti-24.5 Al-10.5Nb-1.5Mo. Much effort has been devoted to the study of ordered materials at modes plastic strains and the problem of premature failure. However by utilizing stress states other than simple tension it is possible to study the deformation of intermetallic compounds up to large plastic strains and to consider the behavior of these materials in the regime where stresses approach the theoretical stress. The current work outlines studies of the work hardening rate of a number of titanium and nickel-based intermetallic compounds deformed in compression. Attention is given to the structural basis of the sustained work hardening. The large strain plasticity of these materials is summarized in a series of diagrams. Fracture in these materials in compression occurs via catastrophic shear at stresses of the order of E/80 (where E is the elastic modulus)

  7. The role of intermetallic precipitates in Ti-62222S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D J [US Air Force Mater. Directorate Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Broderick, T F [US Air Force Mater. Directorate Wright Lab., Wright Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Woodhouse, J B [UES Inc, Dayton, OH (United States); Hoenigman, J R [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Research Inst.

    1996-08-15

    Samples of Ti-62222-0.23wt.%Si were heat treated and aged at temperatures ranging from 1150 F to 1500 F with the view of effecting selective precipitation of {alpha}{sub 2} precipitates and silicides (i.e. Ti{sub x}Zr{sub 5-x}Si{sub 3}). The effect of these intermetallic precipitates on the mechanical properties and fracture morphology was assessed via three separate microstructural conditions: Ti-62222S with {alpha}{sub 2} precipitates, Ti-62222S with {alpha}{sub 2} and silicide precipitates, and Ti-62222S with silicide precipitates. Both types of intermetallic precipitate appear to lower the fracture toughness, however {alpha}{sub 2} promotes intergranular fracture while silicides lead to transgranular failure and dimpling. The combined presence of the {alpha}{sub 2} and silicides leads to mixed mode failure. Further, since {alpha}{sub 2} is present in the {alpha} phase and silicides precipitate out in the {beta} phase, it appears that the effect of each of these intermetallics in Ti-62222S is additive rather than synergistic. (orig.)

  8. Laves intermetallics in stainless steel-zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, D.P.; McDeavitt, S.M.; Richardson, J.W. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Laves intermetallics have a significant effect on properties of metal waste forms being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. These waste forms are stainless steel-zirconium alloys that will contain radioactive metal isotopes isolated from spent nuclear fuel by electrometallurgical treatment. The baseline waste form composition for stainless steel-clad fuels is stainless steel-15 wt.% zirconium (SS-15Zr). This article presents results of neutron diffraction measurements, heat-treatment studies and mechanical testing on SS-15Zr alloys. The Laves intermetallics in these alloys, labeled Zr(Fe,Cr,Ni) 2+x , have both C36 and C15 crystal structures. A fraction of these intermetallics transform into (Fe,Cr,Ni) 23 Zr 6 during high-temperature annealing; the authors have proposed a mechanism for this transformation. The SS-15Zr alloys show virtually no elongation in uniaxial tension, but exhibit good strength and ductility in compression tests. This article also presents neutron diffraction and microstructural data for a stainless steel-42 wt.% zirconium (SS-42Zr) alloy

  9. The effect of crystal structure stability on the mobility of gas bubbles in intermetallic uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rest, J.; Hofman, G.L.; Birtcher, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Irradiation experiments with certain low-enrichment, high-density, uranium-base intermetallic alloys that are candidate reactor fuel materials, such as U 3 Si and U 6 Fe, have revealed extraordinarily large voids at low and medium fuel burnup. This phenomenon of breakaway swelling does not occur in other fuel types, such as U 3 Si 2 and UAl 3 , where a distribution of relatively small and stable fission gas bubbles forms. In situ transmission electron microscope observations of ion radiation-induced rapid swelling of intermetallic materials are consistent with growth by plastic flow. Large radiation enhancement of plastic flow in amorphous materials has been observed in several independent experiments and is thought to be a general materials phenomenon. The basis for a microscopic theory of fission gas bubble behavior in irradiated amorphous compounds has been formulated. The assumption underlying the overall theory is that the evolution of the porosity from that observed in the crystalline material to that observed in irradiated amorphous U 3 Si as a function of fluence is due to a softening of the irradiated amorphous material. Bubble growth in the low-viscosity material has been approximated by an effective enhanced diffusivity. Mechanisms are included for the radiation-induced softening of the amorphous material, and for a relation between gas atom mobilities and radiation-induced (defect-generated) changes in the material. Results of the analysis indicate that the observed rapid swelling in U 3 Si arises directly from enhanced bubble migration and coalescence due to plastic flow. 34 refs., 11 figs

  10. Growth behavior of surface oxide layer on SUS316L stainless steel at the early stage of exposure to 288degC water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soma, Yasutaka; Kato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Surface oxide layer on SUS316L stainless steels exposed to 288degC pure water with 2 ppm dissolved oxygen (DO) for 1-100 h were analyzed using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (STEM) technique to understand the early stage of surface oxide layer formation. In order to analyze the multi layered surface oxide, the interfaces between the outer and the inner oxide layers and that between the inner oxide layer and SUS316L substrate were determined from Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) line profiles. At 1 h exposure, double oxide layer which is composed of compact inner oxide layer and outer oxide layer with Fe-rich and Ni-rich oxide particles was formed. At the outermost region of the SUS316L substrate, Ni and Cr were enriched. At 100 h exposure, growth of the inner oxide layer was suppressed and the Ni and Cr enriched region at the alloy substrate was preserved underneath the Ni-rich outer oxide particles. At 1 h exposure, most of the outer oxide particles were composed of Fe-rich ones, at 10 h exposure, another Ni-rich outer oxide particles were nucleated and grew faster than Fe-rich ones. Consequently, a part of pre-formed Fe-rich outer oxide particles were covered with Ni-rich ones. (author)

  11. X-ray nano-diffraction study of Sr intermetallic phase during solidification of Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manickaraj, Jeyakumar; Gorny, Anton; Shankar, Sumanth, E-mail: shankar@mcmaster.ca [Light Metal Casting Research Centre (LMCRC), Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street W, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Cai, Zhonghou [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-02-17

    The evolution of strontium (Sr) containing intermetallic phase in the eutectic reaction of Sr-modified Al-Si hypoeutectic alloy was studied with high energy synchrotron beam source for nano-diffraction experiments and x-ray fluorescence elemental mapping. Contrary to popular belief, Sr does not seem to interfere with the Twin Plane Re-entrant Edge (TPRE) growth mechanism of eutectic Si, but evolves as the Al{sub 2}Si{sub 2}Sr phase during the eutectic reaction at the boundary between the eutectic Si and Al grains.

  12. Reliable and cost effective design of intermetallic Ni2Si nanowires and direct characterization of its mechanical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Zeon Han; Joonhee Kang; Sung-Dae Kim; Si-Young Choi; Hyung Giun Kim; Jehyun Lee; Kwangho Kim; Sung Hwan Lim; Byungchan Han

    2015-01-01

    We report that a single crystal Ni2Si nanowire (NW) of intermetallic compound can be reliably designed using simple three-step processes: casting a ternary Cu-Ni-Si alloy, nucleate and growth of Ni2Si NWs as embedded in the alloy matrix via designing discontinuous precipitation (DP) of Ni2Si nanoparticles and thermal aging, and finally chemical etching to decouple the Ni2Si NWs from the alloy matrix. By direct application of uniaxial tensile tests to the Ni2Si NW we characterize its mechanica...

  13. Rare earth intermetallic compounds produced by a reduction-diffusion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cech, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A reduction-diffusion process is given for producing novel rare earth intermetallic compounds, such as cobalt--rare earth intermetallic compounds, especially compounds useful in preparing permanent magnets. A particulate mixture of rare earth metal halide, cobalt and calcium hydride is heated to effect reduction of the rare earth metal halide and to diffuse the resulting rare earth metal into the cobalt to form the intermetallic compound

  14. Atomic layer deposition and post-growth thermal annealing of ultrathin MoO3 layers on silicon substrates: Formation of surface nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfei; Yang, Ren Bin; Yang, Weifeng; Jin, Yunjiang; Lee, Coryl J. J.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrathin MoO3 layers have been grown on Si substrates at 120 °C by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using molybdenum hexacarbonyl [Mo(CO)6] and ozone (O3) as the Mo- and O-source precursors, respectively. The ultrathin films were further annealed in air at Tann = 550-750 °C for 15 min. Scanning-electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to evaluate the morphological and elemental properties as well as their evolutions upon annealing of the thin films. They revealed an interfacial SiOx layer in between the MoO3 layer and the Si substrate; this SiOx layer converted into SiO2 during the annealing; and the equivalent thickness of the MoO3 (SiO2) layer decreased (increased) with the increase in Tann. Particles with diameters smaller than 50 nm emerged at Tann = 550 °C and their sizes (density) were reduced (increased) by increasing Tann to 650 °C. A further increase of Tann to 750 °C resulted in telephone-cord-like MoO3 structures, initiated from isolated particles on the surface. These observations have been discussed and interpreted based on temperature-dependent atomic interdiffusions, surface evaporations, and/or melting of MoO3, which shed new light on ALD MoO3 towards its electronic applications.

  15. In situ observation of the growth of biofouling layer in osmotic membrane bioreactors by multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Wang, Xinhua; Tang, Chuyang; Li, Xiufen; Yu, Guanghui

    2015-05-15

    Since the concept of the osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR) was introduced in 2008, it has attracted growing interests for its potential applications in wastewater treatment and reclamation; however, the fouling mechanisms of forward osmosis (FO) membrane especially the development of biofouling layer in the OMBR are not yet clear. Here, the fouled FO membranes were obtained from the OMBRs on days 3, 8 and 25 in sequence, and then the structure and growing rule of the biofouling layer formed on the FO membrane samples were in-situ characterized by multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). CLSM images indicated that the variations in abundance and distribution of polysaccharides, proteins and microorganisms in the biofouling layer during the operation of OMBRs were significantly different. Before the 8th day, their biovolume dramatically increased. Subsequently, the biovolumes of β-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and proteins continued increasing and leveled off after 8 days, respectively, while the biovolumes of α-d-glucopyranose polysaccharides and microorganisms decreased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) played a significant role in the formation and growth of biofouling layer, while the microorganisms were seldom detected on the upper fouling layer after 3 days. Based on the results obtained in this study, the growth of biofouling layer on the FO membrane surface in the OMBR could be divided into three stages. Initially, EPS was firstly deposited on the FO membrane surface, and then microorganisms associated with EPS located in the initial depositing layer to form clusters. After that, the dramatic increase of the clusters of EPS and microorganisms resulted in the quick growth of biofouling layer during the flux decline of the OMBR. However, when the water flux became stable in the OMBR, some microorganisms and EPS would be detached from the FO membrane surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The intermetallic bonding between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasijevic, Srećko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of investigating the formation of intermetallic bond between a ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy. The ring carrier is made of austenitic cast iron (Ni-Resist in order to increase the wear resistance of the first ring groove and applied in highly loaded diesel engines. Metallographic examination of the quality of alfin bond was done. A metallographic investigation using an optical microscope in combination with the SEM/EDS analysis of the quality of the intermetallic bonding layer was done. The test results show that can be made successfully as well as the formation of metal connection (alfin bond between the ring carrier and aluminum piston alloy.El artículo presenta los resultados de la investigación sobre la formación de una unión intermetálica entre el portasegmento y la aleación de aluminio del pistón. El portasegmento es una fundición de hierro austenítico (Ni-Resist con el fin de aumentar la resistencia al desgaste de la unión Al-fin del primer segmento y se utiliza en motores diésel altamente cargados. Se realizó un examen metalográfico de la unión intermetálica, mediante un microscopio óptico en combinación con SEM/EDS. Los satisfactorios resultados obtenidos muestran la formación de contacto metálico (unión Al-fin del primer segmento entre el portasegmento y la aleación de aluminio del pistón.

  17. Ultrafast and Highly Reversible Sodium Storage in Zinc-Antimony Intermetallic Nanomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Nie, Anmin

    2015-12-17

    The progress on sodium-ion battery technology faces many grand challenges, one of which is the considerably lower rate of sodium insertion/deinsertion in electrode materials due to the larger size of sodium (Na) ions and complicated redox reactions compared to the lithium-ion systems. Here, it is demonstrated that sodium ions can be reversibly stored in Zn-Sb intermetallic nanowires at speeds that can exceed 295 nm s-1. Remarkably, these values are one to three orders of magnitude higher than the sodiation rate of other nanowires electrochemically tested with in situ transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the nanowires display about 161% volume expansion after the first sodiation and then cycle with an 83% reversible volume expansion. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled without any cracking or facture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. In addition, most of the phases involved in the sodiation/desodiation process possess high electrical conductivity. More specifically, the NaZnSb exhibits a layered structure, which provides channels for fast Na+ diffusion. This observation indicates that Zn-Sb intermetallic nanomaterials offer great promise as high rate and good cycling stability anodic materials for the next generation of sodium-ion batteries. Sodium ions can be stored in Zn4 Sb3 nanowires with a speed of 295.5 nm/s, which is one to three orders of magnitude higher than that of other nanowires electrochemically tested by the same method. Despite their massive expansion, the nanowires can be cycled dozens of times without any internal fracture during the ultrafast sodiation/desodiation process. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effects of surface coating on weld growth of resistance spot-welded hot-stamped boron steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chang Wook; Lee, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yang Do; Jo, Il Guk; Choi, Il Dong; Park, Yeong Do

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum-silicon-based and zinc-based metallic coatings have been widely used for hot-stamped boron steel in automotive applications. In this study, resistance spot weldability was explored by investigating the effects of the properties of metallic coating layers on heat development and nugget growth during resistance spot welding. In the case of the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel, the intermetallic coating transformed into a liquid film that covered the faying interface. A wide, weldable current range was obtained with slow heat development because of low contact resistance and large current passage. In the case of the zinc-coated hot-stamped boron steel, a buildup of liquid and vapor formation under large vapor pressure was observed at the faying interface because of the high contact resistance and low vaporization temperature of the intermetallic layers. With rapid heat development, the current passage was narrow because of the limited continuous layer at the faying interface. A more significant change in nugget growth was observed in the zinc coated hot-stamped boron steel than in the aluminum-silicon-coated hot-stamped boron steel.

  19. Method of fabricating multifilament intermetallic superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marancik, W.G.; Hong, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a multifilament superconducting wire of the type A/sub 3/B where A is selected from the group consisting of Nb and V, and B is selected from the group consisting of Sn and Ga which comprises the steps of: (a) filling the center of one or more copper tubes with B or with a predominantly B-copper alloy and drawing the tubes to form copper -B wires, the ratio of B to Cu in the wire being between 10-50 weight % B; (b) cabling a plurality of the copper -B wires around a core predominantly A wire; (c) bundling a plurality of the cables of step (b) with an enveloping layer of copper; (d) drawing the assembly of step (c) to reduce its diameter to a desired size; and (e) heat treating the product of step (d) to cause B to diffuse and form A/sub 3/B at the surface of the A filaments

  20. The Effect of CuSn Intermetallics on the Interstrand Contact Resistance in Superconducting Cables for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC)

    CERN Document Server

    Scheuerlein, C; Jacob, P; Leroy, D; Oberli, L R; Taborelli, M

    2005-01-01

    The LHC superconducting cables are submitted to a 200°C heat-treatment in air in order to increase the resistance between the crossing strands (RC) within the cable. During this treatment the as-applied Sn-Ag alloy strand coating is transformed into a CuSn intermetallic compound layer. The microstructure, the surface topography and the surface chemistry of the non-reacted and reacted coatings have been characterised by different techniques, notably focused ion beam (FIB), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the results obtained by these techniques the different influences that the intermetallics have on RC are discussed. The desired RC is obtained only when a continuous Cu3Sn layer is formed, i.e. a sufficient wetting of the Cu substrate by the tinning alloy is crucial. Among other effects the formation of the comparatively hard intermetallics roughens the surface and, thus, reduces the true contact area and i...

  1. Photo-irradiation effects on GaAs atomic layer epitaxial growth. GaAs no genshiso epitaxial seicho ni okeru hikari reiki koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashita, M.; Kawakyu, Y.; Sasaki, M.; Ishikawa, H. (Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki (Japan). Research and Development Center)

    1990-08-10

    Single atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) aims at controlling a growing film at a precision of single molecular layer. In this article, it is reported that the growth temperature range of ALE was expanded by the vertical irradiation of KrF exima laser (248 nm) onto the substrate for the ALE growth of GaAs using the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. Thanks for the results of the above experiment, it was demonstrated that the irradiation effect was not thermal, but photochemical. In addition, this article studies the possibility of adsorption layer irradiation and surface irradiation as the photo-irradiation mechanism, and points out that coexistence of both irradiation mechanisms can be considered and, in case of exima laser, strong possibility of direct irradiation of the adsorption layer because of its high power density. Hereinafter, by using both optical growth ALE and thermal growth ALE jointly, the degree of freedom of combination of hetero ALE increases and its application to various material systems becomes possible. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Homoepitaxial growth of a-plane GaN layers by reaction between Ga2O vapor and NH3 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Yuuki; Takatsu, Hiroaki; Juta, Masami; Kitamoto, Akira; Imade, Mamoru; Yoshimura, Masashi; Mori, Yusuke; Isemura, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Growth of high-quality a-plane GaN layers was performed by reaction between Ga 2 O vapor and NH 3 gas at a high temperature. Smooth a-plane GaN epitaxial layers were obtained on a-plane GaN seed substrates sliced from thick c-plane GaN crystals. Growth rate increased with increasing Ga 2 O partial pressure. An a-plane GaN layer with a growth rate of 48 μm/h was obtained. The X-ray rocking curve (XRC) measurement showed that the full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) of GaN(112-bar0) with the incident beam parallel and perpendicular to the [0001] direction were 29–43 and 29–42 arcsec, respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement revealed that oxygen concentration decreased at a high temperature. These results suggest that growth of a-GaN layers using Ga 2 O vapor and NH 3 gas at a high temperature enables the generation of high-quality crystals. (author)

  3. A unique growth mechanism of donut-shaped Mg–Al layered double hydroxides crystals revealed by AFM and STEM–EDX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budhysutanto, W.N.; Van Den Bruele, F.J.; Rossenaar, B.D.; Van Agterveld, D.; Van Enckevort, W.J.P.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Donut-like crystals of Mg–Al layered double hydroxides (LDH) are synthesized using a hydrothermal method with microwave heating. This morphology provides enlargement of the specific surface area of the {h k 0} faces, needed for adsorption application. The growth mechanism for donut-shaped crystals

  4. Studies on Ba(2)YNbO(6) Buffer Layers for Subsequent YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) Film Growth

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sathiraju, Srinivas; Barnes, Paul N; Varanasi, Chakrapani; Wheeler, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we are reporting a dielectric oxide buffer Ba(2)YNbO(6) (BYNO) and its performance on various substrates for a potential buffer layer for the growth of YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7-x) (YBCO) coated conductors. Ba(2)YNbO(6...

  5. Microstructural evaluation of interfacial intermetallic compounds in Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Giun; Kim, Sang Min; Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Mi Ri; Choe, Si Hyun; Kim, Ki Hong; Ryu, Jae Sung; Kim, Sangshik; Han, Seung Zeon; Kim, Won Yong; Lim, Sung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study on the difference in interfacial behavior of thermally aged Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads was conducted using transmission electron microscopy. During high-temperature lifetime testing of Cu wire bonding with Al and Au pads at 175 °C for up to 2000 h, different growth rates and growth characteristics were investigated in the Cu–Al intermetallic compounds (IMCs), including CuAl 2 , CuAl and Cu 9 Al 4 , and in the Cu–Au IMCs, including (Au,Cu), Cu 3 Au and (Cu,Au). Because of the lower growth rates and greater ductility of Cu–Au IMCs compared to those of Cu–Al IMCs, the Cu wire bonding with the Au pad showed relatively better thermal aging properties of bond pull strength and ball shear strength than those with the Al pad counterpart. In this study, the coherent interfaces were found to retard the growth of IMCs, and a variety of orientation relationships between wire, pad and interfacial IMCs were identified

  6. Epitaxial growth of matched metallic ErP0.6As0.4 layers on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guivarc'h, A.; Le Corre, A.; Gaulet, J.; Guenais, B.; Minier, M.; Ropars, G.; Badoz, P.A.; Duboz, J.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Successful growth of (001)ErP 0.6 As 0.4 single crystal film on (001) GaAs has been demonstrated. The epitaxial metallic layers reproducibly showed lattice mismatch below 5 10 -4 . This is, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of a stable, epitaxial and lattice-matched metal/compound semiconductor heterostructure. The ErP 0.6 As 0.4 /n-GaAs diodes yielded excellent I-V characteristics with an ideality factor of 1.1 and barrier height of 0.88 eV. For a 240 Angstrom- thick film, metallic behavior was observed with resistivities of 25 and 86 μΩcm at 1.5 K and room temperature, respectively. As the other Er compounds ErP, ErAs, ErSb and ErSi 2 , ErP 0.6 As 0.4 presents an abrupt drop in resistivity in the vicinity of the liquid helium temperature, due to a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic phase transition

  7. Void formation and its impact on Cu−Sn intermetallic compound formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Glenn, E-mail: Glenn.Ross@aalto.fi; Vuorinen, Vesa; Paulasto-Kröckel, Mervi

    2016-08-25

    Void formation in the Cu−Sn system has been identified as a major reliability issue with small volume electronic interconnects. Voids form during the interdiffusion of electrochemically deposited Cu and Sn, with varying magnitude and density. Electroplating parameters include the electrolytic chemistry composition and the electroplating current density, all of which appear to effect the voiding characteristics of the Cu−Sn system. In addition, interfacial voiding affects the growth kinetics of the Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic compounds of the Cu−Sn system. The aim here is to present voiding data as a function of electroplating chemistry and current density over a duration (up to 72 h) of isothermal annealing at 423 K (150 °C). Voiding data includes the average interfacial void size and average void density. Voids sizes grew proportionally as a function of thermal annealing time, whereas the void density grew initially very quickly but tended to saturate at a fixed density. A morphological evolution analysis called the physicochemical approach is utilised to understand the processes that occur when a voided Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface causes changes to the IMC phase growth. The method is used to simulate the intermetallic thickness growths' response to interfacial voiding. The Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface acts as a Cu diffusion barrier disrupting the diffusion of Cu. This resulted in a reduction in the Cu{sub 3}Sn thickness and an accelerated growth rate of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. - Highlights: • Average void size is proportional linearly to thermal annealing time. • Average void density grows initially very rapidly followed by saturation. • Voids located close to the Cu/Cu{sub 3}Sn interface affect IMC growth rates. • Voids act as a diffusion barrier inhibiting Cu diffusion towards Sn. • Voids located at the interface cause Cu{sub 3}Sn to be consumed by Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}.

  8. Insights into the growth rate of spatially evolving plane turbulent free-shear layers from 2D vortex-gas simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryanarayanan, Saikishan; Narasimha, Roddam

    2017-02-01

    Although the free-shear or mixing layer has been a subject of extensive research over nearly a century, there are certain fundamental issues that remain controversial. These include the influence of initial and downstream conditions on the flow, the effect of velocity ratio across the layer, and the nature of any possible coupling between small scale dynamics and the large scale evolution of layer thickness. In the spirit of the temporal vortex-gas simulations of Suryanarayanan et al. ["Free turbulent shear layer in a point vortex gas as a problem in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics," Phys. Rev. E 89, 013009 (2014)], we revisit the simple 2D inviscid vortex-gas model with extensive computations and detailed analysis, in order to gain insights into some of the above issues. Simulations of the spatially evolving vortex-gas shear layer are carried out at different velocity ratios using a computational model based on the work of Basu et al. ["Vortex sheet simulation of a plane canonical mixing layer," Comput. Fluids 21, 1-30 (1992) and "Modelling plane mixing layers using vortex points and sheets," Appl. Math. Modell. 19, 66-75 (1995)], but with a crucial improvement that ensures conservation of global circulation. The simulations show that the conditions imposed at the origin of the free shear layer and at the exit to the computational domain can affect flow evolution in their respective downstream and upstream neighbourhoods, the latter being particularly strong in the single stream limit. In between these neighbourhoods at the ends is a regime of universal self-preserving growth rate given by a universal function of velocity ratio. The computed growth rates are generally located within the scatter of experimental data on plane mixing layers and closely agree with recent high Reynolds number experiments and 3D large eddy simulation studies. These findings support the view that observed free-shear layer growth can be largely explained by the 2D vortex dynamics of

  9. AFM investigation of effect of absorbed water layer structure on growth mechanism of octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayer on oxidized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shaowei; Zheng, Yanjun; Chen, Changfeng

    2016-01-01

    The growth mechanism of an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayer on a silicon oxide surface at various relative humidities has been investigated. Atomic force microscopy images show that excess water may actually hinder the nucleation and growth of OTS islands. A moderate amount of water is favorable for the nucleation and growth of OTS islands in the initial stage; however, the completion of the monolayer is very slow in the final stage. The growth of OTS islands on a low-water-content surface maintains a relatively constant speed and requires the least amount of time. The mobility of water molecules is thought to play an important role in the OTS monolayers, and a low-mobility water layer provides a steady condition for OTS monolayer growth.

  10. Direct growth of large grain polycrystalline silicon films on aluminum-induced crystallization seed layer using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Bing-Rui; Lo, Shih-Yung; Wuu, Dong-Sing; Ou, Sin-Liang; Mao, Hsin-Yuan; Wang, Jui-Hao; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Large grain polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films on glass substrates have been deposited on an aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) seed layer using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). A poly-Si seed layer was first formed by the AIC process and a thicker poly-Si film was subsequently deposited upon the seed layer using HWCVD. The effects of AIC annealing parameters on the structural and electrical properties of the poly-Si seed layers were characterized by Raman scattering spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall measurements. It was found that the crystallinity of seed layer was enhanced with increasing the annealing duration and temperature. The poly-Si seed layer formed at optimum annealing parameters can reach a grain size of 700 nm, hole concentration of 3.5 × 10 18 cm −3 , and Hall mobility of 22 cm 2 /Vs. After forming the seed layer, poly-Si films with good crystalline quality and high growth rate (> 1 nm/s) can be obtained using HWCVD. These results indicated that the HWCVD-deposited poly-Si film on an AIC seed layer could be a promising candidate for thin-film Si photovoltaic applications. - Highlights: ►Poly-Si seed layers are formed by aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) process. ►Poly-Si on AIC seed layers are prepared by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition. ►AIC process parameters affect structural properties of poly-Si films. ►Increasing the annealing duration and temperature increases the film crystallinity.

  11. Electromagnetic generation of volume waves in RFe2 intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yasov, R.S.; Borovkova, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the phenomenon of electromagneto-acoustic transformation of longitudinal and cross waves in RFe 2 intermetallics. It is shown that in the range from the room temperature to Curie point the generation of ultrasound occurs only at the expense of one-ion anisotropic magnetostriction. In the vicinity of Curie point the contribution of isotropic magnetostriction of paraprocess is not observed. The quantitative interpretation is given to temperature and field dependences of electromagneto-acoustic transformation parameters. A noticeable temperature hysteresis of the above-mentioned transformation is revealed in ErFe 2 near the point of compensation. 7 refs.; 5 figs

  12. Negative thermal expansion induced by intermetallic charge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Masaki; Oka, Kengo; Nabetani, Koichiro

    2015-06-01

    Suppression of thermal expansion is of great importance for industry. Negative thermal expansion (NTE) materials which shrink on heating and expand on cooling are therefore attracting keen attention. Here we provide a brief overview of NTE induced by intermetallic charge transfer in A-site ordered double perovskites SaCu 3 Fe 4 O 12 and LaCu 3 Fe 4- x Mn x O 12 , as well as in Bi or Ni substituted BiNiO 3 . The last compound shows a colossal dilatometric linear thermal expansion coefficient exceeding -70 × 10 -6 K -1 near room temperature, in the temperature range which can be controlled by substitution.

  13. Intermetallic compound development for the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munroe, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    lntermetallic compounds have been vigorously researched for the past twenty years. As a result of these studies the fundamental behaviour of a number of transition metal aluminides and suicides is now well understood, and a number of alloys with commercially acceptable properties have been developed. Future challenges for these alloys, for example Ni 3 AI, TiAI and Fe 3 AI, are focused on the development of large-scale production routes. However, there remain a number of other intermetallic compounds, such as Laves phases, which exhibit some promising properties, but little is presently known about their intrinsic behaviour. For compounds such as these more fundamental studies are required

  14. Plasticity enhancement mechanisms in refractory metals and intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibala, R.; Chang, H.; Czarnik, C.M.; Edwards, K.M.; Misra, A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasticity enhancement associated with surface films and precipitates or dispersoids in bcc refractory metals is operative in ordered intermetallic compounds. Some results are given for NiAl and MoSi 2 -based materials. The monotonic and cyclic plasticity of NiAl at room temperature can be enhanced by surface films. Ductile second phases also enhance the plasticity of NiAl. MoSi 2 exhibits similar effects of surface films and dispersoids, but primarily at elevated temperatures. The plasticity enhancement is associated with enhanced dislocation generation from constrained deformation at the film-substrate or precipitate/dispersoid-matrix interface of the composite systems

  15. NMR and domain wall mobility in intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.P.; Sampaio, L.C.; Cunha, S.F.; Alves, K.M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The technique of pulsed NMR can be used to study the distribution of hyperfine fields in a magnetic matrix. The dynamics of the domain walls are relevant to the generation of NMR signals. In the present study on the (R x Y 1-x ) Fe 2 intermetallic compounds, the reduction in the signals is associated to increased propagation fields. This indicates that a smaller domain wall mobility is at the origin of these effects. NMR spectra in this system show the importance of direct and indirect (i.e., mediated by Fe atoms) terms in the transferred hyperfine field. (author)

  16. Study of Intermetallic Nanostructures for Light-Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Niels Grobech [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Asta, Mark D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Hosemann, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Maloy, Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-30

    High temperature mechanical measurements were conducted to study the effect of the dynamic precipitation process of PH 13-8 Mo maraging steel. Yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, total elongation, hardness, strain rate sensitivity and activation volume were evaluated as a function of the temperature. The dynamic changes in the mechanical properties at different temperatures were evaluated and a balance between precipitation hardening and annealed softening is discussed. A comparison between hardness and yield stress and ultimate tensile strength over a temperature range from 300 to 600 °C is made. The behavior of the strain rate sensitivity was correlated with the intermetallic precipitates formed during the experiments.

  17. Growth and characterization of semi-insulating carbon-doped/undoped GaN multiple-layer buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Seok; Won, Chul-Ho; Kang, Hee-Sung; Kim, Young-Jo; Kang, In Man; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Yong Tae

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a new semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, which consists of multiple carbon-doped and undoped GaN layer. The buffer layer showed sufficiently good semi-insulating characteristics, attributed to the depletion effect between the carbon-doped GaN and the undoped GaN layers, even though the thickness of the carbon-doped GaN layer in the periodic structure was designed to be very thin to minimize the total carbon incorporation into the buffer layer. The AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure grown on the proposed buffer exhibited much better electrical and structural properties than that grown on the conventional thick carbon-doped semi-insulating GaN buffer layer, confirmed by Hall measurement, x-ray diffraction, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The fabricated device also showed excellent buffer breakdown characteristics. (paper)

  18. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  19. A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.S. Dilip

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the feasibility of fabricating porous 3D parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy directly from Ti–6Al–4V and Al powders. This approach uses a binder jetting additive manufacturing process followed by reactive sintering. The results demonstrate that the present approach is successful for realizing parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy.

  20. A survey of combustible metals, thermites, and intermetallics for pyrotechnic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1996-08-01

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnics. Advantages include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. This paper reviews the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. 50 refs, tables.

  1. Four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics in near eutectic Al-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yuying; Liu, Xiangfa; Jiang, Binggang; Bian, Xiufang

    2007-01-01

    Many four-branched compounds coupled Si and iron-rich intermetallics were observed in near eutectic Al-Si alloy modified with Al-P master alloy. Such four-branched compounds have never been reported before, but in our case it seems to be commonly observed. In this work the growth characterization of the four-branched compounds are scrutinized with a JXA-8800 electron microprobe (EPMA). More deep study of the formation of four-branched compounds is performed by SEM and TEM analysis. The characterization of the four-branched compounds is that of a primary silicon in the center with four iron-rich intermetallics around. Experimental results also show that the precipitation of primary silicon is the key factor for the formation of four-branched compounds. And WHS-theory explains the growth mechanism of the four-branched compounds. In detail, subsequent twinning within the primary silicon provides four-fold coordination sites on the surface, and then the α-Al(Fe,Mn)-Si phase nucleates on the surface of the primary silicon

  2. The growth of silica and silica-clad nanowires using a solid-state reaction mechanism on Ti, Ni and SiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Parul; Anguita, J V; Stolojan, V; Henley, S J; Silva, S R P

    2010-01-01

    A large area compatible and solid-state process for growing silica nanowires is reported using nickel, titanium and silicon dioxide layers on silicon. The silica nanowires also contain silicon, as indicated by Raman spectroscopy. The phonon confinement model is employed to measure the diameter of the Si rich tail for our samples. The measured Raman peak shift and full width at half-maximum variation with the nanowire diameter qualitatively match with data available in the literature. We have investigated the effect of the seedbed structure on the nanowires, and the effect of using different gas conditions in the growth stages. From this, we have obtained the growth mechanism, and deduced the role of each individual substrate seedbed layer in the growth of the nanowires. We report a combined growth mechanism, where the growth is initiated by a solid-liquid-solid process, which is then followed by a vapour-liquid-solid process. We also report on the formation of two distinct structures of nanowires (type I and type II). The growth of these can be controlled by the use of titanium in the seedbed. We also observe that the diameter of the nanowires exhibits an inverse relation with the catalyst thickness.

  3. Simulation of the Dynamics of Isothermal Growth of Single-Layer Graphene on a Copper Catalyst in the Process of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futko, S. I.; Shulitskii, B. G.; Labunov, V. A.; Ermolaeva, E. M.

    2018-01-01

    A new kinetic model of isothermal growth of single-layer graphene on a copper catalyst as a result of the chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on it at a low pressure has been developed on the basis of in situ measurements of the growth of graphene in the process of its synthesis. This model defines the synthesis of graphene with regard for the chemisorption and catalytic decomposition of ethylene on the surface of a copper catalyst, the diffusion of carbon atoms in the radial direction to the nucleation centers within the thin melted near-surface copper layer, and the nucleation and autocatalytic growth of graphene domains. It is shown that the time dependence of the rate of growth of a graphene domain has a characteristic asymmetrical bell-like shape. The dependences of the surface area and size of a graphene domain and the rate of its growth on the time at different synthesis temperatures and ethylene concentrations have been obtained. Time characteristics of the growth of graphene domains depending on the parameters of their synthesis were calculated. The results obtained can be used for determining optimum regimes of synthesis of graphene in the process of chemical vapor deposition of hydrocarbons on different catalysts with a low solubility of carbon.

  4. Growth of transition metal oxides in 2D layers : probing and tuning the properties of matter at the atomic-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermüller, T.

    2015-01-01

    In surface science, accurate controlling and detailed characterization of metal supported ultrathin film growth of transition metal oxides (TMO) is a central requirement for collecting reliable empirical data which in turn can be used to improve and extend the existing theoretical models and approaches, such as density functional theory (DFT). In this work, the controlled growth of TMOs on the Ag(100) surface is investigated by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in conjunction with various other surface science techniques. In addition, a novel promising experimental approach to effectively affect and control the growth of TMOs by high electric fields is presented. The investigations concerned the TMO systems MnxOy and WOx on the Ag(100) surface. The strikingly anisotropic growth of the (2x1)-MnO/Ag(100) system is characterized by long and narrow stripes which form a complex 2D surface network of MnO islands. The growth mechanism of this system has been rationalized by first-principle DFT calculations. The (WO3)3 clusters deposited at room temperature form ramified fractal islands. Above a threshold temperature of 700 K, a fully intact 2D WOx wetting layer emerges at the surface. On top of this layer, beginning 3D growth in form of sharp needles is observed. Since the area of the wetting layer exceeds the nanometer-scale (up to 1 µm), also low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) has been employed to study the growth kinetics of the WOx/Ag(100) system. Strong electric field experiments (1-2 V/nm) have been performed on both systems by employing a custom-designed UHV apparatus. Significant field-induces surface modifications have been observed in all experiments, and have been characterized by STM and Auger electron spectroscopy. (author) [de

  5. Graphene crystal growth by thermal precipitation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon precursor via patterned-iron thin layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rius Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, relevant advances on graphene as a building block of integrated circuits (ICs have been demonstrated. Graphene growth and device fabrication related processing has been steadily and intensively powered due to commercial interest; however, there are many challenges associated with the incorporation of graphene into commercial applications which includes challenges associated with the synthesis of this material. Specifically, the controlled deposition of single layer large single crystal graphene on arbitrary supports, is particularly challenging. Previously, we have reported the first demonstration of the transformation of focused ion beam induced deposition of carbon (FIBID-C into patterned graphitic layers by metal-assisted thermal treatment (Ni foils. In this present work, we continue exploiting the FIBID-C approach as a route for graphene deposition. Here, thin patterned Fe layers are used for the catalysis of graphenization and graphitization. We demonstrate the formation of high quality single and few layer graphene, which evidences, the possibility of using Fe as a catalyst for graphene deposition. The mechanism is understood as the minute precipitation of atomic carbon after supersaturation of some iron carbides formed under a high temperature treatment. As a consequence of the complete wetting of FIBID-C and patterned Fe layers, which enable graphene growth, the as-deposited patterns do not preserve their original shape after the thermal treatment

  6. Morphology of intermetallic phases in Al-Si cast alloys and their fracture behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Hurtalová

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Al-Si cast alloys in recent years have increased especially in the automotive industry (dynamic exposed cast, en-gine parts, cylinder heads, pistons and so on. Controlling the microstructure of secondary aluminium cast alloys is very important, because these alloys contain more additional elements that form various intermetallic phases in the structure. Therefore, the contribution is dealing with the valuation type of intermetallic phases and their identification with using optical and scanning microscopy. Some of the intermetallic phases could be identified on the basis of morphology but some of them must be identified according EDX analysis. The properties of alu-minium alloy are affected by morphology of intermetallic phases and therefore it is necessary to study morphology and its fracture behav-iour. The present work shows morphology and typical fracture behaviour as the most common intermetallic phases forming in Al-Si alloys.

  7. Morphological evolution of carbon nanofibers encapsulating SnCo alloys and its effect on growth of the solid electrolyte interphase layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Ryu, Won-Hee; Park, Kyu-Sung; Kim, Il-Doo

    2013-08-27

    Two distinctive one-dimensional (1-D) carbon nanofibers (CNFs) encapsulating irregularly and homogeneously segregated SnCo nanoparticles were synthesized via electrospinning of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymers containing Sn-Co acetate precursors and subsequent calcination in reducing atmosphere. CNFs synthesized with PVP, which undergoes structural degradation of the polymer during carbonization processes, exhibited irregular segregation of heterogeneous alloy particles composed of SnCo, Co3Sn2, and SnO with a size distribution of 30-100 nm. Large and exposed multiphase SnCo particles in PVP-driven amorphous CNFs (SnCo/PVP-CNFs) kept decomposing liquid electrolyte and were partly detached from CNFs during cycling, leading to a capacity fading at the earlier cycles. The closer study of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layers formed on the CNFs reveals that the gradual growth of fiber radius due to continuous increment of SEI layer thickness led to capacity fading. In contrast, SnCo particles in PAN-driven CNFs (SnCo/PAN-CNFs) showed dramatically reduced crystallite sizes (<10 nm) of single phase SnCo nanoparticles which were entirely embedded in dense, semicrystalline, and highly conducting 1-D carbon matrix. The growth of SEI layer was limited and saturated during cycling. As a result, SnCo/PAN-CNFs showed much improved cyclability (97.9% capacity retention) and lower SEI layer thickness (86 nm) after 100 cycles compared to SnCo/PVP-CNFs (capacity retention, 71.9%; SEI layer thickness, 593 nm). This work verifies that the thermal behavior of carbon precursor is highly responsible for the growth mechanism of SEI layer accompanied with particles detachment and cyclability of alloy particle embedded CNFs.

  8. Hybrid polymer-CdS solar cell active layers formed by in situ growth of CdS nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, S.; Del Gobbo, S.; Borriello, C.; Bizzarro, V.; La Ferrara, V.; Re, M.; Pesce, E.; Minarini, C.; De Crescenzi, M.; Di Luccio, T.

    2011-01-01

    The integration of semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs) into a polymeric matrix has the potential to enhance the performance of polymer-based solar cells taking advantage of the physical properties of NPs and polymers. We synthesize a new class of CdS-NPs-based active layer employing a low-cost and low temperature route compatible with large-scale device manufacturing. Our approach is based on the controlled in situ thermal decomposition of a cadmium thiolate precursor in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The casted P3HT:precursor solid foils were heated up from 200 to 300 °C to allow the precursor decomposition and the CdS-NP formation within the polymer matrix. The CdS-NP growth was controlled by varying the annealing temperature. The polymer:precursor weight ratio was also varied to investigate the effects of increasing the NP volume fraction on the solar cell performances. The optical properties were studied by using UV–Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy at room temperature. To investigate the photocurrent response of P3HT:CdS nanocomposites, ITO/P3HT:CdS/Al solar cell devices were realized. We measured the external quantum efficiency (EQE) as a function of the wavelength. The photovoltaic response of the devices containing CdS-NPs showed a variation compared with the devices with P3HT only. By changing the annealing temperature the EQE is enhanced in the 400–600 nm spectral region. By increasing the NPs volume fraction remarkable changes in the EQE spectra were observed. The data are discussed also in relation to morphological features of the interfaces studied by Focused Ion Beam technique.

  9. Microstructure and high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy surface by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongxi; Wang, Chuanqi; Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Yehua

    2010-11-01

    A high-temperature oxidation resistant TiN embedded in Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating was fabricated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface by 6kW transverse-flow CO2 laser apparatus. The composition, morphology and microstructure of the laser clad TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the composite coatings and the titanium alloy substrate, isothermal oxidation test was performed in a conventional high-temperature resistance furnace at 600°C and 800°C respectively. The result shows that the laser clad intermetallic composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like, and dendrites), and uniformly distributed in the Ti3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between the Ti powder and AlN powder occurred completely under the laser irradiation. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is 844HV0.2, 3.4 times higher than that of the titanium alloy substrate. The high-temperature oxidation resistance test reveals that TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating results in the better modification of high-temperature oxidation behavior than the titanium substrate. The excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the laser cladding layer is attributed to the formation of the reinforced phase TiN and Al2O3, TiO2 hybrid oxide. Therefore, the laser cladding TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is anticipated to be a promising oxidation resistance surface modification technique for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  10. Fabrication of dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan multilayers on titanium alloy by layer-by-layer self-assembly for promoting osteoblast growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xinming, E-mail: xmzhang@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Zhaoyang, E-mail: zyli@tju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yuan, Xubo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2013-11-01

    The bare inert surface of titanium (Ti) alloy typically causes early failures in implants. Layer-by-layer self-assembly is one of the simple methods for fabricating bioactive multilayer coatings on titanium implants. In this study, a dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan (DHA/CHI) bioactive multilayer was built on the surface of Ti–24Nb–2Zr (TNZ) alloy. Zeta potential oscillated between −2 and 17 mV for DHA- and CHI-ending layers during the assembly process, respectively. The DHA/CHI multilayer considerably decreased the contact angle and dramatically improved the wettability of TNZ alloy. Atomic force microscopy results revealed a rough surface on the original TNZ alloy, while the surface became smoother and more homogeneous after the deposition of approximately 5 bilayers (TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5}). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} sample was completely covered by polyelectrolytes. Pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the original TNZ alloy and TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} to evaluate the effects of DHA/CHI multilayer on osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The proliferation of osteoblasts on TNZ/(DHA/CHI){sub 5} was significantly higher than that on the original TNZ alloy. The results of this study indicate that the proposed technique improves the biocompatibility of TNZ alloy and can serve as a potential modification method in orthopedic applications.

  11. Fabrication of dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan multilayers on titanium alloy by layer-by-layer self-assembly for promoting osteoblast growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinming; Li, Zhaoyang; Yuan, Xubo; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin

    2013-01-01

    The bare inert surface of titanium (Ti) alloy typically causes early failures in implants. Layer-by-layer self-assembly is one of the simple methods for fabricating bioactive multilayer coatings on titanium implants. In this study, a dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid/chitosan (DHA/CHI) bioactive multilayer was built on the surface of Ti–24Nb–2Zr (TNZ) alloy. Zeta potential oscillated between −2 and 17 mV for DHA- and CHI-ending layers during the assembly process, respectively. The DHA/CHI multilayer considerably decreased the contact angle and dramatically improved the wettability of TNZ alloy. Atomic force microscopy results revealed a rough surface on the original TNZ alloy, while the surface became smoother and more homogeneous after the deposition of approximately 5 bilayers (TNZ/(DHA/CHI) 5 ). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated that the TNZ/(DHA/CHI) 5 sample was completely covered by polyelectrolytes. Pre-osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the original TNZ alloy and TNZ/(DHA/CHI) 5 to evaluate the effects of DHA/CHI multilayer on osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The proliferation of osteoblasts on TNZ/(DHA/CHI) 5 was significantly higher than that on the original TNZ alloy. The results of this study indicate that the proposed technique improves the biocompatibility of TNZ alloy and can serve as a potential modification method in orthopedic applications.

  12. Synthesis of Fe-Al-Ti Based Intermetallics with the Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kwiatkowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS technique was combined with direct synthesis to fabricate L21-ordered Fe-Al-Ti based intermetallic alloys. It was found that ternary Fe-Al-Ti alloys can be synthesized using the LENS technique from a feedstock composed of a pre-alloyed Fe-Al powder and elemental Ti powder. The obtained average compositions of the ternary alloys after the laser deposition and subsequent annealing were quite close to the nominal compositions, but the distributions of the elements in the annealed samples recorded over a large area were inhomogeneous. No traces of pure Ti were observed in the deposited alloys. Macroscopic cracking and porosity were observed in all investigated alloys. The amount of porosity in the samples was less than 1.2 vol. %. It seems that the porosity originates from the porous pre-alloyed Fe-Al powders. Single-phase (L21, two-phase (L21-C14 and multiphase (L21-A2-C14 Fe-Al-Ti intermetallic alloys were obtained from the direct laser synthesis and annealing process. The most prominent feature of the ternary Fe-Al-Ti intermetallics synthesized by the LENS method is their fine-grained structure. The grain size is in the range of 3–5 μm, indicating grain refinement effect through the highly rapid cooling of the LENS process. The Fe-Al-Ti alloys synthesized by LENS and annealed at 1000 °C in the single-phase B2 region were prone to an essential grain growth. In contrast, the alloys annealed at 1000 °C in the two-phase L21-C14 region exhibited almost constant grain size values after the high-temperature annealing.

  13. Spark plasma sintering of titanium aluminide intermetallics and its composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldoshan, Abdelhakim Ahmed

    Titanium aluminide intermetallics are a distinct class of engineering materials having unique properties over conventional titanium alloys. gamma-TiAl compound possesses competitive physical and mechanical properties at elevated temperature applications compared to Ni-based superalloys. gamma-TiAl composite materials exhibit high melting point, low density, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is one of the powder metallurgy techniques where powder mixture undergoes simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. Unlike other sintering techniques such as hot iso-static pressing and hot pressing, SPS compacts the materials in shorter time (< 10 min) with a lower temperature and leads to highly dense products. Reactive synthesis of titanium aluminide intermetallics is carried out using SPS. Reactive sintering takes place between liquid aluminum and solid titanium. In this work, reactive sintering through SPS was used to fabricate fully densified gamma-TiAl and titanium aluminide composites starting from elemental powders at different sintering temperatures. It was observed that sintering temperature played significant role in the densification of titanium aluminide composites. gamma-TiAl was the predominate phase at different temperatures. The effect of increasing sintering temperature on microhardness, microstructure, yield strength and wear behavior of titanium aluminide was studied. Addition of graphene nanoplatelets to titanium aluminide matrix resulted in change in microhardness. In Ti-Al-graphene composites, a noticeable decrease in coefficient of friction was observed due to the influence of self-lubrication caused by graphene.

  14. Intermetallic superconductors - The state of development in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, E.

    1991-01-01

    The commercial fabrication of intermetallic superconductors has reached a high degree of maturity in the past thirty years. The only significant, commercial requirement for superconducting wire is the construction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices for medical diagnosis. In addition to this demand there are one-time projects such as a high energy particle accelerators which often need considerable quantities of superconducting material over the few years of construction. R and D projects also provide a fluctuating market for superconducting materials, in the past the projects have included power apparatus such as generators, motors, energy storage and transmission cables, and magnets for experimental fusion reactors. Superconducting magnetically levitated trains have undergone full scale trials in Japan and Germany. This is by no means a comprehensive list of all the possible applications. Virtually all the devices requiring a magnetic field to be produced by superconducting windings have used NbTi wire, but a few experimental Nb 3 Sn high field magnets have been constructed. In the case of these materials commercial vendors can provide a high degree of quality assurance on such characteristics as critical current, coupling effects and mechanical tolerances. This paper discusses the market for intermetallic and ceramic superconductors, their fabrication properties, applications, and cost

  15. An experimental study of praseodymium intermetallic compounds at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greidanus, F.J.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the author studies the low temperature properties of praseodymium intermetallic compounds. In chapter 2 some of the techniques used for the experiments described in the subsequent chapters are discussed. A set-up to perform specific-heat experiments below 1 K and a technique for performing magnetic susceptibility measurments below 1 K, using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) are described. Chapter 3 is devoted to the theory of interacting Pr 3+ ions. Both bilinear and biquadratic interactions are dealt with in a molecular-field approximation. It is shown that first as well as second-order phase transitions can occur, depending on the nature of the ground state, and on the ratio of magnetic to crystal-field interactions. In chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 experimental results on the cubic Laves phase compounds PrRh 2 , PrIr 2 , PrPt 2 , PrRu 2 and PrNi 2 are presented. From inelastic neutron scattering experiments the crystalline electric field parameters of the above compounds are determined. In chapters 5 and 6 susceptibility, neutron-diffraction, hyperfine specific-heat, low-field magnetization, pulsed-field magnetization, specific-heat and resistivity measurements are presented. In chapter 7 the specific heat and differential susceptibility of PrNi 2 below 1 K are studied. Finally, in chapter 8 praseodymium intermetallic compounds with low-symmetry singlet ground states, and cubic compounds with magnetic doublet ground states are studied. (Auth.)

  16. Theoretical Energy Release of Thermites, Intermetallics, and Combustible Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C.

    1999-05-14

    Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantages of these systems typically include high energy density, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability and possess insensitive ignition properties. For the specific applications of humanitarian demining and disposal of unexploded ordnance, these pyrotechnic formulations offer additional benefits. The combination of high thermal input with low brisance can be used to neutralize the energetic materials in mines and other ordnance without the "explosive" high-blast-pressure events that can cause extensive collateral damage to personnel, facilities, and the environment. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics of thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels. Calculated values for reactant density, heat of reaction (per unit mass and per unit volume), and reaction temperature (without and with consideration of phase changes and the variation of specific heat values) are tabulated. These data are ranked in several ways, according to density, heat of reaction, reaction temperature, and gas production.

  17. Implementation of ZnO/ZnMgO strained-layer superlattice for ZnO heteroepitaxial growth on sapphire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Vladimir; Bakin, Andrey; Tsiaoussis, Ioannis; Rothman, Johan; Ivanov, Sergey; Stoemenos, John; Waag, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The main challenge in fabrication of ZnO-based devices is the absence of reliable p-type material. This is mostly caused by insufficient crystalline quality of the material and not well-enough-developed native point defect control of ZnO. At present high-quality ZnO wafers are still expensive and ZnO heteroepitaxial layers on sapphire are the most reasonable alternative to homoepitaxial layers. But it is still necessary to improve the crystalline quality of the heteroepitaxial layers. One of the approaches to reduce defect density in heteroepitaxial layers is to introduce a strained-layer superlattice (SL) that could stop dislocation propagation from the substrate-layer interface. In the present paper we have employed fifteen periods of a highly strained SL structure. The structure was grown on a conventional double buffer layer comprising of high-temperature MgO/low-temperature ZnO on sapphire. The influence of the SLs on the properties of the heteroepitaxial ZnO layers is investigated. Electrical measurements of the structure with SL revealed very high values of the carrier mobility up to 210 cm2/Vs at room temperature. Structural characterization of the obtained samples showed that the dislocation density in the following ZnO layer was not reduced. The high mobility signal appears to come from the SL structure or the SL/ZnO interface.

  18. Structural and Electronic Investigations of Complex Intermetallic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Hyunjin [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In solid state chemistry, numerous investigations have been attempted to address the relationships between chemical structure and physical properties. Such questions include: (1) How can we understand the driving forces of the atomic arrangements in complex solids that exhibit interesting chemical and physical properties? (2) How do different elements distribute themselves in a solid-state structure? (3) Can we develop a chemical understanding to predict the effects of valence electron concentration on the structures and magnetic ordering of systems by both experimental and theoretical means? Although these issues are relevant to various compound classes, intermetallic compounds are especially interesting and well suited for a joint experimental and theoretical effort. For intermetallic compounds, the questions listed above are difficult to answer since many of the constituent atoms simply do not crystallize in the same manner as in their separate, elemental structures. Also, theoretical studies suggest that the energy differences between various structural alternatives are small. For example, Al and Ga both belong in the same group on the Periodic Table of Elements and share many similar chemical properties. Al crystallizes in the fcc lattice with 4 atoms per unit cell and Ga crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell lattice with 8 atoms per unit cell, which are both fairly simple structures (Figure 1). However, when combined with Mn, which itself has a very complex cubic crystal structure with 58 atoms per unit cell, the resulting intermetallic compounds crystallize in a completely different fashion. At the 1:1 stoichiometry, MnAl forms a very simple tetragonal lattice with two atoms per primitive unit cell, while MnGa crystallizes in a complicated rhombohedral unit cell with 26 atoms within the primitive unit cell. The mechanisms influencing the arrangements of atoms in numerous crystal structures have been studied theoretically by calculating electronic

  19. Effect of Al added to a NiCrMo alloy on the development of the oxide layer of intermetallic coatings; Efeito do teor de Al adicionado a liga NiCrMo no desenvolvimento dos filmes de oxidos em revestimentos intermetalicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Oliveira, A.S.C.M.; Cangue, F.J.R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (DEM/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Clark, E.; Levi, C. [University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Components performance in different environment is strongly dependent on oxides that develop on their surfaces. This study analyzed the oxide layer that develops on coatings processed with mixtures of an atomized Hastelloy C alloy with Al powders. Powder mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30wt%Al were deposited on AISI 1020 and AISI304 steel plates. Coatings were subsequently exposed to 850 deg C for two hours in a low PO{sub 2} environment. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the phases that developed in the coating during processing and Raman analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to characterize the oxide layers. The results showed that coatings processed with the richer Al mixtures, 30wt%Al, which developed NiAl aluminides, reduced the development of {alpha} alumina when processing was done on AISI 304. Coatings processed on AISI 1020 with the three powder mixtures tested developed the different allotropic forms of alumina, as predicted for the tested temperature. (author)

  20. Vacuum brazing of TiAl48Cr2Nb2 casting alloys based on TiAl (γ intermetallic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mirski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in modern engineering materials characterised by increasingly better operational parameters combined with a necessity to obtain joints of such materials representing good operation properties create important research and technological problems of today. These issues include also titanium joints or joints of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds. Brazing is one of the basic and sometimes even the only available welding method used for joining the aforesaid materials in production of various systems, heat exchangers and, in case of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds, turbine elements and space shuttle plating etc. This article presents the basic physical and chemical properties as well as the brazability of alloys based on intermetallic compounds. The work also describes the principle and mechanisms of diffusion-brazed joint formation as well as reveals the results of metallographic and strength tests involving diffusion-welded joints of TiAl48Cr3Nb2 casting alloy based on TiAl (γ phase with the use of sandwich-type layers of silver-based parent metal (grade B- Ag72Cu-780 (AG 401 and copper (grade CF032A. Structural examination was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS. Furthermore, the article reveals the results of shear strength tests involving the aforementioned joints.