WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate-mass early types

  1. Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    orbital trajectory and the evolution of each star individually. Using this unique tool, the team found they could reproduce the observed characteristics of the star cluster MGG11. As a bonus, however, the star cluster produces a black hole with a mass between 800 and 3000 times the mass of the Sun. The black hole is produced within 4 million years which is in an early phase in the evolution of the star cluster. During this phase the stellar density in the center becomes so high that physical collisions between the stars become frequent. If the stellar densities exceed a million times the density in the neighborhood of the Sun, collision start to dominate the further evolution of the star cluster. In this over-dense cluster center, stars experience repeated collisions with each other, resulting in a collision runaway in which a single stars grows to enormous mass. After the central fuel of this star is exhausted, it collapses to a black hole of about 1000 times the mass of the Sun. New results of these detailed computer simulations, published in Nature show that the star cluster in which the X-ray source resides has characteristics such that a black hole of 800-3000 times the mass of the Sun can form within a very short time. The calculations therewith provide compelling evidence for the process which produces intermediate mass black holes and at the same time provide an explanation for the bright X-ray source observed in the cluster. The GRAPE team's members are Simon Portegies Zwart, from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands; Holger Baumgardt, from RIKEN in Tokyo; Piet Hut, of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J.; Jun Makino from Tokyo University; Steve McMillan, from Drexel University in Philadelphia. The GRAPE group's results appear in the April 15, 2004, issue of Nature. Relevant internet addresses: http://carol.wins.uva.nl/~spz/act/press/Nature2004/index.html http://www.astrogrape.org http://www.manybody.org http://www.manybody.org/manybody/starlab.html

  2. Intermediate Mass Black Holes: Their Motion and Associated Energetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sivaram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lot of current astrophysical evidence and interest in intermediate mass black holes (IMBH, ranging from a few hundred to several thousand solar masses. The active galaxy M82 and the globular cluster G1 in M31, for example, are known to host such objects. Here, we discuss several aspects of IMBH such as their expected luminosity, spectral nature of radiation, and associated jets. We also discuss possible scenarios for their formation including the effects of dynamical friction, and gravitational radiation. We also consider their formation in the early universe and also discuss the possibility of supermassive black holes forming from mergers of several IMBH and compare the relevant time scales involved with other scenarios.

  3. Mechanism of intermediate mass fragment emission at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, A.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Krishan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of intermediate mass fragment emission in fusion-fission processes has been carried out. The average kinetic energies and relative yield ratio of different fragments are calculated and compared with experimental values

  4. Intermediate mass fragments emission in binary fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1991-01-01

    Intermediate mass fragments emission in intermediate-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions has been studied in the framework of a generalized model where the fragments are assumed to be emitted from binary fissionlike decay of the fully equilibrated compound nucleus. The present formulation, with a schematic exit channel shape configuration and simple rotating liquid-drop nuclear potential, has been found to explain most of the intermediate mass fragments emission cross sections reasonably well without incorporating any free parameters in the calculation

  5. A multistep evaporation model for intermediate mass fragment emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.J.; Grotowski, K.; Kozik, T.; Rebel, H.

    1988-11-01

    A multistep evaporation model for intermediate mass fragment emission in heavy ion reactions is described. It applies the canonical transition-state method for the determination of the probability for disintegration of a fused system. The energy and angular momentum relations at the saddle and scission points are calculated on the basis of the finite range liquid drop model. The derivation of the total kinetic energy release uses the concept of amplifying modes which is equivalent to that of shape fluctuations at the ridge point. The model reproduces fairly well the mass and angular distributions and the energy spectra of intermediate mass fragments yields from inclusive and coincidence experiments. (orig.) [de

  6. X-ray Emission Properties of Intermediate-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povich, Matthew S.; Binder, Breanna; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.

    2017-08-01

    Intermediate-mass (2-8 M⊙) main-sequence stars with A to mid-B spectral types occupy an X-ray "desert" of weak intrinsic emission between low- and high-mass stars. Lacking the wind-shock driven emission of massive, O and early B stars or the convectively-driven magnetic reconnection flaring activity of later-type stars, X-ray detections of (non-peculiar) main-sequence AB stars are typically ascribed to the presence of unresolved, lower-mass binary companions. There is mounting evidence, however, that intermediate-mass, pre-main sequence stars (IMPS) with GK spectral types produce intrinsic X-ray emission that rapidly decays with time following the development of a radiative zone as IMPS approach the ZAMS as AB stars. This suggests that X-ray emission from IMPS may be a more luminous analog of the well-studied coronal X-ray emission from lower-mass, T Tauri stars. Statistical studies of young IMPS have been hampered by their scarcety in nearby, unobscured star-forming regions. We present the first results from a spectral-fitting study to measure absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities and plasma temperatures for hundreds of candidate X-ray emitting IMPS found in the MYStIX and MAGiX surveys of massive Galactic star forming regions. Candidate IMPS are placed on the HR diagram via a novel infrared spectral energy distribution modeling technique designed for highly-obscured, young massive star-forming regions. The rapid decay of X-ray emission from these objects has the potential to provide an independent chronometer to constrain star formation rates, and may produce an age-dependent bias in the relationship between the stellar X-ray luminosity function and mass function in distant (>2 kpc) regions observed with relatively shallow X-ray observations.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CAREER-1454334 and by NASA through Chandra Award 18200040.

  7. Mechanism for the Suppression of Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S. G.; Samarchenko, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    A model for the formation of supermassive primordial black holes in galactic nuclei with the simultaneous suppression of the formation of intermediate-mass black holes is presented. A bimodal mass function for black holes formed through phase transitions in a model with a "Mexican hat" potential has been found. The classical motion of the phase of a complex scalar field during inflation has been taken into account. Possible observational manifestations of primordial black holes in galaxies an...

  8. Tidal disruption of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bode T.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling ultra-close encounters between a white dwarf and a spinning, intermediate mass black hole requires a full general relativistic treatment of gravity. This paper summarizes results from such a study. Our results show that the disruption process and prompt accretion of the debris strongly depend on the magnitude and orientation of the black hole spin. On the other hand, the late-time accretion onto the black hole follows the same decay, Ṁ ∝  t−5/3, estimated from Newtonian gravity disruption studies. The spectrum of the fallback material peaks in the soft X-rays and sustains Eddington luminosity for 1–3 yrs after the disruption. The orientation of the black hole spin has also a profound effect on how the outflowing debris obscures the central region. The disruption produces a burst of gravitational radiation with characteristic frequencies of ∼3.2 Hz and strain amplitudes of ∼10−18 for galactic intermediate mass black holes.

  9. Neutrino mass as the probe of intermediate mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1980-01-01

    A discussion of the calculability of neutrino mass is presented. The possibility of neutrinos being either Dirac or Majorana particles is analyzed in detail. Arguments are offered in favor of the Majorana case: the smallness of neutrino mass is linked to the maximality of parity violation in weak interactions. It is shown how the measured value of neutrino mass would probe the existence of an intermediate mass scale, presumably in the TeV region, at which parity is supposed to become a good symmetry. Experimental consequences of the proposed scheme are discussed, in particular the neutrino-less double ..beta.. decay, where observation would provide a crucial test of the model, and rare muon decays such as ..mu.. ..-->.. e..gamma.. and ..mu.. ..-->.. ee anti e. Finally, the embedding of this model in an O(10) grand unified theory is analyzed, with the emphasis on the implications for intermediate mass scales that it offers. It is concluded that the proposed scheme provides a distinct and testable alternative for understanding the smallness of neutrino mass. 4 figures.

  10. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  11. Strong nuclear enhancement in intermediate mass Drell-Yan production

    CERN Document Server

    Jian Wei Qiu

    2002-01-01

    We calculate nuclear effect in Drell-Yan massive lepton-pair production in terms of parton multiple scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We present the nuclear modification to inclusive Drell-Yan cross sections d sigma /dQ/sup 2/ in terms of multiparton correlation functions. By extracting the size of the correlation functions from measured Drell-Yan transverse momentum broadening in nuclear media, we determine the nuclear modification at O( alpha /sub s//Q/sup 2/). We find that the nuclear modification strongly enhances the inclusive Drell-Yan cross section in the intermediate mass region (IMR): 1.5

  12. Initial mass function of intermediate-mass black hole seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, A.; Salvadori, S.; Yue, B.; Schleicher, D.

    2014-09-01

    We study the initial mass function (IMF) and hosting halo properties of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 104-6 M⊙) formed inside metal-free, UV-illuminated atomic-cooling haloes (virial temperature Tvir ≥ 104 K) either via the direct collapse of the gas or via an intermediate supermassive star (SMS) stage. These IMBHs have been recently advocated as the seeds of the supermassive black holes observed at z ≈ 6. We achieve this goal in three steps: (a) we derive the gas accretion rate for a proto-SMS to undergo General Relativity instability and produce a direct collapse black hole (DCBH) or to enter the zero-age main sequence and later collapse into an IMBH; (b) we use merger-tree simulations to select atomic-cooling haloes in which either a DCBH or SMS can form and grow, accounting for metal enrichment and major mergers that halt the growth of the proto-SMS by gas fragmentation. We derive the properties of the hosting haloes and the mass distribution of black holes at this stage, and dub it the `birth mass function'; (c) we follow the further growth of the DCBH by accreting the leftover gas in the parent halo and compute the final IMBH mass. We consider two extreme cases in which minihaloes (Tvir populate haloes (a) of mass 7.5 < log (Mh/ M⊙) < 8, (b) in the redshift range 8 < z < 17, (c) with IMBH in the mass range 4.75 < (log M•/ M⊙) < 6.25.

  13. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...... was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2...

  14. The measurement of intermediate mass fragments in the fermi energy domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, G.

    1987-01-01

    Intermediate mass fragments in the Fermi energy domain were studied at GANIL via the Kr84 + Au reaction at 44 MeV/u. The Erel* quantity is used to study correlations between fragments. Fast-fast coincidences; fast-slow coincidences; slow-slow coincidences; and light particles are considered. Reaction mechanisms are discussed. Only qualitative analysis results are available, but they suggest that the quantitative results will be very instructive: light particle spectra will deliver source parameters (velocity, total charge, excitation energy and temperature); the multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments will be deduced from the triple coincidences between modules of XYZt detector

  15. THE DISCOVERY OF THE YOUNGEST MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTELLAR CORE, MMS-6/OMC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution HCN (4-3) and CO (3-2) observations made with the Submillimeter Array, toward an extremely young intermediate-mass protostellar core, MMS 6-main, located in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 region (OMC-3). We have successfully imaged a compact molecular outflow lobe (≈1000 AU) associated with MMS 6-main, which is also the smallest molecular outflow ever found in the intermediate-mass protostellar cores. The dynamical timescale of this outflow is estimated to be ≤100 yr. The line width dramatically increases downstream at the end of the molecular outflow (Δv ∼ 25 km s –1 ) and clearly shows the bow-shock-type velocity structure. The estimated outflow mass (≈10 –4 M ☉ ) and outflow size are approximately two to four orders and one to three orders of magnitude smaller, respectively, while the outflow force (≈10 –4 M ☉ km s –1 yr –1 ) is similar, compared to the other molecular outflows studied in OMC-2/3. These results show that MMS 6-main is a protostellar core at the earliest evolutionary stage, most likely shortly after the second core formation.

  16. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  17. Measuring the accreting stellar and intermediate mass black hole populations in the Galaxy and Local Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grindlay, J.; Barret, D.; Belloni, T.; Corbel, S.; Kaaret, P.; Allen, B.; Bazzano, A.; Berger, E.; Bignami, G.; Caraveo, P.; De Luca, A.; Fabbiano, P.; Finger, M.; Feroci, M.; Hong, J.; Jernigan, G.; van der Klis, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kutyrev, A.; Loeb, A.; Paizis, A.; Pareschi, G.; Skinner, G.; Di Stefano, R.; Ubertini, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    The population of stellar black holes (SBHs) in the Galaxy and galaxies generally is poorly known in both number and distribution. SBHs are the fossil record of the massive stars in galaxy evolution and may have produced some (if not all) of the intermediate mass (≳100M⊙) black holes (IMBHs) and, in

  18. The 90-110 mu m dust feature in low to intermediate mass protostars : Calcite?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiavassa, A; Ceccarelli, C; Tielens, AGGM; Caux, E; Maret, S

    We present ISO spectra between 60 and 180 mum of 32 protostars of low to intermediate mass. About half of the spectra present a dust feature between similar to90 and similar to110 mum. We describe the observational characteristics of this feature, which seems to be due to one single carrier. In

  19. Excitation of high frequency voices from intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals with large eccentricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Biao; Cao, Zhoujian; Hu, Yi-Ming

    2017-11-01

    The coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object together with an intermediate-mass black hole, also known as an intermediate-mass-ratio inspiral, is usually not expected to be a viable gravitational wave source for the current ground-based gravitational wave detectors, due to the generally lower frequency of such a source. In this paper, we adopt the effective-one-body formalism as the equation of motion, and obtain the accurately calculated gravitational waveforms by solving the Teukolsky equation using the frequency-domain method. We point out that high frequency modes of gravitational waves can be excited by large eccentricities of intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals. These high frequency modes can extend to more than 10 Hz, and enter the designed sensitive band of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We propose that such kinds of highly eccentric intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals could be feasible sources and potentially observable by the ground-based gravitational wave detectors, like the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo.

  20. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  1. Radio detections during two state transitions of the intermediate-mass black hole HLX-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-08-03

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (~3 to 20 solar masses, M(⊙)) as well as supermassive black holes (~10(6) to 10(9) M(⊙)) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (~10(2) to 10(5) M(⊙)), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between ~9 × 10(3) M(⊙) and ~9 × 10(4) M(⊙).

  2. Constraining the Population of Small Close-in Planets Around Evolved Intermediate Mass Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Amber; Johnson, John Asher

    2018-01-01

    Intermediate mass stars ( > 1.3 M_Sun) have high occurrence rates of Jupiter mass planets in predominately long period orbits (~1.0 AU). There is a prominent planet gap, known as the ‘Planet Desert’, for low mass planets (Super-Earth, Neptune) < 0.5 AU from subgiants, the evolved counterpart to intermediate mass stars. Thus far, using current radial velocity methods, we have not been able to detect short period planets around subgiants due to noise from p-mode oscillations perhaps mimicking radial velocity signals (~5 m/s) in this planetary regime. Here we present techniques and preliminary results with regards to finding low mass, short period planets around subgiants and its implications for the Planet Desert.

  3. An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Bülent; Baumgardt, Holger; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-08

    Intermediate-mass black holes should help us to understand the evolutionary connection between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes. However, the existence of intermediate-mass black holes is still uncertain, and their formation process is therefore unknown. It has long been suspected that black holes with masses 100 to 10,000 times that of the Sun should form and reside in dense stellar systems. Therefore, dedicated observational campaigns have targeted globular clusters for many decades, searching for signatures of these elusive objects. All candidate signatures appear radio-dim and do not have the X-ray to radio flux ratios required for accreting black holes. Based on the lack of an electromagnetic counterpart, upper limits of 2,060 and 470 solar masses have been placed on the mass of a putative black hole in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) from radio and X-ray observations, respectively. Here we show there is evidence for a central black hole in 47 Tucanae with a mass of solar masses when the dynamical state of the globular cluster is probed with pulsars. The existence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of one of the densest clusters with no detectable electromagnetic counterpart suggests that the black hole is not accreting at a sufficient rate to make it electromagnetically bright and therefore, contrary to expectations, is gas-starved. This intermediate-mass black hole might be a member of an electromagnetically invisible population of black holes that grow into supermassive black holes in galaxies.

  4. Search for intermediate mass black hole binaries in the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that...

  5. Intermediate-mass-ratio black-hole binaries: numerical relativity meets perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousto, Carlos O; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-05-28

    We study black-hole binaries in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime 0.01≲q≲0.1 with a new technique that makes use of nonlinear numerical trajectories and efficient perturbative evolutions to compute waveforms at large radii for the leading and nonleading (ℓ, m) modes. As a proof-of-concept, we compute waveforms for q=1/10. We discuss applications of these techniques for LIGO and VIRGO data analysis and the possibility that our technique can be extended to produce accurate waveform templates from a modest number of fully nonlinear numerical simulations.

  6. Role of nuclear reactions on stellar evolution of intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, H.; Jones, S.; Fischer, T.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of intermediate-mass stars (8 - 12 solar masses) represents one of the most challenging subjects in nuclear astrophysics. Their final fate is highly uncertain and strongly model dependent. They can become white dwarfs, they can undergo electron-capture or core-collapse supernovae or they might even proceed towards explosive oxygen burning and a subsequent thermonuclear explosion. We believe that an accurate description of nuclear reactions is crucial for the determination of the pre-supernova structure of these stars. We argue that due to the possible development of an oxygen-deflagration, a hydrodynamic description has to be used. We implement a nuclear reaction network with ∼200 nuclear species into the implicit hydrodynamic code AGILE. The reaction network considers all relevant nuclear electron captures and beta-decays. For selected relevant nuclear species, we include a set of updated reaction rates, for which we discuss the role for the evolution of the stellar core, at the example of selected stellar models. We find that the final fate of these intermediate-mass stars depends sensitively on the density threshold for weak processes that deleptonize the core.

  7. A prevalence of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the cores of intermediate-mass stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stello, Dennis; Cantiello, Matteo; Fuller, Jim; Huber, Daniel; García, Rafael A; Bedding, Timothy R; Bildsten, Lars; Aguirre, Victor Silva

    2016-01-21

    Magnetic fields play a part in almost all stages of stellar evolution. Most low-mass stars, including the Sun, show surface fields that are generated by dynamo processes in their convective envelopes. Intermediate-mass stars do not have deep convective envelopes, although 10 per cent exhibit strong surface fields that are presumed to be residuals from the star formation process. These stars do have convective cores that might produce internal magnetic fields, and these fields might survive into later stages of stellar evolution, but information has been limited by our inability to measure the fields below the stellar surface. Here we report the strength of dipolar oscillation modes for a sample of 3,600 red giant stars. About 20 per cent of our sample show mode suppression, by strong magnetic fields in the cores, but this fraction is a strong function of mass. Strong core fields occur only in red giants heavier than 1.1 solar masses, and the occurrence rate is at least 50 per cent for intermediate-mass stars (1.6-2.0 solar masses), indicating that powerful dynamos were very common in the previously convective cores of these stars.

  8. Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cseh, David

    2012-01-01

    More than ten years ago, the discovery of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has opened up an entirely new field in astrophysics. Many ideas were developed to explain the nature of these sources, like their emission mechanism, mass, and origin, without any strong conclusions. Their discovery boosted the fields of X-ray binaries, accretion physics, stellar evolution, cosmology, black hole formation and growth, due to the concept of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). Since their discovery is related to the domain of X-ray astrophysics, there have been very few studies made in other wavelengths. This thesis focuses on the multiwavelength nature of Ultra-luminous X-ray sources and intermediate-mass black holes from various aspects, which help to overcome some difficulties we face today. First, I investigated the accretion signatures of a putative intermediate-mass black hole in a particular globular cluster. To this purpose, I characterized the nature of the innermost X-ray sources in the cluster. Then I calculated an upper limit on the mass of the black hole by studying possible accretion efficiencies and rates based on the dedicated X-ray and radio observations. The accreting properties of the source was described with standard spherical accretion and in the context of inefficient accretion. Secondly, I attempted to dynamically measure the mass of the black hole in a particular ULX via optical spectroscopy. I discovered that a certain emission line has a broad component that markedly shifts in wavelength. I investigated the possibility whether this line originates in the accretion disk, and thus might trace the orbital motion of the binary system. I also characterized the parameters of the binary system, such as the mass function, possible orbital separation, the size of the line-emitting region, and an upper limit on the mass of the black hole. Then I studied the environment of a number of ULXs that are associated with large-scale optical and radio nebulae. I

  9. Characterizing Intermediate-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Stars via X-Ray Emision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haze Nunez, Evan; Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene; Broos, Patrick; Townsley, Leisa K.

    2018-01-01

    The X-ray emission from intermediate-mass, pre-main-sequence stars (IMPS) can provide useful constraints on the ages of very young (${Project. The Carina massive star-forming complex is of special interest due to the wide variation of star formation stages within the region. Candidate IMPS were identified using infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) models. X-ray properties, including thermal plasma temperatures and absorption-corrected fluxes, were derived from XSPEC fits performed using absorption ($N_{H}$) constrained by the extinction values returned by the infrared SED fits. We find that IMPS have systematically higher X-ray luminosities compared to their lower-mass cousins, the TTauri stars.This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant CAREER-1454334 and by NASA through Chandra Award 18200040.

  10. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam –1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ☉ . These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M ☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  11. No Evidence for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters: Strong Constraints from the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-05-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam-1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ⊙. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs >~ 1000 M ⊙ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  12. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-02

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  13. Intermediate-mass single stars and accreting white dwarfs as sources of neutron-rich isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iben, I. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    During the most luminous portion of the asymptotic giant-branch phase, models of intermediate-mass stars first become carbon stars and then produce s-process isotopes in the solar-system distribution. Recent observations of the optically most luminous carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds introduce the possibility that real intermediate-mass stars lose their hydrogen-rich envelopes during the asymptotic giant-branch phase before they have made s-process isotopes both in large quantities and in the solar system distribution. This encourages a search for alternate sources of these isotopes. A promising site for the production of some neutron-rich isotopes isthe convective helium-carbon region that appears in accreting white dwarfs during helium shell flashes. For appropriate accretion rates, overlap of matter in successive convective zones may lead to an exponential distribution of exposures. Further, because of a small entropy barrier between the convective shell and the hydrogen-rich envelope, protons enter the shell and provide a source of neutrons that, for appropriate accretion rates, is repetitive in strength and either dominates or is complementary to the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg source. This permits an estimate of the distribution of neutron-rich isotopes that is formed after many flashes. The distribution, in most instances, tends to be weighted more toward heavier elements than is the case when 22 Ne(α, n) 25 Mg is the sole source of neutrons. Hence, accreting white dwarfs cannot be major contributors to the enrichment of the interstellar medium in most s-process isotopes. Considerable effort should be devoted toward demonstrating whether or not the bolometrically most lumious asymptotic giant branch stars in local systems obey M/sub BOL/ /sup min/ -6.5, then either the source of most Galactic s-process isotopes is as yet unknown, or the rate of the 22 Ne(α, n) 25 Mg reaction has been underestimated

  14. Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Multi-wavelength observations were performed in order to investigate various phases of interstellar matter in early type galaxies. The IRAS coadding procedure for a large sample of galaxies, the author found that about half of early type galaxies contain detectable amounts of cold interstellar dust. Selecting galaxies with strong far infrared fluxes, he undertook optical imaging and spectroscopy, HI λ21 cm line observations and CO J = 1-0 line observations. He successfully detected cold dust, HI gas, ionized gas and molecular material; proving that the far infrared flux is indeed a good indicator for the presence of interstellar matter. The infrared emission mechanism and origin and fate of interstellar matter are discussed using the data obtained from various phases of interstellar matter. The interstellar matter is also used as a probe of dynamical structure, nuclear activity and star formation in early type galaxies

  15. Intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals in the Einstein Telescope. II. Parameter estimation errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Gair, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the precision with which the Einstein Telescope will be able to measure the parameters of intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals, i.e., the inspirals of stellar mass compact objects into intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs). We calculate the parameter estimation errors using the Fisher Matrix formalism and present results of Monte Carlo simulations of these errors over choices for the extrinsic parameters of the source. These results are obtained using two different models for the gravitational waveform which were introduced in paper I of this series. These two waveform models include the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases in a consistent way. One of the models, based on the transition scheme of Ori and Thorne [A. Ori and K. S. Thorne, Phys. Rev. D 62, 124022 (2000).], is valid for IMBHs of arbitrary spin; whereas, the second model, based on the effective-one-body approach, has been developed to cross-check our results in the nonspinning limit. In paper I of this series, we demonstrated the excellent agreement in both phase and amplitude between these two models for nonspinning black holes, and that their predictions for signal-to-noise ratios are consistent to within 10%. We now use these waveform models to estimate parameter estimation errors for binary systems with masses 1.4M · +100M · , 10M · +100M · , 1.4M · +500M · , and 10M · +500M · and various choices for the spin of the central IMBH. Assuming a detector network of three Einstein Telescopes, the analysis shows that for a 10M · compact object inspiralling into a 100M · IMBH with spin q=0.3, detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of 30, we should be able to determine the compact object and IMBH masses, and the IMBH spin magnitude to fractional accuracies of ∼10 -3 , ∼10 -3.5 , and ∼10 -3 , respectively. We also expect to determine the location of the source in the sky and the luminosity distance to within ∼0.003 steradians and ∼10%, respectively. We also compute results for

  16. Intermediate-mass Higgs boson and isosinglet neutral heavy lepton signals at hadron supercolliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, G.

    1992-01-01

    The signals for the Standard Model intermediate-mass Higgs boson and isosinglet neutral heavy leptons at the forthcoming hadron supercolliders-the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), are studied. The author studies inclusive production of the Standard Model Higgs boson in the intermediate-mass region (M W approx-lt m H approx-lt 2M Z ) and its subsequent decay into two on- or off-shell W bosons that decay leptonically. Backgrounds from continuum W pair production and top quark pair production with semileptonic decays are investigated. The author concludes the Higgs boson signal may be observed via the decay H → W*W* → (ell bar v ell ) (bar ell' v' ell ) at the SSC for 145 GeV H approx-lt 2M Z and at the LHC for 150 GeV H approx-lt 2M Z if m t > 150 GeV. The author analyzes the search and discovery potential of isosinglet neutral heavy leptons (NHLs) produced via real or virtual W decay at pp supercolliders. The author considers the signal resulting from the leptonic decay of the NHL, and the two major backgrounds-continuum WZ, Wγ production and t bar tj production, where j is a hadronic jet. The decay patterns of NHL depend on its mass M N , and different search strategies are needed for the two mass regions M N W and M N > M Z . The author finds for m t ≥ 150 (200) GeV the signal is observable for M N ≤ 60 (70) GeV in the mass-region M N W , and up to M N ≅ 110 GeV for M N > M W , at both SSC and LHC. It is shown the non-observance of the signal (with a 4σ statistical significance) in the region M N W could put upper limits on the NHL coupling constants that would be an improvement over the limits obtainable from the CERN Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP I)

  17. Understanding the environment around the intermediate mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, N. A.; Guérou, A.; Ciambur, B.; Detoeuf, A.; Coriat, M.; Godet, O.; Barret, D.; Combes, F.; Contini, T.; Graham, Alister W.; Maccarone, T. J.; Mrkalj, M.; Servillat, M.; Schroetter, I.; Wiersema, K.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: ESO 243-49 HLX-1, otherwise known as HLX-1, is an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) candidate located 8'' (3.7 Kpc) from the centre of the edge-on S0 galaxy ESO 243-49. How the black hole came to be associated with this galaxy, and the nature of the environment in which it resides, remain unclear. Using multi-wavelength observations we aim to investigate the nature of the medium surrounding HLX-1, search for evidence of past mergers with ESO 243-49 and constrain parameters of the galaxy, including the mass of the expected central supermassive black hole, essential for future modelling of the interaction of the IMBH and ESO 243-49. Methods: We have reduced and analysed integral field unit observations of ESO 243-49 that were taken with the MUSE instrument on the VLT. Using complementary multi-wavelength data, including X-shooter, HST, Swift, Chandra and ATCA data, we have further examined the vicinity of HLX-1. We additionally examined the nature of the host galaxy and estimate the mass of the central supermassive black hole in ESO 243-49 using (black hole mass)-(host spheroid) scaling relations and the fundamental plane of black hole activity. Results: No evidence for a recent minor-merger that could result in the presence of the IMBH is discerned, but the data are compatible with a scenario in which minor mergers may have occurred in the history of ESO 243-49. The MUSE data reveal a rapidly rotating disc in the centre of the galaxy, around the supermassive black hole. The mass of the supermassive black hole at the centre of ESO 243-49 is estimated to be 0.5-23 × 107M⊙. Studying the spectra of HLX-1, that were taken in the low and hard state, we determine Hα flux variability to be at least a factor 6, compared to observations taken during the high and soft state. This Hα flux variability over one year indicates that the line originates close to the intermediate mass black hole, excluding the possibility that the line emanates from a surrounding nebula

  18. The magnetic strip(s) in the advanced phases of stellar evolution. Theoretical convective turnover timescale and Rossby number for low- and intermediate-mass stars up to the AGB at various metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Gallet, F.; Palacios, A.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Mathis, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Dintrans, B.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Recent spectropolarimetric observations of otherwise ordinary (in terms e.g. of surface rotation and chemical properties) G, K, and M giants have revealed localized magnetic strips in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram coincident with the regions where the first dredge-up and core helium burning occur. Aims: We seek to understand the origin of magnetic fields in such late-type giant stars, which is currently unexplained. In analogy with late-type dwarf stars, we focus primarily on parameters known to influence the generation of magnetic fields in the outer convective envelope. Methods: We compute the classical dynamo parameters along the evolutionary tracks of low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities using stellar models that have been extensively tested by spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations. Specifically, these include convective turnover timescales and convective Rossby numbers, computed from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. To investigate the effects of the very extended outer convective envelope, we compute these parameters both for the entire convective envelope and locally, that is, at different depths within the envelope. We also compute the turnover timescales and corresponding Rossby numbers for the convective cores of intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence. Results: Our models show that the Rossby number of the convective envelope becomes lower than unity in the well-delimited locations of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where magnetic fields have indeed been detected. Conclusions: We show that α - Ω dynamo processes might not be continuously operating, but that they are favored in the stellar convective envelope at two specific moments along the evolution tracks, that is, during the first dredge-up at the base of the RGB and during central helium burning in the helium-burning phase and early-AGB. This general behavior can explain

  19. Discoveries of high-frequency QPOs from intermediate-mass black holes with XMM, RXTE and NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranga Reddy Pasham, Deeraj; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Steiner, James F.

    2017-08-01

    Stable, twin-peak X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs; frequency range of 100-450 Hz) in a 3:2 frequency ratio have been observed from a sample of stellar-mass black holes (e.g., Belloni et al. 2012). These frequencies scale inversely with the black hole mass as expected from general relativistic motion near a black hole. Under the black hole unification paradigm, it has been argued that intermediate-mass black holes (IMBH) should also exhibit the 3:2 ratio high-frequency QPOs, but at frequencies lower than stellar-mass black holes. Thence, such QPOs will provide an accurate measurement of IMBH masses (Abramowicz et al. 2004).Combining all the entire archival RXTE/PCA observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we discovered stable, twin-peak X-ray QPOs at 3.3 and 5 Hz (3:2 frequency ratio). Scaling these frequencies to the oscillations of the stellar-mass black holes of known mass implies that M82 X-1's black hole is 428+-105 solar masses (Pasham, Strohmayer & Mushotzky 2014). We discovered similar 3:2 frequency ratio QPOs from another ULX NGC 1313 X-1 (0.30 and 0.45 Hz). These frequencies imply a black hole mass of 5000+-1300 solar masses in NGC 1313 X-1 (Pasham et al. 2015b). In addition to these results I will discuss some early results from NICER observations of ULXs.

  20. A Tidal Disruption Event in a Nearby Galaxy Hosting an Intermediate Mass Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, D; Cenko, S. B.; Covino, S.; Troja, E.; Pursimo, T.; Cheung, C. C.; Fox, O.; Kutyrev, A.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We report the serendipitous discovery of a bright point source flare in the Abell cluster A1795 with archival EUVE and Chandra observations. Assuming the EUVE emission is associated with the Chandra source, the X-ray 0.5-7 kiloelectronvolt flux declined by a factor of approximately 2300 over a time span of 6 years, following a power-law decay with index approximately equal to 2.44 plus or minus 0.40. The Chandra data alone vary by a factor of approximately 20. The spectrum is well fit by a blackbody with a constant temperature of kiloteslas approximately equal to 0.09 kiloelectronvolts (approximately equal to 10 (sup 6) Kelvin). The flare is spatially coincident with the nuclear region of a faint, inactive galaxy with a photometric redshift consistent at the 1 sigma level with the cluster (redshift = 0.062476).We argue that these properties are indicative of a tidal disruption of a star by a black hole (BH) with log(M (sub BH) / M (sub 1 solar mass)) approximately equal to 5.5 plus or minus 0.5. If so, such a discovery indicates that tidal disruption flares may be used to probe BHs in the intermediate mass range, which are very difficult to study by other means.

  1. Evidence from K2 for Rapid Rotation in the Descendant of an Intermediate-mass Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, J. J.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Bell, Keaton J.; Dunlap, B. H.; Montgomery, M. H.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Clemens, J. C.; Dennihy, E.; Redfield, S.

    2017-05-01

    Using patterns in the oscillation frequencies of a white dwarf observed by K2, we have measured the fastest rotation rate (1.13 ± 0.02 hr) of any isolated pulsating white dwarf known to date. Balmer-line fits to follow-up spectroscopy from the SOAR telescope show that the star (SDSSJ0837+1856, EPIC 211914185) is a 13,590+/- 340 K, 0.87 ± 0.03 M ⊙ white dwarf. This is the highest mass measured for any pulsating white dwarf with known rotation, suggesting a possible link between high mass and fast rotation. If it is the product of single-star evolution, its progenitor was a roughly 4.0 M ⊙ main-sequence B star; we know very little about the angular momentum evolution of such intermediate-mass stars. We explore the possibility that this rapidly rotating white dwarf is the byproduct of a binary merger, which we conclude is unlikely given the pulsation periods observed.

  2. Constructing effective one-body dynamics with numerical energy flux for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wenbiao; Cao Zhoujian

    2011-01-01

    A new scheme for computing dynamical evolutions and gravitational radiations for intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) based on an effective one-body (EOB) dynamics plus Teukolsky perturbation theory is built in this paper. In the EOB framework, the dynamic essentially affects the resulted gravitational waveform for a binary compact star system. This dynamic includes two parts. One is the conservative part, which comes from effective one-body reduction. The other part is the gravitational backreaction, which contributes to the shrinking process of the inspiral of a binary compact star system. Previous works used an analytical waveform to construct this backreaction term. Since the analytical form is based on post-Newtonian expansion, the consistency of this term is always checked by numerical energy flux. Here, we directly use numerical energy flux by solving the Teukolsky equation via the frequency-domain method to construct this backreaction term. The conservative correction to the leading order terms in mass-ratio is included in the deformed-Kerr metric and the EOB Hamiltonian. We try to use this method to simulate not only quasicircular adiabatic inspiral, but also the nonadiabatic plunge phase. For several different spinning black holes, we demonstrate and compare the resulted dynamical evolutions and gravitational waveforms.

  3. Ab initio results for intermediate-mass, open-shell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert B.; Dytrych, Tomas; Launey, Kristina D.; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical understanding of nuclei in the intermediate-mass region is vital to astrophysical models, especially for nucleosynthesis. Here, we employ the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM) in an effort to push first-principle calculations across the sd-shell region. The ab initio SA-NCSM's advantages come from its ability to control the growth of model spaces by including only physically relevant subspaces, which allows us to explore ultra-large model spaces beyond the reach of other methods. We report on calculations for 19Ne and 20Ne up through 13 harmonic oscillator shells using realistic interactions and discuss the underlying structure as well as implications for various astrophysical reactions. This work was supported by the U.S. NSF (OCI-0904874 and ACI -1516338) and the U.S. DOE (DE-SC0005248), and also benefitted from the Blue Waters sustained-petascale computing project and high performance computing resources provided by LSU.

  4. Mass models of NGC 6624 without an intermediate-mass black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieles, Mark; Balbinot, Eduardo; Yaaqib, Rashid I. S. M.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Zocchi, Alice; Peuten, Miklos; Jonker, Peter G.

    2018-02-01

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) was recently reported to reside in the centre of the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 6624, based on timing observations of a millisecond pulsar (MSP) located near the cluster centre in projection. We present dynamical models with multiple mass components of NGC 6624 - without an IMBH - which successfully describe the surface brightness profile and proper motion kinematics from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the stellar-mass function at different distances from the cluster centre. The maximum line-of-sight acceleration at the position of the MSP accommodates the inferred acceleration of the MSP, as derived from its first period derivative. With discrete realizations of the models we show that the higher-order period derivatives - which were previously used to derive the IMBH mass - are due to passing stars and stellar remnants, as previously shown analytically in literature. We conclude that there is no need for an IMBH to explain the timing observations of this MSP.

  5. Prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laguna P.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a qualitative picture of prompt emission from tidal disruptions of white dwarfs (WD by intermediate mass black holes (IMBH. The smaller size of an IMBH compared to a supermassive black hole and a smaller tidal radius of a WD disruption lead to a very fast event with high peak luminosity. Magnetic field is generated in situ following the tidal disruption, which leads to effective accretion. Since large-scale magnetic field is also produced, geometrically thick super-Eddington inflow leads to a relativistic jet. The dense jet possesses a photosphere, which emits quasi-thermal radiation in soft X-rays. The source can be classified as a long low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (ll-GRB. Tidal compression of a WD causes nuclear ignition, which is observable as an accompanying supernova. We suggest that GRB060218 and SN2006aj is such a pair of ll-GRB and supernova. We argue that in a flux-limited sample the disruptions of WDs by IMBHs are more frequent then the disruptions of other stars by IMBHs.

  6. Searching for Intermediate Mass Black Holes in Ultraluminous X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, Hannah; Wright, Simon; Kilgard, Roy

    2018-01-01

    X-ray observations of nearby galaxies provide one of the best laboratories in the universe for studying two exotic classes of object: black holes and neutron stars. These observations allow us to study the dramatic effect such objects have on their surroundings, as well as the high-energy physics involved in their emission. We conduct a volume-limited archival survey of X-ray sources in all galaxies observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory within 15 Mpc, and identify a set of ultraluminous X-ray sources for detailed spectral analysis. We perform this analysis with the aim of searching for signatures of spectral state transitions and super-Eddington accretion that could indicate the presence of an Intermediate Mass Black Hole (IMBH) binary system. Here, we identify 43 potential IMBH sources that have signatures of super-Eddington accretion. We plan to follow up this initial selection with a multiwavelength analysis of these sources, in order to place further constraints on their nature and surrounding environment.

  7. Early infant feeding and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Erkki; Saarinen, Kristiina M

    2009-06-01

    Infant feeding practices, particularly the type of milk feeding, have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. We studied the relationship between early infant feeding (during the first year of life) and diabetes in a large population-based cohort. In 1994-1995, 6,209 healthy full-term newborns participated in a study examining the effect of supplementary feeding, on development of allergy to cow's milk, in maternity hospitals. All supplements in the maternity hospitals were known. Mothers recorded the feeding of infants prospectively at home. In August 2006, from a nationwide diabetes registry, 45 children from our cohort were listed as having type 1 diabetes. The distribution of cases was similar in the randomized feeding groups: 9/1,789 in the group that received adapted cow's milk-based formula; 12/1,737 in those who received extensively hydrolyzed formula; 16/1,859 in those who received banked human milk; and 8 among those 824 exclusively breast-fed in the hospital. When children who had received cow's milk-based formula in the maternity hospital were compared with those without such exposure, less number of children in the former group had diabetes by age 8 (P = 0.026), but by the end of the follow-up (11.5 years) the difference disappeared (P = 0.16). Length of breast-feeding and introduction of cereals and other solid foods were similar among those developing type 1 diabetes and those remaining healthy, while early regular daily feeding with cow's milk-based formula tended to associate with lower risk for type 1 diabetes (OR 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.38-1.13; P = 0.08). In an extended, secondary analysis of a population-based cohort, very early exposure to cow's milk is not a risk factor for type 1 diabetes; it may in fact diminish its appearance before age 8.

  8. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Agathos, M.; Beker, M.G.; Bertolini, A.; Bulten, H.J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Jonker, R.; Meidam, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; LIGO Sci, Collaboration; Virgo, Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as

  9. Does Explosive Nuclear Burning Occur in Tidal Disruption Events of White Dwarfs by Intermediate-mass Black Holes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Sato, Yushi; Hachisu, Izumi [Department of Earth Science and Astronomy, College of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken’ichi; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Nakasato, Naohito, E-mail: tanikawa@ea.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Tsuruga Ikki-machi Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima 965-8580 (Japan)

    2017-04-20

    We investigate nucleosynthesis in tidal disruption events (TDEs) of white dwarfs (WDs) by intermediate-mass black holes. We consider various types of WDs with different masses and compositions by means of three-dimensional (3D) smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations. We model these WDs with different numbers of SPH particles, N , from a few 10{sup 4} to a few 10{sup 7} in order to check mass resolution convergence, where SPH simulations with N > 10{sup 7} (or a space resolution of several 10{sup 6} cm) have unprecedentedly high resolution in this kind of simulation. We find that nuclear reactions become less active with increasing N and that these nuclear reactions are excited by spurious heating due to low resolution. Moreover, we find no shock wave generation. In order to investigate the reason for the absence of a shock wave, we additionally perform one-dimensional (1D) SPH and mesh-based simulations with a space resolution ranging from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 7} cm, using a characteristic flow structure extracted from the 3D SPH simulations. We find shock waves in these 1D high-resolution simulations, one of which triggers a detonation wave. However, we must be careful of the fact that, if the shock wave emerged in an outer region, it could not trigger the detonation wave due to low density. Note that the 1D initial conditions lack accuracy to precisely determine where a shock wave emerges. We need to perform 3D simulations with ≲10{sup 6} cm space resolution in order to conclude that WD TDEs become optical transients powered by radioactive nuclei.

  10. Gravitational Waves and Intermediate-mass Black Hole Retention in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Ginsburg, Idan; Kocsis, Bence

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened new horizons for physics. Current and upcoming missions, such as LIGO, VIRGO, KAGRA, and LISA, promise to shed light on black holes of every size from stellar mass (SBH) sizes up to supermassive black holes. The intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) family has not been detected beyond any reasonable doubt. Recent analyses suggest observational evidence for the presence of IMBHs in the centers of two Galactic globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we investigate the possibility that GCs were born with a central IMBH, which undergoes repeated merger events with SBHs in the cluster core. By means of a semi-analytical method, we follow the evolution of the primordial cluster population in the galactic potential and the mergers of the binary IMBH-SBH systems. Our models predict ≈1000 IMBHs within 1 kpc from the galactic center and show that the IMBH-SBH merger rate density changes from { \\mathcal R }≈ 1000 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 beyond z ≈ 2 to { \\mathcal R }≈ 1{--}10 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 at z ≈ 0. The rates at low redshifts may be significantly higher if young massive star clusters host IMBHs. The merger rates are dominated by IMBHs with masses between 103 and 104 M ⊙. Currently, there are no LIGO/VIRGO upper limits for GW sources in this mass range, but our results show that at design sensitivity, these instruments will detect IMBH-SBH mergers in the coming years. LISA and the Einstein Telescope will be best suited to detect these events. The inspirals of IMBH-SBH systems may also generate an unresolved GW background.

  11. Jetted tidal disruptions of stars as a flag of intermediate mass black holes at high redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Anastasia; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-11-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) of stars by single or binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) brighten galactic nuclei and reveal a population of otherwise dormant black holes. Adopting event rates from the literature, we aim to establish general trends in the redshift evolution of the TDE number counts and their observable signals. We pay particular attention to (I) jetted TDEs whose luminosity is boosted by relativistic beaming and (II) TDEs around binary black holes. We show that the brightest (jetted) TDEs are expected to be produced by massive black hole binaries if the occupancy of intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs) in low-mass galaxies is high. The same binary population will also provide gravitational wave sources for the evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. In addition, we find that the shape of the X-ray luminosity function of TDEs strongly depends on the occupancy of IMBHs and could be used to constrain scenarios of SMBH formation. Finally, we make predictions for the expected number of TDEs observed by future X-ray telescopes finding that a 50 times more sensitive instrument than the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board the Swift satellite is expected to trigger ˜10 times more events than BAT, while 6-20 TDEs are expected in each deep field observed by a telescope 50 times more sensitive than the Chandra X-ray Observatory if the occupation fraction of IMBHs is high. Because of their long decay times, high-redshift TDEs can be mistaken for fixed point sources in deep field surveys and targeted observations of the same deep field with year-long intervals could reveal TDEs.

  12. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  13. Age and mass of the star cluster around the intermediate-mass black hole HLX-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Roberto

    2017-08-01

    We propose to study the optical counterpart of the intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) HLX-1, about 3 years after its last X-ray outburst. Previous HST observations taken at epochs closer to an outburst show a variable near-UV/blue component, plus a constant red/near-IR component. The redder component probably comes from an old stellar population around the black hole; the bluer component may be a combination of emission from an irradiated accretion disk, and from a young stellar population. Their relative contributions and the age of the stellar population(s) are still subject of debate. By re-observing the system when the irradiated component is minimal, we will determine whether the near-UV/blue optical emission has declined even further and whether the red/near-IR optical emission has stayed approximately constant. This will tell us whether the optical counterpart is a massive star cluster, and place a strong upper limit to the young stellar population around the IMBH. Having determined the constant contribution of the stellar emission, we will then insert it into broad-band models of the emission in outburst, and obtain a better estimate of the accretion disk parameters, constraining formation and evolution scenarios for the IMBH. We will use the same set of filters as in previous HST observations, for direct comparison of brightness and colors: F140LP (ACS SBC); F300X, F336W, F390W, F555W, F621M, F775W (WFC3 UVIS); F105W, F160W (WFC3 IR). We request a total of 7 orbits.

  14. Evolving ONe WD+He star systems to intermediate-mass binary pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Wang, B.; Chen, W.; Zuo, Z.; Han, Z.

    2018-03-01

    It has been suggested that accretion-induced collapse (AIC) is a non-negligible path for the formation of the observed neutron stars (NSs). An ONe white dwarf (WD) that accretes material from a He star may experience AIC process and eventually produce intermediate-mass binary pulsars (IMBPs), named as the ONe WD+He star scenario. Note that previous studies can only account for part of the observed IMBPs with short orbital periods. In this work, we investigate the evolution of about 900 ONe WD+He star binaries to explore the distribution of IMBPs. We found that the ONe WD+He star scenario could form IMBPs including pulsars with 5-340 ms spin periods and 0.75-1.38 M_{⊙} WD companions, in which the orbital periods range from 0.04 to 900 d. Compared with the 20 observed IMBPs, this scenario can cover the parameters of 13 sources in the final orbital period-WD mass plane and the Corbet diagram, most of which has short orbital periods. We found that the ONe WD+He star scenario can explain almost all the observed IMBPs with short orbital periods. This work can well match the observed parameters of PSR J1802-2124 (one of the two precisely observed IMBPs), providing a possible evolutional path for its formation. We also speculate that the compact companion of HD 49798 (a hydrogen depleted sdO6 star) may be not a NS based on the present work.

  15. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT {approx}500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fuente, Asuncion; Alonso-Albi, Tomas [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, 28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Boissier, Jeremie [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Pietu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto [IRAM, 300 Rue de la piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut Ciencies Cosmos, Universitat Barcelona, Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Audard, Marc, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Ch. des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-20

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at {approx}500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH, (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH, with, additionally, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C{sub 6}H and O{sup 13}CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of {approx}300 and {approx}600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass {approx}> 4 M{sub Sun }. As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated {approx}1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H{sub 2}O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  16. Evidence for an Intermediate Mass Black Hole in NGC 5408 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    intermediate mass black hole.

  17. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE IN NGC 5408 X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of correlated spectral and timing behavior in the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. An ∼100 ks pointing with XMM/Newton obtained in 2008 January reveals a strong 10 mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the >1 keV flux, as well as flat-topped, band-limited noise breaking to a power law. The energy spectrum is again dominated by two components, a 0.16 keV thermal disk and a power law with an index of ∼2.5. These new measurements, combined with results from our previous 2006 January pointing in which we first detected QPOs, show for the first time in a ULX a pattern of spectral and temporal correlations strongly analogous to that seen in Galactic black hole (BH) sources, but at much higher X-ray luminosity and longer characteristic timescales. We find that the QPO frequency is proportional to the inferred disk flux, while the QPO and broadband noise amplitude (rms) are inversely proportional to the disk flux. Assuming that QPO frequency scales inversely with the BH mass at a given power-law spectral index we derive mass estimates using the observed QPO frequency-spectral index relations from five stellar-mass BH systems with dynamical mass constraints. The results from all sources are consistent with a mass range for NGC 5408 X-1 from 1000 to 9000 M sun . We argue that these are conservative limits, and a more likely range is from 2000 to 5000 M sun . Moreover, the recent relation from Gierlinski et al. that relates the BH mass to the strength of variability at high frequencies (above the break in the power spectrum) is also indicative of such a high mass for NGC 5408 X-1. Importantly, none of the above estimates appears consistent with a BH mass less than ∼1000 M sun for NGC 5408 X-1. We argue that these new findings strongly support the conclusion that NGC 5408 X-1 harbors an intermediate-mass BH.

  18. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\\le f_{0}/\\mathrm{Hz} \\le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\\lesssim \\tau/\\mathrm{s} \\lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant ...

  19. Early determinants of type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, L M; Ozanne, S E

    2012-10-01

    The global prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) has more than doubled in the last 30 years and is predicted to continue to rise at an alarming rate. The associated health and financial burdens are considerable. The aetiology of common forms of T2D is multifactorial and involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. The influential role of the environment, in particular our diet and sedentary lifestyles, in diabetes risk is well established. Of major concern is the increasing prevalence of early onset T2D or pre-diabetic characteristics in children. In recent years, the role of the early life environment in programming diabetes risk has been the focus of numerous human and animal studies. Historical studies highlighted an association between low birthweight, a proxy for suboptimal in utero growth, and diabetes risk in adulthood. Over more recent years it has become apparent that a variety of expositions, including maternal obesity and/or maternal diabetes, can have a significant effect on offspring health outcomes. Further complicating matters, paternal and transgenerational transmission of T2D can occur thus mediating a perpetuating cycle of disease risk between generations. It is imperative for the underlying mechanisms to be elucidated so that interventions can be introduced. In doing so, it may be possible to prevent, delay or reverse a pre-programmed risk for T2D induced by pre- and/or postnatal environmental factors to improve health outcomes and curb premature metabolic decline. This review presents evidence for how the early life environment may programme T2D risk and suggests some mechanisms by which this may occur. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modified viscosity in accretion disks. Application to Galactic black hole binaries, intermediate mass black holes, and active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzędzielski, Mikołaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka; Czerny, Bożena; Wu, Qingwen

    2017-07-01

    Aims: Black holes (BHs) surrounded by accretion disks are present in the Universe at different scales of masses, from microquasars up to the active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Since the work of Shakura & Sunyaev (1973, A&A, 24, 337) and their α-disk model, various prescriptions for the heat-production rate are used to describe the accretion process. The current picture remains ad hoc due the complexity of the magnetic field action. In addition, accretion disks at high Eddington rates can be radiation-pressure dominated and, according to some of the heating prescriptions, thermally unstable. The observational verification of their resulting variability patterns may shed light on both the role of radiation pressure and magnetic fields in the accretion process. Methods: We compute the structure and time evolution of an accretion disk, using the code GLADIS (which models the global accretion disk instability). We supplement this model with a modified viscosity prescription, which can to some extent describe the magnetisation of the disk. We study the results for a large grid of models, to cover the whole parameter space, and we derive conclusions separately for different scales of black hole masses, which are characteristic for various types of cosmic sources. We show the dependencies between the flare or outburst duration, its amplitude, and period, on the accretion rate and viscosity scaling. Results: We present the results for the three grids of models, designed for different black hole systems (X-ray binaries, intermediate mass black holes, and galaxy centres). We show that if the heating rate in the accretion disk grows more rapidly with the total pressure and temperature, the instability results in longer and sharper flares. In general, we confirm that the disks around the supermassive black holes are more radiation-pressure dominated and present relatively brighter bursts. Our method can also be used as an independent tool for the black hole mass determination

  1. Metallicity gradients in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schombert, James M.; Hanlan, Patricia C.; Barsony, Mary; Rakos, Karl D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of medium-to-bright early-type galaxies in six bandpasses from 3500 A to 2.2 microns is presented in order to quantify their colors and color gradients and relate these to metallicity and properties of the underlying stellar population. The Stromgren filter system chosen makes it possible to introduce a new calibration to the Mg(2) system from the present narrow-band v - y indices. A comparison is presented of narrow-band colors centered on particular spectral features vs a color dominated by the mean temperature of the giant branch (i.e., J - K) to test the effects of light vs heavy element abundances on knowledge of the total system metallicity, Z, and the effects of reddening. A good correlation is found between v - y and Mg(2); it provides a connection between one light element metallicity indicator (v - y centers on the CN blend) and another, Mg. The color-magnitude relations for all five optical and near-IR colors are shown. The strongest correlation exists for the metallicity colors, v - y and J - K.

  2. Herschel Spectroscopy of Early-type Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, Ryen Carl; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Crocker, Alison, E-mail: ryen.lapham@student.nmt.edu, E-mail: lyoung@physics.nmt.edu, E-mail: crockera@reed.edu [Physics Department, Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present Herschel spectroscopy of atomic lines arising in photodissociation regions as well as ionization regions of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), focusing on the volume-limited Atlas3D sample. Our data include the [C ii], [O i], and [N ii] 122 and 205 μ m lines, along with ancillary data including CO and H i maps. We find that ETGs have [C ii]/FIR ratios slightly lower than spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample, and several ETGs have unusually large [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratios. The [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratio is correlated with UV colors and there is a strong anti-correlation of [C ii]/FIR with NUV-K seen in both spirals and ETGs, likely due to a softer radiation field with fewer photons available to ionize carbon and heat the gas. The correlation thus makes a [C ii] deficit in galaxies with redder stellar populations. The high [N ii] 122/[C ii] (and low [C ii]/FIR) line ratios could also be affected by the removal of much of the diffuse, low-density gas, which is consistent with the low H i/H{sub 2} ratios. [C ii] is now being used as a star-formation indicator, and we find that it is just as good for ETGs as in spirals. The [C ii]/CO ratios found are also similar to those found in spiral galaxies. Through the use of the [N ii] 205 μ m line, estimates of the percentage of [C ii] emission arising from ionized gas indicate that a significant portion could arise in ionized regions.

  3. Interferometric diameters of five evolved intermediate-mass planet-hosting stars measured with PAVO at the CHARA Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Mann, A. W.; Casagrande, L.; Grunblatt, S. K.; Justesen, A. B.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Ireland, M. J.; Schaefer, G. H.; Tuthill, P. G.

    2018-04-01

    Debate over the planet occurrence rates around intermediate-mass stars has hinged on the accurate determination of masses of evolved stars, and has been exacerbated by a paucity of reliable, directly-measured fundamental properties for these stars. We present long-baseline optical interferometry of five evolved intermediate-mass (˜ 1.5 M⊙) planet-hosting stars using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array, which we combine with bolometric flux measurements and parallaxes to determine their radii and effective temperatures. We measured the radii and effective temperatures of 6 Lyncis (5.12±0.16 R⊙, 4949±58 K), 24 Sextantis (5.49±0.18 R⊙, 4908±65 K), κ Coronae Borealis (4.77±0.07 R⊙, 4870±47 K), HR 6817 (4.45±0.08 R⊙, 5013±59 K), and HR 8641 (4.91±0.12 R⊙, 4950±68 K). We find disagreements of typically 15 % in angular diameter and ˜ 200 K in temperature compared to interferometric measurements in the literature, yet good agreement with spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, concluding that the previous interferometric measurements may have been affected by systematic errors exceeding their formal uncertainties. Modelling based on BaSTI isochrones using various sets of asteroseismic, spectroscopic, and interferometric constraints tends to favour slightly (˜ 15 %) lower masses than generally reported in the literature.

  4. Dissecting Early-type Dwarf Galaxies into Their Multiple Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Salo, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Niemi, S. -M.; den Brok, M.; Toloba, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Boselli, A.; Hensler, G.

    2012-01-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies, once believed to be simple systems, have recently been shown to exhibit an intriguing diversity in structure and stellar content. To analyze this further, we started the SMAKCED project (Stellar content, MAss and Kinematics of Cluster Early-type Dwarfs,

  5. Fission of intermediate mass nuclei by bremsstrahlung photons in the energy range 0.8-1.8 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, D.A. de.

    1983-01-01

    The fission of intermediate mass nuclei in the Al-Ta internal induced by bremsstrahlung photons of maximum energies between 0,8 to 1,8 GeV is studied. Thin targets of Nd and Sm and dense targets of Al,Ti,Co,Zr,Nb,Ag,In and Ta are utilized, and all the aspects related with the fission fragment absorption by the targets themselves are considered. The samples are exposed in th 2,5 GeV Electron Synchrotron at Bonn University. Muscovite mica, CR-39 and makrofol are used as fission fragments detectors. Fission cross sections and nuclear fissionabilities of the studied elements are estimated. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Signal and background in NLO QCD for the search of the intermediate mass Higgs boson at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, B.

    1993-01-01

    The signal and background for the search of the Standard Model Higgs boson in the intermediate mass range 80 GeV H Z is studied based on calculations of the cross sections in next-to-leading order QCD perturbation theory for the production of the Higgs boson via gluon-gluon fusion and for the hadronic two-photon production. The method of Monte-Carlo integration allows the application of realistic cuts (p T , rapidity, photon isolation) to the cross section. Results are given for the K-factors of the signal and the background. It turns out that the NLO corrections improve the situation for a Higgs boson mass in the range of 80--120 GeV. Furthermore, the influence of a cut on the transverse momentum of the additional jet produced in the processes gg → Hg, gq → Hq, q bar q → Hg is compared to a similar cut for the background

  7. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF INTERMEDIATE-MASS STAR MEMBERS OF THE M6 (NGC 6405) OPEN CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Albayrak, B. [Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, 06100, Tandoğan, Ankara (Turkey); Monier, R. [LESIA, UMR 8109, Observatoire de Paris Meudon, Place J. Janssen, Meudon (France); Richer, J. [Département de physique, Université de Montréal, 2900, Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit, Montréal QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Fossati, L., E-mail: tkilicoglu@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: balbayrak@ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: Richard.Monier@obspm.fr, E-mail: Jacques.Richer@umontreal.ca, E-mail: lfossati@astro.uni-bonn.de [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500–5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the H{sub β} profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are

  8. Chemical Composition of Intermediate-mass Star Members of the M6 (NGC 6405) Open Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoğlu, T.; Monier, R.; Richer, J.; Fossati, L.; Albayrak, B.

    2016-03-01

    We present here the first abundance analysis of 44 late B-, A-, and F-type members of the young open cluster M6 (NGC 6405, age about 75 Myr). Low- and medium-resolution spectra, covering the 4500-5840 Å wavelength range, were obtained using the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph attached to the ESO Very Large Telescopes. We determined the atmospheric parameters using calibrations of the Geneva photometry and by adjusting the Hβ profiles to synthetic ones. The abundances of up to 20 chemical elements, from helium to mercury, were derived for 19 late B, 16 A, and 9 F stars by iteratively adjusting synthetic spectra to the observations. We also derived a mean cluster metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.07 ± 0.03 dex from the iron abundances of the F-type stars. We find that for most chemical elements, the normal late B- and A-type stars exhibit larger star-to-star abundance variations than the F-type stars probably because of the faster rotation of the B and A stars. The abundances of C, O, Mg, Si, and Sc appear to be anticorrelated with that of Fe, while the opposite holds for the abundances of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, and Ba as expected if radiative diffusion is efficient in the envelopes of these stars. In the course of this analysis, we discovered five new peculiar stars: one mild Am, one Am, and one Fm star (HD 318091, CD-32 13109, GSC 07380-01211, CP1), one HgMn star (HD 318126, CP3), and one He-weak P-rich (HD 318101, CP4) star. We also discovered a new spectroscopic binary, most likely a SB2. We performed a detailed modeling of HD 318101, the new He-weak P-rich CP star, using the Montréal stellar evolution code XEVOL which self-consistently treats all particle transport processes. Although the overall abundance pattern of this star is properly reproduced, we find that detailed abundances (in particular the high P excess) resisted modeling attempts even when a range of turbulence profiles and mass-loss rates were considered. Solutions are proposed which are still under

  9. The interpretation of early-type spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Underhill, A.B.

    1972-01-01

    In this paper the present position concerning the meaning of spectral type among the O- and B-stars in terms of physical conditions in the stellar atmosphere and the abundances of the elements is reviewed. In Section 2 the question “what is a spectral type” is examined and it is noted that because

  10. On the infant weight loss of low- to intermediate-mass star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Nürnberger, D. E. A.; Sterzik, M. F.

    2007-04-01

    Star clusters are born in a highly compact configuration, typically with radii of less than about 1 pc roughly independently of mass. Since the star formation efficiency is less than 50 per cent by observation and because the residual gas is removed from the embedded cluster, the cluster must expand. In the process of doing so it only retains a fraction fst of its stars. To date there are no observational constraints for fst, although N-body calculations by Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley suggest it to be about 20-30 per cent for Orion-type clusters. Here we use the data compiled by Testi et al., Testi, Palla & Natta and Testi, Palla & Natta for clusters around young Ae/Be stars and by de Wit et al. and de Wit et al. around young O stars and the study of de Zeeuw et al. of OB associations and combine these measurements with the expected number of stars in clusters with primary Ae/Be and O stars, respectively, using the empirical correlation between maximal stellar mass and star cluster mass of Weidner & Kroupa. We find that fst < 50 per cent with a decrease to higher cluster masses/more massive primaries. The interpretation would be that cluster formation is very disruptive. It appears that clusters with a birth stellar mass in the range 10-103Msolar keep at most 50 per cent of their stars.

  11. The role of estuarine type in characterizing early stage fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assemblages of early stage fishes (larval and early juvenile stages) were investigated and compared in seven permanently open and five intermittently open estuarine systems on the warm temperate Eastern Cape coast of South Africa. Estuarine type, by virtue of mouth state and prevailing physico chemical conditions, ...

  12. Intermediate mass dimuon events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.-G.

    1985-01-01

    We report the observation of 67 dimuon events at the CERN p anti p collider with the UA1 detector. The events will be interpreted in terms of the Drell-Yan mechanism, J/PSI and UPSILON decays and heavy flavour production. (author)

  13. Angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments emitted in 30 MeV/u 40Ar induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou Quanbu; Zhu Yongtai; Xu Hushan; Wei Zhiyong; Lu Jun; Zhang Yuhu; Wang Qi; Li Songlin; Wu Zhongli

    1999-01-01

    The angular distributions of intermediate mass fragments with charge numbers from 3 to 24 emitted in 30 MeV/u 40 Ar + 58,64 Ni and 115 In reactions over an angular range of 5 degree-140 degree have been measured. In different angular region an exponential distribution function dσ/dΩ = N exp(-θ/α) was used to fit the measured angular distributions. The decay factor α which can be connected with the interaction time τ and the factor N which is related to the intensity of the emission sources have been extracted. The relationship of α(Z) and N(Z) with Z for different reaction systems and different angular regions has been discussed. The different behavior of dσ/dΩ, α(Z), and N(Z) for the three studied reaction systems exists mainly in the middle and backward angular regions. The dependencies of angular distributions on isospin and the size of reaction systems have also been discussed

  14. Search for Gravitational Wave Ringdowns from Perturbed Intermediate Mass Black Holes in LIGO-Virgo Data from 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50 less than or equal to italic f0/Hz less than or equal to 2000 and decay timescale 0.0001 approximately less than t/s approximately less than 0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50 less than or equal to M/solar mass less than or equal to 450 and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass 100 less than or equal to M/solar mass 150, we report a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with non-spinning and equal mass components of 6:9 x 10(exp 8) Mpc(exp -3)yr(exp -1). We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, l=m=2, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.

  15. Multiplicity correlations of intermediate-mass fragments with pions and fast protons in 12C + 197AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turzo, K.; Begemann-Blaich, M.L.; Auger, G.

    2003-12-01

    Low-energy π + (E π 12 C+ 197 Au collisions at incident energies from 300 to 1800 MeV per nucleon were detected with the Si-Si(Li)-CsI(Tl) calibration telescopes of the INDRA multidetector. The inclusive angular distributions are approximately isotropic, consistent with multiple rescattering in the target spectator. The multiplicity correlations of the low-energy pions and of energetic protons (E p >or ≤ 150 MeV) with intermediate-mass fragments were determined from the measured coincidence data. The deduced correlation functions 1 + R ∼ 1.3 for inclusive event samples reflect the strong correlations evident from the common impact-parameter dependence of the considered multiplicities. For narrow impact-parameter bins (based on charged-particle multiplicity), the correlation functions are close to unity and do not indicate strong additional correlations. Only for pions at high particle multiplicities (central collisions) a weak anticorrelation is observed, probably due to a limited competition between these emissions. Overall, the results are consistent with the equilibrium assumption made in statistical multifragmentation scenarios. Predictions obtained with intranuclear cascade models coupled to the statistical multifragmentation model are in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  16. A YOUNG MASSIVE STELLAR POPULATION AROUND THE INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE ESO 243-49 HLX-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, S. A.; Servillat, M.; Pforr, J.; Maraston, C.; Maccarone, T. J.; Knigge, C.; Godet, O.; Webb, N. A.; Barret, D.; Belmont, R.; Gosling, A. J.; Wiersema, K.

    2012-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope and simultaneous Swift X-ray Telescope observations of the strongest candidate intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) ESO 243-49 HLX-1. Fitting the spectral energy distribution from X-ray to near-infrared wavelengths showed that the broadband spectrum is not consistent with simple and irradiated disk models, but is well described by a model comprised of an irradiated accretion disk plus a ∼10 6 M ☉ stellar population. The age of the population cannot be uniquely constrained, with both young and old stellar populations allowed. However, the old solution requires excessive disk reprocessing and an extremely small disk, so we favor the young solution (∼13 Myr). In addition, the presence of dust lanes and the lack of any nuclear activity from X-ray observations of the host galaxy suggest that a gas-rich minor merger may have taken place less than ∼200 Myr ago. Such a merger event would explain the presence of the IMBH and the young stellar population.

  17. L1188: A Promising Candidate for Cloud–Cloud Collisions Triggering the Formation of Low- and Intermediate-mass Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Yan; Fang, Min; Mao, Ruiqing; Zhang, Shaobo; Wang, Yuan; Su, Yang; Chen, Xuepeng; Yang, Ji; Wang, Hongchi; Lu, Dengrong, E-mail: ygong@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory and Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2 West Beijing Road, 210008 Nanjing (China)

    2017-01-20

    We present a new large-scale (2° × 2°) simultaneous {sup 12}CO, {sup 13}CO, and C{sup 18}O (J = 1–0) mapping of L1188 with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope. Our observations have revealed that L1188 consists of two nearly orthogonal filamentary molecular clouds at two clearly separated velocities. Toward the intersection showing large velocity spreads, we find several bridging features connecting the two clouds in velocity, and an open arc structure that exhibits high excitation temperatures, enhanced {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO emission, and broad {sup 12}CO line wings. This agrees with the scenario that the two clouds are colliding with each other. The distribution of young stellar object (YSO) candidates implies an enhancement of star formation in the intersection of the two clouds. We suggest that a cloud–cloud collision happened in L1188 about 1 Myr ago, possibly triggering the formation of low- and intermediate-mass YSOs in the intersection.

  18. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E; van der Hulst, T; Sancisi, R; Swaters, R; Ryder, SD; Pisano, DJ; Walker, MA; Freeman, KC

    2004-01-01

    We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens SO and Sab and absolute magnitudes M-B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  19. The mass distribution in early type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J. M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. A.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: We are studying the mass distribution in a sample of 50 early type spiral galaxies, with morphological type betweens S0 and Sab and absolute magnitudes M_B between -18 and -22; they form the massive and high-surface brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population. Our study is designed to

  20. The structure of protoplanetary disks surrounding three young intermediate mass stars: I. Resolving the disk rotation in the [OI] 6300 Å line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, G.; van den Ancker, M.E.; Fedele, D.; Acke, B.; Dominik, C.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Bouwman, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present high-spectral-resolution, optical spectra of three young, intermediate-mass stars, in all of which we spectrally resolve the 6300 Å [OI] emission line. Two of these have a double-peaked line-profile. We attempt to fit these data using a simple model of [OI] emission, which is generated by

  1. THE ACS FORNAX CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE NUCLEI OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE FORNAX CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Monica L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Blakeslee, John P. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Mei, Simona [Department of Physics University of Paris Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); West, Michael J., E-mail: turnerm@uvic.ca [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-11-15

    The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Fornax Cluster Survey is a Hubble Space Telescope program to image 43 early-type galaxies in the Fornax cluster, using the F475W and F850LP bandpasses of the ACS. We employ both one-dimensional and two-dimensional techniques to characterize the properties of the stellar nuclei in these galaxies, defined as the central 'luminosity excesses', relative to a Sersic model fitted to the underlying host. We find 72% {+-} 13% of our sample (31 galaxies) to be nucleated, with only three of the nuclei offset by more than 0.''5 from their galaxy photocenter, and with the majority of nuclei having colors bluer than their hosts. The nuclei are observed to be larger, and brighter, than typical Fornax globular clusters and to follow different structural scaling relations. A comparison of our results to those from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey reveals striking similarities in the properties of the nuclei belonging to these different environments. We briefly review a variety of proposed formation models and conclude that, for the low-mass galaxies in our sample, the most important mechanism for nucleus growth is probably infall of star clusters through dynamical friction, while for higher mass galaxies, gas accretion triggered by mergers, accretions, and tidal torques is likely to dominate, with the relative importance of these two processes varying smoothly as a function of galaxy mass. Some intermediate-mass galaxies in our sample show a complexity in their inner structure that may be the signature of the 'hybrid nuclei' that arose through parallel formation channels.

  2. Emsission of intermediate mass fragments in the p(1.9 GeV)+natNI reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubak, A.

    2004-06-01

    The emission of the intermediate mass fragments (IMFs; 2 ≤ Z ≤ 14) produced in the interaction of 1.9 GeV protons with nickel ( nat Ni) has been a subject of interest of the present study. Energy spectra of isotopically and elementally identified ejectiles have been measured at angles 15 and 120 with the respect to the beam direction. The identification of the emitted IMFs has been performed by means of the Bragg curve spectroscopy and the time-of-flight technique (TOF). The Bragg curve detectors (BCDs) were employed for the charge identification, whereas the TOF method combined with the BCD, for the mass identification. The main task of the present PhD thesis was to built appropriate data acquisition system, to perform the experiment on the internal beam of the COSY accelerator, to propose the methodology of the off-line analysis of the data, to apply it to the event-by-event stored data, and to perform the phenomenological analysis of the obtained data. The results, experimental procedures, and different techniques of the element and isotope identification by means of the BCD + TOF are presented. The determination of the power law parameter τ characterizing the mass and charge distributions of the reaction products is discussed. Various methods of the nuclear matter temperature determination, the comparison between nuclear matter thermometers, and the discussion of the obtained results, shown in the energy-temperature diagram (the so called caloric curve), are presented as well. The results suggest two different mechanisms of the IMFs production: from the equilibrated (IMFs measured at 120 ), and non-equilibrated (IMFs measured at 15 ) state of the nucleus. (orig.)

  3. Wandering off the centre: a characterization of the random motion of intermediate-mass black holes in star clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, Ruggero; Trenti, Michele; MacLeod, Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Despite recent observational efforts, unequivocal signs for the presence of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in globular clusters (GCs) have not been found yet. Especially when the presence of IMBHs is constrained through dynamical modelling of stellar kinematics, it is fundamental to account for the displacement that the IMBH might have with respect to the GC centre. In this paper, we analyse the IMBH wandering around the stellar density centre using a set of realistic direct N-body simulations of star cluster evolution. Guided by the simulation results, we develop a basic yet accurate model that can be used to estimate the average IMBH radial displacement (〈rbh〉) in terms of structural quantities as the core radius (rc), mass (Mc), and velocity dispersion (σc), in addition to the average stellar mass (mc) and the IMBH mass (Mbh). The model can be expressed by the equation /r_c=A(m_c/M_bh)^α [σ _c^2r_c/(GM_c)]^β, in which the free parameters A, α, and β are calculated through comparison with the numerical results on the IMBH displacement. The model is then applied to Galactic GCs, finding that for an IMBH mass equal to 0.1 per cent of the GC mass, the typical expected displacement of a putative IMBH is around 1 arcsec for most Galactic GCs, but IMBHs can wander to larger angular distances in some objects, including a prediction of a 2.5 arcsec displacement for NGC 5139 (ω Cen), and >10 arcsec for NGC5053, NGC6366, and ARP2.

  4. Prospects for detection of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters using integrated-light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, R.; Trenti, M.; Bianchini, P.; Askar, A.; Giersz, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-06-01

    The detection of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has so far been controversial. In order to characterize the effectiveness of integrated-light spectroscopy through integral field units, we analyse realistic mock data generated from state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of GCs with a central IMBH, considering different setups and conditions varying IMBH mass, cluster distance and accuracy in determination of the centre. The mock observations are modelled with isotropic Jeans models to assess the success rate in identifying the IMBH presence, which we find to be primarily dependent on IMBH mass. However, even for an IMBH of considerable mass (3 per cent of the total GC mass), the analysis does not yield conclusive results in one out of five cases, because of shot noise due to bright stars close to the IMBH line of sight. This stochastic variability in the modelling outcome grows with decreasing BH mass, with approximately three failures out of four for IMBHs with 0.1 per cent of total GC mass. Finally, we find that our analysis is generally unable to exclude at 68 per cent confidence an IMBH with mass of 103 M⊙ in snapshots without a central BH. Interestingly, our results are not sensitive to GC distance within 5-20 kpc, nor to misidentification of the GC centre by less than 2 arcsec (<20 per cent of the core radius). These findings highlight the value of ground-based integral field spectroscopy for large GC surveys, where systematic failures can be accounted for, but stress the importance of discrete kinematic measurements that are less affected by stochasticity induced by bright stars.

  5. THE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF THE FRACTION OF 'UNCONVENTIONAL' GALAXIES: RED LATE TYPES AND BLUE EARLY TYPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xinfa; He Jizhou; Wu Ping; Ding Yingping

    2009-01-01

    From the Main galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6, we construct two volume-limited samples with the luminosity -20.0 ≤ M r ≤ -18.5 and -22.40 ≤ M r ≤ -20.16, respectively, to explore the environmental dependence of the fraction of 'unconventional' galaxies: red late types and blue early types. We use the density estimator within the distance to the fifth nearest neighbor, and construct two samples at both extremes of density and perform comparative studies between them for each volume-limited sample. Results of two volume-limited samples show the same conclusions: the fraction of red late-type galaxies rises considerably with increasing local density, and that one of the blue early-type galaxies declines substantially with increasing local density. In addition, we note that bluer galaxies preferentially are late types, but the red galaxies are not dominated by early types.

  6. Early risk stratification in pediatric type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    in HbA1c was either too small or happened too late. This study highlights that sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy remain a major concern in type 1 diabetes and the importance of early glycemic control. Identifying high-risk patients at a very early stage is not only desired for prevention...... of diabetic retinopathy - neuropathy and nephropathy similarly remain frequent in type 1 diabetes. Early risk stratification will allow for timely implementation of effective interventions and for individualized screening and diabetes care. The second and third studies of this thesis provide the longest...... prospective studies to date on both retinal vessel calibers and retinal fractal dimensions and their predictive value on diabetic microvascular complications. Semi-automated computer software has been developed to measure smaller changes in the retinal vessels on retinal photographs. Two of the first...

  7. Spatially resolved molecular gas in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Bureau, M.; Young, L.; Blitz, L.; Crocker, A.; Bayet, E.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Duc, P.-A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.-Y.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.

    In around ~25% of early-type galaxies (ETGs) UV emission from young stellar populations is present. Molecular gas reservoirs have been detected in these systems (e.g. Young et al. (2011), providing the fuel for this residual star-formation. The environment in which this molecular gas is found is

  8. Mass distributions in early-type galaxy halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Douglas, NG; Kuijken, K; Merrifield, MR; Arnaboldi, M; Freeman, KC; Taylor, K; Bender, T; Renzini, A

    2003-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for determining the distribution of mass in the outer parts of early-type galaxies is through the kinematics of planetary nebulae (PNe). We have used new techniques and instrumentation on the WHT and the VLT to obtain velocities for hundreds of PNe around several

  9. Selective Attention in Early Dementia of Alzheimer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Black, Sandra E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored possible deficits in selective attention brought about by Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DAT). In three experiments, we tested patients with early DAT, healthy elderly, and young adults under low memory demands to assess perceptual filtering, conflict resolution, and set switching abilities. We found no evidence of impaired…

  10. Extended, regular HI structures around early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, T.; Morganti, R.; Sadler, E. M. Van der; Hulst, J. M. van der; Serra, P.

    Abstract: We discuss the morphology and kinematics of the HI of a sample of 30 southern gas-rich early-type galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). This is the largest collection of high-resolution HI data of a homogeneously selected sample. Given the sensitivity of HIPASS,

  11. Assessing the fundamental limits of multiple star formation: An imaging search for the lowest mass stellar companions to intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Gaspard; Tzern Oon, Jner; Kantorski, Patrick; De Rosa, Robert J.; Thomas, Sandrine; Patience, Jennifer; Pueyo, Laurent; Nielsen, Eric L.; Konopacky, Quinn M.

    2017-01-01

    Stellar binaries are a common byproduct of star formation and therefore inform us on the processes of collapse and fragmentation of prestellar cores. While multiplicity surveys generally reveal an extensive diversity of multiple systems, with broad ranges of semi-major axis, mass ratio and eccentricities, one remarkable feature that was identified in the last two decades is the so-called brown dwarf desert, i.e., the apparent paucity of (non-planetary) substellar companions to solar-type stars. This "desert" was primarily identified among spectroscopic binaries but also appears to be a significant feature of wider, visual binaries. The physical origin of this feature has not been fully accounted for but is likely established during the formation of the systems. One way to shed new light on this question is to study the frequency of low-mass stellar companions to intermediate-mass star (late-B type, or 3-5 Msun), as those form through a similar, albeit scaled-up, mechanism as solar-type stars. Here we present preliminary results from two adaptive-optics based surveys to search for such multiple systems. Specifically, we are using the new ShaneAO system on the Lick3m telescope (~100 stars observed to date) and the Gemini Planet Imager (45 stars observed). We are targeting stars located both in open clusters and scattered in the Galactic field to search for potential evidence of dynamic evolution. To identify candidate low-mass companions as close in to target stars, we use advanced point spread function (PSF) subtraction algorithms, specifically implementations of the LOCI and KLIP algorithms. In the case of the ShaneAO observations, which do not allow for field rotation, we use LOCI in combination with Reference Differential Imaging (ADI), using our library of science images as input for PSF subtraction. In this contribution, we will discuss the potential of ShaneAO to reveal faint, subarcsecond companions in this context and present candidate companions from both

  12. HI in Early Type Galaxies as Gaseous Merger History Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Hibbard, J. E.; O'Connell, R. W.

    2003-12-01

    The presence of gaseous merger histories in early type galaxies was tested through a detection survey of 21cm hydrogen emission in the environments of two samples of early type galaxies. The test sample consisted of early type galaxies with central spikes in their surface brightness profiles which may indicate a former dense star formation region. The control sample consisted of early type galaxies without central spikes (and presumably without as recent or as densely located star formation events) and covered a similar range of distances and sizes. Both samples were chosen to be free of dust and active galactic nuclei. The two samples (17 test galaxies and 19 controls) were observed with the Green Bank Telescope with the spectrometer. The spectra were reduced by removing the radio frequency inteference, calibrating via the noise diode and position switching, averaging the multi-integrated spectra, baselining, and calibrating the flux via the observation of a standard source (3C295). The spectra of three galaxies were contaminated by continuum sources in the beam. The spectra of nine more galaxies displayed one or more 21cm lines. Three of these galaxies are members of the test sample and 6 are controls. After comparing the positions and velocities of neighboring galaxies which may have contaminated the beam to the observed spectral features, the probability that environmental gas can be associated with early type galaxies with central spikes is slightly higher. However, the numbers are too low for an adequate statistical analysis and mapping may be required to determine better positions for the detected gas. This work has been funded by NSF REU for NRAO's Summer Student Research Assistantship Program.

  13. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  14. The evolution of early-type galaxies in distant clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford, S.A.; Eisenhardt, P.R.; Dickinson, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present results from an optical-infrared photometric study of early-type (E+S0) galaxies in 19 galaxy clusters out to z=0.9. The galaxy sample is selected on the basis of morphologies determined from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 images and is photometrically defined in the K band in order to minimize redshift-dependent selection biases. Using new ground-based photometry in five optical and infrared bands for each cluster, we examine the evolution of the color-magnitude relation for early-type cluster galaxies, considering its slope, intercept, and color scatter around the mean relation. New multiwavelength photometry of galaxies in the Coma Cluster is used to provide a baseline sample at z∼0 with which to compare the distant clusters. The optical - IR colors of the early-type cluster galaxies become bluer with increasing redshift in a manner consistent with the passive evolution of an old stellar population formed at an early cosmic epoch. The degree of color evolution is similar for clusters at similar redshift and does not depend strongly on the optical richness or X-ray luminosity of the cluster, which suggests that the history of early-type galaxies is relatively insensitive to environment, at least above a certain density threshold. The slope of the color-magnitude relationship shows no significant change out to z=0.9, which provides evidence that it arises from a correlation between galaxy mass and metallicity, not age. Finally, the intrinsic scatter in the optical - IR colors of the galaxies is small and nearly constant with redshift, which indicates that the majority of giant, early-type galaxies in clusters share a common star formation history, with little perturbation due to uncorrelated episodes of later star formation. Taken together, our results are consistent with models in which most early-type galaxies in rich clusters are old, formed the majority of their stars at high redshift in a well-synchronized fashion, and evolved quiescently

  15. Demise of faint satellites around isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changbom; Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Hyunbae; Lee, Jong Chul

    2018-02-01

    The hierarchical galaxy formation scenario in the Cold Dark Matter cosmology with a non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ and geometrically flat space (ΛCDM) has been very successful in explaining the large-scale distribution of galaxies. However, there have been claims that ΛCDM over-predicts the number of satellite galaxies associated with massive galaxies compared with observations—the missing satellite galaxy problem1-3. Isolated groups of galaxies hosted by passively evolving massive early-type galaxies are ideal laboratories for identifying the missing physics in the current theory4-11. Here, we report—based on a deep spectroscopic survey—that isolated massive and passive early-type galaxies without any signs of recent wet mergers or accretion episodes have almost no satellite galaxies fainter than the r-band absolute magnitude of about Mr = -14. If only early-type satellites are used, the cutoff is at the somewhat brighter magnitude of about Mr = -15. Such a cutoff has not been found in other nearby satellite galaxy systems hosted by late-type galaxies or those with merger features. Various physical properties of satellites depend strongly on the host-centric distance. Our observations indicate that the satellite galaxy luminosity function is largely determined by the interaction of satellites with the environment provided by their host.

  16. Early-type galaxies with extended HI reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    I will present observations of NGC 404 and ESO 381-47, both early-type galaxies known for hosting extended HI rings and recent star formation in their outskirts. Thanks to the Green Bank Telescope, an instrument uniquely suited to observing diffuse, low column density HI around nearby galaxies, we report new measurements of the extent of the disk around NGC 404 as well as the presence of a large, coherent HI filament which appears to be accreting onto the ring surrounding the galaxy. We compare the environments of the two systems and interpret the potential utility of such gas-bearing field early-type galaxies as tracers of galaxy accretion and growth.

  17. Early feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M; Becker, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Short-term breastfeeding and early exposure to complex dietary proteins, such as cow milk proteins and cereals, or to fruit, berries, and roots have been implicated as risk factors for ß cell autoimmunity, clinical type 1 diabetes, or both. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus...... in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) is an international, randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial designed to answer the question of whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula in infancy will decrease the risk of type 1 diabetes later in childhood. In our pilot study, weaning to a highly...... recruited 5606 newborn infants with a family member affected by type 1 diabetes and enrolled 2159 eligible subjects who carried a risk-conferring HLA genotype. All recruited mothers were encouraged to breastfeed. The intervention lasted for 6-8 mo with a minimum study formula exposure time of 2 mo...

  18. EARLY TESTS OF DRUM TYPE PACKAGINGS - THE LEWALLEN REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.

    2010-07-29

    The need for robust packagings for radioactive materials (RAM) was recognized from the earliest days of the nuclear industry. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant developed a packaging for shipment of Pu in the early 1960's, which became the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) 6M specification package. The design concepts were employed in other early packagings. Extensive tests of these at Savannah River Laboratory (now Savannah River National Laboratory) were performed in 1969 and 1970. The results of these tests were reported in 'Drum and Board-Type Insulation Overpacks of Shipping Packages for Radioactive Materials', by E. E. Lewallen. The Lewallen Report was foundational to design of subsequent drum type RAM packaging. This paper summarizes this important early study of drum type packagings. The Lewallen Report demonstrated the ability packagings employing drum and insulation board overpacks and engineered containment vessels to meet the Type B package requirements. Because of the results of the Lewallen Report, package designers showed high concern for thermal protection of 'Celotex'. Subsequent packages addressed this by following strategies like those recommended by Lewallen and by internal metal shields and supplemental, encapsulated insulation disks, as in 9975. The guidance provide by the Lewallen Report was employed in design of a large number of drum size packagings over the following three decades. With the increased public concern over transportation of radioactive materials and recognition of the need for larger margins of safety, more sophisticated and complex packages have been developed and have replaced the simple packagings developed under the Lewallen Report paradigm.

  19. Sensitivity of gravitational wave searches to the full signal of intermediate-mass black hole binaries during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Bustillo, Juan; Salemi, Francesco; Dal Canton, Tito; Jani, Karan P.

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of gravitational wave searches for binary black holes is estimated via the injection and posterior recovery of simulated gravitational wave signals in the detector data streams. When a search reports no detections, the estimated sensitivity is then used to place upper limits on the coalescence rate of the target source. In order to obtain correct sensitivity and rate estimates, the injected waveforms must be faithful representations of the real signals. Up to date, however, injected waveforms have neglected radiation modes of order higher than the quadrupole, potentially biasing sensitivity and coalescence rate estimates. In particular, higher-order modes are known to have a large impact in the gravitational waves emitted by intermediate-mass black holes binaries. In this work, we evaluate the impact of this approximation in the context of two search algorithms run by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in their search for intermediate-mass black hole binaries in the O1 LIGO Science Run data: a matched filter-based pipeline and a coherent unmodeled one. To this end, we estimate the sensitivity of both searches to simulated signals for nonspinning binaries including and omitting higher-order modes. We find that omission of higher-order modes leads to biases in the sensitivity estimates which depend on the masses of the binary, the search algorithm, and the required level of significance for detection. In addition, we compare the sensitivity of the two search algorithms across the studied parameter space. We conclude that the most recent LIGO-Virgo upper limits on the rate of coalescence of intermediate-mass black hole binaries are conservative for the case of highly asymmetric binaries. However, the tightest upper limits, placed for nearly equal-mass sources, remain unchanged due to the small contribution of higher modes to the corresponding sources.

  20. LIMES: A computer program for analyses of light and intermediate-mass fragment emission in heavy ion reactions by an extended sum-rule model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brancus, I.M.; Wentz, J.; Hohn, H.U.

    1989-10-01

    The computer program LIMES is based on an improved version of the extended sum-rule model for light and intermediate-mass fragment emission in heavy ion reactions. It includes a code for dynamical calculations of the critical angular momentum for fusion following the suggestions. The report briefly describes the use of this program, the necessary input for the calculations of the element distribution and partial cross sections and gives a Fortran listing. Using the fitting routine FITEX the program provides an option for fast parameter adjustments. The use is demonstrated by an application to a specific example. (orig.) [de

  1. Environmental Effects on the Metallicities of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine; Oliversen, Ronald (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    We completed and published two papers in the Astrophysical Journal based on research from grant. In the first paper we analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type II supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia. In the second paper We analyzed nine X-ray-bright Virgo early-type galaxies observed by both ASCA and ROSAT. Through spatially resolved spectroscopy, we determined the radial temperature profiles and abundances of Mg, Si, and Fe for six galaxies. The temperature profiles are consistent with isothermal temperatures outside of cooler regions at the galaxies' centers. We present new evidence for iron abundance gradients in NGC 4472 and NGC 4649 and confirm the previous results on NGC 4636. Mg and Si abundance gradients on average are flatter than those of iron and correspond to an underabundance of α-process elements at high Fe values, while at low iron the element ratios favor enrichment by Type I1 supernovae (SNe). We explain the observed trend using the metallicity dependence of SN Ia metal production and present constraints on the available theoretical modeling for low-metallicity inhibition of SNe Ia.

  2. Early light curves for Type Ia supernova explosion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer, U. M.; Kromer, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Baklanov, P.; Blinnikov, S.; Sorokina, E.; Hillebrandt, W.

    2017-12-01

    Upcoming high-cadence transient survey programmes will produce a wealth of observational data for Type Ia supernovae. These data sets will contain numerous events detected very early in their evolution, shortly after explosion. Here, we present synthetic light curves, calculated with the radiation hydrodynamical approach STELLA for a number of different explosion models, specifically focusing on these first few days after explosion. We show that overall the early light curve evolution is similar for most of the investigated models. Characteristic imprints are induced by radioactive material located close to the surface. However, these are very similar to the signatures expected from ejecta-CSM or ejecta-companion interaction. Apart from the pure deflagration explosion models, none of our synthetic light curves exhibit the commonly assumed power-law rise. We demonstrate that this can lead to substantial errors in the determination of the time of explosion. In summary, we illustrate with our calculations that even with very early data an identification of specific explosion scenarios is challenging, if only photometric observations are available.

  3. Analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina

    1993-01-01

    The EINSTEIN galaxy catalog contains x-ray data for 148 early-type (E and SO) galaxies. A detailed analysis of the global properties of this sample are studied. By comparing the x-ray properties with other tracers of the ISM, as well as with observables related to the stellar dynamics and populations of the sample, we expect to determine more clearly the physical relationships that determine the evolution of early-type galaxies. Previous studies with smaller samples have explored the relationships between x-ray luminosity (L(sub x)) and luminosities in other bands. Using our larger sample and the statistical techniques of survival analysis, a number of these earlier analyses were repeated. For our full sample, a strong statistical correlation is found between L(sub X) and L(sub B) (the probability that the null hypothesis is upheld is P less than 10(exp -4) from a variety of rank correlation tests. Regressions with several algorithms yield consistent results.

  4. The onset of galactic winds in early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine

    1992-01-01

    We completed the spectral analysis of 31 early-type galaxies to investigate whether their x-ray emission was predominantly due to thermal bremsstrahlung from a hot gaseous corona or emission from discrete, galactic sources such as x-ray binaries. If a corona dominates the x-ray emission, its spectra is expected to be relatively cool (0.5 - 1 keV) compared to the harder emission associated with x-ray binaries in our galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds and M31. While it is generally accepted that the x-ray emission in luminous E and S0 galaxies arises from hot coronae, the status of hot gas in lower luminosity (and hence lower mass) galaxies is less clear. Calculations show that, for a given supernova rate, a critical galaxy luminosity (mass) exists below which the gas cannot be gravitationally confined and a galactic wind is predicted to be effective in expelling gas from the galaxy. Since significant mass (a dark halo) is required to hold a hot, gaseous corona around a galaxy, we expect that the faintest, smallest galaxies will not have a hot corona, but their x-ray emission will be dominated by galactic sources or by an active galactic nuclei. In the sample we tested which spanned the absolute magnitude range from -21.5 to -19.5, we found that except for two galaxies whose x-ray emission was dominated by an active nucleus, that the others were consistent with emission from hot gas. We also found that there is a correlation between gas temperature and galaxy magnitude (mass), such that the brighter, more luminous galaxies have hotter gas temperatures. Thus even at relatively faint magnitudes, the dominant emission from early-type galaxies appears to be hot gas. We also carried out an investigation of the x-ray surface brightness distribution of the x-ray emission for about 100 early type galaxies to determine whether the x-ray emission from galaxies are extended. Extended x-ray emission is expected if the emission is due to a hot gaseous corona. We determined the ratio

  5. MOLECULAR DISK PROPERTIES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X.; Walker, C.; Narayanan, D.

    2010-01-01

    We study the simulated CO emission from elliptical galaxies formed in the mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies. The cold gas not consumed in the merger-driven starburst quickly resettles into a disk-like configuration. By analyzing a variety of arbitrary merger orbits that produce a range of fast- to slow-rotating remnants, we find that molecular disk formation is a fairly common consequence of gas-rich galaxy mergers. Hence, if a molecular disk is observed in an early-type merger remnant, it is likely the result of a 'wet merger' rather than a 'dry merger'. We compare the physical properties from our simulated disks (e.g., size and mass) and find reasonably good agreement with recent observations. Finally, we discuss the detectability of these disks as an aid to future observations.

  6. Models of hot galactic coronae around early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Tucker, W.

    1994-01-01

    We have computed simple non-steady state models of X-ray-emitting, hot galactic coronae which are observed around early-type galaxies. Our models, appropriate for elliptical galaxies, include the effect of the formation of new stars which occurs as the gas radiatively cools and the effect of supernova explosions which serve to heat the cooling gas component from which the stars are forming. We develop scaling relations for the galaxy parameters including the optical galaxy as well as a dark matter halo which we use to generate galaxy models spanning a range of absolute magnitudes from -19.5 to -22.5. We compare our models to a sample of approximately 150 galaxies with measured X-ray luminosities. We show that our simple model does exhibit the observed correlation between X-ray and optical luminosity. However, the model cannot explain the broad range in X-ray luminosity at a given optical luminosity.

  7. Optical nebulosity in X-ray-selected, early type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Joseph C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an H-alpha + N II forbidden line narrowband imaging survey of X-ray-selected E and S0 galaxies. A novel technique is described for objectively optimizing the removal of stellar continuum light while providing well-defined estimates of systematic errors. The procedure has the additional benefit of eliminating sky contamination, specifically in image regions occupied by galaxy light. Consideration of the measured spectral energy distributions is included in the flux calibration procedure, and emission-line luminosities (or upper limits), corrected for Galactic foreground extinction, are tabulated for metric apertures. No connection is found between the 'boxiness' or 'diskiness' of stellar isophotes and emission-line or far-infrared luminosity. It is suggested that optical nebulosity in early-type galaxies contains a significant multiparameter dependence on active Galactic nuclei behavior, accretion from the hot interstellar medium, and mass injection from external sources.

  8. Maternal Type 1 diabetes activates stress response in early placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauster, Martin; Majali-Martinez, Alejandro; Maninger, Sabine; Gutschi, Elisabeth; Greimel, Patrick H; Ivanisevic, Marina; Djelmis, Josip; Desoye, Gernot; Hiden, Ursula

    2017-02-01

    Human pregnancy and in particular the first trimester, is a period highly susceptible towards adverse insults such as oxidative stress, which may lead to inadequate embryonic and feto-placental development. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased oxidative stress caused by hyperglycemia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inflammatory signals. In pregnancy, diabetes elevates the risk for early pregnancy loss, preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction, pathologies that origin from early placental maldevelopment. We hypothesized that maternal Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) induces oxidative stress in the first trimester human placenta. We quantified stress induced, cytoprotective proteins, i.e. heat shock protein (HSP)70 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and determined protein modifications as markers for oxidation and glycation, i.e. levels of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) or Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) modified proteins. Moreover, we measured expression levels of enzymes involved in antioxidant defense in the first trimester (week 7-9) placenta of normal and T1DM women by immunoblot and real-time qPCR. Primary human trophoblasts were isolated from first trimester placenta and the effects of oxygen, hyperglycemia and the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α on levels of HSP70 and HO-1 were analyzed. HSP70 (+19.9± 10.1%) and HO-1 (+63.5± 14.5%) were elevated (p placenta of T1DM women when compared to normal women. However, levels of HNE or CML modified proteins were unchanged. Also, expression of most antioxidant enzymes was unchanged, with only superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) being upregulated by 3.0-fold (p placenta of T1DM women may contribute to disturbances in placental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early effect of irradiation and histological sub-type of cervical cancer of uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Yuko

    1980-01-01

    In the cases of radiotherapy of cervical cancer of uterus, radiosensitivity of cancer tissue has an important influence on the prognosis and on the selection of the therapeutic method. For radiotherapist, it is very beneficial to interpret radiosensitivity before radiotherapy or on the early time of radiotherapy. We classified epidermoid carcinoma of cervix into three sub-types, each of which has respectively different radiosensitivity. Three sub-types are as followed. Type I: Keratinizing type, high degree of Keratinization. Type II: Basal cell type, uniform proliferation of spindle cell. Type III: Intermediate type, intermediate disposition between keratinizing type and basal cell type. As to early time of irradiation, keratinizing type has low radiosensitivity, and basal cell type has high radiosensitivity. Intermediate type has middle radiosensitivity. Moreover early radiosensitivity correlate with prognosis. Early radiosensitivity could be manifested by histological changes observed 6 hours after 400 rad irradiation. (author)

  10. Observing the linked depletion of dust and CO gas at 0.1–10 au in disks of intermediate-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzatti, A.; Garufi, A.; Kama, M.; Benisty, M.; Brittain, S.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Rayner, J.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the discovery of correlations between dust and CO gas tracers of the 0.1–10 au region in planet-forming disks around young intermediate-mass stars. The abundance of refractory elements on stellar photospheres decreases as the location of hot CO gas emission recedes to larger disk radii, and as the near-infrared excess emission from hot dust in the inner disk decreases. The linked behavior between these observables demonstrates that the recession of infrared CO emission to larger disk radii traces an inner disk region where dust is being depleted. We also find that Herbig disk cavities have either low ( 5–10%) or high ( 20–35%) near-infrared excess, a dichotomy that has not been captured by the classic definition of “pre-transitional” disks.

  11. Evolution, Nucleosynthesis, and Yields of AGB Stars at Different Metallicities. III. Intermediate-mass Models, Revised Low-mass Models, and the ph-FRUITY Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.; Piersanti, L.; Gobrecht, D.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new set of models for intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 M⊙) at different metallicities (-2.15 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ +0.15). This set integrates the existing models for low-mass AGB stars (1.3 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 3.0) already included in the FRUITY database. We describe the physical and chemical evolution of the computed models from the main sequence up to the end of the AGB phase. Due to less efficient third dredge up episodes, models with large core masses show modest surface enhancements. This effect is due to the fact that the interpulse phases are short and, therefore, thermal pulses (TPs) are weak. Moreover, the high temperature at the base of the convective envelope prevents it from deeply penetrating the underlying radiative layers. Depending on the initial stellar mass, the heavy element nucleosynthesis is dominated by different neutron sources. In particular, the s-process distributions of the more massive models are dominated by the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg reaction, which is efficiently activated during TPs. At low metallicities, our models undergo hot bottom burning and hot third dredge up. We compare our theoretical final core masses to available white dwarf observations. Moreover, we quantify the influence intermediate-mass models have on the carbon star luminosity function. Finally, we present the upgrade of the FRUITY web interface, which now also includes the physical quantities of the TP-AGB phase for all of the models included in the database (ph-FRUITY).

  12. HOT GAS HALOS IN EARLY-TYPE FIELD GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra and XMM-Newton to study the hot gas content in a sample of field early-type galaxies. We find that the L X -L K relationship is steeper for field galaxies than for comparable galaxies in groups and clusters. The low hot gas content of field galaxies with L K ∼ * suggests that internal processes such as supernovae-driven winds or active galactic nucleus feedback expel hot gas from low-mass galaxies. Such mechanisms may be less effective in groups and clusters where the presence of an intragroup or intracluster medium can confine outflowing material. In addition, galaxies in groups and clusters may be able to accrete gas from the ambient medium. While there is a population of L K ∼ * galaxies in groups and clusters that retain hot gas halos, some galaxies in these rich environments, including brighter galaxies, are largely devoid of hot gas. In these cases, the hot gas halos have likely been removed via ram pressure stripping. This suggests a very complex interplay between the intragroup/intracluster medium and hot gas halos of galaxies in rich environments, with the ambient medium helping to confine or even enhance the halos in some cases and acting to remove gas in others. In contrast, the hot gas content of more isolated galaxies is largely a function of the mass of the galaxy, with more massive galaxies able to maintain their halos, while in lower mass systems the hot gas escapes in outflowing winds.

  13. Early life factors and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinli; Ma, Huijie; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity), behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet), hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine) or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  14. LUMINOUS SATELLITES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES. I. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Fassnacht, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    We study the spatial distribution of faint satellites of intermediate redshift (0.1 s = 1.7 +0.9 -0.8 ) that is comparable to the number of Milky Way satellites with similar host-satellite contrast. The average projected radial profile of the satellite distribution is isothermal (γ p = -1.0 +0.3 -0.4 ), which is consistent with the observed central mass density profile of massive early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the satellite distribution is highly anisotropic (isotropy is ruled out at a >99.99% confidence level). Defining φ to be the offset between the major axis of the satellite spatial distribution and the major axis of the host light profile, we find a maximum posterior probability of φ = 0 and |φ| less than 42 0 at the 68% confidence level. The alignment of the satellite distribution with the light of the host is consistent with simulations, assuming that light traces mass for the host galaxy as observed for lens galaxies. The anisotropy of the satellite population enhances its ability to produce the flux ratio anomalies observed in gravitationally lensed quasars.

  15. Early Life Factors and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a multifactorial disease, and its aetiology involves a complex interplay between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. In recent years, evidences from both human and animal experiments have correlated early life factors with programming diabetes risk in adult life. Fetal and neonatal period is crucial for organ development. Many maternal factors during pregnancy may increase the risk of diabetes of offsprings in later life, which include malnutrition, healthy (hyperglycemia and obesity, behavior (smoking, drinking, and junk food diet, hormone administration, and even stress. In neonates, catch-up growth, lactation, glucocorticoids administration, and stress have all been found to increase the risk of insulin resistance or T2DM. Unfavorable environments (socioeconomic situation and famine or obesity also has long-term negative effects on children by causing increased susceptibility to T2DM in adults. We also address the potential mechanisms that may underlie the developmental programming of T2DM. Therefore, it might be possible to prevent or delay the risk for T2DM by improving pre- and/or postnatal factors.

  16. X-Ray Scaling Relations of Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babyk, Iu. V.; McNamara, B. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Vantyghem, A. N.; Russell, H. R.; Pulido, F. A.; Edge, A. C.

    2018-04-01

    X-ray luminosity, temperature, gas mass, total mass, and their scaling relations are derived for 94 early-type galaxies (ETGs) using archival Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. Consistent with earlier studies, the scaling relations, L X ∝ T 4.5±0.2, M ∝ T 2.4±0.2, and L X ∝ M 2.8±0.3, are significantly steeper than expected from self-similarity. This steepening indicates that their atmospheres are heated above the level expected from gravitational infall alone. Energetic feedback from nuclear black holes and supernova explosions are likely heating agents. The tight L X –T correlation for low-luminosity systems (i.e., below 1040 erg s‑1) are at variance with hydrodynamical simulations, which generally predict higher temperatures for low-luminosity galaxies. We also investigate the relationship between total mass and pressure, Y X = M g × T, finding M\\propto {Y}X0.45+/- 0.04. We explore the gas mass to total mass fraction in ETGs and find a range of 0.1%–1.0%. We find no correlation between the gas-to-total mass fraction with temperature or total mass. Higher stellar velocity dispersions and higher metallicities are found in hotter, brighter, and more massive atmospheres. X-ray core radii derived from β-model fitting are used to characterize the degree of core and cuspiness of hot atmospheres.

  17. Emergence and early survival of early versus late seral species in Great Basin restoration in two different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shauna M. Uselman; Keirith A. Snyder; Elizabeth A. Leger; Sara E. Duke

    2015-01-01

    Comparing emergence and survival probabilities, early seral natives generally outperformed late seral natives when growing with exotics and had earlier emergence timing, although results differed among functional groups and soil types. In contrast, survival probabilities did not differ between the early and late seral mixes when growing without exotics. Within each...

  18. Early RNA of adenovirus type 3 in permissive and abortive infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Groff, D E; Daniell, E

    1981-01-01

    Early adenovirus type 3 cytoplasmic polyadenylated RNAs from HeLa and BHK-21 cells were detected and mapped on the viral genome by gel blotting and hybridization techniques. The sizes and locations of the 16 adenovirus type 3 RNAs were identical in the two cell types, although relative molarities of the various RNA species differed. Each of the early adenovirus type 3 RNAs was associated with polysomes in both cell types, suggesting that the abortive infection of hamster cells does not result...

  19. Interstellar matter in early-type galaxies. II - The relationship between gaseous components and galaxy types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Hogg, David E.; Roberts, Morton S.

    1992-01-01

    Interstellar components of early-type galaxies are established by galactic type and luminosity in order to search for relationships between the different interstellar components and to test the predictions of theoretical models. Some of the data include observations of neutral hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and radio continuum emission. An alternative distance model which yields LX varies as LB sup 2.45, a relation which is in conflict with simple cooling flow models, is discussed. The dispersion of the X-ray luminosity about this regression line is unlikely to result from stripping. The striking lack of clear correlations between hot and cold interstellar components, taken together with their morphologies, suggests that the cold gas is a disk phenomenon while the hot gas is a bulge phenomenon, with little interaction between the two. The progression of galaxy type from E to Sa is not only a sequence of decreasing stellar bulge-to-disk ratio, but also of hot-to-cold-gas ratio.

  20. Herschel/PACS far-IR spectral imaging of a jet from an intermediate mass protostar in the OMC-2 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, B.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Vavrek, R.; Megeath, S. T.; Stutz, A. M.; Osorio, M.; Wyrowski, F.; Fischer, W.; Tobin, J. J.; Sánchez-Portal, M.; Diaz Rodriguez, A. K.; Wilson, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first detection of a jet in the far-IR [O I] lines from an intermediate mass protostar. This jet was detected in a Herschel/PACS spectral mapping study in the [O I] lines of OMC-2 FIR 3 and FIR 4, two of the most luminous protostars in Orion outside of the Orion Nebula. The spatial morphology of the fine structure line emission reveals the presence of an extended photodissociation region (PDR) and a narrow, but intense jet connecting the two protostars. The jet seen in [O I] emission is spatially aligned with the Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 μm jet and the CO (6-5) molecular outflow centered on FIR 3. The mass-loss rate derived from the total [O I] 63 μm line luminosity of the jet is 7.7 × 10-6M⊙ yr-1, more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for typical low-mass class 0 protostars. The implied accretion luminosity is significantly higher than the observed bolometric luminosity of FIR 4, indicating that the [O I] jet is unlikely to be associated with FIR 4. We argue that the peak line emission seen toward FIR 4 originates in the terminal shock produced by the jet driven by FIR 3. The higher mass-loss rate that we find for FIR 3 is consistent with the idea that intermediate-mass protostars drive more powerful jets than their low-mass counterparts. Our results also call into question the nature of FIR 4. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.The final reduced Herschel data used in this paper (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A26

  1. New probe of dark-matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate-mass black hole embedded in a dark-matter minispike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-05-31

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark-matter (DM) minihalo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the minihalo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave backreaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA and NGO. In this Letter, we show that the gravitational wave (GW) detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution, would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed black hole and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the γ-ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to noninteracting DM. Hence, the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful probe into DM properties.

  2. Molecular Gas and Star Formation in Local Early-type Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bureau, M.; Davis, T. A.; Alatalo, K.; Crocker, A. F.; Blitz, L.; Young, L. M.; Combes, F.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, P. -A; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnović, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P. -Y; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Carignan, Claude; Combes, François; Freeman, Ken C.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular gas content of local early-type galaxies is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution. First, as part of the ATLAS3D survey, we present the first complete, large (260 objects), volume-limited single-dish survey of CO in normal local early-type galaxies. We find a

  3. Early Neoarchaean A-type granitic magmatism by crustal reworking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29

    dyke swarm). It is suggested that the ~2.8 Ga A-type granites in the Singbhum craton mark a significant crustal reworking event attendant to mantle-derived mafic magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting. Key words: Granite; A-type; Geochemistry; Archaean; Crustal reworking; Singhbhum craton. Abstract. Click here to ...

  4. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  5. Early insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a progressive disease characterised by beta cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Beta cell dysfunction progresses to beta cell failure. Many patients with T2DM are managed with oral agents until complications develop. 'Clinical inertia' in T2DM, defined as lack of initiation or ...

  6. Academic Performance and Type of Early Childhood Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Simonsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This is one of the few studies that estimates the effects of type of childhood care on academic achievement at higher grade levels by linking day care registers and educational registers. We use entire birth cohorts of ethnic Danish children, enrolled in either center based day care or family day...

  7. Ecuadorian kindergartners’ numerical development: contribution of SES, quality of early mathematics education, and school type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Bojorque

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed at analyzing the development of Ecuadorian children’s early numerical abilities during the Kindergarten year in relation to their SES, the quality of their early mathematics education, and the attended school type. 179 Ecuadorian Kindergartners (18 classrooms, 6 classrooms per school type were offered a standards-based early numeracy test at both the start and the end of the Kindergarten year. In all classrooms, the quality of early mathematics education was assessed twice via the COEMET instrument. Results first showed rather low scores on the early numeracy test, with only 50% (at the start up to 70% (at the end of the items solved correctly, along with large inter-individual differences in these scores. Second, the quality of early mathematics education in the participating classrooms was also rather low. Third, children’s early numerical abilities at Kindergarten entry, SES, and school type predicted children’s early numerical abilities at the end of the school year. The quality of early mathematics education did not contribute to children’s numerical development. We critically discuss our findings in view of optimizing the quality of Ecuadorian early mathematics education as a stepping stone towards enhanced numerical development.

  8. N-body modeling of globular clusters: detecting intermediate-mass black holes by non-equipartition in HST proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele

    2010-09-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes {IMBHs} are objects of considerable astrophysical significance. They have been invoked as possible remnants of Population III stars, precursors of supermassive black holes, sources of ultra-luminous X-ray emission, and emitters of gravitational waves. The centers of globular clusters, where they may have formed through runaway collapse of massive stars, may be our best chance of detecting them. HST studies of velocity dispersions have provided tentative evidence, but the measurements are difficult and the results have been disputed. It is thus important to explore and develop additional indicators of the presence of an IMBH in these systems. In a Cycle 16 theory project we focused on the fingerprints of an IMBH derived from HST photometry. We showed that an IMBH leads to a detectable quenching of mass segregation. Analysis of HST-ACS data for NGC 2298 validated the method, and ruled out an IMBH of more than 300 solar masses. We propose here to extend the search for IMBH signatures from photometry to kinematics. The velocity dispersion of stars in collisionally relaxed stellar systems such as globular clusters scales with main sequence mass as sigma m^alpha. A value alpha = -0.5 corresponds to equipartition. Mass-dependent kinematics can now be measured from HST proper motion studies {e.g., alpha = -0.21 for Omega Cen}. Preliminary analysis shows that the value of alpha can be used as indicator of the presence of an IMBH. In fact, the quenching of mass segregation is a result of the degree of equipartition that the system attains. However, detailed numerical simulations are required to quantify this. Therefore we propose {a} to carry out a new, larger set of realistic N-body simulations of star clusters with IMBHs, primordial binaries and stellar evolution to predict in detail the expected kinematic signatures and {b} to compare these predictions to datasets that are {becoming} available. Considerable HST resources have been invested in

  9. THE M BH-L SPHEROID RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M bh , we derive the M bh -(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sérsic galaxies. Using K s -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M bh ∝L 1.10±0.20 K s for the core-Sérsic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M bh ∝L 2.73±0.55 K s for the Sérsic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M bh -(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sérsic galaxies are offset from each other in the M bh -L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M bh /M Spheroid mass ratio of ∼0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M bh -L and M bh -M Spheroid relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sérsic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sérsic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sérsic M bh -L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing active galactic nuclei, finding many masses between that of stellar mass black holes and supermassive black holes.

  10. The central dynamics of M3, M13, and M92: stringent limits on the masses of intermediate-mass black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamann, S.; Wisotzki, L.; Roth, M. M.; Gerssen, J.; Husser, T.-O.; Sandin, C.; Weilbacher, P.

    2014-06-01

    We used the PMAS integral field spectrograph to obtain large sets of radial velocities in the central regions of three northern Galactic globular clusters: M3, M13, and M92. By applying the novel technique of crowded field 3D spectroscopy, we measured radial velocities for about 80 stars within the central ~10″ of each cluster. These are by far the largest spectroscopic datasets obtained in the innermost parts of these clusters up to now. To obtain kinematical data across the whole extent of the clusters, we complement our data with measurements available in the literature. We combine our velocity measurements with surface brightness profiles to analyse the internal dynamics of each cluster using spherical Jeans models, and investigate whether our data provide evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole in any of the clusters. The surface brightness profiles reveal that all three clusters are consistent with a core profile, although shallow cusps cannot be excluded. We find that spherical Jeans models with a constant mass-to-light ratio provide a good overall representation of the kinematical data. A massive black hole is required in none of the three clusters to explain the observed kinematics. Our 1σ (3σ) upper limits are 5300 M⊙ (12 000 M⊙) for M3, 8600 M⊙ (13 000 M⊙) for M13, and 980 M⊙ (2700 M⊙) for M92. A puzzling circumstance is the existence of several potential high velocity stars in M3 and M13, as their presence can account for the majority of the discrepancies that we find in our mass limits compared to M92. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano-Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables D.1 to D.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  11. Early IFN type I response: Learning from microbial evasion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, Eliana M; Battistini, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) comprises a class of cytokines first discovered more than 50 years ago and initially characterized for their ability to interfere with viral replication and restrict locally viral propagation. As such, their induction downstream of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is a hallmark of the host antiviral response. The acknowledgment that several PAMPs, not just of viral origin, may induce IFN, pinpoints at these molecules as a first line of host defense against a number of invading pathogens. Acting in both autocrine and paracrine manner, IFN interferes with viral replication by inducing hundreds of different IFN-stimulated genes with both direct anti-pathogenic as well as immunomodulatory activities, therefore functioning as a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. On the other hand an inverse interference to escape the IFN system is largely exploited by pathogens through a number of tactics and tricks aimed at evading, inhibiting or manipulating the IFN pathway, that result in progression of infection or establishment of chronic disease. In this review we discuss the interplay between the IFN system and some selected clinically important and challenging viruses and bacteria, highlighting the wide array of pathogen-triggered molecular mechanisms involved in evasion strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ON THE SIZE AND COMOVING MASS DENSITY EVOLUTION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wel, Arjen; Bell, Eric F.; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Gallazzi, Anna; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2009-01-01

    We present a simple, empirically motivated model that simultaneously predicts the evolution of the mean size and the comoving mass density of massive (>10 11 M sun ) early-type galaxies from z = 2 to the present. First, we demonstrate that some size evolution of the population can be expected simply due to the continuous emergence of early-type galaxies. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data reveal that in the present-day universe more compact early-type galaxies with a given dynamical mass have older stellar populations. This implies that with increasing look-back time, the more extended galaxies will be more and more absent from the population. In contrast, at a given stellar velocity dispersion, SDSS data show that there is no relation between size and age, which implies that the velocity dispersion can be used to estimate the epoch at which galaxies stopped forming stars, turning into early-type galaxies. Based on this, we define an empirically motivated, redshift-dependent velocity dispersion threshold above which galaxies do not form stars at a significant rate, which we associate with the transformation into early-type galaxies. Applying this 'formation' criterion to a large sample of nearby early-type galaxies, we predict the redshift evolution in the size distribution and the comoving mass density. The resulting evolution in the mean size is roughly half of the observed evolution. Then we include a prescription for the merger histories of galaxies between the 'formation' redshift and the present, based on cosmological simulations of the assembly of dark matter halos. Such mergers after the transformation into an early-type galaxy are presumably dissipationless ('dry'), where the increase in size is expected to be approximately proportional to the increase in mass. This model successfully reproduces the observed evolution since z ∼ 2 in the mean size and in the comoving mass density of early-type galaxies with mass M > 10 11 M sun . We conclude that

  13. WR 20a: A massive cornerstone binary system comprising two extreme early-type stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauw, G.; De Becker, M.; Nazé, Y.; Crowther, P.A.; Gosset, E.; Sana, H.; van der Hucht, K.A.; Vreux, J.-M.; Williams, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse spectroscopic observations of WR 20a revealing that this star is a massive early-type binary system with a most probable orbital period of ~3.675 days. Our spectra indicate that both components are most likely of WN6ha or O3If*/WN6ha spectral type. The orbital solution for a period of

  14. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths

  15. Early Vocabulary in Relation to Gender, Bilingualism, Type, and Duration of Childcare

    OpenAIRE

    Stolarova, M.; Brielmann, A. A.; Wolf, C.; Rinker, T.; Burke, T; Baayen, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive value of child-related and environmental characteristics for early lexical development. The German productive vocabulary of 51 2-year-olds (27 girls), assessed via parental report, was analyzed taking children's gender, the type of early care they experienced, and their mono-versus bilingual language composition into consideration. The children were from an educationally homogeneous group of families and state-regulated daycare facilities with high struc...

  16. Phase II study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Photofrin II for Hilar type early lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, an increase in lung cancer incidence has been recognized internationally, and more early stage cases of lung cancer are being detected as a result of improvements in survey and diagnostic techniques, including flexible bronchofiberscope. However, some early stage cases that are inoperable due to age, poor pulmonary function, etc. are generally treated with conventional modalities, such as radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. Modality to curatively treat such inoperable early stage lung cancers has still not been established. PhotoDynamic Therapy is a newly developed local therapeutic modality which has been shown to be able to obtain complete response and cure in those early stage lung cancers with carcinoma in situ. The objective of this study is, first, to evaluate the activity and toxicity of PDT with Photofrin II in hilar type of early lung cancer, and second, to determine the complete response rate as primary end-point. (author). 5 tabs

  17. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M.; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Methods: Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant...

  18. Early atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in mice with diet-induced type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, E D; Bang, C A; Nielsen, L B

    2009-01-01

    and the median lesion area was 8.0 times higher than in fat-fed wild-type mice (P = 0.001). Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 staining of the aortic endothelium was most pronounced in the fat-fed apoB transgenic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet-induced type 2 diabetes causes early......BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes increase the risk of atherosclerosis. It is unknown to what extent this reflects direct effects on the arterial wall or secondary effects of hyperlipidaemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the development...

  19. The H I Tully-Fisher relation of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, Milan; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Serra, Paolo; Józsa, Gyula I. G.; Kerp, Jürgen; Morganti, Raffaella; Cappellari, Michele; Davis, Timothy A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Torsten; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; de Zeeuw, P. Tim

    We study the H iK-band Tully-Fisher relation and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation for a sample of 16 early-type galaxies, taken from the ATLAS3D sample, which all have very regular H i disks extending well beyond the optical body (≳ 5 Reff). We use the kinematics of these disks to estimate the

  20. The SAURON project - IX. A kinematic classification for early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emsellem, Eric; Cappellari, Michele; Krajnovic, Davor; van de Ven, Glenn; Bacon, R.; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional stellar kinematics of 48 representative elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies obtained with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph reveal that early-type galaxies appear in two broad flavours, depending on whether they exhibit clear large-scale rotation or not. We define a new

  1. The ATLAS3D Project - XXVIII. Dynamically driven star formation suppression in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Timothy A.; Young, Lisa M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Bureau, Martin; Blitz, Leo; Alatalo, Katherine; Emsellem, Eric; Naab, Thorsten; Bayet, Estelle; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present measurements of the star formation rate (SFR) in the early-type galaxies (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D sample, based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) 22 μm and Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet emission. We combine these with gas masses estimated from 12CO and H I data in

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Group of early-type galaxies (Fraix-Burnet+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraix-Burnet, D.; Dugue, M.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Davoust, E.

    2011-03-01

    We thus chose the data compiled and standardized by Hudson et al. (2001, Cat. J/MNRAS/327/265) for 699 early-type galaxies in 56 clusters, in the redshift range from 0.007 to 0.053 (Streaming Motions of Abell Clusters (SMAC) catalogue). (1 data file).

  3. Discovery of a magnetic field in the early B-type star σ Lupi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, H.F.; Kolenberg, K.; Plaggenborg, B.; Marsden, S.C.; Waite, I.A.; Landstreet, J.D.; Wade, G.A.; Grunhut, J.H.; Oksala, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Magnetic early B-type stars are rare. Indirect indicators are needed to identify them before investing in time-intensive spectropolarimetric observations. Aims. We use the strongest indirect indicator of a magnetic field in B stars, which is periodic variability of ultraviolet (UV) stellar

  4. Change in Overweight from Childhood to Early Adulthood and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Ängquist, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We investigated whether remission of overweight before early adulthood reduces this risk. Methods We conducted a study involving 62,565 Danish men whose weights and heights had been measured at 7...

  5. CALIFA reveals prolate rotation in massive early-type galaxies: A polar galaxy merger origin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsatsi, A.; Lyubenova, M.; van de Ven, G.; Chang, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Macciò, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    We present new evidence for eight early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the CALIFA Survey that show clear rotation around their major photometric axis ("prolate rotation"). These are LSBCF560-04, NGC 0647, NGC 0810, NGC 2484, NGC 4874, NGC 5216, NGC 6173, and NGC 6338. Including NGC 5485, a known case of

  6. Recent star formation in the Hi dominated outer regions of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    Context According to the ATLAS3D project, about 20 percent of all nearby early-type galaxies (D <42 Mpc; M K < -21.5 mag; stellar mass M stars >~ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside clusters are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutral hydrogen (Hi) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much

  7. THE SLACS SURVEY. VIII. THE RELATION BETWEEN ENVIRONMENT AND INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, Tommaso; Gavazzi, Raphael; Gorecki, Alexia; Marshall, Philip J.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Bolton, Adam S.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Burles, Scott

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation between the internal structure of early-type galaxies and their environment using 70 strong gravitational lenses from the SLACS Survey. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database is used to determine two measures of overdensity of galaxies around each lens-the projected

  8. Early Detection and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Reduce Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herman, William H; Ye, Wen; Griffin, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the benefits of screening and early treatment of type 2 diabetes compared with no screening and late treatment using a simulation model with data from the ADDITION-Europe study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Michigan Model, a validated computer simulation model, an...

  9. Star formation associated with neutral hydrogen in the outskirts of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yıldız, Mustafa K.; Serra, Paolo; Peletier, Reynier F.; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2017-01-01

    About 20 per cent of all nearby early-type galaxies (M⋆≳ 6 × 109 M⊙) outside the Virgocluster are surrounded by a disc or ring of low-column-density neutralhydrogen (H I) gas with typical radii of tens of kpc, much larger thanthe stellar body. In order to understand the impact of these gasreservoirs

  10. The structure of dark and luminous matter in early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we explore new techniques to study the dark and luminous matter in the outskirts of galaxies. To determine the mass and shape of the dark matter halo around the early-type galaxy NGC 2974, we measure the kinematics of its large neutral gas ring. We combine these large-scale kinematics

  11. Probing the interstellar medium in early-type galaxies with Infrared Space Oberservatory observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.; Hollenbach, D.; Helou, D.; Silbermann, N.; Valjavec, E.; Rubin, R.; Dale, D.; Hunter, D.; Lu, N.; Lord, S.; hide

    2000-01-01

    Four IRAS-detected early-type galaxies were observed with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). With the exception of the 15 mu m image of NGC 1052, the mid-IR images of NGC 1052, NGC 1155, NGC 5866, and NGC 6958 at 4.5, 7, and 15 mu m show extended emission.

  12. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  13. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  14. The kinematic properties of dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Gorgas, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M.R.; Gorgas, J.; Maíz Apellániz, J.; Pardo, J.R.; Gil de Paz, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new medium resolution kinematic data for a sample of 21 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) mainly in the Virgo cluster. These data are used to study the origin of dEs inhabiting clusters. Within them we detect two populations: half of the sample (52%) are rotationally supported and the other

  15. Early-transition-metal catalysts with phenoxy-imine-type ligands for the oligomerization of ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shinsuke; Kawamura, Kazumori; Fujita, Terunori

    2011-02-01

    Early-transition-metal complexes incorporating phenoxy-imine-type bidentate and tridentate ligands, after activation, can achieve selective as well as nonselective ethylene oligomerization to produce 1-hexene, linear α-olefins, and vinyl-terminated low-molecular-weight polyethylenes, all with high efficiency. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napolitano, N.R.; Romanowsky, A.J.; Coccato, L; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N.G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M.R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K.C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract. We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using plane- tary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities

  17. Links between sex-typed time use in middle childhood and gender development in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C

    2004-09-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86 years). In annual home interviews, children rated their self-esteem, gender role attitudes and sex-typed personality qualities, academic interests, and school grades. During 7 nightly phone interviews each year, children reported on their activities. Boys were more sex-typed than girls in their peer activities, and children were least sex-typed in their activities with siblings. Sex-typed activities in middle childhood predicted individual differences in gender development in early adolescence. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  18. THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.

  19. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  20. Change in Overweight from Childhood to Early Adulthood and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Lise G; Jensen, Britt W; Ängquist, Lars; Osler, Merete; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2018-04-05

    Childhood overweight is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. We investigated whether remission of overweight before early adulthood reduces this risk. We conducted a study involving 62,565 Danish men whose weights and heights had been measured at 7 and 13 years of age and in early adulthood (17 to 26 years of age). Overweight was defined in accordance with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. Data on type 2 diabetes status (at age ≥30 years, 6710 persons) were obtained from a national health registry. Overweight at 7 years of age (3373 of 62,565 men; 5.4%), 13 years of age (3418 of 62,565; 5.5%), or early adulthood (5108 of 62,565; 8.2%) was positively associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes; associations were stronger at older ages at overweight and at younger ages at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Men who had had remission of overweight before the age of 13 years had a risk of having type 2 diabetes diagnosed at 30 to 60 years of age that was similar to that among men who had never been overweight (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.21). As compared with men who had never been overweight, men who had been overweight at 7 and 13 years of age but not during early adulthood had a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.98), but their risk was lower than that among men with persistent overweight (hazard ratio [persistently overweight vs. never overweight], 4.14; 95% CI, 3.57 to 4.79). An increase in body-mass index between 7 years of age and early adulthood was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, even among men whose weight had been normal at 7 years of age. Childhood overweight at 7 years of age was associated with increased risks of adult type 2 diabetes only if it continued until puberty or later ages. (Funded by the European Union.).

  1. Influence of muscle fiber type composition on early fat accumulation under high-fat diet challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ning; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yee, Grace M; Kitajima, Yoichiro; Katagiri, Sayaka; Kojima, Motoyasu; Anzai, Keizo; Eguchi, Yuichiro; Hamilton, James A

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether differences in muscle fiber types affect early-stage fat accumulation, under high fat diet challenge in mice. Twelve healthy male C57BL/6 mice experienced with short-term (6 weeks) diet treatment for the evaluation of early pattern changes in muscular fat. The mice were randomly divided into two groups: high fat diet (n = 8) and normal control diet (n = 4). Extra- and intra-myocellular lipid (EMCL and IMCL) in lumbar muscles (type I fiber predominant) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscle (type II fiber predominant) were determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Correlation of EMCL, IMCL and their ratio between TA and lumbar muscles was evaluated. EMCL increased greatly in both muscle types after high fat diet. IMCL in TA and lumbar muscles increased to a much lower extent, with a slightly greater increase in TA muscles. EMCLs in the 2 muscles were positively correlated (r = 0.84, p = 0.01), but IMCLs showed a negative relationship (r = -0.84, p = 0.01). In lumbar muscles, high fat diet significantly decreased type I fiber while it increased type II fiber (all p≤0.001). In TA muscle, there was no significant fiber type shifting (p>0.05). Under short-time high fat diet challenge, lipid tends to initially accumulate extra-cellularly. In addition, compared to type II dominant muscle, Type I dominant muscle was less susceptible to IMCL accumulation but more to fiber type shifting. These phenomena might reflect compensative responses of skeletal muscle to dietary lipid overload in order to regulate metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Central star formation in early-type galaxies: Images and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, L. L.; Gallagher, J. S., III

    1993-01-01

    We are reporting on an on-going study of strong central star-bursts in early type galaxies. These galaxies are brighter than m(pg) = 14.5 and are classified as type SO, SO/a, or Sa in the Uppsala General Catalog. All of them have unusually warm, bright far infrared sources for early-type galaxies, with F(100 microns)/F(60 microns) less than 2.0 and F(60 microns) greater than 2.5 Jy. Much of the infrared emission comes from the central few arcsec. Most of the galaxies were detected at 2380 MHz at Arecibo, with flux densities between 15 and 33 mJy. They have diffuse radio sources with a variety of morphologies, typically a few kpc in extent. Long slit spectra through the nucleus show that all have Balmer absorption lines, signifying a large B or A star population, and (O2) 3727 and Balmer emission lines, consistent with ionization by hot young stars. We have made optical continuum and emission line images of the galaxies to use in combination with the above data to study the causes and evolution of strong central star-bursts in early-type disk systems.

  3. The TESIS Project: Revealing Massive Early-Type Galaxies at z > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.; Braito, V.; Bender, R.; Drory, N.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.; Mannucci, F.; Maraston, C.

    How and when present-day massive early-type galaxies built up and what type of evolution has characterized their growth (star formation and/or merging) still remain open issues. The different competing scenarios of galaxy formation predict much different properties of early-type galaxies at z > 1. The "monolithic" collapse predicts that massive spheroids formed at high redshift (z > 2.5-3) and that their comoving density is constant at z 1, their comoving density decreases from z = 0 to z ~ 1.5 and they should experience their last burst of star formation at z 1 can be probed observationally once a well defined sample of massive early-types at z > 1 is available. We are constructing such a sample through a dedicated near-IR very low resolution (λ/Δλ≃50) spectroscopic survey (TNG EROs Spectroscopic Identification Survey, TESIS, [6]) of a complete sample of 30 bright (K < 18.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs).

  4. Dark-Matter Content of Early-Type Galaxies with Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Coccato, L.; Capaccioli, M.; Douglas, N. G.; Noordermeer, E.; Merrifield, M. R.; Kuijken, K.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Freeman, K. C.; De Lorenzi, F.; Das, P.

    2008-05-01

    We examine the dark matter properties of nearby early-type galaxies using planetary nebulae (PNe) as mass probes. We have designed a specialised instrument, the Planetary Nebula Spectrograph (PN.S) operating at the William Herschel telescope, with the purpose of measuring PN velocities with best efficiency. The primary scientific objective of this custom-built instrument is the study of the PN kinematics in 12 ordinary round galaxies. Preliminary results showing a dearth of dark matter in ordinary galaxies (Romanowsky et al. 2003) are now confirmed by the first complete PN.S datasets. On the other hand early-type galaxies with a “regular” dark matter content are starting to be observed among the brighter PN.S target sample, thus confirming a correlation between the global dark-to-luminous mass virial ratio (fDM = MDM M*) and the galaxy luminosity and mass.

  5. The Tully-Fisher relationship for isolated early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Trisha L.; Marcum, Pamela M.; Fanelli, Michael N.

    2017-06-01

    Extremely isolated early-type galaxies (IEGs), which are virtually free of galaxy harassment that is typical in galaxy clusters and groups, offer insight into the evolution of the broader class of early-type galaxies (ETGs). Here, we present analysis of single-dish atomic hydrogen (HI) line profiles for twelve IEGs observed with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). These IEGs are separated in comoving distance by at least 2.5 Mpc from galaxies brighter than MV =-16.5. We present a Tully-Fisher diagram for our IEG sample using measured HI line profile velocity widths. The derived Tully-Fisher relationship and HI line profile properties of the isolated sample are compared to those of ETGs from the literature.

  6. High-z early-type galaxies: mass and light from gravitational lensing and stellar kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, T.; Koopmans, L.

    2002-12-01

    I will report on new results from the Lenses Structure and Dynamics Survey. We have measured spatially resolved velocity dispersion profiles of a sample of 11 distant (up to z=1) early-type galaxies that are gravitational lenses. By combining lensing and dynamical analysis we firmly constrain the dark matter density profile, the controversial inner slope of the dark matter halo, and the total mass distribution, and we give some constraints on the stellar orbits. In particular, I will discuss the implications of this measurement on the epoch and mechanism of formation of early-type galaxies, on the universal dark matter halos predicted by cold dark matter scenarios, and on the measurement of the Hubble Constant from gravitational time-delay observations. Financial support for proposals HST-AR 9222 and HST-AR-09527 provided by NASA through a grant from STScI, which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555 is gratfully acknowledged.

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Magnetic early B-type stars. I. (Shultz+, 2018)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; Mimes Collaboration; Binamics Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    Longitudinal magnetic field measurements of early B-type stars derived from 1) least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted from high-resolution spectropolarimetric data (ESPaDOnS, Narval, HARPSpol), using masks consisting of metallic lines, metallic + He lines, individual chemical elements, as well as single-line H measurements; and 2) from single-line low-resolution spectropolarimetric observations with dimaPol. (3 data files).

  8. Torsional oscillations and observed rotational period variations in early-type stars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krtička, J.; Mikulášek, Z.; Henry, G.W.; Kurfürst, P.; Karlický, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, č. 1 (2017), s. 933-939 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-01116S; GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : MHD * chemically peculiar stars * early-type stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  9. The Mid-Infrared Fundamental Plane of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin

    2008-05-01

    Three observables of early-type galaxies—size (re), surface brightness (Ie), and velocity dispersion (σ0)—form a tight planar correlation known as the fundamental plane (FP), which has provided great insights into the galaxy formation and the evolution processes. However, the FP has been found to be tilted against the simple virial expectation, prompting debates on its origin. In order to investigate the contribution of systematic stellar population variation to the FP tilt, we study here the FP relations of early-type galaxies in the mid-infrared (MIR), which may represent stellar mass well. We examine the wavelength dependence of the FP coefficients a and b in log re = alog σ0 + blog langle Iranglee + c, using a sample of 56 early-type galaxies for which visible (V band), near-infrared (K band), and MIR (Spitzer IRAC, 3.6-8.0 μm) data are available. We find that the coefficient a increases as a function of wavelength as da/dλ = 0.11 +/- 0.04 μm-1, while the coefficient b reaches the closest to -1 at 3.6-5.8 μm. When applied to the visible FP coefficients derived from a larger sample of nearby early-type galaxies, we get the FP relation with (a, b) ~= (1.6-1.8, -0.9) at 3.6 μm. Our result suggests that the stellar population effect can explain more than half of the FP tilt, closing the gap between the virial expectation and the optical FP. The reduction in the FP tilt is reflected in the dynamical mass-to-light ratio, Mdyn/L, dependence on L which decreases toward 3.6-5.8 μm, suggesting that the MIR light better represents mass than the shorter wavelengths.

  10. Prediction of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes in early pregnancy by clinical predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestgaard, Marianne; Sommer, Miriam Colstrup; Ringholm, Lene

    2018-01-01

    .8-17.1) as well as high blood pressure within the normotensive range. HbA1C, body mass index and nulliparity were positively associated with preeclampsia, but not consistently. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes was 17%. In early pregnancy pre-existing hypertension and high...... blood pressure within the normotensive range as well as presence of microangiopathy were predictors of preeclampsia. Poor glycaemic control, obesity and nulliparity probably also contribute to the increased risk....

  11. Photometric properties and scaling relations of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F. S.; Xia, X. Y.; Mao, Shude; Wu, Hong; Deng, Z. G.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the photometric properties of the early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) using a carefully selected sample of 85 BCGs from the C4 cluster catalogue with a redshift of less than 0.1. We perform accurate background subtractions and surface photometry for these BCGs to 25magarcsec-2 in the Sloan r band. By quantitatively analysing the gradient of the Petrosian profiles of BCGs, we find that a large fraction of BCGs have extended stellar envelopes in their outskirts; more luminous BCGs tend to have more extended stellar haloes that are likely to be connected with mergers. A comparison sample of elliptical galaxies was chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges, for which the same photometric analysis procedure is applied. We find that BCGs have steeper size-luminosity (R ~ Lα) and Faber-Jackson (L ~ σβ) relations than the bulk of early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the power-law indices (α and β) in these relations increase as the isophotal limits become deeper. For isophotal limits from 22 to 25magarcsec-2, BCGs are usually larger than the bulk of early-type galaxies, and a large fraction (~49 per cent) of BCGs have discy isophotal shapes. The differences in the scaling relations are consistent with a scenario where the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early-type galaxies; in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation. We highlight several possible dry merger candidates in our sample.

  12. Early Blue Excess from the Type Ia Supernova 2017cbv and Implications for Its Progenitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Howell, D. Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Arcavi, Iair [Las Cumbres Observatory, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117-5575 (United States); Sand, David J.; Tartaglia, Leonardo [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Valenti, Stefano; Bostroem, K. Azalee [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Brown, Peter [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kasen, Daniel [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8169 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y.; Davis, Scott; Shahbandeh, Melissa [Department of Physics, Florida State University, 77 Chieftain Way, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4350 (United States); Stritzinger, Maximilian D., E-mail: griffin@lco.global [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2017-08-20

    We present very early, high-cadence photometric observations of the nearby Type Ia SN 2017cbv. The light curve is unique in that it has a blue bump during the first five days of observations in the U , B , and g bands, which is clearly resolved given our photometric cadence of 5.7 hr during that time span. We model the light curve as the combination of early shocking of the supernova ejecta against a nondegenerate companion star plus a standard SN Ia component. Our best-fit model suggests the presence of a subgiant star 56 R {sub ☉} from the exploding white dwarf, although this number is highly model-dependent. While this model matches the optical light curve well, it overpredicts the observed flux in the ultraviolet bands. This may indicate that the shock is not a blackbody, perhaps because of line blanketing in the UV. Alternatively, it could point to another physical explanation for the optical blue bump, such as interaction with circumstellar material or an unusual nickel distribution. Early optical spectra of SN 2017cbv show strong carbon (C ii λ 6580) absorption up through day −13 with respect to maximum light, suggesting that the progenitor system contains a significant amount of unburned material. These early results on SN 2017cbv illustrate the power of early discovery and intense follow-up of nearby supernovae to resolve standing questions about the progenitor systems and explosion mechanisms of SNe Ia.

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE HOT INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN NORMAL EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Liam; Kim, Dong-Woo; Chandra Galaxy Atlas

    2018-01-01

    The hot interstellar medium (ISM) of early-type galaxies (ETG's) provides crucial insight into the understanding of their formation and evolution. Mechanisms such as type Ia supernovae heating, AGN feedback, deepening potential depth through dark matter assembly and ramp-pressure stripping are known to affect the structure of the ISM. By using temperature maps and radial temperature profiles of the hot ISM from ~70 ETG's with archival Chandra data, it is possible to classify the galaxy's ISM into common structural types. This is extended by using 3D fitting of the radial temperature profile in order to provide models that further constrain the structural types. Five structural types are present, negative (temperature decreases with radii), positive (temperature increases with radii), hybrid-dip (temperature decreases at small radii and increases at large radii), hybrid-bump (inverse of hybrid-dip) and quasi-isothermal (temperature is constant at all radii). This work will be continued by 1) determining which mechanisms are present in which galaxies and 2) analysing the model parameters between galaxies within each structural type to determine whether each type can be described by a single set of model parameters, indicating that the same physical processes are responsible for creating that structural type.

  14. Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

  15. Young, metal-enriched cores in early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster based on colour gradients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urich, Linda; Lisker, Thorsten; Janz, Joachim; van de Ven, Glenn; Leaman, Ryan; Boselli, Alessandro; Paudel, Sanjaya; Sybilska, Agnieszka; Peletier, Reynier F.; den Brok, Mark; Hensler, Gerhard; Toloba, Elisa; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Niemi, Sami-Matias

    2017-01-01

    Early-type dwarf galaxies are not simply featureless, old objects, but were found to be much more diverse, hosting substructures and a variety of stellar population properties. To explore the stellar content of faint early-type galaxies, and to investigate in particular those with recent central

  16. An early-time infrared and optical study of the type Ia supernovae SN 1994D and 1991T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meikle, WPS; Cumming, RJ; Geballe, TR; Lewis, [No Value; Walton, NA; Balcells, M; Cimatti, A; Croom, SM; Dhillon, VS; Economou, F; Jenkins, CR; Knapen, JH; Lucey, [No Value; Meadows, VS; Morris, PW; PerezFournon, [No Value; Shanks, T; Smith, LJ; Tanvir, NR; Veilleux, S; Vilchez, J; Wall, JV

    1996-01-01

    We present early-time infrared (IR) and optical spectroscopy, and optical photometry, of the Type Ia supernova 1994D. These observations provide the most complete optical-IR spectral coverage ever achieved for a Type Ia at this phase. Optical and IR spectra were obtained as early as 9 d before

  17. The ATLAS3D project - XXVII. Cold gas and the colours and ages of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Lisa M.; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the cold gas contents of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies, in the context of their optical colours, near-ultraviolet colours and Hβ absorption line strengths. Early-type (elliptical and lenticular) galaxies are not as gas poor as previously thought, and at least 40 per cent of

  18. Early Vocabulary in Relation to Gender, Bilingualism, Type, and Duration of Childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarova, M; Brielmann, A A; Wolf, C; Rinker, T; Burke, T; Baayen, H

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive value of child-related and environmental characteristics for early lexical development. The German productive vocabulary of 51 2-year-olds (27 girls), assessed via parental report, was analyzed taking children's gender, the type of early care they experienced, and their mono- versus bilingual language composition into consideration. The children were from an educationally homogeneous group of families and state-regulated daycare facilities with high structural quality. All investigated subgroups exhibited German vocabulary size within the expected normative range. Gender differences in vocabulary composition, but not in size, were observed. There were no general differences in vocabulary size or composition between the 2 care groups. An interaction between the predictors gender and care arrangement showed that girls without regular daycare experience before the age of 2 years had a somewhat larger vocabulary than all other investigated subgroups of children. The vocabulary size of the 2-year-old children in daycare correlated positively with the duration of their daycare experience prior to testing. The small subgroup of bilingual children investigated exhibited slightly lower but still normative German expressive vocabulary size and a different vocabulary composition compared to the monolingual children. This study expands current knowledge about relevant predictors of early vocabulary. It shows that in the absence of educational disadvantages the duration of early daycare experience of high structural quality is positively associated with vocabulary size but also points to the fact that environmental characteristics, such as type of care, might affect boys' and girls' early vocabulary in different ways.

  19. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam; iPTF Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here, we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN only occurred 0.15 +0.15-0.07 d before our first detection. In the ~24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ~2 mag, following a near-linear rise in flux for ~3 d. Strong C II absorption is detected in the early spectra of iPTF 16abc, before disappearing after ~7 d. Unlike the extensively-observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the (B-V)_0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling, or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including: (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the non-evolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong absorption from ionized carbon, are the result of either vigorous mixing of radioactive-Ni in the SN ejecta, or ejecta interaction with diffuse material, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  20. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Kadhim, Munira

    2016-01-01

    An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. To investigate GI induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes, human fibroblast cells, and human mammary epithelial cells to high energy protons and Fe ions. In addition, we also investigated GI in bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice, by analyzing cell survival and chromosome aberrations in the cells after multiple cell divisions. Results analyzed so far from the experiments indicated different sensitivities to charged particles between CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mouse strains, suggesting that there are two main types of response to irradiation: 1) responses associated with survival of damaged cells and 2) responses associated with the induction of non-clonal chromosomal instability in the surviving progeny of stem cells. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. Our results with different cell types demonstrated different RBE values between different cell types and between early and late chromosomal damages. This study also attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  1. Systematic variation of the stellar initial mass function in early-type galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M; Crocker, Alison F; Davies, Roger L; Davis, Timothy A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M

    2012-04-25

    Much of our knowledge of galaxies comes from analysing the radiation emitted by their stars, which depends on the present number of each type of star in the galaxy. The present number depends on the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which describes the distribution of stellar masses when the population formed, and knowledge of it is critical to almost every aspect of galaxy evolution. More than 50 years after the first IMF determination, no consensus has emerged on whether it is universal among different types of galaxies. Previous studies indicated that the IMF and the dark matter fraction in galaxy centres cannot both be universal, but they could not convincingly discriminate between the two possibilities. Only recently were indications found that massive elliptical galaxies may not have the same IMF as the Milky Way. Here we report a study of the two-dimensional stellar kinematics for the large representative ATLAS(3D) sample of nearby early-type galaxies spanning two orders of magnitude in stellar mass, using detailed dynamical models. We find a strong systematic variation in IMF in early-type galaxies as a function of their stellar mass-to-light ratios, producing differences of a factor of up to three in galactic stellar mass. This implies that a galaxy's IMF depends intimately on the galaxy's formation history.

  2. Renal function reserve in patients with early type 2 diabetic nephropathy using protein loading-scintirenography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Rongrong; Zhang Chenggang; Qi Hao; Li Xianfeng; Wang Jin; Liu Jianzhong; Li Sijin; Gao Fei; Yang Jing

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore a sensitive method and index to evaluate renal functional reserve (RFR) in patients with early diabetic nephropathy (DN) using protein loading-scintirenography. Methods: Fifty subjects were studied and divided into 3 groups.Group one (G1) consisted of 14 healthy volunteers; Group two (G2) consisted of 15 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and normoalbuminuria; Group three (G3) consisted of 21 patients with type 2 DM and microalbuminuria. All subjects underwent baseline and protein loading- 99 Tc m -DTPA scintirenography within one week. RFR was calculated as the difference between stimulated and baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR), time of peak (T b ), time of half excretion (C 1/2 ), residual rate at 20 min (C 20/b ) .Variance analysis and t-test were used to analyze the group differences. Results: (1) The RFR in terms of GFR had statistical difference between any two groups (t=14.884, 32.180, 16.042, all P -1 ·1.73 m -2 respectively. Therefore, the RFR decreased before microalbuminuria in type 2 DM patients. (2) There was statistical difference between the RFR of G1 and G2 in terms of C 1/2 (t = 5.505, P 20/b between G1 and G3 (t= 4.376, P 99 Tc m -DTPA protein loading-scintirenography is an effective method for measuring RFR to evaluate early DN in type 2 DM patients. (authors)

  3. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Lácteas, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMT Observatory, P.O. Box 210065, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Holwerda, Benne [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Sheth, Kartik, E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  4. CONSTRAINTS ON FEEDBACK PROCESSES DURING THE FORMATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevisan, M. [Departamento de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo/IAG, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreras, I. [MSSL, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De La Rosa, I. G. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); La Barbera, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); De Carvalho, R. R., E-mail: trevisan@astro.iag.usp.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCT, S. J. dos Campos (Brazil)

    2012-06-20

    Galaxies are found to obey scaling relations between a number of observables. These relations follow different trends at the low- and high-mass ends. The processes driving the curvature of scaling relations remain uncertain. In this Letter, we focus on the specific family of early-type galaxies, deriving the star formation histories of a complete sample of visually classified galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 over the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.025, covering a stellar mass interval from 10{sup 9} to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun }. Our sample features the characteristic 'knee' in the surface brightness versus mass distribution at M{sub *} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} . We find a clear difference between the age and metallicity distributions of the stellar populations above and beyond this knee, which suggests a sudden transition from a constant, highly efficient mode of star formation in high-mass galaxies, gradually decreasing toward the low-mass end of the sample. At fixed mass, our early-type sample is more efficient in building up the stellar content at early times in comparison to the general population of galaxies, with half of the stars already in place by redshift z {approx} 2 for all masses. The metallicity-age trend in low-mass galaxies is not compatible with infall of metal-poor gas, suggesting instead an outflow-driven relation.

  5. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, A; Jensen, H E; Agger, J F; Heegaard, P M H; Damborg, P; Aalbæk, B; Hammer, A S

    2017-05-22

    Individual differences of mink, including color type, are speculated to affect the course of wound healing, thereby impacting wound assessment and management on the farms, as well as the assessment of wounds in forensic cases. In this study, we examined the effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink. Full thickness excisional wounds (2 × 2 cm) were made on the back in 18 mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris. Gross and microscopic pathology of the wounds was evaluated 2 days post-wounding together with degree of wound size reduction, presence of bacteria and blood analyses. Pathological examination on day 2 showed the greatest mean wound size reduction in Brown mink (11.0%) followed by Blue Iris (7.9%) and Silverblue (1.6%). Bacteria were cultured from all wounds, and predominantly Staphylococcus species were recovered in mixed or pure culture. Histopathology from day 2 wounds showed a scab overlying necrotic wound edges, which were separated from underlying vital tissue by a demarcation zone rich in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Fibroblasts and plump endothelial cells were more numerous in the deeper tissues. Complete blood count parameters were within normal ranges in most cases, however, the mink showed mildly to markedly decreased hematocrit and six mink of the color types Silverblue and Blue Iris showed moderately elevated numbers of circulating segmented neutrophils on day 2. There was a marked increase in concentration of serum amyloid A from day 0 to day 2 in all color types. We have described differences in early wound healing between mink of the color types Brown, Silverblue and Blue Iris by use of an experimental wound model in farmed mink. The most pronounced difference pertained to the degree of wound size reduction which was greatest in Brown mink, followed by Blue Iris and Silverblue, respectively.

  6. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically explored. Here, we present comprehensive proteomic analysis of VATs in drug-naïve early T2DM patients and subjects with normal glucose tolerance. A total of 4,707 proteins were identified in LC-MS/MS experiments. Among them, 444 increased in abundance in T2DM and 328 decreased. They are involved in T2DM-related processes including inflammatory responses, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling, oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose metabolism. Of these proteins, we selected 11 VAT proteins that can represent alteration in early T2DM patients. Among them, up-regulation of FABP4, C1QA, S100A8, and SORBS1 and down-regulation of ACADL and PLIN4 were confirmed in VAT samples of independent early T2DM patients using Western blot. In summary, our profiling provided a comprehensive basis for understanding the link of a protein profile of VAT to early pathogenesis of T2DM. PMID:24403596

  7. Retinal Vascular Fractals Correlate With Early Neurodegeneration in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Soegaard Hansen, Rasmus; Pedersen, Knud

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation between the retinal vascular fractal dimension (Fd) and neurodegenerative changes in patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: In this cross-sectional study we examined 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with no or mild DR....... In a randomly selected eye of each patient, Fd was calculated using SIVA-Fractal, a specialized semiautomatic software. Retinal neurodegeneration was evaluated by Topcon 3D OCT-2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and by a RETI-scan multifocal ERG (mf-ERG) system in rings one to six. Level...... found between early vascular and neurogenic changes. Thus, retinal vascular fractal analysis might be considered as a tool to identify patients with early neurodegenerative retinal changes....

  8. Bent bone dysplasia (BBD)-FGFR2 type: the radiologic manifestations in early gestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, Atsuhiko; Okajima, Yuka; Kurihara, Yasuyuki [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Izumi, Noriko; Yamanaka, Michiko [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Integrated Women' s Health, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Bent bone dysplasia-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 type (BBD-FGFR2) is a recently identified skeletal dysplasia caused by specific FGFR2 mutations, characterized by craniosynostosis and prenatal bowing of the long bones. Only a few cases have been published. We report an affected fetus terminated at 21 weeks of gestation. The clinical and radiologic manifestations mostly recapitulate previous descriptions; however we suggest additional hallmarks of this disorder in early gestation. These hallmarks include distinctive short, thick clavicles and wavy ribs, as well as vertebral bodies that showed striking anteroposterior shortening. Femoral fractures were also present in our case. Although craniosynostosis is a hallmark of the disease, clinicians should be aware that craniosynostosis might not be readily apparent on plain films early in gestation. (orig.)

  9. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  10. BLAST: THE MASS FUNCTION, LIFETIMES, AND PROPERTIES OF INTERMEDIATE MASS CORES FROM A 50 deg2 SUBMILLIMETER GALACTIC SURVEY IN VELA (l ∼ 2650)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netterfield, Calvin B.; Martin, Peter G.; Roy, Arabindo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Phillip; Pascale, Enzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Rex, Marie; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    We present first results from an unbiased 50 deg 2 submillimeter Galactic survey at 250, 350, and 500 μm from the 2006 flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope. The map has resolution ranging from 36'' to 60'' in the three submillimeter bands spanning the thermal emission peak of cold starless cores. We determine the temperature, luminosity, and mass of more than 1000 compact sources in a range of evolutionary stages and an unbiased statistical characterization of the population. From comparison with C 18 O data, we find the dust opacity per gas mass, κr= 0.16 cm 2 g -1 at 250 μm, for cold clumps. We find that 2% of the mass of the molecular gas over this diverse region is in cores colder than 14 K, and that the mass function for these cold cores is consistent with a power law with index α = -3.22 ± 0.14 over the mass range 14 M sun sun . Additionally, we infer a mass-dependent cold core lifetime of t c (M) = 4 x 10 6 (M/20 M sun ) -0.9 yr-longer than what has been found in previous surveys of either low or high-mass cores, and significantly longer than free fall or likely turbulent decay times. This implies some form of non-thermal support for cold cores during this early stage of star formation.

  11. Early

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

  12. Integration of human papillomavirus type-16 and type-18 is a very early event in cervical carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L-W; Chao, S-L; Lee, B-H

    2008-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) integration is a critical event in cervical carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to explore the physical status of HPV-16 and HPV-18 during the progression of cervical precancerous lesions. A series of 101 HPV-16 or HPV-18 positive cervical neoplasms (32 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cases and 69 cervical carcinoma (CC) cases) were evaluated. The physical status of both types of HPV was assessed from paraffin-embedded formaldehyde-fixed surgical specimens by real-time PCR. For HPV-16, integrated DNA was observed in 5 (83.3%) of 6 CIN I cases, 10 (90.9%) of 11 CIN II/III cases, 29 (82.9%) of 35 FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage I CC cases and 16 (94.1%) of 17 FIGO stages II approximately IV CC cases. For HPV-18, integrated DNA was observed in 3 (50%) of 6 CIN I cases, 5 (55.6%) of 9 CIN II/III cases, 9 (64.3%) of 14 FIGO stage I CC cases, and 1 (33.3%) of 3 FIGO stages II approximately IV CC cases. The mixed form of HPV DNA was the most prevalent physical state in HPV-16. There was no significant difference between the physical state of HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNA with regard to the various grades of cervical lesions. These data imply that integration of HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNA into the host genome occurs in the very early stage of cervical neoplastic progression. These early events may play an initiating role in the malignant transformation of HPV-16- and HPV-18-related low-grade lesions into high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.

  13. Exercise as a provocative test in early renal disease in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Baker, L; Deckert, T

    1985-01-01

    The value of exercise as a provocative test for early renal disease in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was re-evaluated. Three carefully characterized groups of males were studied: 10 non-diabetic controls, 16 diabetic patients (group 1) with normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 15...... micrograms/min) and 14 Albustix-negative diabetics (group 2) with increased urinary albumin excretion (15-122 micrograms/min). Assignment to a study group was made on the basis of three 24-h urine collections, and the groups were well matched for age, weight, height, and serum creatinine concentration...

  14. Neutral Hydrogen Clouds near Early-Type Dwarf Galaxies of the Local Group

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchard, A.; Carignan, C.; Staveley-Smith, L.

    2006-01-01

    Parkes neutral hydrogen 21 cm line (HI) observations of the surroundings of 9 early-type Local Group dwarfs are presented. We detected numerous HI clouds in the general direction of those dwarfs and these clouds are often offset from the optical center of the galaxies. Although all the observed dwarfs, except Antlia, occupy phase-space regions where the High-Velocity Cloud (HVC) density is well above average, the measured offsets are smaller than one would expect from a fully random cloud dis...

  15. Early-type galaxies: Automated reduction and analysis of ROSAT PSPC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, G.; Fabbiano, G.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Kim, D.-W.; Maggio, A.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Ciliegi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary results of early-type galaxies that will be part of a galaxy catalog to be derived from the complete Rosat data base are presented. The stored data were reduced and analyzed by an automatic pipeline. This pipeline is based on a command language scrip. The important features of the pipeline include new data time screening in order to maximize the signal to noise ratio of faint point-like sources, source detection via a wavelet algorithm, and the identification of sources with objects from existing catalogs. The pipeline outputs include reduced images, contour maps, surface brightness profiles, spectra, color and hardness ratios.

  16. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  17. PROJECTED ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF 136 EARLY B-TYPE STARS IN THE OUTER GALACTIC DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmany, C. D.; Glaspey, J. W. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bragança, G. A.; Daflon, S.; Fernandes, M. Borges; Cunha, K. [Observatório Nacional-MCTI, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP: 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oey, M. S. [University of Michigan, Department of Astronomy, 311 West Hall, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI: 48109-1107 (United States); Bensby, T., E-mail: garmany@noao.edu [Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Box 43, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    We have determined projected rotational velocities, v sin i, from Magellan/MIKE echelle spectra for a sample of 136 early B-type stars having large Galactocentric distances. The target selection was done independently of their possible membership in clusters, associations or field stars. We subsequently examined the literature and assigned each star as Field, Association, or Cluster. Our v sin i results are consistent with a difference in aggregate v sin i with stellar density. We fit bimodal Maxwellian distributions to the Field, Association, and Cluster subsamples representing sharp-lined and broad-lined components. The first two distributions, in particular, for the Field and Association are consistent with strong bimodality in v sin i. Radial velocities are also presented, which are useful for further studies of binarity in B-type stars, and we also identify a sample of possible new double-lined spectroscopic binaries. In addition, we find 18 candidate Be stars showing emission at Hα.

  18. The extent of CO in the early-type galaxy NGC 4472

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchtmeier, W. K.; Bregman, J. N.; Hogg, D. E.; Roberts, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    NGC 4472, and E/SO system, is the earliest type normal galaxy with detected CO emission, and here we present additional radio observations in the lines of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) to determine the distribution and internal properties of this gas. The original detection is reconfirmed, but observations at five surrounding locations and at two other locations in the galaxy do not show the gas to be extended; the total H2 gas mass is estimated to be 4 x 10(exp 7) solar mass. A high CO(1-0)/CO(2-1) brightness temperature ratio is found (greater than 3), which is indicative of subthermal excitation of the CO(2-1) line that can occur at low gas temperatures and low gas densities. Also, upper limits are given for the CO(2-1) fluxes in four other early-type galaxies.

  19. Enviromental Effects on Internal Color Gradients of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Barbera, F.; de Carvalho, R. R.; Gal, R. R.; Busarello, G.; Haines, C. P.; Mercurio, A.; Merluzzi, P.; Capaccioli, M.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2007-05-01

    One of the most debated issues of observational and theoretical cosmology is that of how the environment affects the formation and evolution of galaxies. To gain new insight into this subject, we have derived surface photometry for a sample of 3,000 early-type galaxies belonging to 163 clusters with different richness, spanning a redshift range of 0.05 to 0.25. This large data-set is used to analyze how the color distribution inside galaxies depends on several parameters, such as cluster richness, local galaxy density, galaxy luminosity and redshift. We find that the internal color profile of galaxies strongly depends on the environment where galaxies reside. Galaxies in poor and rich clusters are found to follow two distinct trends in the color gradient vs. redshift diagram, with color gradients beeing less steep in rich rather than in poor clusters. No dependence of color gradients on galaxy luminosity is detected both for poor and rich clusters. We find that color gradients strongly depend on local galaxy density, with more shallow gradients in high density regions. Interestingly, this result holds only for low richness clusters, with color gradients of galaxies in rich clusters showing no dependence on local galaxy density. Our results support a reasonable picture whereby young early-type galaxies form in a dissipative collapse process, and then undergo increased (either major or minor) merging activity in richer rather than in poor clusters.

  20. Rotation, Emission, & Evolution of the Magnetic Early B-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th.; Neiner, C.; Kochukhov, O.; Alecian, E.

    2018-01-01

    We report the results of the first population study of 51 magnetic early B-type stars, based upon a large database of high-resolution spectropolarimetry assembled by the MiMeS and BinaMIcS collaborations. Utilizing these data, rotational periods were determined for all but 5 of the sample stars. This enabled us to determine dipole oblique rotator model parameters, rotational parameters, and magnetospheric parameters. We find that the ratio of the Alfvén radius to the Kepler corotation radius is highly predictive of whether or not a star displays Hα emission from a Centrifugal Magnetosphere (CM), as expected from theoretical considerations. We also find that CM host stars are systematically younger than the general population, as expected given that CM emission requires rapid rotation and a strong magnetic field, and a strong magnetic field will lead to rapid magnetic braking. We conclude that emission-line magnetic early B-type stars are, almost without exception, strongly magnetized, rapidly rotating, and young.

  1. CO TO H2 RATIO OF INTERSTELLAR MOLECULAR CLOUDS IN THE DIRECTIONS OF EARLY TYPE STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Park

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of interstellar CO absorption lines in the spectra of 7 early-type stars that were observed with the FUSE(Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Among 54 early-type target stars in the Galactic disk and halo observed with the BEFS(Berkeley Extreme and Far-ultraviolet Spectrometer, we choose 7 program stars (HD 37903, HD 97991, HD 149881, HD 156110, HD 164794, HD 214080 and HD 219188 which have only a single velocity component in the high-resolution optical measurements, in order to avoid line blending. To analyze the CO molecule, we select the E-X (0-0 band at 1076 Å, which has a large oscillator strength and is not blended with other interstellar absorption lines. We detect the CO absorption lines in three (HD 37903, HD 164794, and HD 214080 out of seven targets, and derive CO column densities for those targets. We also estimated the CO to H2 ratios toward the three stars, based on the previously estimated H2 column densities.

  2. Emission line gas in early-type galaxies: Kinematics and physical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deustua, S. E.; Koratkar, A. P.; Macalpine, G.

    1993-01-01

    Recent studies have found line emission gas in nearby early-type galaxies, but the properties of the emission-line gas in these 'normal' galaxies remain enigmatic. In terms of activity in the nucleus, these LINER-like galaxies form an important link between giant H 2 region galaxies and low-luminosity Seyferts. Despite their large numbers and evolutionary significance, we do not know whether these galaxies form a homogeneous class of objects; nor do we know how the distribution and kinematics of the line emission gas are affected by the host galaxy's environment or by the properties of the central engine, if present. To address these issues we are conducting a magnitude and volume limited survey of nearby early-type galaxies at Lick Observatory and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory. We have selected approximately 100 galaxies from radio catalogs. A large sample is necessary because while studies of individual 'LINERS' have led to a certain understanding of the phenomenon, these studies have not provided a global framework. Here we present results from our first run of medium resolution (approximately 5 A FWHM) spectroscopy. Kinematic data and line ratios determined along the major and minor axes of 6 galaxies are discussed. The information gleaned from spectroscopic data, when combined with data at other wavelengths, will enable a thorough investigation into the nature of low luminosity nuclear activity.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: prenatal and early infancy risk factors among native canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T Kue; Martens, Patricia J; Taback, Shayne P; Sellers, Elizabeth A C; Dean, Heather J; Cheang, Mary; Flett, Bertha

    2002-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasingly being observed among children and youth, including the Native population of Canada. Only one study has investigated prenatal and early infancy risk factors for the disease. A case-control study was conducted; 46 patients younger than 18 years were recruited from the only clinical center for the treatment of diabetes serving the province of Manitoba, and 92 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited from a pediatric ambulatory clinic serving a large Native population in Winnipeg, Manitoba. Information on exposure to prenatal and early infancy risk factors was obtained through questionnaires administered by a Native nurse-interviewer. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified preexisting diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 14.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.86-72.5), gestational diabetes (OR, 4.40; 95% CI, 1.38-14.1), and breastfeeding longer than 12 months (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.13-0.99) as significant independent predictors of diabetic status. Other factors, such as low (4000 g) birth weight and maternal obesity, were also associated with diabetes in our population, but the elevated risks were not statistically significant. Breastfeeding reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes among Native Canadian children and should be promoted as a potential intervention to control the disease.

  4. Early diagnostics and incidence of diabetic nephropathy depending on type 1 diabetes mellitus duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Maslianko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective — to establish the incidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN depending on duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM, and also the content of cystatin С as a marker of early kidney damage. Materials and methods. Twenty eight patients with type 1 DM were enrolled in prospective study (11 men and 17 women aged 34.8 ± 7.2 years. Clinical and functional examination included the standard evaluation of renal function, and also the study of serum level of cystatin С. Results. In 17 out of 28 patients, the indexes of glomerular filtration rate calculated using the formulas of CKD-ЕРIcreat and CKD-ЕРIcys, indicated the different stages of chronic kidneys disease. Conclusions. Determination of cystatin C level and calculation of glomerular filtration rate using this index allows diagnosing the preclinical stages of kidney dysfunction in patients with type 1 DM in the normal creatinine level in the blood and without decline in glomerular filtration rate calculated using creatinine value. According to a retrospective study, the incidence and severity of DN in patients with type 1 DM increases with disease duration of more than 10 years.

  5. Early Motor Delay: An Outstanding, Initial Sign of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vito; Mattina, Teresa; Pavone, Piero; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Testa, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfect (OI) is a heterogeneous and complex connective tissue disorder that manifests with low bone density and fragility. More than 15 types of OI have been distinguished on a clinical and molecular basis, but the classical clinical classification previously proposed in Types 1-4 with the recent inclusion of Type 5 appears to be more suitable. The diagnosis is mainly made on clinical and radiographic findings with fractures caused by mild trauma, bowing deformities of long bones, and growth deficiency. Non-skeletal features of the disorder include blue sclerae, hearing loss, decreased pulmonary function, cardiac valvular regurgitation, and muscle weakness. We report on a toddler girl affected by OI Type 1 who suffered from marked muscle weakness as the first initial sign, which led us to follow the diagnostic checklist for hypotonic children. The typical signs of the disorder later became evident and consistent with this diagnosis, including bone fractures and blue sclerae. Early muscle weakness, previously unreported sign, may be an initial manifestation of OI, to be included in the differential diagnosis of disorders that cause hypotonia in childhood.

  6. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) in early pregnancy is associated with development of preeclampsia in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2011-01-01

    The vasoactive markers of cardiac overload Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) are elevated in preeclampsia. This study documents higher ANP concentrations as early as at 9 weeks in type 1 diabetic women subsequently developing preeclampsia suggesting...... that preeclampsia is associated with cardiovascular changes in early pregnancy....

  7. Abundance patterns in the interstellar medium of early-type galaxies observed with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konami, Saori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Tamagawa, Toru; Nagino, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed 17 early-type galaxies, 13 ellipticals and 4 S0 galaxies, observed with Suzaku, and investigated metal abundances (O, Mg, Si, and Fe) and abundance ratios (O/Fe, Mg/Fe, and Si/Fe) in the interstellar medium (ISM). The emission from each on-source region, which is four times the effective radius, r e , is reproduced with one-temperature (1T) or two-temperature (2T) thermal plasma models as well as a multi-temperature model, using APEC plasma code version 2.0.1. The multi-temperature model gave almost the same abundances and abundance ratios with the 1T or 2T models. The weighted averages of the O, Mg, Si, and Fe abundances of all the sample galaxies derived from the multi-temperature model fits are 0.83 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.80 ± 0.02, and 0.80 ± 0.02 solar, respectively, in solar units according to the solar abundance table by Lodders in 2003. These abundances show no significant dependence on the morphology and environment. The systematic differences in the derived metal abundances between versions 2.0.1 and 1.3.1 of the APEC plasma codes were investigated. The derived O and Mg abundances in the ISM agree with the stellar metallicity within an aperture with a radius of one r e derived from optical spectroscopy. From these results, we discuss the past and present Type Ia supernova rates and star formation histories in early-type galaxies.

  8. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D.; Mazzali, Paolo A.; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J.; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models—the helium-ignition branch—does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  9. A hybrid type Ia supernova with an early flash triggered by helium-shell detonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ji-An; Doi, Mamoru; Maeda, Keiichi; Shigeyama, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Yasuda, Naoki; Jha, Saurabh W; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Ivezić, Željko; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Stritzinger, Maximilian D; Mazzali, Paolo A; Ashall, Christopher; Mould, Jeremy; Baade, Dietrich; Suzuki, Nao; Connolly, Andrew J; Patat, Ferdinando; Wang, Lifan; Yoachim, Peter; Jones, David; Furusawa, Hisanori; Miyazaki, Satoshi

    2017-10-04

    Type Ia supernovae arise from the thermonuclear explosion of white-dwarf stars that have cores of carbon and oxygen. The uniformity of their light curves makes these supernovae powerful cosmological distance indicators, but there have long been debates about exactly how their explosion is triggered and what kind of companion stars are involved. For example, the recent detection of the early ultraviolet pulse of a peculiar, subluminous type Ia supernova has been claimed as evidence for an interaction between a red-giant or a main-sequence companion and ejecta from a white-dwarf explosion. Here we report observations of a prominent but red optical flash that appears about half a day after the explosion of a type Ia supernova. This supernova shows hybrid features of different supernova subclasses, namely a light curve that is typical of normal-brightness supernovae, but with strong titanium absorption, which is commonly seen in the spectra of subluminous ones. We argue that this early flash does not occur through previously suggested mechanisms such as the companion-ejecta interaction. Instead, our simulations show that it could occur through detonation of a thin helium shell either on a near-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf, or on a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf merging with a less-massive white dwarf. Our finding provides evidence that one branch of previously proposed explosion models-the helium-ignition branch-does exist in nature, and that such a model may account for the explosions of white dwarfs in a mass range wider than previously supposed.

  10. Select early type IA endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair will resolve without secondary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Thomas F X; Corey, Michael R; Deery, Sarah E; Tsougranis, Gregory; Maruthi, Rohit; Clouse, W Darrin; Cambria, Richard P; Conrad, Mark F

    2018-01-01

    Although it is traditionally considered ominous, the natural history of early proximal attachment site endoleaks (IA) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is not well known. Our aim was to identify risk factors for persistent type IA endoleaks and to determine their effect on long-term outcomes after EVAR. All patients who underwent infrarenal EVAR at a single institution between 1998 and 2015 were identified. Preoperative axial imaging and intraoperative arteriograms were reviewed, and those patients with a type IA endoleak were further studied. Aneurysm features were characterized by two reviewers and were studied for predictors of persistent endoleaks at the conclusion of the case. Patient records and the Social Security Death Index were used to record 1-year and overall survival. We identified 1484 EVARs, 122 (8%) of which were complicated by a type IA endoleak on arteriography after graft deployment, with a median follow-up of 4 years. The majority of patients underwent additional ballooning of the proximal site (52 [43%]) or placement of an aortic cuff (47 [39%]); 30 patients (25%) received a Palmaz stent, and four patients were treated with coils or anchors. At case end, only 43 (35%) of the type IA endoleaks remained; at 1 month, only 16 endoleaks persisted (13%), and only six persisted at 1 year (6%). In multivariable analysis, the only independent predictor of persistence of type IA endoleak at the conclusion of the case was the presence of extensive neck calcifications (odds ratio [OR], 9.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-67.9; P = .02). Thirteen patients (11%) underwent reintervention for type IA endoleaks, with a time frame ranging from 3 days postoperatively to 11 years. There were three patients (2.4%) who experienced aneurysm rupture. Postoperative type IA endoleak was associated with lower survival at 1 year (79% vs 91%; relative risk, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.4; P = .02), but it did not affect long-term survival (log-rank, P = .45

  11. Dark matter and IMF normalization in Virgo dwarf early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, C.; La Barbera, F.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyse the dark matter (DM) fraction, fDM, and mass-to-light ratio mismatch parameter, δIMF (computed with respect to a Milky Way-like initial mass function), for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster. Both fDM and δIMF are estimated within the central (one effective radius) galaxy regions, with a Jeans dynamical analysis that relies on galaxy velocity dispersions, structural parameters, and stellar mass-to-light ratios from the SMAKCED survey. In this first attempt to constrain, simultaneously, the initial mass function (IMF) normalization and the DM content, we explore the impact of different assumptions on the DM model profile. On average, for an Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) profile, the δIMF is consistent with a Chabrier-like normalization ({δ _IMF}˜ 1), with {f_DM}˜ 0.35. One of the main results of this work is that for at least a few systems the δIMF are heavier than the Milky Way-like value (I.e. either top- or bottom-heavy). When introducing tangential anisotropy, larger δIMF and smaller fDM are derived. Adopting a steeper concentration-mass relation than that from simulations, we find lower δIMF ( ≲ 1) and larger fDM. A constant M/L profile with null fDM gives the heaviest δIMF (˜2). In the MONDian framework, we find consistent results to those for our reference NFW model. If confirmed, the large scatter of δIMF for dEs would provide (further) evidence for a non-universal IMF in early-type systems. On average, our reference fDM estimates are consistent with those found for low-σe (˜ 100 km s^{-1}) early-type galaxies (ETGs). Furthermore, we find fDM consistent with values from the SMAKCED survey, and find a double-value behaviour of fDM with stellar mass, which mirrors the trend of dynamical M/L and global star formation efficiency (from abundance matching estimates) with mass.

  12. Localized type Volkmann's contracture treated with tendon transfer and tension-reduced early mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Yoshio; Nakamura, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Konosuke; Tobiume, Sachiko; Yamamoto, Tetsuji

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: For localized type Volkmann's contracture, in which degeneration of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscle to one or two fingers and restriction of finger extension occur, dissection or excision of the affected muscle is usually recommended. However, these surgical procedures need relatively wide exposure of the muscle, because the FDP muscle is in the deep portion of the forearm. Patient concerns: In this report, the case of a 35-year-old woman with localized type Volkmann's contracture is presented. Her left forearm had been compressed with an industrial roller 4 months earlier, and severe flexion contracture of the long finger and mild flexion contracture of the ring finger developed gradually. Diagnoses: localized type Volkmann's contracture. Intervention: Five months after the injury, transection of the FDP tendon to the long finger and transfer of the transected tendon to the FDP tendon to the index finger was performed after adjusting the tonus of these two tendons using a small skin incision. This procedure was followed by a tension-reduced early mobilization technique in which a tension-reduced position of the tendon suture site was maintained by taping the long finger to the volar side of the index finger, and then immediate active range of motion (ROM) exercise was started. Outcomes: Within 9 weeks after surgery, full ROM had been regained. Lessons: Using the treatment procedure presented in this case report, a good clinical result was obtained in a minimally invasive manner. PMID:28072735

  13. Retinal Vascular Fractals Correlate With Early Neurodegeneration in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydkjaer-Olsen, Ulrik; Soegaard Hansen, Rasmus; Pedersen, Knud; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the correlation between the retinal vascular fractal dimension (Fd) and neurodegenerative changes in patients with no or mild diabetic retinopathy (DR). In this cross-sectional study we examined 103 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with no or mild DR. In a randomly selected eye of each patient, Fd was calculated using SIVA-Fractal, a specialized semiautomatic software. Retinal neurodegeneration was evaluated by Topcon 3D OCT-2000 spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and by a RETI-scan multifocal ERG (mf-ERG) system in rings one to six. Level of DR was determined by a single trained grader in seven-field fundus photos according to the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) scale. Mean age and duration of T2DM were 62.3 and 11.6 years, respectively; 46.6% were men. Mean Fd was 1.413 (range, 1.278-1.509) and ETDRS levels were 10 (42.7%), 20 (35.0%), and 35 (22.3%), respectively. Fd correlated inversely with mf-ERG implicit time of ring one (r = -0.25, P = 0.01) and present diabetic neuropathy (P = 0.02), and positively with OCT ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness (r = 0.20, P = 0.04). In a multivariable linear regression model, Fd was associated with mf-ERG implicit time of ring one (coefficient -0.0021/ms, P = 0.040) and the presence of diabetic neuropathy (coefficient -0.0209 for neuropathy present versus absent, P = 0.041). In patients with T2DM and no or minimal DR, independent correlations were found between early vascular and neurogenic changes. Thus, retinal vascular fractal analysis might be considered as a tool to identify patients with early neurodegenerative retinal changes.

  14. Suppression of star formation in early-type galaxies by feedback from supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schawinski, Kevin; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kaviraj, Sugata; Yi, Sukyoung K; Boselli, Alessandro; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G; Martin, D Chris; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Schiminovich, David; Seibert, Mark; Small, Todd; Wyder, Ted K; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Tim; Lee, Young-Wook; Madore, Barry; Milliard, Bruno; Rich, R Michael; Szalay, Alex

    2006-08-24

    Detailed high-resolution observations of the innermost regions of nearby galaxies have revealed the presence of supermassive black holes. These black holes may interact with their host galaxies by means of 'feedback' in the form of energy and material jets; this feedback affects the evolution of the host and gives rise to observed relations between the black hole and the host. Here we report observations of the ultraviolet emissions of massive early-type galaxies. We derive an empirical relation for a critical black-hole mass (as a function of velocity dispersion) above which the outflows from these black holes suppress star formation in their hosts by heating and expelling all available cold gas. Supermassive black holes are negligible in mass compared to their hosts but nevertheless seem to play a critical role in the star formation history of galaxies.

  15. Polarized distribution of L-type calcium channels in early sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, B; Yazaki, I; Tosti, E

    1997-09-01

    Using the whole cell clamp technique, we have measured calcium-dependent currents and steady-state conductance in early sea urchin blastomeres. The calcium currents in M phase decreased from 8.5 microA/cm2 at the four-cell stage to 5.4 microA/cm2 at the eight-cell stage. In 16-cell stage embryos, calcium currents were 7.4 microA/cm2 in the mesomeres, 2.3 microA/cm2 in the macromeres, and were not detected in the micromeres. In contrast, the micromeres had a two- to threefold higher steady-state conductance than the mesomeres or macromeres, which may be due to potassium ion conductivity. Nifedipine, an L-type channel antagonist, delays cleavage division at a concentration of 0.05-0.1 mM and causes developmental defects, such as poor skeletal differentiation in later sea urchin embryos.

  16. Association between respiratory infections in early life and later asthma is independent of virus type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke, Klaus; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Sevelsted, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infections in the first years of life are associated with later asthma, and this observation has led to a focus on the potential causal role of specific respiratory viruses, such as rhinoviruses and respiratory syncytial virus, in asthma development. However......, many respiratory viruses and bacteria trigger similar respiratory symptoms and it is possible that the important risk factors for asthma are the underlying susceptibility to infection and the exaggerated reaction to such triggers rather than the particular triggering agent. OBJECTIVE: We sought...... to study the association between specific infections in early life and development of asthma later in childhood. METHODS: Three hundred thirteen children were followed prospectively in the Copenhagen Prospective Studies of Asthma in Childhood2000 high-risk birth cohort. Nine respiratory virus types...

  17. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  18. Non-LTE calculations of Al III line strengths in early-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufton, P.L.; Brown, P.J.F.; Lennon, D.J.; Lynas-Gray, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Non-LTE line formation calculations, based on the 'complete linearization method' are presented for the Al III ion in early-type stars. Equivalent widths, together with the corresponding LTE values, are tabulated for 15 ultraviolet and visible region transitions, for effective temperatures from 20 000 to 35 000 K, logarithmic gravities of 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5, microturbulent velocities of 0 and 5 km s -1 and logarithmic aluminium abundances of 6.0, 6.5 and 7.0. The non-LTE line strengths are significantly larger than the LTE values particularly for the visible region transitions and the implications of this are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. On the Shape of the Light Profiles of Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caon, N.; Capaccioli, M.; D'Onofrio, M.

    1993-12-01

    We have obtained the best fit to the light profiles of a luminosity- limited sample of elliptical and S0 galaxies with a power law r^1/n^, letting the exponent remain free rather than keeping it fixed at 1/n = 1/4 as in the well-known de Vaucouleurs formula. The introduction of a free parameter in the fitting formula (ranging from n = 0.5 for (r_e_) = 0.3 kpc to n = 16 for (r_e_) = 25 kpc) is justified by the existence of a good correlation between n and the global galaxian parameters, such as total luminosity and scale-radius. This result seems to be in line with the segregation of properties between the `ordinary' and `bright' families of early-type galaxies, and has consequences for the claimed independence of the shape of galaxy profiles with respect to the Fundamental Plane parameters.

  20. The Environmental Impact of Intra-Cluster Medium on the Interstellar Medium in Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Ginevra

    1997-01-01

    High resolution X-ray images of three early type galaxies observed with the ROSAT HRI are presented. Data for NGC 1553 and NGC 5846 indicate that the emission is highly irregular, with interesting features on scales from a few arcsec to a few arcmin. The gas temperatures also vary both with the galactocentric radius and in correspondence to regions of higher emission and denser material. Strikingly similar features are observed in the X-ray and H(alpha) morphologies of NGC 1553 and NGC 5846, while smoother, more regular isophotes are observed in NGC 4649 at both wavelengths. A connection between these two kinds of emission therefore seems likely. In the light of our observations we discuss possible scenarios that can and account for the connection between X-ray and H(alpha) emissions.

  1. Exercise as a provocative test in early renal disease in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Baker, L; Deckert, T

    1985-01-01

    The value of exercise as a provocative test for early renal disease in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes was re-evaluated. Three carefully characterized groups of males were studied: 10 non-diabetic controls, 16 diabetic patients (group 1) with normal urinary albumin excretion (less than 15....... The two diabetic groups were similar with regard to duration of disease (13 +/- 6 versus 16 +/- 3 years), metabolic control (HbA1c: 8.4 +/- 1.4 versus 8.7 +/- 1.3%) and degree of diabetic complications (beat-to-beat variation and retinopathy). An exercise protocol of 450 and 600 kpm/min workloads...... micrograms/min) and 14 Albustix-negative diabetics (group 2) with increased urinary albumin excretion (15-122 micrograms/min). Assignment to a study group was made on the basis of three 24-h urine collections, and the groups were well matched for age, weight, height, and serum creatinine concentration...

  2. The early-type strong emission-line supergiants of the Magellanic Clouds - A spectroscopic zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, S. N.; Sanduleak, N.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a spectroscopic survey of 21 early-type extreme emission line supergiants of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds using IUE and optical spectra are presented. The combined observations are discussed and the literature on each star in the sample is summarized. The classification procedures and the methods by which effective temperatures, bolometric magnitudes, and reddenings were assigned are discussed. The derived reddening values are given along with some results concerning anomalous reddening among the sample stars. The derived mass, luminosity, and radius for each star are presented, and the ultraviolet emission lines are described. Mass-loss rates are derived and discussed, and the implications of these observations for the evolution of the most massive stars in the Local Group are addressed.

  3. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  4. Effects of dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Gao, T; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0.05). Moreover, the PS diet led to reduced percentage of bound hexokinase activity, decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (P<0.05) and increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet with high amylose content might promote PCr degradation and inhibit the rate of glycolysis, followed by attenuation of early postmortem glycolysis in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Lee, Hung-Chang [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Taipei Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-08-01

    Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) is an inherited disorder affecting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The characteristic manifestations are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlacticacidemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperlipidemia. Renal disease is regarded as a long-term complication and is reported mainly in older patients. We report the renal manifestations and renal ultrasonographic findings of GSD-I in infancy and early childhood in order to assess the role of renal sonography in the diagnosis of GSD-I. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital's database for patients with GSD-I from January 1993 to September 2004. The records of five patients were reviewed for this study. These five patients were diagnosed when they were younger than 3 years old. Data extracted from the charts included the initial extrarenal and renal manifestations, laboratory data, and imaging studies. We analyzed the indications for, and results of, renal sonography. In addition to the clinical presentations and laboratory abnormalities, all five children had nephromegaly and increased echogenicity on ultrasonography on their first visit, although only a minor degree of tubular dysfunction was noted clinically. Three of these five patients had nephrocalcinosis or renal stones or both. Hyperechoic large kidneys, nephrocalcinosis, and renal stones are common in GSD-I. They can be present in early infancy. Abnormalities on renal sonography might suggest GSD-I in a patient with suspected inborn errors of metabolism. (orig.)

  6. Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) is an inherited disorder affecting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The characteristic manifestations are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlacticacidemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperlipidemia. Renal disease is regarded as a long-term complication and is reported mainly in older patients. We report the renal manifestations and renal ultrasonographic findings of GSD-I in infancy and early childhood in order to assess the role of renal sonography in the diagnosis of GSD-I. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital's database for patients with GSD-I from January 1993 to September 2004. The records of five patients were reviewed for this study. These five patients were diagnosed when they were younger than 3 years old. Data extracted from the charts included the initial extrarenal and renal manifestations, laboratory data, and imaging studies. We analyzed the indications for, and results of, renal sonography. In addition to the clinical presentations and laboratory abnormalities, all five children had nephromegaly and increased echogenicity on ultrasonography on their first visit, although only a minor degree of tubular dysfunction was noted clinically. Three of these five patients had nephrocalcinosis or renal stones or both. Hyperechoic large kidneys, nephrocalcinosis, and renal stones are common in GSD-I. They can be present in early infancy. Abnormalities on renal sonography might suggest GSD-I in a patient with suspected inborn errors of metabolism. (orig.)

  7. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL DIVERSITY OF EARLY TYPE IA SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, Anthony L. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Morozova, Viktoriya S., E-mail: piro@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Boulevard, M/C 350-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    During the first several days after explosion, Type Ia supernova light curves probe the outer layers of the exploding star, and therefore provide important clues for identifying their progenitors. We investigate how both the shallow {sup 56}Ni distribution and the presence of circumstellar material shape these early light curves. This is performed using a series of numerical experiments with parameterized properties for systematic exploration. Although not all of the considered models may be realized in nature (and indeed there are arguments why some of them should not occur), the spirit of this work is to provide a broader exploration of the diversity of possibilities. We find that shallower {sup 56}Ni leads to steeper, bluer light curves. Differences in the shape of the rise can introduce errors in estimating the explosion time, and thus impact efforts to infer upper limits on the progenitor or companion radius from a lack of observed shock cooling emission. Circumstellar material can lead to significant luminosity during the first few days, but its presence can be difficult to identify depending on the degree of nickel mixing. In some cases, the hot emission of circumstellar material may even lead to a signature similar to an interaction with a companion, and thus in the future additional diagnostics should be gathered for properly assessing early light curves.

  8. Rotation and magnetism in intermediate mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Léo G.; Tout, Christopher A.

    2018-03-01

    Rotation and magnetism are increasingly recognized as important phenomena in stellar evolution. Surface magnetic fields from a few to 20, 000 G have been observed and models have suggested that magnetohydrodynamic transport of angular momentum and chemical composition could explain the peculiar composition of some stars. Stellar remnants such as white dwarfs have been observed with fields from a few to more than 109 G. We investigate the origin of and the evolution, on thermal and nuclear rather than dynamical time-scales, of an averaged large-scale magnetic field throughout a star's life and its coupling to stellar rotation. Large-scale magnetic fields sustained until late stages of stellar evolution with conservation of magnetic flux could explain the very high fields observed in white dwarfs. We include these effects in the Cambridge stellar evolution code using three time-dependant advection-diffusion equations coupled to the structural and composition equations of stars to model the evolution of angular momentum and the two components of the magnetic field. We present the evolution in various cases for a 3 M_{⊙} star from the beginning to the late stages of its life. Our particular model assumes that turbulent motions, including convection, favour small-scale field at the expense of large-scale field. As a result the large-scale field concentrates in radiative zones of the star and so is exchanged between the core and the envelope of the star as it evolves. The field is sustained until the end of the asymptotic giant branch, when it concentrates in the degenerate core.

  9. The Influence of Galaxy Environment on the Stellar Initial Mass Function of Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al. and used their optical SDSS spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths to predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and "bimodal" (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky-Way-like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3″ SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.

  10. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  11. CpG Type A Induction of an Early Protective Environment in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Crooks

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS that mimics human multiple sclerosis (MS, and it is thought to be driven by Th1 and Th17 myelin-reactive cells. Although adaptive immunity is clearly pivotal in the pathogenesis of EAE, with an essential role of CD4+ T cells, little is known of early, innate responses in this experimental setting. CpG-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs, typically found in microbial genomes, are potent activators of TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs. In this study, we compared the effects of two types of CpG, namely, type A and type B, on EAE. We found that treatment with CpG type A ODN (CpG-A, known to induce high amounts of IFN-α in pDCs, significantly reduced disease severity in EAE, relative to controls (12.63±1.86 versus 23.49±1.46, resp.; p=0.001. Treatment also delayed onset of neurological deficits and reduced spinal cord demyelination, while increasing the percentage of splenic regulatory (Foxp3+ CD4+ T cells. CpG-A likewise reduced the levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ in the CNS. Mechanistic insight into those events showed that CpG-A promoted a regulatory phenotype in pDCs. Moreover, adoptive transfer of pDCs isolated from CpG-A-treated mice inhibited CNS inflammation and induced disease remission in acute-phase EAE. Our data thus identify a link between TLR9 activation by specific ligands and the induction of tolerance via innate immunity mechanisms.

  12. Explaining the Decline in Early Mortality in Men and Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Judith; Latinovic, Radoslav; Gulliford, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changing utilization of lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and oral hypoglycemic drugs may be associated with trends in all-cause mortality in men and women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cohort study in 197 general practices in the U.K. General Practice Research Database including 48,579 subjects with type 2 diabetes first diagnosed between 1996 and 2006. Measures included all-cause mortality and prescription of hypoglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antihypertensive drugs. RESULTS—From 1996 to 2006, incidence of type 2 diabetes increased and the mean age at diagnosis declined in women. Prescription of statins within 12 months of diagnosis increased (1996, women 4.9%, men 5.1%; 2005, women 63.5%, men 71.0%), as did drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system (1996, women 19.4%, men 21.5%; 2005, women 45.5%, men 54.6%) and metformin (1996, women 19.1%, men 15.8%; 2005, women 45.5%, men 42.8%), whereas prescription of sulfonylureas declined. All-cause mortality in the first 24 months after diabetes diagnosis declined in men from 47.9 per 1,000 person-years for subjects with diabetes diagnosed in 1996 to 25.2 for subjects with diabetes diagnosed in 2006 and in women from 37.4 in 1996 to 27.6 in 2006. In a multiple regression model adjusting for age and comorbidity, prescription of statins before or after diagnosis, renin-angiotensin system drugs before or after diagnosis, and metformin after diagnosis were associated with lower mortality. CONCLUSIONS—Widespread implementation of more effective prescribing to control lipids, blood glucose, and blood pressure may have contributed to recent declines in early mortality in men and women with type 2 diabetes. PMID:18509209

  13. The SAURON project - XI. Stellar populations from absorption-line strength maps of 24 early-type spirals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Ganda, Katia; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van de Ven, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    We present absorption-line strength maps of a sample of 24 representative early-type spiral galaxies, mostly of type Sa, obtained as part of the SAURON (Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae) survey of nearby galaxies using our custom-built integral-field spectrograph. Using

  14. The Westerbork HI Survey os spiral and irregular galaxies III : HI observations of early-type disk galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; Hulst, J.M. van der; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R.A.; Abada, T.S. van

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We present HI observations of 68 early-type disk galaxies from the WHISP survey. They have morphological types between S0 and Sab and absolute B-band magnitudes between -14 and -22. These galaxies form the massive, high surface-brightness extreme of the disk galaxy population, few of which

  15. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies observed with the SAURON integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early-types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. (2017) and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analyzed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early-types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal vs. dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  16. Myocardial involvement during the early course of type 2 diabetes mellitus: usefulness of Myocardial Performance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldoni Matteo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate whether myocardial performance index detects a subclinical impairment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in patients with early stage of type 2 diabetes, without coronary artery disease, with or without hypertension. Furthermore, to evaluate whether some echocardiographic parameters relate to the metabolic control. Fourty-five consecutive male patients (mean age 52.5 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus of recent onset (23 hypertensives and 22 normotensives and 22 age matched healthy controls males were analysed. All participants had normal exercise ECG. All subjects underwent standard and Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of the isovolumic Doppler time interval and Doppler-derived myocardial performance index. In all diabetic patients a glycated haemoglobin test was also performed. No differences were observed in blood pressure, heart rate, and conventional echocardiographic parameters comparing the 2 subgroups of diabetic patients and the controls. Myocardial performance index was significantly higher in diabetic patients independently of the hypertension occurrence, compared to the controls (0.49 and 0.49 diabetic normotensives and hypertensives respectively vs. 0.39, p

  17. Chicken Embryos as a Potential New Model for Early Onset Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liheng Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is the leading cause of blindness among the American working population. The purpose of this study is to establish a new diabetic animal model using a cone-dominant avian species to address the distorted color vision and altered cone pathway responses in prediabetic and early diabetic patients. Chicken embryos were injected with either streptozotocin (STZ, high concentration of glucose (high-glucose, or vehicle at embryonic day 11. Cataracts occurred in varying degrees in both STZ- and high glucose-induced diabetic chick embryos at E18. Streptozotocin-diabetic chicken embryos had decreased levels of blood insulin, glucose transporter 4 (Glut4, and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT. In STZ-injected E20 embryos, the ERG amplitudes of both a- and b-waves were significantly decreased, the implicit time of the a-wave was delayed, while that of the b-wave was significantly increased. Photoreceptors cultured from STZ-injected E18 embryos had a significant decrease in L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC currents, which was reflected in the decreased level of L-VGCCα1D subunit in the STZ-diabetic retinas. Through these independent lines of evidence, STZ-injection was able to induce pathological conditions in the chicken embryonic retina, and it is promising to use chickens as a potential new animal model for type I diabetes.

  18. An Early Detection Method of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Public Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermansyah Hermansyah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a chronic disease and major problem of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 285 million people around the world have diabetes. This total is expected to rise to 438 million within 20 years. Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common type of diabetes and accounts for 90-95% of all diabetes. Detection of T2DM from various factors or symptoms became an issue which was not free from false presumptions accompanied by unpredictable effects. According to this context, data mining and machine learning could be used as an alternative way help us in knowledge discovery from data. We applied several learning methods, such as instance based learners, naive bayes, decision tree, support vector machines, and boosted algorithm acquire information from historical data of patients medical records of Mohammad Hoesin public hospital in Southern Sumatera. Rules are extracted from Decision tree to offer decision-making support through early detection of T2DM for clinicians.

  19. Fungal keratitis with the type 1 Boston keratoprosthesis: early Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Mhatre, Kanupriya; Shome, Debraj; Pineda, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    To report 2 cases of fungal keratitis and endophthalmitis in patients with the type 1 Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) in India. Two patients underwent type 1 Boston KPro with uneventful intraoperative and early postoperative courses. The patients presented with keratitis and endophthalmitis within a few months after surgery. Both patients had soft bandage contact lenses in place and were on maintenance low-dose topical steroids and antibiotic eyedrops. Culture was positive for fungus in both the cases. Despite aggressive antifungal medical therapy and surgical management, one patient's eye was eviscerated and the other lost the potential for any useful vision. Fungal infection after KPro surgery can be devastating, negating the extraordinary visual recovery these patients achieve immediately after surgery. Chronic use of topical corticosteroids and broad-spectrum antibiotic and bandage contact lens, although indispensable, may enhance the risk of fungal infection especially in the endemic areas like India. The decision for KPro in such tropical climatic conditions should therefore be taken with absolute caution and frequent patient follow-up. A prophylactic antifungal regime may be mandatory when this procedure is undertaken in fungal endemic areas to improve outcomes.

  20. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabar, Laszlo [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Mammography; Tot, Tibor [Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden). School of Medicine]|[Central Hospital, Falun (Sweden). Dept. of Pathology and Clinical Cytology; Dean, Peter B. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  1. Breast cancer - Early detection with mammography. Crushed stone-like calcifications - The most frequent malignant type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabar, Laszlo; Central Hospital, Falun; Tot, Tibor; Central Hospital, Falun; Dean, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive guide for analyzing the most common malignant type calcifications on the mammogram Internationally renowned breast cancer imagers Laszlo Tabar and Peter B. Dean and the eminent breast pathologist Tibor Tot distill decades of clinical expertise in this new volume covering the most frequently occurring malignant type calcifications: the pleomorphic, crushed stone-like calcifications. The book presents a systematic approach to using mammographic features to distinguish different subtypes of breast diseases originating within the terminal ductal lobular unit (TDLU). More than 800 images demonstrate abnormal findings with superb clarity, providing a state-of-the-art visual reference for interpreting mammograms in the clinical setting. Features: - Concise descriptions of mammographic and MRI findings correlated with high-quality histopathologic images to provide a reliable guide for accurate diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as prognostic classification - Extensive coverage of all aspects of the benign differential diagnostic counterparts of pleomorphic calcifications, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma, and papilloma - Straightforward discussion of terminology based on a thorough analysis of subgross anatomy, 3D histologic features, and long-term disease outcomes - 3D viewing glasses enclosed in the book for perceiving specially marked images in their true 3D form This book is ideal for all breast imagers and breast pathologists, as well as for surgeons and oncologists specializing in breast diseases. For the radiologist, this book is an indispensable reference for harnessing the power of mammography to detect breast cancer at the earliest stages possible. About the Breast Cancer: Early Detection with Mammography series: This series grew out of the bestselling book Breast Cancer: The Art and Science of Early Detection with Mammography. Written by the same authors, this series is based on 30 years of experience with more than one

  2. Early-type objects in NGC 6611 and the Eagle Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martayan, C.; Floquet, M.; Hubert, A. M.; Neiner, C.; Frémat, Y.; Baade, D.; Fabregat, J.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: An important question about Be stars is whether they are born as such or whether they have become Be stars during their evolution. It is necessary to observe young clusters to answer this question. Methods: To this end, observations of stars in NGC 6611 and the star-formation region of Eagle Nebula were carried out with the ESO-WFI in slitless spectroscopic mode and at the VLT-GIRAFFE (R ≃ 6400-17 000). The targets for the GIRAFFE observations were pre-selected from the literature and our catalogue of emission-line stars based on the WFI study. GIRAFFE observations allowed us to study the population of the early-type stars accurately both with and without emission lines. For this study, we determined the fundamental parameters of OBA stars thanks to the GIRFIT code. We also studied the status of the objects (main sequence or pre-main sequence stars) by using IR data, membership probabilities, and location in HR diagrams. Results: The nature of the early-type stars with emission-line stars in NGC 6611 and its surrounding environment is derived. The slitless observations with the WFI clearly indicate a small number of emission-line stars in M16. We observed with GIRAFFE 101 OBA stars, among them 9 are emission-line stars with circumstellar emission in Hα. We found that W080 could be a new He-strong star, like W601. W301 is a possible classical Be star, W503 is a mass-transfer eclipsing binary with an accretion disk, and the other ones are possible Herbig Ae/Be stars. We also found that the rotational velocities of main sequence B stars are 18% lower than those of pre-main sequence B stars, in good agreement with theory about the evolution of rotational velocities. Combining adaptive optics, IR data, spectroscopy, and radial velocity indications, we found that 27% of the B-type stars are binaries. We also redetermined the age of NGC 6611 found equal to 1.2-1.8 Myears, in good agreement with the most recent determinations.

  3. Type 2 diabetes mellitus with early phase acute inflammatory protein on serum protein electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ET Tuladhar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The onset of Type 2 diabetes has been associated with low grade systemic inflammation. The inflammatory status has been studied by measuring acute phase reactant proteins like hsCRP, α1- antitrypsin, α1-acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen. Most of these acute phase reactants form α1 and α2 bands on electropherogram of serum proteins. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory status in controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and to find the impact of glycemic status as indicated by HbA1c on inflammation process. Materials and Methods: Serum protein electrophoresis was done on serum samples of 60 cases of Diabetes [controlled and uncontrolled] using cellulose acetate paper technique. The electropherogram obtained was stained with Ponseu S and then quantitated using densitometer. Glycemic status was studied by HbA1c analysis. The density of α1and α2 bands in electropherogram were correlated with HbA1c level. Result: A significant increase in the percentage of α1 and α2 band proteins (0.765 and 0.716, p<0.001 were found with the increasing level of HbA1c. With cutoff of HbA1c 7% (American Diabetic Association recommended, the α1 and α2 serum proteins concentration are significantly higher (p<0.001 in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus compared to controlled diabetes mellitus Conclusion: Cellulose acetate electrophoresis of serum proteins show early phase acute inflammatory status in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus. The process of systemic inflammation worsens with uncontrolled glycemia as indicated by HbA1c. Inflammatory status should be studied adjunct to glycemic status. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6024 JPN 2012; 2(3: 211-214

  4. Delayed recognition of Wolfram syndrome frequently misdiagnosed as type 1 diabetes with early chronic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmyslowska, A; Borowiec, M; Fichna, P; Iwaniszewska, B; Majkowska, L; Pietrzak, I; Szalecki, M; Szypowska, A; Mlynarski, W

    2014-01-01

    Improvements in diagnostic methods and greater genetic awareness have brought remarkable progress in the recognition of monogenic forms of diabetes, including Wolfram syndrome (WFS). WFS is diagnosed based on clinical criteria of coexistence of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy, and confirmed by molecular analysis; however, the condition is still sometimes misdiagnosed. To begin to understand the reasons for misdiagnosis, we conducted a retrospective analysis of WFS patients who were originally misdiagnosed. The medical histories of 13 pediatric patients with clinical misdiagnosis of type 1 diabetes and early chronic complications made in the years 1995-2010 and who were subsequently correctly diagnosed with WFS based on genetic testing in 2008-2011 were analyzed. The average age of the patients at diabetes onset was 5 (4.4-6.3) years, and the mean HbA1c level at diagnosis was 9.1±2.3%. Initially, all of these patients were treated as having type 1 diabetes with progressive visual impairment despite good metabolic control (mean HbA1c 7.5±1.3%). Diagnosis of optic atrophy was made at an average age of 9 (5.9-11.5) years, which corresponds to 4 years after diabetes recognition (p=0.002). At the time of genetic analysis, the average age of the patients was 16 (12-18.7) years, which corresponds to 7 years after recognition of coexistence of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy (p=0.007). Delays of at least 7 years occurred before recognition of WFS among a cohort of pediatric patients with diabetes. All patients with WFS were primarily misdiagnosed as having type 1 diabetes. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. SHOCK BREAKOUT AND EARLY LIGHT CURVES OF TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE OBSERVED WITH KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnavich, P. M.; Tucker, B. E.; Rest, A.; Shaya, E. J.; Olling, R. P.; Kasen, D; Villar, A.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered two transient events in the Kepler field with light curves that strongly suggest they are type II-P supernovae (SNe II-P). Using the fast cadence of the Kepler observations we precisely estimate the rise time to maximum for KSN2011a and KSN2011d as 10.5 ± 0.4 and 13.3 ± 0.4 rest-frame days, respectively. Based on fits to idealized analytic models, we find the progenitor radius of KSN2011a (280 ± 20 R ⊙ ) to be significantly smaller than that for KSN2011d (490 ± 20 R ⊙ ), but both have similar explosion energies of 2.0 ± 0.3 × 10 51 erg. The rising light curve of KSN2011d is an excellent match to that predicted by simple models of exploding red supergiants (RSG). However, the early rise of KSN2011a is faster than the models predict, possibly due to the supernova shock wave moving into pre-existing wind or mass-loss from the RSG. A mass-loss rate of 10 −4 M ⊙ yr −1 from the RSG can explain the fast rise without impacting the optical flux at maximum light or the shape of the post-maximum light curve. No shock breakout emission is seen in KSN2011a, but this is likely due to the circumstellar interaction suspected in the fast rising light curve. The early light curve of KSN2011d does show excess emission consistent with model predictions of a shock breakout. This is the first optical detection of a shock breakout from a SNe II-P

  6. Early Detection of Infusion Set Failure During Insulin Pump Therapy in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescon, Marzia; DeSalvo, Daniel J; Ly, Trang T; Maahs, David M; Messer, Laurel H; Buckingham, Bruce A; Doyle, Francis J; Dassau, Eyal

    2016-11-01

    Insulin infusion set failure resulting in prolonged hyperglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis can occur with pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. Set failures are frequently characterized by variable and unpredictable patterns of increasing glucose values despite increased insulin infusion. Early detection may minimize the risk of prolonged hyperglycemia, an important consideration for automated insulin delivery and closed-loop applications. A novel algorithm designed to alert the patient to the onset of infusion set failure was developed based upon continuous glucose sensor values and insulin delivered from an insulin pump. The method was calibrated on 12 weeks of infusion set wear without failures recorded by 4 patients in ambulatory conditions and prospectively validated on 18 weeks of infusion set wear with and without failures belonging to 9 other subjects in ambulatory conditions. The algorithm, evaluated retrospectively, identified a failure 2.52 ± 1.91 days ahead of the actual event as recorded by the clinical team, corresponding to 50% sensitivity, 66% specificity and 55% accuracy. If set failure alarms had been activated in real time, the average time >180 mg/dl would be reduced from 82.7 ± 40.9 hours/week/subject (without alarm) to 58.8 ± 31.1 hours/week/subject (with alarm), corresponding to a potential 29% reduction in time spent >180mg/dl. The proposed method for early detection of infusion set failure based on glucose sensor and insulin data demonstrated favorable results on retrospective data and may be implemented as an additional safeguard in a future fully automated closed-loop system. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. The early-type dwarf galaxy population of the Hydra I cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misgeld, I.; Mieske, S.; Hilker, M.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We analyse the properties of the early-type dwarf galaxy population (MV > -17 mag) in the Hydra I cluster. We investigate the galaxy luminosity function (LF), the colour-magnitude relation (CMR), and the magnitude-surface brightness relation down to MV ~ -10 mag. Another goal of this study is to find candidates for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in Hydra I. Methods: Two spectroscopic surveys performed with Magellan I/LDSS2 at Las Campanas Observatory and VLT/VIMOS, as well as deep VLT/FORS1 images in V and I bands, covering the central parts of the cluster, were examined. We identify cluster members by radial velocity measurements and select other cluster galaxy candidates by their morphology and low surface brightness. The candidates' total magnitudes and central surface brightnesses were derived from the analysis of their surface brightness profiles. To determine the faint-end slope of the LF, the galaxy number counts are completeness corrected. Results: We obtain radial velocities for 126 objects and identify 32 cluster members, of which 5 are previously uncatalogued dwarf galaxies. One possible UCD candidate with MV = -13.26 mag is found. Our sample of ≃100 morphologically selected dwarf galaxies with M_V>-17 mag defines a CMR that extends the CMR of the giant cluster galaxies to the magnitude limit of our survey (MV ~ -10 mag). It matches the relations found for the Local Group (LG) and the Fornax cluster dwarf galaxies almost perfectly. The Hydra I dwarf galaxies also follow a magnitude-surface brightness relation that is very similar to that of the LG dwarf galaxies. Moreover, we observe a continuous relation for dwarf galaxies and giant early-type galaxies when plotting the central surface brightness μ0 of a Sérsic model vs. the galaxy magnitude. The effective radius is found to be largely independent of the luminosity for MV > -18 mag. It is consistent with a constant value of Re ~ 0.8 kpc. We present the photometric parameters of the

  8. Early loading of plalatal implants (ortho-type II a prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gedrange Tomasz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In orthodontic treatment, anchorage control is a fundamental aspect. Usually conventional mechanism for orthodontic anchorage control can be either extraoral or intraoral that is headgear or intermaxillary elastics. Their use are combined with various side effects such as tipping of occlusal plane or undesirable movements of teeth. Especially in cases, where key-teeth are missing, conventional anchorage defined as tooth-borne anchorage will meet limitations. Therefore, the use of endosseous implants for anchorage purposes are increasingly used to achieve positional stability and maximum anchorage. Methods/Design The intended study is designed as a prospective, multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT, comparing and contrasting the effect of early loading of palatal implant therapy versus implant loading after 12 weeks post implantation using the new ortho-implant type II anchor system device (Orthosystem Straumann, Basel, Switzerland. 124 participants, mainly adult males or females, whose diagnoses require temporary stationary implant-based anchorage treatment will be randomized 1:1 to one of two treatment groups: group 1 will receive a loading of implant standard therapy after a healing period of 12 week (gold standard, whereas group 2 will receive an early loading of orthodontic implants within 1 week after implant insertion. Participants will be at least followed for 12 months after implant placement. The primary endpoint is to investigate the behavior of early loaded palatal implants in order to find out if shorter healing periods might be justified to accelerate active orthodontic treatment. Secondary outcomes will focus e.g. on achievement of orthodontic treatment goals and quantity of direct implant-bone interface of removed bone specimens. As tertiary objective, a histologic and microtomography evaluation of all retrieved implants will be performed to obtain data on the performance of the SLA surface in human bone

  9. The early A type stars - Refined MK classification, confrontation with Stroemgren photometry, and the effects of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. O.; Garrison, R. F.

    1987-12-01

    The MK classification system for the early A-type stars is refined, and a parallel system of standards for the broad-lined stars is introduced. With this improved system, stars may be classified with significantly greater precision than before. It is shown that spectral types in this system are not systematically affected by rotational line broadening. A total of 372 early A-type stars are classified, and a confrontation of these spectral types with Stroemgren photometry reveals a number of systematic photometric effects of rotation. In particular, high v sin i stars are systematically redder than low v sin i stars of the same spectral type, and the beta index is weakened by rotation. It is concluded that precise spectral classification in conjunction with Stroemgren and H-beta photometry can potentially provide a valuable check and input to the theory of the atmospheres of rotating stars.

  10. Types of parents’ involvement in early childhood development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Chojnacka-Synaszko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on their involvement in assisting their child’s development, parents may have various chances of improving and refining their childcare, parenting, and therapeutic methods. The objective of this study was to learn the opinions of the parents of children covered by the early intervention/early assisted-development programme regarding their own involvement in the processes, and determining which types of involvement, whether active or passive, the parents seem to practice. The empirical material was acquired in a survey conducted in the form of a questionnaire in May 2015 and June 2016, covering a total of 143 parents. According to our results, the respondents not only follow the recommendations provided by the specialists based at a given support centre (96.5%, but also actively seek information and knowledge related to activities and measures aimed at assisting their child’s development, incorporating them in daily childcare and education routine (88.8%. Most respondents (65% actively seek the specialists’ advice and opinion related to  the child’s education and development as well as keep the child company at the appointments, sessions, and activities held at the centre (63.65%. A large majority (90.2% combine various types of “active” (self-inspired involvement with “passive” (specialist-inspired involvement of supportive character. Each of the parents covered by the study engages in assisting the child’s development at home according to the specialists’ recommendations, or we might say, as inspired by the specialist team. There is a need for enhancing the parents’ “active” (self-inspired involvement in the child’s situation at the centre (encouraging initiativetaking as well as the parents’ specialist-inspired involvement in the child’s situation at the centre.

  11. The very soft X-ray emission of X-ray-faint early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, S.; Fabbiano, G.

    1994-01-01

    A recent reanaylsis of Einstein data, and new ROSAT observations, have revealed the presence of at least two components in the X-ray spectra of X-ray faint early-type galaxies: a relatively hard component (kT greater than 1.5 keV), and a very soft component (kT approximately 0.2-0.3 keV). In this paper we address the problem of the nature of the very soft component and whether it can be due to a hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is most likely originated by the collective emission of very soft stellar sources. To this purpose, hydrodynamical evolutionary sequences for the secular behavior of gas flows in ellipticals have been performed, varying the Type Ia supernovae rate of explosion, and the dark matter amount and distribution. The results are compared with the observational X-ray data: the average Einstein spectrum for six X-ray faint early-type galaxies (among which are NGC 4365 and NGC 4697), and the spectrum obtained by the ROSAT pointed observation of NGC 4365. The very soft component could be entirely explained with a hot ISM only in galaxies such as NGC 4697, i.e., when the depth of the potential well-on which the average ISM temperature strongly depends-is quite shallow; in NGC 4365 a diffuse hot ISM would have a temperature larger than that of the very soft component, because of the deeper potential well. So, in NGC 4365 the softest contribution to the X-ray emission comes certainly from stellar sources. As stellar soft X-ray emitters, we consider late-type stellar coronae, supersoft sources such as those discovered by ROSAT in the Magellanic Clouds and M31, and RS CVn systems. All these candidates can be substantial contributors to the very soft emission, though none of them, taken separately, plausibly accounts entirely for its properties. We finally present a model for the X-ray emission of NGC 4365, to reproduce in detail the results of the ROSAT pointed observation, including the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectrum and radial

  12. Differential diagnosis between early repolarization of athlete's heart and coved-type Brugada electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Leoni, Loira; Di Paolo, Fernando M; Rigato, Ilaria; Migliore, Federico; Bauce, Barbara; Pelliccia, Antonio; Corrado, Domenico

    2015-02-15

    Early repolarization (ER) is typically observed in highly trained athletes as a physiologic consequence of increased vagal tone. The variant of anterior (V1 to V3) ER characterized by "domed" ST-segment elevation and negative T wave raises problems of differential diagnosis with the "coved-type" electrocardiographic pattern seen in Brugada syndrome (BS). This study was designed to identify electrocardiographic criteria for distinguishing athlete's ER from BS. The study compared the electrocardiographic tracings of 61 healthy athletes (80% men, median age 23 ± 8 years), showing "domed" ST-segment elevation and negative T wave in leads V1 to V3, with those of 92 consecutive age- and sex-matched BS patients with a "coved-type" electrocardiographic pattern. The electrocardiographic analysis focused on the ST-segment elevation at J point (STJ) and at 80 milliseconds after J point (ST₈₀). Athletes had a lower maximum amplitude of STJ (1.46 ± 0.7 vs 3.25 ± 0.6 mm, p 1) versus only 2 (3%) athletes (p <0.001). An upsloping ST-segment configuration (STJ/ST₈₀ <1) showed a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 100%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 98.7% for the diagnosis of ER. At multivariate analysis, STJ/ST₈₀ ratio remained the only independent predictor for ER (odds ratio 87, 95% confidence interval 19 to 357, p <0.001). In conclusion, the STJ/ST₈₀ ratio is a highly accurate electrocardiographic parameter for differential diagnosis between anterior ER of the athlete and BS. Our results may help in reducing the number of athletes who undergo expensive diagnostic workup or are unnecessarily disqualified from competition for changes that fall within the normal range of athlete's heart. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: romanow@ucolick.org [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2014-08-20

    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  14. Stratifying the risk of lymph node metastasis in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yukiko; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Maekawa, Shinya; Fukasawa, Mitsuharu; Nakayama, Yasuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Taisuke; Uetake, Tomoyoshi; Sakamoto, Minoru; Sato, Tadashi; Kawaguchi, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Hideki; Mochizuki, Kunio; Hada, Masao; Oyama, Toshio; Yasumura, Tomotaka; Omata, Kosaku; Nishiyama, Atsushi; Naito, Keiichi; Hata, Hideo; Haba, Yoshiaki; Miyata, Kazuyuki; Saitoh, Haruhisa; Yamadera, Yoichi; Miura, Kazuo; Kawaoi, Akira; Abe, Tohru; Tsunoda, Hajime; Honda, Yuji; Kurosaki, Masayuki; Enomoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study how lymph node metastasis (LNM) risk is stratified in undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer (undiff-EGC) dependent on combinations of risk factors. METHODS: Five hundred and sixty-seven cases with undiff-EGC undergoing gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy were examined retrospectively. Using clinicopathological factors of patient age, location, size, an endoscopic macroscopic tumor form, ulceration, depth, histology, lymphatic involvement (LI) and venous involvement (VI), LNM risk was examined and stratified by conventional statistical analysis and data-mining analysis. RESULTS: LNM was positive in 44 of 567 cases (7.8%). Univariate analysis revealed > 2 cm, protrusion, submucosal (sm), mixed type, LI and VI as significant prognostic factors and > 2 cm and LI-positive were independent factors by multivariate analysis. In preoperatively evaluable factors excluding LVI, sm and > 2 cm were independent factors. According to the depth and size, cases were categorized into the low-risk group [m and ≤ 2 cm, 0% (LNM incidence)], the moderate-risk group (m and > 2 cm, 5.6%; and sm and ≤ 2 cm, 6.0%), and the high-risk group (sm and > 2 cm, 19.3%). On the other hand, LNM occurred in 1.4% in all LI-negative cases, greatly lower than 28.2% in all LI-positive cases, and LNM incidence was low in LI-negative cases even in the moderate- and high-risk groups. CONCLUSION: LNM-related factors in undiff-EGC were depth and size preoperatively while those were LI and size postoperatively. Among these factors, LI was the most significantly correlated factor. PMID:25759537

  15. Early Cretaceous MORB-type basalt and A-type rhyolite in northern Tibet: Evidence for ridge subduction in the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Sun, Zhen-Ming; Xu, Wei; Wang, Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming

    2018-04-01

    New zircon U-Pb ages, major- and trace-element data, and Hf isotopic compositions are presented for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Zhaga Formation (ZF) in the western-middle segment of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), northern Tibet. The genesis of these rocks is described, and implications for late-stage evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean (BNTO) are considered. Detailed studies show that the ZF bimodal rocks, which occur as layers within a typical bathyal to abyssal flysch deposit, comprise MORB-type basalt that formed at a mid-ocean ridge, and low-K calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite derived from juvenile crust. The combination of MORB-type basalt, calc-alkaline A-type rhyolite, and bathyal to abyssal flysch deposits in the ZF leads us to propose that they formed as a result of ridge subduction. The A-type ZF rhyolites yield LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of 118-112 Ma, indicating formation during the Early Cretaceous. Data from the present study, combined with regional geological data, indicate that the BNTO underwent conversion from ocean opening to ocean closure during the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. The eastern segment of the BNTO closed during this period, while the western and western-middle segments were still at least partially open and active during the Early Cretaceous, accompanied by ridge subduction within the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean.

  16. OXYGEN METALLICITY DETERMINATIONS FROM OPTICAL EMISSION LINES IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athey, Alex E.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2009-01-01

    We measured the oxygen abundances of the warm (T ∼ 10 4 K) phase of gas in seven early-type galaxies through long-slit observations. A template spectra was constructed from galaxies void of warm gas and subtracted from the emission-line galaxies, allowing for a clean measurement of the nebular lines. The ratios of the emission lines are consistent with photoionization, which likely originates from the ultraviolet flux of postasymototic giant branch stars. We employ H II region photoionization models to determine a mean oxygen metallicity of 1.01 ± 0.50 solar for the warm interstellar medium (ISM) in this sample. This warm ISM 0.5-1.5 solar metallicity is consistent with modern determinations of the metallicity in the hot (T ∼ 10 6 -10 7 K) ISM and the upper range of this warm ISM metallicity is consistent with stellar population metallicity determinations. A solar metallicity of the warm ISM favors an internal origin for the warm ISM such as asymptotic giant branch mass loss within the galaxy.

  17. Well-Being and Diabetes Management in Early Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Karolina; Sparud-Lundin, Carina; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Berg, Marie

    2016-08-22

    This paper explores well-being and diabetes management in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in early pregnancy and investigates associations among perceived well-being, diabetes management, and maternal characteristics. Questionnaires were answered by 168 Swedish women. Correlation analyses were conducted with Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs). The women reported relatively high scores of self-efficacy in diabetes management (SWE-DES-10: 3.91 (0.51)) and self-perceived health (excellent (6.5%), very good (42.3%), good (38.7%), fair (11.3%) and poor (1.2%)). Moderate scores were reported for general well-being (WBQ-12: 22.6 (5.7)) and sense of coherence (SOC-13: 68.9 (9.7), moderate/low scores for hypoglycemia fear (SWE-HFS 26.6 (11.8)) and low scores of diabetes-distress (SWE-PAID-20 27.1 (15.9)). A higher capability of self-efficacy in diabetes management showed positive correlations with self-perceived health (rs = -0.41, p diabetes distress (rs = -0.51, p diabetes management could be supported by strengthening the women's capability to achieve glycemic goals and their comprehensibility in relation to the treatment. Further studies are needed to test this.

  18. THE EFFECT OF DRY MERGERS ON THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skelton, Rosalind E.; Bell, Eric F.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the effect of dry merging on the color-magnitude relation (CMR) of galaxies and find that the amount of merging predicted by a hierarchical model results in a red sequence that compares well with the observed low-redshift relation. A sample of ∼ 29,000 early-type galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 shows that the bright end of the CMR has a shallower slope and smaller scatter than the faint end. This magnitude dependence is predicted by a simple toy model in which gas-rich mergers move galaxies onto a 'creation red sequence' (CRS) by quenching their star formation, and subsequent mergers between red, gas-poor galaxies (so-called 'dry' mergers) move galaxies along the relation. We use galaxy merger trees from a semianalytic model of galaxy formation to test the amplitude of this effect and find a change in slope at the bright end that brackets the observations, using gas fraction thresholds of 10%-30% to separate wet and dry mergers. A more realistic model that includes scatter in the CRS shows that dry merging decreases the scatter at the bright end. Contrary to previous claims, the small scatter in the observed CMR thus cannot be used to constrain the amount of dry merging.

  19. CENTRAL DARK MATTER TRENDS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM STRONG LENSING, DYNAMICS, AND STELLAR POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, C.; Jetzer, P.; Napolitano, N. R.; Romanowsky, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the correlations between central dark matter (DM) content of early-type galaxies and their sizes and ages, using a sample of intermediate-redshift (z ∼ 0.2) gravitational lenses from the SLACS survey, and by comparing them to a larger sample of z ∼ 0 galaxies. We decompose the deprojected galaxy masses into DM and stellar components using combinations of strong lensing, stellar dynamics, and stellar populations modeling. For a given stellar mass, we find that for galaxies with larger sizes, the DM fraction increases and the mean DM density decreases, consistently with the cuspy halos expected in cosmological formation scenarios. The DM fraction also decreases with stellar age, which can be partially explained by the inverse correlation between size and age. The residual trend may point to systematic dependencies on formation epoch of halo contraction or stellar initial mass functions. These results are in agreement with recent findings based on local galaxies by Napolitano et al. and suggest negligible evidence of galaxy evolution over the last ∼2.5 Gyr other than passive stellar aging.

  20. Early-type Galaxy Spin Evolution in the Horizon-AGN Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hoseung; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Dubois, Yohan; Kimm, Taysun; Devriendt, Julien. E. G.; Pichon, Christophe

    2018-04-01

    Using the Horizon-AGN simulation data, we study the relative role of mergers and environmental effects in shaping the spin of early-type galaxies (ETGs) after z ≃ 1. We follow the spin evolution of 10,037 color-selected ETGs more massive than {10}10 {M}ȯ that are divided into four groups: cluster centrals (3%), cluster satellites (33%), group centrals (5%), and field ETGs (59%). We find a strong mass dependence of the slow rotator fraction, f SR, and the mean spin of massive ETGs. Although we do not find a clear environmental dependence of f SR, a weak trend is seen in the mean value of the spin parameter driven by the satellite ETGs as they gradually lose their spin as their environment becomes denser. Galaxy mergers appear to be the main cause of total spin changes in 94% of the central ETGs of halos with {M}vir}> {10}12.5 {M}ȯ , but only 22% of satellite and field ETGs. We find that non-merger-induced tidal perturbations better correlate with the galaxy spin down in satellite ETGs than in mergers. Given that the majority of ETGs are not central in dense environments, we conclude that non-merger tidal perturbation effects played a key role in the spin evolution of ETGs observed in the local (z < 1) universe.

  1. The MASSIVE survey - VIII. Stellar velocity dispersion profiles and environmental dependence of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Melanie; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; Thomas, Jens; Blakeslee, John P.; Walsh, Jonelle L.; Ito, Jennifer

    2018-02-01

    We measure the radial profiles of the stellar velocity dispersions, σ(R), for 90 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the MASSIVE survey, a volume-limited integral-field spectroscopic (IFS) galaxy survey targeting all northern-sky ETGs with absolute K-band magnitude MK galaxies with sufficient radial coverage to determine γouter we find 36 per cent to have rising outer dispersion profiles, 30 per cent to be flat within the uncertainties and 34 per cent to be falling. The fraction of galaxies with rising outer profiles increases with M* and in denser galaxy environment, with 10 of the 11 most massive galaxies in our sample having flat or rising dispersion profiles. The strongest environmental correlations are with local density and halo mass, but a weaker correlation with large-scale density also exists. The average γouter is similar for brightest group galaxies, satellites and isolated galaxies in our sample. We find a clear positive correlation between the gradients of the outer dispersion profile and the gradients of the velocity kurtosis h4. Altogether, our kinematic results suggest that the increasing fraction of rising dispersion profiles in the most massive ETGs are caused (at least in part) by variations in the total mass profiles rather than in the velocity anisotropy alone.

  2. Probing Evolutionary Population Synthesis Models in the Near Infrared with Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmer-Hahn, Luis Gabriel; Riffel, Rogério; Rodríguez-Ardila, Alberto; Martins, Lucimara P.; Kehrig, Carolina; Heckman, Timothy M.; Pastoriza, Miriani G.; Dametto, Natacha Z.

    2018-02-01

    We performed a near-infrared (NIR, ˜1.0μm-2.4μm) stellar population study in a sample of early type galaxies. The synthesis was performed using five different evolutionary population synthesis libraries of models. Our main results can be summarized as follows: low spectral resolution libraries are not able to produce reliable results when applied to the NIR alone, with each library finding a different dominant population. The two newest higher resolution models, on the other hand, perform considerably better, finding consistent results to each other and to literature values. We also found that optical results are consistent with each other even for lower resolution models. We also compared optical and NIR results, and found out that lower resolution models tend to disagree in the optical and in the NIR, with higher fraction of young populations in the NIR and dust extinction ˜1 magnitude higher than optical values. For higher resolution models, optical and NIR results tend do aggree much better, suggesting that a higher spectral resolution is fundamental to improve the quality of the results.

  3. Identifying the progenitors of present-day early-type galaxies in observational surveys: correcting `progenitor bias' using the Horizon-AGN simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G.; Kaviraj, S.; Devriendt, J. E. G.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Laigle, C.

    2018-03-01

    As endpoints of the hierarchical mass-assembly process, the stellar populations of local early-type galaxies encode the assembly history of galaxies over cosmic time. We use Horizon-AGN, a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, to study the merger histories of local early-type galaxies and track how the morphological mix of their progenitors evolves over time. We provide a framework for alleviating `progenitor bias' - the bias that occurs if one uses only early-type galaxies to study the progenitor population. Early types attain their final morphology at relatively early epochs - by z ˜ 1, around 60 per cent of today's early types have had their last significant merger. At all redshifts, the majority of mergers have one late-type progenitor, with late-late mergers dominating at z > 1.5 and early-early mergers becoming significant only at z types is actually in progenitors with early-type morphology, while, at z ˜ 2, studying only early types misses almost all (80 per cent) of the stellar mass that eventually ends up in local early-type systems. At high redshift, almost all massive late-type galaxies, regardless of their local environment or star formation rate, are progenitors of local early-type galaxies, as are lower mass (M⋆ types as long as they reside in high-density environments. In this new era of large observational surveys (e.g. LSST, JWST), this study provides a framework for studying how today's early-type galaxies have been built up over cosmic time.

  4. Nebular emission and the Lyman continuum photon escape fraction in CALIFA early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaderos, P.; Gomes, J. M.; Vílchez, J. M.; Kehrig, C.; Lehnert, M. D.; Ziegler, B.; Sánchez, S. F.; Husemann, B.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; García-Benito, R.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Cortijo-Ferrero, C.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; del Olmo, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Galbany, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Marquez, I.; Mollá, M.; Mast, D.; van de Ven, G.; Wisotzki, L.

    2013-07-01

    We use deep integral field spectroscopy data from the CALIFA survey to study the warm interstellar medium (wim) over the entire extent and optical spectral range of 32 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs). We find that faint nebular emission is extended in all cases, and its surface brightness decreases roughly as ∝ r-α. The large standard deviation in the derived α (1.09 ± 0.67) argues against a universal power-law index for the radial drop-off of nebular emission in ETGs. Judging from the properties of their extranuclear component, our sample ETGs span a broad, continuous sequence with respect to their α, Hα equivalent width (EW) and Lyman continuum (Lyc) photon leakage fraction (plf). We propose a tentative subdivision into two groups: Type i ETGs are characterized by rather steep Hα profiles (α ≃ 1.4), comparatively large (≳1 Å), nearly radially constant EWs, and plf ≃ 0. Photoionization by post-AGB stars appears to be the main driver of extended nebular emission in these systems, with nonthermal sources being potentially important only in their nuclei. Typical properties of type II ETGs are shallower Hα profiles (α ≃ 0.8), very low (≲0.5 Å) EWs with positive radial gradients, and a mean plf ≳ 0.7, rising to ≳0.9 in their centers. Such properties point to a low, and inwardly decreasing wim density and/or volume filling factor. We argue that, because of extensive Lyc photon leakage, emission-line luminosities and EWs are reduced in type II ETG nuclei by at least one order of magnitude. Consequently, the line weakness of these ETGs is by itself no compelling evidence for their containing merely "weak"(sub-Eddington accreting) active galactic nuclei (AGN). In fact, Lyc photon escape, which has heretofore not been considered, may constitute a key element in understanding why many ETGs with prominent signatures of AGN activity in radio continuum and/or X-ray wavelengths show only faint emission lines and weak signatures of AGN activity in

  5. Wide-field kinematic structure of early-type galaxy halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob Antony

    2013-12-01

    The stellar halos of nearby galaxies bare the signatures of the mass-assembly processes that have driven galaxy evolution over the last ˜10 Gyr. Finding and interpreting these relict clues in galaxies within and beyond the local group offers one of the most promising avenues for understanding how galaxies accumulate their stars over time. To tackle this problem we have performed a systematic study of the wide-field kinematic structure of nearby (Dspectroscopy out to several effective radii (˜3 R e). The 22 galaxies presented here span a range of environments (field, group, and cluster), intrinsic luminosities (-22.4 infrared Calcium II triplet. For each spectrum, we parameterize the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) as a truncated Gauss-Hermite series convolved with an optimally weighted combination of stellar templates. These kinematic measurements (V, sigma, h3, and h4) are combined with literature values to construct spatially resolved maps of large-scale kinematic structure. A variety of kinematic behaviors are observed beyond ~1 Re, potentially reflecting the stochastic and chaotic assembly of stellar bulges and halos in early-type galaxies. Next, we describe a global analysis (out to 5 Re) of kinematics and metallicity in the nearest S0 galaxy, NGC 3115, along with implications for its assembly history. The data include high-quality wide-field imaging and multi-slit spectra of the field stars and globular clusters (GCs). Within two effective radii, the bulge (as traced by the stars and metal-rich GCs) is flattened and rotates rapidly. At larger radii, the rotation declines dramatically, while the characteristic GC metallicities also decrease with radius. We argue that this pattern is not naturally explained by a binary major merger, but instead by a two-phase assembly process where the inner regions have formed in an early violent, dissipative phase, followed by the protracted growth of the outer parts via minor mergers. To test this hypothesis

  6. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.; Somasekar, A.; Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H.; Alcolado, R.; Williams, J.G.; Griffiths, A.P.; Baxter, J.N.; Jenkins, G.J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-κB) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-κB was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-κB analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be clinically useful in pre

  7. Aneuploidy involving chromosome 1 may be an early predictive marker of intestinal type gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Somasekar, A. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Davies, D.J.; Cronin, J.; Doak, S.H. [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom); Alcolado, R. [Royal Glamorgan Hospital, Ynysmaerdy, Llantrisant CF72 8XR (United Kingdom); Williams, J.G. [Neath Port Talbot Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Baglan Way, Port Talbot SA12 7BX (United Kingdom); Griffiths, A.P. [Department of Histopathology, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Baxter, J.N. [Department of Surgery, Morriston Hospital, Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust, Morriston, SA66NL (United Kingdom); Jenkins, G.J.S., E-mail: g.j.jenkins@swansea.ac.uk [Institute of Life Science, Swansea School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea SA28PP (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-02

    Intestinal type gastric cancer is a significant cause of mortality, therefore a better understanding of its molecular basis is required. We assessed if either aneuploidy or activity of the oncogenic transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B), increased incrementally during pre-malignant gastric histological progression and also if they correlated with each other in patient samples, as they are both induced by oxygen free radicals. In a prospective study of 54 (aneuploidy) and 59 (NF-{kappa}B) consecutive patients, aneuploidy was assessed by interphase fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome 1. NF-{kappa}B was assessed by expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8), and in a subset, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for active p65. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally across the histological series. 2.76% of cells with normal histology (95% CI, 2.14-3.38%) showed background levels of aneuploidy, this increased to averages of 3.78% (95% CI, 3.21-4.35%), 5.89% (95% CI, 3.72-8.06%) and 7.29% (95% CI, 4.73-9.85%) of cells from patients with gastritis, Helicobacter pylori positive gastritis and atrophy/intestinal metaplasia (IM) respectively. IL-8 expression was only increased in patients with current H. pylori infection. NF-{kappa}B analysis showed some increased p65 activity in inflamed tissues. IL-8 expression and aneuploidy level were not linked in individual patients. Aneuploidy levels increased incrementally during histological progression; were significantly elevated at very early stages of neoplastic progression and could well be linked to cancer development and used to assess cancer risk. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced in early gastric cancer are presumably responsible for the stepwise accumulation of this particular mutation, i.e. aneuploidy. Hence, aneuploidy measured by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) coupled to brush cytology, would be worthy of consideration as a predictive marker in gastric cancer and could be

  8. The Dramatic Size and Kinematic Evolution of Massive Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Pantoni, L.; Zanisi, L.; Shi, J.; Mancuso, C.; Massardi, M.; Shankar, F.; Bressan, A.; Danese, L.

    2018-04-01

    We aim to provide a holistic view on the typical size and kinematic evolution of massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) that encompasses their high-z star-forming progenitors, their high-z quiescent counterparts, and their configurations in the local Universe. Our investigation covers the main processes playing a relevant role in the cosmic evolution of ETGs. Specifically, their early fast evolution comprises biased collapse of the low angular momentum gaseous baryons located in the inner regions of the host dark matter halo; cooling, fragmentation, and infall of the gas down to the radius set by the centrifugal barrier; further rapid compaction via clump/gas migration toward the galaxy center, where strong heavily dust-enshrouded star formation takes place and most of the stellar mass is accumulated; and ejection of substantial gas amount from the inner regions by feedback processes, which causes a dramatic puffing-up of the stellar component. In the late slow evolution, passive aging of stellar populations and mass additions by dry merger events occur. We describe these processes relying on prescriptions inspired by basic physical arguments and by numerical simulations to derive new analytical estimates of the relevant sizes, timescales, and kinematic properties for individual galaxies along their evolution. Then we obtain quantitative results as a function of galaxy mass and redshift, and compare them to recent observational constraints on half-light size R e , on the ratio v/σ between rotation velocity and velocity dispersion (for gas and stars) and on the specific angular momentum j ⋆ of the stellar component; we find good consistency with the available multiband data in average values and dispersion, both for local ETGs and for their z ∼ 1–2 star-forming and quiescent progenitors. The outcomes of our analysis can provide hints to gauge sub-grid recipes implemented in simulations, to tune numerical experiments focused on specific processes, and to plan

  9. Adiponectin is associated with early diabetic kidney disease in adults with type 1 diabetes: A Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornstad, Petter; Pyle, Laura; Kinney, Gregory L; Rewers, Marian; Johnson, Richard J; Maahs, David M; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2017-02-01

    The associations between elevated adiponectin and end-stage renal disease are well recognized and thought to be at least partially explained by reduced renal clearance. Conversely, the relationship between adiponectin and early diabetic kidney disease (DKD) with preserved glomerular filtration rate (GFR), including rapid GFR decline and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. We hypothesized that elevated adiponectin would be associated with early DKD in adults with type 1 diabetes. Adults with type 1 diabetes (n=646 at baseline, n=525 at 6years) had adiponectin and renal function by estimated GFR (eGFR) by CKD-EPI creatinine and albumin-excretion rate (AER) evaluated at baseline and 6years. Linear and logistic models evaluated the associations of baseline adiponectin with AER, macroalbuminuria (AER ≥200μg/min), eGFR, CKD (3mL/min/1.73m 2 /year). Models adjusted for age, sex, duration, HbA1c, SBP, LDL-C and current smoking. Compared to non-diabetics, adults with type 1 diabetes had significantly higher adiponectin, and the difference remained significant after adjusting for AER and/or eGFR (ptherapy. Adults with type 1 diabetes have higher adiponectin than their non-diabetic peers, and elevated adiponectin at baseline is independently associated with greater odds of developing early DKD over 6years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early-type galaxy archeology: Ages, abundance ratios, and effective temperatures from full-spectrum fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter G. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s{sup –1} to 300 km s{sup –1}. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å{sup –1}, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å –8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T {sub eff}, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ; (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ∼0.25 at high σ; Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ; and (6) the variation in Δ T {sub eff} with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0.05 dex or

  11. The ATLAS(3D) project : XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet,

  12. The ATLAS3D project - XIX. The hot gas content of early-type galaxies: fast versus slow rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarzi, Marc; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Young, Lisa M.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    For early-type galaxies, the ability to sustain a corona of hot, X-ray-emitting gas could have played a key role in quenching their star formation history. A halo of hot gas may act as an effective shield against the acquisition of cold gas and can quickly absorb stellar mass loss material. Yet,

  13. The SAURON project : XXI. The spatially resolved UV-line strength relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    The unexpected rising flux of early-type galaxies at decreasing ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths is a long-standing mystery. One important observational constraint is the correlation between UVoptical colours and Mg2 line strengths found by Burstein et al. The simplest interpretation of this phenomenon

  14. The SAURON project : XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; Krajnović, Davor

    2010-01-01

    We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of H beta, Fe5015 and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, together with

  15. The SAURON project : XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star

  16. The SAURON project - XII. Kinematic substructures in early-type galaxies : evidence for discs in fast rotators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krajnovic, Davor; Bacon, R.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    We analysed two-dimensional maps of 48 early-type galaxies obtained with the SAURON and OASIS integral-field spectrographs using kinemetry, a generalization of surface photometry to the higher order moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD). The maps analysed include: reconstructed

  17. The SAURON project - XVII. Stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps of 48 early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Emsellem, Eric; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Sarzi, Marc; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    We present a stellar population analysis of the absorption line strength maps for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample. Using the line strength index maps of Hβ, Fe5015 and Mgb, measured in the Lick/IDS system and spatially binned to a constant signal-to-noise ratio, together with

  18. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive

  19. EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM K-BAND SPECTROSCOPY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marmol-Queralto, E.; Cardiel, N.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Trager, S. C.; Peletier, R. F.; Kuntschner, H.; Silva, D. R.; Cenarro, A. J.; Vazdekis, A.; Gorgas, J.

    2009-01-01

    The study of stellar populations in early-type galaxies in different environments is a powerful tool for constraining their star formation histories. This study has been traditionally restricted to the optical range, where dwarfs around the turn-off and stars at the base of the red giant branch

  20. Stellar Populations And Star-formation Histories Of Early-type Galaxies From The Atlas3d Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard; Alatalo, K.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; Davis, T.; de Zeeuw, T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Lablanche, P.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Young, L.

    Atlas3D is a new survey based on integral-field spectroscopy for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies observed within the local 40 Mpc volume - the largest survey of its kind. This K-band selected sample spans a range in mass from 10e10 to 10e12 solar masses, and probes two

  1. Lipidomic and metabolomic characterization of a genetically modified mouse model of the early stages of human type 1 diabetes pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Anne Julie; Weir, Jacquelyn M; De Souza, David Peter

    2016-01-01

    The early mechanisms regulating progression towards beta cell failure in type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly understood, but it is generally acknowledged that genetic and environmental components are involved. The metabolomic phenotype is sensitive to minor variations in both, and accordingly reflects...

  2. The SAURON project - XV. Modes of star formation in early-type galaxies and the evolution of the red sequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapiro, Kristen L.; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; van de Ven, Glenn; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Sarzi, Marc; Bacon, Roland; Bolatto, Alberto; Cappellari, Michele; Croton, Darren; Davies, Roger L.; Emsellem, Eric; Fakhouri, Onsi; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van der Wolk, Guido

    We combine SAURON integral field data of a representative sample of local early-type, red sequence galaxies with Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera imaging in order to investigate the presence of trace star formation in these systems. With the Spitzer data, we identify galaxies hosting low-level star

  3. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : VI. Colour gradients in giant and dwarf early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, M.; Peletier, R. F.; Valentijn, E. A.; Balcells, Marc; Carter, D.; Erwin, P.; Ferguson, H. C.; Goudfrooij, P.; Graham, A. W.; Hammer, D.; Lucey, J. R.; Trentham, N.; Guzman, R.; Hoyos, C.; Kleijn, G. Verdoes; Jogee, S.; Karick, A. M.; Marinova, I.; Mouhcine, M.; Weinzirl, T.

    Using deep, high-spatial-resolution imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we determine colour profiles of early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster. From 176 galaxies brighter than M-F814W(AB) = -15 mag that are either

  4. The mass distribution in early-type disc galaxies : declining rotation curves and correlations with optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordermeer, E.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Sancisi, R.; Swaters, R. S.; van Albada, T. S.

    2007-01-01

    We present rotation curves for 19 early-type disc galaxies (S0-Sab). The galaxies span a B-band absolute magnitude range from -17.5 to -22, but the majority have a high luminosity with M-B <-20. Rotation velocities are measured from a combination of H I velocity fields and long-slit optical emission

  5. The Lenses Structure and Dynamics Survey: luminous and dark matter in high redshift early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treu, T.; Koopmans, L.

    2003-01-01

    I will present the latest results from the Lenses Structure and Dynamics (LSD) Survey. Using ESI on the Keck Telescope, we have measured spatially resolved stellar kinematics for a sample of 11 early-type galaxies (E/S0s) in the range z=0.1-1, selected as gravitational lenses. By combining lensing

  6. Understanding the nuclear gas dispersion in early-type galaxies in the context of black hole demographics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, GAV; van der Marel, RP; Noel-Storr, J

    The majority of nearby early-type galaxies contain detectable amounts of emission-line gas at their centers. The nuclear gas kinematics form a valuable diagnostic of the central black hole (BH) mass. Here we analyze and model Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of a sample of 27 galaxies; 16

  7. Neuroretinal alterations in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, P; Toto, L; Aloia, R; Ciciarelli, V; Borrelli, E; Vitacolonna, E; Di Nicola, M; Di Antonio, L; Mastropasqua, R

    2016-05-01

    PurposeTo study neuroretinal alterations in patients affected by type 2 diabetes with no diabetic retinopathy (DR) or mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and without any sign of diabetic macular edema.Patients and methodsIn total, 150 type 2 diabetic patients with no (131 eyes) or mild NPDR (19 eyes) and 50 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. All underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including Spectral-Domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GC-IPL) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness values were calculated after automated segmentation of SD-OCT scans.ResultsMean best-corrected visual acuity was 0.0±0.0 LogMAR in all the groups. Mean GC-IPL thickness was 80.6±8.1 μm in diabetic patients and 85.3±9.9 μm in healthy controls, respectively (P=0.001). Moreover, evaluating the two different diabetic groups, GC-IPL thickness was 80.7±8.1 μm and 79.7±8.8 μm in no-DR and mild-NPDR group (P=0.001 and P=0.022 compared with healthy controls, respectively). Average RNFL thickness was 86.1±10.1 μm in diabetes patients and 91.2±7.3 μm in controls, respectively (P=0.003). RNFL thickness was 86.4±10.2 μm in no-DR group and 84.1±9.4 μm in mild-NPDR group (P=0.007 and P=0.017 compared with healthy controls, respectively).ConclusionWe demonstrated a significantly reduced GC-IPL and RNFL thickness values in both no-DR and mild-NPDR groups compared with healthy controls. These data confirmed neuroretinal alterations are early in diabetes, preceding microvascular damages.

  8. Early-type galaxies in the Antlia Cluster: Catalogue and isophotal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Juan P.; Bassino, Lilia P.; Cellone, Sergio A.; Gómez, Matías

    2018-03-01

    We present a statistical isophotal analysis of 138 early-type galaxies in the Antlia cluster, located at a distance of ˜ 35 Mpc. The observational material consists of CCD images of four 36 arcmin × 36 arcmin fields obtained with the MOSAIC II camera at the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO. Our present work supersedes previous Antlia studies in the sense that the covered area is four times larger, the limiting magnitude is MB ˜ -9.6 mag, and the surface photometry parameters of each galaxy are derived from Sérsic model fits extrapolated to infinity. In a companion previous study we focused on the scaling relations obtained by means of surface photometry, and now we present the data, on which the previous paper is based, the parameters of the isophotal fits as well as an isophotal analysis. For each galaxy, we derive isophotal shape parameters along the semi-major axis and search for correlations within different radial bins. Through extensive statistical tests, we also analyse the behaviour of these values against photometric and global parameters of the galaxies themselves. While some galaxies do display radial gradients in their ellipticity (ɛ) and/or their Fourier coefficients, differences in mean values between adjacent regions are not statistically significant. Regarding Fourier coefficients, dwarf galaxies usually display gradients between all adjacent regions, while non-dwarfs tend to show this behaviour just between the two outermost regions. Globally, there is no obvious correlation between Fourier coefficients and luminosity for the whole magnitude range (-12 ≳ MV ≳ -22); however, dwarfs display much higher dispersions at all radii.

  9. Early Detection of Physical Activity for People With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasanayake, Isuru S; Bevier, Wendy C; Castorino, Kristin; Pinsker, Jordan E; Seborg, Dale E; Doyle, Francis J; Dassau, Eyal

    2015-06-30

    Early detection of exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may allow changes in therapy to prevent hypoglycemia. Currently there is limited experience with automated methods that detect the onset and end of exercise in this population. We sought to develop a novel method to quickly and reliably detect the onset and end of exercise in these individuals before significant changes in blood glucose (BG) occur. Sixteen adults with T1DM were studied as outpatients using a diary, accelerometer, heart rate monitor, and continuous glucose monitor for 2 days. These data were used to develop a principal component analysis based exercise detection method. Subjects also performed 60 and 30 minute exercise sessions at 30% and 50% predicted heart rate reserve (HRR), respectively. The detection method was applied to the exercise sessions to determine how quickly the detection of start and end of exercise occurred relative to change in BG. Mild 30% HRR and moderate 50% HRR exercise onset was identified in 6 ± 3 and 5 ± 2 (mean ± SD) minutes, while completion was detected in 3 ± 8 and 6 ± 5 minutes, respectively. BG change from start of exercise to detection time was 1 ± 6 and -1 ± 3 mg/dL, and, from the end of exercise to detection time was 6 ± 4 and -17 ± 13 mg/dL, respectively, for the 2 exercise sessions. False positive and negative ratios were 4 ± 2% and 21 ± 22%. The novel method for exercise detection identified the onset and end of exercise in approximately 5 minutes, with an average BG change of only -6 mg/dL. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Well-Being and Diabetes Management in Early Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Linden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores well-being and diabetes management in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM in early pregnancy and investigates associations among perceived well-being, diabetes management, and maternal characteristics. Questionnaires were answered by 168 Swedish women. Correlation analyses were conducted with Spearman’s correlation coefficient (rs. The women reported relatively high scores of self-efficacy in diabetes management (SWE-DES-10: 3.91 (0.51 and self-perceived health (excellent (6.5%, very good (42.3%, good (38.7%, fair (11.3% and poor (1.2%. Moderate scores were reported for general well-being (WBQ-12: 22.6 (5.7 and sense of coherence (SOC-13: 68.9 (9.7, moderate/low scores for hypoglycemia fear (SWE-HFS 26.6 (11.8 and low scores of diabetes-distress (SWE-PAID-20 27.1 (15.9. A higher capability of self-efficacy in diabetes management showed positive correlations with self-perceived health (rs = −0.41, p < 0.0001 and well-being (rs = 0.34, p < 0.0001 as well as negative correlations with diabetes distress (rs = −0.51, p < 0.0001 and hypoglycemia worries (rs = −0.27, p = 0.0009. Women with HbA1c levels of ≤48 mmL/mol scored higher in the subscales “goal achievement” in SWE-DES (p = 0.0028 and “comprehensibility” in SOC (p = 0.016. Well-being and diabetes management could be supported by strengthening the women’s capability to achieve glycemic goals and their comprehensibility in relation to the treatment. Further studies are needed to test this.

  11. The Diversity of Atomic Hydrogen in Slow Rotator Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M.; Serra, Paolo; Krajnović, Davor; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2018-02-01

    We present interferometric observations of H I in nine slow rotator early-type galaxies of the ATLAS3D sample. With these data, we now have sensitive H I searches in 34 of the 36 slow rotators. The aggregate detection rate is 32% ± 8%, consistent with previous work; however, we find two detections with extremely high H I masses, whose gas kinematics are substantially different from what was previously known about H I in slow rotators. These two cases (NGC 1222 and NGC 4191) broaden the known diversity of H I properties in slow rotators. NGC 1222 is a merger remnant with prolate-like rotation and, if it is indeed prolate in shape, an equatorial gas disc; NGC 4191 has two counterrotating stellar discs and an unusually large H I disc. We comment on the implications of this disc for the formation of 2σ galaxies. In general, the H I detection rate, the incidence of relaxed H I discs, and the H I/stellar mass ratios of slow rotators are indistinguishable from those of fast rotators. These broad similarities suggest that the H I we are detecting now is unrelated to the galaxies' formation processes and was often acquired after their stars were mostly in place. We also discuss the H I nondetections; some of these galaxies that are undetected in H I or CO are detected in other tracers (e.g. FIR fine structure lines and dust). The question of whether there is cold gas in massive galaxies' scoured nuclear cores still needs work. Finally, we discuss an unusual isolated H I cloud with a surprisingly faint (undetected) optical counterpart.

  12. Generation of a novel mouse model that recapitulates early and adult onset glycogenosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, H. Orhan; Sheiko, Tatiana; Tay, Stacey K.H.; Finegold, Milton J.; DiMauro, Salvatore; Craigen, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the glycogen branching enzyme (GBE). The diagnostic feature of the disease is the accumulation of a poorly branched form of glycogen known as polyglucosan (PG). The disease is clinically heterogeneous, with variable tissue involvement and age of disease onset. Absence of enzyme activity is lethal in utero or in infancy affecting primarily muscle and liver. However, residual enzyme activity (5–20%) leads to juvenile or adult onset of a disorder that primarily affects muscle as well as central and peripheral nervous system. Here, we describe two mouse models of GSD IV that reflect this spectrum of disease. Homologous recombination was used to insert flippase recognition target recombination sites around exon 7 of the Gbe1 gene and a phosphoglycerate kinase-Neomycin cassette within intron 7, leading to a reduced synthesis of GBE. Mice bearing this mutation (Gbe1neo/neo) exhibit a phenotype similar to juvenile onset GSD IV, with wide spread accumulation of PG. Meanwhile, FLPe-mediated homozygous deletion of exon 7 completely eliminated GBE activity (Gbe1−/−), leading to a phenotype of lethal early onset GSD IV, with significant in utero accumulation of PG. Adult mice with residual GBE exhibit progressive neuromuscular dysfunction and die prematurely. Differently from muscle, PG in liver is a degradable source of glucose and readily depleted by fasting, emphasizing that there are structural and regulatory differences in glycogen metabolism among tissues. Both mouse models recapitulate typical histological and physiological features of two human variants of branching enzyme deficiency. PMID:21856731

  13. COMPARING X-RAY AND DYNAMICAL MASS PROFILES IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC 4636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Ria; Raychaudhury, Somak; Chakrabarty, Dalia; O'Sullivan, Ewan

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an X-ray mass analysis of the early-type galaxy NGC 4636, using Chandra data. We have compared the X-ray mass density profile with that derived from a dynamical analysis of the system's globular clusters (GCs). Given the observed interaction between the central active galactic nucleus and the X-ray emitting gas in NGC 4636, we would expect to see a discrepancy in the masses recovered by the two methods. Such a discrepancy exists within the central ∼10 kpc, which we interpret as the result of non-thermal pressure support or a local inflow. However, over the radial range ∼10-30 kpc, the mass profiles agree within the 1σ errors, indicating that even in this highly disturbed system, agreement can be sought at an acceptable level of significance over intermediate radii, with both methods also indicating the need for a dark matter halo. However, at radii larger than 30 kpc, the X-ray mass exceeds the dynamical mass, by a factor of 4-5 at the largest disagreement. A Fully Bayesian Significance Test finds no statistical reason to reject our assumption of velocity isotropy, and an analysis of X-ray mass profiles in different directions from the galaxy center suggests that local disturbances at large radius are not the cause of the discrepancy. We instead attribute the discrepancy to the paucity of GC kinematics at large radius, coupled with not knowing the overall state of the gas at the radius where we are reaching the group regime (>30 kpc), or a combination of the two.

  14. AN INVENTORY OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tortora, C. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Romanowsky, A. J. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Napolitano, N. R., E-mail: ctortora@physik.uzh.ch [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2013-03-01

    Given a flurry of recent claims for systematic variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we carry out the first inventory of the observational evidence using different approaches. This includes literature results, as well as our own new findings from combined stellar population synthesis (SPS) and Jeans dynamical analyses of data on {approx}4500 early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER project. We focus on the mass-to-light ratio mismatch relative to the Milky Way IMF, {delta}{sub IMF}, correlated against the central stellar velocity dispersion, {sigma}{sub *}. We find a strong correlation between {delta}{sub IMF} and {sigma}{sub *}, for a wide set of dark matter (DM) model profiles. These results are robust if a uniform halo response to baryons is adopted across the sample. The overall normalization of {delta}{sub IMF} and the detailed DM profile are less certain, but the data are consistent with standard cold DM halos and a central DM fraction that is roughly constant with {sigma}{sub *}. For a variety of related studies in the literature, using SPS, dynamics, and gravitational lensing, similar results are found. Studies based solely on spectroscopic line diagnostics agree on a Salpeter-like IMF at high {sigma}{sub *} but differ at low {sigma}{sub *}. Overall, we find that multiple independent lines of evidence appear to be converging on a systematic variation in the IMF, such that high-{sigma}{sub *} ETGs have an excess of low-mass stars relative to spirals and low-{sigma}{sub *} ETGs. Robust verification of super-Salpeter IMFs in the highest-{sigma}{sub *} galaxies will require additional scrutiny of scatter and systematic uncertainties. The implications for the distribution of DM are still inconclusive.

  15. AN INVENTORY OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortora, C.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Napolitano, N. R.

    2013-01-01

    Given a flurry of recent claims for systematic variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we carry out the first inventory of the observational evidence using different approaches. This includes literature results, as well as our own new findings from combined stellar population synthesis (SPS) and Jeans dynamical analyses of data on ∼4500 early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the SPIDER project. We focus on the mass-to-light ratio mismatch relative to the Milky Way IMF, δ IMF , correlated against the central stellar velocity dispersion, σ * . We find a strong correlation between δ IMF and σ * , for a wide set of dark matter (DM) model profiles. These results are robust if a uniform halo response to baryons is adopted across the sample. The overall normalization of δ IMF and the detailed DM profile are less certain, but the data are consistent with standard cold DM halos and a central DM fraction that is roughly constant with σ * . For a variety of related studies in the literature, using SPS, dynamics, and gravitational lensing, similar results are found. Studies based solely on spectroscopic line diagnostics agree on a Salpeter-like IMF at high σ * but differ at low σ * . Overall, we find that multiple independent lines of evidence appear to be converging on a systematic variation in the IMF, such that high-σ * ETGs have an excess of low-mass stars relative to spirals and low-σ * ETGs. Robust verification of super-Salpeter IMFs in the highest-σ * galaxies will require additional scrutiny of scatter and systematic uncertainties. The implications for the distribution of DM are still inconclusive.

  16. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF SIZE AND VELOCITY DISPERSION FOR EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, L.; Lapi, A.; Bressan, A.; De Zotti, G.; Danese, L.; Bernardi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Massive (stellar mass M * ∼> 3 x 10 10 M sun ), passively evolving galaxies at redshifts z ∼> 1 exhibit on average physical sizes smaller, by factors ∼3, than local early-type galaxies (ETGs) endowed with the same stellar mass. Small sizes are in fact expected on theoretical grounds, if dissipative collapse occurs. Recent results show that the size evolution at z ∼ 1, where both compact and already extended galaxies are observed and the scatter in size is remarkably larger than it is locally. The presence at high redshift of a significant number of ETGs with the same size as their local counterparts, as well as ETGs with quite small size (∼ H (z). We demonstrate that the projected mass of compact, high-redshift galaxies and that of local ETGs within the same physical radius, the nominal half-luminosity radius of high-redshift ETGs, differ substantially in that the high-redshift ETGs are on average significantly denser. This result suggests that the physical mechanism responsible for the size increase should also remove mass from central galaxy regions (r ∼ 1, we predict the local velocity dispersion distribution function. On comparing it to the observed one, we show that velocity dispersion evolution of massive ETGs is fully compatible with the observed average evolution in size at constant stellar mass. Less massive ETGs (with stellar masses M * ∼ 10 M sun ) are expected to evolve less both in size and in velocity dispersion, because their evolution is essentially determined by supernova feedback, which cannot yield winds as powerful as those triggered by quasars. The differential evolution is expected to leave imprints in the size versus luminosity/mass, velocity dispersion versus luminosity/mass, and central black hole mass versus velocity dispersion relationships, as observed in local ETGs.

  17. The magnetic early B-type stars I: magnetometry and rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Rivinius, Th; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.; Bohlender, D.; Monin, D.; Sikora, J.; MiMeS Collaboration; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    The rotational and magnetic properties of many magnetic hot stars are poorly characterized, therefore the Magnetism in Massive Stars and Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars collaborations have collected extensive high-dispersion spectropolarimetric data sets of these targets. We present longitudinal magnetic field measurements for 52 early B-type stars (B5-B0), with which we attempt to determine their rotational periods Prot. Supplemented with high-resolution spectroscopy, low-resolution Dominion Astrophysical Observatory circular spectropolarimetry, and archival Hipparcos photometry, we determined Prot for 10 stars, leaving only five stars for which Prot could not be determined. Rotational ephemerides for 14 stars were refined via comparison of new to historical magnetic measurements. The distribution of Prot is very similar to that observed for the cooler Ap/Bp stars. We also measured v sin i and vmac for all stars. Comparison to non-magnetic stars shows that v sin i is much lower for magnetic stars, an expected consequence of magnetic braking. We also find evidence that vmac is lower for magnetic stars. Least-squares deconvolution profiles extracted using single-element masks revealed widespread, systematic discrepancies in between different elements: this effect is apparent only for chemically peculiar stars, suggesting it is a consequence of chemical spots. Sinusoidal fits to H line measurements (which should be minimally affected by chemical spots), yielded evidence of surface magnetic fields more complex than simple dipoles in six stars for which this has not previously been reported; however, in all six cases, the second- and third-order amplitudes are small relative to the first-order (dipolar) amplitudes.

  18. Timing the formation and assembly of early-type galaxies via spatially resolved stellar populations analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; La Barbera, Francesco; Yıldırım, Akın; van de Ven, Glenn

    2018-04-01

    To investigate star formation and assembly processes of massive galaxies, we present here a spatially resolved stellar population analysis of a sample of 45 elliptical galaxies (Es) selected from the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey. We find rather flat age and [Mg/Fe] radial gradients, weakly dependent on the effective velocity dispersion of the galaxy within half-light radius. However, our analysis shows that metallicity gradients become steeper with increasing galaxy velocity dispersion. In addition, we have homogeneously compared the stellar population gradients of our sample of Es to a sample of nearby relic galaxies, i.e. local remnants of the high-z population of red nuggets. This comparison indicates that, first, the cores of present-day massive galaxies were likely formed in gas-rich, rapid star formation events at high redshift (z ≳ 2). This led to radial metallicity variations steeper than observed in the local Universe, and positive [Mg/Fe] gradients. Secondly, our analysis also suggests that a later sequence of minor dry mergers, populating the outskirts of early-type galaxies (ETGs), flattened the pristine [Mg/Fe] and metallicity gradients. Finally, we find a tight age-[Mg/Fe] relation, supporting that the duration of the star formation is the main driver of the [Mg/Fe] enhancement in massive ETGs. However, the star formation time-scale alone is not able to fully explain our [Mg/Fe] measurements. Interestingly, our results match the expected effect that a variable stellar initial mass function would have on the [Mg/Fe] ratio.

  19. Verbal and Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in…

  20. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  1. The early noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 16 is regulated by cytoplasmic polyadenylation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glahder, Jacob-Andreas Harald; Kristiansen, Karen; Durand, Marjorie

    2010-01-01

    (CPEs). We show here that a fragment of the early 3'end comprising four of the five CPE-like regions when inserted downstream of a reporter gene confers regulation of the gene expression. A key protein involved in cytoplasmic polyadenylation is CPEB. We show that the human CPEB1 can repress the activity...... of the reporter construct containing the HPV-16 early sequences. This repression can be counteracted by a human cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase, hGLD-2 fused to CPEB1. The hGLD-2/CPEB1 fusion protein facilitates furthermore poly(A) elongation of early HPV transcripts....

  2. Hα imaging observations of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, G.; Consolandi, G.; Pedraglio, S.; Fossati, M.; Fumagalli, M.; Boselli, A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. The traditional knowledge of the mechanisms that brought to the formation and evolution of early type galaxies (ETG) in a hierarchical Universe was challenged by the unexpected finding by ATLAS3D that 86% ETGs show signs of a fast rotating disk at their interior, implying an origin common to most spiral galaxies, followed by a quenching phase, while only a minority of the most massive systems are slow rotators and were likely to be the products of merger events. Aims: Our aim is to improve our knowledge on the content and distribution of ionised hydrogen and their usage to form stars in a representative sample of ETGs for which the kinematics and detailed morphological classification were known from ATLAS3D. Methods: Using narrow-band filters centered on the redshifted Hα line along with a broad-band (r-Gunn) filter to recover the stellar continuum, we observed or collected existing imaging observations for 147 ETG (including members of the Virgo cluster), representative of the whole ATLAS3D survey. Results: 55 ETGs (37%) were detected in the Hα line above our detection threshold (HαEW ≤ -1 Å) and 21 harbour a strong source (HαEW ≤ -5 Å) . Conclusions: The strong Hα emitters appear associated with mostly low-mass (M* 1010 M⊙) S0 galaxies which contain conspicuous stellar and gaseous disks, harbouring significant star formation at their interior, including their nuclei. The weak Hα emitters are almost one order of magnitude more massive, contain gas-poor disks and harbour an AGN at their centers. Their emissivity is dominated by [NII] and does not imply star formation. The 92 undetected ETGs constitute the majority in our sample and are gas-free systems which lack a disk and exhibit passive spectra even in their nuclei. These pieces of evidence reinforce the conclusion of Cappellari (2016, ARA&A, 54, 597) that the evolution of ETGs followed the secular channel for the less massive systems and the dry merging channel for the most massive

  3. Early Results of Chimney Technique for Type B Aortic Dissections Extending to the Aortic Arch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen [Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Department of General Surgery (China); Tang, Hanfei; Qiao, Tong; Liu, Changjian; Zhou, Min, E-mail: 813477618@qq.com [The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Vascular Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital (China)

    2016-01-15

    ObjectiveTo summarize our early experience gained from the chimney technique for type B aortic dissection (TBAD) extending to the aortic arch and to evaluate the aortic remodeling in the follow-up period.MethodsFrom September 2011 to July 2014, 27 consecutive TBAD patients without adequate proximal landing zones were retrograde analyzed. Chimney stent-grafts were deployed parallel to the main endografts to reserve flow to branch vessels while extending the landing zones. In the follow-up period, aortic remodeling was observed with computed tomography angiography.ResultsThe technical success rate was 100 %, and endografts were deployed in zone 0 (n = 3, 11.1 %), zone 1 (n = 18, 66.7 %), and zone 2 (n = 6, 22.2 %). Immediately, proximal endoleaks were detected in 5 patients (18.5 %). During a mean follow-up period of 17.6 months, computed tomography angiography showed all the aortic stent-grafts and chimney grafts to be patent. Favorable remodeling was observed at the level of maximum descending aorta and left subclavian artery with expansion of true lumen (from 18.4 ± 4.8 to 25 ± 0.86 mm, p < 0.001 and 27.1 ± 0.62 to 28.5 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and depressurization of false lumen (from 23.7 ± 2.7 to 8.7 ± 3.8 mm, p < 0.001, from 5.3 ± 1.2 to 2.1 ± 2.1 mm, p < 0.001). While at the level of maximum abdominal aorta, suboptimal remodeling of the total aorta (from 24.1 ± 0.4 to 23.6 ± 1.5 mm, p = 0.06) and true lumen (from 13.8 ± 0.6 to 14.5 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.08) was observed.ConclusionBased on our limited experience, the chimney technique with thoracic endovascular repair is demonstrated to be promising for TBAD extending to the arch with favorable aortic remodeling.

  4. Relationship between thrombophilic disorders and type of severe early-onset hypertensive disorder of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzevoort, Wessel; Rep, Annelies; de Vries, Johanna Ip; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Wolf, Hans; Petra-Investigators, For The

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether specific subtypes of early-onset hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets [HELLP] syndrome; severe preeclampsia; eclampsia; and fetal growth restriction) differ in increased prevalences of thrombophilic disorders. DESIGN:

  5. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation regulates L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yang, Huiyun; Tang, Xiaohong; Bai, Wenwen; Wang, Guolin; Tian, Xin

    2016-09-01

    Sevoflurane might be harmful to the developing brain. Therefore, it is essential to reverse sevoflurane-induced brain injury. This study aimed to determine whether low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity, which is inhibited by early sevoflurane exposure. Rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, sevoflurane, and rTMS groups. A Whole-cell patch clamp technique was applied to record L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. The I-V curve, steady-state activation and inactivation curves were studied in rats of each group at different ages (1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks and 5 weeks old). In the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel current density significantly increased from week 2 to week 3. Compared with the control group, L-type Ca(2+) channel currents of rats in the sevoflurane group were significantly inhibited from week 1 to week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel shifted significantly towards depolarization at week 1 and week 2. Moreover, steady-state inactivation curves shifted towards hyperpolarization from week 1 to week 3. Compared with the sevoflurane group, rTMS significantly increased L-type Ca(2+) channel currents at week 2 and week 3. Activation curves of L-type Ca(2+) channel significantly shifted towards hyperpolarization at week 2. Meanwhile, steady-state inactivation curves significantly shifted towards depolarization at week 2. The period between week 2 and week 3 is critical for the development of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Early sevoflurane exposure inhibits L-type Ca(2+) channel activity and rTMS can regulate L-type Ca(2+) channel activity inhibited by sevoflurane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Invasion by Ligustrum lucidum (Oleaceae in NW Argentina: early stage characteristics in different habitat types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Aragón

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently biological invasions are considered one of the world’s most serious conservation problems. Ligustrum lucidum is the most abundant exotic tree in secondary forest patches of montane forests of NW Argentina. We studied the determinants of success of the early stages of its life cycle in distinct habitat types, with the hope of identifying vulnerabilities that could be exploited to control the invasion. Seed arrival, germination, seedling recruitment and survival, and sapling growth were studied in edges, gaps and forest interior. Seed arrival was also assessed under perches and in open fields. Germination was studied in forest and grass-land patches. L. lucidum seedling survival and sapling growth were compared with the most abundant native species survival and growth. Seed arrival was strongly seasonal with a peak in mid-August. Seed rain did not differ significantly among habitat types, however there was a tendency for edges to receive more seeds when only dispersed seeds were considered. Perches strongly enhanced seed arrival; more than 40 times the number of seeds were dispersed beneath citrus plants (i.e. perches than found in paired open areas. In the forest, seeds in gaps and edges had higher germination rates, but there was no difference in seedling survival. Fruits under closed canopy exhibited the lowest germination. Germination and survival were low in open areas. Neither seedling recruitment nor sapling growth differed between gaps and forest interior. L. lucidum saplings grew significantly more than saplings of the most common native species, and also showed higher seedling survival. L. lucidum is a prolific fruit producer, is capable of germinating and surviving in a broad range of forest environments, it is relatively shade tolerant and has higher survival and faster growth rate in comprison to the most common native species. All these characteristics highlight its potency as a successful invader, and point to few

  7. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... treatment in the prevalence of preterm delivery....... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...

  8. Reduced prevalence of early preterm delivery in women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria--possible effect of early antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L R; Kragh-Müller, Claus; Damm, P

    2006-01-01

    In normotensive women with Type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria we previously found preterm delivery (treatment was initiated in late pregnancy when preeclampsia was diagnosed and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg. From April 2000 our routine...... was changed and early antihypertensive treatment with methyldopa was initiated if antihypertensive treatment was given prior to pregnancy, if urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was > 2 g/24 h, or blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg. The present study describes the impact of this more aggressive antiypertensive...... treatment in the prevalence of preterm delivery....

  9. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10"−"9 and 9.5 × 10"−"1"0 M _⋆ for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J _⋆/ M _⋆ and (100–150) J _⋆/ M _⋆, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.

  10. Evidence for Different Disk Mass Distributions between Early- and Late-type Be Stars in the BeSOS Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcos, C.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso. Av. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaíso (Chile); Jones, C. E.; Sigut, T. A. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2017-06-10

    The circumstellar disk density distributions for a sample of 63 Be southern stars from the BeSOS survey were found by modeling their H α emission line profiles. These disk densities were used to compute disk masses and disk angular momenta for the sample. Average values for the disk mass are 3.4 × 10{sup −9} and 9.5 × 10{sup −10} M {sub ⋆} for early (B0–B3) and late (B4–B9) spectral types, respectively. We also find that the range of disk angular momentum relative to the star is (150–200) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆} and (100–150) J {sub ⋆}/ M {sub ⋆}, again for early- and late-type Be stars, respectively. The distributions of the disk mass and disk angular momentum are different between early- and late-type Be stars at a 1% level of significance. Finally, we construct the disk mass distribution for the BeSOS sample as a function of spectral type and compare it to the predictions of stellar evolutionary models with rapid rotation. The observed disk masses are typically larger than the theoretical predictions, although the observed spread in disk masses is typically large.

  11. Prevention of microalbuminuria using early intervention with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Lindhardt, Morten; Rossing, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can p......-cause mortality(p=0.07). Conclusions: We conclude that in patients with type 2 diabetes and normoalbuminuria, early intervention with ACEis or ARBs reduces the risk for development of microalbuminuria.......Hypothesis/objectives: Early prevention of diabetic nephropathy by way of blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in patients with normoalbuminuria seems rational, but trials have so far shown conflicting results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate if such treatment can...

  12. Verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo

    2010-07-01

    Basic verbal and academic skills can be adversely affected by early-onset diabetes, although these skills have been studied less than other cognitive functions. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of learning deficits in children with diabetes by assessing basic verbal and academic skills in children with early-onset diabetes and in comparison children. In addition, the incidence of dyslexia (children with early-onset diabetes (25 females, 26 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo; range 9-10y) was compared with that of 92 children without diabetes (40 females, 52 males; mean age 9y 10mo, SD 3mo; range 9-10y) in the tasks of phonological processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, reading, spelling, and mathematics. The performance of children with diabetes was poorer than that of the comparison children in phonological processing (p=0.001), spelling accuracy (pmathematics (p=0.024). They learned to read later (p=0.013), but reading performance and the incidence of dyslexia in the third grade (aged 9-10y) were similar in the two groups. Children with early-onset diabetes are prone to minor learning difficulties in their early school years as a result of deficits in phonological processing.

  13. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF PASSIVE AND STAR-FORMING EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: AN INFRARED COLOR-COLOR SEQUENCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Brighenti, Fabrizio; Mathews, William G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the infrared properties of a large sample of early-type galaxies, comparing data from the Spitzer archive with Ks-band emission from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. While most representations of this data result in correlations with large scatter, we find a remarkably tight relation among colors formed by ratios of luminosities in Spitzer-Multiband Imaging Photometer bands (24, 70, and 160 μm) and the Ks band. Remarkably, this correlation among E and S0 galaxies follows that of nearby normal galaxies of all morphological types. In particular, the tight infrared color-color correlation for S0 galaxies alone follows that of the entire Hubble sequence of normal galaxies, roughly in order of galaxy type from ellipticals to spirals to irregulars. The specific star formation rate (SFR) of S0 galaxies estimated from the 24 μm luminosity increases with decreasing K-band luminosity (or stellar mass) from essentially zero, as with most massive ellipticals, to rates typical of irregular galaxies. Moreover, the luminosities of the many infrared-luminous S0 galaxies can significantly exceed those of the most luminous (presumably post-merger) E galaxies. SFRs in the most infrared-luminous S0 galaxies approach 1-10 solar masses per year. Consistently, with this picture we find that while most early-type galaxies populate an infrared red sequence, about 24% of the objects (mostly S0s) are in an infrared blue cloud together with late-type galaxies. For those early-type galaxies also observed at radio frequencies, we find that the far-infrared luminosities correlate with the mass of neutral and molecular hydrogen, but the scatter is large. This scatter suggests that the star formation may be intermittent or that similar S0 galaxies with cold gaseous disks of nearly equal mass can have varying radial column density distributions that alter the local and global SFRs.

  14. Eating disorders in persons with type 1 diabetes: A focus group investigation of early eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Cronemeyer, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Through focus groups, we examined the development and maintenance of an eating disorder in 16 females with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder. The quotes and qualitative data summaries provide rich insights into understanding why those with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for eating disorders. Content analyses revealed five themes pertinent to the dual diagnosis (feeling different, difficulty with control/coping, body image, feelings, and quality of life) of which four themes were relevant to eating disorder development. Findings support early identification of those at risk and inform interventions to mitigate development of an eating disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Physical interaction between the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early regulatory proteins ICP0 and ICP4.

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, F; Schaffer, P A

    1994-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein ICP0 enhances expression of a spectrum of viral genes alone and synergistically with ICP4. To test whether ICP0 and ICP4 interact physically, we performed far-Western blotting analysis of proteins from mock-, wild-type-, and ICP4 mutant virus-infected cells with in vitro-synthesized [35S]Met-labeled ICP0 and ICP4 as probes. The ICP4 and ICP0 polypeptides synthesized in vitro exhibited molecular weights similar to those of their counterpa...

  16. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Maraston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom heavy IMFs. These bottom heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of black holes and neutron stars based ...

  17. The ATLAS(3D) project : XI. Dense molecular gas properties of CO-luminous early-type galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocker, Alison; Krips, Melanie; Bureau, Martin; Young, Lisa M.; Davis, Timothy A.; Bayet, Estelle; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    Surveying 18 (CO)-C-12-bright galaxies from the ATLAS(3D) early-type galaxy sample with the Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique (IRAM) 30-m telescope, we detect (CO)-C-13(1-0) and (CO)-C-13(2-1) in all 18 galaxies, HCN(1-0) in 12/18 and HCO+(1-0) in 10/18. We find that the line ratios

  18. Components of mid- and far-infrared emission from S0 and early-type shell galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Bally, J.; Hacking, P.

    1989-01-01

    The IRAS database has been used to study detections of about 150 early-type elliptical and S0 galaxies exhibiting a shell structure. No strong evidence for the expected enhancement of either star formation rates or heating of the interstellar medium is found. It is suggested that for some of the sample galaxies either a contribution from warm dust surrounding evolved stars or emission from an active nucleus may be significant. 40 references

  19. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, extended to the low-σ regime of dEs. The ages in our sample show more scatter at lower σ values, indicative of less massive galaxies being affected by the environment to a higher degree. The shape of the age-σ relations for cluster versus non-cluster galaxies suggests that cluster environment speeds up the placing of galaxies on the red sequence. While the scaling relations are tighter for cluster than for the field/group objects, we find no evidence for a difference in average population characteristics of the two samples. We investigate the properties of our sample in the Virgo cluster as a function of number density (rather than simple clustrocentric distance) and find that dE ages correlate with the local density such that galaxies in regions of lower density are younger, likely because they are later arrivals to the cluster or have experienced less pre-processing in groups, and consequently used up their gas reservoir more recently. Overall, dE properties correlate more strongly with density than those of massive ETGs, which was expected as less massive galaxies are more susceptible to external influences.

  20. V346 Centauri: early-type eclipsing binary with apsidal motion and abrupt change of orbital period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, P.; Harmanec, P.; Wolf, M.; Nemravová, J.; Prsa, A.; Frémat, Y.; Zejda, M.; Liška, J.; Juryšek, Jakub; Hoňková, K.; Mašek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 591, Jul (2016), 1-9, č. článku A129. E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15014; GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : early-type stars * binaries * close stars Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  1. Academic Skills in Children with Early-Onset Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Diabetes-Related Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Jorma; Riikonen, Raili; Ahonen, Timo; Eklund, Kenneth; Tolvanen, Asko; Keskinen, Paivi; Nuuja, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to assess the effects of diabetes-related risk factors, especially severe hypoglycaemia, on the academic skills of children with early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Method: The study comprised 63 children with T1DM (31 females, 32 males; mean age 9y 11mo, SD 4mo) and 92 comparison children without diabetes (40…

  2. Early Intervention of Didang Decoction on MLCK Signaling Pathways in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoujiao Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study, type 2 diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin (STZ combined with a high-fat diet, and the rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were further divided into nonintervening, simvastatin, Didang Decoction (DDD early-phase intervening, DDD mid-phase intervening, and DDD late-phase intervening groups. The expression level of MLCK was detected using Western Blot analysis, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, protein kinase C (PKC, and protein kinase A (PKA were examined using Real Time PCR. Under the electron microscope, the cells in the early-DDD-intervention group and the simvastatin group were significantly more continuous and compact than those in the diabetic group. Compared with the control group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was decreased in all diabetic groups, whereas the expression of MLCK and PKC was increased in early- and mid-phase DDD-intervening groups (P<0.05; compared with the late-phase DDD-intervening group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was higher, but the level of MLCK and PKC was lower in early-phase DDD-intervening group (P<0.05. In conclusion, the early use of DDD improves the permeability of vascular endothelial cells by regulating the MLCK signaling pathway.

  3. Expanding the Hygiene Hypothesis: Early Exposure to Infectious Agents Predicts Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Candida among Children in Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, Katherine; O'Connor, Kathleen; Shell-Duncan, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Background Multiple lines of evidence suggest that infections in early life prevent the development of pathological immune responses to allergens and autoantigens (the hygiene hypothesis). Early infections may also affect later immune responses to pathogen antigen. Methods To evaluate an association between early infections and immune responses to pathogen antigen, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Candida albicans was evaluated among 283 2- to 7-year-old children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. A questionnaire and physical examination were used to characterize variables reflecting early exposure to infectious agents (family size, house construction materials, BCG vaccination, hospitalization history). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between early exposure to infectious agents and DTH to C. albicans. Results Triceps skinfold thickness (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.22) and age (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.55) were positively associated with DTH to C. albicans. Adjusted for age and sex, large family size (OR: 2.81; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.61), BCG vaccination scar (OR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.10, 8.71), and hospitalization during infancy with an infectious disease (OR: 4.67; 95% CI: 1.00, 21.74) were positively associated with DTH to C. albicans. Conclusions Early life infections were positively associated with later DTH to C. albicans. This result supports an expansion of the hygiene hypothesis to explain not only pathological immune responses to allergens, but also appropriate immune responses to pathogens. Immune system development may be responsive to early infections as an adaptive means to tailor reactivity to the local infectious disease ecology. PMID:22616000

  4. ABOUT THE LINEARITY OF THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES IN THE VIRGO CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Faifer, Favio R.; González, Nélida M.; Forte, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the color-magnitude relation of Virgo Cluster early-type galaxies in order to explore its alleged nonlinearity. To this aim, we reanalyze the relation already published from data obtained within the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey of the Hubble Space Telescope and perform our own photometry and analysis of the images of 100 early-type galaxies observed as part of this survey. In addition, we compare our results with those reported in the literature from data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We have found that when the brightest galaxies and untypical systems are excluded from the sample, a linear relation arises in agreement with what is observed in other groups and clusters. The central regions of the brightest galaxies also follow this relation. In addition, we notice that Virgo contains at least four compact elliptical galaxies besides the well-known object VCC 1297 (NGC 4486B). Their locations in the (μ eff )-luminosity diagram define a trend different from that followed by normal early-type dwarf galaxies, setting an upper limit in effective surface brightness and a lower limit in the effective radius for their luminosities. Based on the distribution of different galaxy sub-samples in the color-magnitude and (μ eff )-luminosity diagrams, we draw some conclusions on their formation and the history of their evolution

  5. The Relationship between Peripheral Nerve Conduction Velocity and Ophthalmological Findings in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Early Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azusa Ito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV is an indicator of neuronal damage in the distal segment of the peripheral nerves. Here, we determined the association between NCV and other systemic and ocular clinical findings, in type 2 diabetes patients with early diabetic retinopathy (DR. Methods. This study included 42 eyes of 42 type 2 diabetes patients (median age: 54 years with no DR or with mild nonproliferative DR. Standard statistical techniques were used to determine associations between clinical findings. Results. Sural sensory conduction velocity (SCV and tibial motor conduction velocity (MCV were significantly lower in mild nonproliferative DR patients than patients with no DR (P=0.008 and P=0.01, resp.. Furthermore, logistic regression analyses revealed that sural SCV and tibial MCV were independent factors contributing to the presence of mild nonproliferative DR (OR 0.83, P=0.012 and OR 0.69 P=0.02, resp.. Tibial MCV was correlated with choroidal thickness (CT (P=0.01, and a multiple regression analysis revealed that age, tibial MCV, and carotid intima-media thickness were independent associating factors with CT (P=0.035, P=0.015, and P=0.008, resp.. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that reduced NCV may be closely associated with early DR in type 2 diabetes patients. Thus, reduced nerve conduction is a potential early biomarker of DR.

  6. Comparison of early treatment outcomes rendered in three different types of malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazio-Kulbersh, Valmy; Kang, He-Kyong; Dhawan, Archana; Al-Qawasmi, Riyad; Pacheco, Rafael Rocha

    2018-03-07

    To evaluate the outcome of early treatment in Class I, II, and III malocclusions based on the reduction of weighted Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) scores. Two hundred thirty subjects (female = 105; male = 125) selected from 400 cases were divided into three groups based on their malocclusions (Class I, II, and III). The PAR index was evaluated prior to early treatment (T0), at the end of phase I (T1), and after completion of phase II therapy (T2). The reliability of overall PAR scores was assessed by Bland-Altman plot and intraclass correlation coefficient. The starting age, total weighted PAR scores and their changes after phase I and II treatments, treatment time, and the percentage of correction in the three different malocclusions were assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance with post hoc analysis. The level of significance was set at P < .05. More than 30% reduction of the weighted PAR scores and less than 10 points of the remaining weighted PAR scores were observed in all malocclusion groups at T1. The Class III group had the highest percentage of correction during phase I treatment. Early treatment effectively reduced the complexity of Class I, II, and III malocclusions and accounted for 57%, 64%, and 76% of the total correction, respectively, after phase I treatment, as indicated by an overall reduction in weighted PAR scores. The Class III group responded most favorably to early treatment followed by the Class II group.

  7. Fast-acting insulin aspart in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes: Faster onset, higher early exposure and greater early glucose-lowering effect relative to insulin aspart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiramoto, Masanari; Nishida, Tomoyuki; Hansen, Ann Kathrine; Haahr, Hanne

    2018-03-01

    Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is insulin aspart (IAsp) in a new formulation with two added excipients (niacinamide and L-arginine) in order to obtain accelerated absorption after subcutaneous dosing. The present study compared the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of faster aspart vs IAsp in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes. In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 43 participants were given faster aspart and IAsp (0.2 U/kg single dose) at two separate dosing visits. Frequent pharmacokinetic blood sampling was carried out, and pharmacodynamics were assessed using an automated euglycemic clamp lasting for a maximum of 12 h after dosing (target 5.5 mmol/L). Faster aspart showed onset of appearance approximately twice-as-fast vs IAsp (least squares means: 3.0 vs 7.1 min; estimated treatment difference -4.1 min, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.0, -3.2; P IAsp (P IAsp (AUC IA sp,0-t ; estimated treatment ratio 0.99, 90% CI: 0.96-1.02), whereas the total glucose-lowering effect (AUC GIR ,0-t ) was slightly lower for faster aspart vs IAsp (estimated treatment ratio 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99, P = 0.020). Faster aspart showed faster onset, higher early exposure and a greater early glucose-lowering effect relative to IAsp in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes, in accordance with previous findings in Caucasian type 1 diabetes patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Variations in Quality and Type of Early Child Care on Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J. McVicker

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that variations in the quality and type of infant care, in institutional and other settings in different cultures and social classes, can have influences on the long-term development of the child's rate, level, and type of cognitive development. (HOD)

  9. Links Between Sex-Typed Time Use in Middle Childhood and Gender Development in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Whiteman, Shawn; Crouter, Ann C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied sex-typing in the kinds (e.g., sports, handicrafts) and social contexts (same- vs. other-sex companions) of children's free time activities, and the links between sex-typed activities and gender development over 2 years. Participants were 200 White, working- and middle-class children (103 girls, 97 boys; mean age = 10.86…

  10. Serum levels of advanced glycation endproducts and other markers of protein damage in early diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Perkins

    Full Text Available To determine the role of markers of plasma protein damage by glycation, oxidation and nitration in microalbuminuria onset or subsequent decline of glomerular filtration rate (termed "early GFR decline" in patients with type 1 diabetes.From the 1(st Joslin Kidney Study, we selected 30 patients with longstanding normoalbuminuria and 55 patients with new onset microalbuminuria. Patients with microalbuminuria had 8-12 years follow-up during which 33 had stable GFR and 22 early GFR decline. Mean baseline GFR(CYSTATIN C was similar between the three groups. Glycation, oxidation and nitration markers were measured in protein and ultrafiltrate at baseline by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using the most reliable methods currently available.Though none were significantly different between patients with microalbuminuria with stable or early GFR decline, levels of 6 protein damage adduct residues of plasma protein and 4 related free adducts of plasma ultrafiltrate were significantly different in patients with microalbuminuria compared to normoalbuminuria controls. Three protein damage adduct residues were decreased and 3 increased in microalbuminuria while 3 free adducts were decreased and one increased in microalbuminuria. The most profound differences were of N-formylkynurenine (NFK protein adduct residue and N(ω-carboxymethylarginine (CMA free adduct in which levels were markedly lower in microalbuminuria (P<0.001 for both.Complex processes influence levels of plasma protein damage and related proteolysis product free adducts in type 1 diabetes and microalbuminuria. The effects observed point to the possibility that patients who have efficient mechanisms of disposal of damaged proteins might be at an increased risk of developing microalbuminuria but not early renal function decline. The findings support the concept that the mechanisms responsible for microalbuminuria may differ from the mechanisms involved in the initiation of early

  11. UIT Observations of Early-Type Galaxies and Analysis of the FUSE Spectrum of a Subdwarf B Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This work covers Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) observations of early-type galaxies (155 nm) and Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectra of a Galactic subdwarf B star (sdB). Early UV space astronomy missions revealed that early-type galaxies harbor a population of stars with effective temperatures greater than that of the main sequence turn-off (about 6,000 K) and UV emission that is very sensitive to characteristics of the stellar population. We present UV (155 nm) surface photometry and UV-B color profiles for 8 E and SO galaxies observed by UIT. Some objects have de Vaucouleurs surface brightness profiles, while others have disk-like profiles, but we find no other evidence for the presence of a disk or young, massive stars. There is a wide range of UV-B color gradients, but there is no correlation with metallicity gradients. SdB stars are the leading candidate UV emitters in old, high metallicity stellar populations (e.g., early-type galaxies). We observed the Galactic sdB star PG0749+658 with FUSE and derived abundances with the aim of constraining models of the heavy element distribution in sdB atmospheres. All of the elements measured are depleted with respect to solar, except for Cr and Mn, which are about solar, and Ni, which is enhanced. This work was supported in part by NASA grants NAG5-700 and NAG5-6403 to the University of Virginia and NAS5-32985 to Johns Hopkins University.

  12. Dynamic cerebral autoregulatory capacity is affected early in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Y.S.; Immink, R.V.; Stok, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular complications with impaired autoregulation of tissue perfusion. Both microvascular disease and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy may affect cerebral autoregulation. In the present study, we tested ...

  13. Dark matter distributions in early-type galaxies from strong gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichner, Thomas Martin

    2013-01-01

    Dark matter constitutes a large fraction of the mass of early-type galaxies. However, the exact amount and spatial distribution of the dark matter, especially in the galaxies' center is still unclear. Furthermore, galaxies in dense environments such as the centers of galaxy clusters shrink in size, since parts of their outer dark matter halo is stripped away. The aim of this thesis is to measure the dark matter content in the centers and outskirts of elliptical galaxies by analyzing the strong gravitational lensing effect they produce. Gravitational lensing is well-suited for investigating dark matter, since it is sensitive to all forms of matter, regardless of its dynamical or evolutionary state. We present gravitational lensing studies of the exceptional strong lensing systems SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, identified by the Sloan Lens ACS survey. The lenses are elliptical galaxies at z l =0.143 and z l =0.285, respectively. For SDSS J1538+5817 we show that both multiple imaged sources are located at the same redshift z s =0.531. Its multiple images span a range from 1 to 4 kpc in the plane of the lens. For SDSS J1430+4105, the source at redshift z s =0.575 is imaged into a broad Einstein ring, covering radii from 4 kpc to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. In both cases, the lensed images can be accurately and consistently reproduced with different modeling approaches. We get projected total masses of 8.11 +0.27 -0.59 x 10 10 M s un within the Einstein radius of 2.5 kpc for SDSS J1538+5817 and 5.37±0.06 x 10 11 M s un within 6.5 kpc for SDSS J1430+4105. The luminous and dark matter were traced separately, resulting in dark matter fractions within the Einstein radius of 0.1 +0.2 -0.1 and 0.40 +0.14 -0.10 for SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, respectively. We assume a de Vaucouleurs profile to trace the light distribution of both galaxies. From the stellar mass associated with this light, we can explicitly derive a stellar mass-to-light ratio of (M de

  14. Visfatin and adiponectin as early markers of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtissam Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Serum visfatin is highly correlated with macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. Serum visfatin may emerge as a valuable and cheaper surrogate marker for the prediction of prevalent macrovascular complications in a type 2 diabetic population. It is a novel and easy-to-obtain method for the clinical assessment of vascular stress and cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm our Results .

  15. Increased activity of the glucose cycle in the liver: early characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Efendić, S; Wajngot, A; Vranić, M

    1985-01-01

    The aims were to assess in the mild, lean, type 2 diabetics the activity of the hepatic futile cycle (glucose cycling) in the basal state and during an infusion of glucose and the overall contribution of futile cycling and the relative contributions of the liver and the periphery to excessive hyperglycemia during a glucose challenge. To determine hepatic futile cycling, we studied seven healthy controls (C) and eight mild, lean, type 2 diabetics with decreased oral glucose tolerance test and ...

  16. Is disordered eating behavior more prevalent in adolescents with early-onset type 1 diabetes than in their representative peers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechle, Christina; Castillo, Katty; Straßburger, Klaus; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Meissner, Thomas; Holl, Reinhard W; Giani, Guido; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Despite modern therapeutic regimens, youths with Type 1 diabetes may be at increased risk of mental and behavioral disorders. In this study, the prevalence of disordered eating behavior (DEB) in intensely treated children and adolescents with early-onset Type 1 diabetes and peers from the general population was compared. Data from 629 patients from a population-based, nationwide survey (54.1% male, mean age 15.3 years) with early-onset Type 1 diabetes of at least 10 years duration were compared with data from 6,813 participants of the German KiGGS study (51.3% male, mean age 14.6 years). The generic SCOFF questionnaire was used as screening instrument to identify participants with symptoms of DEB. Both groups were compared with multivariable regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic covariates. 31.2% of the female and 11.7% of the male diabetic patients and 28.9% of the females and 15.2% of the males in the comparison group were SCOFF-positive (SCOFF score ≥2; p > .05). The odds for symptoms of eating disorders were 3.7% higher in female and 4.3% lower in male patients with diabetes than in the comparison group, but the differences were not significant. 20.5% of the female and 18.5% of the male diabetic patients reported insulin restriction at least three times per week. Children and adolescents with early-onset Type 1 diabetes of long duration do not seem to be more frequently SCOFF-positive than peers. However, as insulin restriction is practiced in a substantial portion of patients, attention for insulin restriction in diabetes care is essential. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dermatoglyphic meta-analysis indicates early epigenetic outcomes & possible implications on genomic zygosity in type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Seile

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphic studies, particularly those arising from the Dutch Hunger Winter Families Cohort, indicate an involvement of prenatal epigenetic insults in type-2 diabetes. However, the exact orchestration of this association is not fully understood. Herein is described a meta-analysis performed based on a belief that such an approach could shed some light as to the role of genetic & epigenetic influences in the etiology of type-2 diabetes. Methodology/principal findings: The study incorporated reports identified from PubMed, Medline, & Google Scholar databases for eligible case-control studies that assessed dermatoglyphics in type-2 diabetes cases relative to controls. Over 44,000 fingerprints & 2300 palm prints from around 4400 individuals were included in the analysis. Decreased loops patterns [OR= 0.76; 95% CI= (0.59, 0.98)], increased non-loop patterns [OR= 1.31; 95% CI= (1.02, 1.68)], and reduced absolute finger ridge counts [OR= -0.19; 95% CI= (-0.33, -0.04)] were significant findings among the diabetic group. These results are indicative of mild developmental deviances, with epigenetic insults significantly linked to early gestation wherein critical events &signaling pathways of the endocrine pancreas development are witnessed. Further, the increased loop patterns with decreased non-loop patterns were deemed as possible indicators of decreased genomic heterozygosity with concurrently increased homozygosity in the diabetic group, linked to reduced buffering capacities during prenatal development. Conclusions: Epigenetic insults primarily during the 1 st trimester, to a lesser extent between the early-to-mid 2 ndtrimester, but least likely linked to those beyond the mid-second trimester are evident in type-2 diabetes. It is recommended that future research aimed at expounding the prenatal origins of T2DM, as well as developing novel therapeutic methods, should focus on the early stages of endocrine pancreatic development. PMID:28781742

  18. Using virtual reality to assess theory of mind subprocesses and error types in early and chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Allana L; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K

    2017-12-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM) impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM) and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM) in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study examined the nature and types of ToM impairment in individuals with early ( n  = 26) and chronic schizophrenia ( n  = 32) using a novel virtual reality task. Clinical participants and demographically-matched controls were administered the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability, which provides indices of first- and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, and quantifies three different types of mentalising errors (viz., overmentalising, reduced mentalising, and no ToM). Individuals with early schizophrenia performed significantly poorer than healthy controls on first-order affective and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, but significantly higher than individuals with chronic schizophrenia on all ToM subscales. Whereas a lack of mental state concept was associated with negative symptoms, overmentalising was associated with positive symptoms. These findings suggest that ToM abilities selectively deteriorate with illness chronicity and error types are related to these individuals' presenting symptomology. An implication of the findings is that social-cognitive interventions for schizophrenia need to consider the nature, time course and symptomatology of the presenting patient.

  19. Using virtual reality to assess theory of mind subprocesses and error types in early and chronic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allana L. Canty

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study examined the nature and types of ToM impairment in individuals with early (n = 26 and chronic schizophrenia (n = 32 using a novel virtual reality task. Clinical participants and demographically-matched controls were administered the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability, which provides indices of first- and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, and quantifies three different types of mentalising errors (viz., overmentalising, reduced mentalising, and no ToM. Individuals with early schizophrenia performed significantly poorer than healthy controls on first-order affective and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, but significantly higher than individuals with chronic schizophrenia on all ToM subscales. Whereas a lack of mental state concept was associated with negative symptoms, overmentalising was associated with positive symptoms. These findings suggest that ToM abilities selectively deteriorate with illness chronicity and error types are related to these individuals' presenting symptomology. An implication of the findings is that social-cognitive interventions for schizophrenia need to consider the nature, time course and symptomatology of the presenting patient.

  20. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J.; Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E.; Yan, H.; Kimble, R. A.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, J. A.; Hall, D. N. B.

    2012-01-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 ∼ 11 * [M ☉ ] 12 . By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV–V) = 3.5 and (NUV–V) = 3.3, with 1σ standard deviations ≅1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent (∼<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  1. Phenotype variability and early onset ataxia symptoms in spinocerebellar ataxia type 7: comparison and correlation with other spinocerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Cristino de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA are a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by heterogeneous clinical presentation. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7 is caused by an abnormal CAG repeat expansion and includes cerebellar signs associated with visual loss and ophthalmoplegia. Marked anticipation and dynamic mutation is observed in SCA7. Moreover, phenotype variability and very early onset of symptoms may occur. In this article, a large series of Brazilian patients with different SCA subtypes was evaluated, and we compared the age of onset of SCA7 with other SCA. From the 26 patients with SCA7, 4 manifested their symptoms before 10-year-old. Also, occasionally the parents may have the onset of symptoms after their children. In conclusion, our study highlights the genetic anticipation phenomenon that occurs in SCA7 families. Patients with very early onset ataxia in the context of a remarkable family history, must be considered and tested for SCA7.

  2. Clostridium difficile infection: Early history, diagnosis and molecular strain typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, C; Van Broeck, J; Taminiau, B; Delmée, M; Daube, G

    2016-08-01

    Recognised as the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains high despite efforts to improve prevention and reduce the spread of the bacterium in healthcare settings. In the last decade, many studies have focused on the epidemiology and rapid diagnosis of CDI. In addition, different typing methods have been developed for epidemiological studies. This review explores the history of C. difficile and the current scope of the infection. The variety of available laboratory tests for CDI diagnosis and strain typing methods are also examined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Somatic Cell Types and Culture Medium on in vitro Maturation, Fertilization and Early Development Capability of Buffalo Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jamil*, H. A. Samad, N. Rehman, Z. I. Qureshi and L. A. Lodhi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of different somatic cell types and media in supporting in vitro maturation (IVM, in vitro fertilization (IVF and early embryonic development competence of buffalo follicular oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes were collected for maturation from follicles (>6mm of buffalo ovaries collected at the local abattoir. Oocytes were co-cultured in tissue culture medium (TCM-199 with either granulosa cells, cumulus cells, or buffalo oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC @ 3x106 cells/ml or in TCM-199 without helper cells (control at 39°C and 5%CO2 in humidified air. Fresh semen was prepared in modified Ca++ free Tyrode medium. Fertilization was carried out in four types of media: i Tyrode lactate albumin pyruvate (TALP, ii TALP+BOEC, iii modified Ca++ free Tyrode and iv modified Ca++ free Tyrode+BOEC. Fertilized oocytes were cultured for early embryonic development in TCM-199 with and without BOEC. Higher maturation rates were observed in the granulosa (84.24% and cumulus cells (83.44% than BOEC co culture system (73.37%. Highest fertilization rate was obtained in modified Ca++ free Tyrode with BOEC co culture (70.42%, followed by modified Ca++ free Tyrode alone (63.77%, TALP with BOEC (36.92% and TALP alone (10.94%. Development of early embryos (8-cell stage improved in TCM-199 with BOEC co culture than TCM-199 alone. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that addition of somatic cells (granulosa cells, cumulus cells results in higher maturation rates of buffalo follicular oocytes than BOEC co culture system, while fertilization rate improved in modified Ca++ free Tyrode with and without BOEC. Addition of BOEC to TCM-199 improved the developmental capacity of early embryo.

  4. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  5. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Horiguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group. Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (p<0.0001, reddish (p=0.0001, and smaller (p=0.0095 lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (p=0.077, 0.0867, resp.. Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, p<0.0001. Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy.

  6. RBE of Energetic Iron Ions for the Induction of Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Hada, Megumi; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Numerous published studies have reported the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) values for chromosome aberrations induced by charged particles of different LET. The RBE for chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed ex vivo has been suggested to show a similar relationship as the quality factor for cancer induction. Therefore, increased chromosome aberrations in the astronauts' white blood cells post long-duration missions are used to determine the biological doses from exposures to space radiation. However, the RBE value is known to be very different for different types of cancer. Previously, we reported that, even though the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions, the RBE was significantly reduced after multiple cell divisions post irradiation. To test the hypothesis that RBE values for chromosome aberrations are cell type dependent, and different between early and late damages, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, and human mammary epithelial cells in vitro to various charged particles. Chromosome aberrations were quantified using the samples collected at first mitosis post irradiation for initial damages, and the samples collected after multiple generations for the remaining or late arising aberrations. Results of the study suggested that the effectiveness of high-LET charged particles for late chromosome aberrations may be cell type dependent, even though the RBE values are similar for early damages.

  7. Far-infrared - radio correlation and magnetic field strength in star-forming early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A.; Paswan, A.

    2018-03-01

    A tight far-infrared - radio correlation similar to that in star-forming late-type galaxies is also indicated in star-forming blue early-type galaxies, in which the nuclear optical-line emissions are primarily due to star-forming activities without a significant contribution from active galactic nuclei. The average value of far-infrared to 1.4 GHz radio flux-ratio commonly represented as the ΄q΄ parameter is estimated to be 2.35 ± 0.05 with a scatter of 0.16 dex. The average star formation rate estimated using 1.4 GHz radio continuum is ˜6 M⊙ yr-1 in good agreement with those estimated using far-infrared and Hα luminosities. The radio emission is detected mainly from central region which could be associated with the star-forming activities, most likely triggered by recent tidal interactions. The average thermal contribution to total radio flux is estimated to be ˜12 per cent. The average value of the magnetic field strengths in the star-forming early-type galaxies is estimated to be 12^{+11}_{-4} μG. These magnetic fields are very likely generated via fast amplification in small-scale turbulent dynamos acting in the star-bursting regions.

  8. Prevention of early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David P.; Fundová, Petra; Hansen, A. K.; Buschard, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/1640; GA MZd(CZ) NS10340 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : gliadin * diabetes * diabetes 1 type * NOD mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  9. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in the early treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Alexander van de Laar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Floris Alexander van de LaarRadboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of General Practice, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAbstract: Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs are drugs that inhibit the absorption of carbohydrates from the gut and may be used in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. There is currently no evidence that AGIs are beneficial to prevent or delay mortality or micro- or macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Its beneficial effects on glycated hemoglobin are comparable to metformin or thiazolidinediones, and probably slightly inferior to sulphonylurea. In view of the total body of evidence metformin seems to be superior to AGIs. More long-term studies are needed to study the effects of AGIs compared to other drugs. For patient with impaired glucose tolerance AGIs may prevent, delay or mask the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. A possible beneficial effect on cardiovascular events should be confirmed in new studies.Keywords: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance

  10. Plasma chitotriosidase and CCL18: Early biochemical surrogate markers in type B Niemann-Pick disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, J.; Wijburg, F. A.; Hollak, C. E.; Groener, J. E.; Verhoek, M.; Scheij, S.; Aten, J.; Boot, R. G.; Aerts, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Type B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is a nonneuronopathic lysosomal storage disorder which is characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin-laden macrophages. The availability of plasma markers for storage cells may be of great value in facilitating therapeutic decisions. Given the similarity of the

  11. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling

  12. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I): Assessment of disease severity, therapeutic options and early diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ru, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Bepaalde stoffen in bloed en urine, zogeheten biomarkers, kunnen gebruikt worden voor het stellen van de diagnose van de stofwisselingsziekte Mucopolysaccharidose type I (MPS I) op basis van bloed afgenomen bij de hielprikscreening. Dit blijkt uit het onderzoek van Minke de Ru dat zich richtte op

  13. The effect of color type on early wound healing in farmed mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, A.; Jensen, H. E.; Agger, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    parameters were within normal ranges in most cases, however, the mink showed mildly to markedly decreased hematocrit and six mink of the color types Silverblue and Blue Iris showed moderately elevated numbers of circulating segmented neutrophils on day 2. There was a marked increase in concentration of serum...

  14. Serum uric acid and its association with hypertension, early nephropathy and chronic kidney disease in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Fouad

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Early detection diabetic nephropathy (DN is important. Whether serum uric acid (SUA has a role in the development of DN is not known. Objective: To study the relationship between SUA and hypertension, early nephropathy and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods: The total number of the study was 986 participants, according to presence and duration of diabetes were classified into three groups. Group I; including 250 healthy participants. Group II; including 352 with onset of diabetes 5 years. All participants were submitted to complete clinical examination, anthropometric measurements, laboratory investigations, including glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, as well triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein ratios (TG/HDL-C, SUA, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. Results: SUA, BP, HbA1c, TG/HDL-C ratio, and ACR levels were significantly higher in group III than group I, II and in II than I. eGFR significantly lower in group III than group I, II and in II than I (p 6.1 mg/dl, > 6.2 mg/dl and > 6.5 mg/dl had a greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying hypertension, early nephropathy and decline eGFR respectively. Conclusion: Even high normal SUA level, was associated with the risk of hypertension, early nephropathy and decline of eGFR. Moreover SUA level may identify the onset of hypertension, early nephropathy and progression of CKD in T2DM.

  15. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. I. A Large Spectroscopically Selected Sample of Massive Early-Type Lens Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Burles, Scott; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2006-01-01

    The Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey is an efficient Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Snapshot imaging survey for new galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses. The targeted lens candidates are selected spectroscopically from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database of galaxy spectra for having multiple nebular emission lines at a redshift significantly higher than that of the SDSS target galaxy. The SLACS survey is optimized to detect bright early-type lens galaxies with faint lensed sources in order to increase the sample of known gravitational lenses suitable for detailed lensing, photometric, and dynamical modeling. In this paper, the first in a series on the current results of our HST Cycle 13 imaging survey, we present a catalog of 19 newly discovered gravitational lenses, along with nine other observed candidate systems that are either possible lenses, nonlenses, or nondetections. The survey efficiency is thus >=68%. We also present Gemini 8 m and Magellan 6.5 m integral-field spectroscopic data for nine of the SLACS targets, which further support the lensing interpretation. A new method for the effective subtraction of foreground galaxy images to reveal faint background features is presented. We show that the SLACS lens galaxies have colors and ellipticities typical of the spectroscopic parent sample from which they are drawn (SDSS luminous red galaxies and quiescent MAIN sample galaxies), but are somewhat brighter and more centrally concentrated. Several explanations for the latter bias are suggested. The SLACS survey provides the first statistically significant and homogeneously selected sample of bright early-type lens galaxies, furnishing a powerful probe of the structure of early-type galaxies within the half-light radius. The high confirmation rate of lenses in the SLACS survey suggests consideration of spectroscopic lens discovery as an explicit science goal of future spectroscopic galaxy surveys.

  16. A survey of interstellar neutral potassium. I - Abundances and physical conditions in clouds toward 188 early-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, F. H., Jr.; White, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of interstellar absorption in the resonance doublet 7664, 7698 A of neutral potassium toward 188 early-type stars at a spectral resolution of 8 km/s are reported. The 7664 A line is successfully separated from nearly coincident telluric O2 absorption for all but a few of the 165 stars for which K I absorption is detected, making possible an abundance analysis by the doublet ratio method. The relationships between the potassium abundances and other atomic abundances, the abundance of molecular hydrogen, and interstellar reddening are investigated.

  17. Using virtual reality to assess theory of mind subprocesses and error types in early and chronic schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Canty, Allana L.; Neumann, David L.; Shum, David H.K.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM) impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM) and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM) in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study...

  18. Kinematics and stellar populations of low-luminosity early-type galaxies in the Abell 496 cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, I. V.; Cayatte, V.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Balkowski, C.; Chemin, L.; Laganá, T. F.; Prugniel, P.

    2008-07-01

    Context: The morphology and stellar populations of low-luminosity early-type galaxies in clusters have until now been limited to a few relatively nearby clusters such as Virgo or Fornax. Scenarii for the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies in clusters are therefore not well constrained. Aims: We investigate here the morphology and stellar populations of low-luminosity galaxies in the relaxed richness class 1 cluster Abell 496 (z = 0.0330). Methods: Deep multiband imaging obtained with the CFHT Megacam allowed us to select a sample of faint galaxies, defined here as objects with magnitudes 18 Giraffe spectrograph with a resolving power R = 6300. We present structural analysis and colour maps for the 48 galaxies belonging to the cluster. We fit the spectra of 46 objects with PEGASE.HR synthetic spectra to estimate the ages, metallicities, and velocity dispersions. We estimated possible biases by similarly analysing spectra of ~1200 early-type galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6). We computed values of α/Fe abundance ratios from the measurements of Lick indices. We briefly discuss effects of the fixed aperture size on the measurements. Results: For the first time, high-precision estimates of stellar population properties have been obtained for a large sample of faint galaxies in a cluster, allowing for the extension of relations between stellar populations and internal kinematics to the low-velocity dispersion regime. We have revealed a peculiar population of elliptical galaxies in the core of the cluster, resembling massive early-type galaxies by their stellar population properties and velocity dispersions, but having luminosities of about 2 mag fainter. Conclusions: External mechanisms of gas removal (ram pressure stripping and gravitational harassment) are more likely to have occurred than internal mechanisms such as supernova-driven winds. The violent tidal stripping of intermediate-luminosity, early-type galaxies in the

  19. Early definition of type, degree and audiogram shape in childhood hearing impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G; Gallus, R; Fetoni, A R; Martina, B M; Muzzi, E; Orzan, E; Bastanza, G

    2016-02-01

    In the context of permanent childhood hearing loss, early audiological diagnosis is a prerequisite for activation of an adequate rehabilitation program to prevent or limit the known effects that auditory deprivation determines on language development and cognitive skills in neonates. Audiological diagnosis consists schematically of three phases: identification of subjects at risk, definition of hearing loss and/or children features, verification of appropriateness of diagnosis itself and a rehabilitation programme. Strategies and methods of audiological diagnosis are well defined and include an integration of data coming from objective methods with clinical and behavioural data. Although the substantial effectiveness of procedures and a general consensus on their use and interpretation have been defined, there are several critical issues concerning the achievement of this objective, which will be discussed in this paper. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  20. The effects of mulch types on earliness, fruit set ratios, and yield for apricot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu YAMAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to enhance earliness and fruit set, which is a crucial factor in apricot production. The study was conducted on an apricot orchard located in Serinyol town of Antakya between 2010 and 2011. In the experiment, ‘Ninfa’, ‘Bebeco’, ‘Aurora’ and ‘Roksana’ cultivars were used. The experimental cultivars were planted on 3 x 6 m in 2006 as one-year-old plants budded on seedling rootstocks. The plants have been irrigated by drip irrigation since their transplantation. In the experiment, there were four treatments as follows: control, transparent polyethylene mulch, organic mulch, and transparent polyethylene mulch + organic mulch. As plastic mulch, a 0.02 mm (UV+AB transparent plastic 1.60 cm in width; and, wheat straw as organic mulch was used. The experiment was designed as split-plot experimental design with 5 replications having 1 tree in each replication. The mulch was applied based on the physiological stages of the trees; prior to break of dormancy and opening of the buds. In the study, phenological observations (first flowering, full flowering and the end of the flowering as well as fruit set ratios, the status of vegetative development and yield were determined. As a result, in the both years, the flowering and fruit set ratios of control trees were found lower than the organic mulch or plastic mulch treated trees. Mulching treatments were enhanced 2-4 days earliness compared to control treatment for fruit maturity; and transparent polyethylene mulch + organic mulch was found partially better than the others two mulching treatments.

  1. Antibiotics, gut microbiota, environment in early life and type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Youjia; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2017-05-01

    The gut microbiota interact with innate immune cells and play an important role in shaping the immune system. Many factors may influence the composition of the microbiota such as mode of birth, diet, infections and medication including antibiotics. In diseases with a multifactorial etiology, like type 1 diabetes, manipulation and alterations of the microbiota in animal models have been shown to influence the incidence and onset of disease. The microbiota are an important part of the internal environment and understanding how these bacteria interact with the innate immune cells to generate immune tolerance may open up opportunities for development of new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss recent findings in relation to the microbiota, particularly in the context of type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of visual double stars with early type primaries. IV. Astrophysical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    Astrophysical parameters (MK class, colour excess, absolute magnitude, distance, effective temperature mass and age) are derived from calibrations of the uvbyβ indices for the members of 253 double stars with O or B type primaries and faint secondaries. The photometric spectral classification is compared to the MK classes and the agreement is very good. The derived data together with spectroscopic and JHKL data are used for deciding which pairs are likely to be physical and which are optical and it is shown that 98 (34%) of the secondaries are likely to be members of physical systems. For 90% of the physical pairs the projected separations between the components is less than 25000 AU. A majority of the physical secondaries are late type stars and 50% of them are contracting towards the zero-age main-sequence. Also presented are new uvbyβ data for 43 secondaries and a computer programme for determining astrophysical parameters from uvbyβ data

  3. A Protein Profile of Visceral Adipose Tissues Linked to Early Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Su-Jin; Chae, Sehyun; Kim, Hokeun; Mun, Dong-Gi; Back, Seunghoon; Choi, Hye Yeon; Park, Kyong Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Choi, Sung Hee; Lee, Sang-Won

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue is increasingly recognized as an endocrine organ playing important pathophysiological roles in metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as opposed to subcutaneous adipose tissue, is closely linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and T2DM. Despite the importance of VAT, its molecular signatures related to the pathogenesis of T2DM have not been systematically expl...

  4. Early spontaneous regression of a hypothalamic/chiasmatic mass in neurofibromatosis type 1: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, G.; Ferrozzi, F.; Bassi, P. [Department of Radiology, University of Parma, V. Gramsci, 14, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Sigorini, M.; Virdis, R. [Department of Paediatrics, University of Parma, V. Gramsci, 14, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Bellomi, M. [Division of Radiology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 was found to have an enhancing mass in the hypothalamus and in the anterior optic pathway. A 3-month MR study showed a reduction in the size and enhancement of the mass. At a 9-month MR follow-up the mass disappeared and ceased to enhance. This report shows the unusual behaviour of a hypothalamic/chiasmatic mass confirming that in such asymptomatic cases the conservative management can be considered the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  5. Early spontaneous regression of a hypothalamic/chiasmatic mass in neurofibromatosis type 1: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, G.; Ferrozzi, F.; Bassi, P.; Sigorini, M.; Virdis, R.; Bellomi, M.

    2000-01-01

    A patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 was found to have an enhancing mass in the hypothalamus and in the anterior optic pathway. A 3-month MR study showed a reduction in the size and enhancement of the mass. At a 9-month MR follow-up the mass disappeared and ceased to enhance. This report shows the unusual behaviour of a hypothalamic/chiasmatic mass confirming that in such asymptomatic cases the conservative management can be considered the treatment of choice. (orig.)

  6. Increased nuchal translucency and short femur length as possible early signs of osteogenesis imperfecta type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimercati, Antonella; Panzarino, Mariantonietta; Totaro, Ilaria; Chincoli, Annarosa; Selvaggi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    this paper reports an association between an increased Nuchal Translucency (NT) and Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI), a type of skeletal dysplasia. Measurement of fetal NT at 10-14 weeks of gestation is a sensitive and effective screening method for chromosomal abnormalities. a 35-year- old Caucasian woman in her fourth pregnancy was referred to our clinic for an ultrasound scan at 12 weeks of gestation, that confirmed increased Nuchal Translucency. Chorionic villi sampling was performed, showing a normal karyotype. The patient was evaluated by a team of experienced ultra sonographers for pregnancy follow-up at our Department, that is a tertiary center. in our case the ultrasound scan at 12 week of gestation revealed only an increased NT (3 mm). Cytogenetic analysis on chorionic villi demonstrated a normal male karyotype. US follow-up, performed every 3-4 weeks, confirmed normal anthropometric parameters except for shortening of both femurs, but at 23 weeks an incorrect attitude of the feet was revealed. A clinical and radiographic diagnosis of OI type III was made only at birth, and through follow-up continuing to date. NT screening was successful for chromosomal abnormalities at 11-14 weeks of gestation. An increased NT thickness is also associated with numerous fetal anomalies and genetic syndromes in a chromosomally normal fetus. In our case there were no sonographic signs of imperfect osteogenesis in the first trimester, although there was an increased NT with a normal karyotype. currently, in literature, there are not other cases of OI type III associated with an increased NT. Our report is the first to suggest an association between an increased nuchal translucency, short femur length and osteogenesis imperfecta type III.

  7. A multiwavelength study of the Carlson-Henize sample of early-type Galactic extreme emission-line stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.; Sanduleak, N.

    1990-01-01

    A UV, optical, and radio study of nine early spectral type extreme emission-line Galactic stars from the Carlson and Henize (1979) sample is presented. He 3-407 and He 3-1482 appear to be analogs of the massive evolved B(e) and luminous blue variable stars of the Magellanic Clouds. The sample appears to be confined to a narrow range in spectral type from about B0 to B6. Most of the observed stars do not show strong N emission, with the striking exception of He 3-1482, and these Galactic stars may not have mixed significant quantities of nitrogen into their envelopes, unlike many of the LMC supergiants, Most of the Galactic stars are considerably fainter than those in the Magellanic Clouds, although their spectral properties are quite similar.

  8. A new brittle star from the early Carboniferous of Poland and its implications on Paleozoic modern-type ophiuroid systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Thuy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fossil record of Paleozoic ophiuroids includes a number of forms which share striking similarities with modern relatives in terms of skeletal morphology. These so called modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroids yield an enormous potential for a better understanding of ophiuroid evolution, yet the scarcity of accurate and sufficiently detailed morphological descriptions available to date precludes any further-reaching assessments. Here, we describe an articulated ophiuroid specimen from the Late Tournaisian (early Carboniferous of Czatkowice quarry, southern Poland, as a new species Aganaster jagiellonicus sp. nov. The good preservation of the specimen allowed for a morphological analysis at a level comparable to recent ophiuroid descriptions. It shows remarkable morphological similarities with extant former ophiolepidids Ophiomusium and Ophiosphalma. The new find thus contributes to a solid basis for future investigations on the position of the modern-type Paleozoic ophiuroid in the phylogeny of the class.

  9. The mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma represents a model for early evolution of sex chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius Menkis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We combined gene divergence data, classical genetics, and phylogenetics to study the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in the filamentous ascomycete Neurospora tetrasperma. In this species, a large non-recombining region of the mating-type chromosome is associated with a unique fungal life cycle where self-fertility is enforced by maintenance of a constant state of heterokaryosis. Sequence divergence between alleles of 35 genes from the two single mating-type component strains (i.e. the homokaryotic mat A or mat a-strains, derived from one N. tetrasperma heterokaryon (mat A+mat a, was analyzed. By this approach we were able to identify the boundaries and size of the non-recombining region, and reveal insight into the history of recombination cessation. The non-recombining region covers almost 7 Mbp, over 75% of the chromosome, and we hypothesize that the evolution of the mating-type chromosome in this lineage involved two successive events. The first event was contemporaneous with the split of N. tetrasperma from a common ancestor with its outcrossing relative N. crassa and suppressed recombination over at least 6.6 Mbp, and the second was confined to a smaller region in which recombination ceased more recently. In spite of the early origin of the first "evolutionary stratum", genealogies of five genes from strains belonging to an additional N. tetrasperma lineage indicate independent initiations of suppressed recombination in different phylogenetic lineages. This study highlights the shared features between the sex chromosomes found in the animal and plant kingdoms and the fungal mating-type chromosome, despite fungi having no separate sexes. As is often found in sex chromosomes of plants and animals, recombination suppression of the mating-type chromosome of N. tetrasperma involved more than one evolutionary event, covers the majority of the mating-type chromosome and is flanked by distal regions with obligate crossovers.

  10. Signals involved in the early TH1/TH2 polarization of an immune response depending on the type of antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellinghausen, I; Brand, U; Enk, A H; Knop, J; Saloga, J

    1999-02-01

    The early production of distinct cytokines by epidermal cells (ECs) in response to antigen exposure may govern the development of TH1 -like immune responses, such as contact sensitivity, or TH2 -like immune responses, such as IgE-dependent allergies of the immediate type, depending on the type of antigen. The aim of this study was to compare the signals induced by protein allergens with those induced by haptens in ECs and subsequently in local draining lymph node cells (LNCs) or splenocytes. BALB/c mice were primed in vivo with the protein allergens ovalbumin or birch pollen or the haptens 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene or trinitrochlorbenzene, respectively, and cytokine and immunoglobulin secretions of responding splenocytes were measured by ELISA after in vitro coculture with ECs. Induction of cytokine mRNA expression in ECs and LNCs was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. In the presence of protein allergens, ECs enhance the induction of a TH2 immune response (IL-4 and IgE production of splenocytes), whereas a TH1 immune response (IFN-gamma and IgG2a production) was only induced in the context of haptens. Heat inactivation of ovalbumin did not diminish the development of a TH2 immune response. One direct effect of antigen on ECs was the earlier expression of IL-10 mRNA after stimulation with protein allergens (30 minutes) than with haptens (2 hours) in vitro. By using an in vivo approach, sensitization of the skin with trinitrochlorbenzene, but not with ovalbumin, resulted in an early induction of IL-1beta, IL-12p40, and IFN-gamma mRNA in LNCs, whereas IL-18 was induced by both. These data indicate that the type of antigen strongly influences the type of immune response by eliciting distinct signals already in the epithelium.

  11. Prevalence of early and late prematurity is similar among pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus patients and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Adi; Shalitin, Shlomit; Eyal, Ori; Loewenthal, Neta; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Levy, Milana; Dally-Gottfried, Orna; Landau, Zohar; Zung, Amnon; Levy-Khademi, Floris; Zangen, David; Tenenbaum-Rakover, Yardena; Rachmiel, Marianna

    2018-02-22

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (prematurity and early prematurity (prematurity and birth season were compared to the general population birth registry using Pearson Chi-square test. The study population included 1452 T1DM patients, 52.7% males, and 2,138,668 subjects in the general non-T1DM population, 51.2% males. The prevalence of late and early prematurity was similar between groups (6.1% and 2.2% in the T1DM group vs. 5.6% and 2.0% in the general non-T1DM group, p=0.5 and p=0.32, respectively). OR for prematurity among T1DM patients was 1.15 (0.95-1.39), p=0.16. No difference in birth season was demonstrated between preterm and term, in T1DM and general non-T1DM populations. Ethiopian descent was more prevalent among T1DM patients compared with the non-T1DM population, in both term and preterm born. This is the largest population-based study, and the first in the Middle East geographical area, indicating that prematurity, including early prematurity, is not associated with T1DM during childhood. The study was registered at https://clinicaltrials.gov/ : NCT02929953. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of Screening Tools for the Early Detection of Peripheral Neuropathy in Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the effectiveness of the 128 Hz tuning fork, two monofilaments, and Norfolk Quality of Life Diabetic Neuropathy (QOL-DN questionnaire as tools for the early detection of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN in overweight, obese, and inactive (OOI adults or those who have prediabetes (PD or type 2 diabetes (T2D. Research Design and Methods. Thirty-four adults (mean age 58.4 years ± 12.1 were divided by glycemia (10 OOI normoglycemic, 13 PD, and 11 T2D. Sural nerves were tested bilaterally with the NC-stat DPNCheck to determine sural nerve amplitude potential (SNAP and sural nerve conduction velocity (SNCV. All other testing results were compared to SNAP and SNCV. Results. Total 1 g monofilament scores significantly correlated with SNAP values and yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity combinations of tested measures. Total QOL-DN scores negatively correlated with SNAP values, as did QOL-DN symptoms. QOL-DN activities of daily living correlated with the right SNAP, and the QOL-DN small fiber subscore correlated with SNCV. Conclusions. The 1 g monofilament and total QOL-DN are effective, low-cost tools for the early detection of DPN in OOI, PD, and T2D adults. The 128 Hz tuning fork and 10 g monofilament may assist DPN screening as a tandem, but not primary, early DPN detection screening tools.

  13. Primary treatment of early fistula of parotid duct with botulinum toxin type A injection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferron, Camila; Cernea, Selma Schuartz; de Almeida, Ada Regina Trindade; Cesar, Denise Vieira Galvão

    2017-01-01

    Salivary duct injury can be idiopathic, iatrogenic, or post-trauma and may result in sialocele or fistula. Most injuries regress spontaneously and botulinum toxin A is one of several therapeutic possibilities. We report a case of iatrogenic injury to the parotid duct after Mohs' micographic surgery for a squamous cell carcinoma excision in the left jaw region, treated by injection of botulinum toxin type A. Although the fistula by duct injury can be self-limiting, botulinum toxin injection by promoting the inactivity of the salivary gland allows rapid healing of the fistula. PMID:29364451

  14. Genetic Relationship of Productive Life, Production and Type Traits of Korean Holsteins at Early Lactations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidarshani Wasana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to study the genetic relationship of productive life with production and type traits of Korean Holsteins at first three lactations. The data for the analysis from 56,054, 28,997, and 11,816 animals of first, second and third parity cows which were born from 2006 to 2011 were collected by Dairy Cattle Improvement Center, National Agricultural Co-operative Federation. Milk, protein and fat yields adjusted for 305 days and average somatic cell score considered as production traits and analyzed type traits were stature, strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, front attachment placement, rear attachment height, rear attachment width, udder cleft, udder depth, front teat placement and front teat length. A multi trait genetic analysis was performed using Wombat program with restricted maximum likelihood animal model composed of fixed effect of birth year, farm and the random effect of animal and random residual effect according to the traits. Heritability estimates of productive life were between 0.06 and 0.13. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and productive life traits ranged from 0.35 to 0.04 for milk, 0.16 to 0.05 for protein and 0.18 to 0.02 f 15-0034 (2nd 150520 or fat. Somatic cells score showed a negative genetic and phenotypic correlation with productive life and also udder type traits, indicating that the selection for higher udder traits will likely to improve resistance to mastitis and persistence in the herd. Among all dairy form type traits, udder characters such as udder cleft showed a significant relationship with productive life. However, a specific change of heritabilities or correlations were not observed with the change of parity. Moreover, further studies are needed to further confirm the significance of the above traits and the effect of parity on above relationships in order to minimize both voluntary and involuntary culling

  15. The effects of stellar dynamics on the X-ray emission of flat early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrea; Ciotti, Luca; Pellegrini, Silvia

    2014-03-01

    Past observational and numerical studies indicated that the hot gaseous haloes of early-type galaxies may be sensitive to the stellar kinematics. With high-resolution ZEUS 2D hydrosimulations, we study the hot gas evolution in flat early-type galaxies of fixed (stellar plus dark) mass distribution, but with variable amounts of azimuthal velocity dispersion and rotational support, including the possibility of a (counter) rotating inner disc. The hot gas is fed by stellar mass-losses, and heated by supernova explosions and thermalization of stellar motions. The simulations provide γth, the ratio between the heating due to the relative velocity between the stellar streaming and the interstellar medium bulk flow, and the heating attainable by complete thermalization of the stellar streaming. We find that (1) X-ray emission-weighted temperatures and luminosities match observed values and are larger in fully velocity dispersion supported systems; X-ray isophotes are boxy where rotation is significant; (2) γth ≃ 0.1-0.2 for isotropic rotators and (3) γth ≃ 1 for systems with an inner (counter) rotating disc. The lower X-ray luminosities of isotropic rotators are not explained just by their low γth but by a complicated flow structure and evolution, consequence of the angular momentum stored at large radii. Rotation is therefore important to explain the lower average X-ray emission and temperature observed in flat and more rotationally supported galaxies.

  16. [Use of magnetic therapy for treatment of early symptoms of vascular-type vibration syndrome in forestry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczewska, M

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the use of magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of therapeutic parameters in the treatment of early symptoms of vascular-type vibration syndrome in forestry workers. The study covered 96 forestry workers, and the control group was composed of 29 sawyers who underwent a simulated treatment. Each worker was granted sick leave and applied 20 procedures by employing an Aplhatron 4100 device under the ambulatory conditions. The outcome of the treatment was evaluated directly after the last procedure and 3 months later. A diversified positive influence on individual subjective and objective pathological changes in regard to both direct and late effects was observed. The abatement of subjective disorders right after termination of the treatment was observed in 67.7% and objective disorders in 57.3%. A long-term improvement (after 3 months) was found in a smaller proportion of persons as the abatement of subjective disorders was reported by 59.3% while objective disorders persisted in 43.7%. The results obtained prove that the application of variable magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of therapeutic parameters is useful in the prophylaxis and treatment of pathological changes during the period of prodromal symptoms and early pathological changes in vascular-type vibration syndrome induced by local magnetic vibrations.

  17. Early detection of nerve fiber loss by corneal confocal microscopy and skin biopsy in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Dan; Papanas, Nikolaos; Zhivov, Andrey; Allgeier, Stephan; Winter, Karsten; Ziegler, Iris; Brüggemann, Jutta; Strom, Alexander; Peschel, Sabine; Köhler, Bernd; Stachs, Oliver; Guthoff, Rudolf F; Roden, Michael

    2014-07-01

    We sought to determine whether early nerve damage may be detected by corneal confocal microscopy (CCM), skin biopsy, and neurophysiological tests in 86 recently diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients compared with 48 control subjects. CCM analysis using novel algorithms to reconstruct nerve fiber images was performed for all fibers and major nerve fibers (MNF) only. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) was assessed in skin specimens. Neurophysiological measures included nerve conduction studies (NCS), quantitative sensory testing (QST), and cardiovascular autonomic function tests (AFTs). Compared with control subjects, diabetic patients exhibited significantly reduced corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL-MNF), fiber density (CNFD-MNF), branch density (CNBD-MNF), connecting points (CNCP), IENFD, NCS, QST, and AFTs. CNFD-MNF and IENFD were reduced below the 2.5th percentile in 21% and 14% of the diabetic patients, respectively. However, the vast majority of patients with abnormal CNFD showed concomitantly normal IENFD and vice versa. In conclusion, CCM and skin biopsy both detect nerve fiber loss in recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes, but largely in different patients, suggesting a patchy manifestation pattern of small fiber neuropathy. Concomitant NCS impairment points to an early parallel involvement of small and large fibers, but the precise temporal sequence should be clarified in prospective studies. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  18. Two coffins and a funeral: early or late caspase activation determines two types of apoptosis induced by DNA damaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa-Ávila, Manuel; de la Cruz-Ojeda, Patricia; Porcuna, Jesús; Villanueva-Paz, Marina; Fernández-Vega, Alejandro; de la Mata, Mario; de Lavera, Isabel; Rivero, Juan Miguel Suarez; Luzón-Hidalgo, Raquel; Álvarez-Córdoba, Mónica; Cotán, David; Zaderenko, Ana Paula; Cordero, Mario D; Sánchez-Alcázar, José A

    2017-03-01

    Cell cytoskeleton makes profound changes during apoptosis including the organization of an Apoptotic Microtubule Network (AMN). AMN forms a cortical structure which plays an important role in preserving plasma membrane integrity during apoptosis. Here, we examined the cytoskeleton rearrangements during apoptosis induced by camptothecin (CPT), a topoisomerase I inhibitor, in human H460 and porcine LLCPK-1α cells. Using fixed and living cell imaging, we showed that CPT induced two dose- and cell cycle-dependent types of apoptosis characterized by different cytoskeleton reorganizations, time-dependent caspase activation and final apoptotic cell morphology. In the one referred as "slow" (~h) or round-shaped, apoptosis was characterized by a slow contraction of the actinomyosin ring and late caspase activation. In "slow" apoptosis the γ-tubulin complexes were not disorganized and microtubules were not depolymerized at early stages. In contrast, "fast" (~min) or irregular-shaped apoptosis was characterized by early caspase activation followed by full contraction of the actinomyosin ring. In fast apoptosis γ-tubulin complexes were disorganized and microtubules were initially depolymerized. However, after actinomyosin contraction, microtubules were reformed adopting a cortical but irregular disposition near plasma membrane. In addition to distinctive cytoskeleton reorganization kinetics, round and irregular-shaped apoptosis showed different biological properties with respect to AMN maintenance, plasma membrane integrity and phagocytes response. Our results suggest that the knowledge and modulation of the type of apoptosis promoted by genotoxic agents may be important for deciding a better therapeutic option and predicting the immune response in cancer treatment.

  19. Plasma free amino acid profiling of five types of cancer patients and its application for early detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyagi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by specific diseases, including cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the PFAA profiles in cancer patients and the possibility of using this information for early detection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Plasma samples were collected from approximately 200 patients from multiple institutes, each diagnosed with one of the following five types of cancer: lung, gastric, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer. Patients were compared to gender- and age- matched controls also used in this study. The PFAA levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-electrospray ionization (ESI-mass spectrometry (MS. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in the PFAA profiles between the controls and the patients with any of the five types of cancer listed above, even those with asymptomatic early-stage disease. Furthermore, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated the cancer patients from the controls in terms of the area under the receiver-operator characteristics curve (AUC of ROC >0.75 for each cancer, regardless of cancer stage. Because this study was designed as case-control study, further investigations, including model construction and validation using cohorts with larger sample sizes, are necessary to determine the usefulness of PFAA profiling. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that PFAA profiling has great potential for improving cancer screening and diagnosis and understanding disease pathogenesis. PFAA profiles can also be used to determine various disease diagnoses from a single blood sample, which involves a

  20. Bedside Heart Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein (H-FABP): Is an Early Predictive Marker of Cardiac Syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonmez, B. M.; Yilmaz, F.; Durdu, T.; Hakbilir, O.; Ongar, M.; Ozturk, D.; Altinbilek, E.; Kavalci, C.; Turhan, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein in diagnosis of cardiac syncope in patients presenting with syncope or presyncope. Methods: The prospective study was conducted at Ankara Numune Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between September 1, 2010, and January 1, 2011, and comprised patients aged over 18 years who presented with syncope or presyncope. Patients presenting to emergency department within 4 hours of syncope or presyncope underwent a bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein test measurement. SPSS 16 was used for statistical analysis, Results: Of the 100 patients evaluated, 22(22 percent) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope. Of them, 13(59.1 percent) patients had a positive and 9(40.9 percent) had a negative heart-type fatty acid binding protein result. Consequently, the test result was 12.64 times more positive in patients with cardiac syncope compared to those without. Conclusions: Bedside heart-type fatty acid binding protein, particularly at early phase of myocardial injury, reduces diagnostic and therapeutic uncertainity of cardiac origin in syncope patients. (author)

  1. Efficacy of type I thyroplasty after endoscopic cordectomy for early-stage glottic cancer: Literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Caitlin; Reder, Lindsay

    2018-03-01

    As phonomicrosurgical techniques have evolved, endoscopic cordectomy (EC) has been used more commonly for early-stage glottic cancer. Patients undergoing more extensive surgery often experience significant postoperative dysphonia for which there is no standard treatment. Surgical options include injection laryngoplasty and thyroplasty. We reviewed the literature to evaluate the efficacy of thyroplasty after EC. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies of adults undergoing thyroplasty for dysphonia after EC for glottic cancer. Primary outcomes included voice, as measured subjectively by the voice handicap index (VHI) and objectively by aerodynamics-specifically maximum phonation time (MPT). Secondary outcomes included additional acoustic and aerodynamic measurements, variations in the technical aspects of thyroplasty, and a description of adverse events. Seven articles met inclusion criteria. Each study allowed 6 to 12 months after EC before performing thyroplasty. General anesthesia frequently was used rather than monitored anesthesia care . Implants varied between centers and were chosen based on surgeon preference. Of the three studies including statistical analysis, one reported improvement in VHI and grade. The second reported improvement in VHI; grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, strain; jitter; shimmer; noise-to-harmonic ratio (NHR); and MPT. The third reported improvements in jitter, shimmer, NHR, fundamental frequency, MPT, and sound pressure level. The most frequent adverse events were hematoma, infection, and implant extrusion. Optimizing voice after EC remains a clinical challenge. Our review suggests that thyroplasty is one potentially beneficial option in appropriately selected patients. More controlled studies are needed to assess efficacy of thyroplasty in this context. Laryngoscope, 128:690-696, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Penile alterations at early stage of type 1 diabetes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfang Tao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Diabetes affects the erectile function significantly. However, the penile alterations in the early stage of diabetes in experimental animal models have not been well studied. We examined the changes of the penis and its main erectile components in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups: streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetics and age-matched controls. Three or nine weeks after diabetes induction, the penis was removed for immunohistochemical staining of smooth muscle and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS in midshaft penile tissues. The cross-sectional areas of the whole midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were quantified. The smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa and nNOS in the dorsal nerves were quantified. Results The weight, but not the length, of the penis was lower in diabetics. The cross-sectional areas of the total midshaft penis and the corpora cavernosa were lower in diabetic rats compared with controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. The cross-sectional area of smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa as percentage of the overall area of the corpora cavernosa was lower in diabetic rats than in controls 9 weeks, but not 3 weeks after diabetes induction. Percentage change of nNOS in dorsal nerves was similar at 3 weeks, and has a decreased trend at 9 weeks in diabetic rats compared with controls. Conclusions Diabetes causes temporal alterations in the penis, and the significant changes in STZ rat model begin 3-9 weeks after induction. Further studies on the reversibility of the observed changes are warranted.

  3. Nuclear and cellular expression data from the whole 16-cell stage Arabidopsis thaliana embryo and a cell type-specific expression atlas of the early Arabidopsis embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palovaara, J.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    SuperSeries contain expression data from the nuclei of cell types involved in patterning events, with focus on root apical stem cell formation, at 16-cell stage, early globular stage and late globular stage in the early Arabidopsis embryo (atlas). Expression data comparing nuclear and cellular RNA

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Early-type EBs with intermediate orbital periods (Moe+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, M.; Di Stefano, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we select the NB~96000 systems in the OGLE-I catalog (Udalski et al. 2008AcA....58...89U) with mean magnitudes 16.0V-IP) and typical dust reddenings E(V-I)~0.1-0.3 mag toward hot young stars in the LMC (Zaritsky et al. J/AJ/128/1606), these stars have luminosities and surface temperatures that correspond to B-type MS primaries. From this sample, we analyze the 221 systems that were identified as EBs with orbital periods P=20-50 days (Graczyk et al. 2011, J/AcA/61/103). (2 data files).

  5. The influence of masker type on early reflection processing and speech intelligibility (L)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arweiler, Iris; Buchholz, Jörg M.; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    listening did not provide a benefit from ERs apart from a binaural energy summation, such that monaural auditory processing could account for the data. However, a diffuse speech shaped noise (SSN) was used in the speech intelligibility experiments, which does not provide distinct binaural cues...... to the auditory system. In the present study, the monaural and binaural benefit from ERs for speech intelligibility was investigated using three directional maskers presented from 90° azimuth: a SSN, a multi-talker babble, and a reversed two-talker masker. For normal-hearing as well as hearing-impaired listeners......, the directional and/or fluctuating (speech) maskers produced a similar benefit from ERs as obtained with the diffuse SSN, suggesting a monaural integration of the ERs and the DS for both types of maskers. © 2013 Acoustical Society of America...

  6. Combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with improved survival at early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozen, Hamdullah; Çiftçi, Rumeysa; Vatansever, Dogan; Topuz, Samet; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Yaşa, Cenk; Çali, Halime; Yavuz, Ekrem; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydiner, Adnan; Salihoglu, Yavuz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities and identify risk factors associated with recurrence and survival rates in women diagnosed with early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma. In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with early stage (stages I-II) carcinosarcoma and type II endometrial cancer were reviewed. All women underwent comprehensive surgical staging. Postoperative treatment options of chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), observation (OBS) and chemotherapy-radiotherapy (CT-RT) combination were compared in terms of recurrence and survival outcome. In CT-RT treatment arm, recurrence rate was found as 12.5% and this result is significantly lower than the other treatment approaches (P = 0.01 CT alone: 33.3%, RT alone: 26.7%, OBS: 62.5%). Three-year disease free survival(DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were statistically higher for the group of women treated with combination of CT-RT (92-95%) compared to the women treated with RT alone (65-72%), treated with CT alone (67-74%) and women who received no adjuvant therapy (38-45%). The multivariate analysis revealed that carcinosarcoma histology was associated with shortened DFS and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002). On the other hand, being at stage Ia (P = 0.01, P = 0.04) and receiving adjuvant treatment of CT-RT combination (P = 0.005, P = 0.002) appeared to lead to increased DFS and OS rates. We identified that a combination treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is superior compared to other postoperative adjuvant treatment approaches concerning PFS, OS and recurrence rates in stages I-II of type II endometrial cancers and uterine carcinosarcoma. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  7. ROSAT PSPC observations of two X-ray-faint early-type galaxies: NGC 4365 and NGC 4382

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Trinchieri, G.

    1994-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT Positive Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) observations of the two early-type galaxies NGC 4365 and NGC 4382. These galaxies are among those observed with Einstein to have the lowest X-ray to optical flux ratios of early-type galaxies. The PSCP data show that for radii r greater than 50 arcsec the radial distributions of the X-ray surface brightness are consistent with the optical distributions of King (1978). We also find that these galaxies have X-ray spectra significantly different from those observed in X-ray-bright ellipticals, with a relative excess of counts detected in the softest spectral channels. This confirms earlier Einstein results. The characteristics of the ROSAT PSPC do not allow us to discriminate between possible spectral models. If we adopt a two-component thermal model on the grounds of physical plausibility, we find that the spectral data can be fitted with a very soft optically thin component, with kT approximately 0.2 keV, and a hard component with kT greater than (1.0-1.5) keV. The hard component has a luminosity consistent with that expected from the integrated emission of a population of low mass-X-ray binaries in these galaxies; the nature of the very soft component is more speculative. Candidates include the coronal emission of late-type stars, supersoft X-ray sources, RS CVn, and perhaps a hot Interstellar Medium (ISM). Alternatively, the spectal data may be fitted with a 0.6-1 keV bremsstrahlung spectrum (expontential plus Gaunt), and may suggest the presence of a totally new population of X-ray sources.

  8. An improved early detection method of type-2 diabetes mellitus using multiple classifier system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The specific causes of complex diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) have not yet been identified. Nevertheless, many medical science researchers believe that complex diseases are caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Detection of such diseases becomes an issue because it is not free from false presumptions and is accompanied by unpredictable effects. Given the greatly increased amount of data gathered in medical databases, data mining has been used widely in recent years to detect and improve the diagnosis of complex diseases. However, past research showed that no single classifier can be considered optimal for all problems. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on employing multiple classifier systems to improve the accuracy of detection for complex diseases, such as T2DM. We proposed a dynamic weighted voting scheme called multiple factors weighted combination for classifiers\\' decision combination. This method considers not only the local and global accuracy but also the diversity among classifiers and localized generalization error of each classifier. We evaluated our method on two real T2DM data sets and other medical data sets. The favorable results indicated that our proposed method significantly outperforms individual classifiers and other fusion methods.

  9. [Early prenatal genetic diagnosis of oculocutaneous albinism type I in seven families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Shi, Hui-rong; Liu, Ning; Lu, Ning; Jiang, Miao; Zhao, Zhen-hua; Kong, Xiang-dong

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of genetic analysis of tyrosinase gene (TYR) in oculocutaneous albinism type I (OCA1). Mutation analysis and prenatal genetic diagnosis of TYR gene for seven pedigrees with OCA1 were performed. PCR was used to amplify the exons, exon-intron boundaries and promoter of the TYR gene in the probands and/or their parents. The products were further analyzed by direct sequencing. Prenatal genetic diagnoses were performed by chorionic villus sampling after the genotypes of the probands or their parents were determined. Compound heterozygous mutations were detected in all pedigrees, which included 9 mutations, namely R76Q, c.232insGGG, R116X, R278X, R299H, c.929-930insC, IVS2-11delTT, Q399X and W400L. Among these, R76Q and Q399X were identified for the first time. Seven families have requested prenatal diagnoses. One fetus was detected with double mutations of TYR gene, and the parents have decided to have therapeutic abortion. Two fetuses did not carry the mutations identified in the probands, whilst other four fetuses were carriers of heterozygous mutations. Six families decided to carry on with the pregnancies. And the neonates did not show any symptoms of OCA after birth. Direct sequencing of the TYR gene is helpful for genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis and carriers screening of OCA1.

  10. Gender-typed behaviors, achievement, and adjustment among racially and ethnically diverse boys during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carlos E; Galligan, Kathrine; Pahlke, Erin; Fabes, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    This research examined the relations between adherence to gender-typed behaviors in boys' friendships, achievement, and self-esteem. Participants were racially and ethnically diverse adolescent boys in grade 8 (Mage  = 13.05; range = 12-14). The study was completed at a public junior high school that offered both single- and mixed-gender classes. Data were collected in 2 waves, the first wave in fall of 2010 and the second in spring of 2011. At each wave, participants completed assessments of gender concepts and self-esteem. Standardized tests scores from the end of the previous academic year and the end of the year of the study were utilized. Results revealed that the boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors in their friendships was negatively associated with math standardized test scores and self-esteem from Time I to Time II. Indirect effects analyses revealed a relation between boys' adherence to emotional stoicism behaviors in friendships and math achievement and self-esteem via boys' adherence to physical toughness behaviors. Implications of these findings and the links between masculinity, boys' friendships, performance in school, and psychological adjustment are discussed. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  11. Early improvement of postprandial lipemia after bariatric surgery in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffo, E; Nosso, G; Lupoli, R; Cotugno, M; Saldalamacchia, G; Vitolo, G; Angrisani, L; Cutolo, P P; Rivellese, A A; Capaldo, B

    2014-05-01

    Bariatric surgery (BS) is able to positively influence fasting lipid profile in obese type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM), but no data is available on the impact of BS on postprandial lipid metabolism neither on its relation with incretin hormones. We evaluated the short-term (2 weeks) effects of BS on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism in obese T2DM patients and the contribution of changes in active GLP-1. We studied 25 obese T2DM patients (age = 46 ± 8 years, BMI = 44 ± 7 kg/m2), of which 15 underwent sleeve gastrectomy and 10 underwent gastric bypass. Lipid and incretin hormone concentrations were evaluated for 3 h after ingestion of a liquid meal before and 2 weeks after BS. After BS, there was a significant reduction in body weight (p lipids (p postprandial lipemia. The fall in fasting triglycerides is associated with an improvement of insulin resistance, while the reduction of postprandial lipemia is likely related to reduced intestinal lipid absorption consequent to bariatric surgery.

  12. [Insulinemia--a marker of early diagnosis and control of efficacy of treatment of type II diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybiński, Z; Szurkowska, M

    2001-09-01

    Metabolic Syndrome X defined by Reaven is caused by peripheral insuline receptor resistance, leads to hyperinsulinemia regarded as a cause of secondary dyslipidemia, hypertension, hemostatic disturbances, atherosclerosis and insulin as a growth factor takes part in carcinogenesis. Depending on a contribution of the primary risk factors of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (2-DM) mainly genetic factors and obesity--an independent cause of insulin receptor resistance--glucose intolerance and 2-DM may overlap the Syndrome X. The aims of these studies were to determine in cross-sectional investigation a plasma insulin concentration in subjects aged over 35 years and to assess the clinical usefulness of insulinemia in early diagnosis of diabetes type 2. Investigations were carried out in Krakow town's district with 200,000 inhabitants, out of those 3060 randomly selected subjects (1720 females and 1340 males aged over 35 years) took part in the Polish Multicenter Study on Diabetes Epidemiology (PMSDE) with protocol and methods previously presented. Glucose concentration was determine by enzymatic method, insuline in plasma by IRMA method using ready kits produced by the Swierk-Poland. Logistic multiple regression model was used to estimate the effect of risk factors on the development of glucose intolerance, Chi square test, Fisher test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis by means of statistical package BMPD. Fasting insulinemia in persons with normal glucose tolerance and body weight (BMI 30 increased by 50 and 100% responsively and in 2-nd h in OGTT by five-times. In the persons with glucose intolerance and new-diagnosed 2-DM insulinemia increased 2-3 fold depending on BMI, and gender. In the subgroup with 2-DM and BMI > 30, insulinemia in 2 h-OGTT treated values 152 (SD = 90) in women and 112 (SD = 83.4) microU/ml in men. Obesity and insulinemia in 2 h-OGTT in multiple analysis have been identified as a strong predictors and risk factors of impaired

  13. Chloride effect on the early photolysis intermediates of a gecko cone-type visual pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Kliger, D S

    1995-05-02

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on the cone-type visual pigment P521 in digitonin extracts of Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina containing physiological chloride ion levels and also on samples which had been chloride depleted or which contained high levels (4 M) of chloride. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of either 532- or 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic decay data for gecko pigment P521 to be best fit by two exponential processes under all chloride conditions. The initial photoproduct detected had a broad spectrum characteristic of an equilibrated mixture of a Batho P521 intermediate with its blue-shifted intermediate (BSI P521) decay product. The first exponential process was assigned to the decay of this mixture to the Lumi P521 intermediate. The second exponential process was identified as the decay of Lumi P521 to Meta I P521. The initial photoproduct's spectrum exhibited a strong dependence on chloride concentration, indicating that chloride affects the composition of the equilibrated mixture of Batho P521 and BSI P521. These results suggest that the affinity for chloride is reduced approximately 5-fold in the Batho P521 intermediate and approximately 50-fold in the BSI P521 intermediate. Chloride concentration also affects the apparent decay rate of the equilibrated mixture. When the apparent decay rate is corrected for the composition of the equilibrated mixture, a relatively invariant microscopic rate constant is obtained for BSI decay (k = 1/55 ns-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Tracking the Cognitive, Social, and Neuroanatomical Profile in Early Neurodegeneration: Type III Cockayne Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Couto, Blas; Herrera, Eduar; Bocanegra, Yamile; Trujillo-Orrego, Natalia; Madrigal-Zapata, Lucia; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin; Villegas, Andres

    2013-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with premature aging, progressive multiorgan degeneration, and nervous system abnormalities including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, brain calcifications, and white matter abnormalities. Although several clinical descriptions of CS patients have reported developmental delay and cognitive impairment with relative preservation of social skills, no previous studies have carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological and social cognition assessment. Furthermore, no previous research in individuals with CS has examined the relationship between brain atrophy and performance on neuropsychological and social cognition tests. This study describes the case of an atypical late-onset type III CS patient who exceeds the mean life expectancy of individuals with this pathology. The patient and a group of healthy controls underwent a comprehensive assessment that included multiple neuropsychological and social cognition (emotion recognition, theory of mind, and empathy) tasks. In addition, we compared the pattern of atrophy in the patient to controls and to its concordance with ERCC8 gene expression in a healthy brain. The results showed memory, language, and executive deficits that contrast with the relative preservation of social cognition skills. The cognitive profile of the patient was consistent with his pattern of global cerebral and cerebellar loss of gray matter volume (frontal structures, bilateral cerebellum, basal ganglia, temporal lobe, and occipito-temporal/occipito-parietal regions), which in turn was anatomically consistent with the ERCC8 gene expression level in a healthy donor’s brain. The study of exceptional cases, such as the one described here, is fundamental to elucidating the processes that affect the brain in premature aging diseases, and such studies provide an important source of information for understanding the problems associated with normal and pathological aging. PMID:24324434

  15. Early cardiac changes induced by a hypercaloric Western-type diet in "subclinical" obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Nádia; Silva, Ana Filipa; Rodrigues, Patrícia Gonçalves; Correia, Eugénia; Moura, Cláudia; Eloy, Catarina; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto; Falcão-Pires, Inês; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2016-03-15

    "Obesity cardiomyopathy" effects have been widely described; however, the specific contribution of metabolic changes and altered adipokine secretion are still uncharacterized. Moreover, a diagnosis based on body mass index might not be the most accurate to identify increased adiposity and its outcomes. In this study, we aimed to determine the impact of a Western-type diet [hypercaloric diet (HCD)] ingestion on biventricular structure and function, as well as the metabolic and endocrine changes that occur before the establishment of overt obesity. Wistar rats were fed for 6 wk with a regular diet or HCD. At the end of the protocol, metabolic tests, cardiac structure, and functional evaluation were performed, and blood and tissue samples collected to perform histological, molecular biology, and functional studies. The animals that ingested the HCD presented increased adiposity and larger adipocyte cross-sectional area, but similar body weight compared with the regular diet group. At the cardiac level, HCD induced biventricular cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, increased stiffness, and impaired relaxation. Galectin-3 plasma expression was likewise elevated in the same animals. The nutritional modulation also altered the secretory pattern of the adipose tissue, originating a proinflammatory systemic environment. In this study, we observed that before "clinical" overweight or frank obesity is established, the ingestion of a HCD-induced cardiac remodeling manifests by increased biventricular stiffness and diastolic dysfunction. The mechanism triggering the cardiac alterations appears to be the proinflammatory environment promoted by the adipose tissue dysfunction. Furthermore, galectin-3, a profibrotic molecule, might be a potential biomarker for the myocardial alterations promoted by the HCD before overweight or obesity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. A PANCHROMATIC CATALOG OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT IN THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, M. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Kaviraj, S.; Crockett, R. M.; Silk, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yan, H. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Physics and Astronomy, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, J. A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-03-01

    In the first of a series of forthcoming publications, we present a panchromatic catalog of 102 visually selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) from observations in the Early Release Science (ERS) program with the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field. Our ETGs span a large redshift range, 0.35 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.5, with each redshift spectroscopically confirmed by previous published surveys of the ERS field. We combine our measured WFC3 ERS and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) GOODS-S photometry to gain continuous sensitivity from the rest-frame far-UV to near-IR emission for each ETG. The superior spatial resolution of the HST over this panchromatic baseline allows us to classify the ETGs by their small-scale internal structures, as well as their local environment. By fitting stellar population spectral templates to the broadband photometry of the ETGs, we determine that the average masses of the ETGs are comparable to the characteristic stellar mass of massive galaxies, 10{sup 11} < M{sub *}[M{sub Sun }]<10{sup 12}. By transforming the observed photometry into the Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV and NUV, Johnson V, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey g' and r' bandpasses we identify a noteworthy diversity in the rest-frame UV-optical colors and find the mean rest-frame (FUV-V) = 3.5 and (NUV-V) = 3.3, with 1{sigma} standard deviations {approx_equal}1.0. The blue rest-frame UV-optical colors observed for most of the ETGs are evidence for star formation during the preceding gigayear, but no systems exhibit UV-optical photometry consistent with major recent ({approx}<50 Myr) starbursts. Future publications which address the diversity of stellar populations likely to be present in these ETGs, and the potential mechanisms by which recent star formation episodes are activated, are discussed.

  17. A bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 vaccine is safe and immunogenic in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David P; Walker, Robert E; Lee, Min-Shi; Reisinger, Keith S; Ward, Joel I; Yogev, Ram; Blatter, Mark M; Yeh, Sylvia H; Karron, Ruth A; Sangli, Chithra; Eubank, Lane; Coelingh, Kathleen L; Cordova, Julie M; August, Marilyn J; Mehta, Harshvardhan B; Chen, Wendy; Mendelman, Paul M

    2005-04-01

    A phase 2 trial was conducted to assess in young infants the safety, tolerability, infectivity, and immunogenicity of multiple doses of an intranasal vaccine using bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (bPIV3). One hundred ninety-two healthy 2-month-old infants were randomized 1 : 1 : 1 to receive 1x10(5) median tissue culture infective dose (TCID(50)) bPIV3 vaccine, 1x10(6) TCID(50) bPIV3 vaccine, or placebo at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months of age. Safety information was collected by use of diary sheets and telephone interviews. Nasal wash and serum specimens were collected for assessment of infectivity and immunogenicity. The safety profiles of both dosages of bPIV3 were similar to that of placebo, with the exception of fever with temperature of >/=38.1 degrees C after dose 2 only, occurring in 34% of the 1x10(5) TCID(50) group, 35% of the 1x10(6) TCID(50) group, and 12% of the placebo group (P<.01). No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. The cumulative vaccine infectivity (isolation of bPIV3 and/or bPIV3 seroconversion) after dose 3 was similar in the 2 vaccine groups (87% in the 1x10(5) TCID(50) group and 77% in the 1x10(6) TCID(50) group) (P=.46). Seroconversion rates after dose 3, assessed by means of hemagglutination inhibition assay, after adjustment for decrease in maternal antibody titers, were 67% in the 1x10(5) TCID(50) group, 57% in the 1x10(6) TCID(50) group, and 12% in the placebo group (P<.01). Isolation of bPIV3 was common after dose 1, dose 2, or dose 3, but only 1 of 51 participants in the vaccine groups had bPIV3 isolated after dose 4. Multiple doses of bPIV3 vaccine were well tolerated and immunogenic in young infants.

  18. Microalbuminuria and early renal response to lethal dose Shiga toxin type 2 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochoa F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Federico Ochoa1, Gisela Oltra1, Elizabeth Gerhardt1, Ricardo Hermes2, Lilian Cohen2, Alicia E Damiano3, Cristina Ibarra1, Nestor R Lago4, Elsa Zotta11Departamento de Fisiologia, Facultad de Medicina UBA, 2Laboratorio Análisis Clínicos, Hospital Juan A Fernández, 3Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires, Argentina; 4Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Medicina UBA, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: In Argentina, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS constitutes the most frequent cause of acute renal failure in children. Approximately 2%–4% of patients die during the acute phase, and one-third of the 96% who survive are at risk of chronic renal sequelae. Little information is available about the direct effect of Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2 on the onset of proteinuria and the evolution of toxin-mediated glomerular or tubular injury. In this work, rats were injected intraperitoneally with recombinant Escherichia coli culture supernatant containing Stx2 (sStx2; 20 µg/kg body weight to induce HUS. Functional, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry studies were carried out to determine alterations in slit diaphragm proteins and the proximal tubule endocytic system at 48 hours post-inoculation. We detected a significant increase in microalbuminuria, without changes in the proteinuria values compared to the control rats. In immunoperoxidase studies, the renal tubules and glomerular mesangium showed an increased expression of transforming growth factor ß1(TGF-ß1. The expression of megalin was decreased by immunoperoxidase and the cytoplasm showed a granular pattern of megalin expression by immunofluorescence techniques. Western blot analysis performed in the renal cortex from sStx2-treated and control rats using anti-nephrin and anti-podocalyxin antibodies showed a decreased expression of these proteins. We suggest that the alterations in slit diaphragm proteins and megalin expression could be related

  19. Human endogenous retrovirus type K antibodies and mRNA as serum biomarkers of early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Johanning, Feng; Li, Ming; Esteva, Francisco J; Hess, Kenneth R; Yin, Bingnan; Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B; Garza, Jeremy G; Ambs, Stefan; Johanning, Gary L

    2014-02-01

    A simple and accurate test to detect early-stage breast cancer has not been developed. Previous studies indicate that the level of human endogenous retrovirus type K (group HERV-K(HML-2)) transcription may be increased in human breast tumors. We hypothesized that HERV-K(HML-2) reactivation can serve as a biomarker for early detection of breast cancer. Serum samples were collected from women without cancer (controls) and patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive breast cancer. ELISA assays were used to detect serum anti-HERV-K(HML-2) antibody titers. RNA was extracted from sera and analyzed by real-time RT-PCR to quantitate the level of HERV-K(HML-2) mRNA. We measured significantly higher serum mRNA and serum antibody titers against HERV-K(HML-2) proteins in women with DCIS and stage I disease than in women without cancer. At optimized cutoffs for the antibody titers, the assay produced an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.77-1.00) for DCIS and of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.89-1.00) for invasive breast cancer. These AUCs are comparable to those observed for mammograms. We also found that serum HERV-K(HML-2) mRNA tended to be higher in breast cancer patients with a primary tumor who later on developed the metastatic disease than in patients who did not develop cancer metastasis. Our results show that HERV-K(HML-2) antibodies and mRNA are already elevated in the blood at an early stage of breast cancer, and further increase in patients who are at risk of developing a metastatic disease. © 2013 UICC.

  20. Human heart-type fatty acid-binding protein as an early diagnostic marker of doxorubicin cardiac toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. ElGhandour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cardiotoxicity following treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL may lead to late onset cardiomyopathy. So, early prediction of toxicity can lead to prevention of heart failure in these patients. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of H-FABP as an early diagnostic marker of anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity together with brain natriuretic peptide (BNP as an indication of ventricular dysfunction in such patients. Our study was conducted on 40 NHL patients who received 6 cycles of a doxorubicin containing chemotherapy protocol (CHOP, not exceeding the total allowed dose of doxorubicin (500 mg/m2. Ten healthy controls were included in our study. Human heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was assessed 24 hours after the first cycle of CHOP. Plasma levels of BNP were estimated both before starting chemotherapy and after the last cycle of CHOP. Resting echocardiography was also performed before and at the end of chemotherapy cycles. The ejection fraction (EF of 8 of our patients decreased below 50% at the end of the sixth cycle. Elevated levels of both H-FABP and BNP were found in all patients wth EF below 50% and both markers showed a positive correlation with each other. We concluded that H-FABP may serve as a reliable early marker for prediction of cardiomyopathy induced by doxorubicin. Thus, in patients with elevated H-FABP, alternative treatment modalities with no cardiac toxicity may be considered in order to prevent subsequent heart failure in these patients.

  1. Impaired incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia characterizing type 2 diabetic subjects are early signs of dysmetabolism in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knop, Filip K; Aaboe, K; Vilsbøll, T

    2012-01-01

    were not evident in these subjects. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that reduced incretin effect and fasting hyperglucagonaemia constitute very early steps in the pathophysiology of T2DM detectable even in obese people who despite their insulin-resistant state have NGT.......Aims: People with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are characterized by reduced incretin effect and inappropriate glucagon levels. We evaluated a and ß-cell responses to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and isoglycaemic intravenous glucose infusion (IIGI) in lean and obese persons with T2DM...... or normal glucose tolerance (NGT) to elucidate the impact of obesity on the incretin effect and incretin hormone and glucagon responses. Methods: Four hour 50-g OGTT and IIGI were performed in (i) Eight obese patients with T2DM [mean body mass index (BMI): 37 (range: 35-41) kg/m(2) ]; (ii) Eight obese...

  2. Transcriptional activation of immediate-early gene ETR101 by human T-cell leukaemia virus type I Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Ma, Shiliang; Li, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Human T-cell leukaemia virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax regulates viral and cellular gene expression through interactions with multiple cellular transcription pathways. This study describes the finding of immediate-early gene ETR101 expression in HTLV-I-infected cells and its regulation by Tax. ETR101...... was persistently expressed in HTLV-I-infected cells but not in HTLV-I uninfected cells. Expression of ETR101 was dependent upon Tax expression in the inducible Tax-expressing cell line JPX-9 and also in Jurkat cells transiently transfected with Tax-expressing vectors. Tax transactivated the ETR101 gene promoter...... in a transient transfection assay. A series of deletion and mutation analyses of the ETR101 gene promoter indicated that a 35 bp region immediately upstream of the TATA-box sequence, which contains a consensus cAMP response element (CRE) and a G+C-rich sequence, is the critical responsive element for Tax...

  3. Common variant in MTNR1B associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and impaired early insulin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyssenko, Valeriya; Nagorny, Cecilia L F; Erdos, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have shown that variation in MTNR1B (melatonin receptor 1B) is associated with insulin and glucose concentrations. Here we show that the risk genotype of this SNP predicts future type 2 diabetes (T2D) in two large prospective studies. Specifically, the risk genotype...... was associated with impairment of early insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose and with faster deterioration of insulin secretion over time. We also show that the MTNR1B mRNA is expressed in human islets, and immunocytochemistry confirms that it is primarily localized in beta cells in islets....... Nondiabetic individuals carrying the risk allele and individuals with T2D showed increased expression of the receptor in islets. Insulin release from clonal beta cells in response to glucose was inhibited in the presence of melatonin. These data suggest that the circulating hormone melatonin, which...

  4. VELOCITY DISPERSIONS AND STELLAR POPULATIONS OF THE MOST COMPACT AND MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT ∼1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Manso, Jesus; Guzman, Rafael; Barro, Guillermo; Cardiel, Nicolas; Gallego, Jesus; Cenarro, Javier; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Hempel, Angela; Prieto, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    We present Gran-Telescopio-Canarias/OSIRIS optical spectra of four of the most compact and massive early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the Groth Strip Survey at redshift z ∼ 1, with effective radii R e = 0.5-2.4 kpc and photometric stellar masses M * = (1.2-4) x 10 11 M sun . We find that these galaxies have velocity dispersions σ = 156-236 km s -1 . The spectra are well fitted by single stellar population models with approximately 1 Gyr of age and solar metallicity. We find that (1) the dynamical masses of these galaxies are systematically smaller by a factor of ∼6 than the published stellar masses using BRIJK photometry, and (2) when estimating stellar masses as 0.7x M dyn , a combination of passive luminosity fading with mass/size growth due to minor mergers can plausibly evolve our objects to match the properties of the local population of ETGs.

  5. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  6. Development and validation of the Screen for Early Eating Disorder Signs (SEEDS) in persons with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara; Ackard, Diann; Craft, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to develop and validate an instrument to identify those at risk of developing an eating disorder (ED) in persons with type 1 diabetes. The Screen for Early Eating Disorder Signs (SEEDS) instrument was developed using a multi-phase process including focus groups, cognitive interviews, and mailed questionnaires. Factor analysis revealed 20 items across three factors (Body Image, Feelings, Quality of Life) demonstrating strong psychometric properties. Scoring guidelines and interpretation are provided. SEEDS is a brief (20-item; 2-5 minutes to complete), self-administered, screen designed for use in clinical practice or research to identify or confirm suspicions of ED risk and does not include weight-control behavior items.

  7. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mei, Simona [University of Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); West, Michael J., E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  8. A case report of prostate cancer metastasis to the stomach resembling undifferentiated-type early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Chiaki; Suzuki, Takuto; Kitagawa, Yoshiyasu; Hara, Taro; Yamaguchi, Taketo

    2017-08-07

    Occurrence of metastatic cancer to the stomach is rare, particularly in patients with prostate cancer. Gastric metastasis generally presents as a solitary and submucosal lesion with a central depression. We describe a case of gastric metastasis arising from prostate cancer, which is almost indistinguishable from the undifferentiated-type gastric cancer. A definitive diagnosis was not made until endoscopic resection. On performing both conventional and magnifying endoscopies, the lesion appeared to be slightly depressed and discolored area and it could not be distinguished from undifferentiated early gastric cancer. Biopsy from the lesion was negative for immunohistochemical staining of prostate-specific antigen, a sensitive and specific marker for prostate cancer. Thus, false initial diagnosis of an early primary gastric cancer was made and endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. Pathological findings from the resected specimen aroused suspicion of a metastatic lesion. Consequently, immunostaining was performed. The lesion was positive for prostate-specific acid phosphatase and negative for prostate-specific antigen, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20. Accordingly, the final diagnosis was a metastatic gastric lesion originating from prostate cancer. In this patient, the definitive diagnosis as a metastatic lesion was difficult due to its unusual endoscopic appearance and the negative stain for prostate-specific antigen. We postulate that both of these are consequences of hormonal therapy against prostate cancer.

  9. The Stellar Initial Mass Function in Early-type Galaxies from Absorption Line Spectroscopy. I. Data and Empirical Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-11-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is >~ 200 Å-1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  10. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM ABSORPTION LINE SPECTROSCOPY. I. DATA AND EMPIRICAL TRENDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Conroy, Charlie

    2012-01-01

    The strength of gravity-sensitive absorption lines in the integrated light of old stellar populations is one of the few direct probes of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) outside of the Milky Way. Owing to the advent of fully depleted CCDs with little or no fringing it has recently become possible to obtain accurate measurements of these features. Here, we present spectra covering the wavelength ranges 0.35-0.55 μm and 0.72-1.03 μm for the bulge of M31 and 34 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, obtained with the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer on Keck. The signal-to-noise ratio is ∼> 200 Å –1 out to 1 μm, which is sufficient to measure gravity-sensitive features for individual galaxies and to determine how they depend on other properties of the galaxies. Combining the new data with previously obtained spectra for globular clusters in M31 and the most massive elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster, we find that the dwarf-sensitive Na I λ8183, 8195 doublet and the FeH λ9916 Wing-Ford band increase systematically with velocity dispersion, while the giant-sensitive Ca II λ8498, 8542, 8662 triplet decreases with dispersion. These trends are consistent with a varying IMF, such that galaxies with deeper potential wells have more dwarf-enriched mass functions. In a companion paper, we use a comprehensive stellar population synthesis model to demonstrate that IMF effects can be separated from age and abundance variations and quantify the IMF variation among early-type galaxies.

  11. Aortic superoxide production at the early hyperglycemic stage in a rat type 2 diabetes model and the effects of pravastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Chigusa; Kajikuri, Junko; Hori, Eisei; Nagami, Chie; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Kimura, Kazunori; Itoh, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelium-derived superoxide induces vascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which leads to vascular superoxide production in type 2 diabetes, in addition to the effects of pravastatin. We studied these mechanisms in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats (type 2 diabetes model) at the early hyperglycemic stage (vs. non-diabetic Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka [LETO] rats). Superoxide production and catalase activity were measured in aortas, as were the protein expressions of PKCδ and phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS. Superoxide production was increased in OLETF rats, and this increase was inhibited by the selective conventional PKC (cPKC) inhibitor Gö6976 and by the non-selective cPKC and novel PKC inhibitor GF109203X. Phospho-Ser(1177) eNOS was significantly increased in OLETF rats, whereas the protein expressions of PKCδ and phosopho-Thr(505) PKCδ and catalase activity were all greatly reduced. Pravastatin administration to OLETF rats in vivo had normalizing effects on all of these variables. The increment in superoxide production seen in OLETF rats (but not the production in pravastatin-treated OLETF rats) was abolished by high concentration of N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (electron transport inhibitor of eNOS), by sepiapterin (precursor of tetrahydrobiopterin), and by LY294002 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase [PI3-kinase] inhibitor). In OLETF rats at the early hyperglycemic stage, aortic superoxide production is increased owing to activation of uncoupled eNOS through phosphorylation by PI3-kinase/Akt. This may be related to the observed reduction in PKCδ/catalase activities. Pravastatin inhibited endothelial superoxide production via normalization of PKCδ/catalase activities.

  12. ULTRAVIOLET COLOR-COLOR RELATION OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES AT 0.05 < z < 0.12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, Chang H.; Jeong, Hyunjin; Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Sang Chul; Kyeong, Jaemann; Oh, Kyuseok; Chung, Chul

    2012-01-01

    We present the ultraviolet (UV) color-color relation of early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the nearby universe (0.05 < z < 0.12) to investigate the properties of hot stellar populations responsible for the UV excess (UVX). The initial sample of ETGs is selected by the spectroscopic redshift and the morphology parameter from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, and then cross-matched with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) GR6 data. The cross-matched ETG sample is further classified by their emission line characteristics in the optical spectra into quiescent, star-forming, and active galactic nucleus categories. Contaminations from early-type spiral galaxies, mergers, and morphologically disturbed galaxies are removed by visual inspection. By drawing the FUV-NUV (as a measure of UV spectral shape) versus FUV – r (as a measure of UVX strength) diagram for the final sample of ∼3700 quiescent ETGs, we find that the 'old and dead' ETGs consist of a well-defined sequence in UV colors, the 'UV red sequence', so that the stronger UVX galaxies should have a harder UV spectral shape systematically. However, the observed UV spectral slope is too steep to be reproduced by the canonical stellar population models in which the UV flux is mainly controlled by age or metallicity parameters. Moreover, 2 mag of color spreads both in FUV-NUV and FUV – r appear to be ubiquitous among any subsets in distance or luminosity. This implies that the UVX in ETGs could be driven by yet another parameter which might be even more influential than age or metallicity.

  13. Effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of type I collagen degradation on the durability of three adhesive systems in the early phase of dentin bonding.Bonded dentin specimens were prepared using three different types of adhesive systems. Micro-tensile bond strength and degradation of collagen were tested before, and after 1 month or 4 months of aging in artificial saliva. The relationship between micro-tensile bond strength and collagen degradation was analyzed by calculating their Pearson's correlation coefficient.Aging induced time-dependent reduction in micro-tensile bond strengths for all the tested adhesive systems, although such reduction for the single-step self-etching adhesive G-Bond (GB was not statistically significant. The bond strength of the two-step self-etching primer adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond (SEB was similar to that of the two-step etch-and-rinse self-priming adhesive system Single Bond 2 (SB, and they were both significantly reduced after one or four months of aging. A negative correlation was found between the degree of collagen degradation and magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength (r = -0.65, p = 0.003. The Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.426, indicating that 42.6% of the aging-induced reduction in bond strength can be explained by the degradation of collagen.In the early phase of dentin bonding, there was a negative correlation between the degree of collagen degradation and the magnitude of micro-tensile bond strength. The reduction of bond strength was accompanied by the degradation of collagen. These results provide evidence for the causative relationship between the degradation of collagen and the deterioration of dentin-adhesive interface.

  14. The ATLAS3D Project - XXX. Star formation histories and stellar population scaling relations of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2015-04-01

    We present the stellar population content of early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D survey. Using spectra integrated within apertures covering up to one effective radius, we apply two methods: one based on measuring line-strength indices and applying single stellar population (SSP) models to derive SSP-equivalent values of stellar age, metallicity, and alpha enhancement; and one based on spectral fitting to derive non-parametric star formation histories, mass-weighted average values of age, metallicity, and half-mass formation time-scales. Using homogeneously derived effective radii and dynamically determined galaxy masses, we present the distribution of stellar population parameters on the Mass Plane (MJAM, σe, R^maj_e), showing that at fixed mass, compact early-type galaxies are on average older, more metal-rich, and more alpha-enhanced than their larger counterparts. From non-parametric star formation histories, we find that the duration of star formation is systematically more extended in lower mass objects. Assuming that our sample represents most of the stellar content of today's local Universe, approximately 50 per cent of all stars formed within the first 2 Gyr following the big bang. Most of these stars reside today in the most massive galaxies (>1010.5 M⊙), which themselves formed 90 per cent of their stars by z ˜ 2. The lower mass objects, in contrast, have formed barely half their stars in this time interval. Stellar population properties are independent of environment over two orders of magnitude in local density, varying only with galaxy mass. In the highest density regions of our volume (dominated by the Virgo cluster), galaxies are older, alpha-enhanced, and have shorter star formation histories with respect to lower density regions.

  15. Evidence for Dark Matter Contraction and a Salpeter Initial Mass Function in a Massive Early-type Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, A.; Treu, T.; Gavazzi, R.; Marshall, P. J.; Auger, M. W.; Suyu, S. H.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Bolton, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Stars and dark matter account for most of the mass of early-type galaxies, but uncertainties in the stellar population and the dark matter profile make it challenging to distinguish between the two components. Nevertheless, precise observations of stellar and dark matter are extremely valuable for testing the many models of structure formation and evolution. We present a measurement of the stellar mass and inner slope of the dark matter halo of a massive early-type galaxy at z = 0.222. The galaxy is the foreground deflector of the double Einstein ring gravitational lens system SDSSJ0946+1006, also known as the "Jackpot." By combining the tools of lensing and dynamics we first constrain the mean slope of the total mass density profile (\\rho _{tot}\\propto r^{-\\gamma ^{\\prime }}) within the radius of the outer ring to be γ' = 1.98 ± 0.02 ± 0.01. Then we obtain a bulge-halo decomposition, assuming a power-law form for the dark matter halo. Our analysis yields γDM = 1.7 ± 0.2 for the inner slope of the dark matter profile, in agreement with theoretical findings on the distribution of dark matter in ellipticals, and a stellar mass from lensing and dynamics M LD * = 5.5-1.3 +0.4 × 1011 M ⊙. By comparing this measurement with stellar masses inferred from stellar population synthesis fitting we find that a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) provides a good description of the stellar population of the lens while the probability of the IMF being heavier than Chabrier is 95%. Our data suggest that growth by accretion of small systems from a compact red nugget is a plausible formation scenario for this object.

  16. Female children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have more pronounced early echocardiographic signs of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suys, Bert E; Katier, Nienke; Rooman, Raoul P A; Matthys, Dirk; Op De Beeck, Lieve; Du Caju, Mark V L; De Wolf, Daniel

    2004-08-01

    This study was designed to assess whether children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes have early echocardiographic signs of subclinical cardiac dysfunction and whether sex, state of metabolic control, and diabetes duration are of influence. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure in supine and upright positions and echocardiographic parameters, including tissue Doppler measurements of the septal mitral annulus, were evaluated in 80 children and adolescents with stable type 1 diabetes and 52 age- and sex-matched control subjects. A possible correlation was examined for age, sex, HbA(1c), and diabetes duration with univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Female diabetic patients showed significantly larger left ventricular wall dimensions (left ventricular posterior wall in diastole 0.54 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.11 cm) and signs of significant diastolic filling abnormalities on conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiography (mitral valve-atrial contraction velocity 0.47 +/- 0.12 vs. 0.40 +/- 0.09 m/s; tricuspid valve-atrial contraction velocity 0.35 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.07 m/s; early filling velocity/myocardial velocity during early filling 7.15 +/- 1.47 vs. 6.17 +/- 1.07; isovolumetric relaxation time [IVRT] 66 +/- 8 vs. 58 +/- 8 ms) compared with female control subjects, suggesting delayed myocardial relaxation. Male diabetic patients only differed significantly from their control subjects for IVRT (66 +/- 9 vs. 59 +/- 8 ms). The measured parameters showed an expected correlation with age and BMI standard deviation scores in the control group. This correlation was significantly weaker in the diabetic population; only a weak influence was found for diabetes duration and glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Young diabetic patients already have significant changes in left ventricular dimensions and myocardial relaxation, with the girls clearly being more affected. Tissue Doppler proved to have additional value in the evaluation of ventricular filling in this

  17. SDSS-IV MaNGA: A Distinct Mass Distribution Explored in Slow-Rotating Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yu; Li, Hongyu; Wang, Jie; Gao, Liang; Li, Ran; Ge, Junqiang; Jing, Yingjie; Pan, Jun; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Valenzuela, Octavio; Ortíz, Erik Aquino

    2018-03-01

    We study the radial acceleration relation (RAR) for early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the SDSS MaNGA MPL5 dataset. The complete ETG sample show a slightly offset RAR from the relation reported by McGaugh et al. (2016) at the low-acceleration end; we find that the deviation is due to the fact that the slow rotators show a systematically higher acceleration relation than the McGaugh's RAR, while the fast rotators show a consistent acceleration relation to McGaugh's RAR. There is a 1σ significant difference between the acceleration relations of the fast and slow rotators, suggesting that the acceleration relation correlates with the galactic spins, and that the slow rotators may have a different mass distribution compared with fast rotators and late-type galaxies. We suspect that the acceleration relation deviation of slow rotators may be attributed to more galaxy merger events, which would disrupt the original spins and correlated distributions of baryons and dark matter orbits in galaxies.

  18. Elemental abundance analysis of the early-type members of the open cluster M6: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçoǧlu, T.; Monier, R.; Fossati, L.

    2014-11-01

    Differences in chemical composition among main sequence stars within a given cluster are probably due to differences in their masses and other effects such as radiative diffusion, magnetic field, rotation, mixing mechanisms, mass loss, accretion and multiplicity. The early type main-sequence members of open clusters of different ages support studies of the competition between radiative diffusion and mixing mechanisms. We have analysed low- and high-resolution spectra covering the spectral range λ 4500-5840 Å of late B-, A- and F-type members of the open cluster M6 (age ˜100 Myr). The spectra were obtained with the FLAMES/GIRAFFE spectrograph mounted at UT2, the 8-m VLT telescope. The effective temperatures, surface gravities and microturbulent velocities of the stars were derived from both photometric and spectral methods. We have also performed a chemical abundance analysis using synthetic spectra. Abundances were determined for the elements C, O, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba. The star-to-star variations in element abundances among the members of M6 are discussed.

  19. Biostratigraphy and biochronology of the Monte Hermoso Formation (early Pliocene) at its type locality, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Rodrigo L.; Montalvo, Claudia I.; Deschamps, Cecilia M.; Manera, Teresa

    2013-12-01

    The Monte Hermoso Formation, cropping out at its type locality of Farola Monte Hermoso (Buenos Aires Province), is a classical fossiliferous unit of the South American Neogene, highlighted by the abundance and diversity of its vertebrate remains. However, its biostratigraphy and age have been largely debated, and numerous discrepancies and controversies have been stated. In this regard, the result of the analysis of new materials recovered from the different levels of this formation, following a strict control of stratigraphic provenance, is here reported. As well, the provenance of specimens of previous collections has been evaluated. The studied assemblage consists of Osteichthyes, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia. These latter are the most numerous and belong to the Didelphimorphia, Polydolopimorphia, Rodentia, Notoungulata, Litopterna and Xenarthra. The recorded taxa suggest no important faunistic variations among the different levels of the Monte Hermoso Formation that would imply significant chronological differences, and hence, justify the recognition of two biostratigraphic units. The analysis of the first and last records as well as the taxa considered as exclusive, does not support the validity of the biozones of Trigodon gaudryi and Neocavia depressidens previously proposed. On this basis, a new scheme for the Monte Hermoso Formation at its type locality is proposed, including a new single biostratigraphic unit. This unit is the Eumysops laeviplicatus Range Zone, which represents the biostratigraphic base for the Montehermosan Stage/Age of the early Pliocene.

  20. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Is Independently Associated with Early Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mantovani

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is associated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD in nondiabetic individuals. To date, there are very limited data on this topic in patients with type 2 diabetes and it remains uncertain whether NAFLD is independently associated with the presence of LVDD in this patient population. We performed a liver ultrasonography and trans-thoracic echocardiography (with speckle-tracking strain analysis in 222 (156 men and 66 women consecutive type 2 diabetic outpatients with no previous history of ischemic heart disease, chronic heart failure, valvular diseases and known hepatic diseases. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between NAFLD and the presence/severity of LVDD graded according to the current criteria of the American Society of Echocardiography, and to identify the variables that were independently associated with LVDD, which was included as the dependent variable. Patients with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD (n = 158; 71.2% of total were more likely to be female, overweight/obese, and had longer diabetes duration, higher hemoglobin A1c and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR than those without NAFLD. Notably, they also had a remarkably greater prevalence of mild and/or moderate LVDD compared with those without NAFLD (71% vs. 33%; P<0.001. Age, hypertension, smoking, medication use, E/A ratio, LV volumes and mass were comparable between the two groups of patients. NAFLD was associated with a three-fold increased odds of mild and/or moderate LVDD after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, eGFR, LV mass index and ejection fraction (adjusted-odds ratio 3.08, 95%CI 1.5-6.4, P = 0.003. In conclusion, NAFLD is independently associated with early LVDD in type 2 diabetic patients with preserved systolic function.

  1. The type III secretion effector NleF of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli activates NF-κB early during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Mitchell A; Berger, Cedric N; Pearson, Jaclyn S; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Frankel, Gad

    2014-11-01

    The enteric pathogens enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli employ a type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to manipulate the host inflammatory response during infection. Previously, it has been reported that EPEC, in a T3SS-dependent manner, induces an early proinflammatory response through activation of NF-κB via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ). However, the activation of NF-κB during infection has not yet been attributed to an effector. At later time points postinfection, NF-κB signaling is inhibited through the translocation of multiple effectors, including NleE and NleC. Here we report that the highly conserved non-LEE (locus of enterocyte effacement)-encoded effector F (NleF) shows both diffuse and mitochondrial localization during ectopic expression. Moreover, NleF induces the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and the expression of interleukin 8 (IL-8) following ectopic expression and during EPEC infection. Furthermore, the proinflammatory activity and localization of NleF were dependent on the C-terminal amino acids LQCG. While the C-terminal domain of NleF has previously been shown to be essential for interaction with caspase-4, caspase-8, and caspase-9, the proinflammatory activity of NleF was independent of interaction with caspase-4, -8, or -9. In conclusion, EPEC, through the T3SS-dependent translocation of NleF, induces a proinflammatory response in an NF-κB-dependent manner in the early stages of infection. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Comparison of sample types and diagnostic methods for in vivo detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae during early stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Maria; Daniels, Jason; Rovira, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in live pigs during the early stages of infection is critical for timely implementation of control measures, but is technically challenging. This study compared the sensitivity of various sample types and diagnostic methods for detection of M. hyopneumoniae during the first 28days after experimental exposure. Twenty-one 8-week old pigs were intra-tracheally inoculated on day 0 with M. hyopneumoniae strain 232. Two age matched pigs were mock inoculated and maintained as negative controls. On post-inoculation days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 28, nasal swabs, laryngeal swabs, tracheobronchial lavage fluid, and blood samples were obtained from each pig and oral fluid samples were obtained from each room in which pigs were housed. Serum samples were assayed by ELISA for IgM and IgG M. hyopneumoniae antibodies and C-reactive protein. All other samples were tested for M. hyopneumoniae DNA by species-specific real-time PCR. Serum antibodies (IgG) to M. hyopneumoniae were detected in challenge-inoculated pigs on days 21 and 28. M. hyopneumoniae DNA was detected in samples from experimentally inoculated pigs beginning at 5days post-inoculation. Laryngeal swabs at all samplings beginning on day 5 showed the highest sensitivity for M. hyopneumoniae DNA Detection, while oral fluids showed the lowest sensitivity. Although laryngeal swabs are not considered the typical M. hyopneumoniae diagnostic sample, under the conditions of this study laryngeal swabs tested by PCR proved to be a practical and reliable diagnostic sample for M. hyopneumoniae detection in vivo during early-stage infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 Early-expressed Proteins Differentially Modulate the Cellular Redox State and DNA Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gregorio, Alfredo; Manzo-Merino, Joaquín; Gonzaléz-García, María Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Rodríguez-Sastre, María Alexandra; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; Lizano, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a risk factor for cervical cancer development. However, few studies have evaluated the redox state associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The aim of this work was to determine the role of the early expressed viral proteins E1, E2, E6 and E7 from HPV types 16 and 18 in the modulation of the redox state in an integral form. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), levels and activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, were analysed in epithelial cells ectopically expressing the viral proteins. Our research shows that E6 oncoproteins decreased GSH and catalase protein levels, as well as its enzymatic activity, which was associated with an increase in ROS production and DNA damage. In contrast, E7 oncoproteins increased GSH, as well as catalase protein levels and its activity, which correlated with a decrease in ROS without affecting DNA integrity. The co-expression of both E6 and E7 oncoproteins neutralized the effects that were independently observed for each of the viral proteins. Additionally, the combined expression of E1 and E2 proteins increased ROS levels with the subsequent increase in the marker for DNA damage phospho-histone 2AX (γH2AX). A decrease in GSH, as well as SOD2 levels and activity were also detected in the presence of E1 and E2, even though catalase activity increased. This study demonstrates that HPV early expressed proteins differentially modulate cellular redox state and DNA damage. PMID:29483822

  4. Apical left ventricular myocardial dysfunction is an early feature of cardiac involvement in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigue; Labarre, Quentin; Degand, Bruno; Ingrand, Pierre; Le Gal, François; Bonnet, Benjamin; Delaubier, Anne; Guillou, Claire; Gellen, Barnabas; Coisne, Damien; Bouleti, Claire; Christiaens, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is a major prognostic determinant in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Therefore, markers of early-stage LV impairment may be useful. The aim of this study was to evaluate 2D echocardiographic LV strain in a cohort of DM1 patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and to compare the results with matched controls. This prospective single-center study included 33 consecutive DM1 patients between February 2014 and February 2015. Mean age was 38.2±12.9 years, and 17 (52%) were males. Exclusion criteria were LVEF 120 milliseconds, history of atrial fibrillation, and presence of a pacemaker with ventricular pacing. DM1 patients were matched to healthy controls according to sex and age. DM1 patients showed significant impairment of global longitudinal strain (GLS) as compared to controls (-18.0±1.9 vs -19.1±2.4; P=.03), characterized by a marked alteration at the apex (-20.0±3.3 vs -22.7±3.1; P<.001). DM1 patients had also global radial strain impairment (20.0±9.8 vs 27.5±14.9; P=.024) compared to controls while global circumferential strain was not statistically different between groups (P=.94). Intra- and inter-observer analysis showed good reproducibility of GLS. Despite preserved LVEF, DM1 patients exhibited significantly altered LV GLS, particularly at the apex, as compared with controls. The detection of impaired myocardial deformation at early stages of the disease might help to screen high-risk patients who need closer follow-up. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A multiparametric analysis of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies. 1: Luminosity and ISM parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskridge, Paul B.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Kim, Dong-Woo

    1995-01-01

    We have conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis of data measuring the luminosity and interstellar medium of the Einstein sample of early-type galaxies (presented by Fabbiano, Kim, & Trinchieri 1992). We find a strong nonlinear correlation between L(sub B) and L(sub X), with a power-law slope of 1.8 +/- 0.1, steepening to 2.0 +/- if we do not consider the Local Group dwarf galaxies M32 and NGC 205. Considering only galaxies with log L(sub X) less than or equal to 40.5, we instead find a slope of 1.0 +/- 0.2 (with or without the Local Group dwarfs). Although E and S0 galaxies have consistent slopes for their L(sub B)-L(sub X) relationships, the mean values of the distribution functions of both L(sub X) and L(sub X)/L(sub B) for the S0 galaxies are lower than those for the E galaxies at the 2.8 sigma and 3.5 sigma levels, respectively. We find clear evidence for a correlation between L(sub X) and the X-ray color C(sub 21), defined by Kim, Fabbiano, & Trinchieri (1992b), which indicates that X-ray luminosity is correlated with the spectral shape below 1 keV in the sense that low-L(sub X) systems have relatively large contributions from a soft component compared with high-L(sub X) systems. We find evidence from our analysis of the 12 micron IRAS data for our sample that our S0 sample has excess 12 micron emission compared with the E sample, scaled by their optical luminosities. This may be due to emission from dust heated in star-forming regions in S0 disks. This interpretation is reinforced by the existence of a strong L(sub 12)-L(sub 100) correlation for our S0 sample that is not found for the E galaxies, and by an analysis of optical-IR colors. We find steep slopes for power-law relationships between radio luminosity and optical, X-ray, and far-IR (FIR) properties. This last point argues that the presence of an FIR-emitting interstellar medium (ISM) in early-type galaxies is coupled to their ability to generate nonthermal radio continuum, as

  6. The population of early-type galaxies: how it evolves with time and how it differs from passive and late-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburri, S.; Saracco, P.; Longhetti, M.; Gargiulo, A.; Lonoce, I.; Ciocca, F.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: There are two aims to our analysis. On the one hand we are interested in addressing whether a sample of morphologically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) differs from a sample of passive galaxies in terms of galaxy statistics. On the other hand we study how the relative abundance of galaxies, the number density, and, the stellar mass density for different morphological types change over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5. Methods: From the 1302 galaxies brighter than Ks(AB) = 22 selected from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue, we classified the ETGs, i.e. elliptical (E) and spheroidal galaxies (E/S0), on the basis of their morphology and the passive galaxies on the basis of their specific star formation rate (sSFR ≤ 10-11 yr-1). Since the definition of a passive galaxy depends on the model parameters assumed to fit the spectral energy distribution of the galaxy, in addition to the assumed sSFR threshold, we probed the dependence of this definition and selection on the stellar initial mass function (IMF). Results: We find that spheroidal galaxies cannot be distinguished from the other morphological classes on the basis of their low star formation rate, irrespective of the IMF adopted in the models. In particular, we find that a large fraction of passive galaxies (>30%) are disc-shaped objects and that the passive selection misses a significant fraction (~26%) of morphologically classified ETGs. Using the sample of 1302 galaxies morphologically classified into spheroidal galaxies (ETGs) and non-spheroidal galaxies (LTGs), we find that the fraction of these two morphological classes is constant over the redshift range 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2.5, being 20-30% the fraction of ETGs and 70-80% the fraction of LTGs. However, at z 3-4 × 1011 M⊙) does not increase from z ~ 2.5, contrary to the lower mass galaxies. This suggests that the most massive galaxies formed at z> 2.5-3 and that the assembly of such high-mass galaxies is not effective at lower redshift.

  7. Direct diabetes-related costs in young patients with early-onset, long-lasting type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Bächle

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate diabetes-related direct health care costs in pediatric patients with early-onset type 1 diabetes of long duration in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data of a population-based cohort of 1,473 subjects with type 1 diabetes onset at 0-4 years of age within the years 1993-1999 were included (mean age 13.9 (SD 2.2 years, mean diabetes duration 10.9 (SD 1.9 years, as of 31.12.2007. Diabetes-related health care services utilized in 2007 were derived from a nationwide prospective documentation system (DPV. Health care utilization was valued in monetary terms based on inpatient and outpatient medical fees and retail prices (perspective of statutory health insurance. Multiple regression models were applied to assess associations between direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year and demographic and clinical predictors. RESULTS: Mean direct diabetes-related health care costs per patient-year were €3,745 (inter-quartile range: 1,943-4,881. Costs for glucose self-monitoring were the main cost category (28.5%, followed by costs for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (25.0%, diabetes-related hospitalizations (22.1% and insulin (18.4%. Female gender, pubertal age and poor glycemic control were associated with higher and migration background with lower total costs. CONCLUSIONS: Main cost categories in patients with on average 11 years of diabetes duration were costs for glucose self-monitoring, insulin pump therapy, hospitalization and insulin. Optimization of glycemic control in particular in pubertal age through intensified care with improved diabetes education and tailored insulin regimen, can contribute to the reduction of direct diabetes-related costs in this patient group.

  8. Ehlers Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type due to Lysyl Hydroxylase 1 deficiency in two children without congenital or early onset kyphoscoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Fleur S; Mancini, Grazia M S; Maugeri, Alessandra; Cobben, Jan M

    2017-10-01

    We report two children with Ehlers Danlos, kyphoscoliotic type confirmed by Lysyl Hydroxylase 1 deficiency due to bi-allelic PLOD1 mutations (kEDS-PLOD1) who were initially thought to have either a diagnosis of classical EDS (cEDS) or a neuromuscular disorder due to absence of (congenital) scoliosis. As the two patients reported here illustrate, patients with kEDS-PLOD1 do not always have a kyphoscoliosis present at birth or in the first year of life, neither do they necessarily develop kyphoscoliosis later in infancy. Using the past criteria for kEDS there was considerable overlap with the clinical diagnostic criteria for EDS classical type. In the patients reported here without (kypho) scoliosis this has delayed the diagnosis, which is unfortunate as the diagnosis of kEDS-PLOD1 results in a different recurrence risk and has management consequences. Interestingly, the new criteria for kEDS would not have prevented this diagnostic delay as congenital or early onset kyphoscoliosis (progressive or non-progressive) is deemed obligatory for the diagnosis of kEDS. Being aware of the limitations of clinical diagnostic criteria, we recommend that (i) in patients without a positive family history nor identified COL5A1/2 mutations, lysyl hydroxylase deficiency or biallelic PLOD1 mutations should be excluded before the diagnosis classical EDS can be made and (ii) PLOD1 and COL5A1/2 should be included in the same Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) gene panel. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. SDSS-IV MaNGA: The Spatially Resolved Stellar Initial Mass Function in ˜400 Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Westfall, Kyle B.; Goddard, Daniel; Lian, Jianhui; Meneses-Goytia, Sofia; Jones, Amy; Vaughan, Sam; Andrews, Brett H.; Bershady, Matthew; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Law, David R.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Wake, David; Yan, Renbin; Zheng, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    MaNGA provides the opportunity to make precise spatially resolved measurements of the IMF slope in galaxies owing to its unique combination of spatial resolution, wavelength coverage and sample size. We derive radial gradients in age, element abundances and IMF slope analysing optical and near-infrared absorption features from stacked spectra out to the half-light radius of 366 early-type galaxies with masses 9.9 - 10.8 log M/M⊙. We find flat gradients in age and [α/Fe] ratio, as well as negative gradients in metallicity, consistent with the literature. We further derive significant negative gradients in the [Na/Fe] ratio with galaxy centres being well enhanced in Na abundance by up to 0.5 dex. Finally, we find a gradient in IMF slope with a bottom-heavy IMF in the centre (typical mass excess factor of 1.5) and a Milky Way-type IMF at the half-light radius. This pattern is mass-dependent with the lowest mass galaxies in our sample featuring only a shallow gradient around a Milky Way IMF. Our results imply the local IMF-σ relation within galaxies to be even steeper than the global relation and hint towards the local metallicity being the dominating factor behind the IMF variations. We also employ different stellar population models in our analysis and show that a radial IMF gradient is found independently of the stellar population model used. A similar analysis of the Wing-Ford band provides inconsistent results and further evidence of the difficulty in measuring and modelling this particular feature.

  10. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Probing the Kinematic Morphology–Density Relation of Early-type Galaxies with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Goddard, D.; Ge, J.; Andrews, B. H.; Brinkman, J.; Brownstein, J. R.; Greco, J.; Law, D.; Lin, Y.-T.; Masters, K. L.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Yan, R.; Drory, N.

    2017-12-01

    The “kinematic” morphology–density relation for early-type galaxies posits that those galaxies with low angular momentum are preferentially found in the highest-density regions of the universe. We use a large sample of galaxy groups with halo masses {10}12.5MaNGA) survey to examine whether there is a correlation between local environment and rotational support that is independent of stellar mass. We find no compelling evidence for a relationship between the angular momentum content of early-type galaxies and either local overdensity or radial position within the group at fixed stellar mass.

  11. Contrasting origin of two A-type rhyolite series from the Early Permian Nomgon bimodal volcanic association (Southern Mongolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Savatenkov, V. M.; Kudryashova, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    A-type rhyolites of contrasting compositions and eruption characters were revealed among two volcanic series of the Early Permian bimodal association in the Nomgon graben. Rhyolites of the lower volcanic series formed extrusions, lava domes, and tuff horizons. They had low FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations and also a moderately depleted Nd isotope composition (ɛNd( T) = 6.7-7.1). Their formation was related to anatexis of the juvenile continental crust, triggered by the thermal effect of mafic magmas. Rhyolites of the upper volcanic series formed extensive lava flows and dikes. Their composition was characterized by high FeOt, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, Y, and REE concentrations, and also depleted Nd isotope characteristics (ɛNd( T) = 7.7-9.0). These rhyolite melts formed under long-term crystallizational differentiation of basaltoids in the intracrustal magmatic chambers, with limited participation of crustal contamination. The source of magmas for the upper volcanic series was the sublithospheric mantle.

  12. The effectiveness and durability of an early insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Davide; Fleres, Mattia; Aiello, Vito; Saura, Gabriella; Scorsone, Alessandro; Ferrara, Lidia; Provenzano, Francesca; Di Noto, Anna; Spano, Lucia; Provenzano, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the predictors of effectiveness and durability of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents who have initiated continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) within 2 years after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The charts of individuals with T1DM using insulin pumps who were treated at our center were reviewed, including subjects with age at onset of insulin pump commencement (interval onset-commencement) of pumps of >1 year, and use of glucose sensors for insulin pumps, 119 met the inclusion criteria, and 113 were selected for statistical analysis (60 females; age at diabetes onset, 8.9±5.6 years [mean±SD]; follow-up, 4.0±1.8 years; range, 1-8 years; baseline HbA1c, 9.3±1.8%). Only the interval onset-commencement was a linear predictor of the MHbA1c (P=0.01; R(2)=0.089). A significant reduction of the mean yearly HbA1c from baseline throughout all the follow-up was observed (Ppump commencement in children and adolescents with T1DM provides lower and more durable HbA1c values than a late commencement. It is possible that an early pump commencement could prolong the honeymoon phase, but we cannot confirm or exclude this hypothesis because the lack of data about C-peptide levels during the follow-up.

  13. LONG-ORBITAL-PERIOD PREPOLARS CONTAINING EARLY K-TYPE DONOR STARS. BOTTLENECK ACCRETION MECHANISM IN ACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmassian, G.; González–Buitrago, D.; Zharikov, S.; Reichart, D. E.; Haislip, J. B.; Ivarsen, K. M.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Moore, J. P.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    We studied two objects identified as cataclysmic variables (CVs) with periods exceeding the natural boundary for Roche-lobe-filling zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) secondary stars. We present observational results for V1082 Sgr with a 20.82 hr orbital period, an object that shows a low luminosity state when its flux is totally dominated by a chromospherically active K star with no signs of ongoing accretion. Frequent accretion shutoffs, together with characteristics of emission lines in a high state, indicate that this binary system is probably detached, and the accretion of matter on the magnetic white dwarf takes place through stellar wind from the active donor star via coupled magnetic fields. Its observational characteristics are surprisingly similar to V479 And, a 14.5 hr binary system. They both have early K-type stars as donor stars. We argue that, similar to the shorter-period prepolars containing M dwarfs, these are detached binaries with strong magnetic components. Their magnetic fields are coupled, allowing enhanced stellar wind from the K star to be captured and channeled through the bottleneck connecting the two stars onto the white dwarf’s magnetic pole, mimicking a magnetic CV. Hence, they become interactive binaries before they reach contact. This will help to explain an unexpected lack of systems possessing white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields among detached white+red dwarf systems

  14. Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein Level as a Tool in Identification of Early Cardiac Effects of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Fatma Hilal; Arı Yuca, Sevil; Vatansev, Hüsamettin; Cimbek, Emine Ayça; Şen, Yaşar; Yılmaz, İsa; Akyürek, Fikret; Arslan, Derya; Çimen, Derya; Yorulmaz, Alaaddin

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the serum levels of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in patients presenting with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and diabetic ketosis (DK) and to determine its role in identifying early-period cardiac ischemia. This prospective study included 35 patients diagnosed with DKA, 20 patients diagnosed with DK, and 20 control subjects. H-FABP, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), and troponin I levels were investigated at presentation in patients with DKA and DK and in the control group. H-FABP values were measured again after acidosis correction in the DKA patients. No statistically significant differences were found with respect to troponin I and CK-MB within the groups. The H-FABP values of DKA patients at presentation were found to be significantly higher than those of DK patients and the control group (p=0.015). The H-FABP value of the DKA group was also found to be significantly higher than the value at hour 36 after acidosis correction (p=0.0001). We would like to propose H-FABP as a potential marker for indicating myocardial ischemia.

  15. DISSECTING THE RED SEQUENCE. II. STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES THROUGHOUT THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, Genevieve J.; Faber, S. M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.

    2009-01-01

    This analysis uses spectra of ∼16,000 nearby Sloan Digital Sky Survey quiescent galaxies to track variations in galaxy star formation histories (SFHs) along and perpendicular to the fundamental plane (FP). We sort galaxies by their FP properties (σ, R e , and I e ) and construct high signal-to-noise ratio mean galaxy spectra that span the breadth and thickness of the FP. From these spectra, we determine mean luminosity-weighted ages, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] based on single stellar population models using the method described in Graves and Schiavon. In agreement with previous work, the SFHs of early-type galaxies are found to form a two-parameter family. The major trend is that mean age, [Fe/H], [Mg/H], and [Mg/Fe] all increase with σ. However, no stellar population property shows any dependence on R e at fixed σ, suggesting that σ and not dynamical mass (M dyn ∝ σ 2 R e ) is the better predictor of past SFH. In addition to the main trend with σ, galaxies also show a range of population properties at fixed σ that are strongly correlated with surface brightness residuals from the FP (Δlog I e ), such that higher surface brightness galaxies have younger mean ages, higher [Fe/H], higher [Mg/H], and lower [Mg/Fe] than lower surface brightness galaxies. These latter trends are a major new constraint on SFHs.

  16. THE ORIGIN OF COLOR GRADIENTS IN EARLY-TYPE SYSTEMS AND THEIR COMPACTNESS AT HIGH-z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Barbera, F.; De Carvalho, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we present mean optical+NIR color gradient estimates for 5080 early-type galaxies (ETGs) in the grizY JHK wavebands of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey plus the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey. The color gradient is estimated as the logarithmic slope of the radial color profile in ETGs. With such a large sample size, we study the variation of the mean color gradient as a function of waveband with unprecedented accuracy. We find that (1) color gradients are mainly due, on average, to a metallicity variation of about -0.4 dex per decade in galaxy radius; and (2) a small, but significant, positive age gradient is present, on average, in ETGs, with the inner stellar population being slightly younger, by ∼0.1 dex per radial decade, than the outer one. Also, we show that the presence of a positive mean age gradient in ETGs, as found in the present study, implies their effective radius to be smaller at high-z, consistent with observations.

  17. DARK MATTER CONTRACTION AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DISFAVORING 'LIGHT' INITIAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Gavazzi, R.; Bolton, A. S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    We use stellar dynamics, strong lensing, stellar population synthesis models, and weak lensing shear measurements to constrain the dark matter (DM) profile and stellar mass in a sample of 53 massive early-type galaxies. We explore three DM halo models (unperturbed Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW) halos and the adiabatic contraction models of Blumenthal and Gnedin) and impose a model for the relationship between the stellar and virial mass (i.e., a relationship for the star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass). We show that, given our model assumptions, the data clearly prefer a Salpeter-like initial mass function (IMF) over a lighter IMF (e.g., Chabrier or Kroupa), irrespective of the choice of DM halo. In addition, we find that the data prefer at most a moderate amount of adiabatic contraction (Blumenthal adiabatic contraction is strongly disfavored) and are only consistent with no adiabatic contraction (i.e., an NFW halo) if a mass-dependent IMF is assumed, in the sense of a more massive normalization of the IMF for more massive halos.

  18. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein is an early marker of myocardial damage after radiofrequency catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannessi, Daniela; Piacenti, Marcello; Maltinti, Maristella; Rossi, Andrea; Di Cecco, Pietro; Startari, Umberto; Cabiati, Manuela; Panchetti, Luca; Del Ry, Silvia; Morales, Maria-Aurora

    2010-10-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of arrhythmias induces myocardial damage and release of biomarkers. This study aimed to assess the kinetics of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (h-FABP), a cytosolic protein released after myocardial injury incurred by both atrial and ventricular RF ablation, compared to other markers of myocardial injury. h-FABP, cTnI, CK-MB(mass) and myoglobin were evaluated in 30 patients with atrial or ventricular tachyarrhythmias before, immediately after and at 3, 6 and 24h after the procedure. h-FABP increased immediately after the procedure in all subjects (6.6 ± 1.2 μg/L vs 2.7 ± 0.3, pvalues of time for mean power of RF application in both the entire patient cohort and in ventricular ablations. h-FABP may be an early parameter for monitoring RF-induced lesions and the site of ablation was relevant for biomarker increase. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antiviral effect of bovine lactoferrin saturated with metal ions on early steps of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, P; Borghi, P; Gessani, S; Valenti, P; Belardelli, F; Seganti, L

    1998-09-01

    Lactoferrin is a mammalian iron-binding glycoprotein present in many biological secretions, such as milk, tears, semen and plasma and a major component of the specific granules of polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The effect of bovine lactoferrin (BLf) in apo-form or saturated with ferric, manganese or zinc ions, on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in the C8166 T-cell line was studied. Both HIV-1 replication and syncytium formation were efficiently inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, by lactoferrins. BLf in apo and saturated forms markedly inhibited HIV-1 replication when added prior to HIV infection or during the virus adsorption step, thus suggesting a mechanism of action on the HIV binding to or entry into C8166 cells. Likewise, the addition of Fe3+BLf prior to HIV infection and during the attachment step resulted in a marked reduction of the HIV-1 DNA in C8166 cells 20 h after infection. The potent antiviral effect and the high selectivity index exhibited by BLf suggest for this protein, in apo or saturated forms, an important role in inhibiting the early HIV-cell interaction, even though a post adsorption effect cannot be ruled out.

  20. Early Detection of Atrophy of Foot Muscles in Chinese Patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by High-Frequency Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of high-frequency ultrasonography in detecting atrophy of foot muscles in Chinese patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Chinese patients of T2DM with (n=56 or without (n=50 diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN and the control subjects (n=50 were enrolled. The nondominant foot of all subjects was examined with high-frequency ultrasonography. The transverse diameter, thickness, and cross-sectional area of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB and the thickness of the muscles of the first interstitium (MILs were measured. The results showed that the ultrasonographic transverse diameter, thickness, and cross-sectional area of EDB and the thickness of MILs in patients of T2DM with DPN were significantly smaller than those in patients of T2DM without DPN (all P<0.01 and those in the control subjects (all P<0.01. The transverse diameter and cross-sectional area of the EDB and thickness of MILs in patients of T2DM without DPN were significantly smaller than those of the control subjects (all P<0.01. In conclusion, the atrophy of foot muscle in Chinese T2DM patients can be detected by high-frequency ultrasonography. Notably, ultrasonography may detect early atrophy of foot muscles in patients without DPN.

  1. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Uncovering the Angular Momentum Content of Central and Satellite Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.; Leauthaud, A.; Emsellem, E.; Ge, J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Greco, J.; Lin, Y.-T.; Mao, S.; Masters, K.; Merrifield, M.; More, S.; Okabe, N.; Schneider, D. P.; Thomas, D.; Wake, D. A.; Pan, K.; Bizyaev, D.; Oravetz, D.; Simmons, A.; Yan, R.; van den Bosch, F.

    2018-01-01

    We study 379 central and 159 satellite early-type galaxies with two-dimensional kinematics from the integral-field survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) to determine how their angular momentum content depends on stellar and halo mass. Using the Yang et al. group catalog, we identify central and satellite galaxies in groups with halo masses in the range {10}12.5 {h}-1 {M}ȯ {10}11 {h}-2 {M}ȯ tend to have very little rotation, while nearly all galaxies at lower mass show some net rotation. The ∼30% of high-mass galaxies that have significant rotation do not stand out in other galaxy properties, except for a higher incidence of ionized gas emission. Our data are consistent with recent simulation results suggesting that major merging and gas accretion have more impact on the rotational support of lower-mass galaxies. When carefully matching the stellar mass distributions, we find no residual differences in angular momentum content between satellite and central galaxies at the 20% level. Similarly, at fixed mass, galaxies have consistent rotation properties across a wide range of halo mass. However, we find that errors in classification of central and satellite galaxies with group finders systematically lower differences between satellite and central galaxies at a level that is comparable to current measurement uncertainties. To improve constraints, the impact of group-finding methods will have to be forward-modeled via mock catalogs.

  2. Metabolic pattern analysis of early detection in Alzheimer's disease from other types of dementias and correlated with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, R. H.; Lee, C. W.; Jung, Y. A.; Sohn, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Seo, T. S

    2004-01-01

    PET/CT studies have demonstrated temporoparietal hypometabolism in probable and definite Alzheimer's disease (AD), a pattern that may help differentiate AD from other types of dementias. Seeking to distinguish Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined brain glucose metabolism of DLB and AD. Identification of individual differences in patterns of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) interactions may be important for early detection of AD. We elucidate the relationship between reduced cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Ten patients with the diagnosis of AD, 3 DLB patients underwent 18F-FDG PET CT. We applied statistical mapping procedure to evaluate the diagnostic power of rCMRglc patterns for differentiation and also correlated with Korean-mini mental status exam (K-MMSE) score include orientation time, place, registration, attention, calculation, recaIl, language and visuospatial function. Glucose metabolic pattern analysis confirmed AD and DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions involving parietotemporal association, posterior cingulate, and frontal association cortex. DLB patients showed significant metabolic reductions in the occipital cortex, particularly in the primary visual cortex. Covariate analysis revealed that occipital metabolic changes in DLB were independent from those in the adjacent parietotemporal cortices. AnaIysis of clinically diagnosed probable AD patients showed a significantly higher frequency of primary visual metabolic reduction among patients who fulfilled clinical criteria for DLB. occipital hypometabolism is a potential discriminate marker to distinguish DLB versus AD

  3. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and the Origin and Fate of the Hot Gas in Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Silvia; Ciotti, Luca; Negri, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2018-04-01

    A recent determination of the relationships between the X-ray luminosity of the ISM (L X) and the stellar and total mass for a sample of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) is used to investigate the origin of the hot gas, via a comparison with the results of hydrodynamical simulations of the ISM evolution for a large set of isolated ETGs. After the epoch of major galaxy formation (after z ≃ 2), the ISM is replenished by stellar mass losses and SN ejecta, at the rate predicted by stellar evolution, and is depleted by star formation; it is heated by the thermalization of stellar motions, SNe explosions, and the mechanical (from winds) and radiative AGN feedback. The models agree well with the observed relations, even for the largely different L X values at the same mass, thanks to the sensitivity of the gas flow to many galaxy properties; this holds for models including AGN feedback, and those without. Therefore, the mass input from the stellar population is able to account for a major part of the observed L X; and AGN feedback, while very important to maintain massive ETGs in a time-averaged quasi-steady state, keeping low star formation and the black hole mass, does not dramatically alter the gas content originating in stellar recycled material. These conclusions are based on theoretical predictions for the stellar population contributions in mass and energy, and on a self-consistent modeling of AGN feedback.

  4. Disturbed eating behavior and eating disorders in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes: a case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Patricia; Olmsted, Marion; Daneman, Denis; Rydall, Anne; Rodin, Gary

    2004-07-01

    To compare the prevalence of eating disturbances in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes to their nondiabetic peers. A cross-sectional, case-controlled study of 101 girls with type 1 diabetes, ages 9-14 years, and 303 age-matched, female nondiabetic control subjects was conducted. Participants completed a Children's Eating Disorder Examination interview. Socioeconomic status, BMI, and diabetes-related variables were assessed. Groups were compared using chi(2) analyses. Binge eating; the use of intense, excessive exercise for weight control; the combination of two disturbed eating-related behaviors; and subthreshold eating disorders were all more common in girls with type 1 diabetes. Metabolic control was not related to eating behavior in this study population. Eating disturbances, though mostly mild, were significantly more common in preteen and early teenage girls with type 1 diabetes. Screening and prevention programs for this high-risk group should begin in the preteen years.

  5. EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES WITH TIDAL DEBRIS AND THEIR SCALING RELATIONS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S4G)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehyun; Sheth, Kartik; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Knapen, Johan H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; De Swardt, Bonita; Comerón, Sébastien; Regan, Michael W.; Menéndez-Delmestre, Karín; De Paz, Armando Gil

    2012-01-01

    Tidal debris around galaxies can yield important clues on their evolution. We have identified tidal debris in 11 early-type galaxies (T ≤ 0) from a sample of 65 early types drawn from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S 4 G). The tidal debris includes features such as shells, ripples, and tidal tails. A variety of techniques, including two-dimensional decomposition of galactic structures, were used to quantify the residual tidal features. The tidal debris contributes ∼3%-10% to the total 3.6 μm luminosity of the host galaxy. Structural parameters of the galaxies were estimated using two-dimensional profile fitting. We investigate the locations of galaxies with tidal debris in the fundamental plane and Kormendy relation. We find that galaxies with tidal debris lie within the scatter of early-type galaxies without tidal features. Assuming that the tidal debris is indicative of recent gravitational interaction or merger, this suggests that these galaxies have either undergone minor merging events so that the overall structural properties of the galaxies are not significantly altered, or they have undergone a major merging events but already have experienced sufficient relaxation and phase mixing so that their structural properties become similar to those of the non-interacting early-type galaxies.

  6. The SAURON Project - XIV. No escape from V-esc : a global and local parameter in early-type galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, Nicholas; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Bacon, R.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Peletier, Reynier F.; Pipino, Antonio; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn; van Scherpenzeel, Eveline; Krajnović, Davor

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation of the local escape velocity (V-esc) - line strength index relationship for 48 early-type galaxies from the SAURON sample, the first such study based on a large sample of galaxies with both detailed integral field observations and extensive dynamical

  7. The SAURON project - XX. The Spitzer [3.6] - [4.5] colour in early-type galaxies : colours, colour gradients and inverted scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peletier, Reynier F.; Kutdemir, Elif; van der Wolk, Guido; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; Bacon, Roland; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Shapiro, Kristen L.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; van de Ven, Glenn

    We investigate the [3.6]-[4.5] Spitzer-IRAC colour behaviour of the early-type galaxies of the SAURON survey, a representative sample of 48 nearby ellipticals and lenticulars. We investigate how this colour, which is unaffected by dust extinction, can be used to constrain the stellar populations in

  8. The ATLAS3D project - XIII. Mass and morphology of H I in early-type galaxies as a function of environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Trager, Scott C.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We present the ATLAS3D H I survey of a volume-limited, complete sample of 166 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) brighter than MK=-21.5. The survey is mostly based on data taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, which enables us to detect H I down to 5 × 106-5 × 107 M⊙ within the survey

  9. The ATLAS(3D) project : XIII. Mass and morphology of HI in early-type galaxies as a function of environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Paolo; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, Martin; Cappellari, Michele; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Naab, Thorsten; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Trager, Scott C.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We present the ATLAS3D H i survey of a volume-limited, complete sample of 166 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) brighter than MK=-21.5. The survey is mostly based on data taken with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope, which enables us to detect H i down to 5 x 1065 x 107 M? within the survey

  10. The ATLAS(3D) project : VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within lambda CDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frederic; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed

  11. The ATLAS3D project - VIII. Modelling the formation and evolution of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies within ΛCDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khochfar, Sadegh; Emsellem, Eric; Serra, Paolo; Bois, Maxime; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple model for the origin of fast and slow rotator early-type galaxies (ETG) within the hierarchical Λcold dark matter (ΛCDM) scenario, that is based on the assumption that the mass fraction of stellar discs in ETGs is a proxy for the specific angular momentum expressed via λR. Within

  12. The SAURON project - XIII. SAURON-GALEX study of early-type galaxies : the ultraviolet colour-magnitude relations and Fundamental Planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Falcon-Barroso, Jesus; van de Ven, Glenn; Peletier, Reynier F.; Bacon, Roland; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnovic, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.

    2009-01-01

    We present Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) imaging of 34 nearby early-type galaxies from the SAURON representative sample of 48 E/S0 galaxies, all of which have ground-based optical imaging from the MDM Observatory. The surface brightness profiles of nine

  13. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. III. Angular Momentum and Constraints on Formation Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; Boselli, A.; Peletier, R. F.; Emsellem, E.; Lisker, T.; van de Ven, G.; Simon, J. D.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Adams, J. J.; Benson, A. J.; Boissier, S.; den Brok, M.; Gorgas, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Paudel, S.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λRe and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster

  14. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc),

  15. Diminished human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcription and nuclear transport in primary macrophages arrested in early G(1) phase of the cell cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, N. A.; Zwart, B. M.; Schuitemaker, H.

    2000-01-01

    Previously, we and others have demonstrated that the process of reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is disturbed in nondividing macrophages and quiescent T lymphocytes. Here we analyzed which phase of the cell cycle in macrophages is crucial for early steps in the

  16. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey - X. Nuclear star clusters in low-mass early-type galaxies : scaling relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Brok, Mark; Peletier, Reynier F.; Seth, Anil; Balcells, Marc; Dominguez, Lilian; Graham, Alister W.; Carter, David; Erwin, Peter; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Guzman, Rafael; Hoyos, Carlos; Jogee, Shardha; Lucey, John; Phillipps, Steven; Puzia, Thomas; Valentijn, Edwin; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes; Weinzirl, Tim

    2014-01-01

    We present scaling relations between structural properties of nuclear star clusters and their host galaxies for a sample of early-type dwarf galaxies observed as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Coma Cluster Survey. We have analysed the light profiles of 200

  17. The Cosmic History of Hot Gas Cooling and Radio AGN Activity in Massive Early-Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, A. L. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.; Brandt, W. M.; Luo, B.; Miller, N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Stott, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    We study the X-ray properties of 393 optically selected early-type galaxies (ETGs) over the redshift range of z approx equals 0.0-1.2 in the Chandra Deep Fields. To measure the average X-ray properties of the ETG population, we use X-ray stacking analyses with a subset of 158 passive ETGs (148 of which were individually undetected in X-ray). This ETG subset was constructed to span the redshift ranges of z = 0.1-1.2 in the approx equals 4 Ms CDF-S and approx equals 2 Ms CDF-N and z = 0.1-0.6 in the approx equals 250 ks E-CDF-S where the contribution from individually undetected AGNs is expected to be negligible in our stacking. We find that 55 of the ETGs are detected individually in the X-rays, and 12 of these galaxies have properties consistent with being passive hot-gas dominated systems (i.e., systems not dominated by an X-ray bright Active Galactic Nucleus; AGN). On the basis of our analyses, we find little evolution in the mean 0.5-2 keY to B-band luminosity ratio (L(sub x) /L(sub Beta) varies as [1 +z]) since z approx equals 1.2, implying that some heating mechanism prevents the gas from cooling in these systems. We consider that feedback from radio-mode AGN activity could be responsible for heating the gas. We select radio AGNs in the ETG population using their far-infrared/radio flux ratio. Our radio observations allow us to constrain the duty cycle history of radio AGN activity in our ETG sample. We estimate that if scaling relations between radio and mechanical power hold out to z approx equals 1.2 for the ETG population being studied here, the average mechanical power from AGN activity is a factor of approx equals1.4 -- 2.6 times larger than the average radiative cooling power from hot gas over the redshift range z approx equals 0-1.2. The excess of inferred AGN mechanical power from these ETGs is consistent with that found in the local Universe for similar types of galaxies.

  18. Central Structural Parameters of Early-Type Galaxies as Viewed with Nicmos on the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Swara; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.

    2001-08-01

    We present surface photometry for the central regions of a sample of 33 early-type (E, S0, and S0/a) galaxies observed at 1.6 μm (H band) using the Hubble Space Telescope. Dust absorption has less of an impact on the galaxy morphologies in the near-infrared than found in previous work based on observations at optical wavelengths. When present, dust seems to be most commonly associated with optical line emission. We employ a new technique of two-dimensional fitting to extract quantitative parameters for the bulge light distribution and nuclear point sources, taking into consideration the effects of the point-spread function. By parameterizing the bulge profile with a Nuker law, we confirm that the central surface brightness distributions largely fall into two categories, each of which correlates with the global properties of the galaxies. ``Core'' galaxies tend to be luminous elliptical galaxies with boxy or pure elliptical isophotes, whereas ``power-law'' galaxies are preferentially lower luminosity systems with disky isophotes. The infrared surface brightness profiles are very similar to those in the optical, with notable exceptions being very dusty objects. Similar to the study of Faber et al., based on optical data, we find that galaxy cores obey a set of fundamental plane relations wherein more luminous galaxies with higher central stellar velocity dispersions generally possess larger cores with lower surface brightnesses. Unlike most previous studies, however, we do not find a clear gap in the distribution of inner cusp slopes; several objects have inner cusp slopes (0.3law galaxies. The nature of these intermediate objects is unclear. We draw attention to two objects in the sample that appear to be promising cases of galaxies with isothermal cores that are not the brightest members of a cluster. Unresolved nuclear point sources are found in ~50% of the sample galaxies, roughly independent of profile type, with magnitudes in the range mnucH=12.8 to 17.4 mag

  19. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY XVI: THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTER SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Emsellem, Eric [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAP, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jordan, Andres [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Chengze, E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the kinematics of six Virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) from their globular cluster (GC) systems. We present new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy for three of them and re-analyze the data found in the literature for the remaining three. We use two independent methods to estimate the rotation amplitude ( V {sub rot}) and velocity dispersion ( σ {sub GC}) of the GC systems and evaluate their statistical significance by simulating non-rotating GC systems with the same number of GC satellites and velocity uncertainties. Our measured kinematics agree with the published values for the three galaxies from the literature and, in all cases, some rotation is measured. However, our simulations show that the null hypothesis of being non-rotating GC systems cannot be ruled out. In the case of VCC 1861, the measured V {sub rot} and the simulations indicate that it is not rotating. In the case of VCC 1528, the null hypothesis can be marginally ruled out, and thus it might be rotating although further confirmation is needed. In our analysis, we find that, in general, the measured V {sub rot} tends to be overestimated and the measured σ {sub GC} tends to be underestimated by amounts that depend on the intrinsic V {sub rot}/ σ {sub GC}, the number of observed GCs ( N {sub GC}), and the velocity uncertainties. The bias is negligible when N {sub GC} ≳ 20. In those cases where a large N {sub GC} is not available, it is imperative to obtain data with small velocity uncertainties. For instance, errors of ≤2 km s{sup −1} lead to V {sub rot} < 10 km s{sup −1} for a system that is intrinsically not rotating.

  20. Computational Analysis Supports an Early, Type 17 Cell-Associated Divergence of Blunt Trauma Survival and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Andrew; Namas, Rami A.; Ramadan, Mostafa; Mi, Qi; Almahmoud, Khalid; Abdul-Malak, Othman; Azhar, Nabil; Zaaqoq, Akram; Namas, Rajaie; Barclay, Derek A.; Yin, Jinling; Sperry, Jason; Peitzman, Andrew; Zamora, Ruben; Simmons, Richard L.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Vodovotz, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    Objective Blunt trauma patients may present with similar demographics and injury severity, yet differ with regard to survival. We hypothesized that this divergence was due to different trajectories of systemic inflammation, and utilized computational analyses to define these differences. Design, Setting, and Patients From a cohort of 493 victims of blunt trauma, we conducted a pairwise, retrospective, case-control study of patients who survived over 24h but ultimately died (non-survivors; n=19) and patients who, following ICU admission, went on to be discharged (survivors; n=19). Data on systemic inflammatory mediators assessed within the first 24h and over 7d were analyzed with computational modeling to infer dynamic networks of inflammation. A mouse model of trauma/hemorrhage was used to verify hypotheses derived from the clinical study. Interventions None in patients. Neutralizing anti-IL-17A antibody in mice. Measurements and Main Results Network density among inflammatory mediators in non-survivors increased in parallel with organ dysfunction scores over 7d, suggesting the presence of early, self-sustaining, pathological inflammation involving HMGB1, IL-23, and the Th17 pathway. Survivors demonstrated a pattern commensurate with a self-resolving, predominantly lymphoid response, including higher levels of the reparative cytokine IL-22. Mice subjected to trauma/hemorrhage exhibited reduced organ damage when treated with anti-IL-17A. Conclusions Variable type 17 immune responses are hallmarks of organ damage, survival, and mortality following blunt trauma, and suggest a lymphoid cell-based switch from self-resolving to self-sustaining inflammation. PMID:27513538

  1. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Gravitational Potential and Surface Density Drive Stellar Populations. I. Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Tania M.; D’Eugenio, Francesco; Colless, Matthew; Scott, Nicholas; van de Sande, Jesse; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Cortese, Luca; Croom, Scott M.; Foster, Caroline; Goodwin, Michael; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Medling, Anne M.; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.

    2018-03-01

    The well-established correlations between the mass of a galaxy and the properties of its stars are considered to be evidence for mass driving the evolution of the stellar population (SP). However, for early-type galaxies (ETGs), we find that g ‑ i color and stellar metallicity [Z/H] correlate more strongly with gravitational potential Φ than with mass M, whereas SP age correlates best with surface density Σ. Specifically, for our sample of 625 ETGs with integral-field spectroscopy from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field Galaxy Survey, compared to correlations with mass, the color–Φ, [Z/H]–Φ, and age–Σ relations show both a smaller scatter and a lower residual trend with galaxy size. For the star formation duration proxy [α/Fe], we find comparable results for trends with Φ and Σ, with both being significantly stronger than the [α/Fe]–M relation. In determining the strength of a trend, we analyze both the overall scatter, and the observational uncertainty on the parameters, in order to compare the intrinsic scatter in each correlation. These results lead us to the following inferences and interpretations: (1) the color–Φ diagram is a more precise tool for determining the developmental stage of the SP than the conventional color–mass diagram; and (2) gravitational potential is the primary regulator of global stellar metallicity, via its relation to the gas escape velocity. Furthermore, we propose the following two mechanisms for the age and [α/Fe] relations with Σ: (a) the age–Σ and [α/Fe]–Σ correlations arise as results of compactness-driven quenching mechanisms; and/or (b) as fossil records of the {{{Σ }}}SFR}\\propto {{{Σ }}}gas} relation in their disk-dominated progenitors.

  2. SN 2015as: a low-luminosity Type IIb supernova without an early light-curve peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Anjasha; Misra, Kuntal; Pastorello, A.; Sahu, D. K.; Tomasella, L.; Tartaglia, L.; Singh, Mridweeka; Dastidar, Raya; Srivastav, S.; Ochner, P.; Brown, Peter J.; Anupama, G. C.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Kumar, Brajesh; Kumar, Brijesh; Pandey, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    We present results of the photometric (from 3 to 509 d post-explosion) and spectroscopic (up to 230 d post-explosion) monitoring campaign of the He-rich Type IIb supernova (SN) 2015as. The (B - V) colour evolution of SN 2015as closely resemble those of SN 2008ax, suggesting that SN 2015as belongs to the SN IIb subgroup that does not show the early, short-duration photometric peak. The light curve of SN 2015as reaches the B-band maximum about 22 d after the explosion, at an absolute magnitude of -16.82 ± 0.18 mag. At ˜75 d after the explosion, its spectrum transitions from that of a SN II to a SN Ib. P Cygni features due to He I lines appear at around 30 d after explosion, indicating that the progenitor of SN 2015as was partially stripped. For SN 2015as, we estimate a 56Ni mass of ˜0.08 M⊙ and ejecta mass of 1.1-2.2 M⊙, which are similar to the values inferred for SN 2008ax. The quasi-bolometric analytical light-curve modelling suggests that the progenitor of SN 2015as has a modest mass (˜0.1 M⊙), a nearly compact (˜0.05 × 1013 cm) H envelope on top of a dense, compact (˜2 × 1011 cm) and a more massive (˜1.2 M⊙) He core. The analysis of the nebular phase spectra indicates that ˜0.44 M⊙ of O is ejected in the explosion. The intensity ratio of the [Ca II]/[O I] nebular lines favours either a main-sequence progenitor mass of ˜15 M⊙ or a Wolf-Rayet star of 20 M⊙.

  3. Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectroscopy: kinematics of a compact early-type galaxy at z ≃ 1.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhetti, M.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; Tamburri, S.; Lonoce, I.

    2014-04-01

    We present a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N > 10) medium-resolution (R = 2000) Large Binocular Telescope/LUCIFER spectrum of the early-type galaxy (ETG) S2F1-142 at z ≃ 1.4. By means of the CaT line at 8662 Å, we measured its redshift z = 1.386 ± 0.001 and we estimated its velocity dispersion σ v=340^{-60}_{+120} km s-1. Its corresponding virial mass is 3.9 × 1011 M⊙, compatible with the stellar mass estimates obtained assuming initial mass functions (IMFs) less dwarf rich than the Salpeter one. S2F1-142 is a compact galaxy with Re = 3.1 ± 0.2 kpc, i.e. an effective radius more than three times smaller than the average Re of ETGs with the same mass in the local Universe. At the same time, we found local and high-redshift galaxies with a similar mass content and similar effective radius confirming that it is fully consistent with the already available measures of Re and σv both in the local and in the distant Universe. Considering the distribution of Re and σv as a function of the stellar mass content of ETGs, both in the local and in the distant Universe, we noticed that the measured velocity dispersions of the more compact galaxies are on average slightly lower than expected on the basis of their compactness and the virial theorem, suggesting that (i) their dark matter content is lower than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (ii) their luminosity profiles are steeper than in the more diffuse galaxies and/or (iii) their larger compactness is an apparent effect caused by the overestimate of their stellar mass content (due to bottom lighter IMF and/or systematic affecting the stellar mass estimates).

  4. Early disruption of neurovascular units and microcirculatory dysfunction in the spinal cord in spinal muscular atrophy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobutoki, Tatsuro; Ihara, Toshiaki

    2015-12-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA-I) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness with onset in early infancy, usually resulting in mortality before two years of age. However, the processes underlying the pathophysiological progression of the disease remain unclear. Prior to the onset of muscle weakness, a regression of local capillaries is observed along with motor neuron loss. Local populations of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular endothelial cells constitute a neurovascular unit (NVU), in which neuronal and synaptic metabolism is tightly coupled to capillary blood flow by astrocyte-mediated vasodilatory control. We hypothesize that survival motor neuron protein deficiency and initial neuronal dysfunction leads to the regression of vascular beds and the disruption of NVU function. As a result, local capillary blood flow becomes insufficient, leading to metabolic stress in neurons, endothelial cells, pericytes, and astrocytes, ultimately disrupting the astrocytic regulation of capillaries. This pathogenic process may accelerate the loss of anterior horn motor neurons, leading to the further regression of capillaries and astroglial dysfunction. Hypocapnia, resulting from dehydration and hyperventilation during therapeutic manual ventilation, might further damage the NVU. Moreover, disruption of the microcirculation may affect sympathetic and sensory neurons in the spinal cord, contributing to sympathetic hyperactivity and sensory nerve degeneration, respectively. These mutually reinforcing processes may underlie the progression of muscle weakness during infancy in SMA-I. Therefore, disruption of the NVU and a stressful neurovascular environment in the anterior horn may play important roles in disease initiation and/or progression in SMA-I. The NVU is therefore a critical therapeutic target for treating SMA-I. Our hypothetical model may provide insight into why most neuroprotective strategies that do not address astroglial and vascular cell dysfunction have

  5. Virgo Redux: The Masses and Stellar Content of Nuclei in Early-type Galaxies from Multiband Photometry and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Chelsea; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel; Ferrarese, Laura; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Liu, Yiqing; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Zirm, Andrew; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Mei, Simona; Powalka, Mathieu

    2017-11-01

    We present an analysis of 39 nuclei and their early-type hosts in the Virgo Cluster using 10 broadband filters: F300W, F475W, F850LP, F160W, {u}* {\\text{}}{griz}, and K s . We describe the Virgo Redux program, which provides high-resolution UV and NIR imaging. Combining this data with optical and NIR imaging from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey and the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey, we estimate masses, metallicities, and ages using simple stellar population (SSP) models. For 19 nuclei, we compare to SSP parameters derived from Keck and Gemini spectra and find reasonable agreement between the photometric and spectroscopic metallicity: the rms scatter is 0.3 dex. We reproduce the nucleus-galaxy mass fraction of {0.33}-0.07+0.09% for galaxy stellar masses {10}8.4{--}{10}10.3 {M}⊙ with a typical precision of ˜35% for the nuclei masses. Based on available model predictions, there is no single preferred formation scenario for nuclei, suggesting that nuclei are formed stochastically through a mix of processes. Nuclei metallicities are statistically identical to those of their hosts, appearing 0.07 ± 0.3 dex more metal-rich on average; however, omitting galaxies with unusual origins, nuclei are 0.20 ± 0.28 dex more metal-rich. Nuclei appear to be 0.56 ± 0.12 dex more metal-rich than ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs) at fixed mass. We find no clear age difference between nuclei and their galaxies, with nuclei displaying a broad range of ages. Interestingly, we find that the most massive nuclei may be flatter and more closely aligned with the semimajor axes of their hosts, suggesting that they formed through predominantly dissipative processes.

  6. Early screening for type 2 diabetes following gestational diabetes mellitus in France: hardly any impact of the 2010 guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueslard, K; Cottenet, J; Mariet, A-S; Sagot, P; Petit, J-M; Quantin, C

    2017-07-01

    Women who had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the years following pregnancy. Most follow-up screening studies have been conducted in limited geographical areas leading to large variability in the results. The aim of our investigation was to measure how the publication of guidelines affected early screening for T2DM after a pregnancy with GDM during the period 2007-2013, in France. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in a representative sample of 1/97th of the French population using data from the "National Health Insurance Inter-Regime Information System," which collects individual hospital and non-hospital data for healthcare consumption. The sample included 49,080 women who gave birth in 2007-2013. In the following 3 months, only 18.49% of women with GDM had an oral glucose tolerance test or a blood glucose test in 2007. This rate had not significantly increased in 2013 (p = 0.18). The proportion of women with GDM who had the recommended glycemic follow-up at 3 months (20.30 vs. 21.58%, p = 0.19) and 6 months (32.48 vs. 37.16%, p = 0.08) was not significantly different before the guidelines (2008-2009) and after the guidelines (2012-2013). At 12 months, the difference was significant (46.77 vs. 54.05%, p = 0.009). Postpartum screening has improved only slightly since the guidelines and remains largely insufficient, with less than 25% of women with GDM screened in the first 3 months. In the first year after delivery, less than 60% of women were screened for T2DM.

  7. The MASSIVE Survey. IX. Photometric Analysis of 35 High-mass Early-type Galaxies with HST WFC3/IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullaud, Charles F.; Jensen, Joseph B.; Blakeslee, John P.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Greene, Jenny E.; Thomas, Jens

    2018-03-01

    We present near-infrared observations of 35 of the most massive early-type galaxies in the local universe. The observations were made using the infrared channel of the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in the F110W (1.1 μm) filter. We measured surface brightness profiles and elliptical isophotal fit parameters from the nuclear regions out to a radius of ∼10 kpc in most cases. We find that 37% (13) of the galaxies in our sample have isophotal position-angle rotations greater than 20° over the radial range imaged by WFC3/IR, which is often due to the presence of neighbors or multiple nuclei. Most galaxies in our sample are significantly rounder near the center than in the outer regions. This sample contains 6 fast rotators and 28 slow rotators. We find that all fast rotators are either disky or show no measurable deviation from purely elliptical isophotes. Among slow rotators, significantly disky and boxy galaxies occur with nearly equal frequency. The galaxies in our sample often exhibit changing isophotal shapes, sometimes showing both significantly disky and boxy isophotes at different radii. The fact that parameters vary widely between galaxies and within individual galaxies is evidence that these massive galaxies have complicated formation histories, and some of them have experienced recent mergers and have not fully relaxed. These data demonstrate the value of IR imaging of galaxies at high spatial resolution and provide measurements necessary for determining stellar masses, dynamics, and black hole masses in high-mass galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with Program GO-14219.

  8. Evaluation of Geno Type MTBDRplus Line Probe Assay for Early Detection of Drug Resistance in Tuberculous Meningitis Patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular methods which allow for rapid and reliable detection of drug resistance have yet not been sufficiently evaluated for timely management of patients with tuberculous meningitis. Aims: We aimed to evaluate Geno Type MTBDRplus line probe assay for early detection of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and CSF samples of confirmed tuberculous meningitis patients. Settings and Design: This was a multicentric prospective study carried out from July 2011 to December 2013 in tertiary care hospitals of Delhi. Materials and Methods: The assay was performed on 89 M. tuberculosis isolates and 31 direct CSF samples from microbiologically confirmed tuberculous meningitis patients. The sensitivity and specificity of this assay was calculated in comparison to drug susceptibility testing by BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Results: The sensitivity, specificity for detection of resistance to Isoniazid was 93%, 97% and to Rifampicin was 80%, 98.8%, respectively by this assay in comparison with the phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The line probe assay could detect M. tuberculosis in 55% of CSF samples from patients with microbiologically confirmed tuberculous meningitis. Only 5/89 isolates (5.6% were resistant to both Isoniazid and Rifampicin while 9/89 (10% isolates were additionally resistant to Isoniazid. Resistance to any of the drugs, namely Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Streptomycin or Ethambutol, was seen in 24.7% of strains. Conclusion: The line probe assay has a good sensitivity and specificity for detection of drug resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin in M. tuberculosis culture isolates. However, this assay has limited role in detection of M. tuberculosis and drug resistance from direct samples with confirmed diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

  9. Sporadic early-onset colorectal cancer is a specific sub-type of cancer: a morphological, molecular and genetics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Kirzin

    Full Text Available Sporadic early onset colorectal carcinoma (EOCRC which has by definition no identified hereditary predisposition is a growing problem that remains poorly understood. Molecular analysis could improve identification of distinct sub-types of colorectal cancers (CRC with therapeutic implications and thus can help establish that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct entity. From 954 patients resected for CRC at our institution, 98 patients were selected. Patients aged 45-60 years were excluded to help define "young" and "old" groups. Thirty-nine cases of sporadic EOCRC (patients ≤ 45 years with microsatellite stable tumors were compared to both microsatellite stable tumors from older patients (36 cases, patients>60 years and to groups of patients with microsatellite instability. Each group was tested for TP53, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and the presence of a methylator phenotype. Gene expression profiles were also used for pathway analysis. Compared to microsatellite stable CRC from old patients, sporadic EOCRC were characterized by distal location, frequent synchronous metastases and infrequent synchronous adenomas but did not have specific morphological characteristics. A familial history of CRC was more common in sporadic EOCRC patients despite a lack of identified hereditary conditions (p = 0.013. Genetic studies also showed the absence of BRAF mutations (p = 0.022 and the methylator phenotype (p = 0.005 in sporadic EOCRC compared to older patients. Gene expression analysis implicated key pathways such as Wnt/beta catenin, MAP Kinase, growth factor signaling (EGFR, HGF, PDGF and the TNFR1 pathway in sporadic EOCRC. Wnt/beta catenin signaling activation was confirmed by aberrant nuclear beta catenin immunostaining (p = 0.01. This study strongly suggests that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct clinico-molecular entity presenting as a distal and aggressive disease associated with chromosome instability. Furthermore, several signaling pathways including the

  10. Male preponderance in early diagnosed type 2 diabetes is associated with the ARE insertion/deletion polymorphism in the PPP1R3A locus

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    Leese Graham

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ARE insertion/deletion polymorphism of PPP1R3A has been associated with variation in glycaemic parameters and prevalence of diabetes. We have investigated its role in age of diagnosis, body weight and glycaemic control in 1,950 individuals with type 2 diabetes in Tayside, Scotland, and compared the ARE2 allele frequencies with 1,014 local schoolchildren. Results Men homozygous for the rarer allele (ARE2 were younger at diagnosis than ARE1 homozygotes (p = 0.008. Conversely, women ARE2 homozygotes were diagnosed later than ARE1 homozygotes (p = 0.036. Thus, men possessing the rarer (ARE2 allele were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes earlier than women (p Comparison of the male to female ratios at different ages-diagnosed confirms a known phenomenon that men are much more prone to early type 2 diabetes than women. When this feature was examined by the common ARE 1/1 genotype we found that the male to female ratio remained at unity with all ages of diagnosis, however, carriers of the ARE2 variant displayed a marked preponderance of early male diagnosis (p = 0.003. Conclusion The ARE2 allele of PPP1R3A is associated with a male preponderance to early diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in later life is not modulated by the ARE2 allele in either sex.

  11. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María

    2017-01-01

    studies were also performed in tissues from ob/ob and db/db mice. We document that T2D, both early and late onset, are characterized by reduced muscle expression of genes involved in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism. Weighted Co-expression Networks Analysis provided support to idea......The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused...... that the BCAA genes are relevant in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and that mitochondrial BCAA management is impaired in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. In diabetic mice model we detected alterations in skeletal muscle proteins involved in BCAA metabolism but not in obese mice. Metabolomic analysis...

  12. Types ofpsychomotor developmental disorders inchildren before theage of3 years and the meaning of the early intervention for thechild’s future development – preliminary research

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Klimek; Anna Górska; Marzenna Radecka; Emilia Podgórska; Ewa Zarzecka

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study: The analysis of the types of developmental disorders in early childhood. Material and methods: Seventy-one children at the age from 7 days to 3 years who came to The Early Intervention Centre for Handicapped Children “Give the Chance” at University Children’s Clinical Hospital in Bialystok in 2010 were examined. There were 46 (65%) boys and 25 (35%) girls in that group. The most common reason for coming to the Centre was the psychomotor retardation – 38 (54%) sub...

  13. A multi-wavelength study of the evolution of early-type galaxies in groups: the ultraviolet view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampazzo, R.; Mazzei, P.; Marino, A.; Bianchi, L.; Plana, H.; Trinchieri, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Wolter, A.

    2018-04-01

    The ultraviolet-optical colour magnitude diagram of rich galaxy groups is characterised by a well developed Red Sequence, a Blue Cloud and the so-called Green Valley. Loose, less evolved groups of galaxies which are probably not virialised yet may lack a well defined Red Sequence. This is actually explained in the framework of galaxy evolution. We are focussing on understanding galaxy migration towards the Red Sequence, checking for signatures of such a transition in their photometric and morphological properties. We report on the ultraviolet properties of a sample of early-type (ellipticals+S0s) galaxies inhabiting the Red Sequence. The analysis of their structures, as derived by fitting a Sérsic law to their ultraviolet luminosity profiles, suggests the presence of an underlying disk. This is the hallmark of dissipation processes that still must have a role to play in the evolution of this class of galaxies. Smooth particle hydrodynamic simulations with chemo-photometric implementations able to match the global properties of our targets are used to derive their evolutionary paths through ultraviolet-optical colour magnitude diagrams, providing some fundamental information such as the crossing time through the Green Valley, which depends on their luminosity. The transition from the Blue Cloud to the Red Sequence takes several Gyrs, being about 3-5 Gyr for the brightest galaxies and longer for fainter ones, if occurring. The photometric study of nearby galaxy structures in the ultraviolet is seriously hampered by either the limited field of view of the cameras (e.g., in Hubble Space Telescope) or by the low spatial resolution of the images (e.g., in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer). Current missions equipped with telescopes and cameras sensitive to ultraviolet wavelengths, such as Swift- UVOT and Astrosat-UVIT, provide a relatively large field of view and a better resolution than the Galaxy Evolution Explorer. More powerful ultraviolet instruments (size, resolution

  14. The Masses and Stellar Content of Nuclei in Early-Type Galaxies from Multi-Band Photometry and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Chelsea; Côté, Patrick; Roediger, Joel; Ferrarese, Laura; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Liu, Yiqing; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Gwyn, Stephen; Zirm, Andrew; Muñoz, Roberto; Puzia, Thomas; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric; Mei, Simona; Powalka, Mathieu

    2018-01-01

    It is now established that most, if not all, massive galaxies host central supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and that these SMBHs are linked to the growth their host galaxies as shown by several scaling relations. Within the last couple of decades, it has become apparent that most lower-mass galaxies without obvious SMBHs nevertheless contain some sort of central massive object in the form of compact stellar nuclei that also follow identical (or similar) scaling relations. These nuclei are challenging to study given their small sizes and relatively faint magnitudes, but understanding their origins and relationship to their hosts is critical to gaining a more complete picture of galaxy evolution. To that end, we highlight selected results from an analysis of 39 nuclei and their early-type hosts in the Virgo Cluster using ten broadband filters: F300W, F475W, F850LP, F160W, u*griz, and Ks. We estimate masses, metallicities and ages using simple stellar population (SSP) models. For 19 nuclei, we compare to SSP parameters derived from Keck and Gemini spectra and find reasonable agreement between the photometric and spectroscopic metallicity: the RMS scatter is 0.3 dex. We reproduce the nucleus-galaxy mass fraction of 0.33 ± 0.08% for galaxy stellar masses 108.4-1010.3 M⊙ with a typical precision of ~35% for the nuclei masses. Based on available model predictions, there is no single preferred formation scenario for nuclei, suggesting that nuclei are formed stochastically through a mix of processes. Nuclei metallicities are statistically identical to those of their hosts, appearing 0.07 ± 0.3 dex more metal-rich on average — although, omitting galaxies with unusual origins (i.e., compact ellipticals), nuclei are 0.20 ± 0.28 dex more metal-rich. We find no clear age difference between nuclei and their galaxies, with nuclei displaying a broad range of ages. Interestingly, we find that the most massive nuclei may be flatter and more closely aligned with the semi

  15. Sensitivity study of explosive nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae: I. Modification of individual thermonuclear reaction rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Eduardo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type Ia supernovae contribute significantly to the nucleosynthesis of many Fe-group and intermediate-mass elements. However, the robustness of nucleosynthesis obtained via models of this class of explosions has not been studied in depth until now. Purpose: We explore the sensitivity of the nucleosynthesis resulting from thermonuclear explosions of massive white dwarfs with respect to uncertainties in nuclear reaction rates. We put particular emphasis on indentifying ...

  16. Early results of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in type A aortic dissection and aortic insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. Л. Гордеев

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was designed to investigate predictors of effective valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement in patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency and to analyze efficacy and safety of this kind of surgery.Methods: From January 2010 to December 2015, 49 patients with Stanford type A aortic dissection combined with aortic insufficiency underwent ascending aortic replacement. All patients were divided into 3 groups: valve-sparing procedures (group 1, n = 11, combined aortic valve and supracoronary ascending aortic replacement (group 2, n = 12, and Bentall procedure (group 3, n = 26. We assessed the initial status of patients, incidence of complications and efficacy of valve-sparing ascending aortic replacement.Results: The hospital mortality rate was 8.2% (4/49 patients. The amount of surgical correction correlated with the initial diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva. During the hospital period, none of patients from group 1 developed aortic insufficiency exceeding Grade 2 and the vast majority of patients had trivial aortic regurgitation. The parameters of cardiopulmonary bypass, cross-clamp time and circulatory arrest time did not correlate with the initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic valve blood flow impairment, neither did they influence significantly the incidence and severity of neurological complications. The baseline size of the ascending aorta and degree of aortic regurgitation did not impact the course of the early hospital period.Conclusions: Supracoronary ascending aortic replacement combined with aortic valve repair in ascending aortic dissection and aortic regurgitation is effective and safe. The initial size of the ascending aorta and aortic arch do not influence immediate results. The diameter of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva and the condition of aortic valve leaflets could be considered as the limiting factors. Further long

  17. Glycaemic control of Type 1 diabetes in clinical practice early in the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, J A; Wild, S H; Lamb, M J E

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Improving glycaemic control in people with Type 1 diabetes is known to reduce complications. Our aim was to compare glycaemic control among people with Type 1 diabetes using data gathered in regional or national registries. METHODS: Data were obtained for children and/or adults with Type 1 ...

  18. Lower levels of placental growth hormone in early pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes and large for gestational age infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Lene; Juul, Anders; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether levels of placental growth hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) are associated with development of LGA infants in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. DESIGN: Observational study of 103 consecutive pregnant women with long-term type 1 diabetes......: Throughout pregnancy placental GH levels were similar in 51 (50%) women delivering LGA infants compared with the remaining women except at 8 weeks where placental GH levels were lower in women with LGA infants (1.1 ng/ml (0.1-4.3) vs. 1.7 (0.3-11.7), p = 0.04). IGF-I levels were similar in women...... in early pregnancy. Growth factors and maternal weight gain in early pregnancy may be important for healthy fetal growth....

  19. DNA methylation profile in diffuse type gastric cancer: evidence for hypermethylation of the BRCA1 promoter region in early-onset gastric carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BERNAL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse type gastric carcinoma is the most aggressive type of gastric c��ncer. This type of tumor is not preceded by precancerous changes and is associated with early-onset and hereditary syndromes. To test the hypothesis that DNA methylation profile would be useful for molecular classification of the diffuse type gastric carcinoma, DNA methylation patterns of the CpG Island of 17 genes were studied in 104 cases and 47 normal adjacent gastric mucosa by Methylation-specific PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Hierarchical clustering analysis. The most frequent methylated genes were FHIT, E-cadherin, BRCA1 and APC (>50%, followed by pl4, pl6, pl5, p73, MGMT and SEMA3B (20-49%. Hierarchical clustering analysis reveáis four groups with different clinical features. The first was characterized by hypermethylation of BRCA1 and younger age (<45 years oíd, and the second by hypermethylation of pl4 and pl6 genes, male predominance and Epstein-Barr virus infection. The third group was characterized by hypermethylation of FHIT and antrum located tumors and the fourth was not associated with any clinical variables. In normal adjacent mucosa only the p73 gene was significantly less methylated in comparison to tumor mucosa. DNA methylation identified subgroups of diffuse type gastric cáncer. Hypermethylation of BRCA1 associated with young age suggests a role in early-onset gastric carcinoma.

  20. Early Transcriptional Responses of Bovine Chorioallantoic Membrane Explants to Wild Type, ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Juliana P. S.; Costa, Erica A.; Carvalho, Alex F.; Sun, Yao-Hui; Tsolis, Reneé M.; Paixão, Tatiane A.; Santos, Renato L.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the Brucella-induced inflammatory response in the bovine placenta is not completely understood. In this study we evaluated the role of the B. abortus Type IV secretion system and the anti-inflammatory factor BtpB in early interactions with bovine placental tissues. Transcription profiles of chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) explants inoculated with wild type (strain 2308), ΔvirB2 or ΔbtpB Brucella abortus were compared by microarray analysis at 4 hours post infection. Transcripts with significant variation (>2 fold change; Pabortus resulted in slightly more genes with decreased than increased transcription levels. Conversely, infection of trophoblastic cells with the ΔvirB2 or the ΔbtpB mutant strains, that lack a functional T4SS or that has impaired inhibition of TLR signaling, respectively, induced more upregulated than downregulated genes. Wild type Brucella abortus impaired transcription of host genes related to immune response when compared to ΔvirB and ΔbtpB mutants. Our findings suggest that proinflammatory genes are negatively modulated in bovine trophoblastic cells at early stages of infection. The virB operon and btpB are directly or indirectly related to modulation of these host genes. These results shed light on the early interactions between B. abortus and placental tissue that ultimately culminate in inflammatory pathology and abortion. PMID:25259715

  1. Macular Vascular Fractal Dimension in the Deep Capillary Layer as an Early Indicator of Microvascular Loss for Retinopathy in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Ma, Qingkai; Wu, Chaoming; Tan, Fan; Chen, Feng; Wu, Qiuyan; Zhou, Rong; Zhuang, Xiran; Lu, Fan; Qu, Jia; Shen, Meixiao

    2017-07-01

    To determine the ability of fractal dimension to detect early changes in the retinal microvascular network imaged by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) in type 2 diabetic patients. Sixty-seven patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus (DM) (48 with no diabetic retinopathy [DR], 19 with minimal DR) and 40 control subjects. Macular OCT-A images of the superficial and deep retinal capillary layers in a 2.5-mm diameter concentric annular zone (excluding the foveal avascular zone) were subdivided into six annular rings and four quadrants. A custom automated algorithm was developed to quantify the complexity and density of the two retinal capillary layers by fractal analysis. Compared to controls, the fractal dimensional parameter (Dbox) of the two retinal capillary layers in most regions was significantly lower in diabetic patients with minimal DR (P 0.05). Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the Dbox values for the deep retinal capillary layer had the highest index to discriminate diabetic patients with and without minimal DR from controls. Fractal dimension based on OCT-A has the potential to quantitatively characterize retinal microvascular changes in the early stage of DM. Changes in the fractal dimension in the deep retinal capillary layer could be an early indicator of microvasculature changes associated with retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

  2. The association of early life socioeconomic conditions with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes: results from the Maastricht study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P.M. Derks (Ivonne P. M.); A. Koster (Annemarie); M.T. Schram (Miranda); C.D. Stehouwer (Coen); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); D.A.I. Groffen (Danielle A. I.); H. Bosma (Hans)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: Using cross-sectional data from The Maastricht Study, we examined the association of socioeconomic conditions in early life with prediabetes and T2DM in adulthood. We also examined potential mediating pathways via both adulthood socioeconomic conditions and adult BMI and

  3. Teenage girls with type 1 diabetes have poorer metabolic control than boys and face more complications in early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsson, Ulf; Anderzén, Johan; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To compare metabolic control between males and females with type 1 diabetes during adolescence and as young adults, and relate it to microvascular complications. METHODS: Data concerning 4000 adolescents with type 1 diabetes registered in the Swedish paediatric diabetes quality registry, an...

  4. Early myocardial impairment in type 1 diabetes patients without known heart disease assessed with tissue Doppler echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Søgaard, Peter; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes; patients with albuminuria are at greatest risk. We investigated myocardial function and premature myocardial impairment in type 1 diabetes patients with and without albuminuria compared to controls. METHODS...... in type 1 diabetes compared to controls (e.g. E/e' = 8; 9.2 years [normoalbuminuria], 17.3 years [microalbuminuria] and 41.4 years [macroalbuminuria] prematurely, respectively). CONCLUSION: In type 1 diabetes patients with albuminuria, both systolic and diastolic functions are impaired, whereas......: This study included a cross-sectional survey of 1093 type 1 diabetes patients from Steno Diabetes Center and 200 healthy controls. Conventional and tissue Doppler echocardiographic measurements were analysed in multivariable models in normoalbuminuria (n = 760), microalbuminuria (n = 227...

  5. [Treatment of open tile type C pelvic fractures by open reduction and internal fixation through anterior and posterior approaches at early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baichuan

    2014-05-01

    To explore the effectiveness of open reduction and internal fixation through anterior and posterior approaches in treatment of open Tile type C pelvic fractures at early stage. Between January 2009 and April 2012, 12 patients with open Tile C pelvic fractures were treated. There were 7 males and 5 females, aged 6-53 years (median, 31 years). Of 12 cases, 4 were classified as Tile type C1, 6 as Tile type C2, and 2 as Tile type C3; 5 were rated as Gustilo type II and 7 as Gustilo type III. The injury severity score was 18-57 (mean, 37.2). The interval of injury and admission ranged from 15 minutes to 3 days (median, 50 minutes). The debridement and external fixation were performed at first stage; then open reduction and internal fixation were used through anterior approach (reconstruction plate) and posterior approach (cannulated lag screws). The vacuum sealing drainage was performed during treatment until the wounds healed. Delayed healing of incison was obtained in 12 cases because of wound infection. Anatomical reduction or approximate anatomical reduction was achieved in all 12 cases. The patients were followed up 3-39 months (median, 18 months). No loosening of internal fixation or fracture displacement was observed during follow-up. The fracture healing time was 7-13 weeks (mean, 9.7 weeks). At last follow-up, according to the Matta standard, the outcome was excellent in 10 cases and good in 2 cases; according to Majeed score, the results were excellent in 9 cases, good in 1, and poor in 2. Early internal fixation operation of open Tile type C pelvic fractures can effectively restore the pelvic anatomical structure and stability, reduce the complication, and achieve satisfactory effectiveness.

  6. Early Observations of the Type Ia Supernova iPTF 16abc: A Case of Interaction with Nearby, Unbound Material and/or Strong Ejecta Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. A.; Cao, Y.; Piro, A. L.; Blagorodnova, N.; Bue, B. D.; Cenko, S. B.; Dhawan, S.; Ferretti, R.; Fox, O. D.; Fremling, C.; Goobar, A.; Howell, D. A.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Laher, R. R.; Lunnan, R.; Masci, F. J.; McCully, C.; Nugent, P. E.; Sollerman, J.; Taddia, F.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2018-01-01

    Early observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) provide a unique probe of their progenitor systems and explosion physics. Here we report the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) discovery of an extraordinarily young SN Ia, iPTF 16abc. By fitting a power law to our early light curve, we infer that first light for the SN, that is, when the SN could have first been detected by our survey, occurred only 0.15{+/- }0.070.15 days before our first detection. In the ∼24 hr after discovery, iPTF 16abc rose by ∼2 mag, featuring a near-linear rise in flux for ≳ 3 days. Early spectra show strong C II absorption, which disappears after ∼7 days. Unlike the extensively observed Type Ia SN 2011fe, the {(B-V)}0 colors of iPTF 16abc are blue and nearly constant in the days after explosion. We show that our early observations of iPTF 16abc cannot be explained by either SN shock breakout and the associated, subsequent cooling or the SN ejecta colliding with a stellar companion. Instead, we argue that the early characteristics of iPTF 16abc, including (i) the rapid, near-linear rise, (ii) the nonevolving blue colors, and (iii) the strong C II absorption, are the result of either ejecta interaction with nearby, unbound material or vigorous mixing of radioactive 56Ni in the SN ejecta, or a combination of the two. In the next few years, dozens of very young normal SNe Ia will be discovered, and observations similar to those presented here will constrain the white dwarf explosion mechanism.

  7. Interferon-α mediates human beta cell HLA class I overexpression, endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis, three hallmarks of early human type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroqui, Laura; Dos Santos, Reinaldo S; Op de Beeck, Anne; Coomans de Brachène, Alexandra; Marselli, Lorella; Marchetti, Piero; Eizirik, Decio L

    2017-04-01

    Three hallmarks of the pancreatic islets in early human type 1 diabetes are overexpression of HLA class I, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and beta cell apoptosis. The mediators of these phenomena remain to be defined. The type I interferon IFNα is expressed in human islets from type 1 diabetes patients and mediates HLA class I overexpression. We presently evaluated the mechanisms involved in IFNα-induced HLA class I expression in human beta cells and determined whether this cytokine contributes to ER stress and apoptosis. IFNα-induced inflammation, ER stress and apoptosis were evaluated by RT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence and nuclear dyes, and proteins involved in type I interferon signalling were inhibited by small interfering RNAs. All experiments were performed in human islets or human EndoC-βH1 cells. IFNα upregulates HLA class I, inflammation and ER stress markers in human beta cells via activation of the candidate gene TYK2, and the transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 and IFN regulatory factor 9. Furthermore, it acts synergistically with IL-1β to induce beta cell apoptosis. The innate immune effects induced by IFNα may induce and amplify the adaptive immune response against human beta cells, indicating that IFNα has a central role in the early phases of diabetes.

  8. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Lovén

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices.

  9. Early Onset of Type 1 Diabetes and Educational Field at Upper Secondary and University Level: Is Own Experience an Asset for a Health Care Career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovén, Ida; Steen Carlsson, Katarina

    2017-06-30

    Ill health in early life has a significant negative impact on school grades, grade repetition, educational level, and labor market outcomes. However, less is known about qualitative socio-economic consequences of a health shock in childhood or adolescence. We investigate the relationship between onset of type 1 diabetes up to age 15 and the probability of choosing and completing a health-oriented path at upper secondary and university level of education. We analyze the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, the National Educational Register, and other population registers in Sweden for 2756 people with type 1 diabetes and 10,020 matched population controls. Educational decisions are modeled as unsorted series of binary choices to assess the choice of educational field as a potential mechanism linking early life health to adult outcomes. The analyses reject the hypothesis of no systematic differences in choice of educational field between people with and without type 1 diabetes at both levels. The results are robust to selection on ability proxies and across sensitivity analysis. We conclude that the observed pro health-oriented educational choices among people with type 1 diabetes in our data are consistent with disease onset in childhood and adolescence having qualitative impact on life-course choices.

  10. Effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg activation, fertilization, buoyancy and early embryology of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Butts, Ian; Munk, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Improper activation and swelling of in vitro produced eggs of European eel, Anguilla anguilla, has been shown to negatively affect embryonic development and hatching. We investigated this phenomenon by examining the effects of salinity and sea salt type on egg dimensions, cell cleavage patterns...... sizes, while the remaining four salt types resulted in smaller eggs. All salt types except NaCl treatments led to high fertilization rates and had no effect on fertilization success as well as egg neutral buoyancies at 7 h post-fertilization. The study points to the importance of considering ionic...

  11. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...

  12. Early-onset and classical forms of type 2 diabetes show impaired expression of genes involved in muscle branched-chain amino acids metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández-Alvarez, María Isabel; Díaz-Ramos, Angels; Berdasco, María

    2017-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the pathophysiological traits of type 2 diabetes are incompletely understood. Here we have performed transcriptomic analysis in skeletal muscle, and plasma metabolomics from subjects with classical and early-onset forms of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Focused...... that the BCAA genes are relevant in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and that mitochondrial BCAA management is impaired in skeletal muscle from T2D patients. In diabetic mice model we detected alterations in skeletal muscle proteins involved in BCAA metabolism but not in obese mice. Metabolomic analysis...... revealed increased levels of branched-chain keto acids (BCKA), and BCAA in plasma of T2D patients, which may result from the disruption of muscle BCAA management. Our data support the view that inhibition of genes involved in BCAA handling in skeletal muscle takes place as part of the pathophysiology...

  13. Dietary traits of the late Early Pleistocene Bison menneri (Bovidae, Mammalia) from its type site Untermassfeld (Central Germany) and the problem of Pleistocene 'wood bison'

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Eline N.; Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Over the course of the Early and early Middle Pleistocene, a climatic cooling trend led to the partial opening up of landscapes in the western Palaearctic. This led to a gradual replacement of browsers by grazers, whilst some herbivore species shifted their diet towards including more grass. Wear patterns of herbivore cheek teeth can inform our understanding of the timing and extent of this change and indicate levels of dietary plasticity. One of the indicator species of the faunal turnover is the first large-sized form of bison in the Palaearctic, Bison menneri. The dental mesowear of the palaeopopulation from the species' late Early Pleistocene type site of Untermassfeld in Central Germany and the Late Pleistocene B. priscus from Taubach, both from habitat mosaics of forested habitats and more open landscapes, have a mixed feeder profile similar to that of North American wood bison, which has a distinct preference for open habitats but occasionally consumes a high amount of browse as a fall-back food. In contrast, the grazer mesowear signature of early Middle Pleistocene B. schoetensacki voigtstedtensis from Voigtstedt indicates these animals likely did not regularly feed in the densely forested area around the site. The mesowear of B. schoetensacki from Süssenborn, in a more open environment, is similar to that of extant European bison. Both Pleistocene and extant bison are grazers to mixed feeders with relatively high tolerance of a suboptimal browsing diet. None of these species can be regarded as true 'wood bison'.

  14. Maternal obesity as a risk factor for early childhood type 1 diabetes: a nationwide, prospective, population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Nina; Carlsson, Annelie; Josefsson, Ann; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors are believed to cause type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maternal BMI and gestational weight gain on the subsequent risk of childhood type 1 diabetes. Children in the Swedish National Quality Register for Diabetes in Children were matched with control children from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Children were included whose mothers had data available on BMI in early pregnancy and gestational weight gain, giving a total of 16,179 individuals: 3231 children with type 1 diabetes and 12,948 control children. Mothers of children with type 1 diabetes were more likely to be obese (9% [n = 292/3231] vs 7.7% [n = 991/12,948]; p = 0.02) and/or have diabetes themselves (2.8% [n = 90/3231] vs 0.8% [n = 108/12,948]; p < 0.001) compared with mothers of control children. Gestational weight gain did not differ significantly between the two groups of mothers. In mothers without diabetes, maternal obesity was a significant risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring (p = 0.04). A child had an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes if the mother had been obese in early pregnancy (crude OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05, 1.38; adjusted OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.02, 1.36). Among children with type 1 diabetes (n = 3231) there was a difference (p < 0.001) in age at onset in relation to the mother's BMI. Among children in the oldest age group (15-19 years), there were more mothers who had been underweight during pregnancy, while in the youngest age group (0-4 years) the pattern was reversed. Maternal obesity, in the absence of maternal diabetes, is a risk factor for type 1 diabetes in the offspring, and influences the age of onset of type 1 diabetes. This emphasises the importance of a normal maternal BMI to potentially decrease the incidence of type 1 diabetes.

  15. The type I interferon signature in leukocyte subsets from peripheral blood of patients with early arthritis: a major contribution by granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Tamarah D; Lübbers, Joyce; Turk, Samina; Vosslamber, Saskia; Mantel, Elise; Bontkes, Hetty J; van der Laken, Conny J; Bijlsma, Johannes W; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Verweij, Cornelis L

    2016-07-13

    The type I interferon (IFN) signature in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has shown clinical relevance in relation to disease onset and therapeutic response. Identification of the cell type(s) contributing to this IFN signature could provide insight into the signature's functional consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of peripheral leukocyte subsets to the IFN signature in early arthritis. Blood was collected from 26 patients with early arthritis and lysed directly or separated into peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). PBMCs were sorted into CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, CD19(+) B cells, and CD14(+) monocytes by flow cytometry. Messenger RNA expression of three interferon response genes (IRGs RSAD2, IFI44L, and MX1) and type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2) was determined in whole blood and blood cell subsets by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. IRG expression was averaged to calculate an IFN score for each sample. Patients were designated "IFN(high)" (n = 8) or "IFN(low)" (n = 18) on the basis of an IFN score cutoff in whole peripheral blood from healthy control subjects. The difference in IFN score between IFN(high) and IFN(low) patients was remarkably large for the PMN fraction (mean 25-fold) compared with the other subsets (mean 6- to 9-fold), indicating that PMNs are the main inducers of IRGs. Moreover, the relative contribution of the PMN fraction to the whole-blood IFN score was threefold higher than expected from its abundance in blood (p = 0.008), whereas it was three- to sixfold lower for the other subsets (p ≤ 0.063), implying that the PMNs are most sensitive to IFN signaling. Concordantly, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 were upregulated compared with healthy controls selectively in patient PMNs (p ≤ 0.0077) but not in PBMCs. PMNs are the main contributors to the whole-blood type I IFN signature in patients with early arthritis, which seems due to

  16. Early detection of type 2 diabetes mellitus and screening for retinopathy are associated with reduced prevalence and severity of retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Eydis; Andersson, Dan K G; Dedorsson, Inger; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Jansson, Stefan P O; Stefánsson, Einar

    2016-05-01

    To explore whether the prevalence and severity of retinopathy differ in diabetes cohorts diagnosed through screening as compared with conventional health care. A total of 257 diabetes patients, 151 detected through screening and 106 through conventional clinical care, were included. Retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photography. The modified Airlie House adaptation of the Early Treatment Retinopathy Study protocol was used to grade the photographs. Averages of clinically collected fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood pressure and body mass index values were compiled from diabetes diagnosis until the eye examination. Blood chemistry, smoking habits and peripheral neuropathy were assessed at the time of the eye examination. Among the screening-detected patients, 22% had retinopathy as compared to 51% among those clinically detected (p retinopathy were more likely to have increased average FBG (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.19-1.70 per mmol/l) and peripheral neuropathy (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.40-5.43), but less likely to have screening-detected diabetes (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.17-0.57). Similar results were found using increasing severity grade of retinopathy as outcome. The cumulative retinopathy prevalence for the screening-detected diabetes cohort as compared with the clinically diagnosed cohort was significantly lower from 10 years' follow-up and onwards (p = 0.0002). Among patients with screening-detected diabetes, the prevalence of retinopathy and increasing severity of retinopathy were significantly lower than among those who had their diabetes diagnosed through conventional care, even when other risk factors for retinopathy such as duration, hyperglycaemia and blood pressure were considered. Early detection of diabetes reduces prediagnostic time spent with hyperglycaemia. In combination with early and regular screening for retinopathy, more effective prevention against retinopathy can be provided. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  17. [Association between body weight change during early a