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Sample records for intermediate-age globular clusters

  1. The Luminosity Functions of Old and Intermediate-Age Globular Clusters in NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Whitmore, B. C.; Schweizer, F.; Kundu, A.; Miller, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    The WFPC2 Camera on board HST has been used to obtain high-resolution images of NGC 3610, a dynamically young elliptical galaxy. These observations supersede shorter, undithered HST observations where an intermediate-age population of globular clusters was first discovered. The new observations show the bimodal color distribution of globular clusters more clearly, with peaks at (V-I)o = 0.95 and 1.17. The luminosity function (LF) of the blue, metal-poor population of clusters in NGC 3610 turn...

  2. Elemental abundances of intermediate-age open cluster NGC 3680

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    Mitschang, A. W.; De Silva, G. M.; Zucker, D. B.

    2012-06-01

    We present a new abundance analysis of the intermediate-age Galactic open cluster NGC 3680, based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio VLT/UVES spectroscopic data. Several element abundances are presented for this cluster for the first time, but most notably we derive abundances for the light and heavy s-process elements Y, Ba, La and Nd. The serendipitous measurement of the rare-earth r-process element Gd is also reported. This cluster exhibits a significant enhancement of Na in giants as compared to dwarfs, which may be a proxy for an O to Na anticorrelation as observed in Galactic globular clusters but not open clusters. We also observe a step-like enhancement of heavy s-process elements towards higher atomic number, contrary to expectations from asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis models, suggesting that the r process played a significant role in the generation of both La and Nd in this cluster.

  3. Collisions between Globular Clusters

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    Belloni, D. T.; Rocha-Pinto, H. J.

    2014-10-01

    The study of globular clusters (GC) plays an important role in our understanding of the Universe since these systems are true laboratories for theories of stellar dynamics and evolution. We are interested in studying a globular cluster formed by a collision between two different GC with NBODY6 (Aarseth, 2003). Firstly, in order to understand this code, we analyse how tidal streams form from a globular cluster in a circular orbit (on the disk) around the center of the Milky Way. In the next stage of this work we will study that collision. The stellar escape or capture from globular cluster can be understood with the Restricted Three Body Problem. These stars escape in a chaotic orbit, and in some cases may return (again in a chaotic orbit) to the cluster due to the Galactic potential. In most cases, such stars quickly alter their escape chaotic orbits to orbits that are similar to the parent cluster's orbit. Our results show an agglomeration of stars in a normal direction related to the direction towards the center of the Milky Way, forming thus a stream. We can explain this considering that a circular orbit around the dominant potential is the most likely orbit, since it requires minimum energy. In this coordinate systems, the tidal tails (or streams) rotates around the cluster center with the same mean motion associated to cluster around the Milky Way center.

  4. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters

    2009-01-01

    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  5. EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209

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    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia)

    2012-12-10

    We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

  6. EXTENDED STAR FORMATION IN THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD STAR CLUSTER NGC 2209

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Stefan C.; Mackey, A. Dougal; Da Costa, Gary S.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of the 1 Gyr old star cluster NGC 2209 in the Large Magellanic Cloud made with the GMOS imager on the Gemini South Telescope. These observations show that the cluster exhibits a main-sequence turnoff that spans a broader range in luminosity than can be explained by a single-aged stellar population. This places NGC 2209 amongst a growing list of intermediate-age (1-3 Gyr) clusters that show evidence for extended or multiple epochs of star formation of between 50 and 460 Myr in extent. The extended main-sequence turnoff observed in NGC 2209 is a confirmation of the prediction in Keller et al. made on the basis of the cluster's large core radius. We propose that secondary star formation is a defining feature of the evolution of massive star clusters. Dissolution of lower mass clusters through evaporation results in only clusters that have experienced secondary star formation surviving for a Hubble time, thus providing a natural connection between the extended main-sequence turnoff phenomenon and the ubiquitous light-element abundance ranges seen in the ancient Galactic globular clusters.

  7. Relative Ages of Globular Clusters

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    Puzia, Thomas H.

    Ages of extragalactic globular clusters can provide valuable insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. In this contribution the photometric methods of age dating old globular cluster systems are summarised. The spectroscopic approach is reviewed with an emphasis of the fight choice of age diagnostics. We present a new method of quantifying the relatively best age-sensitive spectroscopic index given the quality of a data set and a certain theoretical stellar synthesis model. The relatively best diagnostic plot is constructed from the set of Lick indices and used to age date globular clusters in several early-type galaxies which are part of a large spectroscopic survey of extragalactic globular cluster systems. We find that, independently of host galaxy, metal-poor ([Fe/H] old (t > 8 Gyr) and coeval. Metal-rich clusters show a wide range of ages from ˜ 15 down to a few Gyr.

  8. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Benacquista

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10^4 – 10^6 stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker–Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  9. Keck Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3610

    OpenAIRE

    Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Schweizer, Francois; Larsen, Soeren S.; Seitzer, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    We present moderate-resolution Keck spectra of nine candidate globular clusters in the possible merger-remnant elliptical galaxy NGC 3610. Eight of the objects appear to be bona fide globular clusters of NGC 3610. We find that two of the clusters belong to an old metal-poor population, five to an old metal-rich population, and only one to an intermediate-age metal-rich population. The estimated age of the intermediate-age cluster is 1-5 Gyr, which is in agreement with earlier estimates of the...

  10. Speckle imaging of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, B.J. III

    1990-01-01

    Speckle imaging is a powerful tool for high resolution astronomy. Its application to the core regions of globular clusters produces high resolution stellar maps of the bright stars, but is unable to image the faint stars which are most reliable dynamical indicators. The limits on resolving these faint, extended objects are physical, not algorithmic, and cannot be overcome using speckle. High resolution maps may be useful for resolving multicomponent stellar systems in the cluster centers. 30 refs

  11. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies

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    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  12. Looking for Photometric Signatures of Fast Rotation in Intermediate-Age Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

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    Goudfrooij, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Recently, deep color-magnitude diagrams from HST data revealed that several massive intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds exhibit extended main-sequence turn-offs (eMSTOs). This discovery posed serious questions regarding the mechanisms responsible for the formation of massive globular clusters and their well-known multiple stellar populations. The nature of eMSTOs is a hotly debated topic of study. Several studies argued that the eMSTOs are caused by an age range of up to a few hundred Myr, while other studies indicate that eMSTOs can instead be caused by a coeval population in which the stars span a range of rotation velocities. Formal evidence to (dis-)prove either scenario still remains at large, in part because stellar tracks that incorporate the effects of rotation have so far only been available for masses > 1.7 Msun whereas the stars in the known eMSTOs of intermediate-age star clusters are less massive. In this proposal we aim to look for photometric signatures of fast rotators in eMSTO clusters that have been observed by HST in three passbands including (at least) F336W and F814W. We will study spreads in different stellar colors, testing against those predicted with the aid of von Zeipel's geometric study for a population of rotating stars with a significant spread in their inclination. Importantly, this spread due to the presence of rotation is predicted to occur along well-defined lines in color-color diagrams, in directions that are distinct from those in color-magnitude diagrams and distinct from the spread predicted for the age range scenario.

  13. No Evidence of Chemical Abundance Variations in the Intermediate-age Cluster NGC 1783

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    Zhang, Hao; de Grijs, Richard; Li, Chengyuan; Wu, Xiaohan

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed multi-passband photometric observations, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, of the massive (1.8 × 105 M ⊙), intermediate-age (1.8 Gyr-old) Large Magellanic Cloud star cluster NGC 1783. The morphology of the cluster’s red giant branch does not exhibit a clear broadening beyond its intrinsic width; the observed width is consistent with that owing to photometric uncertainties alone and independent of the photometric selection boundaries we applied to obtain our sample of red giant stars. The color dispersion of the cluster’s red giant stars around the best-fitting ridgeline is 0.062 ± 0.009 mag, which is equivalent to the width of 0.080 ± 0.001 mag derived from artificial simple stellar population tests, that is, tests based on single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations. NGC 1783 is comparably as massive as other star clusters that show clear evidence of multiple stellar populations. After incorporating mass-loss recipes from its current age of 1.8 Gyr to an age of 6 Gyr, NGC 1783 is expected to remain as massive as some other clusters that host clear multiple populations at these intermediate ages. If we were to assume that mass is an important driver of multiple population formation, then NGC 1783 should have exhibited clear evidence of chemical abundance variations. However, our results support the absence of any chemical abundance variations in NGC 1783.

  14. The WAGGS project - I. The WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Pastorello, Nicola; Bellstedt, Sabine; Alabi, Adebusola; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chevalier, Leonie; Fraser-McKelvie, Amelia; Penny, Samantha; Foster, Caroline; McDermid, Richard M.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Villaume, Alexa

    2017-07-01

    We present the WiFeS Atlas of Galactic Globular cluster Spectra, a library of integrated spectra of Milky Way and Local Group globular clusters. We used the WiFeS integral field spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope to observe the central regions of 64 Milky Way globular clusters and 22 globular clusters hosted by the Milky Way's low-mass satellite galaxies. The spectra have wider wavelength coverage (3300-9050 Å) and higher spectral resolution (R = 6800) than existing spectral libraries of Milky Way globular clusters. By including Large and Small Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we extend the coverage of parameter space of existing libraries towards young and intermediate ages. While testing stellar population synthesis models and analysis techniques is the main aim of this library, the observations may also further our understanding of the stellar populations of Local Group globular clusters and make possible the direct comparison of extragalactic globular cluster integrated light observations with well-understood globular clusters in the Milky Way. The integrated spectra are publicly available via the project website.

  15. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  16. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  17. The Gaia-ESO survey: the inner disk intermediate-age open cluster NGC 6802

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    Tang, B.; Geisler, D.; Friel, E.; Villanova, S.; Smiljanic, R.; Casey, A. R.; Randich, S.; Magrini, L.; San Roman, I.; Muñoz, C.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Tautvaišien*error*ė, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Ženovienė, R.; Snaith, O.; Sousa, S.; Adibekyan, V.; Costado, M. T.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Carraro, G.; Zwitter, T.; François, P.; Jofrè, P.; Sordo, R.; Gilmore, G.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Pancino, E.; Bayo, A.; Damiani, F.; Franciosini, E.; Hourihane, A.; Lardo, C.; Lewis, J.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Prisinzano, L.; Sacco, G.; Worley, C. C.; Zaggia, S.

    2017-05-01

    Milky Way open clusters are very diverse in terms of age, chemical composition, and kinematic properties. Intermediate-age and old open clusters are less common, and it is even harder to find them inside the solar Galactocentric radius, due to the high mortality rate and strong extinction inside this region. NGC 6802 is one of the inner disk open clusters (IOCs) observed by the Gaia-ESO survey (GES). This cluster is an important target for calibrating the abundances derived in the survey due to the kinematic and chemical homogeneity of the members in open clusters. Using the measurements from Gaia-ESO internal data release 4 (iDR4), we identify 95 main-sequence dwarfs as cluster members from the GIRAFFE target list, and eight giants as cluster members from the UVES target list. The dwarf cluster members have a median radial velocity of 13.6 ± 1.9 km s-1, while the giant cluster members have a median radial velocity of 12.0 ± 0.9 km s-1 and a median [Fe/H] of 0.10 ± 0.02 dex. The color-magnitude diagram of these cluster members suggests an age of 0.9 ± 0.1 Gyr, with (m-M)0 = 11.4 and E(B-V) = 0.86. We perform the first detailed chemical abundance analysis of NGC 6802, including 27 elemental species. To gain a more general picture about IOCs, the measurements of NGC 6802 are compared with those of other IOCs previously studied by GES, that is, NGC 4815, Trumpler 20, NGC 6705, and Berkeley 81. NGC 6802 shows similar C, N, Na, and Al abundances as other IOCs. These elements are compared with nucleosynthetic models as a function of cluster turn-off mass. The α, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements are also explored in a self-consistent way. Full Tables A.3-A.6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A56

  18. Stellar black holes in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Hut, Piet; Mcmillan, Steve

    1993-01-01

    The recent discovery of large populations of millisec pulsars associated with neutron stars in globular clusters indicates that several hundred stellar black holes of about 10 solar masses each can form within a typical cluster. While, in clusters of high central density, the rapid dynamical evolution of the black-hole population leads to an ejection of nearly all holes on a short timescale, systems of intermediate density may involve a normal star's capture by one of the surviving holes to form a low-mass X-ray binary. One or more such binaries may be found in the globular clusters surrounding our galaxy.

  19. Tidal evolution of globular clusters. I - Method

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    Oh, K. S.; Lin, D. N. C.; Aarseth, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Tidal evolution of globular clusters is regulated by both Galactic tidal effects and internal relaxation processes. In order to investigate the tidal evolution of globular clusters, a numerical scheme which utilizes a Fokker-Planck approach as well as direct numerical integration of the restricted three-body problem is developed. In the inner regions of the cluster, stellar orbits are mapped with the cluster's gravitational potential and orbit-averaged diffusion coefficients. In the outer regions, the Galactic tidal field is explicitly included in the direct orbital integration. This method is presented here with some tests on King-Michie models.

  20. Shaping Globular Clusters with Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-03-01

    How many black holes lurk within the dense environments of globular clusters, and how do these powerful objects shape the properties of the cluster around them? One such cluster, NGC 3201, is now helping us to answer these questions.Hunting Stellar-Mass Black HolesSince the detection of merging black-hole binaries by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the dense environments of globular clusters have received increasing attention as potential birthplaces of these compact binary systems.The central region of the globular star cluster NGC 3201, as viewed by Hubble. The black hole is in orbit with the star marked by the blue circle. [NASA/ESA]In addition, more and more stellar-mass black-hole candidates have been observed within globular clusters, lurking in binary pairs with luminous, non-compact companions. The most recent of these detections, found in the globular cluster NGC 3201, stands alone as the first stellar-mass black hole candidate discovered via radial velocity observations: the black holes main-sequence companion gave away its presence via a telltale wobble.Now a team of scientists led by Kyle Kremer (CIERA and Northwestern University) is using models of this system to better understand the impact that black holes might have on their host clusters.A Model ClusterThe relationship between black holes and their host clusters is complicated. Though the cluster environment can determine the dynamical evolution of the black holes, the retention rate of black holes in a globular cluster (i.e., how many remain in the cluster when they are born as supernovae, rather than being kicked out during the explosion) influences how the host cluster evolves.Kremer and collaborators track this complex relationship by modeling the evolution of a cluster similar to NGC 3201 with a Monte Carlo code. The code incorporates physics relevant to the evolution of black holes and black-hole binaries in globular clusters, such as two-body relaxation

  1. Chemical Abundances of Giants in Globular Clusters

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    Gratton, Raffaele G.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; D'Orazi, Valentina; Lucatello, Sara

    A large fraction of stars form in clusters. According to a widespread paradigma, stellar clusters are prototypes of single stellar populations. According to this concept, they formed on a very short time scale, and all their stars share the same chemical composition. Recently it has been understood that massive stellar clusters (the globular clusters) rather host various stellar populations, characterized by different chemical composition: these stellar populations have also slightly different ages, stars of the second generations being formed from the ejecta of part of those of an earlier one. Furthermore, it is becoming clear that the efficiency of the process is quite low: many more stars formed within this process than currently present in the clusters. This implies that a significant, perhaps even dominant fraction of the ancient population of galaxies formed within the episodes that lead to formation the globular clusters.

  2. Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular Clusters

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    Watkins, Laura L.; van der Marel, Roeland; Bellini, Andrea; Luetzgendorf, Nora; HSTPROMO Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Exploring the Internal Dynamics of Globular ClustersThe formation histories and structural properties of globular clusters are imprinted on their internal dynamics. Energy equipartition results in velocity differences for stars of different mass, and leads to mass segregation, which results in different spatial distributions for stars of different mass. Intermediate-mass black holes significantly increase the velocity dispersions at the centres of clusters. By combining accurate measurements of their internal kinematics with state-of-the-art dynamical models, we can characterise both the velocity dispersion and mass profiles of clusters, tease apart the different effects, and understand how clusters may have formed and evolved.Using proper motions from the Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Collaboration for a set of 22 Milky Way globular clusters, and our discrete dynamical modelling techniques designed to work with large, high-quality datasets, we are studying a variety of internal cluster properties. We will present the results of theoretical work on simulated clusters that demonstrates the efficacy of our approach, and preliminary results from application to real clusters.

  3. THE DISCOVERY OF REMOTE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huxor, A.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Barker, M. K.; Tanvir, N. R.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Ibata, R.; Lewis, G.

    2009-01-01

    We present the discovery of four remote star clusters in M33, one of which is of an extended nature. Three of the clusters were discovered using survey data from the Isaac Newton Telescope Wide-Field Camera while one was discovered serendipitously in a deep image taken with the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys. With projected radii of 38-113 arcmin (9.6-28.5 kpc for an assumed M33 distance of 870 kpc), these clusters lie significantly beyond all but one of the currently confirmed clusters in M33. The clusters have magnitudes and colors consistent with their being old to intermediate-age globular clusters (GCs). Indeed, they bear a strong resemblance to the outer halo GC population of the Milky Way and M31 in terms (V - I) 0 color. The three outermost clusters are projected on the far side of M33 with respect to M31, an asymmetry that could suggest tidal interactions have affected M33's GC distribution at large radii.

  4. Globular Cluster Tidal Streams: An Observational Study

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    Powell, William L.; Lauchner, A.; Wilhelm, R.; McWilliam, A.

    2006-12-01

    Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and of our Galaxy. Recent studies have used photometric and statistical subtraction methods to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. We chose instead as our primary method to use photometry to select blue stars that match the horizontal branch of the clusters. We then make spectroscopic observations of these candidates to determine their metallicity and radial velocities. Combining these results with the photometric data offers a better picture of the structure and validity of tidal streams. We present photometric and spectroscopic results for several globular clusters and their surrounding fields. Data were obtained at McDonald Observatory, Kitt Peak, and Las Campanas Observatory. SDSS data were also used. WLP acknowledges the support of a Sigma Xi Grant-In-Aid of research. RW acknowledges the support of a AAS Small Research Grant.

  5. Infrared dust emission from globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeletti, L.; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R.; Giannone, P.; Blanco, A.; Bussoletti, E.

    1982-01-01

    The implications of the presence of a central cloud in the cores of globular clusters were investigated recently. A possible mechanism of confinement of dust in the central region of our cluster models was also explored. The grain temperature and infrared emission have now been computed for rather realistic grain compositions. The grain components were assumed to be graphite and/or silicates. The central clouds turned out to be roughly isothermal. The wavelengths of maximum emission came out to be larger than 20 μm in all studied cases. An application of the theoretical results to five globular clusters showed that the predictable infrared emission for 47 Tuc, M4 and M22 should be detectable by means of present instrumentation aboard flying platforms. (author)

  6. VARIABLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 5024

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    Safonova, M.; Stalin, C. S., E-mail: rita@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stalin@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India)

    2011-12-15

    We present the results of a commissioning campaign to observe Galactic globular clusters for the search of microlensing events. The central 10' Multiplication-Sign 10' region of the globular cluster NGC 5024 was monitored using the 2 m Himalayan Chandra Telescope in R-band for a period of about 8 hr on 2010 March 24. Light curves were obtained for nearly 10,000 stars using a modified Differential Image Analysis technique. We identified all known variables within our field of view and revised the periods and status of some previously reported short-period variables. We report about 70 new variable sources and present their equatorial coordinates, periods, light curves, and possible types. Out of these, 15 are SX Phe stars, 10 are W UMa-type stars, and 14 are probable RR Lyrae stars. Nine of the newly discovered SX Phe stars and one eclipsing binary belong to the blue straggler star population.

  7. Near infrared photometry of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.; Menzies, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Photographic photometry on the V, Isub(K) system has been obtained for giant stars in the metal-rich globular clusters NGC 5927, 6171, 6352, 6356, 6388, 6522, 6528, 6712 and 6723. Colour-magnitude diagrams are presented. These data, with earlier observations of NGC 104 (47 Tuc), yield new parameters to describe the giant branch. These are the colour of the red variables, represented by their mean colour (V - Isub(K)) 0 or by the colour (V - Isub(K))sub(BO) of the bluest red variable on the giant branch of a cluster, and ΔV' which is the magnitude difference between the horizontal branch and the highest point on the giant branch. The latter is independent of reddening, since the giant branch of the most metal-rich clusters passes through a maximum in the V, V - Isub(K) plane. These parameters are correlated with the metal content, deduced from integrated photometry: the red variables are redder and the giant branch fainter the higher the metal content. Comparison with theoretical evolutionary tracks suggests that the range in metal content of these clusters is at most a factor of 10, the most metal-rich clusters possibly approaching the solar value. The cluster giant branches and those of open clusters, groups and field stars of the old disk population are compared. The assumption that all the globular clusters have an absolute magnitude on the horizontal branch of Msub(v) = + 0.9, as found recently for 47 Tuc, gives good agreement between the magnitudes of giant stars in the most metal rich of the globular clusters and those of field stars deduced from statistical parallaxes and moving group parallaxes. The values of the parameters ΔV' and (V - Isub(k))sub(BO) also approach those in the moving groups. The globular clusters have a longer horizontal branch, however, and the subgiants are bluer even when the values of ) 7Fe/H{ appear to be the same. (author). )

  8. Dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario; Cote, Patrick

    1993-01-01

    A combination of V-band CCD images and echelle spectra of member red giants is presently used to examine the internal dynamics of the globular cluster NGC 362. A total of 285 stellar spectra were obtained of 215 stars for radial velocity determinations, and the true cluster binary fraction was determined from simulations to be 0.15 for circular orbits and 0.27 for orbits with an f(e) = e (eccentricity) distribution function. An overabundance of binaries is surmised for NGC 362 on this basis.

  9. THE OVERLOOKED ROLE OF STELLAR VARIABILITY IN THE EXTENDED MAIN SEQUENCE OF LMC INTERMEDIATE-AGE CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, R. [Gemini Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Pajkos, M. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Butler University, Indianapolis, IN 46208 (United States); Strader, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Vivas, A. K. [Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Ramos, R. Contreras, E-mail: rsalinas@gemini.edu [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-11-20

    Intermediate-age star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud show extended main sequence turnoffs (MSTOs) that are not consistent with a canonical single stellar population. These broad turnoffs have been interpreted as evidence for extended star formation and/or stellar rotation. Since most of these studies use single frames per filter to do the photometry, the presence of variable stars near the MSTO in these clusters has remained unnoticed and their impact has been totally ignored. We model the influence of Delta Scuti using synthetic CMDs, adding variable stars following different levels of incidence and amplitude distributions. We show that Delta Scuti observed at a single phase will produce a broadening of the MSTO without affecting other areas of a CMD such as the upper MS or the red clump; furthermore, the amount of spread introduced correlates with cluster age, as observed. This broadening is constrained to ages ∼1–3 Gyr when the MSTO area crosses the instability strip, which is also consistent with observations. Variable stars cannot explain bifurcarted MSTOs or the extended MSTOs seen in some young clusters, but they can make an important contribution to the extended MSTOs in intermediate-age clusters.

  10. Detecting Globular Star Cluster Tidal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, William Lee, Jr.; Wilhelm, Ronald; Lauchner, Adam; McWilliam, Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and of our Galaxy. Recent studies have used photometric and statistical subtraction methods to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. As our primary method we choose instead to use photometry to select blue stars that match the horizontal branch of the clusters. We then make spectroscopic observations of these candidates to determine their metallicities and radial velocities, which further constrains whether the candidate stars really originated in the cluster. Combining these results with the photometric data offers a better picture of the structure of tidal streams, and allows comparison of detected stars to theoretical predictions. We present preliminary photometric and spectroscopic results. Data obtained at McDonald Observatory, Kitt Peak National Observatory, and Las Campanas Observatory.

  11. Extragalactic globular clusters. I. The metallicity calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, J.P.; Huchra, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    The ability of absorption-line strength indices, measured from integrated globular cluster spectra, to predict mean cluster metallicity is explored. Statistical criteria, are used to identify the six best indices out of about 20 measured in a large sample of Galactic and M31 cluster spectra. Linear relations between index and metallicity have been derived along with new calibrations of infrared colors (V - K, J - K, and CO) versus Fe/H. Estimates of metallicity from the six spectroscopic index-metallicity relations have been combined in three different ways to identify the most efficient estimator and the minimum bias estimator of Fe/H - the weighted mean. This provides an estimate of Fe/H accurate to about 15 percent. 37 refs

  12. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  13. Extended Stromgren Photometry in the Intermediate-age Open Cluster, NGC 5822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Twarog, Bruce A.

    2010-02-01

    Open clusters remain invaluable objects for probing evolution on a galactic scale and testing the finer details of stellar evolution. In recent years we have focused on the study of open clusters as markers of Galactic disk evolution, evaluating the cluster parameters to test the reality and significance of detailed structure within the disk abundance gradient, confirming the apparent change in the slope of the gradient beyond the solar circle, evidence for an apparent inside-out development of the disk (Twarog et al. 1997). The current proposal is built around a comprehensive photometric study of the Hyades-age open cluster NGC 5822 as a prelude to high-dispersion spectroscopic analysis of the Li abundance for stars from the rich giant branch to the main sequence well below the so-called Li-dip. Our proposed CCD study on the extended Stromgren system, the first CCD study of this cluster on any photometric system, will supply reddening, metallicity, distance, and cluster age, while allowing us to identify and eliminate probable non- members and binaries, thereby optimizing the sample for spectroscopic followup.

  14. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, four parameters analytical solution will be established for the stellar density function in globular clusters. The solution could be used for any arbitrary order of outward decrease of the cluster's density.

  15. Milky Way Globular Clusters and the Astronomical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Graeme H.

    2017-06-01

    Globular clusters of the Milky Way have been the subject of many publications in the astronomical literature. However, there is quite a large dispersion in the level of scrutiny that individual clusters have received from the astronomy research community. The goal of this paper is to address the question: what makes some clusters more popular than others? Several metrics are used to compare the numbers of papers written about each globular cluster of the galaxy prior to 2015. The extent to which the metrics correlate with various intrinsic and extrinsic cluster properties is explored. The metrics are used to highlight the ten most-studied globular clusters, as well as to delineate certain types of clusters that have been least covered by research to date. As a guide to objects that might potentially reward increased study, a list is given of the highest-mass globular clusters that have received relatively little attention to date.

  16. A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A DYING STAR IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M15 The globular cluster Messier 15 is shown in this color image obtained with the NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). Lying some 40,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Pegasus, M15 is one of nearly 150 known globular clusters that form a vast halo surrounding our Milky Way galaxy. Each of these clusters is a spherical association of hundreds of thousands of ancient stars. The image, prepared by the Hubble Heritage team, attempts to show the stars in M15 in their true colors. The brightest cluster stars are red giants, with an orange color due to surface temperatures lower than our Sun's. Most of the fainter stars are hotter, giving them a bluish-white color. If we lived in the core of M15, our sky would blaze with tens of thousands of brilliant stars both day and night! Nestled among the myriads of stars visible in the Hubble image is an astronomical oddity. The pinkish object to the upper left of the cluster's core is a gas cloud surrounding a dying star. Known as Kuestner 648, this was the first planetary nebula to be identified in a globular cluster. In 1928, F. G. Pease, working at the 100-inch telescope of California's Mount Wilson Observatory, photographed the spectrum of K 648 and discovered the telltale bright emission of a nebular gas cloud rather than a normal star. In the ensuing 70 years, only three more planetary nebulae have been discovered in globular clusters. The stars in M15 and other globular clusters are estimated to be about 12 billion years old. They were among the first generations of stars to form in the Milky Way. Our Sun, by comparison, is a youthful 4.6 billion years old. As a star like the Sun ages, it exhausts the hydrogen that fuels its nuclear fusion, and increases in size to become a red giant. Then it ejects its outer layers into space, producing a planetary nebula. The remnant star at the center of the nebula gradually dies away as a

  17. Most Massive Globular Cluster in Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Far down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Centaurus, a diffuse spot of light can be perceived with the unaided eye. It may be unimpressive, but when seen through a telescope, it turns out to be a beautiful, dense cluster of innumerable stars [1]. Omega Centauri, as this object is called, is the brightest of its type in the sky. We refer to it as a "globular cluster", due to its symmetric form. It belongs to our Milky Way galaxy and astrophysical investigations have shown that it is located at a distance of about 16,500 light-years (1 light-year = 9,460,000,000,000 km). Nobody knows for sure how many individual stars it contains, but recent estimates run into the millions. Most of these stars are more than 10,000 million years old and it is generally agreed that Omega Centauri has a similar age. Measurements of its motion indicate that Omega Centauri plows through the Milky Way in an elongated orbit. It is not easy to understand how it has managed to keep its stars together during such an extended period. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITIES IN OMEGA CENTAURI A group of astronomers [2] have recently carried through a major investigation of Omega Centauri. After many nights of observations at the ESO La Silla observatory, they now conclude that not only is this globular cluster the brightest, it is indeed by far the most massive known in the Milky Way. The very time-consuming observations were made during numerous observing sessions over a period of no less than 13 years (1981-1993), with the photoelectric spectrometer CORAVEL mounted on the 1.5-m Danish telescope at La Silla. The CORAVEL instrument (COrelation RAdial VELocities) was built in a joint effort between the Geneva (Switzerland) and Marseilles (France) observatories. It functions according to the cross-correlation technique, by means of which the spectrum of the observed star is compared with a "standard stellar spectrum" [3]. HOW HEAVY IS OMEGA CENTAURI? In the present study, a total of 1701

  18. Diffusion and Mixing in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiron, Yohai; Kocsis, Bence

    2018-03-01

    Collisional relaxation describes the stochastic process with which a self-gravitating system near equilibrium evolves in phase-space due to the fluctuating gravitational field of the system. The characteristic timescale of this process is called the relaxation time. In this paper, we highlight the difference between two measures of the relaxation time in globular clusters: (1) the diffusion time with which the isolating integrals of motion (i.e., energy E and angular momentum magnitude L) of individual stars change stochastically and (2) the asymptotic timescale required for a family of orbits to mix in the cluster. More specifically, the former corresponds to the instantaneous rate of change of a star’s E or L, while the latter corresponds to the timescale for the stars to statistically forget their initial conditions. We show that the diffusion timescales of E and L vary systematically around the commonly used half-mass relaxation time in different regions of the cluster by a factor of ∼10 and ∼100, respectively, for more than 20% of the stars. We define the mixedness of an orbital family at any given time as the correlation coefficient between its E or L probability distribution functions and those of the whole cluster. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we find that mixedness converges asymptotically exponentially with a decay timescale that is ∼10 times the half-mass relaxation time.

  19. Dynamics of the intermediate-age elliptical LMC cluster NGC 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Philippe; Welch, Douglas L.; Mateo, Mario

    1992-01-01

    BV CCD images and echelle spectra of 35 giants are used to examine the internal dynamics of the elliptical LMC cluster NGC 1978. Projected radii for the giants range from 1.4 to 20.0, and the mean estimated stellar velocity uncertainty is 1.6 km/s; the mean cluster velocity is 293.3 +/-1.0 km/s. BV profiles were constructed to projected radii of greater than 100 pc. The single-mass models provided better agreement with the surface photometry. Among multimass models, there is slightly better agreement seen for the models with shallow mass functions. The nonrotating model was found to be in better agreement with the kinematic data, although the rotating models could not be completely ruled out. No morphological evidence for a merger was found.

  20. Evidence for Primordial Mass Segregation in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgardt, Holger; De Marchi, Guido; Kroupa, Pavel

    2008-09-01

    We have studied the dissolution of initially mass-segregated and unsegregated star clusters due to two-body relaxation in external tidal fields, using Aarseth's collisional N-body code NBODY4 on GRAPE6 special-purpose computers. When extrapolating results of initially non-mass-segregated models to globular clusters, we obtain a correlation between the time until destruction and the slope of the mass function, in the sense that globular clusters that are closer to dissolution are more strongly depleted in low-mass stars. This correlation fits observed mass functions of most globular clusters. The mass functions of several globular clusters are, however, more strongly depleted in low-mass stars than is suggested by these models. Such strongly depleted mass functions can be explained if globular clusters started initially mass segregated. Primordial mass segregation also explains the correlation between the slope of the stellar mass function and the cluster concentration that was recently discovered by De Marchi and coworkers. In this case, it is possible that all globular clusters started with a mass function similar to that seen in young open clusters in the present-day universe, at least for stars below m = 0.8 M⊙. This argues for a near universality of the mass function for different star formation environments and metallicities in the range -2 < [ Fe/H ] < 0. We finally describe a novel algorithm that can initialize stationary mass-segregated clusters with an arbitrary density profile and amount of mass segregation.

  1. Stellar Variability at the Main-sequence Turnoff of the Intermediate-age LMC Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Pajkos, M. A.; Vivas, A. K.; Strader, J.; Contreras Ramos, R.

    2018-04-01

    Intermediate-age (IA) star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) present extended main-sequence turn-offs (MSTO) that have been attributed to either multiple stellar populations or an effect of stellar rotation. Recently it has been proposed that these extended main sequences can also be produced by ill-characterized stellar variability. Here we present Gemini-S/Gemini Multi-Object Spectrometer (GMOS) time series observations of the IA cluster NGC 1846. Using differential image analysis, we identified 73 new variable stars, with 55 of those being of the Delta Scuti type, that is, pulsating variables close the MSTO for the cluster age. Considering completeness and background contamination effects, we estimate the number of δ Sct belonging to the cluster between 40 and 60 members, although this number is based on the detection of a single δ Sct within the cluster half-light radius. This amount of variable stars at the MSTO level will not produce significant broadening of the MSTO, albeit higher-resolution imaging will be needed to rule out variable stars as a major contributor to the extended MSTO phenomenon. Though modest, this amount of δ Sct makes NGC 1846 the star cluster with the highest number of these variables ever discovered. Lastly, our results present a cautionary tale about the adequacy of shallow variability surveys in the LMC (like OGLE) to derive properties of its δ Sct population. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), and Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil).

  2. Metallicity Spreads in M31 Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Terry

    2003-07-01

    Our recent deep HST photometry of the M31 halo globular cluster {GC} Mayall II, also called G1, has revealed a red-giant branch with a clear spread that we attribute to an intrinsic metallicity dispersion of at least 0.4 dex in [Fe/H]. The only other GC exhibiting such a metallicity dispersion is Omega Centauri, the brightest and most massive Galactic GC, whose range in [Fe/H] is about 0.5 dex. These observations are obviously linked to the fact that both G1 and Omega Cen are bright and massive GC, with potential wells deep enough to keep part of their gas, which might have been recycled, producing a metallicity scatter among cluster stars. These observations dramatically challenge the notion of chemical homogeneity as a defining characteristic of GCs. It is critically important to find out how common this phenomenon is and how it can constrain scenarios/models of GC formation. The obvious targets are other bright and massive GCs, which exist in M31 but not in our Galaxy where Omega Cen is an isolated giant. We propose to acquire, with ACS/HRC, deep imaging of 3 of the brightest M31 GCs for which we have observed velocity dispersion values similar to those observed in G1 and Omega Cen. A sample of GCs with chemical abundance dispersions will provide essential information about their formation mechanism. This would represent a major step for the studies of the origin and evolution of stellar populations.

  3. THE TIMING OF NINE GLOBULAR CLUSTER PULSARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Ryan S. [Physics Department, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Freire, Paulo C. C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ransom, Scott M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-4325 (United States); Jacoby, Bryan A., E-mail: rlynch@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: pfreire@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: sransom@nrao.edu, E-mail: bryan.jacoby@gmail.com [Aerospace Corporation, 15049 Conference Center Drive, Chantilly, VA 20151-3824 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We have used the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope to time nine previously known pulsars without published timing solutions in the globular clusters (GCs) M62, NGC 6544, and NGC 6624. We have full timing solutions that measure the spin, astrometric, and (where applicable) binary parameters for six of these pulsars. The remaining three pulsars (reported here for the first time) were not detected enough to establish solutions. We also report our timing solutions for five pulsars with previously published solutions, and find good agreement with other authors, except for PSR J1701-3006B in M62. Gas in this system is probably responsible for the discrepancy in orbital parameters, and we have been able to measure a change in the orbital period over the course of our observations. Among the pulsars with new solutions we find several binary pulsars with very low mass companions (members of the so-called 'black widow' class) and we are able to place constraints on the mass-to-light ratio in two clusters. We confirm that one of the pulsars in NGC 6624 is indeed a member of the rare class of non-recycled pulsars found in GCs. We have also measured the orbital precession and Shapiro delay for a relativistic binary in NGC 6544. If we assume that the orbital precession can be described entirely by general relativity, which is likely, we are able to measure the total system mass (2.57190(73) M{sub Sun }) and companion mass (1.2064(20) M{sub Sun }), from which we derive the orbital inclination (sin i = 0.9956(14)) and the pulsar mass (1.3655(21) M{sub Sun }), the most precise such measurement ever obtained for a millisecond pulsar. The companion is the most massive known around a fully recycled pulsar.

  4. Enrichment by supernovae in globular clusters with multiple populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; Kang, Young-Woon; Lee, Jina; Lee, Young-Wook

    2009-11-26

    The most massive globular cluster in the Milky Way, omega Centauri, is thought to be the remaining core of a disrupted dwarf galaxy, as expected within the model of hierarchical merging. It contains several stellar populations having different heavy elemental abundances supplied by supernovae-a process known as metal enrichment. Although M 22 appears to be similar to omega Cen, other peculiar globular clusters do not. Therefore omega Cen and M 22 are viewed as exceptional, and the presence of chemical inhomogeneities in other clusters is seen as 'pollution' from the intermediate-mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars expected in normal globular clusters. Here we report Ca abundances for seven globular clusters and compare them to omega Cen. Calcium and other heavy elements can only be supplied through numerous supernovae explosions of massive stars in these stellar systems, but the gravitational potentials of the present-day clusters cannot preserve most of the ejecta from such explosions. We conclude that these globular clusters, like omega Cen, are most probably the relics of more massive primeval dwarf galaxies that merged and disrupted to form the proto-Galaxy.

  5. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Ho Seong

    2010-04-16

    Globular clusters are usually found in galaxies, and they are excellent tracers of dark matter. Long ago it was suggested that intracluster globular clusters (IGCs) may exist that are bound to a galaxy cluster rather than to any single galaxy. Here we present a map showing the large-scale distribution of globular clusters over the entire Virgo cluster. It shows that IGCs are found out to 5 million light years from the Virgo center and that they are concentrated in several substructures that are much larger than galaxies. These objects might have been mostly stripped off from low-mass dwarf galaxies.

  6. Supra-galactic colour patterns in globular cluster systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.

    2017-07-01

    An analysis of globular cluster systems associated with galaxies included in the Virgo and Fornax Hubble Space Telescope-Advanced Camera Surveys reveals distinct (g - z) colour modulation patterns. These features appear on composite samples of globular clusters and, most evidently, in galaxies with absolute magnitudes Mg in the range from -20.2 to -19.2. These colour modulations are also detectable on some samples of globular clusters in the central galaxies NGC 1399 and NGC 4486 (and confirmed on data sets obtained with different instruments and photometric systems), as well as in other bright galaxies in these clusters. After discarding field contamination, photometric errors and statistical effects, we conclude that these supra-galactic colour patterns are real and reflect some previously unknown characteristic. These features suggest that the globular cluster formation process was not entirely stochastic but included a fraction of clusters that formed in a rather synchronized fashion over large spatial scales, and in a tentative time lapse of about 1.5 Gy at redshifts z between 2 and 4. We speculate that the putative mechanism leading to that synchronism may be associated with large scale feedback effects connected with violent star-forming events and/or with supermassive black holes.

  7. On tidal radius determination for a globular cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninkovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    A tidal radius determination for a globular cluster based on its density minimum, which is caused by the galactic tidal forces and derivable from a model of the Galaxy, is proposed. Results obtained on the basis of the Schmidt model for two clusters are in a satisfactory agreement with those obtained earlier by means of other methods. A mass determination for the clusters through the tidal radius, when the latter one is identified with the cluster perigalactic distance, yields unusually large mass values. Probably, the tidal radius should be identified with the instantaneous galactocentric distance. Use of models more recent than the Schmidt one indicates that a globular cluster may contain a significant portion of an invisible interstellar matter. (author)

  8. BVI photometry of globular clusters in M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, J.; Harris, W.E.; Allwright, J.W.B.

    1990-01-01

    CCD photometry in B, V, and I is presented for a sample of globular clusters in the Virgo central giant elliptical galaxy M87. No detectable gradient of mean cluster color (metallicity) in (B - V) or (V - I) with radial distance is found. The cluster system does, however, display a large dispersion in color at any radius, corresponding to sigma (Fe/H) about 0.6 about a mean metallicity of about -1.1 according to the present color index scale. The difference in mean color between the globular clusters and the underlying halo light of the galaxy itself shows up strongly in all the color indices; virtually no clusters as red as the mean color of the halo stars is found at any radius. 43 refs

  9. Analytical Solution for Stellar Density in Globular Clusters MA Sharaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Caloi 2008). In contrast with galaxies, it was known since the last twenty years that globular clusters represent unique laboratories for learning about two-body relax- ation, mass segregation from equipartition of energy (Spitzer 1987), stellar collisions. (Binney & Tremaine 1987), stellar mergers, and core collapse. 371 ...

  10. Dynamics of globular cluster systems in elliptical galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, AJ; Geisler, D; Grebel, EK; Minniti, D

    2002-01-01

    One of the most promising avenues for exploring the dynamics of the outer parts of elliptical galaxies involves using bright discrete objects as kinematical tracers: globular clusters and planetary nebulae. As large data sets are becoming available, rigorous dynamical analyses are needed to

  11. Dynamics of Stars and Globular Clusters in Galaxy Halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Douglas, Nigel G.; Kuijken, Konrad; Arnaboldi, Magda; Kissler-Patig, Markus; Sharples, Ray M.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Kissler-Patig, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained kinematical data in the halos of the giant ellipticals M49 and M87. These include globular cluster velocities in M49 to 10 R_eff and planetary nebula velocities in M49 and M87 to 4 R_eff. We report initial results, including dynamical comparisons between the diffuse stellar

  12. BVRI CCD photometry of the globular cluster NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of a continuing program, CCD color-magnitude diagrams are presented for the bright globular cluster NGC 2808 in the four colors comprising BVRI. From a comparison of four different CMDs with theoretical isochrones, an age of 16 + or - 2 Gyr is obtained, assuming a value for Fe/H near -1.3. 28 refs

  13. Globular Cluster Candidates for Hosting a Central Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyola, Eva

    2009-07-01

    We are continuing our study of the dynamical properties of globular clusters and we propose to obtain surface brightness profiles for high concentration clusters. Our results to date show that the distribution of central surface brightness slopes do not conform to standard models. This has important implications for how they form and evolve, and suggest the possible presence of central intermediate-mass black holes. From our previous archival proposals {AR-9542 and AR-10315}, we find that many high concentration globular clusters do not have flat cores or steep central cusps, instead they show weak cusps. Numerical simulations suggest that clusters with weak cusps may harbor intermediate-mass black holes and we have one confirmation of this connection with omega Centauri. This cluster shows a shallow cusp in its surface brightness profile, while kinematical measurements suggest the presence of a black hole in its center. Our goal is to extend these studies to a sample containing 85% of the Galactic globular clusters with concentrations higher than 1.7 and look for objects departing from isothermal behavior. The ACS globular cluster survey {GO-10775} provides enough objects to have an excellent coverage of a wide range of galactic clusters, but it contains only a couple of the ones with high concentration. The proposed sample consists of clusters whose light profile can only be adequately measured from space-based imaging. This would take us close to completeness for the high concentration cases and therefore provide a more complete list of candidates for containing a central black hole. The dataset will also be combined with our existing kinematic measurements and enhanced with future kinematic studies to perform detailed dynamical modeling.

  14. Looking for tidal streams around Galactic globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Delgado D.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The picture of building the Milky Way halo from merging protogalactic fragments is considered the local manifestation of the hierarchical galaxy formation process. In this scenario, some observational evidences have suggested that the outer young Galactic halo globular cluster population might be associated (or even the nuclei to tidal disrupted dwarf spheroidals, now extinct galaxies. If this hypothesis is true, these systems might be surrounded by a distinct and still detectable stellar population. We have carried out a systematic observation of Galactic globulars covering the galactocentric distance range 10 < RGC< 40 kpc in both hemispheres. We have used wide field instruments both in La Palma and in La Silla observatories to obtain deep photometry of wide areas around these globulars to unveil the possible remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies.

  15. The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Blue hook stars are a class of hot { 35,000 K} subluminous horizontal branch stars that have been recently discovered using HST ultraviolet images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808. These stars occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical stellar evolution theory. Using new theoretical evolutionary and atmospheric models, we have shown that the blue hook stars are very likely the progeny of stars that undergo extensive internal mixing during a late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. This "flash mixing" produces an enormous enhancement of the surface helium and carbon abundances, which suppresses the flux in the far ultraviolet. Although flash mixing is more likely to occur in stars that are born with high helium abundances, a high helium abundance, by itself, does not explain the presence of a blue hook population - flash mixing of the envelope is required. We propose ACS ultraviolet {SBC/F150LP and HRC/F250W} observations of the five additional globular clusters for which the presence of blue hook stars is suspected from longer wavelength observations. Like omega Cen and NGC 2808, these five targets are also among the most massive globular clusters, because less massive clusters show no evidence for blue hook stars. Because our targets span 1.5 dex in metallicity, we will be able to test our prediction that flash-mixing should be less drastic in metal-rich blue hook stars. In addition, our observations will test the hypothesis that blue hook stars only form in globular clusters massive enough to retain the helium-enriched ejecta from the first stellar generation. If this hypothesis is correct, then our observations will yield important constraints on the chemical evolution and early formation history in globular clusters, as well as the role of helium self-enrichment in producing blue horizontal branch morphologies and multiple main sequence turnoffs. Finally, our observations will provide new insight into the

  16. Color Gradients Within Globular Clusters: Restricted Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of a restricted numerical simulation for the color gradients within globular clusters have been presented. The standard luminosity function of M3 and Salpeter's initial mass functions were used to generate model clusters as a fundamental population. Color gradients with the sample clusters for both King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions are discussed in the case of using the standard luminosity function. The dependence of color gradients on several parameters for the simulations with Salpeter's initial mass functions, such as slope of initial mass functions, cluster ages, metallicities, concentration parameters of King model, and slopes of power law, are also discussed. No significant radial color gradients are shown to the sample clusters which are regenerated by a random number generation technique with various parameters in both of King and power law cusp models of surface brightness distributions. Dynamical mass segregation and stellar evolution of horizontal branch stars and blue stragglers should be included for the general case of model simulations to show the observed radial color gradients within globular clusters.

  17. Variable Stars in the LMC Globular Cluster NGC 1754

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A., III; Taylor, L.; Smith, H. A.; Catelan, M.; Pritzl, B. J.; De Lee, N.

    2006-12-01

    We have used BVI observations taken with the SMARTS 1.3m telescope and with the SOAR telescope to identify variable stars in the vicinity of the old LMC cluster NGC 1754. We present light curves and periods for the variables and classify the variables according to type. The probability that the RR Lyrae stars found in the neighborhood of NGC 1754 actually belong to the cluster is discussed. Unlike most globular clusters of the Milky Way halo, many of the old star clusters of the LMC have Oosterhoff intermediate properties. The Oosterhoff classification of field and cluster RR Lyrae stars near NGC 1754 is considered. We thank the NSF for partial support of this research.

  18. Kinematic fingerprint of core-collapsed globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, P.; Webb, J. J.; Sills, A.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-03-01

    Dynamical evolution drives globular clusters towards core collapse, which strongly shapes their internal properties. Diagnostics of core collapse have so far been based on photometry only, namely on the study of the concentration of the density profiles. Here, we present a new method to robustly identify core-collapsed clusters based on the study of their stellar kinematics. We introduce the kinematic concentration parameter, ck, the ratio between the global and local degree of energy equipartition reached by a cluster, and show through extensive direct N-body simulations that clusters approaching core collapse and in the post-core collapse phase are strictly characterized by ck > 1. The kinematic concentration provides a suitable diagnostic to identify core-collapsed clusters, independent from any other previous methods based on photometry. We also explore the effects of incomplete radial and stellar mass coverage on the calculation of ck and find that our method can be applied to state-of-art kinematic data sets.

  19. Kinematic fingerprint of core-collapsed globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, P.; Webb, J. J.; Sills, A.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamical evolution drives globular clusters toward core collapse, which strongly shapes their internal properties. Diagnostics of core collapse have so far been based on photometry only, namely on the study of the concentration of the density profiles. Here we present a new method to robustly identify core-collapsed clusters based on the study of their stellar kinematics. We introduce the kinematic concentration parameter, ck, the ratio between the global and local degree of energy equipartition reached by a cluster, and show through extensive direct N-body simulations that clusters approaching core collapse and in the post-core collapse phase are strictly characterized by ck > 1. The kinematic concentration provides a suitable diagnostic to identify core-collapsed clusters, independent from any other previous methods based on photometry. We also explore the effects of incomplete radial and stellar mass coverage on the calculation of ck and find that our method can be applied to state-of-art kinematic datasets.

  20. The gravitational waveforms of white dwarf collisions in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren-Aguilar, P; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, J A; Isern, J

    2009-01-01

    In the dense central regions of globular clusters close encounters of two white dwarfs are relatively frequent. The estimated frequency is one or more strong encounters per star in the lifetime of the cluster. Such encounters should be then potential sources of gravitational wave radiation. Thus, it is foreseeable that these collisions could be either individually detected by LISA or they could contribute significantly to the background noise of the detector. We compute the pattern of gravitational wave emission from these encounters for a sufficiently broad range of system parameters, namely the masses, the relative velocities and the distances of the two white dwarfs involved in the encounter.

  1. An AO-assisted Variability Study of Four Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Strader, J.; Hakala, P.; Catelan, M.; Peacock, M. B.; Simunovic, M.

    2016-09-01

    The image-subtraction technique applied to study variable stars in globular clusters represented a leap in the number of new detections, with the drawback that many of these new light curves could not be transformed to magnitudes due to severe crowding. In this paper, we present observations of four Galactic globular clusters, M 2 (NGC 7089), M 10 (NGC 6254), M 80 (NGC 6093), and NGC 1261, taken with the ground-layer adaptive optics module at the SOAR Telescope, SAM. We show that the higher image quality provided by SAM allows for the calibration of the light curves of the great majority of the variables near the cores of these clusters as well as the detection of new variables, even in clusters where image-subtraction searches were already conducted. We report the discovery of 15 new variables in M 2 (12 RR Lyrae stars and 3 SX Phe stars), 12 new variables in M 10 (11 SX Phe and 1 long-period variable), and 1 new W UMa-type variable in NGC 1261. No new detections are found in M 80, but previous uncertain detections are confirmed and the corresponding light curves are calibrated into magnitudes. Additionally, based on the number of detected variables and new Hubble Space Telescope/UVIS photometry, we revisit a previous suggestion that M 80 may be the globular cluster with the richest population of blue stragglers in our Galaxy. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the U.S. National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  2. Effects of cosmic string velocities and the origin of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Yamanouchi, Shoma; Brandenberger, Robert

    2015-12-01

    With the hypothesis that cosmic string loops act as seeds for globular clusters in mind, we study the role that velocities of these strings will play in determining the mass distribution of globular clusters. Loops with high enough velocities will not form compact and roughly spherical objects and can hence not be the seeds for globular clusters. We compute the expected number density and mass function of globular clusters as a function of both the string tension and the peak loop velocity, and compare the results with the observational data on the mass distribution of globular clusters in our Milky Way. We determine the critical peak string loop velocity above which the agreement between the string loop model for the origin of globular clusters (neglecting loop velocities) and observational data is lost.

  3. The Composition of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.; Rich, R. M.; Caldwell, N.; Mateo, M.; Bailey, J. I.; Crane, J. D.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of red giants in the Bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) mounted on the Nasmuth-East port of the Magellan-Clay 6.5-m telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory reveal a spread in metallicity. Members have been confirmed with radial velocity. NGC 6273 has at least two populations separated by 0.2-0.3 dex in [Fe/H]. The sodium and aluminum abundances are correlated while the magnesium and aluminum abundances are anti-correlated. The cluster also shows a rise in the abundance of the s-process element lanthanum with [Fe/H] similar to other massive clusters. The cluster contains a possible third population depleted in most elements by 0.3 dex.

  4. How Black Holes Shape Globular Clusters: Modeling NGC 3201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kyle; Ye, Claire S.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rodriguez, Carl L.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2018-03-01

    Numerical simulations have shown that black holes (BHs) can strongly influence the evolution and present-day observational properties of globular clusters (GCs). Using a Monte Carlo code, we construct GC models that match the Milky Way cluster NGC 3201, the first cluster in which a stellar-mass BH was identified through radial velocity measurements. We predict that NGC 3201 contains ≳200 stellar-mass BHs. Furthermore, we explore the dynamical formation of main-sequence–BH binaries and demonstrate that systems similar to the observed BH binary in NGC 3201 are produced naturally. Additionally, our models predict the existence of bright blue straggler–BH binaries that are unique to core-collapsed clusters, which otherwise retain few BHs.

  5. Comparing Chemical Compositions of Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies and Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jason; Sparkman, Lea; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2015-01-01

    Because of their abundance in cluster environments and fragility due to their low mass, dwarf elliptical galaxies (dEs) are excellent specimens for studying the physical processes that occur inside galaxy clusters. These studies can be used to expand our understanding of the process of galaxy (specifically dE) formation and the role of dark matter in the Universe. To move closer to better understanding these topics, we present a study of the relationship between dEs and globular clusters (GCs) by using the largest sample of dEs and GC satellites to date. We focus on comparing the ages and chemical compositions of dE nuclei with those of satellite GCs by analyzing absorption lines in their spectra. To better view the spectral features of these relatively dim objects, we employ a spectral co-addition process, where we add the fluxes of several objects to produce a single spectrum with high signal-to-noise ratio. Our finding that dE nuclei are younger and more metal rich than globular clusters establishes important benchmarks that future dE formation theories will consider. We also establish a means to identify GCs whose parent galaxies are uncertain, which allows us to make comparisons between this GC group and the satellite GCs.

  6. SEARCH FOR RED DWARF STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small region (1.4 light-years across) in the globular star cluster NGC 6397. Simulated stars (diamonds) have been added to this view of the same region of the cluster to illustrate what astronomers would have expected to see if faint red dwarf stars were abundant in the Milky Way Galaxy. The field would then contain 500 stars, according to theoretical calculations. Right The unmodified HST image shows far fewer stars than would be expected, according to popular theories of star formation. HST resolves about 200 stars. The stellar density is so low that HST can literally see right through the cluster and resolve far more distant background galaxies. From this observation, scientists have identified the surprising cutoff point below which nature apparently doesn't make many stars smaller that 1/5 the mass of our Sun. These HST findings provide new insights into star formation in our Galaxy. Technical detail:The globular cluster NGC 6397, one of the nearest and densest agglomerations of stars, is located 7,200 light-years away in the southern constellation Ara. This visible-light picture was taken on March 3, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, as part the HST parallel observing program. Credit: F. Paresce, ST ScI and ESA and NASA

  7. Combined Photometry and Spectroscopy of Globular Cluster Tidal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, W. L.; Wilhelm, R.; McWilliam, A.; Westfall, A.; Lauchner, A.

    2005-12-01

    Globular cluster tidal streams are of interest for what they can tell us of the dynamical evolution of the clusters and our Galaxy. Recent studies have used photometric and statistical subtraction methods to attempt to separate potential streams from the field stars that contaminate the samples. We chose instead to use photometry to select blue stars that match the horizontal branch of the clusters and make spectroscopic observations of these candidates to determine their metallicity and radial velocities. Combining these results with the photometric data offers a better picture of the structure and formation of tidal streams. We present preliminary photometric and spectroscopic results for the globular clusters and surrounding fields of NGC 6934, M 10, M 92 and Pal 13. Data obtained at McDonald Observatory, Kitt Peak, and Las Campanas Observatory. WLP acknowledges the support of a Sigma Xi Grant-In-Aid of research, and the Texas Space Grant Consortium Graduate Fellowship. RW acknowledges the support of a AAS Small Research Grant.

  8. The Most Massive Star Clusters: Supermassive Globular Clusters or Dwarf Galaxy Nuclei?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William

    2004-07-01

    Evidence is mounting that the most massive globular clusters, such as Omega Centauri and M31-G1, may be related to the recently discovered "Ultra-Compact Dwarfs" and the dense nuclei of dE, N galaxies. However, no systematic imaging investigation of these supermassive globular clusters - at the level of Omega Cen and beyond - has been done, and we do not know what fraction of them might bear the signatures {such as large effective radii or tidal tails} of having originated as dE nuclei. We propose to use the ACS/WFC to obtain deep images of 18 such clusters in NGC 5128 and M31, the two nearest rich globular cluster systems. These globulars are the richest star clusters that can be found in nature, the biggest of them reaching 10^7 Solar masses, and they are likely to represent the results of star formation under the densest and most extreme conditions known. Using the profiles of the clusters including their faint outer envelopes, we will carry out state-of-the-art dynamical modelling of their structures, and look for any clear evidence which would indicate that they are associated with stripped satellites. This study will build on our previous work with STIS and WFPC2 imaging designed to study the 'Fundamental Plane' of globular clusters. When our new work is combined with Archival WFPC2, STIS, and ACS material, we will also be able to construct the definitive mapping of the Fundamental Plane of globular clusters at its uppermost mass range, and confirm whether or not the UCD and dE, N objects occupy a different structural parameter space.

  9. FIRST OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURE OF ROTATIONAL DECELERATION IN A MASSIVE, INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTER IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xiaohan [School of Physics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-07-20

    While the extended main-sequence turnoffs (eMSTOs) found in almost all 1–2 Gyr old star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds are often explained by postulating extended star formation histories (SFHs), the tight subgiant branches (SGBs) seen in some clusters challenge this popular scenario. Puzzlingly, the SGB of the eMSTO cluster NGC 419 is significantly broader at bluer than at redder colors. We carefully assess and confirm the reality of this observational trend. If we would assume that the widths of the features in color–magnitude space were entirely owing to a range in stellar ages, the SFHs of the eMSTO stars and the blue SGB region would be significantly more prolonged than that of the red part of the SGB. This cannot be explained by assuming an internal age spread. We show that rotational deceleration of a population of rapidly rotating stars, a currently hotly debated alternative scenario, naturally explains the observed trend along the SGB. Our analysis shows that a “converging” SGB could be produced if the cluster is mostly composed of rapidly rotating stars that slow down over time owing to the conservation of angular momentum during their evolutionary expansion from main-sequence turnoff stars to red giants.

  10. The ACS Virgo Cluster Survey XVI. Selection Procedure and Catalogs of Globular Cluster Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordán, Andrés; Peng, Eric W.; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Eyheramendy, Susana; Ferrarese, Laura; Mei, Simona; Tonry, John L.; West, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    We present catalogs of globular cluster candidates for the 100 galaxies of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Virgo Cluster Survey, a large program to carry out imaging of early-type members of the Virgo Cluster using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. We describe the procedure used to select bona fide globular cluster candidates out of the full list of detections based on model-based clustering methods with the use of expected contamination catalogs constructed using blank field observations and which are customized for each galaxy. We also present the catalogs of expected contaminants for each of our target galaxies. For each detected source we measure its position, magnitudes in the F475W (≈ Sloan g) and F850LP (≈ Sloan z) bandpasses, and half-light radii by fitting point-spread function convolved King models to the observed light distribution. These measurements are presented for 20,375 sources, of which 12,763 are likely to be globular clusters. Finally, we detail the calculation of the aperture corrections adopted for the globular cluster photometry. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  11. Theoretical stellar luminosity functions and globular cluster ages and compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, S. J.

    The ages and chemical compositions of the stars in globular clusters are of great interest, particularly because age estimates from the well known exercise of fitting observed color-magnitude diagrams to theoretical predictions tend to yield ages in excess of the Hubble time in standard cosmological models. Relatively little use was made of the stellar luminosity functions of the globular clusters to constrain the ages or compositions. The comparison of observed luminosity functions to theoretical ones allows the use of information not usually considered, and has the advantage of being relatively insensitive to lack of knowledge of the detailed structure of stellar envelopes and atmospheres. A computer program was developed to apply standard stellar evolutionary theory, using the most recently available input physics to the calculation of the evolution of low-mass Population II stars. A comparison of the computed theoretical luminosity functions to an observed, though still preliminary, luminosity function for the cluster M13 demonstrates the viability of this approach.

  12. Long Period Variable Stars in Globular Cluster NGC 6553

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kager, Elisabeth

    2010-04-01

    Long period variable stars (LPVs) are red giants or supergiants that vary in brightness as they pulsate radially. Their periods range from months to several years, and amplitudes can be many magnitudes. Studying these pulsation properties of LPVs as a function of position on the giant branch helps to constrain models of stellar structure, evolution, and pulsation. Studying LPVs in environments with known metallicity, age, and distance allows us to control these variables; globular clusters are an excellent environment. This study targets the metal-rich ([Fe/H] = -0.2) bulge globular cluster NGC 6553 in which variables have not been studied very thoroughly. Over the past year, 49 nights worth of data have been taken with PROMPT 4, a motorized telescope positioned at Cerro Tololo, Chile. Images have been processed, combined, and photometered and the stars' (X,Y) positions and brightness values were determined. The variability indices of the magnitudes of the stars between nights were used to find LPVs and plot their brightness as a function of time. These light curves will be characterized for their amplitude, period, and regularity; these can be used to compare to LPVs in other clusters at the same/other metallicities. A color-magnitude diagram will be created onto which the LPVs' position can be plotted to understand how far they are up the red giant branch to get a better understanding of their evolutionary state.

  13. Color Gradient in the King Type Globular Cluster NGC 7089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jong Sohn

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available We use BV CCD images to investigate the reality of the color gradient within a King type globular cluster NGC 7089. Surface photometry shows that there is a strong radial color gradient in the central region of the cluster in the sense of bluer center with the amplitude of -0.39 +/- 0.07 mag/arcsec2 in (B - V. In the outer region of the cluster, however, the radial color gradient shows a reverse case, i.e., redder toward the center. (B - V color profile which was derived from resolved stars in VGC 7089 field also shows a significant color gradient in the central region of the clusters, indicating that lights from the combination of red giant stars and blue horizontal branch stars cause the radial color gradient. Color gradient of the outer region of NGC 7089 may be due to the unresolved background of the cluster. Similar color gradients in the central area of clusters have been previously observed exserved exclusively in highly concentrated systems classified as post core collapse clusters. We caution, however, to confirm the reality of the color gradient from resolved stars, we need more accurate imaging data of the cluster with exceptional seeing condition because the effect of completeness correlates with local density of stars.

  14. Ages of Globular Clusters from HIPPARCOS Parallaxes of Local Subdwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, Raffaele G.; Fusi Pecci, Flavio; Carretta, Eugenio; Clementini, Gisella; Corsi, Carlo E.; Lattanzi, Mario

    1997-12-01

    We report here initial but strongly conclusive results for absolute ages of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs). This study is based on high-precision trigonometric parallaxes from the HIPPARCOS satellite coupled with accurate metal abundances ([Fe/H], [O/Fe], and [α/Fe]) from high-resolution spectroscopy for a sample of about thirty subdwarfs. Systematic effects due to star selection (Lutz-Kelker corrections to parallaxes) and the possible presence of undetected binaries in the sample of bona fide single stars are examined, and appropriate corrections are estimated. They are found to be small for our sample. The new data allow us to reliably define the absolute location of the main sequence (MS) as a function of metallicity. These results are then used to derive distances and ages for a carefully selected sample of nine globular clusters having metallicities determined from high-dispersion spectra of individual giants according to a procedure totally consistent with that used for the field subdwarfs. Very precise and homogeneous reddening values have also been independently determined for these clusters. Random errors for our distance moduli are +/-0.08 mag, and systematic errors are likely of the same order of magnitude. These very accurate distances allow us to derive ages with internal errors of ~12% (+/-1.5 Gyr). The main results are: 1. HIPPARCOS parallaxes are smaller than corresponding ground-based measurements, leading, in turn, to longer distance moduli (~0.2 mag) and younger ages (~2.8 Gyr). 2. The distance to NGC 6752 derived from our MS fitting is consistent with that determined using the white dwarf cooling sequence. 3. The relation between the zero-age HB (ZAHB) absolute magnitude and metallicity for the nine program clusters is MV(ZAHB)=(0.22+/-0.09)([Fe/H]+1.5)+(0.49+/-0.04) . This relation is fairly consistent with some of the most recent theoretical models. Within quoted errors, the slope is in agreement with that given by the Baade-Wesselink (BW

  15. THE FIRST CONFIRMED MICROLENS IN A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrukowicz, P.; Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Minniti, D.; Alonso-Garcia, J. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna MacKenna 4860, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Jetzer, Ph. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-01-10

    In 2000 July/August a microlensing event occurred at a distance of 2.'33 from the center of the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656), observed against the dense stellar field of the Milky Way bulge. We have used the adaptive optics system NACO at the ESO Very Large Telescope to resolve the two objects that participated in the event: the lens and the source. The position of the objects measured in 2011 July is in agreement with the observed relative proper motion of M22 with respect to the background bulge stars. Based on the brightness of the microlens components we find that the source is a solar-type star located at a distance of 6.0 {+-} 1.5 kpc in the bulge, while the lens is a 0.18 {+-} 0.01 M{sub Sun} dwarf member of the globular cluster located at the known distance of 3.2 {+-} 0.2 kpc from the Sun.

  16. New VVV Survey Globular Cluster Candidates in the Milky Way Bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Dante; Gómez, Matías [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. Fernandez Concha 700, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Geisler, Douglas; Fernández-Trincado, Jose G. [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alonso-García, Javier; Beamín, Juan Carlos; Borissova, Jura; Catelan, Marcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Kurtev, Radostin; Pullen, Joyce [Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica, Santiago (Chile); Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, Córdoba (Argentina); Cohen, Roger E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 2700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore (United States); Dias, Bruno [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Hempel, Maren [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarszchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Lucas, Phillip W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Hertfordshire, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom); Moni-Bidin, Christian; Alegría, Sebastian Ramírez [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Antofagasta (Chile); and others

    2017-11-10

    It is likely that a number of Galactic globular clusters remain to be discovered, especially toward the Galactic bulge. High stellar density combined with high and differential interstellar reddening are the two major problems for finding globular clusters located toward the bulge. We use the deep near-IR photometry of the VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) Survey to search for globular clusters projected toward the Galactic bulge, and hereby report the discovery of 22 new candidate globular clusters. These objects, detected as high density regions in our maps of bulge red giants, are confirmed as globular cluster candidates by their color–magnitude diagrams. We provide their coordinates as well as their near-IR color–magnitude diagrams, from which some basic parameters are derived, such as reddenings and heliocentric distances. The color–magnitude diagrams reveal well defined red giant branches in all cases, often including a prominent red clump. The new globular cluster candidates exhibit a variety of extinctions (0.06 < A {sub Ks} < 2.77) and distances (5.3 < D < 9.5 kpc). We also classify the globular cluster candidates into 10 metal-poor and 12 metal-rich clusters, based on the comparison of their color–magnitude diagrams with those of known globular clusters also observed by the VVV Survey. Finally, we argue that the census for Galactic globular clusters still remains incomplete, and that many more candidate globular clusters (particularly the low luminosity ones) await to be found and studied in detail in the central regions of the Milky Way.

  17. Chemical abundances in the old LMC globular cluster Hodge 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateluna, R.; Geisler, D.; Villanova, S.; Carraro, G.; Grocholski, A.; Sarajedini, A.; Cole, A.; Smith, V.

    2012-12-01

    Context. The study of globular clusters is one of the most powerful ways to learn about a galaxy's chemical evolution and star formation history. They preserve a record of chemical abundances at the time of their formation and are relatively easy to age date. The most detailed knowledge of the chemistry of a star is given by high resolution spectroscopy, which provides accurate abundances for a wide variety of elements, yielding a wealth of information on the various processes involved in the cluster's chemical evolution. Aims: We studied red giant branch (RGB) stars in an old, metal-poor globular cluster of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Hodge 11 (H11), in order to measure as many elements as possible. The goal is to compare its chemical trends to those in the Milky Way halo and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in order to help understand the formation history of the LMC and our own Galaxy. Methods: We have obtained high resolution VLT/FLAMES spectra of eight RGB stars in H11. The spectral range allowed us to measure a variety of elements, including Fe, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, O, Ni, Cr, Sc, Mn, Co, Zn, Ba, La, Eu and Y. Results: We derived a mean [Fe/H] = -2.00 ± 0.04, in the middle of previous determinations. We found low [α/Fe] abundances for our targets, more comparable to values found in dwarf spheroidal galaxies than in the Galactic halo, suggesting that if H11 is representative of its ancient populations then the LMC does not represent a good halo building block. Our [Ca/Fe] value is about 0.3 dex less than that of halo stars used to calibrate the Ca IR triplet technique for deriving metallicity. A hint of a Na abundance spread is observed. Its stars lie at the extreme high O, low Na end of the Na:O anti-correlation displayed by Galactic and LMC globular clusters. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal ID 082.B-0458).Table 4 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Extended Main-sequence Turn-offs in Intermediate-age Star Clusters: Stellar Rotation Diminishes, but Does Not Eliminate, Age Spreads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Correnti, Matteo [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: goudfroo@stsci.edu [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova—INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2017-09-01

    Extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) regions are a common feature in color–magnitude diagrams of young- and intermediate-age star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. The nature of eMSTOs remains debated in the literature. The currently most popular scenarios are extended star formation activity and ranges of stellar rotation rates. Here we study details of differences in main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) morphology expected from spreads in age versus spreads in rotation rates, using Monte Carlo simulations with the Geneva syclist isochrone models that include the effects of stellar rotation. We confirm a recent finding of Niederhofer et al. that a distribution of stellar rotation velocities yields an MSTO extent that is proportional to the cluster age, as observed. However, we find that stellar rotation yields MSTO crosscut widths that are generally smaller than observed ones at a given age. We compare the simulations with high-quality Hubble Space Telescope data of NGC 1987 and NGC 2249, which are the two only relatively massive star clusters with an age of ∼1 Gyr for which such data is available. We find that the distribution of stars across the eMSTOs of these clusters cannot be explained solely by a distribution of stellar rotation velocities, unless the orientations of rapidly rotating stars are heavily biased toward an equator-on configuration. Under the assumption of random viewing angles, stellar rotation can account for ∼60% and ∼40% of the observed FWHM widths of the eMSTOs of NGC 1987 and NGC 2249, respectively. In contrast, a combination of distributions of stellar rotation velocities and stellar ages fits the observed eMSTO morphologies very well.

  19. Dynamics of gravitational systems: Globular clusters and dark matter halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of globular clusters is investigated using a combination of the modified Fokker-Plank equation and numerical integrations of N-body systems. The orbit-averaged diffusion coefficients in the inner region of the cluster and integrated orbits of the stars in the outer region are used. The King-Michie distribution is adopted as an initial model. Both isotropic and anisotropic cases are examined. The following was found. There is no orbital phase dependence of tidal radius of clusters in eccentric orbits. The number of stars with retrograde orbits is similar to the number with prograde orbits inside the tidal radius for the isotropic case. Escape rates are similar to those found in previous work for the isotropic case but considerably smaller in the anisotropic case. Disk shocking is very efficient isotropizing the orbits of stars in the outer region of the cluster in the anisotropic case. The response of dark matter galactic halos during the dissipational collapse of the baryonic matter are investigated. N-body simulations are used with the total mass and z-component of angular momentum conserved. Then the baryonic matter is forced to contract, forming the final luminous components of the galaxy. Both slow and fast growth of the luminous components are considered. Relatively flat rotation curves are easily obtained for reasonable values of the free parameters. There is no significant difference between slow collapse and fast collapse for all these results

  20. Anomalous globular clusters: insights from neutron capture elements abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, A. F.

    Thanks to the large amount of spectroscopic and photometric data assembled in the last couple of decades, the assumption that all globular clusters (GCs) contain a simple mono-metallic stellar population has been modified. Besides the common variations in the elements created/destroyed in the H-burning processes, spreads and/or multi-modalities in heavier elements have been detected in a few objects. Among the most remarkable chemical inhomogeneity in these anomalous objects is the internal variation in the neutron-capture (n-capture) elements, that can provide some information about the material from which stars were born. I report a summary of the chemical pattern observed in GCs where variations in n-capture have been detected, and the connection between these chemical features and the distribution of stars along the color-magnitude diagrams in the context of the lively debate on multiple stellar populations.

  1. AGB subpopulations in the nearby globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, B. T.; Campbell, S. W.; De Silva, G. M.; Lattanzio, J.; D'Orazi, V.; Cottrell, P. L.; Momany, Y.; Casagrande, L.

    2018-03-01

    It has been well established that Galactic Globular clusters (GCs) harbour more than one stellar population, distinguishable by the anticorrelations of light-element abundances (C-N, Na-O, and Mg-Al). These studies have been extended recently to the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Here, we investigate the AGB of NGC 6397 for the first time. We have performed an abundance analysis of high-resolution spectra of 47 red giant branch (RGB) and eight AGB stars, deriving Fe, Na, O, Mg, and Al abundances. We find that NGC 6397 shows no evidence of a deficit in Na-rich AGB stars, as reported for some other GCs - the subpopulation ratios of the AGB and RGB in NGC 6397 are identical, within uncertainties. This agrees with expectations from stellar theory. This GC acts as a control for our earlier work on the AGB of M4 (with contrasting results), since the same tools and methods were used.

  2. SHRINKING THE BRANEWORLD: BLACK HOLE IN A GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    Large extra dimensions have been proposed as a possible solution to the hierarchy problem in physics. In one of the suggested models, the RS2 braneworld model, black holes may evaporate by Hawking radiation faster than in general relativity, on a timescale that depends on the black hole mass and on the asymptotic radius of curvature of the extra dimensions. Thus the size of the extra dimensions can be constrained by astrophysical observations. Here we point out that the black hole, recently discovered in an extragalactic globular cluster, places the strongest upper limit on the size of the extra dimensions in the RS2 model, L ∼< 0.003 mm. This black hole has the virtues of old age and relatively small mass. The derived upper limit is within an order of magnitude of the absolute limit afforded by astrophysical observations of black holes.

  3. Helium enhancements in globular cluster stars from AGB star pollution .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, A.; Fenner, Y.; Sills, Alison; Campbell, S. W.; Lattanzio, J. C.

    Using a chemical evolution model we investigate the intriguing suggestion that there are populations of stars in some globular clusters (e.g. NGC 2808, omega Centauri) with enhanced levels of helium (Y ˜ 0.28 to 0.40) compared to the majority of the population that presumably have a primordial helium abundance. We assume that a previous generation of massive low-metallicity Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars has polluted the cluster gas via a slow stellar wind. We use two independent sets of AGB yields computed from detailed models to follow the evolution of helium, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen in the cluster gas using a Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) and a number of top-heavy IMFs. In no case were we able to fit the observational constraints, Y > 0.30 and C+N+O ≈ constant. Depending on the shape of the IMF and the yields, we either obtained Y gtrsim 0.30 and large increases in C+N+O or Y responsible for the large helium enrichment or that any dredge-up from this generation of stars was less than predicted by standard models.

  4. The variable star population in the globular cluster NGC 6934

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, M. A.; Arellano Ferro, A.; Muneer, S.; Giridhar, Sunetra

    2018-04-01

    We report an analysis of new V and I CCD time-series photometry of the globular cluster NGC 6934. Through the Fourier decomposition of the RR Lyrae light curves the mean values of [Fe/H] and the distance of the cluster were estimated; we found: [Fe/H]UVES = - 1.48 ± 0.14 and d = 16.03 ± 0.42 kpc, and [Fe/H]UVES = - 1.43 ± 0.11 and d = 15.91 ± 0.39 kpc, from the calibrations of RRab and RRc stars respectively. Independent distance estimations from SX Phe and SR stars are also discussed. Individual absolute magnitudes, radii and masses are also reported for RR Lyrae stars. We found 12 new variables: 4 RRab, 3 SX Phe, 2 W Virginis (CW) and 3 semi-regular (SR). The inter-mode or "either-or" region in the instability strip is shared by the RRab and RRc stars. This characteristic, observed only in some OoI clusters and never seen in an OoII, is discussed in terms of mass distribution in the ZAHB.

  5. A study of rotating globular clusters. The case of the old, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 4372

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, N.; Bianchini, P.; Koch, A.; Frank, M. J.; Martin, N. F.; van de Ven, G.; Puzia, T. H.; McDonald, I.; Johnson, C. I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2014-07-01

    Context. NGC 4372 is a poorly studied old, very metal-poor globular cluster (GC) located in the inner Milky Way halo. Aims: We present the first in-depth study of the kinematic properties and derive the structural parameters of NGC 4372 based on the fit of a Plummer profile and a rotating, physical model. We explore the link between internal rotation to different cluster properties and together with similar studies of more GCs, we put these in the context of globular cluster formation and evolution. Methods: We present radial velocities for 131 cluster member stars measured from high-resolution FLAMES/GIRAFFE observations. Their membership to the GC is additionally confirmed from precise metallicity estimates. We build a velocity dispersion profile and a systemic rotation curve using this kinematic data set. Additionally, we obtain an elliptical number density profile of NGC 4372 based on optical images using a Markov chain Monte Carlo fitting algorithm. From this, we derive the cluster's half-light radius and ellipticity as rh = 3.44' ± 0.04' and ɛ = 0.08 ± 0.01. Finally, we give a physical interpretation of the observed morphological and kinematic properties of this GC by fitting an axisymmetric, differentially rotating, dynamical model. Results: Our results show that NGC 4372 has an unusually high ratio of rotation amplitude to velocity dispersion (1.2 vs. 4.5 km s-1) for its metallicity. This puts it in line, however, with two other exceptional, very metal-poor GCs: M 15 and NGC 4590. We also find a mild flattening of NGC 4372 in the direction of its rotation. Given its old age, this suggests that the flattening is indeed caused by the systemic rotation rather than tidal interactions with the Galaxy. Additionally, we estimate the dynamical mass of the GC Mdyn = 2.0 ± 0.5 × 105M⊙ based on the dynamical model, which constrains the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 4372 between 1.4 and 2.3 M⊙/L⊙, representative of an old, purely stellar population. Based on

  6. The Globular Cluster NGC 6402 (M14). II. Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, C.; Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.; Stephens, A. W.; Smith, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present time-series BVI photometry for the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6402 (M14). The data consist of ∼137 images per filter, obtained using the 0.9 and 1.0 m SMARTS telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The images were obtained during two observing runs in 2006–2007. The image-subtraction package ISIS, along with DAOPHOT II/ALLFRAME, was used to perform crowded-field photometry and search for variable stars. We identified 130 variables, eight of which are new discoveries. The variable star population is comprised of 56 ab-type RR Lyrae stars, 54 c-type RR Lyrae, 6 type II Cepheids, 1 W UMa star, 1 detached eclipsing binary, and 12 long-period variables. We provide Fourier decomposition parameters for the RR Lyrae, and discuss the physical parameters and photometric metallicity derived therefrom. The M14 distance modulus is also discussed, based on different approaches for the calibration of the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. The possible presence of second-overtone RR Lyrae in M14 is critically addressed, with our results arguing against this possibility. By considering all of the RR Lyrae stars as members of the cluster, we derive =0.589 {{d}}{{a}}{{y}}{{s}}. This, together with the position of the RR Lyrae stars of both Bailey types in the period–amplitude diagram, suggests an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the cluster. Such an intermediate Oosterhoff type is much more commonly found in nearby extragalactic systems, and we critically discuss several other possible indications that may point to an extragalactic origin for this cluster. Based on observations obtained with the 0.9 m and 1 m telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, operated by the SMARTS consortium.

  7. Study of Remote Globular Cluster Satellites of M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Arushi; Shao, Andrew; Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present a sample of “orphan” globular clusters (GCs) with previously unknown parent galaxies, which we determine to be remote satellites of M87, a massive elliptical galaxy at the center of the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies. Because GCs were formed in the early universe along with their original parent galaxies, which were cannibalized by massive galaxies such as M87, they share similar age and chemical properties. In this study, we first confirm that M87 is the adoptive parent galaxy of our orphan GCs using photometric and spectroscopic data to analyze spatial and velocity distributions. Next, we increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our samples’ spectra through a process known as coaddition. We utilize spectroscopic absorption lines to determine the age and metallicity of our orphan GCs through comparison to stellar population synthesis models, which we then relate to the GCs’ original parent galaxies using a mass-metallicity relation. Our finding that remote GCs of M87 likely developed in galaxies with ~1010 solar masses implies that M87’s outer halo is formed of relatively massive galaxies, serving as important parameters for developing theories about the formation and evolution of massive galaxies.This research was funded in part by NASA/STScI and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  8. Sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Caffau, E.

    2011-10-01

    Sulphur (S) is a non-refractory α-element that is not locked into dust grains in the interstellar medium. Thus no correction to the measured, interstellar sulphur abundance is needed and it can be readily compared to the S content in stellar photospheres. Here we present the first measurement of sulphur in the metal poor globular cluster (GC) NGC 6397, as detected in a MIKE/Magellan high signal-to-noise, high-resolution spectrum of one red giant star. While abundance ratios of sulphur are available for a larger number of Galactic stars down to an [Fe/H] of ~ -3.5 dex, no measurements in globular clusters more metal poor than -1.5 dex have been reported so far. We find aNLTE, 3-D abundance ratio of [S/Fe] = +0.52 ± 0.20 (stat.) ± 0.08 (sys.), based on theS I, Multiplet 1 line at 9212.8 Å. This value is consistent with a Galactic halo plateau as typical of other α-elements in GCs and field stars, but we cannot rule out its membership with a second branch of increasing [S/Fe] with decreasing [Fe/H], claimed in the literature, which leads to a large scatter at metallicities around - 2 dex. The [S/Mg] and [S/Ca] ratios in this star are compatible with a Solar value to within the (large) uncertainties. Despite the very large scatter in these ratios across Galactic stars between literature samples, this indicates that sulphur traces the chemical imprints of the other α-elements in metal poor GCs. Combined with its moderate sodium abundance ([S/Na]NLTE = 0.48), the [S/Fe] ratio in this GC extends a global, positive S-Na correlation that is not seen in field stars and might indicate that proton-capture reactions contributed to the production of sulphur in the (metal poor) early GC environments. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  9. The onset of gravothermal oscillations in globular cluster evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeden, Joseph L.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Hut, Piet

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out an extensive set of Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters on very long timescales, up to 600 times the initial core collapse time tcc. We consider an idealized equal mass star cluster, with a wide range of values for the total number of stars, 7000 less than N less than 2 x 106. Our models include the heating effect of compact binaries formed in three-body encounters, which halts the initial core collapse and drives a core reexpansion. Postcollapse gravothermal oscillations of the cluster core are found to occur for all N approximately greater than or equal to 8000. For 8000 approximately less than or equal to N approximately less than or equal to 11,000, the oscillation has a simple, regular waveform with a single, well-defined period. For N approximately equals 12,000, the oscillations become nonlinear in a process resembling a period doubling. For N approximately greater than or equal to 14,000, the waveform of the oscillations becomes increasingly more irregular with increasing N, resembling chaotic behavior for N approximately greater than or equal to 15,000. During the oscillations, the core radius and core mass vary dramatically: by more than a factor of 10 for N greater than 15,000, by more than a factor of 100 for N greater than 5 x 104, and by more than a factor of 1000 for N greater than 5 x 105. However, even during the times of maximum expansion, the core contains only a small fraction of the cluster mass. For most N values, the maximum core mass at any time after core collapse is less than 1% of the cluster mass. The exceptions lie in the range 5 x 104 approximately less than or equal to N approximately equal to or less than 2 x 105, where the maximum post-collapse core mass reaches approximately 2% of the cluster mass. We discuss the observational implications of these predictions.

  10. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - UV fluxes of M31 globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlin, R.C.; Cornett, R.H.; Hill, J.K.; Hill, R.S.; Stecher, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Images obtained by a rocket-borne UV imaging telescope are used here to determine near-UV fluxes for 17 sources in M31 that are optical globular-cluster candidates and for the bright open cluster vdB0 in M31. Far-UV fluxes or flux limits are determined for the same clusters. The m(NUV)-V colors for M31 clusters are similar to those of Galactic clusters, except for the high-metallicity M31 cluster Bo 171. Four of the detected clusters have optical, m(NUV) - V, and m(FUV) - V colors indicating ages of about 100 million years. These four clusters are probably similar to the so-called 'blue globular' clusters of the LMC. The existence of young LMC-type blue globulars and the possible existence of middle-aged metal-rich globulars may indicate that M31 has continued to form globular clusters throughout its life. 39 references

  11. The X-ray globular cluster NGC 1851

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaino, G

    1976-01-01

    A BV photometric investigation of the Southern Globular Cluster NGC 1851, was carried out using the 1 m telescope of Cerro La Silla (ESO) for the photoelectric work and the 1 m telescope of Cerro Las Campanas (CARSO) for the photographic work. Nineteen stars were observed photoelectrically, the limiting magnitude being V=16.18. Using this sequence, 156 stars were measured photographically. The derived apparent distance modulus is (m-M)/sub app/=15/sup m/.50. The reddening is E(B-V)=0/sup m/.10. The true distance modulus is (m-M) /sub 0/=15/sup m/.20. The distance is 11 kpc from the sun, 6 kpc from the galactic plane and 17 kpc from the galactic centre. The main features of the colour-magnitude diagram are: a well defined horizontal branch abundant in red stars and deficient in blue stars, a rich subgiant and asymptotic branch and a moderately populated red giant branch of medium steepness rising to Delta V=2/sup m/.5 at (B-V) /sub 0/=1.4. At the distance of 11 kpc the maximum observed luminosity of the X-ray ...

  12. KINEMATICS OF OUTER HALO GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veljanoski, J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Bernard, E. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Mackey, A. D.; Huxor, A. P.; Irwin, M. J.; Chapman, S. C.; Côté, P.; Tanvir, N. R.; McConnachie, A.; Ibata, R. A.; Martin, N. F.; Fardal, M.; Lewis, G. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first kinematic analysis of the far outer halo globular cluster (GC) population in the Local Group galaxy M31. Our sample contains 53 objects with projected radii of ∼20-130 kpc, 44 of which have no previous spectroscopic information. GCs with projected radii ∼> 30 kpc are found to exhibit net rotation around the minor axis of M31, in the same sense as the inner GCs, albeit with a smaller amplitude of 79 ± 19 km s –1 . The rotation-corrected velocity dispersion of the full halo GC sample is 106 ± 12 km s –1 , which we observe to decrease with increasing projected radius. We find compelling evidence for kinematic coherence among GCs that project on top of halo substructure, including a clear signature of infall for GCs lying along the northwest stream. Using the tracer mass estimator, we estimate the dynamical mass of M31 within 200 kpc to be M M31 = (1.2-1.5) ± 0.2 × 10 12 M ☉ . This value is highly dependent on the chosen model and assumptions within.

  13. ARE SOME MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS HOSTED BY UNDISCOVERED GALAXIES?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Crnojević, Denija; Sand, David J., E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    The confirmation of a globular cluster (GC) in the recently discovered ultrafaint galaxy Eridanus II (Eri II) motivated us to examine the question posed in the title. After estimating the halo mass of Eri II using a published stellar mass—halo mass relation, the one GC in this galaxy supports extending the relationship between the number of GCs hosted by a galaxy and the galaxy’s total mass about two orders of magnitude in stellar mass below the previous limit. For this empirically determined specific frequency of between 0.06 and 0.39 GCs per 10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙} of total mass, the surviving Milky Way (MW) subhalos with masses smaller than 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} could host as many as 5–31 GCs, broadly consistent with the actual population of outer halo MW GCs, although matching the radial distribution in detail remains a challenge. Using a subhalo mass function from published high-resolution numerical simulations and a Poissonian model for populating those halos with the aforementioned empirically constrained frequency, we find that about 90% of these GCs lie in lower-mass subhalos than that of Eri II. From what we know about the stellar mass–halo mass function, the subhalo mass function, and the mass-normalized GC specific frequency, we conclude that some of the MW’s outer halo GCs are likely to be hosted by undetected subhalos with extremely modest stellar populations.

  14. Comparison of Intra-cluster and M87 Halo Orphan Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Tiffany Kaye; Tuan, Jin Zong; Martellini, Adhara; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Toloba, Elisa; Peng, Eric; Longobardi, Alessia; Lim, Sungsoon

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of “orphan” globular clusters (GCs) — GCs with no identifiable nearby host galaxy — discovered in NGVS, a 104 deg2 CFHT/MegaCam imaging survey. At the distance of the Virgo cluster, GCs are bright enough to make good spectroscopic targets and many are barely resolved in good ground-based seeing. Our orphan GC sample is derived from a subset of NGVS-selected GC candidates that were followed up with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. While our primary spectroscopic targets were candidate GC satellites of Virgo dwarf elliptical and ultra-diffuse galaxies, many objects turned out to be non-satellites based on a radial velocity mismatch with the Virgo galaxy they are projected close to. Using a combination of spectral characteristics (e.g., absorption vs. emission), Gaussian mixture modeling of radial velocity and positions, and extreme deconvolution analysis of ugrizk photometry and image morphology, these non-satellites were classified into: (1) intra-cluster GCs (ICGCs) in the Virgo cluster, (2) GCs in the outer halo of M87, (3) foreground Milky Way stars, and (4) background galaxies. The statistical distinction between ICGCs and M87 halo GCs is based on velocity distributions (mean of 1100 vs. 1300 km/s and dispersions of 700 vs. 400 km/s, respectively) and radial distribution (diffuse vs. centrally concentrated, respectively). We used coaddition to increase the spectral SNR for the two classes of orphan GCs and measured the equivalent widths (EWs) of the Mg b and H-beta absorption lines. These EWs were compared to single stellar population models to obtain mean age and metallicity estimates. The ICGCs and M87 halo GCs have = –0.6+/–0.3 and –0.4+/–0.3 dex, respectively, and mean ages of >~ 5 and >~ 10 Gyr, respectively. This suggests the M87 halo GCs formed in relatively high-mass galaxies that avoided being tidally disrupted by M87 until they were close to the cluster center, while IGCCs formed in relatively low-mass galaxies that were

  15. The DRAGON simulations: globular cluster evolution with a million stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Spurzem, Rainer; Aarseth, Sverre; Giersz, Mirek; Askar, Abbas; Berczik, Peter; Naab, Thorsten; Schadow, Riko; Kouwenhoven, M. B. N.

    2016-05-01

    Introducing the DRAGON simulation project, we present direct N-body simulations of four massive globular clusters (GCs) with 106 stars and 5 per cent primordial binaries at a high level of accuracy and realism. The GC evolution is computed with NBODY6++GPU and follows the dynamical and stellar evolution of individual stars and binaries, kicks of neutron stars and black holes (BHs), and the effect of a tidal field. We investigate the evolution of the luminous (stellar) and dark (faint stars and stellar remnants) GC components and create mock observations of the simulations (I.e. photometry, colour-magnitude diagrams, surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles). By connecting internal processes to observable features, we highlight the formation of a long-lived `dark' nuclear subsystem made of BHs, which results in a two-component structure. The inner core is dominated by the BH subsystem and experiences a core-collapse phase within the first Gyr. It can be detected in the stellar (luminous) line-of-sight velocity dispersion profiles. The outer extended core - commonly observed in the (luminous) surface brightness profiles - shows no collapse features and is continuously expanding. We demonstrate how a King model fit to observed clusters might help identify the presence of post core-collapse BH subsystems. For global observables like core and half-mass radii, the direct simulations agree well with Monte Carlo models. Variations in the initial mass function can result in significantly different GC properties (e.g. density distributions) driven by varying amounts of early mass-loss and the number of forming BHs.

  16. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS INDICATE THAT ULTRA-DIFFUSE GALAXIES ARE DWARFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio, E-mail: beasley@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Calle Via Láctea, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We present an analysis of archival HST /ACS imaging in the F475W ( g {sub 475}), F606W ( V {sub 606}), and F814W ( I {sub 814}) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5 σ completeness limit of the imaging ( I {sub 814} = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V -band specific frequency S {sub N} = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ∼9.0 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M {sub vir}/ M {sub star} ∼ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g {sub 475}– I {sub 814} = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  17. Globular Clusters Indicate That Ultra-diffuse Galaxies Are Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    We present an analysis of archival HST/ACS imaging in the F475W (g 475), F606W (V 606), and F814W (I 814) bands of the globular cluster (GC) system of a large (3.4 kpc effective radius) ultra-diffuse galaxy (DF17) believed to be located in the Coma Cluster of galaxies. We detect 11 GCs down to the 5σ completeness limit of the imaging (I 814 = 27 mag). Correcting for background and our detection limits yields a total population of GCs in this galaxy of 27 ± 5 and a V-band specific frequency S N = 28 ± 5. Based on comparisons to the GC systems of local galaxies, we show that both the absolute number and the colors of the GC system of DF17 are consistent with the GC system of a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy with virial mass ˜9.0 × 1010 M ⊙ and a dark-to-stellar mass ratio M vir/M star ˜ 1000. Based on the stellar mass growth of the Milky Way, we show that DF17 cannot be understood as a failed Milky-Way-like system, but is more similar to quenched Large-Magellanic-Cloud-like systems. We find that the mean color of the GC population, g 475-I 814 = 0.91 ± 0.05 mag, coincides with the peak of the color distribution of intracluster GCs and is also similar to those of the blue GCs in the outer regions of massive galaxies. We suggest that both the intracluster GC population in Coma and the blue peak in the GC populations of massive galaxies may be fed—at least in part—by the disrupted equivalents of systems such as DF17.

  18. Spatial Substructure in the M87 Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuting; Zhang, Yunhao; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric; Lim, Sungsoon

    2018-01-01

    Based on the observation of Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) project, we obtained the u,g,r,i,z and Ks band photometric information of all the objects in the 2 degree × 2 degree area (Pilot Region) around M87, the major subcluster of Virgo. By adapting an Extreme Deconvolution method, which classifies objects into Globular Clusters (GCs), galaxies and foreground stars with their color and morphology data, we got a purer-than-ever GC distribution map with a depth to gmag=25 in Pilot Region. After masking galaxy GCs, smoothing with a 10arcmin Gaussian kernel and performing a flat field correction, we show the GC density map of M87, and got a good sersic fitting of GC radial distribution with a sersic index~2.2 in the central ellipse part (45arcmin semi major axis area of M87). We quantitatively compared our GC sample with a substructure-free mock data set, which was generated from the smoothed density map as well as the sersic fitting, by calculating the 2 point correlation function (TPCF) value in different parts of the map. After separately performing such comparison with mocks based on different galaxy masking radii which vary from 4 times g band effective radius to 10, we found signals of remarkable spatial enhancement in certain directions in the central ellipse of M87, as well as halo substructures shown as lumpiness and holes in the outer region. We present the estimated scales of these substructures from the TPCF results, and, managed to locate them with a statistical analysis of the pixelized GC map. Apart from all results listed above, we discuss the constant, extra-galactic substructure signal at a scale of ~3kpc, which does not diminish with masking sizes, as the evidence of merging and accretion history of M87.

  19. GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS IN BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES: A NEAR-UNIVERSAL LUMINOSITY FUNCTION?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, William E.; O' Halloran, Heather; Cockcroft, Robert, E-mail: harris@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: ohallohm@mcmaster.ca, E-mail: cockcroft@physics.mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON (Canada); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present the first results from our Hubble Space Telescope brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) survey of seven central supergiant cluster galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems. We measure a total of 48,000 GCs in all seven galaxies, representing the largest single GC database. We find that a log-normal shape accurately matches the observed the luminosity function (LF) of the GCs down to the globular cluster luminosity function turnover point, which is near our photometric limit. In addition, the LF has a virtually identical shape in all seven galaxies. Our data underscore the similarity in the formation mechanism of massive star clusters in diverse galactic environments. At the highest luminosities (L ≳ 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}), we find small numbers of ''superluminous'' objects in five of the galaxies; their luminosity and color ranges are at least partly consistent with those of ultra-compact dwarfs. Last, we find preliminary evidence that in the outer halo (R ≳ 20 kpc), the LF turnover point shows a weak dependence on projected distance, scaling as L {sub 0} ∼ R {sup –0.2}, while the LF dispersion remains nearly constant.

  20. The Observational and Theoretical Tidal Radii of Globular Clusters in M87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Sills, Alison; Harris, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Globular clusters have linear sizes (tidal radii) which theory tells us are determined by their masses and by the gravitational potential of their host galaxy. To explore the relationship between observed and expected radii, we utilize the globular cluster population of the Virgo giant M87. Unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 are used to measure the effective and limiting radii of approximately 2000 globular clusters. To compare with these observations, we simulate a globular cluster population that has the same characteristics as the observed M87 cluster population. Placing these simulated clusters in the well-studied tidal field of M87, the orbit of each cluster is solved and the theoretical tidal radius of each cluster is determined. We compare the predicted relationship between cluster size and projected galactocentric distance to observations. We find that for an isotropic distribution of cluster velocities, theoretical tidal radii are approximately equal to observed limiting radii for R gc < 10 kpc. However, the isotropic simulation predicts a steep increase in cluster size at larger radii, which is not observed in large galaxies beyond the Milky Way. To minimize the discrepancy between theory and observations, we explore the effects of orbital anisotropy on cluster sizes, and suggest a possible orbital anisotropy profile for M87 which yields a better match between theory and observations. Finally, we suggest future studies which will establish a stronger link between theoretical tidal radii and observed radii.

  1. THE OBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL TIDAL RADII OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Sills, Alison; Harris, William E.

    2012-01-01

    Globular clusters have linear sizes (tidal radii) which theory tells us are determined by their masses and by the gravitational potential of their host galaxy. To explore the relationship between observed and expected radii, we utilize the globular cluster population of the Virgo giant M87. Unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 are used to measure the effective and limiting radii of approximately 2000 globular clusters. To compare with these observations, we simulate a globular cluster population that has the same characteristics as the observed M87 cluster population. Placing these simulated clusters in the well-studied tidal field of M87, the orbit of each cluster is solved and the theoretical tidal radius of each cluster is determined. We compare the predicted relationship between cluster size and projected galactocentric distance to observations. We find that for an isotropic distribution of cluster velocities, theoretical tidal radii are approximately equal to observed limiting radii for R gc < 10 kpc. However, the isotropic simulation predicts a steep increase in cluster size at larger radii, which is not observed in large galaxies beyond the Milky Way. To minimize the discrepancy between theory and observations, we explore the effects of orbital anisotropy on cluster sizes, and suggest a possible orbital anisotropy profile for M87 which yields a better match between theory and observations. Finally, we suggest future studies which will establish a stronger link between theoretical tidal radii and observed radii.

  2. Mass evaporation rate of globular clusters in a strong tidal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Juan P.; Leigh, Nathan W. C.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Giersz, Mirek

    2017-09-01

    The mass evaporation rate of globular clusters evolving in a strong Galactic tidal field is derived through the analysis of large, multimass N-body simulations. For comparison, we also study the same evaporation rates using mocca Monte Carlo models for globular cluster evolution. Our results show that the mass evaporation rate is a dynamical value, that is, far from a constant single number found in earlier analytical work and commonly used in the literature. Moreover, the evaporation rate derived with these simulations is higher than values previously published. These models also show that the value of the mass evaporation rate depends on the strength of the tidal field. We give an analytical estimate of the mass evaporation rate as a function of time and galactocentric distance ξ(RGC, t). Upon extrapolating this formula to smaller RGC values, our results provide tentative evidence for a very high ξ value at small RGC. Our results suggest that the corresponding mass-loss in the inner Galactic potential could be high and it should be accounted for when star clusters pass within it. This has direct relevance to nuclear cluster formation/growth via the infall of globular clusters through dynamical friction. As an illustrative example, we estimate how the evaporation rate increases for an ˜105 M⊙ globular cluster that decays through dynamical friction into the Galactic Centre. We discuss the findings of this work in relation to the formation of nuclear star clusters by inspiralling globular clusters.

  3. A Search for Millisecond Pulsars in Fermi LAT-Detected Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    DeCesar, Megan E.; Ransom, Scott M.; Ray, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in two globular clusters detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. These clusters contained no known MSPs prior to their detections in gamma rays. The discovery of gamma ray emission from many MSPs and the prevalence of MSPs in globular clusters points to a population of MSPs as the likely source of the detected GeV emission, directing our search for new cluster MSPs. We observed NGC 6652 and NGC 6388 at 2 GHz with the Green Bank Ultimate Puls...

  4. THE HST/ACS COMA CLUSTER SURVEY. IV. INTERGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND THE MASSIVE GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM AT THE CORE OF THE COMA GALAXY CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; Del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matkovic, Ana

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is host to a correspondingly large system of globular clusters (GCs). We use imaging from the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey to present the first definitive detection of a large population of intracluster GCs (IGCs) that fills the Coma cluster core and is not associated with individual galaxies. The GC surface density profile around the central massive elliptical galaxy, NGC 4874, is dominated at large radii by a population of IGCs that extend to the limit of our data (R +4000 -5000 (systematic) IGCs out to this radius, and that they make up ∼70% of the central GC system, making this the largest GC system in the nearby universe. Even including the GC systems of other cluster galaxies, the IGCs still make up ∼30%-45% of the GCs in the cluster core. Observational limits from previous studies of the intracluster light (ICL) suggest that the IGC population has a high specific frequency. If the IGC population has a specific frequency similar to high-S N dwarf galaxies, then the ICL has a mean surface brightness of μ V ∼ 27 mag arcsec -2 and a total stellar mass of roughly 10 12 M sun within the cluster core. The ICL makes up approximately half of the stellar luminosity and one-third of the stellar mass of the central (NGC 4874+ICL) system. The color distribution of the IGC population is bimodal, with blue, metal-poor GCs outnumbering red, metal-rich GCs by a ratio of 4:1. The inner GCs associated with NGC 4874 also have a bimodal distribution in color, but with a redder metal-poor population. The fraction of red IGCs (20%), and the red color of those GCs, implies that IGCs can originate from the halos of relatively massive, L* galaxies, and not solely from the disruption of

  5. RR Lyrae in LMC Globular Clusters: Insights into the Oosterhoff Phenomenon and Milky Way Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Charles A., III; Smith, H. A.; Catelan, M.; Taylor, L.; McClellan, R. E.; Looper, K.; DeLee, N.; Pritzl, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a study of RR Lyrae stars in five globular clusters located in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The goal of this study was to look at the behavior and properties of RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate globular clusters and compare them to RR Lyrae in Oosterhoff I and II clusters. New BVI photometric observations of these clusters were obtained with the SMARTS consortium telescopes and with the SOAR 4-meter telescope. We present light curves and Fourier properties for the RR Lyrae stars in our study as well as physical properties for these stars derived from their Fourier parameters. We compare these physical properties to those of RR Lyrae in Milky Way halo globular clusters and discuss implications for Milky Way halo formation.

  6. The Globular Cluster System of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 7814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2003-11-01

    We present the results of a wide-field photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system of the edge-on Sab spiral NGC 7814. This is the first spiral to be fully analyzed from our survey of the GC systems of a large sample of galaxies beyond the Local Group. NGC 7814 is of particular interest because a previous study estimated that it has 500-1000 GCs, giving it the largest specific frequency (SN) known for a spiral. Understanding this galaxy's GC system is important in terms of our understanding of the GC populations of spirals in general and has implications for the formation of massive galaxies. We observed the galaxy in BVR filters with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope and used image classification and three-color photometry to select GC candidates. We also analyzed archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of NGC 7814, both to help quantify the contamination level of the WIYN GC candidate list and to detect GCs in the inner part of the galaxy halo. Combining HST data with high-quality ground-based images allows us to trace the entire radial extent of this galaxy's GC system and determine the total number of GCs directly through observation. We find that rather than being an especially high-SN spiral, NGC 7814 has <~200 GCs and SN~1, making it comparable to the two most well-studied spiral galaxies, the Milky Way and M31. We explore the implications of these results for models of the formation of galaxies and their GC systems. The initial results from our survey suggest that the GC systems of typical elliptical galaxies can be accounted for by the merger of two or more spirals, but that for highly luminous elliptical galaxies, additional physical processes may be needed.

  7. A Unified Picture of Mass Segregation in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The sensitivity, stability and longevity of HST have opened up an exciting new parameter space: we now have velocity measurements, in the form of proper motions (PMs), for stars from the tip of the red giant branch to a few magnitudes below the main-sequence turn off for a large sample of globular clusters (GCs). For the very first time, we have the opportunity to measure both kinematic and spatial dependences on stellar mass in GCs.The formation and evolution histories of GCs are poorly understood, so too are their intermediate-mass black hole populations and binary fractions. However, the current structure and dynamical state of a GC is directly determined by its past history and its components, so by understanding the former we can gain insight into the latter. Quantifying variations in spatial structure for stars of different mass is extremely difficult with photometry alone as datasets are inhomogenous and incomplete. We require kinematic data for stars that span a range of stellar masses, combined with proper dynamical modelling. We now have the data in hand, but still lack the models needed to maximise the scientific potential of our HST datasets.Here, we propose to extend existing single-mass discrete dynamical-modelling tools to include kinematic and spatial variations with stellar mass, and verify the upgrades using mock data generated from N-body models. We will then apply the models to HST PM data and directly quantify energy equipartition and mass segregation in the GCs. The theoretical phase of the project is vital for the success of the subsequent data analysis, and will serve as a benchmark for future observational campaigns with HST, JWST and beyond.

  8. Two stellar-mass black holes in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J; Miller-Jones, James C A; Seth, Anil C

    2012-10-04

    Hundreds of stellar-mass black holes probably form in a typical globular star cluster, with all but one predicted to be ejected through dynamical interactions. Some observational support for this idea is provided by the lack of X-ray-emitting binary stars comprising one black hole and one other star ('black-hole/X-ray binaries') in Milky Way globular clusters, even though many neutron-star/X-ray binaries are known. Although a few black holes have been seen in globular clusters around other galaxies, the masses of these cannot be determined, and some may be intermediate-mass black holes that form through exotic mechanisms. Here we report the presence of two flat-spectrum radio sources in the Milky Way globular cluster M22, and we argue that these objects are black holes of stellar mass (each ∼10-20 times more massive than the Sun) that are accreting matter. We find a high ratio of radio-to-X-ray flux for these black holes, consistent with the larger predicted masses of black holes in globular clusters compared to those outside. The identification of two black holes in one cluster shows that ejection of black holes is not as efficient as predicted by most models, and we argue that M22 may contain a total population of ∼5-100 black holes. The large core radius of M22 could arise from heating produced by the black holes.

  9. An Enigmatic Population of Luminous Globular Clusters in a Galaxy Lacking Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter; Cohen, Yotam; Danieli, Shany; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Merritt, Allison; Abraham, Roberto; Brodie, Jean; Conroy, Charlie; Lokhorst, Deborah; Mowla, Lamiya; O’Sullivan, Ewan; Zhang, Jielai

    2018-04-01

    We recently found an ultra diffuse galaxy (UDG) with a half-light radius of R e = 2.2 kpc and little or no dark matter. The total mass of NGC1052–DF2 was measured from the radial velocities of bright compact objects that are associated with the galaxy. Here, we analyze these objects using a combination of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and Keck spectroscopy. Their average size is =6.2+/- 0.5 pc and their average ellipticity is =0.18+/- 0.02. From a stacked Keck spectrum we derive an age of ≳9 Gyr and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = ‑1.35 ± 0.12. Their properties are similar to ω Centauri, the brightest and largest globular cluster in the Milky Way, and our results demonstrate that the luminosity function of metal-poor globular clusters is not universal. The fraction of the total stellar mass that is in the globular cluster system is similar to that in other UDGs, and consistent with “failed galaxy” scenarios, where star formation terminated shortly after the clusters were formed. However, the galaxy is a factor of ∼1000 removed from the relation between globular cluster mass and total galaxy mass that has been found for other galaxies, including other UDGs. We infer that a dark matter halo is not a prerequisite for the formation of metal-poor globular cluster-like objects in high-redshift galaxies.

  10. GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SPUR CLUSTERS IN NGC 4921, THE BRIGHTEST SPIRAL GALAXY IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: isjang@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in the Coma cluster. We also find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3 × 10{sup 5} M{sub ⊙}. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70 < (V − I) ≤ 1.05) in the halo are estimated V(max) = 27.11 ± 0.09 mag and I(max) = 26.21 ± 0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max) = 26.25 ± 0.03 mag. Adopting M{sub I} (max) = −8.56 ± 0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies to be 91 ± 4 Mpc. Combining this with the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, H{sub 0} = 77.9 ± 3.6 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. We estimate the GC specific frequency of NGC 4921 to be S{sub N} = 1.29 ± 0.25, close to the values for early-type galaxies. This indicates that NGC 4921 is in the transition phase to S0s.

  11. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  12. The ellipticities of a sample of globular clusters in M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupton, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Images for a sample of 18 globular clusters in M31 have been obtained. The mean ellipticity on the sky in the range 7-14 pc (2-4 arcsec) is 0.08 + or - 0.02 and 0.12 + or - 0.01 in the range 14-21 pc (4-6 arcsec), with corresponding true ellipticities of 0.12 and 0.18. The difference between the inner and outer parts is significant at a 99 percent level. The flattening of the inner parts is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Galactic globular clusters, while the outer parts are flatter than the Galactic clusters at a 99.8 percent confidence level. There is a significant anticorrelation of ellipticity with line strength; such a correlation may in retrospect also be seen in the Galactic globular cluster system. For the M31 data, this anticorrelation is stronger in the inner parts of the galaxy. 30 refs

  13. NO EVIDENCE FOR INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: STRONG CONSTRAINTS FROM THE JVLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam –1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ☉ . These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs ∼> 1000 M ☉ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  14. No Evidence for Intermediate-mass Black Holes in Globular Clusters: Strong Constraints from the JVLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Seth, Anil C.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2012-05-01

    With a goal of searching for accreting intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs), we report the results of ultra-deep Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the cores of three Galactic globular clusters: M15, M19, and M22. We reach rms noise levels of 1.5-2.1 μJy beam-1 at an average frequency of 6 GHz. No sources are observed at the center of any of the clusters. For a conservative set of assumptions about the properties of the accretion, we set 3σ upper limits on IMBHs from 360 to 980 M ⊙. These limits are among the most stringent obtained for any globular cluster. They add to a growing body of work that suggests either (1) IMBHs >~ 1000 M ⊙ are rare in globular clusters or (2) when present, IMBHs accrete in an extraordinarily inefficient manner.

  15. A NEW DISTANT MILKY WAY GLOBULAR CLUSTER IN THE PAN-STARRS1 3π SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Martin, Nicolas F.; Sesar, Branimir; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schlafly, Edward F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Denneau, Larry; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Sweeney, William E.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new satellite in the outer halo of the Galaxy, the first Milky Way satellite found in the stacked photometric catalog of the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System 1 (Pan-STARRS1) Survey. From follow-up photometry obtained with WFI on the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope, we argue that the object, located at a heliocentric distance of 145 ± 17 kpc, is the most distant Milky Way globular cluster yet known. With a total magnitude of M V = –4.3 ± 0.2 and a half-light radius of 20 ± 2 pc, it shares the properties of extended globular clusters found in the outer halo of our Galaxy and the Andromeda galaxy. The discovery of this distant cluster shows that the full spatial extent of the Milky Way globular cluster system has not yet been fully explored

  16. Spectroscopic confirmation of the first symbiotic star in a globular cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, David

    2013-10-01

    We have recently discovered an 18-minute period in the ultraviolet of a star in the globular cluster NGC 1851. In the redder optical bands, this star is red and bright, while it shows a clear UV excess relative to other stars at similar positions in the HR diagram. The system is most likely a symbiotic binary, composed of a cool evolved star and a white dwarf, with an 18 minute spin period, accreting the cool star's wind. The binary would be the first such object ever found in a globular cluster, and only the third in the Galaxy where the white dwarf spin period is measured. The only viable alternatives are that the two components are a chance superposition - something with a nontrivial chance of happening in a globular cluster core. In such a case, the 18 minute period would most likely be the spin period of a magnetic white dwarf in an intermediate polar cataclysmic variable {this would be the first confirmed magnetic CV in a globular cluster}, or the orbital period of a double-degenerate AM CVn binary. Each of these three possibilities show unique {and very different} emission line spectra in the blue wavelength range. Two orbits of HST with STIS/G430L will produce a spectrum of sufficient signal-to-noise to distinguish between these 3 scenarios. The result will be an important constraint on N-body models of globular clusters.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Revised Bologna Catalog of M31 globular clusters (Galleti+, 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Federici, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Macrina, S.

    2003-11-01

    We have identified in the 2MASS database 693 known and candidate globular clusters in M31. The 2MASS J,H,K magnitudes of these objects have been transformed to the same homogeneous photometric system of existing near infrared photometry of M31 globulars, finally yielding J,H,K integrated photometry for 279 confirmed M31 clusters, 406 unconfirmed candidates and 8 objects with controversial classification. Of these objects 529 lacked any previous estimate of their near infrared magnitudes. The newly assembled near infrared dataset has been implemented into a revised version of the Bologna Catalogue of M31 globulars, with updated optical (UBVRI) photometry taken, when possible, from the most recent sources of CCD photometry available in the literature and transformed to a common photometric system. The final Revised Bologna Catalogue (table 2) most comprehensive list presently available of confirmed and candidate M31 globular clusters, with a total of 1164 entries. In particular, it includes 337 confirmed GCs, 688 GC candidates, 10 objects with controversial classification, 70 confirmed galaxies, 55 confirmed stars, and 4 HII regions. Using the newly assembled database we show that the V-K color provides a powerful tool to discriminate between M31 clusters and background galaxies, and we identify a sample of 83 globular cluster candidates, which is not likely to be contaminated by misclassified galaxies. (4 data files).

  18. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  19. The Size Difference between Red and Blue Globular Clusters is not due to Projection Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-01

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  20. FURTHER DEFINITION OF THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS AROUND BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockcroft, Robert; Harris, William E.; Wehner, Elizabeth M. H.; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Rothberg, Barry

    2009-01-01

    We combine the globular cluster (GC) data for 15 brightest cluster galaxies and use this material to trace the mass-metallicity relations (MMRs) in their globular cluster systems (GCSs). This work extends previous studies which correlate the properties of the MMR with those of the host galaxy. Our combined data sets show a mean trend for the metal-poor subpopulation that corresponds to a scaling of heavy-element abundance with cluster mass Z ∼ M 0.30±0.05 . No trend is seen for the metal-rich subpopulation which has a scaling relation that is consistent with zero. We also find that the scaling exponent is independent of the GCS specific frequency and host galaxy luminosity, except perhaps for dwarf galaxies. We present new photometry in (g',i') obtained with Gemini/GMOS for the GC populations around the southern giant ellipticals NGC 5193 and IC 4329. Both galaxies have rich cluster populations which show up as normal, bimodal sequences in the color-magnitude diagram. We test the observed MMRs and argue that they are statistically real, and not an artifact caused by the method we used. We also argue against asymmetric contamination causing the observed MMR as our mean results are no different from other contamination-free studies. Finally, we compare our method to the standard bimodal fitting method (KMM or RMIX) and find our results are consistent. Interpretation of these results is consistent with recent models for GC formation in which the MMR is determined by GC self-enrichment during their brief formation period.

  1. Galactic evolution of sulphur as traced by globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacharov, N.; Koch, A.; Caffau, E.; Sbordone, L.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Sulphur is an important volatile α element, but its role in the Galactic chemical evolution is still uncertain, and more observations constraining the sulphur abundance in stellar photospheres are required. Aims: We derive the sulphur abundances in red giant branch (RGB) stars in three Galactic halo globular clusters (GC) that cover a wide metallicity range (-2.3 noise (S/N ~ 200 per px) spectra in the region of the S I multiplet 3 at 1045 nm for 15 GC stars selected from the literature (six stars in M 4,six stars in M 22, and three stars in M 30). Multiplet 3 is better suited for S abundance derivation than the more commonly used lines of multiplet 1 at 920 nm, since its lines are not blended by telluric absorption or other stellar features at low metallicity. Results: We used spectral synthesis to derive the [S/Fe] ratio of the stars assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We find mean [S/Fe]LTE = 0.58 ± 0.01 ± 0.20 dex (statistical and systematic error) for M 4, [S/Fe]LTE = 0.57 ± 0.01 ± 0.19 dex for M 22, and [S/Fe]LTE = 0.55 ± 0.02 ± 0.16 dex for M 30. The negative NLTE corrections are estimated to be in the order of the systematic uncertainties. We do not detect star-to-star variations of the S abundance in any of the observed GCs, with the possible exception of two individual stars, one in M 22 and one in M 30, which appear to be highly enriched in S. Conclusions: With the tentative exception of two stars with measured high S abundances, we conclude that sulphur behaves like a typical α element in the studied Galactic GCs, showing enhanced abundances with respect to the solar value at metallicities below [Fe/H]-1.0 dex without a considerable spread. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programmes ID 091.B-0171(A).The reduced spectra and the best fit synthetic models are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  2. Surface Compositions of Red Giant Stars in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric; Lau, Marie; Smith, Graeme; Chen, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are excellent “laboratories” to study the formation and evolution of our galaxy. In order to understand, more specifically, the chemical compositions and stellar evolution of the stars in GCs, we ask whether or not deep internal mixing occurs in red giants or if in fact the compositions come from the primordial interstellar medium or previous generations of stars. It has been discovered that as a star evolves up the red giant branch, the surface carbon abundance decreases, which is evidence of deep internal mixing. We questioned whether these processes also affect O or Na abundance as a star evolves. We collected measurement data of red giants from GCs out of academic journals and sorted the data into catalogs. Then, we plotted the catalogs into figures, comparing surface O and Na each with stellar luminosity. Statistical tests were ran to quantify the amount of correlation between the variables. Out of 27 GCs, we concluded that eight show a positive correlation between Na and luminosity, and two show a negative correlation between O and luminosity. Properties of GCs were compared to determine if chemical distribution in stars depends on GCs as the self-enrichment scenario suggests. We created histograms of sodium distribution to test for bimodality to examine if there are separate trends in each GC. In six GCs, two different sequences of red giants appear for Na versus luminosity, suggesting evidence that the depth of mixing may differ among each red giant in a GC. This study has provided new evidence that the changing chemical abundances on the surfaces of red giants can be due to stellar evolutionary effects and deep internal mixing, which may not necessarily depend on the GC and may differ in depth among each red giant. Through this study, we learn more about stellar evolution which will eventually help us understand the origins of our universe. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of

  3. Disrupted globular clusters and the gamma-ray excess in the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Antonini, Fabio; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope has provided the most detailed view towards the Galactic Centre (GC) in high-energy gamma-rays. Besides the interstellar emission and point source contributions, the data suggest a residual diffuse gamma-ray excess. The similarity of its spatial distribution with the expected profile of dark matter has led to claims that this may be evidence for dark matter particle annihilation. Here, we investigate an alternative explanation that the signal originates from millisecond pulsars (MSPs) formed in dense globular clusters and deposited at the GC as a consequence of cluster inspiral and tidal disruption. We use a semi-analytical model to calculate the formation, migration, and disruption of globular clusters in the Galaxy. Our model reproduces the mass of the nuclear star cluster and the present-day radial and mass distribution of globular clusters. For the first time, we calculate the evolution of MSPs from disrupted globular clusters throughout the age of the Galaxy and consistently include the effect of the MSP spin-down due to magnetic-dipole braking. The final gamma-ray amplitude and spatial distribution are in good agreement with the Fermi observations and provide a natural astrophysical explanation for the GC excess.

  4. Integrated-light Two Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry of Galactic globular clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Judith G.; Hsieh, Scott; Metchev, Stanimir; Djorgovski, S. G.; Malkan, M.

    2007-01-01

    We have mosaicked Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) images to derive surface brightness profiles in J, H, and K_s for 104 Galactic globular clusters. We fit these with King profiles and show that the core radii are identical to within the errors for each of these IR colors and are identical to the core radii at V in essentially all cases. We derive integrated-light colors V-J, V-H, V-K_s, J-H, and J-Ks for these globular clusters. Each color shows a reasonably tight relation between the dered...

  5. Wide-Field Washington Photometry of the NGC 5128 Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, D.; Harris, G. L. H.; Reid, M.; Milne, M.; Hulme, S. C.; Kidd, T. T.; Harris, W. E.; Schmidt, B. P.; Hesser, J. E.

    2004-05-01

    We have obtained deep imaging in the Washington CMT1 filters for an area of almost 2 square degrees centered on NGC 5128 in order to investigate its globular cluster system. Our data suffers from severe foreground and background contamination problems. Nonetheless, we can examine some of the global statistical properties of the cluster system. We find that NGC 5128 has a smaller cluster population than previously thought, with a steep projected radial distribution. We find the metallicity distribution for some 211 known globular clusters to be strongly bimodal with nearly equal numbers of clusters in each mode. We also present a list of 327 new cluster candidates not previously identified. D.G. gratefully acknowledges support from the Chilean Centro de Astrofisica FONDAP grant No. 15010003 and from NASA contract No. 1228235.

  6. The pulsation mode and period-luminosity relationship of cool variables in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The period-luminosity-temperature relationship for globular cluster red and yellow variables is examined. The results suggest that the higher temperature, more metal-deficient cluster variables pulsate in the fundamental mode, while the lower temperature more metal-rich variables pulsate in the first overtone. On the assumption that this is correct, a relationship between fundamental period and bolometric magnitude is derived for cluster variables with observed periods of between 1 and 300 days. (author)

  7. Globular clusters as tracers of stellar bimodality in elliptical galaxies: the case of NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Juan C.; Faifer, Favio; Geisler, Doug

    2005-02-01

    Globular cluster systems (GCSs) frequently show a bimodal distribution of cluster integrated colours. This work explores the arguments to support the idea that the same feature is shared by the diffuse stellar population of the galaxy they are associated with. The particular case of NGC 1399, one of the dominant central galaxies in the Fornax cluster, for which a new B surface brightness profile and (B-RKC) colours are presented, is discussed taking advantage of a recently published wide-field study of its GCS. The results show that the galaxy brightness profile and colour gradient, as well as the behaviour of the cumulative globular cluster specific frequency, are compatible with the presence of two dominant stellar populations, associated with the so-called `blue' and `red' globular cluster families. These globular families are characterized by different intrinsic specific frequencies (defined in terms of each stellar population): Sn= 3.3 +/- 0.3 in the case of the red globulars and Sn= 14.3 +/- 2.5 for the blue ones. We stress that this result does not necessarily conflict with recent works that point out a clear difference between the metallicity distribution of (resolved) halo stars and globulars when comparing their number statistics. The region within 0.5arcmin of the centre shows a deviation from the model profile (in both surface brightness and colour) that may be explained in terms of the presence of a bulge-like high-metallicity component. Otherwise, the model gives an excellent fit up to 12arcmin (or 66.5Kpc) from the centre, the galactocentric limit of our blue brightness profile. The inferred specific frequencies imply that, in terms of their associated stellar populations, the formation of the blue globulars took place with an efficiency about six times higher than that corresponding to their red counterparts. The similarity of the spatial distribution of the blue globulars with that inferred for dark matter, as well as with that of the X

  8. Dynamics, Chemical Abundances, and ages of Globular Clusters in the Virgo Cluster of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhathakurta, Puragra; NGVS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the dynamics, metallicities, and ages of globular clusters (GCs) in the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), a deep, multi-band (u, g, r, i, z, and Ks), wide-field (104 deg2) imaging survey carried out using the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and MegaCam imager. GC candidates were selected from the NGVS survey using photometric and image morphology criteria and these were followed up with deep, medium-resolution, multi-object spectroscopy using the Keck II 10-m telescope and DEIMOS spectrograph. The primary spectroscopic targets were candidate GC satellites of dwarf elliptical (dE) and ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the Virgo cluster. While many objects were confirmed as GC satellites of Virgo dEs and UDGs, many turned out to be non-satellites based on their radial velocity and/or positional mismatch any identifiable Virgo cluster galaxy. We have used a combination of spectral characteristics (e.g., presence of absorption vs. emission lines), new Gaussian mixture modeling of radial velocity and sky position data, and a new extreme deconvolution analysis of ugrizKs photometry and image morphology, to classify all the objects in our sample into: (1) GC satellites of dE galaxies, (2) GC satellites of UDGs, (3) intra-cluster GCs (ICGCs) in the Virgo cluster, (4) GCs in the outer halo of the central cluster galaxy M87, (5) foreground Milky Way stars, and (6) distant background galaxies. We use these data to study the dynamics and dark matter content of dE and UDGs in the Virgo cluster, place important constraints on the nature of dE nuclei, and study the origin of ICGCs versus GCs in the remote M87 halo.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF and NASA/STScI.

  9. THE HELIUM CONTENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: NGC 6121 (M4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Piotto, G.; Gratton, R. G.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the multiple stellar population scenario in globular clusters, helium (He) has been proposed as a key element to interpret the observed multiple main sequences, subgiant branches, and red giant branches, as well as the complex horizontal branch (HB) morphology. In particular, second-generation stars belonging to the bluer part of the HB are thought to be more He-rich (ΔY = 0.03 or more) but also more Na-rich/O-poor than those located in the redder part that should have Y equal to the cosmological value. Up to now this hypothesis was only partially confirmed in NGC 6752, where stars of the redder zero-age HB showed an He content of Y = 0.25 ± 0.01, fully compatible with the primordial He content of the universe, and were all Na-poor/O-rich. Here we study hot blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the GC NGC 6121 (M4) to measure their He plus O/Na content. Our goal is to complete the partial results obtained for NGC 6752, focusing our attention on targets located on the bluer part of the HB of M4. We observed six BHB stars using the VLT2/UVES spectroscopic facility. Spectra of signal-to-noise ratio ∼ 150 were obtained and the very weak He line at 5875 Å measured for all our targets. We compared this feature with synthetic spectra to obtain He abundances. In addition O, Na, and Fe abundances were estimated. Stars turned out to be all Na-rich and O-poor and to have a homogeneous He content with a mean value of Y = 0.29 ± 0.01(random) ± 0.01(systematic), which is enhanced by ΔY ∼ 0.04 with respect to the most recent measurements of the primordial He content of the universe (Y ∼ 0.24/0.25). The high He content of blue HB stars in M4 is also confirmed by the fact that they are brighter than red HB stars (RHB). Theoretical models suggest the BHB stars are He-enhanced by Δ(Y) = 0.02/0.03 with respect to the RHB stars. The whole sample of stars has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = –1.06 ± 0.02 (internal error), in agreement with other studies

  10. The Helium Content of Globular Clusters: NGC 6121 (M4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Piotto, G.; Gratton, R. G.

    2012-03-01

    In the context of the multiple stellar population scenario in globular clusters, helium (He) has been proposed as a key element to interpret the observed multiple main sequences, subgiant branches, and red giant branches, as well as the complex horizontal branch (HB) morphology. In particular, second-generation stars belonging to the bluer part of the HB are thought to be more He-rich (ΔY = 0.03 or more) but also more Na-rich/O-poor than those located in the redder part that should have Y equal to the cosmological value. Up to now this hypothesis was only partially confirmed in NGC 6752, where stars of the redder zero-age HB showed an He content of Y = 0.25 ± 0.01, fully compatible with the primordial He content of the universe, and were all Na-poor/O-rich. Here we study hot blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars in the GC NGC 6121 (M4) to measure their He plus O/Na content. Our goal is to complete the partial results obtained for NGC 6752, focusing our attention on targets located on the bluer part of the HB of M4. We observed six BHB stars using the VLT2/UVES spectroscopic facility. Spectra of signal-to-noise ratio ~ 150 were obtained and the very weak He line at 5875 Å measured for all our targets. We compared this feature with synthetic spectra to obtain He abundances. In addition O, Na, and Fe abundances were estimated. Stars turned out to be all Na-rich and O-poor and to have a homogeneous He content with a mean value of Y = 0.29 ± 0.01(random) ± 0.01(systematic), which is enhanced by ΔY ~ 0.04 with respect to the most recent measurements of the primordial He content of the universe (Y ~ 0.24/0.25). The high He content of blue HB stars in M4 is also confirmed by the fact that they are brighter than red HB stars (RHB). Theoretical models suggest the BHB stars are He-enhanced by Δ(Y) = 0.02/0.03 with respect to the RHB stars. The whole sample of stars has a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.02 (internal error), in agreement with other studies available in

  11. The Frequency of Binary Stars in the Globular Cluster M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, S. C.; Armandroff, T. E.; Pryor, C. P.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency of binary stars is a fundamental property of a stellar population. A comparison of the frequency of binaries in globular clusters with those in the field halo and disk populations tests the similarity of star formation in those environments. Binary stars in globular clusters also act as an energy source which ``heats" the cluster through super-elastic encounters with other stars and binaries. Such encounters can not only profoundly affect the dynamical evolution of the cluster, they can disrupt the widely separated binaries and catalyze the formation of exotic objects such as blue stragglers, x-ray binaries, and milli-second pulsars. We have used the KPNO 4-m and the multi-fiber instruments Nessie and Hydra to measure radial velocities at 4 epochs over two years for a sample of 126 stars in the globular cluster M71. Velocity errors are under 1 km s(-1) for the brighter stars and under 2 km s(-1) for the majority of our data set. These velocities will be valuable for studying the kinematics of M71, but here we focus on searching for binaries. The faintest stars are at V=17, or just above the main sequence turnoff. Our sample is thus deeper than any published globular cluster binary search utilizing spectroscopic techniques. By observing smaller stars, we double the number of decades of binary periods sampled compared to previous studies and come within a factor of 4 of the shortest possible periods for turnoff stars. This wider period window has produced the largest known sample of binaries in a globular cluster. Four stars show velocity ranges larger than 20 km s(-1) , nine have ranges larger than 10 km s(-1) , and others are clearly variable. We will compare the radial distribution of these stars to that predicted by theory and derive the main-sequence binary fraction.

  12. The Primordial Binary Fractions for a Sample of 35 Galactic Globular Clusters with HST Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jun; Bregman, J. N.

    2011-01-01

    Binaries are thought to be the primary heating energy source in globular clusters, since they can convert their binding energy to kinetic energy of the encounter stars through dynamical interactions. Even a small fraction of binaries are sufficient to prevent globular clusters from core collapse for many relaxation times. But the observed global binary fractions in globular clusters are still uncertain. Here we present our preliminary results for the binary fractions of 35 Galactic globular clusters with the HST archival data in the F606W and F814W bands. We use the secondary sequence method on the color-magnitude diagram to statistically account for the main-sequence-main-sequence binaries (primordial binaries). The binary fraction is obtained by fitting the residual color distribution after subtracting the color of the main-sequence ridge line, with properly modeling the photometric errors, field stars, and blending stars. We estimate the binary fractions with 3 different assumed binary mass-ratio distribution functions, and the current data sets are still not good to constrain the binary mass-ratio distributions. In our sample, we obtain a mean binary fraction of (9.1±4.1)% within their half-mass radii assuming a flat binary mass-ratio distribution. There is no clear trend for the binary fractions against the dynamical ages and [Fe/H], but binary fractions tend to increase with the absolute magnitudes of clusters. This is probably because less massive globular clusters consume fewer binaries through dynamical interactions due to their lower stellar density.

  13. Modeling the formation of globular cluster systems in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2014-01-01

    The mass distribution and chemical composition of globular cluster (GC) systems preserve fossil record of the early stages of galaxy formation. The observed distribution of GC colors within massive early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey (ACSVCS) reveals a multi-modal shape, which likely corresponds to a multi-modal metallicity distribution. We present a simple model for the formation and disruption of GCs that aims to match the ACSVCS data. This model tests the hypothesis that GCs are formed during major mergers of gas-rich galaxies and inherit the metallicity of their hosts. To trace merger events, we use halo merger trees extracted from a large cosmological N-body simulation. We select 20 halos in the mass range of 2 × 10 12 to 7 × 10 13 M ☉ and match them to 19 Virgo galaxies with K-band luminosity between 3 × 10 10 and 3 × 10 11 L ☉ . To set the [Fe/H] abundances, we use an empirical galaxy mass-metallicity relation. We find that a minimal merger ratio of 1:3 best matches the observed cluster metallicity distribution. A characteristic bimodal shape appears because metal-rich GCs are produced by late mergers between massive halos, while metal-poor GCs are produced by collective merger activities of less massive hosts at early times. The model outcome is robust to alternative prescriptions for cluster formation rate throughout cosmic time, but a gradual evolution of the mass-metallicity relation with redshift appears to be necessary to match the observed cluster metallicities. We also affirm the age-metallicity relation, predicted by an earlier model, in which metal-rich clusters are systematically several billion younger than their metal-poor counterparts.

  14. The Case of the Missing Cyanogen-rich AGB Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The handful of available observations of AGB stars in Galactic Globular Clusters suggest that the GC AGB populations are dominated by cyanogen-weak stars (eg. Norris et al. 1981; Sneden et al. 2000). This contrasts strongly with the distributions on the RGB (and other) populations, which generall...

  15. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  16. A Fossil Bulge Globular Cluster Revealed by very Large Telescope Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Momany, Y.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Jílková, L.; Salerno, G.M.; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 737, č. 1 (2011), 31/1-31/9 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxy * globular clusters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  17. Multiple populations along the asymptotic giant branch of the globular cluster M 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.; Savino, A.; Donati, P.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all Galactic globular clusters host stars that display characteristic abundance anti-correlations, like the O-rich/Na-poor pattern typical of field halo stars, together with O-poor/Na-rich additional components. A recent spectroscopic investigation questioned the presence of O-poor/Na-rich

  18. NGC 6362: The Least Massive Globular Cluster with Chemically Distinct Multiple Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucciarelli, Alessio; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Massari, Davide; Bellazzini, Michele; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara; Lardo, Carmela; Salaris, Maurizio; Cassisi, Santi

    2016-01-01

    We present the first measure of Fe and Na abundances in NGC 6362, a low-mass globular cluster (GC) where first- and second-generation stars are fully spatially mixed. A total of 160 member stars (along the red giant branch (RGB) and the red horizontal branch (RHB)) were observed with the

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in seven globular clusters (Lardo+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardo, C.; Pancino, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Bragaglia, A.; Donati, P.; Gilmore, G.; Randich, S.; Feltzing, S.; Jeffries, R. D.; Vallenari, A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Allende Prieto, C.; Flaccomio, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Bergemann, M.; Carraro, G.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Hourihane, A.; Jofree, P.; de Laverny, P.; Marconi, G.; Masseron, T.; Morbidelli, L.; Sacco, G. G.; Worley, C. C.

    2014-11-01

    Velocities are given for 1826 stars in the field of the globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 2808, NGC 4372, NGC 4833, NGC 5927, NGC 6752, and NGC 7078 observed with FLAMES/GIRAFFE@VLT. The table provides the individual identifications, coordinates, V magnitudes, velocities and their associated uncertainties for each star. (2 data files).

  20. Hubble Space Telescope ACS wide-field photometry of the sombrero galaxy globular cluster system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spitler, L.; Larsen, S.S.; Strader, J.; Brodie, J.P.; Forbes, D.A.; Beasley, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed imaging analysis of the globular cluster (GC) system of the Sombrero galaxy (NGC 4594) has been accomplished using a six-image mosaic from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. The quality of the data is such that contamination by foreground stars and background galaxies

  1. Photoelectric UBVRI sequences in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.; Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.

    1990-01-01

    UBVRI photoelectric sequences for the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 6864 are presented. Both of them include fields suitable for CCD exposures. From five UBV sequences in NGC 6572, only five stars are in common with the previous works. 15 refs

  2. A comparison of two mass distributions applicable to globular clusters and dwarf galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Slobodan D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A particular case of mass distribution in stellar systems, already described in the literature, is compared to the King model of mass distribution. For the cases which would correspond to the description of real stellar systems such as the globular clusters and dwarf galaxies, one finds a satisfactory agreement between these two mass distributions.

  3. Three Ancient Halo Subgiants: Precise Parallaxes, Compositions, Ages, and Implications for Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2014-01-01

    very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ~1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied...

  4. GeMS MCAO observations of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808: the absolute age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Fiorentino, G.; McConnachie, A.; Bono, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Turri, P.; Tolstoy, E.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Globular clusters are the oldest stellar systems in the Milky Way, and they probe the early epoch of the Galaxy formation. However, the uncertainties on their absolute age are still too large to soundly constrain how the Galactic structures have assembled. Aims: The aim of this work is to

  5. VLT/UVES abundances of individual stars in the Fornax dwarf spheroidal globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letarte, B.; Hill, V.; Jablonka, P.; Tolstoy, E.; Randich, S; Pasquini, L

    2006-01-01

    We present high resolution abundance analysis of nine stars belonging to three of the five globular clusters (GCs) of the Fornax dwarf galaxy. The spectra were taken with UVES at a resolution of 43 000. We find them to be slightly more metal-poor than what was previously calculated with other

  6. Massive binaries as the source of abundance anomalies in globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mink, S.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833231; Pols, O.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111811155; Langer, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829498; Izzard, R.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836052

    2009-01-01

    Abundance anomalies observed in globular cluster stars indicate pollution with material processed by hydrogen burning. Two main sources have been suggested: asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars rotating near the break-up limit (spin stars). We propose massive binaries as an

  7. On the blind use of statistical tools in the analysis of globular cluster stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Antona, Francesca; Caloi, Vittoria; Tailo, Marco

    2018-04-01

    As with most data analysis methods, the Bayesian method must be handled with care. We show that its application to determine stellar evolution parameters within globular clusters can lead to paradoxical results if used without the necessary precautions. This is a cautionary tale on the use of statistical tools for big data analysis.

  8. Another non-segregated Blue Straggler population in a globular cluster: the case of NGC 2419.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.; Ferraro, F. R.; Vespe, F.; Bellazzini, M.; Rood, R. T.

    We have used a combination of ACS-HST high-resolution and wide-field SUBARU data in order to study the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population over the entire extension of the remote Galactic globular cluster NGC 2419. The radial distribution of the selected BSS is the same as that of the other cluster stars. In this sense the BSS radial distribution is like that of omega Centauri and unlike that of all Galactic globular clusters studied to date, which have highly centrally segregated distributions and in most cases a pronounced upturn in the external regions. As in the case of omega Centauri, this evidence indicates that NGC 2419 is not yet relaxed even in the central regions. This observational fact is in agreement with estimated half-mass relaxation time, which is of the order of the cluster age.

  9. LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF LMXBs IN CENTAURUS A: GLOBULAR CLUSTERS VERSUS THE FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, Rasmus; Gilfanov, Marat; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Jordan, Andres; Brassington, Nicola J.; Evans, Daniel A.; Murray, Stephen S.; Raychaudhury, Somak; Birkinshaw, Mark; Worrall, Diana M.; Croston, Judith H.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Harris, William E.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Juett, Adrienne M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) in the nearby early-type galaxy Centaurus A, concentrating primarily on two aspects of binary populations: the XLF behavior at the low-luminosity limit and the comparison between globular cluster and field sources. The 800 ksec exposure of the deep Chandra VLP program allows us to reach a limiting luminosity of ∼8 x 10 35 erg s -1 , about ∼2-3 times deeper than previous investigations. We confirm the presence of the low-luminosity break of the overall LMXB XLF at log(L X ) ∼ 37.2-37.6, below which the luminosity distribution follows a dN/d(ln L) ∼ const law. Separating globular cluster and field sources, we find a statistically significant difference between the two luminosity distributions with a relative underabundance of faint sources in the globular cluster population. This demonstrates that the samples are drawn from distinct parent populations and may disprove the hypothesis that the entire LMXB population in early-type galaxies is created dynamically in globular clusters. As a plausible explanation for this difference in the XLFs, we suggest an enhanced fraction of helium-accreting systems in globular clusters, which are created in collisions between red giants and neutron stars. Due to the four times higher ionization temperature of He, such systems are subject to accretion disk instabilities at ∼20 times higher mass accretion rate and, therefore, are not observed as persistent sources at low luminosities.

  10. BVRI CCD photometry of the metal-poor globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaino, G.; Liller, W.; Alvarado, F.; Wenderoth, E.

    1990-01-01

    BVRI photometry of the low metallicity globular cluster M68 (NGC 4590) was obtained with a CCD camera and the 2.2-m ESO telescope. The resulting BV color-magnitude diagrams are compared with the observations of McClure et al. (1987). The observations are also compared with theoretical isochrones, yielding a cluster age of 13 Gyr with a likely external uncertainty of 2 or 3 Gyr. 25 refs

  11. A VST and VISTA study of globular clusters in NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; Grado, Aniello; Rejkuba, Marina; Arnaboldi, Magda; Capaccioli, Massimo; Greggio, Laura; Iodice, Enrica; Limatola, Luca

    2018-03-01

    of bright GCs. Part of the bright GCs missing might be at very large galactocentric distances or along the line of sight of the galaxy dusty disk. As an alternative possibility, we speculate that a fraction of low luminosity GC candidates might instead be metal-rich, intermediate age clusters, but fall in a similar color interval of old, metal-poor GCs. Conclusions: Defining a contaminant-free sample of GCs in extragalactic systems is not a straight forward exercise. Using optical and near-IR photometry we purged the list of GCs with spectroscopic membership and photometric GC candidates in NGC 253. Our results show that the use of either spectroscopic or photometric data only does not generally ensure a contaminant-free sample and a combination of both spectroscopy and photometry is preferred. Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A21This work is based on observations taken at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory within the VST Science Verification Programme ID 60.A-9286(A) and VISTA Science Verification Programme ID 60.A-9285(A).

  12. No Evidence for Multiple Stellar Populations in the Low-mass Galactic Globular Cluster E 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Ricardo; Strader, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Multiple stellar populations are a widespread phenomenon among Galactic globular clusters. Even though the origin of the enriched material from which new generations of stars are produced remains unclear, it is likely that self-enrichment will be feasible only in clusters massive enough to retain this enriched material. We searched for multiple populations in the low mass (M˜ 1.4× {10}4 {M}⊙ ) globular cluster E3, analyzing SOAR/Goodman multi-object spectroscopy centered on the blue cyanogen (CN) absorption features of 23 red giant branch stars. We find that the CN abundance does not present the typical bimodal behavior seen in clusters hosting multistellar populations, but rather a unimodal distribution that indicates the presence of a genuine single stellar population, or a level of enrichment much lower than in clusters that show evidence for two populations from high-resolution spectroscopy. E3 would be the first bona fide Galactic old globular cluster where no sign of self-enrichment is found. Based on observations obtained at the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) Telescope, which is a joint project of the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia, e Inovação (MCTI) da República Federativa do Brasil, the US National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC), and Michigan State University (MSU).

  13. The SLUGGS survey: globular cluster stellar population trends from weak absorption lines in stacked spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay; Conroy, Charlie; Foster, Caroline; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Arnold, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, we stack 1137 Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) spectra of globular clusters from 10 galaxies to study their stellar populations in detail. The stacked spectra have median signal-to-noise ratios of ˜90 Å-1. Besides the calcium triplet, we study weaker sodium, magnesium, titanium and iron lines as well as the Hα and higher order Paschen hydrogen lines. In general, the stacked spectra are consistent with old ages and a Milky Way-like initial mass function. However, we see different metal line index strengths at fixed colour and magnitude, and differences in the calcium triplet-colour relation from galaxy to galaxy. We interpret this as strong evidence for variations in the globular cluster colour-metallicity relation between galaxies. Two possible explanations for the colour-metallicity relation variations are that the average ages of globular clusters vary from galaxy to galaxy or that the average abundances of light elements (i.e. He, C, N and O) differ between galaxies. Stacking spectra by magnitude, we see that the colours become redder and metal line indices stronger with brighter magnitudes. These trends are consistent with the previously reported `blue tilts' being mass-metallicity relations.

  14. NGC 6273: Towards Defining A New Class of Galactic Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, Robert Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario L.; Ira Bailey, John; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of observations have found that several Galactic globular clusters exhibit abundance dispersions beyond the well-known light element (anti-)correlations. These clusters tend to be very massive, have >0.1 dex intrinsic metallicity dispersions, have complex sub-giant branch morphologies, and have correlated [Fe/H] and s-process element enhancements. Interestingly, nearly all of these clusters discovered so far have [Fe/H]~-1.7. In this context, we have examined the chemical composition of 18 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the massive, metal-poor Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6273 using high signal-to-noise, high resolution (R~27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph mounted on the Magellan-Clay 6.5m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that the cluster exhibits a metallicity range from [Fe/H]=-1.80 to -1.30 and is composed of two dominant populations separated in [Fe/H] and [La/Fe] abundance. The increase in [La/Eu] as a function of [La/H] suggests that the increase in [La/Fe] with [Fe/H] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. The most metal-rich star in our sample is not strongly La-enhanced, but is α-poor and may belong to a third "anomalous" stellar population. The two dominant populations exhibit the same [Na/Fe]-[Al/Fe] correlation found in other "normal" globular clusters. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins ω Centauri, M 22, M 2, and NGC 5286 as a possible new class of Galactic globular clusters.

  15. The SUMO project I. A survey of multiple populations in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monelli, M.; Milone, A. P.; Stetson, P. B.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; del Pino Molina, A.; Salaris, M.; Aparicio, A.; Asplund, M.; Grundahl, F.; Piotto, G.; Weiss, A.; Carrera, R.; Cebrián, M.; Murabito, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Sbordone, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present a general overview and the first results of the SUMO project (a SUrvey of Multiple pOpulations in Globular Clusters). The objective of this survey is the study of multiple stellar populations in the largest sample of globular clusters homogeneously analysed to date. To this aim we obtained high signal-to-noise (S/N > 50) photometry for main sequence stars with mass down to ˜0.5 M⊙ in a large sample of clusters using both archival and proprietary U, B, V and I data from ground-based telescopes. In this paper, we focus on the occurrence of multiple stellar populations in 23 clusters. We define a new photometric index, cU, B, I = (U - B) - (B - I), which turns out to be very effective for identifying multiple sequences along the red giant branch (RGB). We found that in the V-cU, B, I diagram all clusters presented in this paper show broadened or multimodal RGBs, with the presence of two or more components. We found a direct connection with the chemical properties of different sequences, which display different abundances of light elements (O, Na, C, N and Al). The cU, B, I index is also a powerful tool for identifying distinct sequences of stars along the horizontal branch and, for the first time in the case of NGC 104 (47 Tuc), along the asymptotic giant branch. Our results demonstrate that (i) the presence of more than two stellar populations is a common feature amongst globular clusters, as already highlighted in previous work; (ii) multiple sequences with different chemical contents can be easily identified by using standard Johnson photometry obtained with ground-based facilities; (iii) in the study of globular cluster multiple stellar populations the cU, B, I index is an alternative to spectroscopy, and has the advantage of larger statistics.

  16. A period-luminosity relation for Mira variables in globular clusters and its impact on the distance scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzies, J.W.; Whitelock, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    JHKL photometry is presented for 31 red variables in 15 galactic globular clusters. The photometry of the Mira variables is used to find absolute bolometric magnitudes and an Msub(bol)-log P relation which differs from the one found for LMC Miras. This can be understood only if there is some systematic error in the globular cluster and/or LMC distance scales or if there is some fundamental difference between the cluster Miras and those in the LMC. (author)

  17. A detached stellar-mass black hole candidate in the globular cluster NGC 3201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesers, Benjamin; Dreizler, Stefan; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Anglada Escudé, Guillem; Brinchmann, Jarle; Carollo, C. Marcella; Roth, Martin M.; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2018-03-01

    As part of our massive spectroscopic survey of 25 Galactic globular clusters with MUSE, we performed multiple epoch observations of NGC 3201 with the aim of constraining the binary fraction. In this cluster, we found one curious star at the main-sequence turn-off with radial velocity variations of the order of 100 km s- 1, indicating the membership to a binary system with an unseen component since no other variations appear in the spectra. Using an adapted variant of the generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we could calculate the orbital parameters and found the companion to be a detached stellar-mass black hole with a minimum mass of 4.36 ± 0.41 M⊙. The result is an important constraint for binary and black hole evolution models in globular clusters as well as in the context of gravitational wave sources.

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON HELIUM ENHANCEMENT IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M3 (NGC 5272): THE HORIZONTAL BRANCH TEST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catelan, M.; Valcarce, A. A. R.; Cortes, C.; Grundahl, F.; Sweigart, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the presence of multiple populations showing various amounts of helium enhancement is the rule, rather than the exception, among globular star clusters. An important prediction of this helium enhancement scenario is that the helium-enhanced blue horizontal branch (HB) stars should be brighter than the red HB stars which are not helium enhanced. In this Letter, we test this prediction in the case of the Galactic globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272), for which the helium-enhancement scenario predicts helium enhancements of ∼>0.02 in virtually all blue HB stars. Using high-precision Stroemgren photometry and spectroscopic gravities for blue HB stars, we find that any helium enhancement among most of the cluster's blue HB stars is very likely less than 0.01, thus ruling out the much higher helium enhancements that have been proposed in the literature.

  19. New Discoveries in the Search for Iron-Complex Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian; Caldwell, Nelson; Rich, R. Michael; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, Jeb; Walker, Matthew G.; M2FS Team

    2018-01-01

    A growing number of Galactic globular clusters have been discovered that possess large intrinsic [Fe/H] and heavy element abundance variations. These "iron-complex" clusters are among the most massive in the Galaxy, and frequently exhibit extended blue horizontal branches and low metallicities. Additionally, a handful of clusters with [Fe/H] > -1 may also have large metallicity spreads (e.g., Terzan 5), but are instead characterized by having bimodal red horizontal brances. We present chemical composition analyses of several potential iron-complex clusters spanning [Fe/H] = -1.8 to -0.8, and discover that horizontal branch morphology alone is insufficient to identify clusters with heavy element abundance variations. However, we find that several of these clusters contain 4-5 chemically distinct populations, and the outer halo cluster NGC 6229 is added to the growing list of iron-complex clusters that may be the remnant cores of former dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  20. Short-term X-ray variability of the globular cluster source 4U 1820 - 30 (NGC 6624)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Grindlay, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical techniques for improved identification of the temporal and spectral variability properties of globular cluster and galactic bulge X-ray sources are described in terms of their application to a large set of observations of the source 4U 1820 - 30 in the globular cluster NGC 6624. The autocorrelation function, cross-correlations, time skewness function, erratic periodicities, and pulse trains are examined. The results are discussed in terms of current models with particular emphasis on recent accretion disk models. It is concluded that the analyzed observations provide the first evidence for shot-noise variability in a globular cluster X-ray source.

  1. Gravitational microlensing by low-mass objects in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K C; Casertano, S; Livio, M; Gilliland, R L; Panagia, N; Albrow, M D; Potter, M

    2001-06-28

    Gravitational microlensing offers a means of determining directly the masses of objects ranging from planets to stars, provided that the distances and motions of the lenses and sources can be determined. A globular cluster observed against the dense stellar field of the Galactic bulge presents ideal conditions for such observations because the probability of lensing is high and the distances and kinematics of the lenses and sources are well constrained. The abundance of low-mass objects in a globular cluster is of particular interest, because it may be representative of the very early stages of star formation in the Universe, and therefore indicative of the amount of dark baryonic matter in such clusters. Here we report a microlensing event associated with the globular cluster M22. We determine the mass of the lens to be 0.13(+0.03)(-0.02) solar masses. We have also detected six events that are unresolved in time. If these are also microlensing events, they imply that a non-negligible fraction of the cluster mass resides in the form of free-floating planetary-mass objects.

  2. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Globular Clusters NGC 6333 and NGC 6366

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. M.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Kunder, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundances and radial velocities for >20 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular clusters NGC 6333 ([Fe/H]≈-1.8) and NGC 6366 ([Fe/H]≈-0.6). The results are based on moderate resolution (R=18,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (>100) spectra obtained with the Hydra multifiber positioner and bench spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. Both objects are likely associated with the Galactic bulge globular cluster system, and we therefore compare the cluster abundance patterns with those of nearby bulge field stars. Additionally, we investigate differences in the O-Na anticorrelation and neutron-capture element dispersion between the two clusters, and compare their abundance patterns with those of similar metallicity halo globular clusters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award No. AST-1003201 to C.I.J. C.A.P. gratefully acknowledges support from the Daniel Kirkwood Research Fund at Indiana University. R.M.R. acknowledges support from NSF grant AST-0709479 and AST-121120995.

  3. Globular Cluster Variable Stars—Atlas and Coordinate Improvement using AAVSOnet Telescopes (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, D.; Henden, A.; Bell, T.; Suen, C.; Fare, I.; Sills, A.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) The variable stars of globular clusters have played and continue to play a significant role in our understanding of certain classes of variable stars. Since all stars associated with a cluster have the same age, metallicity, distance and usually very similar (if not identical reddenings), such variables can produce uniquely powerful constraints on where certain types of pulsation behaviors are excited. Advanced amateur astronomers are increasingly well-positioned to provide long-term CCD monitoring of globular cluster variable star but are hampered by a long history of poor or inaccessible finder charts and coordinates. Many of variable-rich clusters have published photographic finder charts taken in relatively poor seeing with blue-sensitive photographic plates. While useful signal-to-noise ratios are relatively straightforward to achieve for RR Lyrae, Type 2 Cepheids, and red giant variables, correct identification remains a difficult issue—particularly when images are taken at V or longer wavelengths. We describe the project and report its progress using the OC61, TMO61, and SRO telescopes of AAVSOnet after the first year of image acquisition and demonstrate several of the data products being developed for globular cluster variables.

  4. The expected very-high-energy flux from a population of globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.

    Given their old ages, globular clusters are expected to harbour many evolved stellar objects. Their high core densities enhance stellar encounter rates, also facilitating the formation of stellar end products. In particular, many millisecond pulsars are found in these clusters. Such a population of millisecond pulsars is expected to radiate several spectral components in the radio through gamma -ray waveband. We present ongoing work involving a refined spectral model that assumes millisecond pulsars as sources of relativistic particles to model the multi-wavelength emission properties of globular clusters. We apply the model to a population of globular clusters that have been observed by H.E.S.S. and use upper limits derived from stacking analyses to test the viability of this ``millisecond pulsar scenario''. We derive general expressions for the ensemble-averaged flux and its error stemming from the uncertainty in free model parameters. The errors exceed this calculated average flux value so that there are regions in parameter space for which the model predictions satisfy the H.E.S.S. upper limits. Improved constraints on single-cluster parameters are therefore needed to aid in discriminating between competing spectral models.

  5. Testing modified gravity with globular clusters: the case of NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares, Claudio

    2018-02-01

    The dynamics of globular clusters has been studied in great detail in the context of general relativity as well as with modifications of gravity that strongly depart from the standard paradigm such as MOND. However, at present there are no studies that aim to test the impact that less extreme modifications of gravity (e.g. models constructed as alternatives to dark energy) have on the behaviour of globular clusters. This Letter presents fits to the velocity dispersion profile of the cluster NGC 2419 under the symmetron modified gravity model. The data shows an increase in the velocity dispersion towards the centre of the cluster which could be difficult to explain within general relativity. By finding the best fitting solution associated with the symmetron model, we show that this tension does not exist in modified gravity. However, the best fitting parameters give a model that is inconsistent with the dynamics of the Solar System. Exploration of different screening mechanisms should give us the chance to understand if it is possible to maintain the appealing properties of the symmetron model when it comes to globular clusters and at the same time recover the Solar System dynamics properly.

  6. New cataclysmic variables and other exotic binaries in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Sandoval, L. E.; van den Berg, M.; Heinke, C. O.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.; Anderson, J.; Cool, A. M.; Edmonds, P. D.; Wijnands, R.; Ivanova, N.; Grindlay, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    We present 22 new (+3 confirmed) cataclysmic variables (CVs) in the non-core-collapsed globular cluster 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc). The total number of CVs in the cluster is now 43, the largest sample in any globular cluster so far. For the identifications we used near-ultraviolet (NUV) and optical images from the Hubble Space Telescope, in combination with X-ray results from the Chandra X-ray Observatory. This allowed us to build the deepest NUV CV luminosity function of the cluster to date. We found that the CVs in 47 Tuc are more concentrated towards the cluster centre than the main-sequence turn-off stars. We compared our results to the CV populations of the core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 6752. We found that 47 Tuc has fewer bright CVs per unit mass than those two other clusters. That suggests that dynamical interactions in core-collapsed clusters play a major role creating new CVs. In 47 Tuc, the CV population is probably dominated by primordial and old dynamically formed systems. We estimated that the CVs in 47 Tuc have total masses of ˜1.4 M⊙. We also found that the X-ray luminosity function of the CVs in the three clusters is bimodal. Additionally, we discuss a possible double degenerate system and an intriguing/unclassified object. Finally, we present four systems that could be millisecond pulsar companions given their X-ray and NUV/optical colours. For one of them we present very strong evidence for being an ablated companion. The other three could be CO or He white dwarfs.

  7. The Velocity Field of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 5128 (Cen A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William; Woodley, Kristin; Geisler, Doug; Gomez, Matias; Harris, Gretchen

    2007-02-01

    We propose to carry out a comprehensive new dynamical study of the globular cluster system of NGC 5128 (Centaurus A), the nearest giant E galaxy. A key component of our proposal is a completely new catalog of globular cluster candidates that we have generated from a wide-field (1.4 sq deg) R-band imaging survey of NGC 5128 taken April 2006 with Magellan/IMACS under remarkable 0.45" seeing. We have used this new imaging survey to isolate a list of GC candidates that is far more precise, complete, and contamination-free than in any previous work. As spectroscopic followup, we will use the CTIO 4m + Hydra to measure velocities for 800 new GC candidates, of which 400 or more should be bona fide clusters. Our new data will double the known NGC 5128 GC sample and will eliminate the spatial biases inherent in all previous studies of this unique system. More importantly, the large new velocity database will be the springboard for a superior dynamical analysis of the galaxy and the halo velocity field. This work will allow us to define later programs aimed at detailed abundance and age distribution profiles for the system, and systematic trends with metallicity, that will closely connect with galaxy formation models. In addition, our GC database will rank among the largest ever assembled for a single galaxy, not only enabling us to test galaxy formation models but also providing a benchmark dataset in globular cluster research.

  8. Evidence from stellar abundances for a large age difference between two globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, R.J.; Croke, B.F.W.; Cannon, R.D.; Bell, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The globular clusters NGC288 and NGC362 are central to recent claims of large age differences (∼3 Gyr) between globular clusters associated with our Galaxy. According to standard models for the formation of the Galaxy, the system of globular clusters formed during the dynamical collapse of the protogalactic cloud, a process which should have lasted no more than 1 Gyr. But the claimed age differences are derived from stellar evolution models using assumed CNO abundances, and uncertainty in the actual CNO abundances of about a factor of three could account for an apparent 2-Gyr age difference. We have accurately measured abundances in red giants in NGC288 and NGC362, and find that the Fe abundance and the sum of the C, N and O abundances are essentially the same in every star studied. By eliminating compositional differences and thus confirming the reality of the age difference, these results imply a cluster formation period that is hard to reconcile with the standard collapse model. (author)

  9. Fermi Detection of a Luminous γ-Ray Pulsar in a Globular Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, C. C.P.; A. Abdo, A.; Ajello, Marco; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; D. Blandford, R.; D. Bloom, E.; Bonamente, E.; W. Borgland, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of gamma-ray (>100 megaelectronvolts) pulsations from pulsar J1823-3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (~7 sigma). Its gamma-ray luminosity L_gamma = (8.4 +/- 1.6) x10^34 ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The non-detection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that its contains < 32 gamma-ray MSPs, not ~100 as p...

  10. THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. XI. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORIENTATION OF THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY AND ITS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Majewski, Steven R.; Law, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We use observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) study of Galactic globular clusters to investigate the spatial distribution of the inner regions of the disrupting Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr). We combine previously published analyses of four Sgr member clusters located near or in the Sgr core (M54, Arp 2, Terzan 7, and Terzan 8) with a new analysis of diffuse Sgr material identified in the background of five low-latitude Galactic bulge clusters (NGC 6624, 6637, 6652, 6681, and 6809) observed as part of the ACS survey. By comparing the bulge cluster color-magnitude diagrams to our previous analysis of the M54/Sgr core, we estimate distances to these background features. The combined data from four Sgr member clusters and five Sgr background features provide nine independent measures of the Sgr distance and, as a group, provide uniformly measured and calibrated probes of different parts of the inner regions of Sgr spanning 20° over the face of the disrupting dwarf. This allows us, for the first time, to constrain the three-dimensional orientation of Sgr's disrupting core and globular cluster system and compare that orientation to the predictions of an N-body model of tidal disruption. The density and distance of Sgr debris are consistent with models that favor a relatively high Sgr core mass and a slightly greater distance (28-30 kpc, with a mean of 29.4 kpc). Our analysis also suggests that M54 is in the foreground of Sgr by ∼2 kpc, projected on the center of the Sgr dSph. While this would imply a remarkable alignment of the cluster and the Sgr nucleus along the line of sight, we cannot identify any systematic effect in our analysis that would falsely create the measured 2 kpc separation. Finally, we find that the cluster Terzan 7 has the most discrepant distance (25 kpc) among the four Sgr core clusters, which may suggest a different dynamical history than the other Sgr core clusters.

  11. Globular cluster neutron stars and the determination of the dense matter equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien

    2016-09-01

    Combining measurements of the mass and radius of multiple neutron stars (NSs) represents the most promising way to determine the equation of state of dense NS matter. NSs in quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries (qLMXB) located in globular clusters have placed useful constraints on the equation of state. The statistical approaches combining measurements from multiple NSs can be further improved by the addition of more NS observations. We propose here to obtain a high signal to noise spectrum of the qLMXB in M30, the only low-absorption globular cluster qLMXBs that does not have deep X-ray observations, and which requires Chandra unmatched angular resolution. The 300 ks proposed observation will permit measurement of the NS radius with 12-15% uncertainties.

  12. Detecting the effect of Globular Cluster impacts on the disk of the Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Putte, D. Vande; Cropper, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The crossing of the Galactic disk by a Globular Cluster could produce star formation due to gravitational focussing or compression of disk material. We report on simulations of the effect on disk material which reveal that the crossing can sometimes cause local gravitational focussing of disk material. We also present the salient points of a little-known paper by Levy (2000), that shows that strong compression can result from the shock wave generated by GC disk crossing. The main thrust of ou...

  13. VARIABLE STARS IN LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. NGC 1786

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Catelan, Marcio [Facultad de Fisica, Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Pritzl, Barton J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wisconsin Oskosh, Oshkosh, WI 54901 (United States); Borissova, Jura, E-mail: kuehn@physics.usyd.edu.au, E-mail: smith@pa.msu.edu, E-mail: nathan.delee@vanderbilt.edu, E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: pritzlb@uwosh.edu, E-mail: jura.borissova@uv.cl [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Falcultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2012-12-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B-V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters.

  14. [Astrophysics of binary stars, Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and globular clusters. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Press, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Several problems were investigated. The time-steady accretion of gas irradiated by a self-consistently generated quasar-like continuum was studied. The observed x-ray sources near the core of the Orion molecular cloud were established to be sufficient to supply all the ionization that is needed to drive the molecular chemistry throughout that portion of the cloud in which the greatest density and diversity of molecular species is found. A new suggestion was put forth for a single pass, high gain, O 5+ ion laboratory laser at 1035 A. The only evidence for binaries in globular clusters was found to come from binaries in extreme states, cataclysmic variables, and x-ray sources. The various evolutionary paths possible for highly compact binaries in globular clusters where they come under the simultaneous influence of gravitational radiation and gravitational encounters with field stars were analyzed. The secular evolution of a highly compact binary stellar system, composed of a collapsed object and a low-mass secondary star, in the core of a globular cluster was calculated. The dynamics of the narrow line regions of Seyfert galaxies were investigated. New calculations of the soft x-ray opacity of gas having cosmic elemental abunances were developed for a variety of ionization states. Results were presented of the analysis of 28 Einstein SSS observations of 15 high x-ray luminosity quasars and Seyfert type I nuclei

  15. The correlation between the sizes of globular cluster systems and their host dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Michael J.; Robison, Bailey

    2018-04-01

    The sizes of entire systems of globular clusters (GCs) depend on the formation and destruction histories of the GCs themselves, but also on the assembly, merger and accretion history of the dark matter (DM) haloes that they inhabit. Recent work has shown a linear relation between total mass of globular clusters in the globular cluster system and the mass of its host dark matter halo, calibrated from weak lensing. Here we extend this to GC system sizes, by studying the radial density profiles of GCs around galaxies in nearby galaxy groups. We find that radial density profiles of the GC systems are well fit with a de Vaucouleurs profile. Combining our results with those from the literature, we find tight relationship (˜0.2 dex scatter) between the effective radius of the GC system and the virial radius (or mass) of its host DM halo, for halos with masses greater than ˜1012M⊙. The steep non-linear dependence of this relationship (R_{{e, GCS}} ∝ R_{200}^{2.5 - 3} ∝ M_{200}^{0.8 - 1}) is currently not well understood, but is an important clue regarding the assembly history of DM haloes and of the GC systems that they host.

  16. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Brito, Alan Alves; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2018-02-01

    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high resolution and high quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  17. VARIABLE STARS IN LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. II. NGC 1786

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Smith, Horace A.; De Lee, Nathan; Catelan, Márcio; Pritzl, Barton J.; Borissova, Jura

    2012-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers studying the variable stars in Large Magellanic Cloud globular clusters. The primary goal of this series is to study how RR Lyrae stars in Oosterhoff-intermediate systems compare to their counterparts in Oosterhoff I/II systems. In this paper, we present the results of our new time-series B–V photometric study of the globular cluster NGC 1786. A total of 65 variable stars were identified in our field of view. These variables include 53 RR Lyraes (27 RRab, 18 RRc, and 8 RRd), 3 classical Cepheids, 1 Type II Cepheid, 1 Anomalous Cepheid, 2 eclipsing binaries, 3 Delta Scuti/SX Phoenicis variables, and 2 variables of undetermined type. Photometric parameters for these variables are presented. We present physical properties for some of the RR Lyrae stars, derived from Fourier analysis of their light curves. We discuss several different indicators of Oosterhoff type which indicate that the Oosterhoff classification of NGC 1786 is not as clear cut as what is seen in most globular clusters.

  18. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Alves-Brito, Alan; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2018-05-01

    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high-resolution and high-quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  19. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. IV. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: α, Fe-PEAK, LIGHT, AND HEAVY ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ∼ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ 2 -minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (∼15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ∼ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation.

  20. Globular Cluster Abundances from High-resolution, Integrated-light Spectroscopy. IV. The Large Magellanic Cloud: α, Fe-peak, Light, and Heavy Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2012-02-01

    We present detailed chemical abundances in eight clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We measure abundances of 22 elements for clusters spanning a range in age of 0.05-12 Gyr, providing a comprehensive picture of the chemical enrichment and star formation history of the LMC. The abundances were obtained from individual absorption lines using a new method for analysis of high-resolution (R ~ 25,000), integrated-light (IL) spectra of star clusters. This method was developed and presented in Papers I, II, and III of this series. In this paper, we develop an additional IL χ2-minimization spectral synthesis technique to facilitate measurement of weak (~15 mÅ) spectral lines and abundances in low signal-to-noise ratio data (S/N ~ 30). Additionally, we supplement the IL abundance measurements with detailed abundances that we measure for individual stars in the youngest clusters (age +0.5) and increases with decreasing age, indicating a strong contribution of low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch star ejecta to the interstellar medium throughout the later history of the LMC. We also find a correlation of IL Na and Al abundances with cluster mass in the sense that more massive, older clusters are enriched in the light elements Na and Al with respect to Fe, which implies that these clusters harbor star-to-star abundance variations as is common in the MW. Lower mass, intermediate-age, and young clusters have Na and Al abundances that are lower and more consistent with LMC field stars. Our results can be used to constrain both future chemical evolution models for the LMC and theories of globular cluster formation. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. The Globular Cluster NGC 6402 (M14). II. Variable Stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contreras Peña, C.; Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.

    2018-01-01

    approaches for the calibration of the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. The possible presence of second-overtone RR Lyrae in M14 is critically addressed, with our results arguing against this possibility. By considering all of the RR Lyrae stars as members of the cluster, we derive =0.589 {{d...

  2. The globular cluster systems of 54 Coma ultra-diffuse galaxies: statistical constraints from HST data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorisco, N. C.; Monachesi, A.; Agnello, A.; White, S. D. M.

    2018-04-01

    We use data from the HST Coma Cluster Treasury program to assess the richness of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of 54 Coma ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs), 18 of which have a half-light radius exceeding 1.5 kpc. We use a hierarchical Bayesian method tested on a large number of mock data sets to account consistently for the high and spatially varying background counts in Coma. These include both background galaxies and intra-cluster globular clusters (ICGCs), which are disentangled from the population of member globular clusters (GCs) in a probabilistic fashion. We find no candidate for a GCS as rich as that of the Milky Way, our sample has GCSs typical of dwarf galaxies. For the standard relation between GCS richness and halo mass, 33 galaxies have a virial mass Mvir ≤ 1011 M⊙ at 90 per cent probability. Only three have Mvir > 1011 M⊙ with the same confidence. The mean colour and spread in colour of the UDG GCs are indistinguishable from those of the abundant population of ICGCs. The majority of UDGs in our sample are consistent with the relation between stellar mass and GC richness of `normal' dwarf galaxies. Nine systems, however, display GCSs that are richer by a factor of 3 or more (at 90 per cent probability). Six of these have sizes ≲1.4 kpc. Our results imply that the physical mechanisms responsible for the extended size of the UDGs and for the enhanced GC richness of some cluster dwarfs are at most weakly correlated.

  3. Deep and accurate near-infrared photometry of the Galactic globular cluster omega Cen .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamida, A.; Bono, G.; Corsi, C. E.; Stetson, P. B.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Marchetti, E.; Amico, P.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Monelli, M.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Dall'Ora, M.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Koester, D.; Nonino, M.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Romaniello, M.

    We present deep and accurate Near-Infrared (NIR) photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster omega Cen . Data were collected using the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) mounted on the VLT (ESO). We combined the NIR photometry with optical space data collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) for the same region of the cluster. Our deep optical-NIR CMD indicates that the spread in age among the different stellar populations in omega Cen is at most of the order of 2 Gyr.

  4. The gravitational wave emission from white dwarf interactions in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loren-Aguilar, P; Garcia-Berro, E; Lobo, J A; Isern, J

    2009-01-01

    In the dense central regions of globular clusters close encounters of two white dwarfs are relatively frequent. The estimated frequency is one or more strong encounters per star in the lifetime of the cluster. Such encounters should be then potential sources of gravitational wave radiation. Thus, it is foreseeable that these collisions could be either individually detected by LISA or they could contribute significantly to the background noise of the detector. We compute the pattern of gravitational wave emission from these encounters for a sufficiently broad range of system parameters, namely the masses, the relative velocities and the distances of the two white dwarfs involved in the encounter.

  5. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey. IV. Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Massive Globular Cluster System at the Core of the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matković, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Phillipps, Steven; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Russell J.; Tully, Brent; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is

  6. The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey : IV. Intergalactic Globular Clusters and the Massive Globular Cluster System at the Core of the Coma Galaxy Cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Eric W.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Goudfrooij, Paul; Hammer, Derek; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Carter, David; Balcells, Marc; Bridges, Terry; Chiboucas, Kristin; del Burgo, Carlos; Graham, Alister W.; Guzman, Rafael; Hudson, Michael J.; Matkovic, Ana; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Phillipps, Steven; Sharples, Ray; Smith, Russell J.; Tully, Brent; Kleijn, Gijs Verdoes

    2011-01-01

    Intracluster stellar populations are a natural result of tidal interactions in galaxy clusters. Measuring these populations is difficult, but important for understanding the assembly of the most massive galaxies. The Coma cluster of galaxies is one of the nearest truly massive galaxy clusters and is

  7. NEAR-IR PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF HB, MSTO, AND SGB FOR METAL POOR GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Kim

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We report photometric features of the HB, MSTO, and SGB for a set of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters on the near-IR CMDs. The magnitude and color of the MSTO and SGB are measured on the fiducial normal points of the CMDs by applying a polynomial fit. The near-IR luminosity functions of horizontal branch stars in the classical second parameter pair M3 and M13 indicate that HB stars in M13 are dominated by hot stars that are rotatively faint in the infrared, whereas HB stars in M3 are brighter than those in M13. The luminosity functions of HB stars in the observed bulge clusters, except for NGC 6717, show a trend that the fainter hot HB stars are dominated in the relatively metal-poor clusters while the relatively metal-rich clusters contain the brighter HB stars. It is suggestive that NGC 6717 would be an extreme example of the second-parameter phenomenon for the bulge globular clusters.

  8. VARIABLE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2808

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Stetson, Peter B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC (Canada); Catelan, Marcio; Amigo, Pia, E-mail: akunder@ctio.noao.edu, E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-02-01

    The first calibrated broadband BVI time-series photometry is presented for the variable stars in NGC 2808, with observations spanning a range of 28 years. We have also redetermined the variability types and periods for the variable stars identified previously by Corwin et al., revising the number of probable fundamental-mode RR Lyrae variables (RR0) to 11 and the number of first-overtone variables (RR1) to five. Our observations were insufficient to discern the nature of the previously identified RR1 star, V24, and the tentatively identified RR1 star, V13. These two variables are {approx}0.8 mag brighter than the RR Lyrae variables, appear to have somewhat erratic period and/or luminosity changes, and lie inside the RR Lyrae instability strip. Curiously, all but one of the RR Lyrae stars studied in this relatively metal-rich cluster exhibit the Blazhko phenomenon, an effect thought to occur with higher frequency in metal-poor environments. The mean periods of the RR0 and RR1 variables are (P){sub RR0} = 0.56 {+-} 0.01 d and

    {sub RR1} = 0.30 {+-} 0.02 d, respectively, supporting an Oosterhoff I classification of the cluster. On the other hand, the number ratio of RR1-to-RR0-type variables is high, though not unprecedented, for an Oosterhoff I cluster. The RR Lyrae variables have no period shifts at a given amplitude compared to the M3 variables, making it unlikely that these variables are He enhanced. Using the recent recalibration of the RR Lyrae luminosity scale by Catelan and Cortes, a mean distance modulus of (m - M){sub V} = 15.57 {+-} 0.13 mag for NGC 2808 is obtained, in good agreement with that determined here from its type II Cepheid and SX Phoenicis population. Our data have also allowed the discovery of two new candidate SX Phoenicis stars and an eclipsing binary in the blue straggler region of the NGC 2808 color-magnitude diagram.

  9. VARIABLE STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2808

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunder, Andrea; Walker, Alistair R.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Márcio; Amigo, Pía

    2013-01-01

    The first calibrated broadband BVI time-series photometry is presented for the variable stars in NGC 2808, with observations spanning a range of 28 years. We have also redetermined the variability types and periods for the variable stars identified previously by Corwin et al., revising the number of probable fundamental-mode RR Lyrae variables (RR0) to 11 and the number of first-overtone variables (RR1) to five. Our observations were insufficient to discern the nature of the previously identified RR1 star, V24, and the tentatively identified RR1 star, V13. These two variables are ∼0.8 mag brighter than the RR Lyrae variables, appear to have somewhat erratic period and/or luminosity changes, and lie inside the RR Lyrae instability strip. Curiously, all but one of the RR Lyrae stars studied in this relatively metal-rich cluster exhibit the Blazhko phenomenon, an effect thought to occur with higher frequency in metal-poor environments. The mean periods of the RR0 and RR1 variables are (P) RR0 = 0.56 ± 0.01 d and RR1 = 0.30 ± 0.02 d, respectively, supporting an Oosterhoff I classification of the cluster. On the other hand, the number ratio of RR1-to-RR0-type variables is high, though not unprecedented, for an Oosterhoff I cluster. The RR Lyrae variables have no period shifts at a given amplitude compared to the M3 variables, making it unlikely that these variables are He enhanced. Using the recent recalibration of the RR Lyrae luminosity scale by Catelan and Cortés, a mean distance modulus of (m – M) V = 15.57 ± 0.13 mag for NGC 2808 is obtained, in good agreement with that determined here from its type II Cepheid and SX Phoenicis population. Our data have also allowed the discovery of two new candidate SX Phoenicis stars and an eclipsing binary in the blue straggler region of the NGC 2808 color-magnitude diagram.

  10. Galactic Structure in the Outer Disk: The Field in the Line of Sight to the Intermediate-Age open Cluster Tombaugh 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraro, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Padova Vicolo Osservatorio 3 I-35122, Padova (Italy); Silva, Joao Victor Sales [Observatorio Nacional/MCT Rua Gen. José Cristino 77 20291-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Bidin, Christian Moni [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Catolica del Norte Av. Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280 Antofagasta (Chile); Vazquez, Ruben A., E-mail: giovanni.carraro@unipd.it [Instituto de Astrofisica de La Plata CONICET/ UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n La Plata (Argentina)

    2017-03-01

    We employ optical photometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to study a field toward the open cluster Tombaugh 1, where we identify a complex population mixture that we describe in terms of young and old Galactic thin disks. Of particular interest is the spatial distribution of the young population, which consists of dwarfs with spectral types as early as B6 and is distributed in a blue plume feature in the color–magnitude diagram. For the first time, we confirm spectroscopically that most of these stars are early-type stars and not blue stragglers or halo/thick-disk subdwarfs. Moreover, they are not evenly distributed along the line of sight but crowd at heliocentric distances between 6.6 and 8.2 kpc. We compare these results with present-day understanding of the spiral structure of the Galaxy and suggest that they trace the outer arm. This range of distances challenges current Galactic models adopting a disk cutoff at 14 kpc from the Galactic center. The young dwarfs overlap in space with an older component, which is identified as an old Galactic thin disk. Both young and old populations are confined in space since the disk is warped at the latitude and longitude of Tombaugh 1. The main effects of the warp are that the line of sight intersects the disk and entirely crosses it at the outer arm distance and that there are no traces of the closer Perseus arm, which would then be either unimportant in this sector or located much closer to the formal Galactic plane. Finally, we analyze a group of giant stars, which turn out to be located at very different distances and to possess very different chemical properties, with no obvious relation to the other populations.

  11. A single population of red globular clusters around the massive compact galaxy NGC 1277

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Michael A.; Trujillo, Ignacio; Leaman, Ryan; Montes, Mireia

    2018-03-01

    Massive galaxies are thought to form in two phases: an initial collapse of gas and giant burst of central star formation, followed by the later accretion of material that builds up their stellar and dark-matter haloes. The systems of globular clusters within such galaxies are believed to form in a similar manner. The initial central burst forms metal-rich (spectrally red) clusters, whereas more metal-poor (spectrally blue) clusters are brought in by the later accretion of less-massive satellites. This formation process is thought to result in the multimodal optical colour distributions that are seen in the globular cluster systems of massive galaxies. Here we report optical observations of the massive relic-galaxy candidate NGC 1277—a nearby, un-evolved example of a high-redshift ‘red nugget’ galaxy. We find that the optical colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 is unimodal and entirely red. This finding is in strong contrast to other galaxies of similar and larger stellar mass, the cluster systems of which always exhibit (and are generally dominated by) blue clusters. We argue that the colour distribution of the cluster system of NGC 1277 indicates that the galaxy has undergone little (if any) mass accretion after its initial collapse, and use simulations of possible merger histories to show that the stellar mass due to accretion is probably at most ten per cent of the total stellar mass of the galaxy. These results confirm that NGC 1277 is a genuine relic galaxy and demonstrate that blue clusters constitute an accreted population in present-day massive galaxies.

  12. The next generation Virgo cluster survey. VIII. The spatial distribution of globular clusters in the Virgo cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrell, Patrick R.; Accetta, Katharine [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Côté, Patrick; Blakeslee, John P.; Ferrarese, Laura; McConnachie, Alan; Gwyn, Stephen [Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Mihos, J. Christopher [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Puzia, Thomas H.; Jordán, Andrés [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Av. Vicu' a Mackenna 4860, Macul 7820436, Santiago (Chile); Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Boissier, Samuel; Boselli, Alessandro [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Emsellem, Eric [Université de Lyon 1, CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 av. Charles André, F-69230 Saint-Genis Laval (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, ENS de Lyon (France); and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a large-scale study of the distribution of globular clusters (GCs) throughout the Virgo cluster, based on photometry from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS), a large imaging survey covering Virgo's primary subclusters (Virgo A = M87 and Virgo B = M49) out to their virial radii. Using the g{sub o}{sup ′}, (g' – i') {sub o} color-magnitude diagram of unresolved and marginally resolved sources within the NGVS, we have constructed two-dimensional maps of the (irregular) GC distribution over 100 deg{sup 2} to a depth of g{sub o}{sup ′} = 24. We present the clearest evidence to date showing the difference in concentration between red and blue GCs over the full extent of the cluster, where the red (more metal-rich) GCs are largely located around the massive early-type galaxies in Virgo, while the blue (metal-poor) GCs have a much more extended spatial distribution with significant populations still present beyond 83' (∼215 kpc) along the major axes of both M49 and M87. A comparison of our GC maps to the diffuse light in the outermost regions of M49 and M87 show remarkable agreement in the shape, ellipticity, and boxiness of both luminous systems. We also find evidence for spatial enhancements of GCs surrounding M87 that may be indicative of recent interactions or an ongoing merger history. We compare the GC map to that of the locations of Virgo galaxies and the X-ray intracluster gas, and find generally good agreement between these various baryonic structures. We calculate the Virgo cluster contains a total population of N {sub GC} = 67, 300 ± 14, 400, of which 35% are located in M87 and M49 alone. For the first time, we compute a cluster-wide specific frequency S {sub N,} {sub CL} = 2.8 ± 0.7, after correcting for Virgo's diffuse light. We also find a GC-to-baryonic mass fraction ε {sub b} = 5.7 ± 1.1 × 10{sup –4} and a GC-to-total cluster mass formation efficiency ε {sub t} = 2.9 ± 0.5 × 10{sup –5

  13. High Cadence Photometric Survey of Four Southern Hemisphere Milky Way Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Douglas Kyle; Albrow, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The Milky Way galaxy is surrounded by some 200 compact Globular Cluster (GCs) of stars, containing up to a million stars each. At 13 billion years of age, these globular clusters are almost as old as the universe itself and were born when the first generations of stars and galaxies formed. GCs are dynamical test beds for investigating and proving theories of stellar evolution. A key parameter to understanding the evolution of GCs is the binary fraction of stars contained within a GC. Binary stars are thought to be a controlling factor in globular cluster evolution and provide a unique tool to determine crucial information about a variety of stellar characteristics such as mass, radius and luminosity. In addition to containing binary stars, GCs also harbor a wide variety of variable stars such as RR Lyrae stars and other stellar exotica, such as blue stragglers, cataclysmic variables, and low-mass X-ray binaries. Recently, a potential new class of rapidly pulsating star, hydrogen-rich subdwarf (sdO) pulsators, has been discovered in the Omega Centauri GC. At present, these Hydrogen sdO pulsators have not been detected in any other GC or among the general field star population.This talk will discuss the use of Difference Imaging Algorithms (DIAs) applied to time-series photometry data from the 10m Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) to investigate short period low amplitude variable stars in the GCs: NGC 1904, NGC 2808, NGC 4833 and NGC 5139. We will present results of• Searching for new discoveries in pulsating stars, cataclysmic variables (a white dwarf star accreting material from its companion), BY Draconis stars (rapidly rotating dwarf stars spun up by a binary companion) and contact binary stars (rapidly rotating binaries that are beginning to coalesce)• Comparison analysis of variables across clusters in relation to cluster Main Sequence regions• Determining the fraction of binary stars in the identified GCsSpecific scientific questions that are

  14. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R.; Catelan, M.; Alonso-García, J.; Cortés, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  15. The globular cluster NGC 7492 and the Sagittarius tidal stream: together but unmixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Bello, J. A.; Corral-Santana, J. M.; Catelan, M.; Martínez-Delgado, D.; Muñoz, R. R.; Sollima, A.; Navarrete, C.; Duffau, S.; Côté, P.; Mora, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    We have derived from VIMOS spectroscopy the radial velocities for a sample of 71 stars selected from CFHT/Megacam photometry around the Galactic globular cluster NGC 7492. In the resulting velocity distribution, it is possible to distinguish two relevant non-Galactic kinematic components along the same line of sight: a group of stars at 〈vr〉 ˜ 125 km s-1 which is compatible with the velocity of the old leading arm of the Sagittarius tidal stream, and a larger number of objects at 〈vr〉 ˜ -110 km s-1 that might be identified as members of the trailing wrap of the same stream. The systemic velocity of NGC 7492 set at vr ˜ -177 km s-1 differs significantly from that of both components, thus our results confirm that this cluster is not one of the globular clusters deposited by the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal in the Galactic halo, even if it is immersed in the stream. A group of stars with 〈vr〉 ˜ - 180 km s-1 might be comprised of cluster members along one of the tidal tails of NGC 7492.

  16. Constraints on helium enhancement in the globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121): The horizontal branch test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarce, A. A. R.; De Medeiros, J. R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Física, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Centro de Astroingeniería, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Alonso-García, J. [Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Av. Vicuña Mackena 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Cortés, C. [Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Departamento de Física, Av. José Pedro Alessandri 774, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-20

    Recent pieces of evidence have revealed that most, and possibly all, globular star clusters are composed of groups of stars that formed in multiple episodes with different chemical compositions. In this sense, it has also been argued that variations in the initial helium abundance (Y) from one population to the next are also the rule, rather than the exception. In the case of the metal-intermediate globular cluster M4 (NGC 6121), recent high-resolution spectroscopic observations of blue horizontal branch (HB) stars (i.e., HB stars hotter than the RR Lyrae instability strip) suggest that a large fraction of blue HB stars are second-generation stars formed with high helium abundances. In this paper, we test this scenario by using recent photometric and spectroscopic data together with theoretical evolutionary computations for different Y values. Comparing the photometric data with the theoretically derived color-magnitude diagrams, we find that the bulk of the blue HB stars in M4 have ΔY ≲ 0.01 with respect to the cluster's red HB stars (i.e., HB stars cooler than the RR Lyrae strip)—a result which is corroborated by comparison with spectroscopically derived gravities and temperatures, which also favor little He enhancement. However, the possible existence of a minority population on the blue HB of the cluster with a significant He enhancement level is also discussed.

  17. A Spectroscopic Analysis of the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Crane, Jeffrey D.

    2015-08-01

    A combined effort utilizing spectroscopy and photometry has revealed the existence of a new globular cluster class. These “anomalous” clusters, which we refer to as “iron-complex” clusters, are differentiated from normal clusters by exhibiting large (≳0.10 dex) intrinsic metallicity dispersions, complex sub-giant branches, and correlated [Fe/H] and s-process enhancements. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, we have measured radial velocities and chemical abundances for red giant branch stars in the massive, but scarcely studied, globular cluster NGC 6273. The velocities and abundances were determined using high resolution (R ˜ 27,000) spectra obtained with the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and MSpec spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay 6.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We find that NGC 6273 has an average heliocentric radial velocity of +144.49 km s-1 (σ = 9.64 km s-1) and an extended metallicity distribution ([Fe/H] = -1.80 to -1.30) composed of at least two distinct stellar populations. Although the two dominant populations have similar [Na/Fe], [Al/Fe], and [α/Fe] abundance patterns, the more metal-rich stars exhibit significant [La/Fe] enhancements. The [La/Eu] data indicate that the increase in [La/Fe] is due to almost pure s-process enrichment. A third more metal-rich population with low [X/Fe] ratios may also be present. Therefore, NGC 6273 joins clusters such as ω Centauri, M2, M22, and NGC 5286 as a new class of iron-complex clusters exhibiting complicated star formation histories. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  18. A Deep X-ray Survey of the Globular Cluster Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henleywillis, Simon; Cool, Adrienne M.; Haggard, Daryl; Heinke, Craig; Callanan, Paul; Zhao, Yue

    2018-03-01

    We identify 233 X-ray sources, of which 95 are new, in a 222 ks exposure of Omega Centauri with the Chandra X-ray Observatory's ACIS-I detector. The limiting unabsorbed flux in the core is fX(0.5-6.0 keV) ≃ 3×10-16 erg s-1 cm-2 (Lx ≃ 1×1030 erg s-1 at 5.2 kpc). We estimate that ˜60 ± 20 of these are cluster members, of which ˜30 lie within the core (rc = 155 arcsec), and another ˜30 between 1-2 core radii. We identify four new optical counterparts, for a total of 45 likely identifications. Probable cluster members include 18 cataclysmic variables (CVs) and CV candidates, one quiescent low-mass X-ray binary, four variable stars, and five stars that are either associated with ω Cen's anomalous red giant branch, or are sub-subgiants. We estimate that the cluster contains 40 ± 10 CVs with Lx > 1031 erg s-1, confirming that CVs are underabundant in ω Cen relative to the field. Intrinsic absorption is required to fit X-ray spectra of six of the nine brightest CVs, suggesting magnetic CVs, or high-inclination systems. Though no radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are currently known in ω Cen, more than 30 unidentified sources have luminosities and X-ray colours like those of MSPs found in other globular clusters; these could be responsible for the Fermi-detected gamma-ray emission from the cluster. Finally, we identify a CH star as the counterpart to the second-brightest X-ray source in the cluster and argue that it is a symbiotic star. This is the first such giant/white dwarf binary to be identified in a globular cluster.

  19. Limits on [O III] 5007 Emission from NGC 4472's Globular Clusters: Constraints on Planetary Nebulae and Ultraluminous Black Hole X-Ray Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.

    2012-06-01

    We have searched for [O III] 5007 emission in high-resolution spectroscopic data from FLAMES/GIRAFFE Very Large Telescope observations of 174 massive globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4472. No planetary nebulae (PNe) are observed in these clusters, constraining the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity, α evolution, if all stars produce PNe. Comparing our results to populations of PNe in galaxies, we find most galaxies have a higher α than these GCs (more PNe per bolometric luminosity—though some massive early-type galaxies do have similarly low α). The low α required in these GCs suggests that the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity does not increase strongly with decreasing mass or metallicity of the stellar population. We find no evidence for correlations between the presence of known GC PNe and either the presence of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) or the stellar interaction rates in the GCs. This, and the low α observed, suggests that the formation of PNe may not be enhanced in tight binary systems. These data do identify one [O III] emission feature, this is the (previously published) broad [O III] emission from the cluster RZ 2109. This emission is thought to originate from the LMXB in this cluster, which is accreting at super-Eddington rates. The absence of any similar [O III] emission from the other clusters favors the hypothesis that this source is a black hole LMXB, rather than a neutron star LMXB with significant geometric beaming of its X-ray emission.

  20. Multiple stellar populations in the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272) : a Strömgren perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, Davide; Lapenna, Emilio; Bragaglia, Angela; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Contreras Ramos, Rodrigo; Amigo, Pía

    2016-01-01

    We present Strömgren photometry of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 to study its multiple generations phenomenon. The use of different colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) and especially of the notoriously efficient cy index allowed us to detect a double red giant branch in the cluster CMD. After

  1. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M circle dot , with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M circle dot . The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as ∼12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Branch Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 288

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsyu, Tiffany; Johnson, C. I.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Lee, Y.; Rich, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical abundances and radial velocities for ~30 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster NGC 288. The results are based on moderate resolution (R≈18,000) and moderate signal-to-noise ratio 50-75) obtained with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Blanco 4m telescope. NGC 288 has been shown to exhibit two separate RGBs and we investigate possible differences in metallicity and/or light element abundances between stars on each branch. We present a new filter tracing for the CTIO Calcium HK narrow band filter and explore its effects on previous globular cluster color-magnitude diagrams. We also compare the light element abundance patterns of NGC 288 to those of other similar metallicity halo clusters. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under award No.AST-1003201 to C.I.J. C.A.P. gratefully acknowledges support from the Daniel Kirkwood Research Fund at Indiana University. R.M.R. acknowledges support from NSF grants AST-0709479 and AST-121120995.

  3. Effects of main-sequence mass loss on the turnoff ages of globular clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzik, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Willson, Bowen, and Struck-Marcell have proposed that globular cluster main-sequence turnoff ages can be reconciled with the lower ages of the Galaxy and universe deduced from other methods by incorporating an epoch of early main-sequence mass-loss by stars of spectral types A through early-F. The proposed mass loss is pulsation-driven, and facilitated by rapid rotation. This paper presents stellar evolution calculations of Pop. II (Z = 0.001) mass-losing stars of initial mass 0.8 to 1.6 M/sub /circle dot//, with exponentially-decreasing mass loss rates of e-folding times 0.5 to 2.0 Gyr, evolving to a final mass of 0.7 M/sub /circle dot//. The calculations indicate that a globular cluster with apparent turnoff age 18 Gyr could have an actual age as low as /approximately/12 Gyr. Observational implications that may help to verify the hypothesis, e.g. low C/N abundance ratios among red giants following first dredge-up, blue stragglers, red giant deficiencies, and signatures in cluster mass/luminosity functions, are also discussed.25 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. On the radial distribution of white dwarfs in the Galactic globular cluster omega Cen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamida, A.; Corsi, C. E.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Koester, D.; Pulone, L.; Monelli, M.; Amico, P.; Buonanno, R.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Marchetti, E.; Nonino, M.; Romaniello, M.

    We present deep and accurate photometry (F435W, F625W, F658N) of the Galactic Globular Cluster omega Cen collected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We identified ≈ 6,500 white dwarf (WD) candidates and compared their radial distribution with that of Main Sequence (MS) stars. We found a mild evidence that young WDs ( 0.1 ≲ t ≲ 0.6 Gyr) are less centrally concentrated when compared to MS stars in the magnitude range 25 < F435W < 26.5.

  5. Globular star cluster systems around galaxies. II. The cases of spiral and dwarf galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadjibaev, I.U.; Nuritdinov, S.N.; Ganiev, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Our compiled catalogue of globular cluster systems (GCS) which had studied in pervious part [1] is replenished now essentially as it are not sufficient the data to search for some empirical relationships between physical GCS parameters of the spiral and dwarf galaxies with a glance host galaxy characteristics. A number of empirical relationships for GCS of spiral and dwarf galaxies is first found. These results are differing essentially from analogous relationships for GCS of elliptical and lenticular galaxies which were found in [1]. It is also offered a possible new approach to the origin theory of the poor GCS which occupy a significant portion in our list of dwarf and spiral galaxies

  6. On the Variability of Blue Straggler Stars in the Globular Cluster M53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Chang Rey

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a search for photometric variable blue straggler stars (BSSs in the globular cluster M53. Six of the 151 probable BSSs are identified as variable candidates based on the robust variable star detection technique of Welch & Stetson (1993. Most variable BSS candidates appear to occupy the instability strip in the color-magnitude diagram, and they appear to have visual light amplitudes of 0.2 mag - 0.3 mag. Further observations are required, however, to resolve the nature of variability between pulsating stars and eclipsing binaries for these variable BSS candidates.

  7. The Correlations between the Intrinsic Colors and Spectroscopic Metallicities of M31 Globular Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhou; Ma, Jun; Zhou, Xu; Jiang, Zhaoji

    2010-01-01

    We present the correlations between the spectroscopic metallicities and ninety-three different intrinsic colors of M31 globular clusters, including seventy-eight BATC colors and fifteen SDSS and near infrared ugrizK colors. The BATC colors were derived from the archival images of thirteen filters (from c to p), which were taken by Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut (BATC) Multicolor Sky Survey with a 60/90 cm f/3 Schmidt telescope. The spectroscopic metallicities adopted in our work were from...

  8. ALMA reveals sunburn: CO dissociation around AGB stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Iain; Zijlstra, Albert A.; Lagadec, Eric; Sloan, Gregory C.; Boyer, Martha L.; Matsuura, Mikako; Smith, Rowan J.; Smith, Christina L.; Yates, Jeremy A.; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Jones, Olivia C.; Ramstedt, Sofia; Avison, Adam; Justtanont, Kay; Olofsson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Atacama Large Millimetre Array observations show a non-detection of carbon monoxide around the four most luminous asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae. Stellar evolution models and star counts show that the mass-loss rates from these stars should be similar to 1.2-3.5x10(-7) M-circle dot yr(-1). We would naively expect such stars to be detectable at this distance (4.5 kpc). By modelling the ultraviolet radiation field from post-AGB stars and white dwarfs in 4...

  9. Predictions of Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Cluster Millisecond Pulsars Above 100 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, C.; de Jaker, O.C.; Clapson, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent Fermi detection of the globular cluster (GC) 47 Tucanae highlighted the importance of modeling collective gamma-ray emission of millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in GCs. Steady flux from such populations is also expected in the very high energy (VHE) domain covered by ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. We present pulsed curvature radiation (CR) as well as unpulsed inverse Compton (IC) calculations for an ensemble of MSPs in the GCs 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. We demonstrate that the CR from these GCs should be easily detectable for Fermi, while constraints on the total number of MSps and the nebular B-field may be derived using the IC flux components.

  10. Searching for IMBHs in Galactic globular clusters through radial velocities of individual stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzoni, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    I present an overview of our ongoing project aimed at building a new generation of velocity dispersion profiles ad rotation curves for a representative sample of Galactic globular clusters, from the the radial velocity of hundreds of individual stars distributed at different distances from the cluster center. The innermost portion of the profiles will be used to constrain the possible presence of intermediate-mass black holes. The adopted methodology consists of combining spectroscopic observations acquired with three different instruments at the ESO-VLT: the adaptive-optics assisted, integral field unit (IFU) spectrograph SINFONI for the innermost and highly crowded cluster cores, the multi-IFU spectrograph KMOS for the intermediate regions, and the multi-fiber instrument FLAMES/GIRAFFE-MEDUSA for the outskirts. The case of NGC 6388, representing the pilot project that motivated the entire program, is described in some details.

  11. The most metal-poor Galactic globular cluster: the first spectroscopic observations of ESO280-SC06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jeffrey D.

    2018-04-01

    We present the first spectroscopic observations of the very metal-poor Milky Way globular cluster ESO280-SC06. Using spectra acquired with the 2dF/AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope, we have identified 13 members of the cluster, and estimate from their infrared calcium triplet lines that the cluster has a metallicity of [Fe/H]={-2.48}^{+0.06}_{-0.11}. This would make it the most metal-poor globular cluster known in the Milky Way. This result was verified with comparisons to three other metal-poor globular clusters that had been observed and analyzed in the same manner. We also present new photometry of the cluster from EFOSC2 and SkyMapper and confirm that the cluster is located 22.9 ± 2.1 kpc from the Sun and 15.2 ± 2.1 kpc from the Galactic centre, and has a radial velocity of 92.5 + 2.4-1.6 km s-1. These new data finds the cluster to have a radius about half that previously estimated, and we find that the cluster has a dynamical mass of the cluster of (12 ± 2) × 103 M⊙. Unfortunately, we lack reliable proper motions to fully characterize its orbit about the Galaxy. Intriguingly, the photometry suggests that the cluster lacks a well-populated horizontal branch, something that has not been observed in a cluster so ancient or metal-poor.

  12. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Deng, Licai [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Wang, Chuchu [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Clementini, Gisella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Groenewegen, Martin A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Ukkel (Belgium); Guandalini, Roald [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D 2401, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Van Loon, Jacco Th., E-mail: joshuali@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ∼0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  13. Modelling the observed stellar mass function and its radial variation in galactic globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Vesperini, Enrico; Dalessandro, Emanuele; Beccari, Giacomo; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Lanzoni, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    We measure how the slope α of the stellar mass function (MF) changes as a function of clustercentric distance r in five Galactic globular clusters and compare α(r) to predictions from direct N-body star cluster simulations. Theoretical studies predict that α(r) (which traces the degree of mass segregation in a cluster) should steepen with time as a cluster undergoes two-body relaxation and that the amount by which the global MF can evolve from its initial state due to stellar escape is directly linked to α(r). We find that the amount of mass segregation in M10, NGC 6218, and NGC 6981 is consistent with their dynamical ages, but only the global MF of M10 is consistent with its degree of mass segregation as well. NGC 5466 and NGC 6101 on the other hand appear to be less segregated than their dynamical ages would indicate. Furthermore, despite the fact that the escape rate of stars in non-segregated clusters is independent of stellar mass, both NGC 5466 and NGC 6101 have near-flat MFs. We discuss various mechanisms which could produce non-segregated clusters with near-flat MFs, including higher mass-loss rates and black hole retention, but argue that for some clusters (NGC 5466 and NGC 6101) explaining the present-day properties might require either a non-universal initial mass function or a much more complex dynamical history.

  14. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VIII. PRELIMINARY PUBLIC CATALOG RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Brown, T. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, San Martin Drive 3700, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Piotto, G.; Granata, V.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia Galileo Galilei, Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Cool, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); King, I. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Cassisi, S. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Hidalgo, S., E-mail: mario.soto@uda.cl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2017-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GO-13297) has been specifically designed to complement the existing F606W and F814W observations of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Globular Cluster Survey (GO-10775) by observing the most accessible 47 of the previous survey’s 65 clusters in three WFC3/UVIS filters F275W, F336W, and F438W. The new survey also adds super-solar metallicity open cluster NGC 6791 to increase the metallicity diversity. The combined survey provides a homogeneous 5-band data set that can be used to pursue a broad range of scientific investigations. In particular, the chosen UV filters allow the identification of multiple stellar populations by targeting the regions of the spectrum that are sensitive to abundance variations in C, N, and O. In order to provide the community with uniform preliminary catalogs, we have devised an automated procedure that performs high-quality photometry on the new UV observations (along with similar observations of seven other programs in the archive). This procedure finds and measures the potential sources on each individual exposure using library point-spread functions and cross-correlates these observations with the original ACS-Survey catalog. The catalog of 57 clusters we publish here will be useful to identify stars in the different stellar populations, in particular for spectroscopic follow-up. Eventually, we will construct a more sophisticated catalog and artificial-star tests based on an optimal reduction of the UV survey data, but the catalogs presented here give the community the chance to make early use of this HST Treasury survey.

  15. Chemical Abundances of Red Giant Stars in the Globular Cluster M107 (NGC 6171)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Julia E.; Johnson, Christian I.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.; Burks, Geoffrey

    2011-10-01

    We present chemical abundances of Al and several Fe-Peak and neutron-capture elements for 13 red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6171 (M107). The abundances were determined using equivalent width and spectrum synthesis analyses of moderate-resolution ( R ˜ 15,000), moderate signal-to-noise ratio ( ˜ 80) spectra obtained with the WIYN telescope and Hydra multifiber spectrograph. A comparison between photometric and spectroscopic effective temperature estimates seems to indicate that a reddening value of E(B - V) = 0.46 may be more appropriate for this cluster than the more commonly used value of E(B - V) = 0.33. Similarly, we found that a distance modulus of (m - M)V ≈ 13.7 provided reasonable surface gravity estimates for the stars in our sample. Our spectroscopic analysis finds M107 to be moderately metal-poor with = -0.93 and also exhibits a small star-to-star metallicity dispersion (σ = 0.04). These results are consistent with previous photometric and spectroscopic studies. Aluminum appears to be moderately enhanced in all program stars ( = +0.39, σ = 0.11). The relatively small star-to-star scatter in [Al/Fe] differs from the trend found in more metal-poor globular clusters, and is more similar to what is found in clusters with [Fe/H] ≳ -1. The cluster also appears to be moderately r-process-enriched with = +0.32 (σ = 0.17).

  16. A photometric study of globular clusters observed by the APOGEE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Szabolcs; García-Hernández, D. A.; Cassisi, Santi; Monelli, Matteo; Szigeti, László; Dell'Agli, Flavia; Derekas, Alíz; Masseron, Thomas; Shetrone, Matthew; Stetson, Peter; Zamora, Olga

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the photometric and spectroscopic properties of multiple populations in seven northern globular clusters. In this study, we employ precise ground-based photometry from the private collection of Stetson, space photometry from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), literature abundances of Na and O, and Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) survey abundances for Mg, Al, C, and N. Multiple populations are identified by their position in the CU, B, I -Vpseudo colour-magnitude diagram (pseudo-CMD) and confirmed with their chemical composition determined using abundances. We confirm the expectation from previous studies that the red giant branches (RGBs) in all seven clusters are split and the different branches have different chemical compositions. The Mg-Al anticorrelations were well explored by the APOGEE and Gaia-ESO surveys for most globular clusters, some clusters showing bimodal distributions, while others continuous distributions. Even though the structure (i.e. bimodal versus continuous) of Mg-Al can greatly vary, the Al-rich and Al-poor populations do not seem to have very different photometric properties, agreeing with theoretical calculations. There is no one-to-one correspondence between the Mg-Al anticorrelation shape (bimodal versus continuous) and the structure of the RGB seen in the HST pseudo-CMDs, with the HST photometric information usually implying more complex formation/evolution histories than the spectroscopic ones. We report on finding two second-generation horizontal branch (HB) stars in M5, and five second-generation asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in M92, which is the most metal-poor cluster to date in which second-generation AGB stars have been observed.

  17. The Hot Stellar Content and HB morphology of the massive globular cluster G1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, R.

    2010-09-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 imagery of the Local Group's most luminous globular cluster, G1. Our primary aim is to define the hot stellar content and the extent of what appears to be a multimodal horizontal branch, analogous to those known in Omega Cen and NGC 2808. G1 is 40 kpc distant in the M31, and it would have been highly unlikely that collision with a giant molecular clould would be responsible for the complex populations which must therefore be the result of self-enrichment. We will obtain data very similar to those obtained for the known Galactic multimodal globular clusters NGC 6388 and 6441, and compare the stellar distribution on the horizontal branch with models. We can constrain the fraction of helium-enriched stars, if present, and search for supra-horizontal branch and other anomalous hot, evolved, stars. Parallel ACS observations will be the deepest ever obtained in the adjacnt field to G1, and will help to constrain whether G1 was the nucleus of a now disrupted galaxy.

  18. Synthetic horizontal branch models for globular clusters - the luminosity of the horizontal branch and the Oosterhoff effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.W.; Demarque, P.; Zinn, R.

    1987-01-01

    The variation of horizontal-branch (HB) luminosities with metal abundances is analyzed on the basis of HB models synthesized from theoretical HB evolutionary tracks. The focus is on the Oosterhoff effect, as related to period shifts in globular-cluster RR Lyr variables. The construction of the models and the Oosterhoff period groups is explained in detail, and the implications for globular-cluster ages are considered. The ratio of Delta M(bol) (RR) to Delta Fe/H for the HB is calculated as 0.24, slightly steeper than that found by Sandage (1981 and 1982). 35 references

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Globular and open clusters observed by SDSS/SEGUE (Morrison+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, H. L.; Ma, Z.; Clem, J. L.; An, D.; Connor, T.; Schechtman-Rook, A.; Casagrande, L.; Rockosi, C.; Yanny, B.; Harding, P.; Beers, T. C.; Johnson, J. A.; Schneider, D. P.

    2018-03-01

    The SEGUE project observed a number of globular and open clusters for calibration purposes. For calibration of the red giants, we selected the globular clusters M92, M13 and M71 (spanning metallicities from -2.4 to -0.8) and the open clusters Be 29, NGC 7789 and NGC 6791, whose [Fe/H] values range from -0.4 to +0.4. In all but one case, the clusters are within the SDSS footprint and so ugriz photometry is available for the cluster stars. The SDSS cluster images were analyzed using DAOPHOT (Stetson 1987PASP...99..191S) by An et al. (2008ApJS..179..326A) because the SDSS photometric pipeline was not designed to handle crowded fields. (8 data files).

  20. The old globular cluster system of the dIrr galaxy NGC 1427A in the Fornax cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, I. Y.; Hilker, M.; Puzia, T. H.; Chanamé, J.; Mieske, S.; Goudfrooij, P.; Reisenegger, A.; Infante, L.

    2006-06-01

    We present a study of the old globular cluster (GC) population of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 1427A using multi-wavelength VLT observations in U,B,V,I, Hα and J bands under excellent observing conditions. We applied color and size selection criteria to select old GC candidates and made use of archival ACS images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope to reject contaminating background sources and blended objects from the GC candidates' list. The Hα observations were used to check for contamination due to compact, highly reddened young star clusters whose colors and sizes could mimic those of old GCs. After accounting for contamination we obtain a total number of 38±8 GC candidates with colors consistent with an old (~10 Gyr) and metal-poor (Zcontamination analysis indicates that the density distribution of GCs in the outskirts of the Fornax central cD galaxy NGC 1399 may not be spherically symmetric. We derive a present-day specific frequency SN of 1.6 for NGC 1427A, a value significantly larger than what is observed in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies and comparable with the values found for the same galaxy types in the Virgo and Fornax clusters. Assuming a universal globular cluster luminosity function turnover magnitude, we derive a distance modulus to NGC 1427A of 31.01±0.21 mag which places it ˜3.2±2.5 (statistic)±1.6 (systematic) Mpc in front of the Fornax central cD galaxy NGC 1399. The implications of this result for the relationship between NGC 1427A and the cluster environment are briefly discussed.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen abundances in giant stars of the metal-poor globular cluster M92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon, D.F.; Langer, G.E.; Butler, D.; Kraft, R.P.; Suntzeff, N.B.; Kemper, E.; Trefzger, C.F.; Romanishin, W.

    1982-01-01

    Zinn in 1973 and 1977 and Norris and Zinn in 1977 showed that in M92 and several other metal-poor globular clusters the G bands (mostly due to CH) in the spectra of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are systematically weaker than those found in the less highly evolved subgiant branch (SGB) stars. If carbon is depleted in the atmospheres of evolved stars because material at the base of the envelope, processed through the CN cycle, has been mixed with the material above, then the atmospheric nitrogen abundance should be correspondingly increased. In this paper we test the hypothesis that C and N abundances in M92 giants are negatively correlated as the evolutionary state becomes more advanced. We find that this simple hypothesis is not adequate to describe the complex behavior of C and N in the cluster giants

  2. The puzzling assembly of the Milky Way halo – contributions from dwarf Spheroidals and globular clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While recent sky surveys have uncovered large numbers of ever fainter Milky Way satellites, their classification as star clusters, low-luminosity galaxies, or tidal overdensities remains often unclear. Likewise, their contributions to the build-up of the halo is yet debated. In this contribution we will discuss the current knowledge of the stellar populations and chemo-dynamics in these puzzling satellites, with a particular focus on dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the globular clusters in the outer Galactic halo. Also the question of whether some of the outermost halo objects are dynamically associated with the (Milky Way halo at all is addressed in terms of proper measurements in the remote Leo I and II dwarf galaxies.

  3. Suppression of globular cluster formation in metal-poor gas clouds by Lyman α radiation feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makito; Yajima, Hidenobu

    2018-03-01

    We study the impact of Ly α radiation feedback on globular cluster (GC) formation. In this Letter, we analytically derive the relation between star formation efficiency (SFE) and metallicity in spherical clouds with the Ly α radiation feedback. Our models show that the SFE becomes small as the metallicity decreases. In metal-poor gas clouds, Ly α photons are trapped for a long time and exert strong radiation force to the gas, resulting in the suppression of star formation. We find that bound star clusters (SFE ≳ 0.5) form only for the metallicity higher than ˜ 10- 2.5 Z⊙ in the case with the initial cloud mass 105 M⊙ and the radius 5 pc. Our models successfully reproduce the lower bound of observed metallicity of GCs. Thus, we suggest that the Ly α radiation feedback can be essential in understanding the formation of GCs.

  4. Abundance inhomogeneities and atmospheric structure in CN-bimodal globular cluster giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Plez, Bertrand; Smith, Verne V.

    1993-01-01

    It has been suggested by several authors that the sodium and aluminum abundance variations correlating with CN-band strength, frequently observed in CN-bimodal globular cluster giants, could be spurious manifestations of different temperature structures in the 'CN-strong' and 'CN-weak' stars, caused by different molecular line blanketing related to the C, N, and O trio. For stellar parameters generally appropriate to giants in the intermediate metallicity CN-bimodal cluster M4, we demonstrate through new model atmosphere calculations, employing opacity sampling and spherical geometry, that the observed abundance anomalies cannot be the result of atmospheric temperature structure. Our results using spherical geometry are compared to identical calculations performed with plane-parallel geometry: the effects of atmospheric extension on derived abundances for all lines considered amount to less than 0.1 dex.

  5. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXXII. A Search for Globular Cluster Substructures in the Virgo Galaxy Cluster Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Longobardi, Alessia; Peng, Eric W.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Durrell, Patrick; Eigenthaler, Paul; Ferrarese, Laura; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Hudelot, Patrick; Liu, Chengze; Mei, Simona; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2018-03-01

    Substructure in globular cluster (GC) populations around large galaxies is expected in galaxy formation scenarios that involve accretion or merger events, and it has been searched for using direct associations between GCs and structure in the diffuse galaxy light, or with GC kinematics. Here, we present a search for candidate substructures in the GC population around the Virgo cD galaxy M87 through the analysis of the spatial distribution of the GC colors. The study is based on a sample of ∼1800 bright GCs with high-quality u, g, r, i, z, K s photometry, selected to ensure a low contamination by foreground stars or background galaxies. The spectral energy distributions of the GCs are associated with formal estimates of age and metallicity, which are representative of its position in a 4D color space relative to standard single stellar population models. Dividing the sample into broad bins based on the relative formal ages, we observe inhomogeneities that reveal signatures of GC substructures. The most significant of these is a spatial overdensity of GCs with relatively young age labels, of diameter ∼0.°1 (∼30 kpc), located to the south of M87. The significance of this detection is larger than about 5σ after accounting for estimates of random and systematic errors. Surprisingly, no large Virgo galaxy is present in this area that could potentially host these GCs. But candidate substructures in the M87 halo with equally elusive hosts have been described based on kinematic studies in the past. The number of GC spectra available around M87 is currently insufficient to clarify the nature of the new candidate substructure.

  6. Spatial structure of the interstellar gas toward the globular cluster M22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, B.; Catney, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution spectra of Na I interstellar lines are presented for 14 stars in the globular cluster M22. The interstellar gas foreground to the cluster at distance about 2.6 kpc occurs essentially in two velocity ranges. There is a low-velocity component which is quite uniform across the cluster. This gas feature is likely to be a part of the extensive and nearby H I cloud first mapped in the radio region. There is also gas at higher velocities detected between +25 and 60 km/s which is observed with both a single- and a multi-component structure. Significant profile variations for this gas occur on a scale less than 1 arcmin. The location of this gas is not known but it may be associated with the Sagittarius arm. Spectra of the K I interstellar line for a nearby star roughly 1.3 deg from the cluster and for two cluster members provide useful estimates for the column densities of the gas components. 20 refs

  7. An intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of the globular cluster 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızıltan, Bülent; Baumgardt, Holger; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-08

    Intermediate-mass black holes should help us to understand the evolutionary connection between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes. However, the existence of intermediate-mass black holes is still uncertain, and their formation process is therefore unknown. It has long been suspected that black holes with masses 100 to 10,000 times that of the Sun should form and reside in dense stellar systems. Therefore, dedicated observational campaigns have targeted globular clusters for many decades, searching for signatures of these elusive objects. All candidate signatures appear radio-dim and do not have the X-ray to radio flux ratios required for accreting black holes. Based on the lack of an electromagnetic counterpart, upper limits of 2,060 and 470 solar masses have been placed on the mass of a putative black hole in 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) from radio and X-ray observations, respectively. Here we show there is evidence for a central black hole in 47 Tucanae with a mass of solar masses when the dynamical state of the globular cluster is probed with pulsars. The existence of an intermediate-mass black hole in the centre of one of the densest clusters with no detectable electromagnetic counterpart suggests that the black hole is not accreting at a sufficient rate to make it electromagnetically bright and therefore, contrary to expectations, is gas-starved. This intermediate-mass black hole might be a member of an electromagnetically invisible population of black holes that grow into supermassive black holes in galaxies.

  8. Globular Cluster Streams as Galactic High-Precision Scales - The Poster Child Palomar 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Andreas Hans Wilhelm; Balbinot, Eduardo; Bonaca, Ana; Johnston, Kathryn V.; Hogg, David W.; Kroupa, Pavel; Santiago, Basilio

    2015-01-01

    We model the tidal stream of the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 5 (Pal 5), and show that the unique geometry of the problem yields powerful constraints on the model parameters characterizing the Local Standard of Rest (LSR), the Milky Way and Pal 5 itself. Using only SDSS data and a few radial velocities from the literature, we find that the distance of the Sun from the Galactic Center is 8.30+/-0.25 kpc, and the LSR transverse velocity is 242+/-16 km/s. Assuming that the dark halo of the Galaxy follows a NFW density profile, we fit it with a virial mass of (1.6+/-0.4) 1012Msun, a virial radius of 195+/-19 kpc, and hence a rather low concentration of 5+/-2. Moreover, we find it with a flattening of qz = 0.95(+0.16)(-0.12) to be essentially spherical - at least within the inner 25 kpc, which are effectively probed by Pal 5. We also determine Pal 5's mass, distance and proper motions independently from other methods, which enables us to perform vital cross-checks for these methods. We conclude that finding more globular cluster streams is essential for mapping out the structure of the halo of our Galaxy to high precision. Finally, we point out that all our best-fit models yield similar substructure patterns as the ones observed in the Pal 5 stream within about 5 kpc of the cluster. The origin of these substructures is epicylic motion of stars along the stream. Such epicylic substructures have to be taken into account when searching tidal streams for signs of past encounters with dark-matter subhalos

  9. Strömgren photometry in globular clusters: M55 & M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, P.; Hilker, M.; Richtler, T.

    1999-10-01

    We present Strömgren CCD photometry for the two galactic globular clusters M55 (NGC 6809) and M22 (NGC 6656). We find average Strömgren metallicities of -1.71+/- 0.04 dex for M55 and -1.62+/- 0.08 dex for M22. The determination of metal abundances in cluster giants with the Strömgren m_1 index in comparison with spectroscopic data from Briley et al. (1993) and Norris & Freeman (1982, 1983) shows that M55 and M22 have different distributions of cyanogen strengths. In M55, no CN abundance variations are visible among the giant-branch stars. In striking contrast, a large dispersion of cyanogen strengths is seen in M22. For M22 we find patchily distributed variations in the foreground reddening of Delta E(B-V) ~ 0.07, which explain the colour dispersion among the giant-branch stars. There is no evidence for a spread in iron within M22 since the variations in m_1 are dominated by the large range in CN abundances, as already found by Anthony-Twarog et al. (1995). The difference between M55 and M22 may resemble the difference in integral CN band strength between M31 globular clusters and the galactic system. The colour-magnitude diagram of M55 shows the presence of a population of 56 blue-straggler stars that are more centrally concentrated than the red giant-branch stars. Based on data collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile

  10. An Extremely Lithium-rich Bright Red Giant in the Globular Cluster M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert P.; Peterson, Ruth C.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Sneden, Christopher; Fulbright, Jon P.; Langer, G. Edward

    1999-06-01

    We have serendipitously discovered an extremely lithium-rich star on the red giant branch of the globular cluster M3 (NGC 5272). An echelle spectrum obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph reveals a Li I λ6707 resonance doublet of 520 mÅ equivalent width, and our analysis places the star among the most Li-rich giants known: logε(Li)~=+3.0. We determine the elemental abundances of this star, IV-101, and three other cluster members of similar luminosity and color and conclude that IV-101 has abundance ratios typical of giants in M3 and M13 that have undergone significant mixing. We discuss mechanisms by which a low-mass star may be so enriched in Li, focusing on the mixing of material processed by the hydrogen-burning shell just below the convective envelope. While such enrichment could conceivably happen only rarely, it may in fact regularly occur during giant-branch evolution but be rarely detected because of rapid subsequent Li depletion. Based on observations obtained with the Keck I Telescope of the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the California Association for Research in Astronomy (CARA), Inc., on behalf of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. This Letter is dedicated to the memory of our beloved colleague Ed Langer, who died after a brief illness on February 16, 1999. Ed brought a unique theoretical perspective to our globular cluster abundance studies. His career truly embodied the academic ideals of inspiration in both teaching and research. He made friends wherever he traveled, and was an inspiration to students. We will miss him greatly.

  11. Photometric study of the eclipsing blue straggler V205 in the globular cluster NGC 5139

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K.

    2018-02-01

    B and V light curves of an EA-type binary V205 in the globular cluster NGC 5139 are analyzed by the W-D program. We found that V205 is possibly a detached binary and the mass ratio is 0.1596. The secondary component is touching or nearly touching its inner Roche Lobe. By studying the O - C diagram of V205, we discovered that the orbital period is continuously decrease at a rate of dp / dt = - 1.89(± 0.01) ×10-7 d yr-1 and should be caused by angular momentum and mass loss. The angular momentum loss will drive it evolve into a contact binary. Since V205 is a proper motion member of NGC 5139, we estimated its absolute parameters based on the distance modulus of the cluster and determined that: a = 2.50R⊙ , M1 = 0.76M⊙ , R1 = 1.14R⊙ , L1 = 5.46L⊙ , M2 = 0.12M⊙ , R2 = 0.52R⊙ , and L2 = 0.70L⊙ . V205 occupied the blue straggler stars on the color-magnitude diagram of NGC 5139. It is an eclipsing blue straggler and is most possibly formed by mass transfer between the two components. Since original short-period systems similar to V205 should be evolved in such a long life time of the globular cluster, the short-period binary should undergo special evolutionary stages. High accuracy photometric and high resolution spectral observations are essential for this unusual system.

  12. Ghosts of Milky Way's past: the globular cluster ESO 37-1 (E 3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, R.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; Moni Bidin, C.; Ortolani, S.; Carraro, G.

    2015-09-01

    Context. In the Milky Way, most globular clusters are highly conspicuous objects that were found centuries ago. However, a few dozen of them are faint, sparsely populated systems that were identified largely during the second half of the past century. One of the faintest is ESO 37-1 (E 3) and as such it remains poorly studied, with no spectroscopic observations published so far although it was discovered in 1976. Aims: We investigate the globular cluster E 3 in an attempt to better constrain its fundamental parameters. Spectroscopy of stars in the field of E 3 is shown here for the first time. Methods: Deep, precise VI CCD photometry of E 3 down to V ~ 26 mag is presented and analysed. Low-resolution, medium signal-to-noise ratio spectra of nine candidate members are studied to derive radial velocity and metallicity. Proper motions from the UCAC4 catalogue are used to explore the kinematics of the bright members of E 3. Results: Isochrone fitting indicates that E 3 is probably very old, with an age of about 13 Gyr; its distance from the Sun is nearly 10 kpc. It is also somewhat metal rich with [Fe/H] = -0.7. Regarding its kinematics, our tentative estimate for the proper motions is (μα cosδ,μδ) = (-7.0 ± 0.8, 3.5 ± 0.3) mas yr-1 (or a tangential velocity of 382 ± 79 km s-1) and for the radial velocity 45 ± 5 km s-1 in the solar rest frame. Conclusions: E 3 is one of the most intriguing globular clusters in the Galaxy. Having an old age and being metal rich is clearly a peculiar combination, only seen in a handful of objects like the far more conspicuous NGC 104 (47 Tucanae). In addition, its low luminosity and sparse population make it a unique template for the study of the final evolutionary phases in the life of a star cluster. Unfortunately, E 3 is among the most elusive and challenging known globular clusters because field contamination severely hampers spectroscopic studies. This research note is based on observations made with the ESO VLT at the

  13. Lost and Found: Evidence of Second-generation Stars Along the Asymptotic Giant Branch of the Globular Cluster NGC 6752

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapenna, E.; Lardo, C.; Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Massari, D.; Stetson, P. B.; Cassisi, S.; Savino, A.

    2016-01-01

    We derived chemical abundances for C, N, O, Na, Mg, and Al in 20 asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 6752. All these elements (but Mg) show intrinsic star-to-star variations and statistically significant correlations or anticorrelations analogous to those commonly

  14. The first two transient supersoft X-ray sources in M 31 globular clusters and the connection to classical novae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Henze, M.; Pietsch, W.; Haberl, F.; Sala, G.; Quimby, R.; Hernanz, M.; Della Valle, M.; Milne, P.; Williams, G.G.; Burwitz, V.; Greiner, J.; Stiele, H.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hornoch, Kamil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 769-779 ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : M 31 * novae * globular clusters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  15. X-Ray and optical study of low core density globular clusters NGC6144 and E3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.-H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low coredensity globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144,

  16. The Absolute Age of the Globular Cluster M15 Using Near-infrared Adaptive Optics Images from PISCES/LBT.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monelli, M.; Testa, V.; Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Fiorentino, G.; Arcidiacono, C.; Massari, D.; Boutsia, K.; Briguglio, R.; Busoni, L.; Carini, R.; Close, L.; Cresci, G.; Esposito, S.; Fini, L.; Fumana, M.; Guerra, J. C.; Hill, J.; Kulesa, C.; Mannucci, F.; McCarthy, D.; Pinna, E.; Puglisi, A.; Quiros-Pacheco, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Riccardi, A.; Skemer, A.; Xompero, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present deep near-infrared J, {K}{{s}} photometry of the old, metal-poor Galactic globular cluster M15 obtained with images collected with the LUCI1 and PISCES cameras available at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). We show how the use of First Light Adaptive Optics (FLAO) system coupled with

  17. Multiple Populations in the Old and Massive Small Magellanic Cloud Globular Cluster NGC 121

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalessandro, E.; Lapenna, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Origlia, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.

    2016-10-01

    We used a combination of optical and near-UV Hubble Space Telescope photometry and FLAMES/ESO-VLT high-resolution spectroscopy to characterize the stellar content of the old and massive globular cluster (GC) NGC 121 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We report on the detection of multiple stellar populations, the first case in the SMC stellar cluster system. This result enforces the emerging scenario in which the presence of multiple stellar populations is a distinctive-feature of old and massive GCs regardless of the environment, as far as the light-element distribution is concerned. We find that second-generation (SG) stars are more centrally concentrated than first-generation (FG) ones. More interestingly, at odds with what is typically observed in Galactic GCs, we find that NGC 121 is the only cluster so far to be dominated by FG stars that account for more than 65% of the total cluster mass. In the framework where GCs were born with 90%-95% of FG stars, this observational finding would suggest that either NGC 121 experienced a milder stellar mass-loss with respect to Galactic GCs or it formed a smaller fraction of SG stars. Based on observations collected with NASA/ESA HST, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555 and collected at the ESO-VLT under the program 086.D-0665.

  18. On the kinematic separation of field and cluster stars across the bulge globular NGC 6528

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Bono, G.; Buonanno, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Roma-Tor Vergata, via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Stetson, P. B. [Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Dall' Ora, M. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Aparicio, A.; Monelli, M. [Instituto de Astrofìsica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); Calamida, A.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00044 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gilmozzi, R. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Matsunaga, N. [Kiso Observatory, Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 10762-30, Mitake, Kiso-machi, Kiso-gun, 3 Nagano 97-0101 (Japan); Walker, A., E-mail: eplagioia@roma2.infn.it [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present deep and precise multi-band photometry of the Galactic bulge globular cluster NGC 6528. The current data set includes optical and near-infrared images collected with ACS/WFC, WFC3/UVIS, and WFC3/IR on board the Hubble Space Telescope. The images cover a time interval of almost 10 yr, and we have been able to carry out a proper-motion separation between cluster and field stars. We performed a detailed comparison in the m {sub F814W}, m {sub F606W} – m {sub F814W} color-magnitude diagram with two empirical calibrators observed in the same bands. We found that NGC 6528 is coeval with and more metal-rich than 47 Tuc. Moreover, it appears older and more metal-poor than the super-metal-rich open cluster NGC 6791. The current evidence is supported by several diagnostics (red horizontal branch, red giant branch bump, shape of the sub-giant branch, slope of the main sequence) that are minimally affected by uncertainties in reddening and distance. We fit the optical observations with theoretical isochrones based on a scaled-solar chemical mixture and found an age of 11 ± 1 Gyr and an iron abundance slightly above solar ([Fe/H] = +0.20). The iron abundance and the old cluster age further support the recent spectroscopic findings suggesting a rapid chemical enrichment of the Galactic bulge.

  19. A High-precision Trigonometric Parallax to an Ancient Metal-poor Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. M.; Casertano, S.; Strader, J.; Riess, A.; VandenBerg, D. A.; Soderblom, D. R.; Kalirai, J.; Salinas, R.

    2018-03-01

    Using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have obtained a direct trigonometric parallax for the nearest metal-poor globular cluster, NGC 6397. Although trigonometric parallaxes have been previously measured for many nearby open clusters, this is the first parallax for an ancient metal-poor population—one that is used as a fundamental template in many stellar population studies. This high-precision measurement was enabled by the HST/WFC3 spatial-scanning mode, providing hundreds of astrometric measurements for dozens of stars in the cluster and also for Galactic field stars along the same sightline. We find a parallax of 0.418 ± 0.013 ± 0.018 mas (statistical, systematic), corresponding to a true distance modulus of 11.89 ± 0.07 ± 0.09 mag (2.39 ± 0.07 ± 0.10 kpc). The V luminosity at the stellar main-sequence turnoff implies an absolute cluster age of 13.4 ± 0.7 ± 1.2 Gyr. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-13817, GO-14336, and GO-14773.

  20. Chemical study of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura-Guzmán, A.; Villanova, S.; Muñoz, C.; Tang, B.

    2018-03-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are natural laboratories where stellar and chemical evolution can be studied in detail. In addition, their chemical patterns and kinematics can tell us to which Galactic structure (disc, bulge, halo or extragalactic) the cluster belongs to. NGC 5927 is one of most metal-rich GCs in the Galaxy and its kinematics links it to the thick disc. We present abundance analysis based on high-resolution spectra of seven giant stars. The data were obtained using Fibre Large Array Multi Element Spectrograph/Ultraviolet Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) spectrograph mounted on UT2 telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The principal objective of this work is to perform a wide and detailed chemical abundance analysis of the cluster and look for possible Multiple Populations (MPs). We determined stellar parameters and measured 22 elements corresponding to light (Na, Al), alpha (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti), iron-peak (Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn), and heavy elements (Y, Zr, Ba, Ce, Nd, Eu). We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] = -0.47 ± 0.02 (error on the mean). We confirm the existence of MPs in this GC with an O-Na anti-correlation, and moderate spread in Al abundances. We estimate a mean [α/Fe] = 0.25 ± 0.08. Iron-peak elements show no significant spread. The [Ba/Eu] ratios indicate a predominant contribution from SNeII for the formation of the cluster.

  1. Chemical Compositions of Stars in the Globular Cluster NGC 3201: Tracers of Multi-Epoch Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerer, Jennifer A.; Ivans, I. I.; Filler, D.

    2012-01-01

    The retrograde halo globular cluster NGC 3201 contains stars of substantially different iron abundance ([Fe/H]), a property that puts it at odds with the vast majority of the Galactic cluster system. Though its unusual orbit prompted speculation that NGC 3201 was the remnant of a captured object, much like the multi-metallicity globular cluster Omega Centauri, NGC 3201 is much less massive than Omega Centauri and all of the other halo globular clusters that have internal metallicity variations. We present the abundances of 21 elements in 24 red giant branch stars in NGC 3201 based on high-resolution (R 40,000), high signal-to-noise (S/N 70) spectra. We find that the detailed abundance pattern of NGC 3201 is unique amongst multi-metallicity halo clusters. Unlike M22, Omega Centauri, and NGC 1851, neither metal-poor nor metal-rich stars show any evidence of s-process enrichment (a product of the advanced evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars). We find that while Na, O, and Al vary from star to star as is typical in globular clusters, there is no systematic difference between the abundance pattern in the metal-poor cluster stars and that of the metal-rich cluster stars. Furthermore, we find that the metallicity variations in NGC 3201 are independent of the well-known Na-O anticorrelation, which separates it from every other multi-metallicity cluster. In the context of a multi-episode star formation model, this implies that NGC 3201 began life with the [Fe/H] variations we measure now.

  2. SPACE VELOCITIES OF SOUTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M28), AND NGC 6656 (M22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Jilkova, Lucie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Podesta, Federico; Lopez, Carlos E., E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu, E-mail: terry.girard@yale.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: jilkoval@physics.muni.cz [Universidad National de San Juan, Observatorio Astronomico ' ' Felix Aguilar' ' and Yale Southern Observatory, Chimbas, 5413 San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M22), and NGC 6656 (M28) as part of our ongoing Southern Proper-Motion Program. The reference system is the ICRS via Hipparcos stars for these three low-Galactic-latitude clusters. Formal errors range between {approx}0.3 and 0.7 mas yr{sup -1}. Notable is the result for NGC 6397, which differs by 2.5 mas yr{sup -1} from two Hubble Space Telescope determinations while agreeing with previous ground-based ones. We determine orbits for all three clusters in an axisymmetric and barred model of the Galaxy and discuss these in the context of globular-cluster formation. M22 is a well-known cluster with an iron abundance spread; such clusters are now believed to have formed in massive parent systems that can retain ejecta of core-collapsed supernovae. We find that the five currently accepted globular clusters with iron/calcium abundance spread show orbits unrelated to each other, thus suggesting at least five independent, massive progenitors that have contributed to the build-up of the Milky-Way halo.

  3. The Globular Clusters of the Galactic Bulge: Results from Multiwavelength Follow-up Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roger; Geisler, Doug; Mauro, Francesco; Alonso Garcia, Javier; Hempel, Maren; Sarajedini, Ata

    2018-01-01

    The Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) located towards the bulge of the Milky Way suffer from severe total and differential extinction and high field star densities. They have therefore been systematically excluded from deep, large-scale homogenous GGC surveys, and will present a challenge for Gaia. Meanwhile, existing observations of bulge GGCs have revealed tantalizing hints that they hold clues to Galactic formation and evolution not found elsewhere. Therefore, in order to better characterize these poorly studied stellar systems and place them in the context of their optically well-studied counterparts, we have undertaken imaging programs at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. We describe these programs and present a variety of results, including self-consistent measurement of bulge GGC ages and structural parameters. The limitations imposed by spatially variable extinction and extinction law are highlighted, along with the complimentary nature of forthcoming facilities, allowing us to finally complete our picture of the Milky Way GGC system.

  4. Stellar envelopes of globular clusters embedded in dark mini-haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrubia, Jorge; Varri, Anna Lisa; Breen, Philip G.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén

    2017-10-01

    We show that hard encounters in the central regions of globular clusters (GCs) embedded in dark matter (DM) haloes necessarily lead to the formation of gravitationally bound stellar envelopes that extend far beyond the nominal tidal radius of the system. Using statistical arguments and numerical techniques, we derive the equilibrium distribution function of stars ejected from the centre of a non-divergent spherical potential. Independently of the velocity distribution with which stars are ejected, GC envelopes have density profiles that approach asymptotically ρ ∼ r-4 at large distances and become isothermal towards the centre. Adding a DM halo component leaves two clear-cut observational signatures: (i) a flattening, or slightly increase of the projected velocity dispersion profile at large distances, and (ii) an outer surface density profile that is systematically shallower than in models with no DM.

  5. THE PECULIAR CHEMICAL INVENTORY OF NGC 2419: AN EXTREME OUTER HALO 'GLOBULAR CLUSTER'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Kirby, Evan N.; Huang Wenjin

    2011-01-01

    NGC 2419 is a massive outer halo Galactic globular cluster (GC) whose stars have previously been shown to have somewhat peculiar abundance patterns. We have observed seven luminous giants that are members of NGC 2419 with Keck/HIRES at reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. One of these giants is very peculiar, with an extremely low [Mg/Fe] and high [K/Fe] but normal abundances of most other elements. The abundance pattern does not match the nucleosynthetic yields of any supernova model. The other six stars show abundance ratios typical of inner halo Galactic GCs, represented here by a sample of giants in the nearby GC M30. Although our measurements show that NGC 2419 is unusual in some respects, its bulk properties do not provide compelling evidence for a difference between inner and outer halo GCs.

  6. Neutron-Capture Element Abundances in the Globular Cluster M15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden; Johnson; Kraft; Smith; Cowan; Bolte

    2000-06-20

    High-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio, blue-violet spectra of three red giant branch tip stars in M15 have been obtained with the Keck I High-Resolution Echelle Spectrograph. These spectra have been analyzed to determine the abundances of several neutron-capture elements, including the radioactive chronometer element thorium. There are two principal results of this study. First, the abundances of the heavier (Z>/=56) elements for each of the three stars is well matched by a scaled solar system r-process abundance distribution. Second, a weighted mean-observed Th/Eu ratio for the stars implies an age for the neutron-capture material in M15 stars of 14+/-3 Gyr, in reasonable agreement with other recent age estimates for Galactic globular clusters.

  7. Image processing of globular clusters - Simulation for deconvolution tests (GlencoeSim)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazek, Martin; Pata, Petr

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents an algorithmic approach for efficiency tests of deconvolution algorithms in astronomic image processing. Due to the existence of noise in astronomical data there is no certainty that a mathematically exact result of stellar deconvolution exists and iterative or other methods such as aperture or PSF fitting photometry are commonly used. Iterative methods are important namely in the case of crowded fields (e.g., globular clusters). For tests of the efficiency of these iterative methods on various stellar fields, information about the real fluxes of the sources is essential. For this purpose a simulator of artificial images with crowded stellar fields provides initial information on source fluxes for a robust statistical comparison of various deconvolution methods. The "GlencoeSim" simulator and the algorithms presented in this paper consider various settings of Point-Spread Functions, noise types and spatial distributions, with the aim of producing as realistic an astronomical optical stellar image as possible.

  8. MAXI/GSC detection of X-ray enhancement toward the globular cluster Tarzan 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoro, H.; Shidatsu, M.; Ueno, S.; Tomida, H.; Nakahira, S.; Kimura, M.; Ishikawa, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Mihara, T.; Sugizaki, M.; Serino, M.; Morii, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Sugimoto, J.; Takagi, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Kawai, N.; Usui, R.; Ishikawa, K.; Yoshii, T.; Yoshida, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Nakano, Y.; Kawakubo, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Sasaki, M.; Nakajima, M.; Fukushima, K.; Onodera, T.; Suzuki, K.; Ueda, Y.; Kawamuro, T.; Tsuboi, Y.; Higa, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Yoshidome, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Yamada, H.; Yamaoka, K.

    2013-06-01

    At 23:18 UT on May 24th, 2013, the MAXI/GSC auto-detection system triggered X-ray enhancement at the position consistent with the globular cluster Terzan 1. We have confirmed that the X-ray flux has gradually increased from around May 19th, 2013 (MJD 56431), and still remains stable on timescale of days at the 4-10 keV flux of about 8 mCrab. The central position of the enhanced region in the smoothed 2-20 keV image, obtained from May 19th to May 30th, is (R.A., Dec) = (263.84, -30.48) with a typical uncertainty of 0.3 deg.

  9. A spectroscopic study of chemical abundances in the globular cluster Omega Centauri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, S.P.

    1987-10-01

    Blue spectra at a resolution of 0.5 A of red giants in the globular clusters Omega Centauri and NGCs 288, 362, 6397 and 6809 (M55) have been obtained with the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The observations were made to test Sweigart and Mengel's [Astrophy S. J. 229, 624] theory of mixing of nuclearly-processed material to the star's surface, and to elucidate the relationship between primordial and evolutionary origins for the range in abundance within Omega Cen. The Omega Cen stars were chosen in two groups either side of the giant branch, covering the luminosity range where the onset of mixing was predicted to occur. Abundances of C, N, Fe and other heavy elements have been determined by fitting synthetic spectra, calculated from model atmospheres, to the observational data. (author)

  10. Application of CCD uvby photometry to the globular cluster NGC 6397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony-twarog, B.J.

    1987-06-01

    The CTIO 4-m prime-focus CCD has been used with Stromgren uvby filters to study the turnoff of the globular cluster NGC 6397. A well-defined CM diagram to V about 18 has been achieved. A previously noted correlation between delta m1 and delta c1 for turnoff stars appears to be confirmed by the observations. This correlation is not predicted by model atmosphere synthesis of Stromgren colors, and has not been confirmed by recent observations of metal-poor dwarfs bluer than b-y = 0.40 by Schuster and Nissen (1987). An age of 16.6 + or - 0.7 x 10 to the 9th yr is indicated for a color excess of E(b-y) = 0.13 and (Fe/H) = -2.2. 43 references.

  11. 2MASS NIR photometry for 693 candidate globular clusters in M 31 and the Revised Bologna Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleti, S.; Federici, L.; Bellazzini, M.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Macrina, S.

    2004-03-01

    We have identified in the 2MASS database 693 known and candidate globular clusters in M 31. The 2MASS J, H, K magnitudes of these objects have been transformed to the same homogeneous photometric system of existing near infrared photometry of M 31 globulars, finally yielding J, H, K integrated photometry for 279 confirmed M 31 clusters, 406 unconfirmed candidates and 8 objects with controversial classification. Of these objects 529 lacked any previous estimate of their near infrared magnitudes. The newly assembled near infrared dataset has been implemented into a revised version of the Bologna Catalogue of M 31 globulars, with updated optical (UBVRI) photometry taken, when possible, from the most recent sources of CCD photometry available in the literature and transformed to a common photometric system. The final Revised Bologna Catalogue (available in electronic form) is the most comprehensive list presently available of confirmed and candidate M 31 globular clusters, with a total of 1164 entries. In particular, it includes 337 confirmed GCs, 688 GC candidates, 10 objects with controversial classification, 70 confirmed galaxies, 55 confirmed stars, and 4 H II regions lying within ˜3° from the center of the M 31 galaxy. Using the newly assembled database we show that the V-K color provides a powerful tool to discriminate between M 31 clusters and background galaxies, and we identify a sample of 83 globular cluster candidates, which is not likely to be contaminated by misclassified galaxies. Tables 2-4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/917

  12. Hydra Observations of Aluminum Abundances in the Red Giants of the Globular Clusters M80 and NGC 6752

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Robert M.; Suntzeff, Nicholas B.; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum and other metal abundances were determined in 21 red giants in the globular clusters NGC 6752 and M80 as part of a larger study to determine whether the aluminum distribution on the red giant branch is related to the second parameter effect that causes clusters of similar metallicity to display different horizontal branch morphologies. The observations were obtained of the Al I lines near 6700 Angstroms with the CTIO Blanco 4-m telescope and Hydra multi-object spectrograph. The spect...

  13. Evolution of the stellar mass function in multiple-population globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Hong, Jongsuk; Webb, Jeremy J.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at studying the effects of the long-term dynamical evolution on the stellar mass function (MF) of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. Our simulations show that if first-(1G) and second-generation (2G) stars have the same initial MF (IMF), the global MFs of the two populations are affected similarly by dynamical evolution and no significant differences between the 1G and 2G MFs arise during the cluster's evolution. If the two populations have different IMFs, dynamical effects do not completely erase memory of the initial differences. Should observations find differences between the global 1G and 2G MFs, these would reveal the fingerprints of differences in their IMFs. Irrespective of whether the 1G and 2G populations have the same global IMF or not, dynamical effects can produce differences between the local (measured at various distances from the cluster centre) 1G and 2G MFs; these differences are a manifestation of the process of mass segregation in populations with different initial structural properties. In dynamically old and spatially mixed clusters, however, differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs can reveal differences between the 1G and 2G global MFs. In general, for clusters with any dynamical age, large differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs are more likely to be associated with differences in the global MF. Our study also reveals a dependence of the spatial mixing rate on the stellar mass, another dynamical consequence of the multiscale nature of multiple-population clusters.

  14. THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6402 (M14). I. A NEW BV COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Pena, C.; Catelan, M. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Grundahl, F. [Danish AsteroSeismology Centre (DASC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Stephens, A. W. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Smith, H. A., E-mail: mcatelan@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: c.contreras@herts.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    We present BV photometry of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6402 (M14), based on 65 V frames and 67 B frames, reaching two magnitudes below the turnoff level. This represents, to the best of our knowledge, the deepest color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of NGC 6402 available in the literature. Statistical decontamination of field stars as well as differential reddening corrections are performed in order to derive a precise ridgeline and hence physical parameters of the cluster. We discuss previous attempts at deriving a reddening value for the cluster, and argue in favor of a value E(B - V) = 0.57 {+-} 0.02, which is significantly higher than indicated by either the Burstein and Heiles or Schlegel et al. (corrected according to Bonifacio et al.) interstellar dust maps. Differential reddening across the face of the cluster, which we find to be present at the level of {Delta}E(B - V) Almost-Equal-To 0.17 mag, is taken into account in our analysis. We measure several metallicity indicators based on the position of the red giant branch (RGB) in the cluster CMD. These give a metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.38 {+-} 0.07 on the Zinn and West scale and [Fe/H] = -1.28 {+-} 0.08 on the new Carretta et al. (UVES) scale. We also provide measurements of other important photometric parameters for this cluster, including the position of the RGB luminosity function ''bump'' and the horizontal branch morphology. We compare the NGC 6402 ridgeline with that of NGC 5904 (M5) derived by Sandquist et al., and find evidence that NGC 6402 and M5 have approximately the same age to within the uncertainties, although the possibility that M14 may be slightly older cannot be ruled out.

  15. Evolution of the Stellar Mass Function in Multiple-Population Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Hong, Jongsuk; Webb, Jeremy J.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at studying the effects of the long-term dynamical evolution on the stellar mass function (MF) of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. Our simulations show that if first-(1G) and second-generation (2G) stars have the same initial MF (IMF), the global MFs of the two populations are affected similarly by dynamical evolution and no significant differences between the 1G and the 2G MFs arise during the cluster's evolution. If the two populations have different IMFs, dynamical effects do not completely erase memory of the initial differences. Should observations find differences between the global 1G and 2G MF, these would reveal the fingerprints of differences in their IMFs. Irrespective of whether the 1G and 2G populations have the same global IMF or not, dynamical effects can produce differences between the local (measured at various distances from the cluster centre) 1G and 2G MFs; these differences are a manifestation of the process of mass segregation in populations with different initial structural properties. In dynamically old and spatially mixed clusters, however, differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs can reveal differences between the 1G and 2G global MFs. In general, for clusters with any dynamical age, large differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs are more likely to be associated with differences in the global MF. Our study also reveals a dependence of the spatial mixing rate on the stellar mass, another dynamical consequence of the multiscale nature of multiple-population clusters.

  16. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397.

  17. Na-O abundances in M53: A Mostly First Generation Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances for a sample of 53 red giant branch (RGB) stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 5024 (M53). The abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise medium resolution spectra collected with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5- meter telescope. M53 is of interest because previous studies based on the morphology of the cluster's horizontal branch suggested that it might be composed primarily of first generation (FG) stars and differ from the majority of other GCs withmultiple populations, which have been found to be dominated by second generation (SG) stars. Our sample has an average [Fe/H] = -2.07 with a standard deviation of 0.07 dex. This value is consistent with previouslypublished results. The alpha-element abundances in our sample are also consistent with the trends seen in Milky Way halo stars at similar metallicities, with enhanced [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] relative to solar. We find thatthe Na-O anti-correlation is not as extended as other GCs with similarly high masses. The fraction of SG to FG stars in our sample is approximately 1:3 and the SG is more centrally concentrated. These findings further support that M53 might be a mostly FG cluster and could give further insight into how GCs formed the light element abundance patterns we observe in them today.

  18. Proper Motions and Structural Parameters of the Galactic Globular Cluster M71

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadelano, M.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Miocchi, P.; Lanzoni, B.; Pallanca, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Massari, D. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-02-20

    By exploiting two ACS/ HST data sets separated by a temporal baseline of ∼7 years, we have determined the relative stellar proper motions (PMs; providing membership) and the absolute PM of the Galactic globular cluster M71. The absolute PM has been used to reconstruct the cluster orbit within a Galactic, three-component, axisymmetric potential. M71 turns out to be in a low-latitude disk-like orbit inside the Galactic disk, further supporting the scenario in which it lost a significant fraction of its initial mass. Since large differential reddening is known to affect this system, we took advantage of near-infrared, ground-based observations to re-determine the cluster center and density profile from direct star counts. The new structural parameters turn out to be significantly different from the ones quoted in the literature. In particular, M71 has a core and a half-mass radii almost 50% larger than previously thought. Finally, we estimate that the initial mass of M71 was likely one order of magnitude larger than its current value, thus helping to solve the discrepancy with the observed number of X-ray sources.

  19. Chemical characterisation of the globular cluster NGC 5634 associated to the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, E.; Bragaglia, A.; Lucatello, S.; D'Orazi, V.; Gratton, R. G.; Donati, P.; Sollima, A.; Sneden, C.

    2017-04-01

    As part of our on-going project on the homogeneous chemical characterisation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs), we studied NGC 5634, associated to the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, using high-resolution spectroscopy of red giant stars collected with VLT/FLAMES. We present here the radial velocity distribution of the 45 observed stars, 43 of which are cluster members, the detailed chemical abundance of 22 species for the seven stars observed with UVES-FLAMES, and the abundance of six elements for stars observed with GIRAFFE. On our homogeneous UVES metallicity scale, we derived a low-metallicity [Fe/H] =-1.867 ± 0.019 ± 0.065 dex (±statistical ±systematic error) with σ = 0.050 dex (7 stars). We found the normal anticorrelations between light elements (Na and O, Mg and Al), a signature of multiple populations typical of massive and old GCs. We confirm the associations of NGC 5634 to the Sgr dSph, from which the cluster was lost a few Gyr ago, on the basis of its velocity and position, and the abundance ratios of α and neutron capture elements. Based on observations collected at ESO telescopes under programme 093.B-0583.Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A118

  20. Testing lowered isothermal models with direct N-body simulations of globular clusters - II. Multimass models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuten, M.; Zocchi, A.; Gieles, M.; Hénault-Brunet, V.

    2017-09-01

    Lowered isothermal models, such as the multimass Michie-King models, have been successful in describing observational data of globular clusters. In this study, we assess whether such models are able to describe the phase space properties of evolutionary N-body models. We compare the multimass models as implemented in limepy (Gieles & Zocchi) to N-body models of star clusters with different retention fractions for the black holes and neutron stars evolving in a tidal field. We find that multimass models successfully reproduce the density and velocity dispersion profiles of the different mass components in all evolutionary phases and for different remnants retention. We further use these results to study the evolution of global model parameters. We find that over the lifetime of clusters, radial anisotropy gradually evolves from the low- to the high-mass components and we identify features in the properties of observable stars that are indicative of the presence of stellar-mass black holes. We find that the model velocity scale depends on mass as m-δ, with δ ≃ 0.5 for almost all models, but the dependence of central velocity dispersion on m can be shallower, depending on the dark remnant content, and agrees well with that of the N-body models. The reported model parameters, and correlations amongst them, can be used as theoretical priors when fitting these types of mass models to observational data.

  1. ULTRA-DEEP GEMINI NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE BULGE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6624

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Cohen, R. E.; Villanova, S. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Origlia, L. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bidin, C. Moni, E-mail: sara.saracino@unibo.it [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Av. Angamos 0610, Antofagasta (Chile)

    2016-11-20

    We used ultra-deep J and K {sub s} images secured with the near-infrared (NIR) GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a ( K {sub s} , J - K {sub s} ) color–magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate NIR CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching K {sub s} ∼ 21.5, approximately 8 mag below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at K {sub s} ∼ 20 we detected the so-called MS “knee” in a purely NIR CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 ( t {sub age} = 12.0 ± 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M ∼ 0.45 M{sub ⊙}, finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances from the cluster center. This is a clear signature of mass segregation, confirming that NGC 6624 is in an advanced stage of dynamical evolution.

  2. Constraining the origin of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters with N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrobuono-Battisti, A.; Perets, H. B.

    2017-12-01

    Globular Clusters (GCs) are composed by multiple stellar populations whose origin is still unknown. Second population (SP) stars are currently thought to arise from gas ejected by first population (FP) stars, which is then accreted into the primordial GC core. Such gas forms a stellar disk whose long-term evolution and effects on the embedding cluster can be followed by means of N-body simulations. Here, we find that as the SP disk relaxes, the old, first stellar population flattens and develops a significant radial anisotropy, making the GC structure become more elliptical. The second stellar population is characterized by a lower velocity dispersion, and a higher rotational velocity, compared with the primordial population. The strength of these signatures increases with the relaxation time of the cluster and with the mass ratio between the SP and FP mass stars. We conclude that GC ellipticities and rotation constitute fossil records that can be used as observational proxies to unveil the origin of multiple stellar populations.

  3. Galaxy structure from multiple tracers - I. A census of M87's globular cluster populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, L. J.; Auger, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new photometric catalogue of the rich globular cluster (GC) system around M87, the brightest cluster galaxy in Virgo. Using archival Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey images in the ugriz bands, observed with Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/MegaPrime, we perform a careful subtraction of the galaxy's halo light in order to detect objects at small galactocentric radii as well as in the wider field, and find 17 620 GC candidates over a radius range from 1.3 to 445 kpc with g < 24 mag. By inferring their colour, radial and magnitude distributions in a Bayesian way, we find that they are well described as a mixture of two GC populations and two distinct contaminant populations, but confirm earlier findings of radius-dependent colour gradients in both GC populations. This is consistent with a picture in which the more enriched GCs reside deeper in the galaxy's potential well, indicating a role for dissipative collapse in the formation of both the red and the blue GCs.

  4. Fermi Detection of a Luminous gamma-ray Pulsar in a Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. C. C.; Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope detection of gamma -ray (>100 mega-electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823--3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (approx 7 sigma). Its gamma-ray luminosity L (sub 3) = (8:4 +/- 1:6) X 10(exp 34) ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The non-detection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that its contains < 32 gamma-ray MSPs, not approx 100 as previously estimated. The gamma -ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823--3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected, and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.

  5. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Michael

    2017-08-01

    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  6. Primordial main equence binary stars in the globular cluster M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    We report the identification of five short-period variables near the center of the metal-rich globular cluster M71. Our observations consist of multiepoch VI charge coupled device (CCD) images centered on the cluster and covering a 6.3 min x 6.3 min field. Four of these variables are contact eclipsing binaries with periods between 0.35 and 0.41 days; one is a detached or semidetached eclipsing binary with a period of 0.56 days. Two of the variables were first identified as possible eclipsing binaries in an earlier survey by Hodder et al. (1992). We have used a variety of arguments to conclude that all five binary stars are probable members of M71, a result that is consistent with the low number (0.15) of short-period field binaries expected along this line of sight. Based on a simple model of how contact binaries evolve from initially detached binaries, we have determined a lower limit of 1.3% on the frequency of primordial binaries in M71 with initial orbital periods in the range 2.5 - 5 days. This implies that the overall primordial binary frequency, f, is 22(sup +26)(sub -12)% assuming df/d log P = const ( the 'flat' distribution), or f = 57(sup +15)(sub -8)% for df/d log P = 0.032 log P + const as observed for G-dwarf binaries in the solar neighborhood (the 'sloped' distribution). Both estimates of f correspond to binaries with initial periods shorter than 800 yr since any longer-period binaries would have been disrupted over the lifetime of the cluster. Our short-period binary frequency is in excellent agreement with the observed frequency of red-giant binaries observed in globulars if we adopt the flat distribution. For the sloped distribution, our results significantly overestimate the number of red-giant binaries. All of the short-period M71 binaries lie within 1 mag of the luminosity of the cluster turnoff in the color-magnitude diagram despite the fact we should have easily detected similar eclipsing binaries 2 - 2.5 mag fainter than this. We discuss the

  7. The Gaia-ESO Survey. Mg-Al anti-correlation in iDR4 globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancino, E.; Romano, D.; Tang, B.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Casey, A. R.; Gruyters, P.; Geisler, D.; San Roman, I.; Randich, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Bragaglia, A.; Flaccomio, E.; Korn, A. J.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Smiljanic, R.; Carraro, G.; Bayo, A.; Costado, M. T.; Damiani, F.; Jofré, P.; Lardo, C.; de Laverny, P.; Monaco, L.; Morbidelli, L.; Sbordone, L.; Sousa, S. G.; Villanova, S.

    2017-05-01

    We use Gaia-ESO (GES) Survey iDR4 data to explore the Mg-Al anti-correlation in globular clusters that were observed as calibrators, as a demonstration of the quality of Gaia-ESO Survey data and analysis. The results compare well with the available literature, within 0.1 dex or less, after a small (compared to the internal spreads) offset between the UVES and GIRAFFE data of 0.10-0.15 dex was taken into account. In particular, for the first time we present data for NGC 5927, which is one of the most metal-rich globular clusters studied in the literature so far with [ Fe / H ] = - 0.39 ± 0.04 dex; this cluster was included to connect with the open cluster regime in the Gaia-ESO Survey internal calibration. The extent and shape of the Mg-Al anti-correlation provide strong constraints on the multiple population phenomenon in globular clusters. In particular, we studied the dependency of the Mg-Al anti-correlation extension with metallicity, present-day mass,and age of the clusters, using GES data in combination with a large set of homogenized literature measurements.We find a dependency with both metallicity and mass, which is evident when fitting for the two parameters simultaneously, but we do not find significant dependency with age. We confirm that the Mg-Al anti-correlation is not seen in all clusters, but disappears for the less massive or most metal-rich clusters. We also use our data set to see whether a normal anti-correlation would explain the low [Mg/α] observed in some extragalactic globular clusters, but find that none of the clusters in our sample can reproduce it; a more extreme chemical composition, such as that of NGC 2419, would be required. We conclude that GES iDR4 data already meet the requirements set by the main survey goals and can be used to study globular clusters in detail, even if the analysis procedures were not specifically designed for them. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal

  8. Double blue straggler sequences in globular clusters: The case of NGC 362

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Massari, D.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.; Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Beccari, G.; Bellini, A.; Sills, A.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2013-01-01

    We used high-quality images acquired with the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope to probe the blue straggler star (BSS) population of the galactic globular cluster NGC 362. We have found two distinct sequences of BSSs: this is the second case, after M30, where such a feature has been observed. Indeed, the BSS location, their extension in magnitude and color, and their radial distribution within the cluster nicely resemble those observed in M30, thus suggesting that the same interpretative scenario can be applied: the red BSS sub-population is generated by mass-transfer binaries, the blue one by collisions. The discovery of four new W UMa stars, three of which lie along the red BSS sequence, further supports this scenario. We also found that the inner portion of the density profile deviates from a King model and is well reproduced by either a mild power law (α ∼ –0.2) or a double King profile. This feature supports the hypothesis that the cluster is currently undergoing the core-collapse phase. Moreover, the BSS radial distribution shows a central peak and monotonically decreases outward without any evidence of an external rising branch. This evidence is a further indication of the advanced dynamical age of NGC 362; in fact, together with M30, NGC 362 belongs to the family of dynamically old clusters (Family III) in the 'dynamical clock' classification proposed by Ferraro et al. The observational evidence presented here strengthens the possible connection between the existence of a double BSS sequence and a quite advanced dynamical status of the parent cluster.

  9. WIDE-FIELD PRECISION KINEMATICS OF THE M87 GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Jay [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Beasley, Michael A.; Arnold, Jacob A. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Tamura, Naoyuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sharples, Ray M. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Arimoto, Nobuo, E-mail: jstrader@cfa.harvard.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    We present the most extensive combined photometric and spectroscopic study to date of the enormous globular cluster (GC) system around M87, the central giant elliptical galaxy in the nearby Virgo Cluster. Using observations from DEIMOS and the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer at Keck, and Hectospec on the Multiple Mirror Telescope, we derive new, precise radial velocities for 451 GCs around M87, with projected radii from {approx}5 to 185 kpc. We combine these measurements with literature data for a total sample of 737 objects, which we use for a re-examination of the kinematics of the GC system of M87. The velocities are analyzed in the context of archival wide-field photometry and a novel Hubble Space Telescope catalog of half-light radii, which includes sizes for 344 spectroscopically confirmed clusters. We use this unique catalog to identify 18 new candidate ultracompact dwarfs and to help clarify the relationship between these objects and true GCs. We find much lower values for the outer velocity dispersion and rotation of the GC system than in earlier papers and also differ from previous work in seeing no evidence for a transition in the inner halo to a potential dominated by the Virgo Cluster, nor for a truncation of the stellar halo. We find little kinematical evidence for an intergalactic GC population. Aided by the precision of the new velocity measurements, we see significant evidence for kinematical substructure over a wide range of radii, indicating that M87 is in active assembly. A simple, scale-free analysis finds less dark matter within {approx}85 kpc than in other recent work, reducing the tension between X-ray and optical results. In general, out to a projected radius of {approx}150 kpc, our data are consistent with the notion that M87 is not dynamically coupled to the Virgo Cluster; the core of Virgo may be in the earliest stages of assembly.

  10. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Comerón, Sébastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Lácteas, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMT Observatory, P.O. Box 210065, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Holwerda, Benne [Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, Niels Bohrweg 4, NL-2333 Leiden (Netherlands); Sheth, Kartik, E-mail: dennis.zaritsky@gmail.com [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 μm images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ∼0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and can be as large as ∼0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  11. Exploring the Chemical Composition and Double Horizontal Branch of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Rich, R. Michael; Caldwell, Nelson; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I., III; Olszewski, Edward W.; Walker, Matthew G.

    2018-02-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic analyses have shown that the Galactic bulge cluster Terzan 5 hosts several populations with different metallicities and ages that manifest as a double red horizontal branch (HB). A recent investigation of the massive bulge cluster NGC 6569 revealed a similar, though less extended, HB luminosity split, but little is known about the cluster’s detailed chemical composition. Therefore, we have used high-resolution spectra from the Magellan–M2FS and VLT–FLAMES spectrographs to investigate the chemical compositions and radial velocity distributions of red giant branch and HB stars in NGC 6569. We found the cluster to have a mean heliocentric radial velocity of ‑48.8 km s‑1 (σ = 5.3 km s‑1 148 stars) and =-0.87 dex (19 stars), but the cluster’s 0.05 dex [Fe/H] dispersion precludes a significant metallicity spread. NGC 6569 exhibits light- and heavy-element distributions that are common among old bulge/inner Galaxy globular clusters, including clear (anti)correlations between [O/Fe], [Na/Fe], and [Al/Fe]. The light-element data suggest that NGC 6569 may be composed of at least two distinct populations, and the cluster’s low =-0.11 dex indicates significant pollution with r-process material. We confirm that both HBs contain cluster members, but metallicity and light-element variations are largely ruled out as sources for the luminosity difference. However, He mass fraction differences as small as ΔY ∼ 0.02 cannot be ruled out and may be sufficient to reproduce the double HB.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: HST photometry of M31 globular clusters (Federici+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federici, L.; Cacciari, C.; Bellazzini, M.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Galleti, S.; Perina, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tables g58.dat, g108.dat, g105.dat, g219.dat, b468.dat, g1.dat, g64.dat, g87.dat, g119.dat, g287.dat, g302.dat, g11.dat, g33.dat, g76.dat, g312.dat, g319.dat, g322.dat present the photometry of the individual stars of 17 M31 globular clusters observed with the WFPC2 on board of the HST, employing the F555W/F814W filters (Fusi Pecci et al. 1996AJ....112.1461F (FFP96), Rich et al. 2005AJ....129.2670R (R05)). The data reduction has been performed using ROMAFOT (Buonanno et al. 1983A&A...126..278B), a multicomponent fitting package purposely adapted to handle HST data, that provides as output the magnitudes and the pixel positions of the detected sources. The CTE-corrected photometric data were converted to the Johnson-Cousins V,I magnitudes according to Holtzman et al (1995PASP..107..156H). Table g351.dat presents the photometry of the individual stars of the M31 globular cluster B405-G351 observed with the HST/COSTAR-corrected FOC + the F430W/F480LP filters. The data reduction has been performed using ROMAFOT; the photometric data were converted to the Johnson-Cousins system B,V magnitudes (see FFP96). Tables gc1.dat, gc2.dat, gc3.dat, gc5.dat, gc6.dat, gc7.dat, gc8.dat, gc9.dat, gc10.dat, gc4.dat, ec1.dat, ec2.dat, ec3.dat, ec4.dat present the photometry of the individual stars of 14 M31 globular clusters observed with the WFC/ACS on board of the HST + F435W/F606W filters (see Galleti et al., 2006ApJ...650L.107G; Mackey et al., 2007ApJ...655L..85M; Mackey et al., 2006ApJ...653L.105M). The data reduction has been performed using the ACS module of DOLPHOT, a point spread function-fitting package specifically devoted to the photometry of HST data, that provides as output the magnitudes and the pixel positions of the detected sources, and a number of quality parameters for a suitable sample selection. The tables present, for the ACS chip holding the cluster, all the stars with valid measurements in both passbands, global quality flag=1, crowding parameter 23.5,and noise

  13. The Cluster AgeS Experiment (CASE). Variable Stars in the Field of the Globular Cluster M22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozyczka, M.; Thompson, I. B.; Pych, W.; Narloch, W.; Poleski, R.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2017-09-01

    The field of the globular cluster M22 (NGC 6656) was monitored between 2000 and 2008 in a search for variable stars. BV light curves were obtained for 359 periodic, likely periodic, and long-term variables, 238 of which are new detections. 39 newly detected variables, and 63 previously known ones are members or likely members of the cluster, including 20 SX Phe, 10 RRab and 16 RRc type pulsators, one BL Her type pulsator, 21 contact binaries, and 9 detached or semi-detached eclipsing binaries. The most interesting among the identified objects are V112 - a bright multimode SX Phe pulsator, V125 - a β Lyr type binary on the blue horizontal branch, V129 - a blue/yellow straggler with a W UMa-like light curve, located halfway between the extreme horizontal branch and red giant branch, and V134 - an extreme horizontal branch object with P=2.33 d and a nearly sinusoidal light curve. All four of them are proper motion members of the cluster. Among nonmembers, a P=2.83 d detached eclipsing binary hosting a δ Sct type pulsator was found, and a peculiar P=0.93 d binary with ellipsoidal modulation and narrow minimum in the middle of one of the descending shoulders of the sinusoid. We also collected substantial new data for previously known variables. In particular we revise the statistics of the occurrence of the Blazhko effect in RR Lyr type variables of M22.

  14. Gravitational Waves and Intermediate-mass Black Hole Retention in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Ginsburg, Idan; Kocsis, Bence

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened new horizons for physics. Current and upcoming missions, such as LIGO, VIRGO, KAGRA, and LISA, promise to shed light on black holes of every size from stellar mass (SBH) sizes up to supermassive black holes. The intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) family has not been detected beyond any reasonable doubt. Recent analyses suggest observational evidence for the presence of IMBHs in the centers of two Galactic globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we investigate the possibility that GCs were born with a central IMBH, which undergoes repeated merger events with SBHs in the cluster core. By means of a semi-analytical method, we follow the evolution of the primordial cluster population in the galactic potential and the mergers of the binary IMBH-SBH systems. Our models predict ≈1000 IMBHs within 1 kpc from the galactic center and show that the IMBH-SBH merger rate density changes from { \\mathcal R }≈ 1000 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 beyond z ≈ 2 to { \\mathcal R }≈ 1{--}10 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 at z ≈ 0. The rates at low redshifts may be significantly higher if young massive star clusters host IMBHs. The merger rates are dominated by IMBHs with masses between 103 and 104 M ⊙. Currently, there are no LIGO/VIRGO upper limits for GW sources in this mass range, but our results show that at design sensitivity, these instruments will detect IMBH-SBH mergers in the coming years. LISA and the Einstein Telescope will be best suited to detect these events. The inspirals of IMBH-SBH systems may also generate an unresolved GW background.

  15. The Dynamics of the Globular Star Cluster 47 TUC (NGC 104)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. W.; Moore, C. A.; Trotter, T. E.; Cohn, H. N.; Lugger, P. M.

    1998-12-01

    We have fit dynamically evolving Fokker-Planck models to the globular star cluster 47 Tuc (Ngc 104). Using mass-function and star-count data from the Hubble Space Telescope, we have determined the global stellar mass function down to 0.1 Msun. In addition to the mass function and star-count data, the velocity-dispersion profile and millisecond pulsar acceleration are well fit by the model. The best-fitting model is a pre-core-collapse model that mimics the behavior of a cluster with a sizable population of primordial binaries. These Fokker-Planck models are far more successful than are King-Mitchie model for fitting the full set of observational data. The best-fitting model has a mass function with power-law indices of 1.35, -1.0, 0.5, and -1.0 (where 1.35 is the Salpeter index) over the mass intervals of 60 to 1.0 Msun, 1.0 to 0.55 Msun, 0.55 to 0.25 Msun, and 0.35 to 0.1 Msun, respectively. The total mass of the cluster is 1.1x 10(6) Msun, the half-mass radius is 7 parsecs, and the core radius is 0.2 parsecs. The model contains a large number (4.6% of the total cluster mass) in nonluminous objects of 1.4 Msun. If most of these objects are neutron stars, the large inferred number suggest that either the upper main sequence mass function was flatter that the Salpeter mass function or that the progenitor stellar mass range for neutron star formation may extend to lower masses in low-metallicity systems than in high metallicity systems.

  16. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳ 103 M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes onto protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳ 106 and the gas accretion rate ≳ 105 M⊙/Myr, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This `conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

  17. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5053: A VERY METAL-POOR AND DYNAMICALLY COMPLEX GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2015-05-10

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO–Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ∼ 75–90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of −2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na–O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  18. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5053: A Very Metal-poor and Dynamically Complex Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2015-05-01

    NGC 5053 provides a rich environment to test our understanding of the complex evolution of globular clusters (GCs). Recent studies have found that this cluster has interesting morphological features beyond the typical spherical distribution of GCs, suggesting that external tidal effects have played an important role in its evolution and current properties. Additionally, simulations have shown that NGC 5053 could be a likely candidate to belong to the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy (Sgr dSph) stream. Using the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO-Hydra multi-object spectrograph, we have collected high quality (signal-to-noise ratio ˜ 75-90), medium-resolution spectra for red giant branch stars in NGC 5053. Using these spectra we have measured the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances in the cluster. We measure an average cluster [Fe/H] abundance of -2.45 with a standard deviation of 0.04 dex, making NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor GCs in the Milky Way (MW). The [Ca/Fe], [Ti/Fe], and [Ba/Fe] we measure are consistent with the abundances of MW halo stars at a similar metallicity, with alpha-enhanced ratios and slightly depleted [Ba/Fe]. The Na and O abundances show the Na-O anti-correlation found in most GCs. From our abundance analysis it appears that NGC 5053 is at least chemically similar to other GCs found in the MW. This does not, however, rule out NGC 5053 being associated with the Sgr dSph stream.

  19. The outer envelopes of globular clusters. II. NGC 1851, NGC 5824 and NGC 1261*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a second set of results from a wide-field photometric survey of the environs of Milky Way globular clusters. The clusters studied are NGC 1261, NGC 1851 and NGC 5824: all have data from the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco 4 m telescope. NGC 5824 also has data from the Magellan Clay telescope with MegaCam. We confirm the existence of a large diffuse stellar envelope surrounding NGC 1851 of size at least 240 pc in radius. The radial density profile of the envelope follows a power-law decline with index γ = -1.5 ± 0.2 and the projected shape is slightly elliptical. For NGC 5824, there is no strong detection of a diffuse stellar envelope, but we find the cluster is remarkably extended and is similar in size (at least 230 pc in radius) to the envelope of NGC 1851. A stellar envelope is also revealed around NGC 1261. However, it is notably smaller in size with radius ∼105 pc. The radial density profile of the envelope is also much steeper with γ = -3.8 ± 0.2. We discuss the possible nature of the diffuse stellar envelopes, but are unable to draw definitive conclusions based on the current data. NGC 1851, and potentially NGC 5824, could be stripped dwarf galaxy nuclei, akin to the cases of ω Cen, M54 and M2. On the other hand, the different characteristics of the NGC 1261 envelope suggest that it may be the product of dynamical evolution of the cluster.

  20. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of the Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and the Nature of its Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Kundu, Arunav; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Waters, Christopher Z.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Stern, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    We present optical Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster (GC) in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This GC is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [O III] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission-line nebula, the best-fitting models all require that the [O III] λ5007 emission has a half-light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [O III] λ5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate-mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER RZ 2109 AND THE NATURE OF ITS BLACK HOLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kundu, Arunav [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100 Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Waters, Christopher Z. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    We present optical Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) spectroscopy of RZ 2109, a globular cluster (GC) in the elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. This GC is notable for hosting an ultraluminous X-ray source as well as associated strong and broad [O III] {lambda}{lambda}4959, 5007 emission. We show that the HST/STIS spectroscopy spatially resolves the [O III] emission in RZ 2109. While we are unable to make a precise determination of the morphology of the emission-line nebula, the best-fitting models all require that the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission has a half-light radius in the range 3-7 pc. The extended nature of the [O III] {lambda}5007 emission is inconsistent with published models that invoke an intermediate-mass black hole origin. It is also inconsistent with the ionization of ejecta from a nova in the cluster. The spatial scale of the nebula could be produced via the photoionization of a strong wind driven from a stellar mass black hole accreting at roughly its Eddington rate.

  2. Globular cluster formation and evolution in the context of cosmological galaxy assembly: open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Bastian, Nate; Gieles, Mark; Crain, Robert A.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik; Larsen, Søren S.; Ploeckinger, Sylvia; Agertz, Oscar; Trenti, Michele; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Pfeffer, Joel; Gnedin, Oleg Y.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss some of the key open questions regarding the formation and evolution of globular clusters (GCs) during galaxy formation and assembly within a cosmological framework. The current state of the art for both observations and simulations is described, and we briefly mention directions for future research. The oldest GCs have ages greater than or equal to 12.5 Gyr and formed around the time of reionization. Resolved colour-magnitude diagrams of Milky Way GCs and direct imaging of lensed proto-GCs at z˜6 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) promise further insight. GCs are known to host multiple populations of stars with variations in their chemical abundances. Recently, such multiple populations have been detected in ˜2 Gyr old compact, massive star clusters. This suggests a common, single pathway for the formation of GCs at high and low redshift. The shape of the initial mass function for GCs remains unknown; however, for massive galaxies a power-law mass function is favoured. Significant progress has been made recently modelling GC formation in the context of galaxy formation, with success in reproducing many of the observed GC-galaxy scaling relations.

  3. SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN A METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTER WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stello, Dennis; Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2009-01-01

    We present analyses of variability in the red giant stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397, based on data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We use a nonstandard data reduction approach to turn a 23 day observing run originally aimed at imaging the white dwarf population, into time-series photometry of the cluster's highly saturated red giant stars. With this technique we obtain noise levels in the final power spectra down to 50 parts per million, which allows us to search for low-amplitude solar-like oscillations. We compare the observed excess power seen in the power spectra with estimates of the typical frequency range, frequency spacing, and amplitude from scaling the solar oscillations. We see evidence that the detected variability is consistent with solar-like oscillations in at least one and perhaps up to four stars. With metallicities 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of the Sun, these stars present so far the best evidence of solar-like oscillations in such a low-metallicity environment.

  4. The Mystery of Globular Clusters: Uncovering the Complexities of Their Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Erin Marie

    In recent years, evidence has grown for the existence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs). However, questions remain regarding the nature of these populations. Photometric observations clearly show discrete populations while spectroscopic observations seem to show a continuous spread. This dissertation provides steps to better understanding GCs and the complexities associated with their evolution. Calibration of stellar evolution models at low metallicity is necessary for comparison to GCs. Accurate abundances of metal-poor subdwarfs are determined and used in this calibration. A Monte Carlo analysis is then performed in order to determine accurate distances, absolute ages, and integrated orbital trajectories for 24 GCs. These results are of critical importance as they not only incorporate the observational uncertainty, but also the uncertainty incurred by the models themselves. Lastly, high resolution spectra of three GCs (NGC 6681, NGC 6584 and NGC 7099) are obtained for a detailed abundance analysis of red giant branch stars. The high resolution and signal-to-noise achieved in these observations allows for the discovery of a statistically significant Na-O anticorrelation in all three clusters, the populations of which agree with those from photometric observations. Although we cannot determine precisely the nature of the polluters that were the predecessors to the enhanced populations, we do know that both s-process and r-process mechanisms contributed to the evolution and these results can be used to help constrain future models of GC polluter candidates.

  5. Strömgren uvby photometry of the peculiar globular cluster NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Feltzing, Sofia; Kacharov, Nikolay; Wilkinson, Mark I.; Irwin, Mike

    2015-09-01

    NGC 2419 is a peculiar Galactic globular cluster offset from the others in the size-luminosity diagram, and showing several chemical abundance anomalies. Here, we present Strömgren uvby photometry of the cluster. Using the gravity- and metallicity-sensitive c1 and m1 indices, we identify a sample of likely cluster members extending well beyond the formal tidal radius. The estimated contamination by cluster non-members is only one per cent, making our catalogue ideally suited for spectroscopic follow-up. We derive photometric [Fe/H] of red giants, and depending on which metallicity calibration from the literature we use, we find reasonable to excellent agreement with spectroscopic [Fe/H], both for the cluster mean metallicity and for individual stars. We demonstrate explicitly that the photometric uncertainties are not Gaussian and this must be accounted for in any analysis of the metallicity distribution function. Using a realistic, non-Gaussian model for the photometric uncertainties, we find a formal internal [Fe/H] spread of σ=0.11+0.02-0.01 dex. This is an upper limit to the cluster's true [Fe/H] spread and may partially, and possibly entirely, reflect the limited precision of the photometric metallicity estimation and systematic effects. The lack of correlation between spectroscopic and photometric [Fe/H] of individual stars is further evidence against a [Fe/H] spread on the 0.1 dex level. Finally, the CN-sensitive δ4, among other colour indices, anti-correlates strongly with magnesium abundance, indicating that the second-generation stars are nitrogen enriched. The absence of similar correlations in some other CN-sensitive indices supports the second generation being enriched in He, which in these indices approximately compensates the shift due to CN. Compared to a single continuous distribution with finite dispersion, the observed δ4 distribution of red giants is slightly better fit by two distinct populations with no internal spread, with the nitrogen

  6. The sluggs survey: HST/ACS mosaic imaging of the NGC 3115 globular cluster system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Zachary G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Arnold, Jacob A. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, MI 48824 (United States); Lin, Dacheng; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wong, Ka-Wah [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Sivakoff, Gregory R., E-mail: zgjennin@ucsc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-08-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) g and z photometry and half-light radii R {sub h} measurements of 360 globular cluster (GC) candidates around the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We also include Subaru/Suprime-Cam g, r, and i photometry of 421 additional candidates. The well-established color bimodality of the GC system is obvious in the HST/ACS photometry. We find evidence for a 'blue tilt' in the blue GC subpopulation, wherein the GCs in the blue subpopulation get redder as luminosity increases, indicative of a mass-metallicity relationship. We find a color gradient in both the red and blue subpopulations, with each group of clusters becoming bluer at larger distances from NGC 3115. The gradient is of similar strength in both subpopulations, but is monotonic and more significant for the blue clusters. On average, the blue clusters have ∼10% larger R {sub h} than the red clusters. This average difference is less than is typically observed for early-type galaxies but does match that measured in the literature for the Sombrero Galaxy (M104), suggesting that morphology and inclination may affect the measured size difference between the red and blue clusters. However, the scatter on the R {sub h} measurements is large. We also identify 31 clusters more extended than typical GCs, which we term ultra-compact dwarf (UCD) candidates. Many of these objects are actually considerably fainter than typical UCDs. While it is likely that a significant number will be background contaminants, six of these UCD candidates are spectroscopically confirmed as NGC 3115 members. To explore the prevalence of low-mass X-ray binaries in the GC system, we match our ACS and Suprime-Cam detections to corresponding Chandra X-ray sources. We identify 45 X-ray-GC matches: 16 among the blue subpopulation and 29 among the red subpopulation. These X-ray/GC coincidence fractions are larger than is typical for most GC systems, probably due to the increased

  7. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the globular cluster NGC 6522

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuy, B.; Chiappini, C.; Cantelli, E.; Depagne, E.; Pignatari, M.; Hirschi, R.; Cescutti, G.; Ortolani, S.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Minniti, D.; Trevisan, M.; Bica, E.; Gómez, A.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The [Sr/Ba] and [Y/Ba] scatter observed in some galactic halo stars that are very metal-poor and in a few individual stars of the oldest known Milky Way globular cluster NGC 6522 have been interpreted as evidence of early enrichment by massive fast-rotating stars (spinstars). Because NGC 6522 is a bulge globular cluster, the suggestion was that not only the very-metal poor halo stars, but also bulge stars at [Fe/H] ~ -1 could be used as probes of the stellar nucleosynthesis signatures from the earlier generations of massive stars, but at much higher metallicity. For the bulge the suggestions were based on early spectra available for stars in NGC 6522, with a medium resolution of R ~ 22 000 and a moderate signal-to-noise ratio. Aims: The main purpose of this study is to re-analyse the NGC 6522 stars reported previously by using new high-resolution (R ~ 45 000) and high signal-to-noise spectra (S/N > 100). We aim at re-deriving their stellar parameters and elemental ratios, in particular the abundances of the neutron-capture s-process-dominated elements such as Sr, Y, Zr, La, and Ba, and of the r-element Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of four giants belonging to the bulge globular cluster NGC 6522 were obtained at the 8m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameters were derived based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. Results: Our analysis confirms a metallicity [Fe/H] = -0.95 ± 0.15 for NGC 6522 and the overabundance of the studied stars in Eu (with +0.2 < [Eu/Fe] < + 0.4) and alpha-elements O and Mg. The neutron-capture s-element-dominated Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, and La now show less pronounced variations from star to star. Enhancements are in the range 0.0 < [Sr/Fe] < +0.4, +0.23 < [Y/Fe] < +0.43, 0.0 < [Zr/Fe] < +0.4, 0.0 < [La/Fe] < +0.35, and 0.05 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.55. Conclusions: The very high overabundances of [Y/Fe] previously reported for the four studied

  8. THE ACS VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. XVII. THE SPATIAL ALIGNMENT OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS WITH EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Qiushi; Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Jordan, Andres [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Mei, Simona [University of Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); West, Michael J., E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    We study the azimuthal distribution of globular clusters (GCs) in early-type galaxies and compare them to their host galaxies using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. We find that in host galaxies with visible elongation ({epsilon} > 0.2) and intermediate to high luminosities (M{sub z} < -19), the GCs are preferentially aligned along the major axis of the stellar light. The red (metal-rich) GC subpopulations show strong alignment with the major axis of the host galaxy, which supports the notion that these GCs are associated with metal-rich field stars. The metal-rich GCs in lenticular galaxies show signs of being more strongly associated with disks rather than bulges. Surprisingly, we also find that the blue (metal-poor) GCs can also show the same correlation. If the metal-poor GCs are part of the early formation of the halo and built up through mergers, then our results support a picture where halo formation and merging occur anisotropically, and that the present-day major axis is an indicator of the preferred merging axis.

  9. The Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS). XXVI. The Issues of Photometric Age and Metallicity Estimates for Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Puzia, Thomas H.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Zhang, Hongxin [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Chengze [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Roediger, Joel; Gwyn, S. D. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Sánchez-Janssen, Rúben [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Durrell, Patrick R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, Youngstown, OH (United States); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu,Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hudelot, Patrick, E-mail: mathieu.powalka@astro.unistra.fr [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2017-08-01

    Large samples of globular clusters (GC) with precise multi-wavelength photometry are becoming increasingly available and can be used to constrain the formation history of galaxies. We present the results of an analysis of Milky Way (MW) and Virgo core GCs based on 5 optical-near-infrared colors and 10 synthetic stellar population models. For the MW GCs, the models tend to agree on photometric ages and metallicities, with values similar to those obtained with previous studies. When used with Virgo core GCs, for which photometry is provided by the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), the same models generically return younger ages. This is a consequence of the systematic differences observed between the locus occupied by Virgo core GCs and models in panchromatic color space. Only extreme fine-tuning of the adjustable parameters available to us can make the majority of the best-fit ages old. Although we cannot exclude that the formation history of the Virgo core may lead to more conspicuous populations of relatively young GCs than in other environments, we emphasize that the intrinsic properties of the Virgo GCs are likely to differ systematically from those assumed in the models. Thus, the large wavelength coverage and photometric quality of modern GC samples, such as those used here, is not by itself sufficient to better constrain the GC formation histories. Models matching the environment-dependent characteristics of GCs in multi-dimensional color space are needed to improve the situation.

  10. THE ROLE OF THERMOHALINE MIXING IN INTERMEDIATE- AND LOW-METALLICITY GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, George C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.; Church, Ross P.; Lattanzio, John C. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3800 (Australia); Smith, Graeme H., E-mail: George.Angelou@monash.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, UC Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    It is now widely accepted that globular cluster red giant branch (RGB) stars owe their strange abundance patterns to a combination of pollution from progenitor stars and in situ extra mixing. In this hybrid theory a first generation of stars imprints abundance patterns into the gas from which a second generation forms. The hybrid theory suggests that extra mixing is operating in both populations and we use the variation of [C/Fe] with luminosity to examine how efficient this mixing is. We investigate the observed RGBs of M3, M13, M92, M15, and NGC 5466 as a means to test a theory of thermohaline mixing. The second parameter pair M3 and M13 are of intermediate metallicity and our models are able to account for the evolution of carbon along the RGB in both clusters, although in order to fit the most carbon-depleted main-sequence stars in M13 we require a model whose initial [C/Fe] abundance leads to a carbon abundance lower than is observed. Furthermore, our results suggest that stars in M13 formed with some primary nitrogen (higher C+N+O than stars in M3). In the metal-poor regime only NGC 5466 can be tentatively explained by thermohaline mixing operating in multiple populations. We find thermohaline mixing unable to model the depletion of [C/Fe] with magnitude in M92 and M15. It appears as if extra mixing is occurring before the luminosity function bump in these clusters. To reconcile the data with the models would require first dredge-up to be deeper than found in extant models.

  11. Atmospheric Parameters and Metallicities for 2191 Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolta, Luca; Sneden, Christopher; Piotto, Giampaolo; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Nascimbeni, Valerio

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V 14.7, we obtain lang[Fe/H]rang = -1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  12. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio; Sneden, Christopher; Milone, Antonino P.; Bedin, Luigi R.

    2014-01-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions

  13. Galactic Pal-eontology: abundance analysis of the disrupting globular cluster Palomar 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; Côté, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    We present a chemical abundance analysis of the tidally disrupted globular cluster (GC) Palomar 5. By co-adding high-resolution spectra of 15 member stars from the cluster's main body, taken at low signal-to-noise with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph, we were able to measure integrated abundance ratios of 24 species of 20 elements including all major nucleosynthetic channels (namely the light element Na; α-elements Mg, Si, Ca, Ti; Fe-peak and heavy elements Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn; and the neutron-capture elements Y, Zr, Ba, La, Nd, Sm, Eu). The mean metallicity of -1.56 ± 0.02 ± 0.06 dex (statistical and systematic errors) agrees well with the values from individual, low-resolution measurements of individual stars, but it is lower than previous high-resolution results of a small number of stars in the literature. Comparison with Galactic halo stars and other disrupted and unperturbed GCs renders Pal 5 a typical representative of the Milky Way halo population, as has been noted before, emphasizing that the early chemical evolution of such clusters is decoupled from their later dynamical history. We also performed a test as to the detectability of light element variations in this co-added abundance analysis technique and found that this approach is not sensitive even in the presence of a broad range in sodium of 0.6 dex, a value typically found in the old halo GCs. Thus, while methods of determining the global abundance patterns of such objects are well suited to study their overall enrichment histories, chemical distinctions of their multiple stellar populations is still best obtained from measurements of individual stars. Full Table 3 is is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/601/A41

  14. Atmospheric parameters and metallicities for 2191 stars in the globular cluster M4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malavolta, Luca; Piotto, Giampaolo; Nascimbeni, Valerio [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Milone, Antonino P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bedin, Luigi R., E-mail: luca.malavolta@unipd.it, E-mail: giampaolo.piotto@unipd.it, E-mail: valerio.nascimbeni@unipd.it, E-mail: luigi.bedin@oapd.inaf.it, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-01

    We report new metallicities for stars of Galactic globular cluster M4 using the largest number of stars ever observed at high spectral resolution in any cluster. We analyzed 7250 spectra for 2771 cluster stars gathered with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FLAMES+GIRAFFE spectrograph at VLT. These medium-resolution spectra cover a small wavelength range, and often have very low signal-to-noise ratios. We approached this data set by reconsidering the whole method of abundance analysis of large stellar samples from beginning to end. We developed a new algorithm that automatically determines the atmospheric parameters of a star. Nearly all of the data preparation steps for spectroscopic analyses are processed on the syntheses, not the observed spectra. For 322 red giant branch (RGB) stars with V ≤ 14.7, we obtain a nearly constant metallicity, ([Fe/H]) = –1.07 (σ = 0.02). No difference in the metallicity at the level of 0.01 dex is observed between the two RGB sequences identified by Monelli et al. For 1869 subgiant and main-sequence stars with V > 14.7, we obtain ([Fe/H]) = –1.16 (σ = 0.09) after fixing the microturbulent velocity. These values are consistent with previous studies that have performed detailed analyses of brighter RGB stars at higher spectroscopic resolution and wavelength coverage. It is not clear if the small mean metallicity difference between brighter and fainter M4 members is real or is the result of the low signal-to-noise characteristics of the fainter stars. The strength of our approach is shown by recovering a metallicity close to a single value for more than 2000 stars, using a data set that is non-optimal for atmospheric analyses. This technique is particularly suitable for noisy data taken in difficult observing conditions.

  15. Ultra-deep GEMINI Near-infrared Observations of the Bulge Globular Cluster NGC 6624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Lanzoni, B.; Origlia, L.; Miocchi, P.; Cohen, R. E.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.

    2016-11-01

    We used ultra-deep J and K s images secured with the near-infrared (NIR) GSAOI camera assisted by the multi-conjugate adaptive optics system GeMS at the GEMINI South Telescope in Chile, to obtain a (K s , J - K s ) color-magnitude diagram (CMD) for the bulge globular cluster NGC 6624. We obtained the deepest and most accurate NIR CMD from the ground for this cluster, by reaching K s ˜ 21.5, approximately 8 mag below the horizontal branch level. The entire extension of the Main Sequence (MS) is nicely sampled and at K s ˜ 20 we detected the so-called MS “knee” in a purely NIR CMD. By taking advantage of the exquisite quality of the data, we estimated the absolute age of NGC 6624 (t age = 12.0 ± 0.5 Gyr), which turns out to be in good agreement with previous studies in the literature. We also analyzed the luminosity and mass functions of MS stars down to M ˜ 0.45 M⊙, finding evidence of a significant increase of low-mass stars at increasing distances from the cluster center. This is a clear signature of mass segregation, confirming that NGC 6624 is in an advanced stage of dynamical evolution. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations gathered with ESO-VISTA telescope (program ID 179.B-2002).

  16. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON A COMPLEX RELATION BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTER COLORS AND ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane; Puzia, Thomas H.; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón; Peng, Eric W.; Lim, Sungsoon; Schönebeck, Frederik; Grebel, Eva K.; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Kuntschner, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW), based on Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant discrepancies in color–color diagrams between sub-samples from different environments, confirming that the environment has a strong influence on the integrated colors of GCs. GC color distributions along a single color are not sufficient to capture the differences we observe in color–color space. While the average photometric colors become bluer with increasing radial distance to the cD galaxy M87, we also find a relation between the environment and the slope and intercept of the color–color relations. A denser environment seems to produce a larger dynamic range in certain color indices. We argue that these results are not due solely to differential extinction, Initial Mass Function variations, calibration uncertainties, or overall age/metallicity variations. We therefore suggest that the relation between the environment and GC colors is, at least in part, due to chemical abundance variations, which affect stellar spectra and stellar evolution tracks. Our results demonstrate that stellar population diagnostics derived from model predictions which are calibrated on one particular sample of GCs may not be appropriate for all extragalactic GCs. These results advocate a more complex model of the assembly history of GC systems in massive galaxies that goes beyond the simple bimodality found in previous decades.

  17. MASSIVE+: The Growth Histories of MASSIVE Survey Galaxies from their Globular Cluster Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, John

    2017-08-01

    The MASSIVE survey is targeting the 100 most massive galaxies within 108 Mpc that are visible in the northern sky. These most massive galaxies in the present-day universe reside in a surprisingly wide variety of environments, from rich clusters to fossil groups to near isolation. We propose to use WFC3/UVIS and ACS to carry out a deep imaging study of the globular cluster populations around a selected subset of the MASSIVE targets. Though much is known about GC systems of bright galaxies in rich clusters, we know surprisingly little about the effects of environment on these systems. The MASSIVE sample provides a golden opportunity to learn about the systematics of GC systems and what they can tell us about environmental drivers on the evolution of the highest mass galaxies. The most pressing questions to be addressed include: (1) Do isolated giants have the same constant mass fraction of GCs to total halo mass as BCGs of similar luminosity? (2) Do their GC systems show the same color (metallicity) distribution, which is an outcome of the mass spectrum of gas-rich halos during hierarchical growth? (3) Do the GCs in isolated high-mass galaxies follow the same radial distribution versus metallicity as in rich environments (a test of the relative importance of growth by accretion)? (4) Do the GCs of galaxies in sparse environments follow the same mass function? Our proposed second-band imaging will enable us to secure answers to these questions and add enormously to the legacy value of existing HST imaging of the highest mass galaxies in the universe.

  18. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON A COMPLEX RELATION BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTER COLORS AND ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Lançon, Ariane [Observatoire Astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Puzia, Thomas H.; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Peng, Eric W.; Lim, Sungsoon [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Schönebeck, Frederik; Grebel, Eva K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Gwyn, S. D. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain [AIM Paris Saclay, CNRS/INSU, CEA/Irfu, Université Paris Diderot, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Durrell, Patrick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Youngstown State University, One University Plaza, Youngstown, OH 44555 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuntschner, Harald, E-mail: mathieu.powalka@astro.unistra.fr [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2016-09-20

    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW), based on Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant discrepancies in color–color diagrams between sub-samples from different environments, confirming that the environment has a strong influence on the integrated colors of GCs. GC color distributions along a single color are not sufficient to capture the differences we observe in color–color space. While the average photometric colors become bluer with increasing radial distance to the cD galaxy M87, we also find a relation between the environment and the slope and intercept of the color–color relations. A denser environment seems to produce a larger dynamic range in certain color indices. We argue that these results are not due solely to differential extinction, Initial Mass Function variations, calibration uncertainties, or overall age/metallicity variations. We therefore suggest that the relation between the environment and GC colors is, at least in part, due to chemical abundance variations, which affect stellar spectra and stellar evolution tracks. Our results demonstrate that stellar population diagnostics derived from model predictions which are calibrated on one particular sample of GCs may not be appropriate for all extragalactic GCs. These results advocate a more complex model of the assembly history of GC systems in massive galaxies that goes beyond the simple bimodality found in previous decades.

  19. Little Blue Dots in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields: Precursors to Globular Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    2017-12-01

    Galaxies with stellar masses {10}-7.4 yr‑1 were examined on images of the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels for Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-02403. They appear as unresolved “Little Blue Dots” (LBDs). They are less massive and have higher specific star formation rates (sSFRs) than “blueberries” studied by Yang et al. and higher sSFRs than “Blue Nuggets” studied by Tacchella et al. We divided the LBDs into three redshift bins and, for each, stacked the B435, V606, and I814 images convolved to the same stellar point-spread function (PSF). Their radii were determined from PSF deconvolution to be ∼80 to ∼180 pc. The high sSFRs suggest that their entire stellar mass has formed in only 1% of the local age of the universe. The sSFRs at similar epochs in local dwarf galaxies are lower by a factor of ∼100. Assuming that the star formation rate is {ε }{ff}{M}{gas}/{t}{ff} for efficiency {ε }{ff}, gas mass M gas, and free-fall time, t ff, the gas mass and gas-to-star mass ratio are determined. This ratio exceeds 1 for reasonable efficiencies, and is likely to be ∼5 even with a high {ε }{ff} of 0.1. We consider whether these regions are forming today’s globular clusters. With their observed stellar masses, the maximum likely cluster mass is ∼ {10}5 {M}ȯ , but if star formation continues at the current rate for ∼ 10{t}{ff}∼ 50 {Myr} before feedback and gas exhaustion stop it, then the maximum cluster mass could become ∼ {10}6 {M}ȯ .

  20. New Constraints on a Complex Relation between Globular Cluster Colors and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powalka, Mathieu; Puzia, Thomas H.; Lançon, Ariane; Peng, Eric W.; Schönebeck, Frederik; Alamo-Martínez, Karla; Ángel, Simón; Blakeslee, John P.; Côté, Patrick; Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Durrell, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Grebel, Eva K.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Kuntschner, Harald; Lim, Sungsoon; Liu, Chengze; Lyubenova, Mariya; Mihos, J. Christopher; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Roediger, Joel; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Spengler, Chelsea; Toloba, Elisa; Zhang, Hongxin

    2016-09-01

    We present an analysis of high-quality photometry for globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster core region, based on data from the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey (NGVS) pilot field, and in the Milky Way (MW), based on Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter spectrophotometry. We find significant discrepancies in color-color diagrams between sub-samples from different environments, confirming that the environment has a strong influence on the integrated colors of GCs. GC color distributions along a single color are not sufficient to capture the differences we observe in color-color space. While the average photometric colors become bluer with increasing radial distance to the cD galaxy M87, we also find a relation between the environment and the slope and intercept of the color-color relations. A denser environment seems to produce a larger dynamic range in certain color indices. We argue that these results are not due solely to differential extinction, Initial Mass Function variations, calibration uncertainties, or overall age/metallicity variations. We therefore suggest that the relation between the environment and GC colors is, at least in part, due to chemical abundance variations, which affect stellar spectra and stellar evolution tracks. Our results demonstrate that stellar population diagnostics derived from model predictions which are calibrated on one particular sample of GCs may not be appropriate for all extragalactic GCs. These results advocate a more complex model of the assembly history of GC systems in massive galaxies that goes beyond the simple bimodality found in previous decades.

  1. Using Blue Stragglers to Predict Retained Black Hole Population in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanek, Keith; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic

    2018-01-01

    Large numbers of black holes (BHs) are expected to form in massive star clusters typical of the globular clusters (GCs). Sophisticated theoretical models suggest that many of these BHs can be retained in present-day GCs. Observations have also identified several BH candidates in Galactic and extragalactic GCs (e.g., Macarone et al. 2007; Irwin et al. 2010; Strader et al. 2012; Chomiuk et al. 2013; Miller-Jones et al. 2014). It has also been shown that high-mass and high-density clusters such as GCs are efficient factories of merging binary BHs similar to those observed by the LIGO observatories (Abbott et al. 2016a,b,c,d,e; Rodriguez et al. 2016). Understanding the formation rate and properties of binary BHs are dependent on a detailed understanding of how the BHs dynamically evolve within GCs. Nevertheless, directly detecting BHs in GCs is extremely challenging; BHs only in binaries with limited configurations can be directly detected by the detection of gravitational wave, X-ray, or radio emissions. We propose an indirect of inferring the number of undetected retained BHs in a GC by investigating the dynamical effects of a large number of BHs on the production of other tracer populations such as Blue Straggler Stars (BSS). Using a large grid of detailed GC models we show that there is a clear anti-correlation between the number of BSS in a cluster and the number of retained BHs. Being the most massive species, large numbers of retained BHs will dominate the core of the cluster as a result of mass-segregation driving away other low-mass species such as main-sequence stars from central high-density regions. BSS are expected to form from physical collisions between main-sequence (MS) stars mediated by binary encounters (e.g., Chatterjee et al. 2013) in cores of GCs. Production of BSS by collisions or mass transfer channels are suppressed if a large number of retained BHs in a cluster restrict the number of MS stars in the core. Extensive observational data exist on

  2. The Globular Cluster NGC 2419: A Crucible for Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, R.; Sollima, A.; Nipoti, C.; Bellazzini, M.; Chapman, S. C.; Dalessandro, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the analysis of a kinematic data set of stars in the globular cluster NGC 2419, taken with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph at the Keck II telescope. Combined with a reanalysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope and Subaru Telescope imaging data, which provide an accurate luminosity profile of the cluster, we investigate the validity of a large set of dynamical models of the system, which are checked for stability via N-body simulations. We find that isotropic models in either Newtonian or Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) are ruled out with extremely high confidence. However, a simple Michie model in Newtonian gravity with anisotropic velocity dispersion provides an excellent representation of the luminosity profile and kinematics of the cluster. The anisotropy profiles of these models ensure an isotropic center to the cluster, which progresses to extreme radial anisotropy toward the outskirts. In contrast, with MOND we find that Michie models that reproduce the luminosity profile either overpredict the velocity dispersion on the outskirts of the cluster if the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) is kept at astrophysically motivated values or else they underpredict the central velocity dispersion if the M/L is taken to be very small. We find that the best Michie model in MOND is a factor of ~104 less likely than the Newtonian model that best fits the system. A likelihood ratio of 350 is found when we investigate more general models by solving the Jeans equation with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo scheme. We verified with N-body simulations that these results are not significantly different when the MOND external field effect is accounted for. If the assumptions that the cluster is in dynamical equilibrium, spherical, not on a peculiar orbit, and possesses a single dynamical tracer population of constant M/L are correct, we conclude that the present observations provide a very severe challenge for MOND. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W

  3. Age and Temperature of Globular-Open Star Clusters Case Study : M3 M35 and M67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chewa Thassana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the age and the temperature of the globular cluster M3 and the open clusters M37 and M67 were observed by CCD Photometer via a 0.5-meter Rithchey-Chertien Reflecting Telescope at Regional Observatory for the Public Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand ; images were obtained of the cluster stars in B and V photometric filter. The magnitude of the cluster stars were analyzed by Iris and Aperture Photometry Tool (ATP program. The age and temperature of M3, M35 and M67 clusters were calculated by the apparent magnitude and color index (B-V of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram . Our results shown that the both open cluster M35 and M67 were found to lie at a distance of 2,700 light years (832pc from the Earth. In addition, the M35 is approximately 110 million years old and the temperature in range of 7,000 -13,000K. Meanwhile M67 is roughly 3.11 billion years old, the temperature is about 4,400K to 6,400K. However, we determined that the globular cluster M3 is approximately 11.1 billion years old and located 34,000 light years (10,420pc away from the Earth, while temperature is around 3,600 -6,800K.

  4. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  5. M31 Globular Cluster Abundances from High-Resolution, Integrated-Light Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott; McWilliam, Andrew; Cohen, Judith G.

    2009-10-01

    We report the first detailed chemical abundances for five globular clusters (GCs) in M31 from high-resolution (R ~ 25,000) spectroscopy of their integrated light (IL). These GCs are the first in a larger set of clusters observed as part of an ongoing project to study the formation history of M31 and its GC population. The data presented here were obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck I telescope and are analyzed using a new IL spectra analysis method that we have developed. In these clusters, we measure abundances for Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Y, and Ba, ages >=10 Gyr, and a range in [Fe/H] of -0.9 to -2.2. As is typical of Milky Way GCs, we find these M31 GCs to be enhanced in the α-elements Ca, Si, and Ti relative to Fe. We also find [Mg/Fe] to be low relative to other [α/Fe], and [Al/Fe] to be enhanced in the IL abundances. These results imply that abundances of Mg, Al (and likely O, Na) recovered from IL do display the inter- and intra-cluster abundance variations seen in individual Milky Way GC stars, and that special care should be taken in the future in interpreting low- or high-resolution IL abundances of GCs that are based on Mg-dominated absorption features. Fe-peak and the neutron-capture elements Ba and Y also follow Milky Way abundance trends. We also present high-precision velocity dispersion measurements for all five M31 GCs, as well as independent constraints on the reddening toward the clusters from our analysis. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Formation of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries with Non-degenerate Donors in Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Rocha, Cassio A. da; Van, Kenny X.; Nandez, Jose L. A., E-mail: nata.ivanova@ualberta.ca [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E7 (Canada)

    2017-07-10

    In this Letter, we propose a formation channel for low-mass X-ray binaries with black hole accretors and non-degenerate donors via grazing tidal encounters with subgiants. We estimate that in a typically dense globular cluster with a core density of 10{sup 5} stars pc{sup −3}, the formation rates are about one binary per Gyr per 50–100 retained black holes. The donors—stripped subgiants—will be strongly underluminous when compared to subgiant or giant branch stars of the same colors. The products of tidal stripping are underluminous by at least one magnitude for several hundred million years when compared to normal stars of the same color, and differ from underluminous red stars that could be produced by non-catastrophic mass transfer in an ordinary binary. The dynamically formed binaries become quiescent LMXBs, with lifetimes of about a Gyr. The expected number of X-ray binaries is one per 50–200 retained black holes, while the expected number of strongly underluminous subsubgiant is about half this. The presence of strongly underluminous stars in a GC may be indicative of the presence of black holes.

  7. On the physical nature of globular cluster candidates in the Milky Way bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    We present results from 2MASS JKs photometry on the physical reality of recently reported globular cluster (GC) candidates in the Milky Way (MW) bulge. We relied our analysis on photometric membership probabilities that allowed us to distinguish real stellar aggregates from the composite field star population. When building colour-magnitude diagrams and stellar density maps for stars at different membership probability levels, the genuine GC candidate populations are clearly highlighted. We then used the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) as distance estimator, resulting heliocentric distances that place many of the objects in regions near of the MW bulge where no GC had been previously recognised. Some few GC candidates resulted to be MW halo/disc objects. Metallicities estimated from the standard RGB method are in agreement with the values expected according to the position of the GC candidates in the Galaxy. Finally, we derived from the first time their structural parameters. We found that the studied objects have core, half-light and tidal radii in the ranges spanned by the population of known MW GCs. Their internal dynamical evolutionary stages will be described properly when their masses are estimated.

  8. Magnesium isotopes: a tool to understand self-enrichment in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; D'Antona, F.; Imbriani, G.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Dell'Agli, F.; Tailo, M.

    2018-03-01

    A critical issue in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) self-enrichment scenario for the formation of multiple populations in Globular Clusters (GCs) is the inability to reproduce the magnesium isotopic ratios, despite the model in principle can account for the depletion of magnesium. In this work we analyze how the uncertainties on the various p-capture cross sections affect the results related to the magnesium content of the ejecta of AGB stars. The observed distribution of the magnesium isotopes and of the overall Mg-Al trend in M13 and NGC 6752 are successfully reproduced when the proton-capture rate by 25Mg at the temperatures ˜100 MK, in particular the 25Mg(p, γ)26Alm channel, is enhanced by a factor ˜3 with respect to the most recent experimental determinations. This assumption also allows to reproduce the full extent of the Mg spread and the Mg-Si anticorrelation observed in NGC 2419. The uncertainties in the rate of the 25Mg(p, γ)26Alm reaction at the temperatures of interest here leave space for our assumption and we suggest that new experimental measurements are needed to settle this problem. We also discuss the competitive model based on the super massive star nucleosynthesis.

  9. Spectra of globular clusters in the Sombrero galaxy: evidence for spectroscopic metallicity bimodality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Brito, Alan; Hau, George K. T.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2011-11-01

    We present a large sample of over 200 integrated-light spectra of confirmed globular clusters (GCs) associated with the Sombrero (M104) galaxy taken with the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) instrument on the Keck telescope. A significant fraction of the spectra have signal-to-noise ratio levels high enough to allow measurements of GC metallicities using the method of Brodie & Huchra. We find a distribution of spectroscopic metallicities in the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] < +0.1 that is bimodal, with peaks at [Fe/H]˜-1.4 and -0.6. Thus, the GC system of the Sombrero galaxy, like a few other galaxies now studied in detail, reveals a bimodal spectroscopic metallicity distribution supporting the long-held belief that colour bimodality reflects two metallicity subpopulations. This further suggests that the transformation from optical colour to metallicity for old stellar populations, such as GCs, is not strongly non-linear. We also explore the radial and magnitude distribution with metallicity for GC subpopulations but small number statistics prevent any clear trends in these distributions. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. The Peculiar Chemical Inventory of NGC 2419: An Extreme Outer Halo "Globular Cluster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Huang, Wenjin; Kirby, Evan N.

    2011-10-01

    NGC 2419 is a massive outer halo Galactic globular cluster (GC) whose stars have previously been shown to have somewhat peculiar abundance patterns. We have observed seven luminous giants that are members of NGC 2419 with Keck/HIRES at reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. One of these giants is very peculiar, with an extremely low [Mg/Fe] and high [K/Fe] but normal abundances of most other elements. The abundance pattern does not match the nucleosynthetic yields of any supernova model. The other six stars show abundance ratios typical of inner halo Galactic GCs, represented here by a sample of giants in the nearby GC M30. Although our measurements show that NGC 2419 is unusual in some respects, its bulk properties do not provide compelling evidence for a difference between inner and outer halo GCs. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  12. Eight Hundred New Candidates for Globular Clusters in NGC 5128 (Centaurus A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Gómez, Matías; Harris, William E.; Johnston, Kyle; Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang; Geisler, Doug; Woodley, Kristin A.

    2012-04-01

    We have used new wide-field imaging with the Magellan IMACS camera to search for globular cluster (GC) candidates around NGC 5128, the nearest giant E galaxy. The imaging data are in the B and R broadband filters and cover a 1.55 deg2 field centered on the galaxy, corresponding to an area about 90 × 90 kpc2 at the distance of NGC 5128. All the fields were taken under exceptionally high-quality seeing conditions (FWHM = 0farcs4-0farcs5 in R). Using this material we are able, for the first time in the literature, to construct a homogeneous list of GC candidates covering a wide span of the NGC 5128 halo and unusually free of field contaminants (foreground stars and faint background galaxies). Selecting the measured objects by color, magnitude, ellipticity, and profile size gives us a final catalog of 833 new high-quality GC candidates brighter than R = 21 (0.8 mag fainter than the standard GC luminosity function turnover point). The measured positions have better than 0farcs2 precision in both coordinates. This list can be used as the basis for spectroscopic follow-up, leading to a more comprehensive kinematic and dynamic study of the halo. This Paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  13. The radius of the quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A. W.; Heinke, C. O.; Steiner, A. W.; Campana, S.; Cohn, H. N.; Ho, W. C. G.; Lugger, P. M.; Servillat, M.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray spectra of quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries containing neutron stars can be fit with atmosphere models to constrain the mass and the radius. Mass-radius constraints can be used to place limits on the equation of state of dense matter. We perform fits to the X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star in the globular cluster M13, utilizing data from ROSAT, Chandra and XMM-Newton, and constrain the mass-radius relation. Assuming an atmosphere composed of hydrogen and a 1.4M⊙ neutron star, we find the radius to be R_NS=12.2^{+1.5}_{-1.1} km, a significant improvement in precision over previous measurements. Incorporating an uncertainty on the distance to M13 relaxes the radius constraints slightly and we find R_NS=12.3^{+1.9}_{-1.7} km (for a 1.4M⊙ neutron star with a hydrogen atmosphere), which is still an improvement in precision over previous measurements, some of which do not consider distance uncertainty. We also discuss how the composition of the atmosphere affects the derived radius, finding that a helium atmosphere implies a significantly larger radius.

  14. The CN–CH Positive Correlation in the Globular Cluster NGC 5286

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dongwook; Hong, Seungsoo; Lee, Young-Wook, E-mail: dwlim@yonsei.ac.kr, E-mail: ywlee2@yonsei.ac.kr [Center for Galaxy Evolution Research and Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-20

    We performed low-resolution spectroscopy of the red giant stars in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC 5286, which is known to show intrinsic heavy element abundance variations. We found that the observed stars in this GC are clearly divided into three subpopulations by CN index (CN-weak, CN-intermediate, and CN-strong). The CN-strong stars are also enhanced in the calcium HK′ (7.4 σ ) and CH (5.1 σ ) indices, while the CN-intermediate stars show no significant difference in the strength of the HK′ index from the CN-weak stars. From the comparison with high-resolution spectroscopic data, we found that the CN- and HK′-strong stars are also enhanced in the abundances of Fe and s -process elements. It appears, therefore, that these stars are later-generation stars affected by some supernova enrichment in addition to the asymptotic giant branch ejecta. In addition, unlike normal GCs, sample stars in NGC 5286 show the CN–CH positive correlation, strengthening our previous suggestion that this positive correlation is only discovered in GCs with heavy element abundance variations, such as M22 and NGC 6273.

  15. Low-mass X-ray binaries from black-hole retaining globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesler, Matthew; Clausen, Drew; Ott, Christian D.

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that globular clusters (GCs) may retain a substantial population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), in contrast to the long-held belief of a few to zero BHs. We model the population of BH low-mass X-ray binaries (BH-LMXBs), an ideal observable proxy for elusive single BHs, produced from a representative group of Milky Way GCs with variable BH populations. We simulate the formation of BH-binaries in GCs through exchange interactions between binary and single stars in the company of tens to hundreds of BHs. Additionally, we consider the impact of the BH population on the rate of compact binaries undergoing gravitational wave driven mergers. The characteristics of the BH-LMXB population and binary properties are sensitive to the GCs structural parameters as well as its unobservable BH population. We find that GCs retaining ˜1000 BHs produce a galactic population of ˜150 ejected BH-LMXBs whereas GCs retaining only ˜20 BHs produce zero ejected BH-LMXBs. Moreover, we explore the possibility that some of the presently known BH-LMXBs might have originated in GCs and identify five candidate systems.

  16. INFRARED HIGH-RESOLUTION INTEGRATED LIGHT SPECTRAL ANALYSES OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS FROM APOGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakari, Charli M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195-1580 (United States); Shetrone, Matthew D. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, HC75 Box 1337-MCD, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Schiavon, Ricardo P. [Gemini Observatory, 670 N. A’Ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Prieto, Carlos Allende; García-Hernández, Domingo Aníbal [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Va Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Beers, Timothy C. [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lucatello, Sara [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Majewski, Steven; O’Connell, Robert W. [Dept. of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Strader, Jay, E-mail: sakaricm@u.washington.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Chemical abundances are presented for 25 M31 globular clusters (GCs), based on moderately high resolution ( R = 22,500) H -band integrated light (IL) spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). Infrared (IR) spectra offer lines from new elements, lines of different strengths, and lines at higher excitation potentials compared to the optical. Integrated abundances of C, N, and O are derived from CO, CN, and OH molecular features, while Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, and Ti abundances are derived from atomic features. These abundances are compared to previous results from the optical, demonstrating the validity and value of IR IL analyses. The CNO abundances are consistent with typical tip of the red giant branch stellar abundances but are systematically offset from optical Lick index abundances. With a few exceptions, the other abundances agree between the optical and the IR within the 1 σ uncertainties. The first integrated K abundances are also presented and demonstrate that K tracks the α elements. The combination of IR and optical abundances allows better determinations of GC properties and enables probes of the multiple populations in extragalactic GCs. In particular, the integrated effects of the Na/O anticorrelation can be directly examined for the first time.

  17. Stellar streams as gravitational experiments. II. Asymmetric tails of globular cluster streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G. F.; Famaey, B.; Ibata, R.; Renaud, F.; Martin, N. F.; Kroupa, P.

    2018-01-01

    Kinematically cold tidal streams of globular clusters (GC) are excellent tracers of the Galactic gravitational potential at moderate Galactocentric distances, and can also be used as probes of the law of gravity on Galactic scales. Here, we compare for the first time the generation of such streams in Newtonian and Milgromian gravity (MOND). We first computed analytical results to investigate the expected shape of the GC gravitational potential in both frameworks, and we then ran N-body simulations with the Phantom of Ramses code. We find that the GCs tend to become lopsided in MOND. This is a consequence of the external field effect which breaks the strong equivalence principle. When the GC is filling its tidal radius the lopsidedness generates a strongly asymmetric tidal stream. In Newtonian dynamics, such markedly asymmetric streams can in general only be the consequence of interactions with dark matter subhalos, giant molecular clouds, or interaction with the Galactic bar. In these Newtonian cases, the asymmetry is the consequence of a very large gap in the stream, whilst in MOND it is a true asymmetry. This should thus allow us in the future to distinguish these different scenarios by making deep observations of the environment of the asymmetric stellar stream of Palomar 5. Moreover, our simulations indicate that the high internal velocity dispersion of Palomar 5 for its small stellar mass would be natural in MOND. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Neutron-Capture Nucleosynthesis and the Chemical Evolution of Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingles, Luke J.

    2015-09-01

    Elements heavier than iron are almost entirely produced in stars through neutron captures and radioactive decays. Of these heavy elements, roughly half are produced by the slow neutron-capture process (s-process), which takes place under extended exposure to low neutron densities. Most of the s-process production occurs in stars with initial masses between roughly 0.8 and 8 solar masses (Msun), which evolve through the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) phase. This thesis explores several topics related to AGB stars and the s-process, with a focus on comparing theoretical models to observations in the literature on planetary nebulae, post-AGB stars, and globular cluster stars. A recurring theme is the uncertainty of carbon-13-pocket formation, which is crucial for building accurate models of s-process nucleosynthesis. We first investigated whether neutron-capture reactions in AGB stars are the cause of the low sulphur abundances in planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars relative to the interstellar medium. Accounting for uncertainties in the size of the partial mixing zone that forms carbon-13 pockets and the rates of neutron-capture and neutron-producing reactions, our models failed to reproduce the observed levels of sulphur destruction. From this, we concluded that AGB nucleosynthesis is not the cause of the sulphur anomaly. We also discovered a new method to constrain the extent of the partial mixing zone using neon abundances in planetary nebulae. We next aimed to discover the stellar sites of the s-process enrichment in globular clusters that have inter- and intra-cluster variation, with the examples of M4 (relative to M5) and M22, respectively. Using a new chemical evolution code developed by the candidate, we tested models with stellar yields from rotating massive stars and AGB stars. We compared our model predictions for the production of s-process elements with abundances from s-poor and s-rich populations. We found that rotating massive stars alone do not

  19. Tycho- Gaia Astrometric Solution Parallaxes and Proper Motions for Five Galactic Globular Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Laura L.; Van der Marel, Roeland P., E-mail: lwatkins@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-20

    We present a pilot study of Galactic globular cluster (GC) proper motion (PM) determinations using Gaia data. We search for GC stars in the Tycho- Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) catalog from Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1), and identify five members of NGC 104 (47 Tucanae), one member of NGC 5272 (M3), five members of NGC 6121 (M4), seven members of NGC 6397, and two members of NGC 6656 (M22). By taking a weighted average of member stars, fully accounting for the correlations between parameters, we estimate the parallax (and, hence, distance) and PM of the GCs. This provides a homogeneous PM study of multiple GCs based on an astrometric catalog with small and well-controlled systematic errors and yields random PM errors similar to existing measurements. Detailed comparison to the available Hubble Space Telescope ( HST ) measurements generally shows excellent agreement, validating the astrometric quality of both TGAS and HST . By contrast, comparison to ground-based measurements shows that some of those must have systematic errors exceeding the random errors. Our parallax estimates have uncertainties an order of magnitude larger than previous studies, but nevertheless imply distances consistent with previous estimates. By combining our PM measurements with literature positions, distances, and radial velocities, we measure Galactocentric space motions for the clusters and find that these also agree well with previous analyses. Our analysis provides a framework for determining more accurate distances and PMs of Galactic GCs using future Gaia data releases. This will provide crucial constraints on the near end of the cosmic distance ladder and provide accurate GC orbital histories.

  20. Globular cluster formation with multiple stellar populations: self-enrichment in fractal massive molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2017-08-01

    Internal chemical abundance spreads are one of fundamental properties of globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy. In order to understand the origin of such abundance spreads, we numerically investigate GC formation from massive molecular clouds (MCs) with fractal structures using our new hydrodynamical simulations with star formation and feedback effects of core-collapse supernovae (SNe) and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. We particularly investigate star formation from gas chemically contaminated by SNe and AGB stars ('self-enrichment') in forming GCs within MCs with different initial conditions and environments. The principal results are as follows. GCs with multiple generations of stars can be formed from merging of hierarchical star cluster complexes that are developed from high-density regions of fractal MCs. Feedback effects of SNe and AGB stars can control the formation efficiencies of stars formed from original gas of MCs and from gas ejected from AGB stars. The simulated GCs have strong radial gradients of helium abundances within the central 3 pc. The original MC masses need to be as large as 107 M⊙ for a canonical initial stellar mass function (IMF) so that the final masses of stars formed from AGB ejecta can be ˜105 M⊙. Since star formation from AGB ejecta is rather prolonged (˜108 yr), their formation can be strongly suppressed by SNe of the stars themselves. This result implies that the so-called mass budget problem is much more severe than ever thought in the self-enrichment scenario of GC formation and thus that IMF for the second generation of stars should be 'top-light'.

  1. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5024 (M53): A MOSTLY FIRST GENERATION GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    We present the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances for a sample of 53 red giant branch stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 5024 (M53). The abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise medium resolution spectra collected with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO 3.5 m telescope. M53 is of interest because previous studies based on the morphology of the cluster’s horizontal branch suggested that it might be composed primarily of first generation (FG) stars and differ from the majority of other GCs with multiple populations, which have been found to be dominated by the second generation (SG) stars. Our sample has an average [Fe/H] = −2.07 with a standard deviation of 0.07 dex. This value is consistent with previously published results. The alpha-element abundances in our sample are also consistent with the trends seen in Milky Way halo stars at similar metallicities, with enhanced [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] relative to solar. We find that the Na–O anti-correlation in M53 is not as extended as other GCs with similar masses and metallicities. The ratio of SG to the total number of stars in our sample is approximately 0.27 and the SG generation is more centrally concentrated. These findings further support that M53 might be a mostly FG cluster and could give further insight into how GCs formed the light element abundance patterns we observe in them today.

  2. Chemical Abundances in NGC 5024 (M53): A Mostly First Generation Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico

    2016-06-01

    We present the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances for a sample of 53 red giant branch stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 5024 (M53). The abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise medium resolution spectra collected with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m telescope. M53 is of interest because previous studies based on the morphology of the cluster’s horizontal branch suggested that it might be composed primarily of first generation (FG) stars and differ from the majority of other GCs with multiple populations, which have been found to be dominated by the second generation (SG) stars. Our sample has an average [Fe/H] = -2.07 with a standard deviation of 0.07 dex. This value is consistent with previously published results. The alpha-element abundances in our sample are also consistent with the trends seen in Milky Way halo stars at similar metallicities, with enhanced [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] relative to solar. We find that the Na-O anti-correlation in M53 is not as extended as other GCs with similar masses and metallicities. The ratio of SG to the total number of stars in our sample is approximately 0.27 and the SG generation is more centrally concentrated. These findings further support that M53 might be a mostly FG cluster and could give further insight into how GCs formed the light element abundance patterns we observe in them today.

  3. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES IN NGC 5024 (M53): A MOSTLY FIRST GENERATION GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boberg, Owen M.; Friel, Eileen D.; Vesperini, Enrico [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We present the Fe, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, Na, and O abundances for a sample of 53 red giant branch stars in the globular cluster (GC) NGC 5024 (M53). The abundances were measured from high signal-to-noise medium resolution spectra collected with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the Wisconsin–Indiana–Yale–NOAO 3.5 m telescope. M53 is of interest because previous studies based on the morphology of the cluster’s horizontal branch suggested that it might be composed primarily of first generation (FG) stars and differ from the majority of other GCs with multiple populations, which have been found to be dominated by the second generation (SG) stars. Our sample has an average [Fe/H] = −2.07 with a standard deviation of 0.07 dex. This value is consistent with previously published results. The alpha-element abundances in our sample are also consistent with the trends seen in Milky Way halo stars at similar metallicities, with enhanced [Ca/Fe] and [Ti/Fe] relative to solar. We find that the Na–O anti-correlation in M53 is not as extended as other GCs with similar masses and metallicities. The ratio of SG to the total number of stars in our sample is approximately 0.27 and the SG generation is more centrally concentrated. These findings further support that M53 might be a mostly FG cluster and could give further insight into how GCs formed the light element abundance patterns we observe in them today.

  4. A Chemical Composition Survey of the Iron-complex Globular Cluster NGC 6273 (M19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian I.; Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-15, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rich, R. Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Mateo, Mario [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bailey, John I. III [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Clarkson, William I. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Michigan–Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Olszewski, Edward W. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, Matthew G., E-mail: cjohnson@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: ncaldwell@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu, E-mail: baileyji@strw.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: wiclarks@umich.edu, E-mail: eolszewski@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: mgwalker@andrew.cmu.edu [McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Recent observations have shown that a growing number of the most massive Galactic globular clusters contain multiple populations of stars with different [Fe/H] and neutron-capture element abundances. NGC 6273 has only recently been recognized as a member of this “iron-complex” cluster class, and we provide here a chemical and kinematic analysis of >300 red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch member stars using high-resolution spectra obtained with the Magellan –M2FS and VLT–FLAMES instruments. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that NGC 6273 possesses an intrinsic metallicity spread that ranges from about [Fe/H] = −2 to −1 dex, and may include at least three populations with different [Fe/H] values. The three populations identified here contain separate first (Na/Al-poor) and second (Na/Al-rich) generation stars, but a Mg–Al anti-correlation may only be present in stars with [Fe/H] ≳ −1.65. The strong correlation between [La/Eu] and [Fe/H] suggests that the s-process must have dominated the heavy element enrichment at higher metallicities. A small group of stars with low [ α /Fe] is identified and may have been accreted from a former surrounding field star population. The cluster’s large abundance variations are coupled with a complex, extended, and multimodal blue horizontal branch (HB). The HB morphology and chemical abundances suggest that NGC 6273 may have an origin that is similar to ω Cen and M54.

  5. The peculiar Na-O anticorrelation of the bulge globular cluster NGC 6440

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, C.; Villanova, S.; Geisler, D.; Saviane, I.; Dias, B.; Cohen, R. E.; Mauro, F.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Galactic globular clusters (GCs) are essential tools for understanding the earliest epoch of the Milky Way, since they are among the oldest objects in the Universe and can be used to trace its formation and evolution. Current studies using high-resolution spectroscopy for many stars in each of a large sample of GCs allow us to develop a detailed observational picture of their formation and their relation with the Galaxy. However, it is necessary to complete this picture by including GCs that belong to all major Galactic components, including the bulge. Aims: Our aim is to perform a detailed chemical analysis of the bulge GC NGC 6440 in order to determine if this object has multiple populations (MPs) and investigate its relation with the bulge of the Milky Way and with the other Galactic GCs, especially those associated with the bulge, which are largely poorly studied. Methods: We determined the stellar parameters and the chemical abundances of light elements (Na, Al), iron-peak elements (Fe, Sc, Mn, Co, Ni), α-elements (O, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti) and heavy elements (Ba, Eu) in seven red giant members of NGC 6440 using high-resolution spectroscopy from FLAMES-UVES. Results: We found a mean iron content of [Fe/H] =-0.50 ± 0.03 dex in agreement with other studies. We found no internal iron spread. On the other hand, Na and Al show a significant intrinsic spread, but the cluster has no significant O-Na anticorrelation nor does it exhibit a Mg-Al anticorrelation. The α-elements show good agreement with the bulge field star trend, although they are at the high alpha end and are also higher than those of other GCs of comparable metallicity. The heavy elements are dominated by the r-process, indicating a strong contribution by SNeII. The chemical analysis suggests an origin similar to that of the bulge field stars.

  6. Galactic globular cluster NGC 6752 and its stellar population as inferred from multicolor photometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, Valery [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Casilla 1280, Antofagasta (Chile); Alcaíno, Gonzalo [Isaac Newton Institute of Chile, Ministerio de Educación de Chile, Casilla 8-9, Correo 9, Santiago (Chile); Marconi, Gianni; Alvarado, Franklin, E-mail: vkravtsov@ucn.cl, E-mail: inewton@terra.cl, E-mail: falvarad@eso.org, E-mail: gmarconi@eso.org [ESO-European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-03-01

    This paper is devoted to photometric study of the Galactic globular cluster (GGC) NGC 6752 in UBVI, focusing on the multiplicity of its stellar population. We emphasize that our U passband is (1) narrower than the standard one due to its smaller extension blueward and (2) redshifted by ∼300 Å relative to its counterparts, such as the HST F336W filter. Accordingly, both the spectral features encompassed by it and photometric effects of the multiplicity revealed in our study are somewhat different than in recent studies of NGC 6752. Main sequence stars bluer in U – B are less centrally concentrated, as red giants are. We find a statistically significant increasing luminosity of the red giant branch (RGB) bump of ΔU ≈ 0.2 mag toward the cluster outskirts with no so obvious effect in V. The photometric results are correlated with spectroscopic data: the bluer RGB stars in U – B have lower nitrogen abundances. We draw attention to a larger width of the RGB than the blue horizontal branch (BHB) in U – B. This seems to agree with the effects predicted to be caused by molecular bands produced by nitrogen-containing molecules. We find that brighter BHB stars, especially the brightest ones, are more centrally concentrated. This implies that red giants that are redder in U – B, i.e., more nitrogen enriched and centrally concentrated, are the main progenitors of the brighter BHB stars. However, such a progenitor-progeny relationship disagrees with theoretical predictions and with the results on the elemental abundances in horizontal branch stars. We isolated the asymptotic giant branch clump and estimated the parameter ΔV{sub ZAHB}{sup clump} = 0.98 ± 0.12.

  7. A 'Rosetta Stone' to Interpret the UV-HST Photometry of Multiple Stellar Populations in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzini, Alvio

    2011-10-01

    In this proposal we intend to firmly identify the chemical species responsible for the UV and UV-optical color differences exhibited by the multiple stellar populations harboured by two Galactic globular clusters: omega Centauri and 47 Tucanae, one with highly helium enriched sub-populations {omega Centauri}, the other not.We plan to collect ultraviolet STIS spectra for stars in the crowded cores of the clusters, where HST photometry is already available for thousands of stars in more than 10 filters, from F225W to F850LP. This WFC3+ACS photometric database has allowed us to show that UV colors are remarkably effective in separating the different cluster sub-populations, and with the proposed STIS spectroscopy we can quantify the chemical abundance differences among such sub-populations, most notably in Nitrogen and Oxygen. The resulting calibration of the UV colors in terms of CNO abundances will provide a new effective tool for the chemical characterization of large numbers of globular cluster stars belonging to the various sub-populations in each cluster, and to better isolate the specific role of the helium abundance.The plan is to observe at least one star for each of the main principal stellar sub-populations in each of the two clusters. These objects are selected on the basis of their accurate photometry and astrometry already in hand, based on existing UV-HST images.

  8. The chemical composition of a regular halo globular cluster: NGC 5897

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Andreas; McWilliam, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    We report for the first time on the chemical composition of the halo cluster NGC 5897 (R⊙ = 12.5 kpc), based on chemical abundance ratios for 27 α-, iron-peak, and neutron-capture elements in seven red giants. From our high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph, we find a mean iron abundance from the neutral species of [Fe/H] = - 2.04 ± 0.01 (stat.) ± 0.15 (sys.), which is more metal-poor than implied by previous photometric and low-resolution spectroscopic studies. The cluster NGC 5897 is α-enhanced (to 0.34 ± 0.01 dex) and shows Fe-peak element ratios typical of other (metal-poor) halo globular clusters (GCs) with no overall, significant abundance spreads in iron or in any other heavy element. Like other GCs, NGC 5897 shows a clear Na-O anti-correlation, where we find a prominent primordial population of stars with enhanced O abundances and approximately solar Na/Fe ratios, while two stars are Na-rich, providing chemical proof of the presence of multiple populations in this cluster. Comparison of the heavy element abundances with the solar-scaled values and the metal-poor GC M15 from the literature confirms that NGC 5897 has experienced little contribution from s-process nucleosynthesis. One star of the first generation stands out in that it shows very low La and Eu abundances. Overall, NGC 5897 is a well behaved GC showing archetypical correlations and element-patterns, with little room for surprises in our data. We suggest that its lower metallicity could explain the unusually long periods of RR Lyr that were found in NGC 5897. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5-m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.Table 5 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A23

  9. Star Counts in the Globular Cluster ω Centauri. I. Bright Stellar Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, V.; Calamida, A.; Bono, G.; Stetson, P. B.; Freyhammer, L. M.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Moroni, P. Prada; Monelli, M.; Corsi, C. E.; Nonino, M.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Castellani, M.; Dall'Ora, M.; Del Principe, M.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pulone, L.; Vuerli, C.

    2007-07-01

    We present a photometric investigation on HB, RGB, and MSTO stars in ω Cen=NGC 5139. The center of the cluster was covered with a mosaic of F435W, F625W, and F658N band data collected with HST ACS. The outer reaches were covered with a mosaic of U-, B-, V-, and I-band data collected with the 2.2 m ESO/MPI telescope. The final catalog includes ~1.7 million stars. We identified more than 3200 likely HB stars, the largest sample ever collected in a globular cluster. We found that the HB morphology changes with the radial distance from the cluster center. The relative number of extreme HB stars decreases from ~30% to ~21% when moving from the center toward the outer reaches of the cluster, while the fraction of less hot HB stars increases from ~62% to ~72%. The comparison between theory and observations indicates that the empirical star counts of HB stars are on average larger (30%-40%) than predicted by canonical evolutionary models. Moreover, the rate of HB stars is ~43% larger than the MSTO rate. We also compared theory and observations by assuming a mix of stellar populations made with 70% of canonical He (Y=0.23) stars and 30% of He-enhanced (Y=0.33, 0.42) stars. We found that the observed RG/MSTO ratio agrees with the predicted lifetimes of He-mixed stellar populations. The discrepancy between theory and observations decreases by a factor of 2 when compared with rates predicted by canonical He content models, but still 15%-25% (Y=0.42) and 15%-20% (Y=0.33) higher than observed. Furthermore, the ratios between HB and MSTO star counts are ~24% (Y=0.42) and 30% (Y=0.33) larger than predicted lifetime ratios. During the revision of this manuscript, Vittorio Castellani passed away on 2006 May 19. His suggestions, ideas, and personality will be greatly missed. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope Archive Facility.

  10. Integrated light chemical tagging analyses of seven M31 outer halo globular clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.; Venn, Kim A.; Mackey, Dougal; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Dotter, Aaron; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Huxor, Avon

    2015-04-01

    Detailed chemical abundances are presented for seven M31 outer halo globular clusters (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high-resolution integrated light spectra taken with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS) - this paper presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal poor ([Fe/H] PAndAS; however, based on their locations, kinematics, metallicities, and detailed abundances, the most metal-rich PAndAS clusters H23 and PA17 may be associated with the progenitor of the Giant Stellar Stream, H10 may be associated with the SW cloud, and PA53 and PA56 may be associated with the eastern cloud.

  11. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY XVI: THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTER SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, Elisa; Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Li, Biao; Peng, Eric W.; Zhang, Hongxin [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ferrarese, Laura; Côté, Patrick; Gwyn, Stephen [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Emsellem, Eric [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d’Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cuillandre, Jean-Charles [CEA/IRFU/SAP, Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Jordan, Andres [Instituto de Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Liu, Chengze, E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-01

    We analyze the kinematics of six Virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) from their globular cluster (GC) systems. We present new Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy for three of them and re-analyze the data found in the literature for the remaining three. We use two independent methods to estimate the rotation amplitude ( V {sub rot}) and velocity dispersion ( σ {sub GC}) of the GC systems and evaluate their statistical significance by simulating non-rotating GC systems with the same number of GC satellites and velocity uncertainties. Our measured kinematics agree with the published values for the three galaxies from the literature and, in all cases, some rotation is measured. However, our simulations show that the null hypothesis of being non-rotating GC systems cannot be ruled out. In the case of VCC 1861, the measured V {sub rot} and the simulations indicate that it is not rotating. In the case of VCC 1528, the null hypothesis can be marginally ruled out, and thus it might be rotating although further confirmation is needed. In our analysis, we find that, in general, the measured V {sub rot} tends to be overestimated and the measured σ {sub GC} tends to be underestimated by amounts that depend on the intrinsic V {sub rot}/ σ {sub GC}, the number of observed GCs ( N {sub GC}), and the velocity uncertainties. The bias is negligible when N {sub GC} ≳ 20. In those cases where a large N {sub GC} is not available, it is imperative to obtain data with small velocity uncertainties. For instance, errors of ≤2 km s{sup −1} lead to V {sub rot} < 10 km s{sup −1} for a system that is intrinsically not rotating.

  12. To the Edge of M87 and Beyond: Spectroscopy of Intracluster Globular Clusters and Ultracompact Dwarfs in the Virgo Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Youkyung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Jang, In Sung [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ho Seong [Quantum Universe Center, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02455 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hong Soo; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdae-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sungsoon [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sohn, Jubee, E-mail: ykko@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a wide-field spectroscopic survey of globular clusters (GCs) in the Virgo cluster. We obtain spectra for 201 GCs and 55 ultracompact dwarfs (UCDs) using Hectospec on the Multiple-Mirror Telescope and derive their radial velocities. We identify 46 genuine intracluster GCs (IGCs), not associated with any Virgo galaxies, using the 3D GMM test on the spatial and radial velocity distribution. They are located at a projected distance 200 kpc≲R ≲500 kpc from the center of M87. The radial velocity distribution of these IGCs shows two peaks, one at v{sub r} = 1023 km s{sup −1}, associated with the Virgo main body, and another at v {sub r}=36 km s{sup −1}, associated with the infalling structure. The velocity dispersion of the IGCs in the Virgo main body is σ{sub GC}∼314 km s{sup −1}, which is smoothly connected to the velocity dispersion profile of M87 GCs but is much lower than that of dwarf galaxies in the same survey field, σ {sub dwarf}∼608 km s{sup −1}. The UCDs are more centrally concentrated on massive galaxies - M87, M86, and M84. The radial velocity dispersion of the UCD system is much smaller than that of dwarf galaxies. Our results confirm the large-scale distribution of Virgo IGCs indicated by previous photometric surveys. The color distribution of the confirmed IGCs shows a bimodality similar to that of M87 GCs. This indicates that most IGCs are stripped off dwarf galaxies and some off massive galaxies in the Virgo.

  13. Wide-Field Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Globular Cluster System in NGC 1399*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzia, Thomas H.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Goudfrooij, Paul; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Angelini, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    We present a comprehensive high spatial resolution imaging study of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 1399, thecentral giant elliptical cD galaxy in the Fornax galaxy cluster, conducted with the Advanced Camera for Surveys(ACS) aboard theHubble Space Telescope(HST).Using a novel technique to construct drizzled point-spreadfunction libraries for HSTACS data, we accurately determine the fidelity of GC structural parameter measurementsfrom detailed artificial star cluster experiments and show the superior robustness of the GC half-light radius,rh,compared with other GC structural parameters, such as King core and tidal radius. The measurement ofrhfor themajor fraction of the NGC 1399 GC system reveals a trend of increasingrhversus galactocentric distance,Rgal,out to about 10 kpc and a flat relation beyond. This trend is very similar for blue and red GCs, which are found tohave a mean size ratio ofrh,redrh,blue0.820.11 at all galactocentric radii from the core regions of the galaxyout to40 kpc. This suggests that the size difference between blue and red GCs is due to internal mechanismsrelated to the evolution of their constituent stellar populations. Modeling the mass density profile of NGC 1399shows that additional external dynamical mechanisms are required to limit the GC size in the galaxy halo regionstorh2 pc. We suggest that this may be realized by an exotic GC orbit distribution function, an extended darkmatter halo, andor tidal stress induced by the increased stochasticity in the dwarf halo substructure at largergalactocentric distances. We compare our results with the GCrhdistribution functions in various galaxies and findthat the fraction of extended GCs withrh5 pc is systematically larger in late-type galaxies compared with GCsystems in early-type galaxies. This is likely due to the dynamically more violent evolution of early-type galaxies.We match our GCrhmeasurements with radial velocity data from the literature and split the resulting sample at

  14. Discovery of a new accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar in the globular cluster NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, A.; Papitto, A.; Burderi, L.; Bozzo, E.; Riggio, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Ferrigno, C.; Rea, N.; Iaria, R.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the discovery of coherent pulsations at a period of 2.9 ms from the X-ray transient MAXI J0911-655 in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We observed X-ray pulsations at a frequency of 339.97 Hz in three different observations of the source performed with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR during the source outburst. This newly discovered accreting millisecond pulsar is part of an ultra-compact binary system characterised by an orbital period of 44.3 min and a projected semi-major axis of 17.6 lt-ms. Based on the mass function, we estimate a minimum companion mass of 0.024 M⊙, which assumes a neutron star mass of 1.4 M⊙ and a maximum inclination angle of 75° (derived from the lack of eclipses and dips in the light-curve of the source). We find that the Roche-lobe of the companion star could either be filled by a hot (5 × 106 K) pure helium white dwarf with a 0.028 M⊙ mass (implying I ≃ 58°) or an old (>5 Gyr) brown dwarf with metallicity abundances between solar/sub-solar and mass ranging in the interval 0.065 to 0.085 (16 < I < 21). During the outburst, the broad-band energy spectra are well described by a superposition of a weak black-body component (kT 0.5 keV) and a hard cut-off power-law with photon index Γ 1.7 and cut-off at a temperature kTe 130 keV. Up until the latest Swift-XRT observation performed on 19th July, 2016, the source had been observed in outburst for almost 150 days, which makes MAXI J0911-655 the second accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar with outburst duration longer than 100 days.

  15. Tracing the assembly history of NGC 1395 through its Globular Cluster System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Carlos G.; Faifer, Favio R.; Smith Castelli, Analía V.; Forte, Juan C.; Sesto, Leandro A.; González, Nélida M.; Scalia, María C.

    2018-03-01

    We used deep Gemini-South/GMOS g΄r΄i΄z΄ images to study the globular cluster (GC) system of the massive elliptical galaxy NGC 1395, located in the Eridanus supergroup. The photometric analysis of the GC candidates reveals a clear colour bimodality distribution, indicating the presence of `blue' and `red' GC subpopulations. While a negative radial colour gradient is detected in the projected spatial distribution of the red GCs, the blue GCs display a shallow colour gradient. The blue GCs also display a remarkable shallow and extended surface density profile, suggesting a significant accretion of low-mass satellites in the outer halo of the galaxy. In addition, the slope of the projected spatial distribution of the blue GCs in the outer regions of the galaxy, is similar to that of the X-ray halo emission. Integrating up to 165 kpc the profile of the projected spatial distribution of the GCs, we estimated a total GC population and specific frequency of 6000 ± 1100 and SN = 7.4 ± 1.4, respectively. Regarding NGC 1395 itself, the analysis of the deep Gemini/GMOS images shows a low surface brightness umbrella-like structure indicating, at least, one recent merger event. Through relations recently published in the literature, we obtained global parameters, such as Mstellar = 9.32 × 1011 M⊙ and Mh = 6.46 × 1013 M⊙. Using public spectroscopic data, we derive stellar population parameters of the central region of the galaxy by the full spectral fitting technique. We have found that this region seems to be dominated for an old stellar population, in contrast to findings of young stellar populations from the literature.

  16. Five Groups of Red Giants with Distinct Chemical Composition in the Globular Cluster NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Eugenio

    2015-09-01

    The chemical composition of multiple populations in the massive globular cluster (GC) NGC 2808 is addressed with the homogeneous abundance reanalysis of 140 red giant branch stars. UVES spectra for 31 stars and GIRAFFE spectra for the other giants were analyzed with the same procedures used for about 2500 giants in 23 GCs in our FLAMES survey, deriving abundances of Fe, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Ti, Sc, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Iron, elements from α capture, and those in the Fe group do not show intrinsic scatter. On our UVES scale, the metallicity of NGC 2808 is [Fe/H] =\\-1.129+/- 0.005+/- 0.034 (± statistical ± systematic error) with σ = 0.030 (31 stars). The main features related to proton-capture elements are retrieved, but the improved statistics and the smaller associated internal errors allow us to uncover five distinct groups of stars along the Na-O anticorrelation. We observe large depletions in Mg, anticorrelated with enhancements of Na and also Si, suggestive of unusually high temperatures for proton captures. About 14% of our sample is formed by giants with solar or subsolar [Mg/Fe] ratios. Using the [Na/Mg] ratios, we confirm the presence of five populations with different chemical compositions that we call P1, P2, I1, I2, and E in order of decreasing Mg and increasing Na abundances. Statistical tests show that the mean ratios in any pair of groups cannot be extracted from the same parent distribution. The overlap with the five populations recently detected from UV photometry is good but not perfect, confirming that more distinct components probably exist in this complex GC. Based on data collected at the ESO telescopes under program 072.D-0507 and during the FLAMES Science Verification program.

  17. METALLICITY EFFECT ON LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY FORMATION IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.-W.; Fabbiano, G.; Fragos, T. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivanova, N.; Sivakoff, G. R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Jordan, A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Voss, R. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-02-10

    We present comprehensive observational results of the metallicity effect on the fraction of globular clusters (GCs) that contain low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB), by utilizing all available data obtained with Chandra for LMXBs and Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) for GCs. Our primary sample consists of old elliptical galaxies selected from the ACS Virgo and Fornax surveys. To improve statistics at both the lowest and highest X-ray luminosity, we also use previously reported results from other galaxies. It is well known that the fraction of GCs hosting LMXBs is considerably higher in red, metal-rich, GCs than in blue, metal-poor GCs. In this paper, we test whether this metallicity effect is X-ray luminosity-dependent and find that the effect holds uniformly in a wide luminosity range. This result is statistically significant (at {>=}3{sigma}) in LMXBs with luminosities in the range L {sub X} = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}, where the ratio of GC-LMXB fractions in metal-rich to metal-poor GCs is R = 3.4 {+-} 0.5. A similar ratio is also found at lower (down to 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}) and higher luminosities (up to the ULX regime), but with less significance ({approx}2{sigma} confidence). Because different types of LMXBs dominate in different luminosities, our finding requires a new explanation for the metallicity effect in dynamically-formed LMXBs. We confirm that the metallicity effect is not affected by other factors such as stellar age, GC mass, stellar encounter rate, and galacto-centric distance.

  18. Gemini/GMOS spectra of globular clusters in the Leo group elliptical NGC 3379

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Michael; Beasley, Michael A.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Bridges, Terry; Gebhardt, Karl; Faifer, Favio Raul; Forte, Juan Carlos; Zepf, Stephen E.; Sharples, Ray; Hanes, David A.; Proctor, Robert

    2006-03-01

    The Leo group elliptical NGC 3379 is one of the few normal elliptical galaxies close enough to make possible observations of resolved stellar populations, deep globular cluster (GC) photometry and high signal-to-noise ratio GC spectra. We have obtained Gemini/GMOS spectra for 22 GCs associated with NGC 3379. We derive ages, metallicities and α-element abundance ratios from simple stellar population models using the recent multi-index χ2 minimization method of Proctor & Sansom. All of these GCs are found to be consistent with old ages, i.e. >~10Gyr, with a wide range of metallicities. This is comparable to the ages and metallicities that Gregg et al. found a couple of years ago for resolved stellar populations in the outer regions of this elliptical. A trend of decreasing α-element abundance ratio with increasing metallicity is indicated. The projected velocity dispersion of the GC system is consistent with being constant with radius. Non-parametric, isotropic models require a significant increase in the mass-to-light ratio at large radii. This result is in contrast to that of Romanowsky et al., who recently found a decrease in the velocity dispersion profile as determined from planetary nebulae (PN). Our constant dispersion requires a normal-sized dark halo, although without anisotropic models we cannot rigorously determine the dark halo mass. A two-sided χ2 test over all radii gives a 2σ difference between the mass profile derived from our GCs compared to the PN-derived mass model of Romanowsky et al. However, if we restrict our analysis to radii beyond one effective radius and test if the GC velocity dispersion is consistently higher, we determine a > 3σ difference between the mass models, and hence we favour the conclusion that NGC 3379 does indeed have dark matter at large radii in its halo.

  19. Three ancient halo subgiants: precise parallaxes, compositions, ages, and implications for globular clusters , ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandenBerg, Don A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, B.C., V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nissen, P. E. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Harmer, Dianne, E-mail: vandenbe@uvic.ca, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu, E-mail: pen@phys.au.dk, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org, E-mail: diharmer@noao.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    The most accurate ages for the oldest stars are those obtained for nearby halo subgiants because they depend almost entirely on just the measured parallaxes and absolute oxygen abundances. In this study, we have used the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope to determine trigonometric parallaxes, with precisions of 2.1% or better, for the Population II subgiants HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283. High quality spectra have been used to derive their surface abundances of O, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ca, which are assumed to be 0.1-0.15 dex less than their initial abundances due to the effects of diffusion. Comparisons of isochrones with the three subgiants on the (log T {sub eff}, M{sub V} ) diagram yielded ages of 12.08 ± 0.14, 12.56 ± 0.46, and 14.27 ± 0.38 Gyr for HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283, in turn, where each error bar includes only the parallax uncertainty. The total uncertainty is estimated to be ∼ ± 0.8 Gyr (larger in the case of the near-turnoff star HD 84937). Although the age of HD 140283 is greater than the age of the universe as inferred from the cosmic microwave background by ∼0.4-0.5 Gyr, this discrepancy is at a level of <1σ. Nevertheless, the first Population II stars apparently formed very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ∼1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied by the RR Lyrae standard candle are assumed, M 92 and M 5 are younger than HD 140283 and HD 132475 by ∼1.5 and ∼1.0 Gyr, respectively.

  20. Gemini/GMOS imaging of globular clusters in the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Duncan A.; Faifer, Favio Raúl; Forte, Juan Carlos; Bridges, Terry; Beasley, Michael A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hanes, David A.; Sharples, Ray; Zepf, Stephen E.

    2004-12-01

    We present Sloan g and i imaging from the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph (GMOS) instrument on the Gemini North telescope for the globular cluster (GC) system around the Virgo galaxy NGC 4649 (M60). Our three pointings, taken in good seeing conditions, cover an area of about 90 square arcmin. We detect 2151 unresolved sources. Applying colour and magnitude selection criteria to this source list gives 995 candidate GCs. Our source list is greater than 90 per cent complete to a magnitude of i= 23.6, and has little contamination from background galaxies. We find fewer than half a dozen potential ultracompact dwarf galaxies around NGC 4649. Foreground extinction from the nearby spiral NGC 4647 is limited to be AV < 0.1. We confirm the bimodality in the GC colour distribution found by earlier work using Hubble Space Telescope/WFPC2 imaging. As is commonly seen in other galaxies, the red GCs are concentrated towards the centre of the galaxy, having a steeper number density profile than the blue GC subpopulation. The varying ratio of red-to-blue GCs with radius can largely explain the overall GC system colour gradient. The underlying galaxy starlight has a similar density profile slope and colour to the red GCs. This suggests a direct connection between the galaxy field stars and the red GC subpopulation. We estimate a total GC population of 3700 +/- 900, with the uncertainty dominated by the extrapolation to larger radii than observed. This total number corresponds to a specific frequency SN= 4.1 +/- 1.0. Future work will present properties derived from GMOS spectra of the NGC 4649 GCs.

  1. Global and nonglobal parameters of horizontal-branch morphology of globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Dotter, A.; Norris, J. E.; Jerjen, H.; Asplund, M.

    2014-01-01

    The horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is mainly determined by metallicity. However, the fact that GCs with almost the same metallicity exhibit different HB morphologies demonstrates that at least one more parameter is needed to explain the HB morphology. It has been suggested that one of these should be a global parameter that varies from GC to GC and the other a nonglobal parameter that varies within the GC. In this study we provide empirical evidence corroborating this idea. We used the photometric catalogs obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope and analyze the color-magnitude diagrams of 74 GCs. The HB morphology of our sample of GCs has been investigated on the basis of the two new parameters L1 and L2 that measure the distance between the red giant branch and the coolest part of the HB and the color extension of the HB, respectively. We find that L1 correlates with both metallicity and age, whereas L2 most strongly correlates with the mass of the hosting GC. The range of helium abundance among the stars in a GC, characterized by ΔY and associated with the presence of multiple stellar populations, has been estimated in a few GCs to date. In these GCs we find a close relationship among ΔY, GC mass, and L2. We conclude that age and metallicity are the main global parameters, while the range of helium abundance within a GC is the main nonglobal parameter defining the HB morphology of Galactic GCs.

  2. STAR-TO-STAR IRON ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS IN RED GIANT BRANCH STARS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 3201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan; Francois, Patrick; Charbonnel, Corinne; Monier, Richard; James, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.

  3. Star-to-star Iron Abundance Variations in Red Giant Branch Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster NGC 3201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan; Francois, Patrick; Charbonnel, Corinne; Monier, Richard; James, Gaël

    2013-02-01

    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.

  4. STAR-TO-STAR IRON ABUNDANCE VARIATIONS IN RED GIANT BRANCH STARS IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 3201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmerer, Jennifer; Ivans, Inese I.; Filler, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Francois, Patrick [Paris-Meudon Observatory, France and Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, F-80080 Amiens (France); Charbonnel, Corinne [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Maillettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Monier, Richard [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, Universite Nice Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, F-06000 Nice (France); James, Gaeel, E-mail: jennifer@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: iii@physics.utah.edu, E-mail: dan.filler@utah.edu, E-mail: patrick.francois@obspm.fr, E-mail: corinne.charbonnel@unige.ch, E-mail: richard.monier@unice.fr, E-mail: gjames@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany)

    2013-02-10

    We present the metallicity as traced by the abundance of iron in the retrograde globular cluster NGC 3201, measured from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 red giant branch stars. A spectroscopic analysis reveals a spread in [Fe/H] in the cluster stars at least as large as 0.4 dex. Star-to-star metallicity variations are supported both through photometry and through a detailed examination of spectra. We find no correlation between iron abundance and distance from the cluster core, as might be inferred from recent photometric studies. NGC 3201 is the lowest mass halo cluster to date to contain stars with significantly different [Fe/H] values.

  5. THE CLUSTER AGES EXPERIMENT (CASE). VII. ANALYSIS OF TWO ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6362

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaluzny, J.; Rozyczka, M.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Mazur, B. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Thompson, I. B. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); Dotter, A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University Canberra (Australia); Burley, G. S. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council of Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Rucinski, S. M., E-mail: mnr@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: alex@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: batka@camk.edu.pl, E-mail: ian@obs.carnegiescience.edu, E-mail: aaron.dotter@gmail.com, E-mail: greg.burley@gmail.com, E-mail: rucinski@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    We use photometric and spectroscopic observations of the detached eclipsing binaries V40 and V41 in the globular cluster NGC 6362 to derive masses, radii, and luminosities of the component stars. The orbital periods of these systems are 5.30 and 17.89 days, respectively. The measured masses of the primary and secondary components (M{sub p}, M{sub s}) are (0.8337 ± 0.0063, 0.7947 ± 0.0048) M{sub ⊙} for V40 and (0.8215 ± 0.0058, 0.7280 ± 0.0047) M{sub ⊙} for V41. The measured radii (R{sub p}, R{sub s}) are (1.3253 ± 0.0075, 0.997 ± 0.013) R{sub ⊙} for V40 and (1.0739 ± 0.0048, 0.7307 ± 0.0046) R{sub ⊙} for V41. Based on the derived luminosities, we find that the distance modulus of the cluster is 14.74 ± 0.04 mag—in good agreement with 14.72 mag obtained from color–magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting. We compare the absolute parameters of component stars with theoretical isochrones in mass–radius and mass–luminosity diagrams. For assumed abundances [Fe/H] = −1.07, [α/Fe] = 0.4, and Y = 0.25 we find the most probable age of V40 to be 11.7 ± 0.2 Gyr, compatible with the age of the cluster derived from CMD fitting (12.5 ± 0.5 Gyr). V41 seems to be markedly younger than V40. If independently confirmed, this result will suggest that V41 belongs to the younger of the two stellar populations recently discovered in NGC 6362. The orbits of both systems are eccentric. Given the orbital period and age of V40, its orbit should have been tidally circularized some ∼7 Gyr ago. The observed eccentricity is most likely the result of a relatively recent close stellar encounter.

  6. Abundances of lithium, oxygen, and sodium in the turn-off stars of Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Korotin, S. A.; Steffen, M.; Sbordone, L.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Royer, F.; Prakapavičius, D.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The cluster 47 Tuc is among the most metal-rich Galactic globular clusters and its metallicity is similar to that of metal-poor disc stars and open clusters. Like other globular clusters, it displays variations in the abundances of elements lighter than Si, which is generally interpreted as evidence of the presence of multiple stellar populations. Aims: We aim to determine abundances of Li, O, and Na in a sample of of 110 turn-off (TO) stars, in order to study the evolution of light elements in this cluster and to put our results in perspective with observations of other globular and open clusters, as well as with field stars. Methods: We use medium resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE spectrograph at the ESO 8.2 m Kueyen VLT telescope and use state of the art 1D model atmospheres and NLTE line transfer to determine the abundances. We also employ CO5BOLD hydrodynamical simulations to assess the impact of stellar granulation on the line formation and inferred abundances. Results: Our results confirm the existence of Na-O abundance anti-correlation and hint towards a possible Li-O anti-correlation in the TO stars of 47 Tuc. At the same time, we find no convincing evidence supporting the existence of Li-Na correlation. The obtained 3D NLTE mean lithium abundance in a sample of 94 TO stars where Li lines were detected reliably, ⟨A(Li)3D NLTE⟩ = 1.78 ± 0.18 dex, appears to be significantly lower than what is observed in other globular clusters. At the same time, star-to-star spread in Li abundance is also larger than seen in other clusters. The highest Li abundance observed in 47 Tuc is about 0.1 dex lower than the lowest Li abundance observed among the un-depleted stars of the metal-poor open cluster NGC 2243. Conclusions: The correlations/anti-correlations among light element abundances confirm that chemical enrichment history of 47 Tuc was similar to that of other globular clusters, despite the higher metallicity of 47 Tuc. The lithium

  7. Tails and streams around the Galactic globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904, NGC 2298 and NGC 2808

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo-Bello, Julio A.; Martínez-Delgado, David; Navarrete, Camila; Catelan, Márcio; Muñoz, Ricardo R.; Antoja, Teresa; Sollima, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    We present Dark Energy Camera imaging for the peculiar Galactic globular clusters NGC 1851, NGC 1904 (M 79), NGC 2298 and NGC 2808. Our deep photometry reveals that all the clusters have an important contribution of stars beyond their King tidal radii and present tails with different morphologies. We have also explored the surroundings of the clusters where the presence of the Canis Major overdensity and/or the low Galactic latitude Monoceros ring at d⊙ ˜ 8 kpc is evident. A second stellar system is found at d⊙ ˜ 17 kpc and spans at least 18 deg × 15 deg in the sky. As one of the possible scenarios to explain that feature, we propose that the unveiled system is part of Monoceros explained as a density wave moving towards the outer Milky Way. Alternatively, the unveiled system might be connected with other known halo substructures or associated with the progenitor dwarf galaxy of NGC 1851 and NGC 1904, which are widely considered accreted globular clusters.

  8. All quiet in the outer halo: chemical abundances in the globular cluster Pal 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, A.; Côté, P.; McWilliam, A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: Globular clusters (GCs) in the outer halo are important probes of the composition and origin of the Galactic stellar halo. Aims: We derive chemical element abundance ratios in red giants belonging to the remote (R ~ 90 kpc) GC Pal 3 and compare our measurements to those for red giant stars in both inner and outer halo GCs. Methods: From high-resolution spectroscopy of four red giants, obtained with the Magellan/MIKE spectrograph at moderately high S/N, we derive chemical abundances for 25 α-, iron peak-, and neutron-capture elements. These abundance ratios are confirmed by co-adding low S/N HIRES spectra of 19 stars along the red giant branch. Results: Pal 3 shows α-enhanced abundance patterns, and also its Fe-peak and neutron-capture element ratios, are fully compatible with those found in halo field stars and representative inner halo GCs of the same metallicity (such as M 13). The heavy elements in Pal 3 appear to be governed by r-process nucleosynthesis. Our limited sample does not show any significant star-to-star abundance variations in this cluster, although a weak Na-O anti-correlation cannot be ruled out by the present data. Conclusions: Pal 3 thus appears as an archetypical GC with abundance ratios dissimilar to dwarf spheroidal stars, ruling out a direct connection to such external systems. This conclusion is underscored by the lack of significant abundance spreads in this GC, in contrast to the broad abundance distributions seen in the dwarf galaxies. Pal 3 appears to have evolved chemically in analogy to the majority of GCs belonging to the Galactic inner and outer halo, experiencing a similar enrichment history. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National

  9. A RE-EVALUATION OF THE EVOLVED STARS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Gordon, Mark; Levine, Daniel; Bolte, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed photometry from space- and ground-based cameras to identify all bright red giant branch (RGB), horizontal branch (HB), and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars within 10' of the center of the globular cluster M13. We identify a modest (7%) population of HB stars redder than the primary peak (including RR Lyrae variables at the blue end of the instability strip) that is somewhat more concentrated to the cluster core than the rest of the evolved stars. We find support for the idea that they are noticeably evolved and in the late stages of depleting helium in their cores. This resolves a disagreement between distance moduli derived from the tip of the RGB and from stars in or near the RR Lyrae instability strip. We identified disagreements between HB model sets on whether stars with T eff ∼ eff ∼ eff ∼ 22, 000 K) as previously suggested. These stars are brighter than other stars of similar color (either redder or bluer), and may be examples of 'early hot flashers' that ignite core helium fusion shortly after leaving the RGB. We used ultraviolet photometry to identify hot post-HB stars, and based on their numbers (relative to canonical AGB stars) we estimate the position on the HB where the morphology of the post-HB tracks change to I ∼ 17.3, between the two peaks in the HB distribution. Concerning the possibility of helium enrichment in M13, we revisited the helium-sensitive R ratio, applying a new method for correcting star counts for larger lifetimes of hot HB stars. We find that M13's R ratio is in agreement with theoretical values for primordial helium abundance Y P = 0.245 and inconsistent with a helium enhancement ΔY = 0.04. The brightness of the HB (both in comparison to the end of the canonical HB and to the tip of the RGB) also appears to rule out the idea that the envelopes of the reddest HB stars have been significantly enriched in helium. The absolute colors of the turnoffs of M3 and M13 potentially may be used to look for

  10. Carbon and nitrogen abundances of stellar populations in the globular cluster M 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardo, C.; Pancino, E.; Mucciarelli, A.; Milone, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    We present CH and CN index analysis and C and N abundance calculations based on the low-resolution blue spectra of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic globular cluster NGC 7089 (M 2). Our main goal is to investigate the C-N anticorrelation for this intermediate metallicity cluster. The data were collected with DOLORES, the multiobject, low-resolution facility at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. We first looked for CH and CN band strength variations and bimodalities in a sample of RGB stars with 17.5 ≤ V ≤ 14.5. Thus we derived C and N abundances under LTE assumption by comparing observed spectra with synthetic models from the spectral features at 4300 Å (G-band) and at ~3883 Å (CN). Spectroscopic data were coupled with UV photometry obtained during the spectroscopic run. We found a considerable star-to-star variation in both A(C) and A(N) at all luminosities for our sample of 35 targets. These abundances appear to be anticorrelated, with a hint of bimodality in the C content for stars with luminosities below the RBG bump (V ~ 15.7), while the range of variations in N abundances is very large and spans almost ~2 dex. We find additional C depletion as the stars evolve off the RGB bump, in fairly good agreement with theoretical predictions for metal-poor stars in the course of normal stellar evolution. We isolated two groups with N-rich and N-poor stars and found that N abundance variations correlate with the (U - V) color in the DOLORES color-magnitude diagram (CMD). The V, (U - V) CMD for this cluster shows an additional RGB sequence, located at the red of the main RGB and amounting to a small fraction of the total giant population. We identified two CH stars detected in previous studies in our U,V images. These stars, which are both cluster members, fall on this redder sequence, suggesting that the anomalous RGB should have a peculiar chemical pattern. Unfortunately, no additional spectra were obtained for stars in this previously unknown RGB branch

  11. p-capture reaction cycles in rotating massive stars and their impact on elemental abundances in globular cluster stars: A case study of O, Na and Al

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Hiralal; Duorah, Kalpana

    2017-08-01

    Elemental abundance patterns of globular cluster stars can provide important clues for understanding cluster formation and early chemical evolution. The origin of the abundance patterns, however, still remains poorly understood. We have studied the impact of p-capture reaction cycles on the abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium considering nuclear reaction cycles of carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine, neon-sodium and magnesium-aluminium in massive stars in stellar conditions of temperature range 2×107 to 10×107 K and typical density of 102 gm cc-1. We have estimated abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium with respect to Fe, which are then assumed to be ejected from those stars because of rotation reaching a critical limit. These ejected abundances of elements are then compared with their counterparts that have been observed in some metal-poor evolved stars, mainly giants and red giants, of globular clusters M3, M4, M13 and NGC 6752. We observe an excellent agreement with [O/Fe] between the estimated and observed abundance values for globular clusters M3 and M4 with a correlation coefficient above 0.9 and a strong linear correlation for the remaining two clusters with a correlation coefficient above 0.7. The estimated [Na/Fe] is found to have a correlation coefficient above 0.7, thus implying a strong correlation for all four globular clusters. As far as [Al/Fe] is concerned, it also shows a strong correlation between the estimated abundance and the observed abundance for globular clusters M13 and NGC 6752, since here also the correlation coefficient is above 0.7 whereas for globular cluster M4 there is a moderate correlation found with a correlation coefficient above 0.6. Possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  12. Variable Stars in M13. II.The Red Variables and the Globular Cluster Period-Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, W.; Layden, A.; Kopacki, G.; Smith, H.; Anderson, M.; Kelly, A.; McBride, K.; Pritzl, B.

    2017-06-01

    New CCD observations have been combined with archival data to investigate the nature of the red variables in the globular cluster M13. Mean magnitudes, colors and variation ranges on the UBVIC system have been determined for the 17 cataloged red variables. 15 of the stars are irregular or semi-regular variables that lie at the top of the red giant branch in the color-magnitude diagram. Two stars are not, including one with a well-defined period and a light curve shape indicating it is an ellipsoidal or eclipsing variable. All stars redder than (V-IC)0=1.38 mag vary, with the amplitudes being larger with increased stellar luminosity and with bluer filter passband. Searches of the data for periodicities yielded typical variability cycle times ranging from 30 d up to 92 d for the most luminous star. Several stars have evidence of multiple periods. The stars' period-luminosity diagram compared to those from microlensing survey data shows that most M13 red variables are overtone pulsators. Comparison with the diagrams for other globular clusters shows a correlation between red variable luminosity and cluster metallicity.

  13. Old Metal-rich Globular Cluster Populations: Peak Color and Peak Metallicity Trends with Mass of Host Spheroids

    OpenAIRE

    Kravtsov, Valery V.

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of the factors contributing to a peak color trend of old metal-rich globular cluster (MRGC) populations with mass of their hosts, early-type galaxies and spheroidal subsystems of spiral ones (spheroids). The color-mass trend is often converted to a metallicity-mass trend under the assumption that age effects are small or negligible. While direct estimates of the ages of MRGC populations neither can rule out nor reliably support the populations' age trend, key data on ti...

  14. Searching for variable stars in the cores of five metal-rich globular clusters using EMCCD observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottfelt, Jesper; Bramich, D. M.; Jaimes, R. Figuera

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the analysis of time-series observations from 2013 and 2014 of five metal rich ([Fe/H] $>$ -1) globular clusters: NGC~6388, NGC~6441, NGC~6528, NGC~6638, and NGC~6652. The data have been used to perform a census of the variable stars in the central parts of these clusters....... The observations were made with the electron multiplying CCD (EMCCD) camera at the Danish 1.54m Telescope at La Silla, Chile, and they were analysed using difference image analysis (DIA) to obtain high-precision light curves of the variable stars. It was possible to identify and classify all of the previously...... known or suspected variable stars in the central regions of the five clusters. Furthermore, we were able to identify, and in most cases classify 48, 49, 7, 8, and 2 previously unknown variables in NGC~6388, NGC~6441, NGC~6528, NGC~6638, and NGC~6652, respectively. Especially interesting is the case...

  15. THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. IX. HORIZONTAL BRANCH MORPHOLOGY AND THE SECOND PARAMETER PHENOMENON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dotter, Aaron; Sarajedini, Ata; Anderson, Jay; Bedin, Luigi R.; Paust, Nathaniel; Reid, I. Neill; Aparicio, Antonio; MarIn-Franch, A.; Rosenberg, Alfred; Chaboyer, Brian; Majewski, Steven; Milone, Antonino; Piotto, Giampaolo; Siegel, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The horizontal branch (HB) morphology of globular clusters (GCs) is most strongly influenced by metallicity. The second parameter phenomenon, first described in the 1960s, acknowledges that metallicity alone is not enough to describe the HB morphology of all GCs. In particular, astronomers noticed that the outer Galactic halo contains GCs with redder HBs at a given metallicity than are found inside the solar circle. Thus, at least a second parameter was required to characterize HB morphology. While the term 'second parameter' has since come to be used in a broader context, its identity with respect to the original problem has not been conclusively determined. Here we analyze the median color difference between the HB and the red giant branch, hereafter denoted as Δ(V - I), measured from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) photometry of 60 GCs within ∼20 kpc of the Galactic center. Analysis of this homogeneous data set reveals that, after the influence of metallicity has been removed from the data, the correlation between Δ(V - I) and age is stronger than that of any other parameter considered. Expanding the sample to include HST ACS and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 photometry of the six most distant Galactic GCs lends additional support to the correlation between Δ(V - I) and age. This result is robust with respect to the adopted metallicity scale and the method of age determination, but must bear the caveat that high-quality, detailed abundance information is not available for a significant fraction of the sample. Furthermore, when a subset of GCs with similar metallicities and ages is considered, a correlation between Δ(V - I) and central luminosity density is exposed. With respect to the existence of GCs with anomalously red HBs at a given metallicity, we conclude that age is the second parameter and central density is most likely the third. Important problems related to HB morphology in GCs, notably multi-modal distributions

  16. The chemical composition of the low-mass Galactic globular cluster NGC 6362

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massari, D.; Mucciarelli, A.; Dalessandro, E.; Bellazzini, M.; Cassisi, S.; Fiorentino, G.; Ibata, R. A.; Lardo, C.; Salaris, M.

    We present chemical abundances for 17 elements in a sample of 11 red giant branch stars in NGC 6362 from UVES spectra. NGC 6362 is one of the least massive globulars where multiple populations have been detected, yet its detailed chemical composition has not been investigated so far. NGC 6362 turns

  17. Formation of globular cluster candidates in merging proto-galaxies at high redshift: a view from the FIRE cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-hoon; Ma, Xiangcheng; Grudić, Michael Y.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Wetzel, Andrew; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Murray, Norman

    2018-03-01

    Using a state-of-the-art cosmological simulation of merging proto-galaxies at high redshift from the FIRE project, with explicit treatments of star formation and stellar feedback in the interstellar medium, we investigate the formation of star clusters and examine one of the formation hypotheses of present-day metal-poor globular clusters. We find that frequent mergers in high-redshift proto-galaxies could provide a fertile environment to produce long-lasting bound star clusters. The violent merger event disturbs the gravitational potential and pushes a large gas mass of ≳ 105-6 M⊙ collectively to high density, at which point it rapidly turns into stars before stellar feedback can stop star formation. The high dynamic range of the reported simulation is critical in realizing such dense star-forming clouds with a small dynamical time-scale, tff ≲ 3 Myr, shorter than most stellar feedback time-scales. Our simulation then allows us to trace how clusters could become virialized and tightly bound to survive for up to ˜420 Myr till the end of the simulation. Because the cluster's tightly bound core was formed in one short burst, and the nearby older stars originally grouped with the cluster tend to be preferentially removed, at the end of the simulation the cluster has a small age spread.

  18. Isolated ellipticals and their globular cluster systems. III. NGC 2271, NGC 2865, NGC 3962, NGC 4240, and IC 4889

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, R.; Alabi, A.; Richtler, T.; Lane, R. R.

    2015-05-01

    As tracers of star formation, galaxy assembly, and mass distribution, globular clusters have provided important clues to our understanding of early-type galaxies. But their study has been mostly constrained to galaxy groups and clusters where early-type galaxies dominate, leaving the properties of the globular cluster systems (GCSs) of isolated ellipticals as a mostly uncharted territory. We present Gemini-South/GMOS g'i' observations of five isolated elliptical galaxies: NGC 3962, NGC 2865, IC 4889, NGC 2271, and NGC 4240. Photometry of their GCSs reveals clear color bimodality in three of them, but remains inconclusive for the other two. All the studied GCSs are rather poor with a mean specific frequency SN ~ 1.5, independently of the parent galaxy luminosity. Considering information from previous work as well, it is clear that bimodality and especially the presence of a significant, even dominant, population of blue clusters occurs at even the most isolated systems, which casts doubts on a possible accreted origin of metal-poor clusters, as suggested by some models. Additionally, we discuss the possible existence of ultra-compact dwarfs around the isolated elliptical NGC 3962. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).Globular cluster photometry is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A59Appendices are available in

  19. Chemical Abundances of Seven Outer Halo M31 Globular Clusters from the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakari, Charli M.

    2017-03-01

    Observations of stellar streams in M31's outer halo suggest that M31 is actively accreting several dwarf galaxies and their globular clusters (GCs). Detailed abundances can chemically link clusters to their birth environments, establishing whether or not a GC has been accreted from a satellite dwarf galaxy. This talk presents the detailed chemical abundances of seven M31 outer halo GCs (with projected distances from M31 greater than 30 kpc), as derived from high-resolution integrated-light spectra taken with the Hobby Eberly Telescope. Five of these clusters were recently discovered in the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS)-this talk presents the first determinations of integrated Fe, Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, Ni, Ba, and Eu abundances for these clusters. Four of the target clusters (PA06, PA53, PA54, and PA56) are metal-poor ([Fe/H] PAndAS; however, based on their locations, kinematics, metallicities, and detailed abundances, the most metal-rich PAndAS clusters H23 and PA17 may be associated with the progenitor of the Giant Stellar Stream, H10 may be associated with the SW Cloud, and PA53 and PA56 may be associated with the Eastern Cloud.

  20. HST NIC3 Photometry of Metal-Rich Globular Clusters Palomar 6, Liller 1, and 47 Tuc (NGC 104

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Lee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We present HST NIC3 photometry of metal-rich globular clusters Palomar 6, Liller 1 and 47 Tuc (NGC 104. We discuss the interstellar reddening law for the HST NICMOS F110W/F160W photometric system which depends on the temperature of the source. The distance moduli and interstellar reddening values for Palomar 6 and Liller 1 are estimated by comparing the magnitudes and colors of RHB stars in the clusters with those of 47 Tuc. We obtain (m-M0 = 14.48 mag and E(B-V = 1.34 mag for Palomar 6 and (m-M0 = 15.17 mag and E(B-V = 2.50 mag for Liller 1.

  1. On the determination of the He abundance distribution in globular clusters from the width of the main sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassisi, Santi; Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano; Hyder, David

    2017-01-01

    One crucial piece of information to study the origin of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters is the range of initial helium abundances ΔY amongst the sub-populations hosted by each cluster. These estimates are commonly obtained by measuring the width in colour of the unevolved main sequence in an optical colour-magnitude diagram (CMD). The measured colour spread is then compared with predictions from theoretical stellar isochrones with varying initial He abundances to determine ΔY. The availability of UV/optical magnitudes, thanks to the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic GCs project, will allow the homogeneous determination of ΔY for a large Galactic globular cluster sample. From a theoretical point of view, accurate UV CMDs can efficiently disentangle the various sub-populations, and main sequence colour differences in the ACS F606W - (F606W - F814W) diagram allow an estimate of ΔY. We demonstrate that from a theoretical perspective, the (F606W - F814W) colour is an extremely reliable He-abundance indicator. The derivative dY/d(F606W - F814W), computed at a fixed luminosity along the unevolved main sequence, is largely insensitive to the physical assumptions made in stellar model computations, being more sensitive to the choice of the bolometric correction scale, and is only slightly dependent on the adopted set of stellar models. From a theoretical point of view, the (F606W - F814W) colour width of the cluster main sequence is therefore a robust diagnostic of the ΔY range.

  2. A globular cluster toward M87 with a radial velocity < – 1000 km s{sup –1}: the first hypervelocity cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, Nelson [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San José State University, San Jose, CA 95192 (United States); Brodie, Jean P. [University of California Observatories, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Moore, Ben; Diemand, Jurg [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Martizzi, Davide, E-mail: caldwell@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We report the discovery of an object near M87 in the Virgo Cluster with an extraordinary blueshift of –1025 km s{sup –1}, offset from the systemic velocity by >2300 km s{sup –1}. Evaluation of photometric and spectroscopic data provides strong evidence that this object is a distant massive globular cluster, which we call HVGC-1 in analogy to Galactic hypervelocity stars. We consider but disfavor more exotic interpretations, such as a system of stars bound to a recoiling black hole. The odds of observing an outlier as extreme as HVGC-1 in a virialized distribution of intracluster objects are small; it appears more likely that the cluster was (or is being) ejected from Virgo following a three-body interaction. The nature of the interaction is unclear, and could involve either a subhalo or a binary supermassive black hole at the center of M87.

  3. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  4. Evidence for a chemical enrichment coupling of globular clusters and field stars in the Fornax dSph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Benjamin; Boeche, Corrado; Johnson, Christian I.; Frank, Matthias J.; Koch, Andreas; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.

    2016-01-01

    The globular cluster H4, located in the center of the Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy, is crucial for understanding the formation and chemical evolution of star clusters in low-mass galactic environments. H4 is peculiar because the cluster is significantly more metal-rich than the galaxy's other clusters, is located near the galaxy center, and may also be the youngest cluster in the galaxy. In this study, we present detailed chemical abundances derived from high-resolution (R ~ 28 000) spectroscopy of an isolated H4 member star for comparison with a sample of 22 nearby Fornax field stars. We find the H4 member to be depleted in the alpha-elements Si, Ca, and Ti with [Si/Fe] = -0.35 ± 0.34, [Ca/Fe] = + 0.05 ± 0.08, and [Ti/Fe] = -0.27 ± 0.23, resulting in an average [α/Fe] = -0.19 ± 0.14. If this result is representative of the average cluster properties, H4 is the only known system with a low [α/Fe] ratio and a moderately low metallicity embedded in an intact birth environment. For the field stars we find a clear sequence, seen as an early depletion in [α/Fe] at low metallicities, in good agreement with previous measurements. H4 falls on top of the observed field star [α/Fe] sequence and clearly disagrees with the properties of Milky Way halo stars. We therefore conclude that within a galaxy, the chemical enrichment of globular clusters may be closely linked to the enrichment pattern of the field star population. The low [α/Fe] ratios of H4 and similar metallicity field stars in Fornax give evidence that slow chemical enrichment environments, such as dwarf galaxies, may be the original hosts of alpha-depleted clusters in the halos of the Milky Way and M31. This article includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. The mond external field effect on the dynamics of the globular clusters: general considerations and application to NGC 2419

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshani, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the external field effect in the context of the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) on the surface brightness and velocity dispersion profiles of globular clusters (GCs). Using N-MODY, which is an N-body simulation code with a MOND potential solver, we show that the general effect of the external field for diffuse clusters, which obey MOND in most of their parts, is that it pushes the dynamics toward the Newtonian regime. On the other hand, for more compact clusters, which are essentially Newtonian in their inner parts, the external field is effective mainly in the outer parts of compact clusters. As a case study, we then choose the remote Galactic GC NGC 2419. By varying the cluster mass, half-light radius, and mass-to-light ratio, we aim to find a model that will reproduce the observational data most effectively, using N-MODY. We find that even if we take the Galactic external field into account, a Newtonian Plummer sphere represents the observational data better than MOND to an order of magnitude in terms of the total χ 2 of surface brightness and velocity dispersion.

  6. The SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. IV. Validation with an Extended Sample of Galactic Globular and Open Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolinski, Jason P.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; /Michigan State U. /Michigan State U., JINA; An, Deokkeun; /Ewha Women' s U., Seoul; Bickerton, Steven J.; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; /Ohio State U., Dept. Astron.; Loomis, Craig P.; /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.; Rockosi, Constance M.; /Lick Observ.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; /Bangalore, Indian Inst. Astrophys.; Yanny, Brian; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric data for likely member stars of five Galactic globular clusters (M 3, M 53, M 71, M 92, and NGC 5053) and three open clusters (M 35, NGC 2158, and NGC 6791) are processed by the current version of the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline (SSPP), in order to determine estimates of metallicities and radial velocities for the clusters. These results are then compared to values from the literature. We find that the mean metallicity (<[Fe/H]>) and mean radial velocity (hRVi) estimates for each cluster are almost all within 2{sigma} of the adopted literature values; most are within 1{sigma}. We also demonstrate that the new version of the SSPP achieves small, but noteworthy, improvements in <[Fe/H]> estimates at the extrema of the cluster metallicity range, as compared to a previous version of the pipeline software. These results provide additional confidence in the application of the SSPP for studies of the abundances and kinematics of stellar populations in the Galaxy.

  7. Detailed chemical abundances in NGC 5824: another metal-poor globular cluster with internal heavy element abundance variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Mateo, Mario; Bailey, John I.; Spencer, Meghin; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Shectman, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    We present radial velocities, stellar parameters, and detailed abundances of 39 elements derived from high-resolution spectroscopic observations of red giant stars in the luminous, metal-poor globular cluster NGC 5824. We observe 26 stars in NGC 5824 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber System (M2FS) and two stars using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph. We derive a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.94 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.10 (systematic). The metallicity dispersion of this sample of stars, 0.08 dex, is in agreement with previous work and does not exceed the expected observational errors. Previous work suggested an internal metallicity spread only when fainter samples of stars were considered, so we cannot exclude the possibility of an intrinsic metallicity dispersion in NGC 5824. The M2FS spectra reveal a large internal dispersion in [Mg/Fe], 0.28 dex, which is found in a few other luminous, metal-poor clusters. [Mg/Fe] is correlated with [O/Fe] and anticorrelated with [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe]. There is no evidence for internal dispersion among the other α- or Fe-group abundance ratios. 25 of the 26 stars exhibit a n-capture enrichment pattern dominated by r-process nucleosynthesis ( = +0.11 ± 0.12; = -0.66 ± 0.05). Only one star shows evidence of substantial s-process enhancement ([Ba/Fe] = +0.56 ± 0.12; [Ba/Eu] = +0.38 ± 0.14), but this star does not exhibit other characteristics associated with s-process enhancement via mass transfer from a binary companion. The Pb and other heavy elements produced by the s-process suggest a time-scale of no more than a few hundred Myr for star formation and chemical enrichment, like the complex globular clusters M2, M22, and NGC 5286.

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XII. The RGB bumps of multiple stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagioia, E. P.; Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Cassisi, S.; Aparicio, A. J.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Barbuy, B.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Brown, T.; D'Antona, F.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Pietrinferni, A.; Renzini, A.; Salaris, M.; Sarajedini, A.; van der Marel, R.; Vesperini, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters is providing a major breakthrough in our knowledge of globular clusters (GCs) and their stellar populations. Among the main results, we discovered that all the studied GCs host two main discrete groups consisting of first generation (1G) and second generation (2G) stars. We exploit the multiwavelength photometry from this project to investigate, for the first time, the Red Giant Branch Bump (RGBB) of the two generations in a large sample of GCs. We identified, with high statistical significance, the RGBB of 1G and 2G stars in 26 GCs and found that their magnitude separation as a function of the filter wavelength follows comparable trends. The comparison of observations to synthetic spectra reveals that the RGBB luminosity depends on the stellar chemical composition and that the 2G RGBB is consistent with stars enhanced in He and N and depleted in C and O with respect to 1G stars. For metal-poor GCs the 1G and 2G RGBB relative luminosity in optical bands mostly depends on helium content, Y. We used the RGBB observations in F606W and F814W bands to infer the relative helium abundance of 1G and 2G stars in 18 GCs, finding an average helium enhancement ΔY = 0.011 ± 0.002 of 2G stars with respect to 1G stars. This is the first determination of the average difference in helium abundance of multiple populations in a large number of clusters and provides a lower limit to the maximum internal variation of helium in GCs.

  9. GLOBULAR CLUSTER ABUNDANCES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION, INTEGRATED-LIGHT SPECTROSCOPY. III. THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: Fe AND AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; Cameron, Scott A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we refine our method for the abundance analysis of high-resolution spectroscopy of the integrated light of unresolved globular clusters (GCs). This method was previously demonstrated for the analysis of old (>10 Gyr) Milky Way (MW) GCs. Here, we extend the technique to young clusters using a training set of nine GCs in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Depending on the signal-to-noise ratio of the data, we use 20-100 Fe lines per cluster to successfully constrain the ages of old clusters to within a ∼5 Gyr range, the ages of ∼2 Gyr clusters to a 1-2 Gyr range, and the ages of the youngest clusters (0.05-1 Gyr) to a ∼200 Myr range. We also demonstrate that we can measure [Fe/H] in clusters with any age less than 12 Gyr with similar or only slightly larger uncertainties (0.1-0.25 dex) than those obtained for old MW GCs (0.1 dex); the slightly larger uncertainties are due to the rapid evolution in stellar populations at these ages. In this paper, we present only Fe abundances and ages. In the next paper in this series, we present our complete analysis of ∼20 elements for which we are able to measure abundances. For several of the clusters in this sample, there are no high-resolution abundances in the literature from individual member stars; our results are the first detailed chemical abundances available. The spectra used in this paper were obtained at Las Campanas with the echelle on the du Pont Telescope and with the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  10. Identifying the brightest Galactic globular clusters for future observations by H.E.S.S. and CTA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiyavala, Hambeleleni; Krüger, Petrus Paulus; Venter, Christo

    2018-01-01

    We present results from an emission code that assumes millisecond pulsars to be sources of relativistic particles in globular clusters (GCs) and models the resulting spectral energy distribution of Galactic GCs due to these particles' interaction with the cluster magnetic and soft-photon fields. We solve a transport equation for leptons and calculate inverse Compton and synchrotron radiation to make predictions for the flux expected from Galactic GCs. We perform a parameter study and also constrain model parameters for three GCs using γ-ray and X-ray data. We next study the detectability of 16 Galactic GCs for the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) and the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), ranking them according to their predicted TeV flux. The spectrum of each cluster and therefore the detectability ranking is very sensitive to the choice of parameters. We expect H.E.S.S. to detect two more GCs (in addition to Terzan 5), i.e. 47 Tucanae and NGC 6388, if these clusters are observed for 100 h. The five most promising GCs for CTA are NGC 6388, 47 Tucanae, Terzan 5, Djorg 2 and Terzan 10. We lastly expect CTA to detect more than half of the known Galactic GC population, depending on observation time and model parameters.

  11. The Evolution of Galaxies Through the Spatial Distribution of Their Globular Clusters: the Brightest Galaxies in Fornax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, David W.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the evolution of the 10 brightest galaxies in the Fornax Cluster, as reconstructed through their Globular Cluster (GC) populations. GCs can be characterized by their projected two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution. Over- or under-densities in the GC distribution, can be linked to events in the host galaxy assembly history, and used to constrain the properties of their progenitors. With HST/ACS imaging, we identified significant structures in the GC distribution of the 10 galaxies investigated, with some of the galaxies possessing structures with >10-sigma significance. GC over-densities have been found within the galaxies, with significant differences between the red and blue GC population. For elongated galaxies, structures are preferentially to be aligned along the major axis. Fornax Cluster galaxies appear to be more dynamically relaxed than the Virgo Cluster galaxies previously investigated with the same methodology by D'Abrusco et al. (2016). However, from these observations, the evident imprints left in the spatial distribution of GCs in these galaxies suggest a similarly intense history of interactions.The SAO REU program is funded by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant AST-1659473, and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  12. LIMITS ON [O III] 5007 EMISSION FROM NGC 4472'S GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: CONSTRAINTS ON PLANETARY NEBULAE AND ULTRALUMINOUS BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J., E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-20

    We have searched for [O III] 5007 emission in high-resolution spectroscopic data from FLAMES/GIRAFFE Very Large Telescope observations of 174 massive globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4472. No planetary nebulae (PNe) are observed in these clusters, constraining the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity, {alpha} < 0.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} PN/L{sub Sun }. This is significantly lower than the rate predicted from stellar evolution, if all stars produce PNe. Comparing our results to populations of PNe in galaxies, we find most galaxies have a higher {alpha} than these GCs (more PNe per bolometric luminosity-though some massive early-type galaxies do have similarly low {alpha}). The low {alpha} required in these GCs suggests that the number of PNe per bolometric luminosity does not increase strongly with decreasing mass or metallicity of the stellar population. We find no evidence for correlations between the presence of known GC PNe and either the presence of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) or the stellar interaction rates in the GCs. This, and the low {alpha} observed, suggests that the formation of PNe may not be enhanced in tight binary systems. These data do identify one [O III] emission feature, this is the (previously published) broad [O III] emission from the cluster RZ 2109. This emission is thought to originate from the LMXB in this cluster, which is accreting at super-Eddington rates. The absence of any similar [O III] emission from the other clusters favors the hypothesis that this source is a black hole LMXB, rather than a neutron star LMXB with significant geometric beaming of its X-ray emission.

  13. Wide-Field Washington Photometry of the NGC 5128 Globular Cluster System. II. Large-Scale Properties of the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Gretchen L. H.; Harris, William E.; Geisler, Doug

    2004-08-01

    Building on the CMT1 photometric database presented in Paper I, in this paper we derive the large-scale properties of the globular cluster system (GCS) in NGC 5128, the nearest giant elliptical and the dominant galaxy in the Centaurus group. In global terms, it has a smaller total population than previously thought: we estimate 980+/-120 clusters over all magnitudes, yielding a specific frequency SN=1.4+/-0.2, with a steep projected radial distribution σ~r-2. The luminosity distribution of the clusters resembles that of an old, normal GC luminosity function (Gaussian-like with peak at MV~=-7.4 and dispersion of ~=1.3 mag), but these parameters are unfortunately quite uncertain because of the system's low population and the heavy field contamination. Using the metallicity-sensitive C-T1 color index, we discuss the metallicity distribution function (MDF) for a subsample of 211 previously identified clusters, all on a homogeneous photometric system. We find the MDF to be strongly bimodal, with metallicity peaks at [Fe/H]=-1.55 and -0.55 and with nearly equal numbers of clusters in each of the metal-poor and metal-rich modes. The combined evidence from the system's low specific frequency, the MDF, and the isophotal shell features in the halo light make a ``major merger'' a plausible model for the formation history of this giant E galaxy. However, the progenitor galaxies must have been more gas-rich than in any present-day mergers or starbursts. Finally, we present a list of 327 new cluster candidates not identified in any previous surveys; most of these are in the less well studied bulge region of the galaxy and along the minor axis.

  14. EVIDENCE OF AGB POLLUTION IN GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS FROM THE Mg–Al ANTICORRELATIONS OBSERVED BY THE APOGEE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventura, P.; Dell’Agli, F.; D’Antona, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Tailo, M. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00077 Monteporzio (Italy); García-Hernández, D. A.; Zamora, O. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Mészáros, Sz. [ELTE Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, H-9704 Szombat-hely, Szent Imre Herceg st. 112 (Hungary); Lucatello, S. [INAF–Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Shetrone, M. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Austin, TX (United States); Tang, Baitian [Departamento de Astronomía, Casilla, 160-C, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We study the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs), under the hypothesis that stars in the second generation formed from the winds of intermediate-mass stars, ejected during the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase, possibly diluted with pristine gas, sharing the same chemical composition of first-generation stars. To this aim, we use the recent Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) data, which provide the surface chemistry of a large sample of giant stars, belonging to clusters that span a wide metallicity range. The APOGEE data set is particularly suitable to discriminate among the various pollution scenarios proposed so far, as it provides the surface abundances of Mg and Al, the two elements involved in a nuclear channel extremely sensitive to the temperature, hence to the metallicity of the polluters. The present analysis shows a remarkable agreement between the observations and the theoretical yields from massive AGB stars. In particular, the observed extension of the depletion of Mg and O and the increase in Al is well reproduced by the models and the trend with the metallicity is also fully accounted for. This study further supports the idea that AGB stars were the key players in the pollution of the intra-cluster medium, from which additional generations of stars formed in GCs.

  15. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters: Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. 5; Radiative Levitation Versus Helium Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, S.; Sweigart, A. V.; Landsman, W. B.; Heber, U.

    2000-01-01

    Atmospheric parameters (T(sub eff), log g), masses and helium abundances are derived for 42 hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in the globular cluster NGC6752. For 19 stars we derive magnesium and iron abundances as well and find that iron is enriched by a factor of 50 on average with respect to the cluster abundance whereas the magnesium abundances are consistent with the cluster abundance. Radiation pressure may levitate heavy elements like iron to the surface of the star in a diffusive process. Taking into account the enrichment of heavy elements in our spectroscopic analyses we find that high iron abundances can explain part, but not all, of the problem of anomalously low gravities along the blue HB. The blue HB stars cooler than about 15,100 K and the sdB stars (T(sub eff) greater than or = 20,000 K) agree well with canonical theory when analysed with metal-rich ([M/H] = +0.5) model atmospheres, but the stars in between these two groups remain offset towards lower gravities and masses. Deep Mixing in the red giant progenitor phase is discussed as another mechanism that may influence the position of the blue HB stars in the (T(sub eff), log g)-plane but not their masses.

  16. Pushing ahead the frontier of the Globular Cluster dynamics: the 3D view of the velocity space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) are the only astrophysical systems that, within a Hubble time, undergo nearly all the physical processes known in stellar dynamics. Although they have been studied since the very beginning of modern Astrophysics, little is known from observations about their kinematical richness, thus preventing a complete understanding of their current dynamical state, formation and evolutionary history. Here we propose to determine the internal proper motions of stars down to the sub giant branch for a representative sample of Galactic GCs for which we are measuring line-of-sight velocities from a multi-instrument spectroscopic campaign at the ESO Very Large Telescope. The project will provide the first catalog of 3D velocities of hundreds individual stars in the cluster centers, where the most interesting dynamical processes are expected to occur. Long lasting open issues such as the accurate shape of the velocity dispersion profiles, the existence of systemic rotation and orbital anisotropy (and thus the level of relaxation), and the controversial presence of intermediate mass black holes in star clusters will be finally addressed. This will motivate the development of a new generation of fully constrained dynamical models able to properly describe the structural and dynamical properties of stellar systems and reconstruct the evolutionary paths that led to their current status.

  17. On the Chemical Abundances of Miras in Clusters: V1 in the Metal-rich Globular NGC 5927

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Orazi, V.; Magurno, D.; Bono, G.; Matsunaga, N.; Braga, V. F.; Elgueta, S. S.; Fukue, K.; Hamano, S.; Inno, L.; Kobayashi, N.; Kondo, S.; Monelli, M.; Nonino, M.; Przybilla, N.; Sameshima, H.; Saviane, I.; Taniguchi, D.; Thevenin, F.; Urbaneja-Perez, M.; Watase, A.; Arai, A.; Bergemann, M.; Buonanno, R.; Dall’Ora, M.; Da Silva, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Ferraro, I.; Fiorentino, G.; Francois, P.; Gilmozzi, R.; Iannicola, G.; Ikeda, Y.; Jian, M.; Kawakita, H.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Lemasle, B.; Marengo, M.; Marinoni, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Minniti, D.; Neeley, J.; Otsubo, S.; Prieto, J. L.; Proxauf, B.; Romaniello, M.; Sanna, N.; Sneden, C.; Takenaka, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Valenti, E.; Yasui, C.; Yoshikawa, T.; Zoccali, M.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first spectroscopic abundance determination of iron, α-elements (Si, Ca, and Ti), and sodium for the Mira variable V1 in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 5927. We use high-resolution (R ∼ 28,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (∼200) spectra collected with WINERED, a near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph covering simultaneously the wavelength range 0.91–1.35 μm. The effective temperature and the surface gravity at the pulsation phase of the spectroscopic observation were estimated using both optical (V) and NIR time-series photometric data. We found that the Mira is metal-rich ([Fe/H] = ‑0.55 ± 0.15) and moderately α-enhanced ([α/Fe] = 0.15 ± 0.01, σ = 0.2). These values agree quite well with the mean cluster abundances based on high-resolution optical spectra of several cluster red giants available in the literature ([Fe/H] = ‑ 0.47 ± 0.06, [α/Fe] = + 0.24 ± 0.05). We also found a Na abundance of +0.35 ± 0.20 that is higher than the mean cluster abundance based on optical spectra (+0.18 ± 0.13). However, the lack of similar spectra for cluster red giants and that of corrections for departures from local thermodynamical equilibrium prevents us from establishing whether the difference is intrinsic or connected with multiple populations. These findings indicate a strong similarity between optical and NIR metallicity scales in spite of the difference in the experimental equipment, data analysis, and in the adopted spectroscopic diagnostics. Based on spectra collected with the WINERED spectrograph available as a visitor instrument at the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), La Silla, Chile (ESO Proposal: 098.D-0878(A), PI: G. Bono).

  18. High-resolution optical imaging of the core of the globular cluster M15 with FastCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Sánchez, Anastasio; Pérez-Garrido, Antonio; Villó, Isidro; Rebolo, Rafael; Pérez-Prieto, Jorge A.; Oscoz, Alejandro; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.; López, Roberto; Rodríguez, Luis F.

    2012-07-01

    We present high-resolution I -band imaging of the core of the globular cluster M15 obtained at the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Telescope with FastCam, a low readout noise L3CCD-based instrument. Short exposure times (30 ms) were used to record 200 000 images (512 × 512 pixels each) over a period of 2 h and 43 min. The lucky imaging technique was then applied to generate a final image of the cluster centre with full width at half-maximum ˜0.1 arcsec and 13 × 13 arcsec 2 field of view. We obtained a catalogue of objects in this region with a limiting magnitude of I = 19.5. I -band photometry and astrometry are reported for 1181 stars. This is the deepest I -band observation of the M15 core at this spatial resolution. Simulations show that crowding is limiting the completeness of the catalogue. At shorter wavelengths, a similar number of objects have been reported using Hubble Space Telescope (HST )/Wide Field Planetary Camera observations of the same field. The cross-match with the available HST catalogues allowed us to produce colour-magnitude diagrams where we identify new blue straggler star candidates and previously known stars of this class.

  19. MOCCA-SURVEY Database. I. Eccentric Black Hole Mergers during Binary–Single Interactions in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsing, Johan; Askar, Abbas; Giersz, Mirek

    2018-03-01

    We estimate the population of eccentric gravitational wave (GW) binary black hole (BBH) mergers forming during binary–single interactions in globular clusters (GCs), using ∼800 GC models that were evolved using the MOCCA code for star cluster simulations as part of the MOCCA-Survey Database I project. By re-simulating BH binary–single interactions extracted from this set of GC models using an N-body code that includes GW emission at the 2.5 post-Newtonian level, we find that ∼10% of all the BBHs assembled in our GC models that merge at present time form during chaotic binary–single interactions, and that about half of this sample have an eccentricity >0.1 at 10 Hz. We explicitly show that this derived rate of eccentric mergers is ∼100 times higher than one would find with a purely Newtonian N-body code. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the eccentric fraction can be accurately estimated using a simple analytical formalism when the interacting BHs are of similar mass, a result that serves as the first successful analytical description of eccentric GW mergers forming during three-body interactions in realistic GCs.

  20. The Metal-poor non-Sagittarius (?) Globular Cluster NGC 5053: Orbit and Mg, Al, and Si Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baitian; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, Doug; Zamora, Olga; Mészáros, Szabolcs; Masseron, Thomas; Cohen, Roger E.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, Flavia; Beers, Timothy C.; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Hasselquist, Sten; Robin, Annie C.; Shetrone, Matthew; Majewski, Steven R.; Villanova, Sandro; Schiappacasse Ulloa, Jose; Lane, Richard R.; Minnti, Dante; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Almeida, Andres; Moreno, E.

    2018-03-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) exhibit intriguing Al–Mg anti-correlations and possible Si–Al correlations, which are important clues to decipher the multiple-population phenomenon. NGC 5053 is one of the most metal-poor GCs in the nearby universe and has been suggested to be associated with the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy, due to its similarity in location and radial velocity with one of the Sgr arms. In this work, we simulate the orbit of NGC 5053, and argue against a physical connection between Sgr and NGC 5053. On the other hand, the Mg, Al, and Si spectral lines, which are difficult to detect in the optical spectra of NGC 5053 stars, have been detected in the near-infrared APOGEE spectra. We use three different sets of stellar parameters and codes to derive the Mg, Al, and Si abundances. Regardless of which method is adopted, we see a large Al variation, and a substantial Si spread. Along with NGC 5053, metal-poor GCs exhibit different Mg, Al, and Si variations. Moreover, NGC 5053 has the lowest cluster mass among the GCs that have been identified to exhibit an observable Si spread until now.

  1. The Absence of Radio Emission from the Globular Cluster G1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller Jones, J.C.A.; Wrobel, J.M.; Sivakoff, G.; Heinke, C.; Miller, R.; Plotkin, R.M.; Di Stefano, R.; E. Greene, J.; Ho, L.; D. Joseph, T.; Kong, A.; Maccarone, T.

    2012-01-01

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 ± 0.5) × 104 M ☉ at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric

  2. Estimating the parameters of globular cluster M 30 (NGC 7099) from time-series photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kains, N.; Bramich, D.M.; Figuera Jaimes, R.

    2013-01-01

    values for the cluster's parameters. Methods. We used difference image analysis to reduce our data to obtain high-precision light curves of variable stars. We then estimated the cluster parameters by performing a Fourier decomposition of the light curves of RR Lyrae stars for which a good period estimate...

  3. Globular Cluster Formation at High Density: A Model for Elemental Enrichment with Fast Recycling of Massive-star Debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The self-enrichment of massive star clusters by p -processed elements is shown to increase significantly with increasing gas density as a result of enhanced star formation rates and stellar scatterings compared to the lifetime of a massive star. Considering the type of cloud core where a globular cluster (GC) might have formed, we follow the evolution and enrichment of the gas and the time dependence of stellar mass. A key assumption is that interactions between massive stars are important at high density, including interactions between massive stars and massive-star binaries that can shred stellar envelopes. Massive-star interactions should also scatter low-mass stars out of the cluster. Reasonable agreement with the observations is obtained for a cloud-core mass of ∼4 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙} and a density of ∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. The results depend primarily on a few dimensionless parameters, including, most importantly, the ratio of the gas consumption time to the lifetime of a massive star, which has to be low, ∼10%, and the efficiency of scattering low-mass stars per unit dynamical time, which has to be relatively large, such as a few percent. Also for these conditions, the velocity dispersions of embedded GCs should be comparable to the high gas dispersions of galaxies at that time, so that stellar ejection by multistar interactions could cause low-mass stars to leave a dwarf galaxy host altogether. This could solve the problem of missing first-generation stars in the halos of Fornax and WLM.

  4. Tracing the Chemical Evolution of Metal-rich Galactic Bulge Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Gonzalez, Cesar; Saviane, Ivo; Geisler, Doug; Villanova, Sandro

    2018-01-01

    We present in this poster the metallicity characterization of the four metal rich Bulge Galactic Gobular Clusters, which have controversial metallicities. We analyzed our high-resolution spectra (using UVES-580nm and GIRAFFE-HR13 setups) for a large sample of RGB/AGB targets in each cluster in order to measure their metallicity and prove or discard the iron spread hypothesis. We have also characterized chemically stars with potentially different iron content by measuring light (O, Na, Mg, Al), alpha (Si, Ca, Ti), iron–peak (V, Cr, Ni, Mn) and s and r process (Y, Zr, Ba, Eu) elements. We have identified possible channels responsible for the chemical heterogeneity of the cluster populations, like AGB or massive fast-rotating stars contamination, or SN explosion. Also, we have analyzed the origin and evolution of these bulge GCs and their connection with the bulge itself.

  5. The Absence of Radio Emission from the Globular Cluster G1

    OpenAIRE

    Miller Jones, J.C.A.; Wrobel, J.M.; Sivakoff, G.; Heinke, C.; Miller, R.; Plotkin, R.M.; Di Stefano, R.; E. Greene, J.; Ho, L.; D. Joseph, T.; Kong, A.; Maccarone, T.

    2012-01-01

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) of mass 1.8 +/- 0.5 x 10^4 solar masses at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution,...

  6. Ground- and space-based study of two globular cluster cataclysmic variables: M22 CV1 and M5 V101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourihane, A. P.; Callanan, P. J.; Cool, A. M.; Reynolds, M. T.

    2011-06-01

    As a class of compact binaries with large binding energy, cataclysmic variables (CVs) formed through close encounters play an important role in the dynamical evolution of globular clusters. As part of a systematic search for CVs undergoing dwarf nova (DN) eruptions in globular clusters, our 2004 monitoring programme of M22 detected an outburst of the DN candidate CV1 during May. We implement the ISIS image subtraction routine to obtain a light curve for an outburst of CV1. We present the outburst light curve as well as Hubble Space Telescope/Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) photometry in the V, U and near-ultraviolet (nUV) bands and a Chandra/Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) spectrum of the object. Our results confirm the DN nature of the outburst and the CV status of the object. We also present the results of a ground-based study of another globular cluster CV, M5 V101 - including quiescent medium-resolution William Herschel Telescope (WHT)/Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) spectroscopy in the B and R bands, displaying prominent Balmer and He I emission, and R-band photometry.

  7. DERIVING METALLICITIES FROM THE INTEGRATED SPECTRA OF EXTRAGALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS USING THE NEAR-INFRARED CALCIUM TRIPLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, Caroline; Forbes, Duncan A.; Proctor, Robert N.; Spitler, Lee R.; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    The Ca II triplet (CaT) feature in the near-infrared has been employed as a metallicity indicator for individual stars as well as integrated light of Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and galaxies with varying degrees of success, and sometimes puzzling results. Using the DEIMOS multi-object spectrograph on Keck we obtain a sample of 144 integrated light spectra of GCs around the brightest group galaxy NGC 1407 to test whether the CaT index can be used as a metallicity indicator for extragalactic GCs. Different sets of single stellar population models make different predictions for the behavior of the CaT as a function of metallicity. In this work, the metallicities of the GCs around NGC 1407 are obtained from CaT index values using an empirical conversion. The measured CaT/metallicity distributions show unexpected features, the most remarkable being that the brightest red and blue GCs have similar CaT values despite their large difference in mean color. Suggested explanations for this behavior in the NGC 1407 GC system are (1) the CaT may be affected by a population of hot blue stars, (2) the CaT may saturate earlier than predicted by the models, and/or (3) color may not trace metallicity linearly. Until these possibilities are understood, the use of the CaT as a metallicity indicator for the integrated spectra of extragalactic GCs will remain problematic.

  8. Atypical Mg-poor Milky Way Field Stars with Globular Cluster Second-generation-like Chemical Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, D.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Mennickent, R. E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, F.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Souto, Diogo; Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Schiavon, R. P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Hasselquist, Sten [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, M. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Vieira, K. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zasowski, G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sobeck, J.; Hayes, C. R.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Placco, V. M., E-mail: jfernandezt@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: jfernandezt87@gmail.com [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the peculiar chemical abundance patterns of 11 atypical Milky Way (MW) field red giant stars observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). These atypical giants exhibit strong Al and N enhancements accompanied by C and Mg depletions, strikingly similar to those observed in the so-called second-generation (SG) stars of globular clusters (GCs). Remarkably, we find low Mg abundances ([Mg/Fe] < 0.0) together with strong Al and N overabundances in the majority (5/7) of the metal-rich ([Fe/H] ≳ −1.0) sample stars, which is at odds with actual observations of SG stars in Galactic GCs of similar metallicities. This chemical pattern is unique and unprecedented among MW stars, posing urgent questions about its origin. These atypical stars could be former SG stars of dissolved GCs formed with intrinsically lower abundances of Mg and enriched Al (subsequently self-polluted by massive AGB stars) or the result of exotic binary systems. We speculate that the stars Mg-deficiency as well as the orbital properties suggest that they could have an extragalactic origin. This discovery should guide future dedicated spectroscopic searches of atypical stellar chemical patterns in our Galaxy, a fundamental step forward to understanding the Galactic formation and evolution.

  9. Absolute Magnitudes and Colors of RR Lyrae Stars in DECam Passbands from Photometry of the Globular Cluster M5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Saha, Abhijit; Olsen, Knut; Blum, Robert; Olszewski, Edward W.; Claver, Jennifer; Valdes, Francisco; Axelrod, Tim; Kaleida, Catherine; Kunder, Andrea; Narayan, Gautham; Matheson, Thomas; Walker, Alistair

    2017-09-01

    We characterize the absolute magnitudes and colors of RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster M5 in the ugriz filter system of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). We provide empirical period-luminosity (P-L) relationships in all five bands based on 47 RR Lyrae stars of the type ab and 14 stars of the type c. The P-L relationships were found to be better constrained for the fundamental-mode RR Lyrae stars in the riz passbands, with dispersions of 0.03, 0.02 and 0.02 mag, respectively. The dispersion of the color at minimum light was found to be small, supporting the use of this parameter as a means to obtain accurate interstellar extinctions along the line of sight up to the distance of the RR Lyrae star. We found a trend of color at minimum light with a pulsational period that, if taken into account, brings the dispersion in color at minimum light to ≤slant 0.016 mag for the (r-I), (I-z), and (r-z) colors. These calibrations will be very useful for using RR Lyrae stars from DECam observations as both standard candles for distance determinations and color standards for reddening measurements.

  10. Globular clusters and planetary nebulae kinematics and X-ray emission in the early-type galaxy NGC 5128

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimates of the mass of the galaxy NGC 5128 based on the different mass tracers, globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe, are presented. These estimates are compared with the estimate based on the X-ray methodology and it is found that the results for the mass (and mass-to-light ratio for all three approaches are in very good agreement interior to 25 arcmin; beyond 25 arcmin the X-rays predict the mass which is too high with respect to the one found using GCs and PNe. Some possible explanations for this discrepancy were discussed. The Jeans equation is also solved and its predictions for the velocity dispersion are then compared with the observed values, which extend to ~8 effective radii in the case of the GCs and ~15 effective radii in the case of the PNe. It is found that interior to ~25 arcmin (~5 effective radii dark matter does not dominate because the total mass-to-light ratio in the B band in solar units is less than 10. Based on the GCs and PNe beyond ~25 arcmin the total mass-to-light ratio increases to ~14 (at ~80 arcmin which indicates the existence of dark matter in the outer regions of NGC 5128.

  11. Formation of Globular Clusters with Internal Abundance Spreads in r -Process Elements: Strong Evidence for Prolonged Star Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-07-20

    Several globular clusters (GCs) in the Galaxy are observed to show internal abundance spreads in r -process elements (e.g., Eu). We propose a new scenario that explains the origin of these GCs (e.g., M5 and M15). In this scenario, stars with no/little abundance variations first form from a massive molecular cloud (MC). After all of the remaining gas of the MC is expelled by numerous supernovae, gas ejected from asymptotic giant branch stars can be accumulated in the central region of the GC to form a high-density intracluster medium (ICM). Merging of neutron stars then occurs to eject r -process elements, which can be efficiently trapped in and subsequently mixed with the ICM. New stars formed from the ICM can have r -process abundances that are quite different from those of earlier generations of stars within the GC. This scenario can explain both (i) why r -process elements can be trapped within GCs and (ii) why GCs with internal abundance spreads in r -process elements do not show [Fe/H] spreads. Our model shows (i) that a large fraction of Eu-rich stars can be seen in Na-enhanced stellar populations of GCs, as observed in M15, and (ii) why most of the Galactic GCs do not exhibit such internal abundance spreads. Our model demonstrates that the observed internal spreads of r -process elements in GCs provide strong evidence for prolonged star formation (∼10{sup 8} yr).

  12. Prospects for detection of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters using integrated-light spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vita, R.; Trenti, M.; Bianchini, P.; Askar, A.; Giersz, M.; van de Ven, G.

    2017-06-01

    The detection of intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) has so far been controversial. In order to characterize the effectiveness of integrated-light spectroscopy through integral field units, we analyse realistic mock data generated from state-of-the-art Monte Carlo simulations of GCs with a central IMBH, considering different setups and conditions varying IMBH mass, cluster distance and accuracy in determination of the centre. The mock observations are modelled with isotropic Jeans models to assess the success rate in identifying the IMBH presence, which we find to be primarily dependent on IMBH mass. However, even for an IMBH of considerable mass (3 per cent of the total GC mass), the analysis does not yield conclusive results in one out of five cases, because of shot noise due to bright stars close to the IMBH line of sight. This stochastic variability in the modelling outcome grows with decreasing BH mass, with approximately three failures out of four for IMBHs with 0.1 per cent of total GC mass. Finally, we find that our analysis is generally unable to exclude at 68 per cent confidence an IMBH with mass of 103 M⊙ in snapshots without a central BH. Interestingly, our results are not sensitive to GC distance within 5-20 kpc, nor to misidentification of the GC centre by less than 2 arcsec (<20 per cent of the core radius). These findings highlight the value of ground-based integral field spectroscopy for large GC surveys, where systematic failures can be accounted for, but stress the importance of discrete kinematic measurements that are less affected by stochasticity induced by bright stars.

  13. The Globular Cluster System in NGC 5866: Optical Observations from Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; Blakeslee, John P.; Raimondo, Gabriella

    2007-10-01

    We perform a detailed study of the globular cluster (GC) system in the galaxy NGC 5866 based on F435W, F555W, and F625W (~B, V, and R) Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images. Adopting color, size, and shape selection criteria, the final list of GC candidates comprises 109 objects, with small estimated contamination from background galaxies, and foreground stars. The color distribution of the final GC sample has a bimodal form. Adopting color to metallicity transformations derived from the Teramo-SPoT simple stellar population model, we estimate a metallicity [Fe/H]~-1.5 and -0.6 dex for the blue and red peaks, respectively. A similar result is found if the empirical color-metallicity relations derived from Galactic GC data are used. The two subpopulations show some of the features commonly observed in the GC system of other galaxies, like a ``blue tilt,'' higher central concentrations of the red subsystem, and larger half-light radii at larger galactocentric distances. However, we do not find evidence of a substantial difference between the average sizes of red and blue clusters. Our analysis of the GC luminosity function indicates a V-band turnover magnitude VTOM0=23.46+/-0.06, or MTOMV,0~-7.29+/-0.10 mag, using the distance modulus derived from the average of surface brightness fluctuation (SBF) and the planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) distances. The absolute turnover magnitude obtained agrees well with calibrations from literature. The specific frequency is measured to be SN=1.4+/-0.3, typical for galaxies of this type. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  14. The Not So Simple Globular Cluster ω Cen. I. Spatial Distribution of the Multiple Stellar Populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calamida, A.; Saha, A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory—AURA, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85719 (United States); Strampelli, G.; Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute—AURA, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bono, G.; Ferraro, I.; Iannicola, G. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma—Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio Catone, Rome (Italy); Scolnic, D. [The University of Chicago, The Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, William Eckhardt Research Center—Suite 499, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); James, D.; Smith, C.; Zenteno, A., E-mail: calamida@noao.edu [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-04-01

    We present a multi-band photometric catalog of ≈1.7 million cluster members for a field of view of ≈2° × 2° across ω Cen. Photometry is based on images collected with the Dark Energy Camera on the 4 m Blanco telescope and the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope . The unprecedented photometric accuracy and field coverage allowed us, for the first time, to investigate the spatial distribution of ω Cen multiple populations from the core to the tidal radius, confirming its very complex structure. We found that the frequency of blue main-sequence stars is increasing compared to red main-sequence stars starting from a distance of ≈25′ from the cluster center. Blue main-sequence stars also show a clumpy spatial distribution, with an excess in the northeast quadrant of the cluster pointing toward the direction of the Galactic center. Stars belonging to the reddest and faintest red-giant branch also show a more extended spatial distribution in the outskirts of ω Cen, a region never explored before. Both these stellar sub-populations, according to spectroscopic measurements, are more metal-rich compared to the cluster main stellar population. These findings, once confirmed, make ω Cen the only stellar system currently known where metal-rich stars have a more extended spatial distribution compared to metal-poor stars. Kinematic and chemical abundance measurements are now needed for stars in the external regions of ω Cen to better characterize the properties of these sub-populations.

  15. Blue straggler star populations in globular clusters. I. Dynamical properties of blue straggler stars in NGC 3201, NGC 6218, and ω Centauri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H., E-mail: msimunov@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: tpuzia@astro.puc.cl [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present the first dynamical study of blue straggler stars (BSSs) in three Galactic globular clusters, NGC 3201, NGC 5139 (ω Cen), and NGC 6218, based on medium-resolution spectroscopy (R ≈ 10, 000) obtained with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph mounted at the 6.5 m Baade Magellan telescope. Our BSS candidate selection technique uses HST/ACS and ESO/WFI photometric data out to >4.5 r{sub c} . We use radial velocity measurements to discard non-members and achieve a success rate of ∼93%, which yields a sample of 116 confirmed BSSs. Using the penalized pixel-fitting method (pPXF), we measure the vsin (i) values of the sample BSSs and find their distribution functions peaked at slow velocities with a long tail toward fast velocities in each globular cluster. About 90% of the BSS population in NGC 3201 and NGC 6218 exhibits values in the range 10-50 km s{sup –1}, while about 80% of the BSSs in ω Cen show vsin (i) values between 20 and 70 km s{sup –1}. We find that the BSSs in NGC 3201 and NGC 6218 that show vsin (i) > 50 km s{sup –1} are all found in the central cluster regions, inside a projected 2r{sub c} , of their parent clusters. We find a similar result in ω Cen for BSSs with vsin (i) > 70 km s{sup –1}, which are all, except for two, concentrated inside 2r{sub c} . In all globular clusters, we find rapidly rotating BSSs that have relatively high differential radial velocities that likely put them on hyperbolic orbits, suggestive of strong dynamical interactions in the past. Based on stellar spin-down and dynamical crossing timescales, we estimate that all the observed rapidly rotating BSSs are likely to form in their central cluster regions no longer than ∼300 Myr ago and may be subsequently ejected from their host globular clusters. Using dereddened V – I colors of our photometric selection, we show that blue BSSs in ω Cen with (V – I){sub 0} ≲ 0.25 mag show a significantly increased vsin (i) dispersion compared with

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: JK photometry of 12 galactic globular clusters (Cohen+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. E.; Hempel, M.; Mauro, F.; Geisler, D.; Alonso-Garcia, J.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2016-04-01

    Observations of our 12 target clusters were obtained with the Infrared Side Port Imager (ISPI) mounted on the 4m Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The HAWAII-2 2048*2048 pixel detector has 0.305''/pixel, giving a field of view 10.25arcmin per side. Imaging was obtained in the J and KS filters over the course of three runs between 2008 and 2010 (NGC 104 and NGC 6496 on 2008 Aug 13; NGC 1851 and NGC 288 on 2009 Sep 30; NGC 362, NGC 1261, and NGC 7099 on 2009 Oct 01; NGC 2808 and NGC 6304 on 2010 Apr 28; NGC 4833 on 2010 Apr 29; NGC 5927 and NGC 6584 on 2010 Apr 30), with median seeing ranging between 0.8'' and 1.4''. (2 data files).

  17. The peculiar globular cluster Palomar 1 and persistence in the SDSS-APOGEE data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandar, Farbod; Venn, Kim A.; Shetrone, Matthew D.; Irwin, Mike; Bovy, Jo; Sakari, Charli M.; Kielty, Collin L.; Digby, Ruth A. R.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.

    2017-10-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey-III Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) Data Release 12 (DR12) is a unique resource to search for stars beyond the tidal radii of star clusters. We have examined the APOGEE DR12 data base for new candidates of the young star cluster Palomar 1 (Pal 1), a system with previously reported tidal tails (Niederste-Ostholt et al. 2010). The APOGEE Stellar Parameters and Chemical Abundances Pipeline data base includes spectra and stellar parameters for two known members of Pal 1 (Stars I and II), however these do not agree with the stellar parameters determined from optical spectra by Sakari et al. (2011). We find that the APOGEE analysis of these two stars is strongly affected by the known persistence problem (Majewski et al. 2015; Nidever et al. 2015). By re-examining the individual visits, and removing the blue (and sometimes green) APOGEE detector spectra affected by persistence, then we find excellent agreement in a re-analysis of the combined spectra. These methods are applied to another five stars in the APOGEE field with similar radial velocities and metallicities as those of Pal 1. Only one of these new candidates, Star F, may be a member located in the tidal tail based on its heliocentric radial velocity, metallicity and chemistry. The other four candidates are not well aligned with the tidal tails, and comparison to the Besançon model (Robin et al. 2003) suggests that they are more likely to be non-members, I.e. part of the Galactic halo. This APOGEE field could be re-examined for other new candidates if the persistence problem can be removed from the APOGEE spectral data base.

  18. Accretion of pristine gas and dilution during the formation of multiple-population globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ercole, A.; D'Antona, F.; Vesperini, E.

    2016-10-01

    We study the interaction of the early spherical GC wind powered by Type II supernovae (SNe II) with the surrounding ambient medium consisting of the gaseous disc of a star-forming galaxy at redshift z ≳ 2. The bubble formed by the wind eventually breaks out of the disc, and most of the wind moves directly out of the galaxy and is definitively lost. The fraction of the wind moving nearly parallel to the galactic plane carves a hole in the disc which will contract after the end of the SN activity. During the interval of time between the end of the SN explosions and the `closure' of the hole, very O-poor stars (the Extreme population) can form out of the super-AGB (asymptotic giant branch) ejecta collected in the GC centre. Once the hole contracts, the AGB ejecta mix with the pristine gas, allowing the formation of stars with an oxygen abundance intermediate between that of the very O-poor stars and that of the pristine gas. We show that this mechanism may explain why Extreme populations are present only in massive clusters, and can also produce a correlation between the spread in helium and the cluster mass. Finally, we also explore the possibility that our proposed mechanism can be extended to the case of multiple populations showing bimodality in the iron content, with the presence of two populations characterized by a small difference in [Fe/H]. Such a result can be obtained taking into account the contribution of delayed SN II.

  19. Lithium abundance in the globular cluster M4: from the turn-off to the red giant branch bump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Salaris, M.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Lucatello, S.; Gratton, R. G.

    2011-03-01

    We present Li and Fe abundances for 87 stars in the globular cluster M4, obtained by using high-resolution spectra collected with GIRAFFE at the Very Large Telescope. The targets range from the turn-off up to the red giant branch bump. The Li abundance in the turn-off stars is uniform, with an average value equal to A(Li)= 2.30 ± 0.02 dex (σ= 0.10 dex), consistent with the upper envelope of Li content measured in other globular clusters and in the halo field stars, confirming also for M4 the discrepancy with the primordial Li abundance predicted by Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe+ big bang nucleosynthesis (WMAP+BBNS). The global behaviour of A(Li) as a function of the effective temperature allows us to identify the two main drops in the Li evolution due to the first dredge-up and to the extra-mixing episode after the red giant branch bump. The measured iron content of M4 results to [Fe/H]=-1.10 ± 0.01 dex (σ= 0.07 dex), with no systematic offsets between dwarf and giant stars. The behaviour of the Li and Fe abundances along the entire evolutionary path is incompatible with theoretical models including pure atomic diffusion, pointing out that an additional turbulent mixing below the convective region needs to be taken into account, able to inhibit the atomic diffusion. The measured value of A(Li) and its homogeneity in the turn-off stars allow us to put strong constraints on the shape of the Li profile inside the M4 turn-off stars. The global behaviour of A(Li) with the effective temperature can be reproduced with different pristine Li abundances, depending on the kind of adopted turbulent mixing. One cannot reproduce the global trend that starts from the WMAP+BBNS A(Li) and adopts the turbulent mixing described by Richard, Michaud & Richer with the same efficiency as that used by Korn et al. to explain the Li content in NGC 6397. In fact, such a solution is not able to well reproduce simultaneously the Li abundance observed in turn-off and red giant branch

  20. The MAVERIC Survey: A Red Straggler Binary with an Invisible Companion in the Galactic Globular Cluster M10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkovsky, Laura; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura; Bahramian, Arash; Tremou, Evangelia; Li, Kwan-Lok; Salinas, Ricardo; Tudor, Vlad; Miller-Jones, James C. A.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Heinke, Craig O.; Sivakoff, Gregory R.

    2018-03-01

    We present the discovery and characterization of a radio-bright binary in the Galactic globular cluster M10. First identified in deep radio continuum data from the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, M10-VLA1 has a flux density of 27 ± 4 μJy at 7.4 GHz and a flat-to-inverted radio spectrum. Chandra imaging shows an X-ray source with L X ≈ 1031 erg s‑1 matching the location of the radio source. This places M10-VLA1 within the scatter of the radio-X-ray luminosity correlation for quiescent stellar-mass black holes, and a black hole X-ray binary is a viable explanation for this system. The radio and X-ray properties of the source disfavor, but do not rule out, identification as an accreting neutron star or white dwarf system. Optical imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and spectroscopy from the SOAR telescope show that the system has an orbital period of 3.339 days and an unusual “red straggler” component: an evolved star found redward of the M10 red giant branch. These data also show UV/optical variability and double-peaked Hα emission characteristic of an accretion disk. However, SOAR spectroscopic monitoring reveals that the velocity semi-amplitude of the red straggler is low. We conclude that M10-VLA1 is most likely either a quiescent black hole X-ray binary with a rather face-on (i < 4°) orientation or an unusual flaring RS Canum Venaticorum variable-type active binary, and discuss future observations that could distinguish between these possibilities.

  1. Demonstrating the Likely Neutron Star Nature of Five M31 Globular Cluster Sources with Swift-NuSTAR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarone, Thomas J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Hornschemeier, Ann; Lehmer, Bret D.; Antoniou, Vallia; Ptak, Andrew; Wik, Daniel R.; Zezas, Andreas; Boyd, Padi; Kennea, Jamie; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a joint Swift-NuSTAR spectroscopy campaign on M31. We focus on the five brightest globular cluster X-ray sources in our fields. Two of these had previously been argued to be black hole candidates on the basis of apparent hard-state spectra at luminosities above those for which neutron stars are in hard states. We show that these two sources are likely to be Z-sources (i.e. low magnetic field neutron stars accreting near their Eddington limits), or perhaps bright atoll sources (low magnetic field neutron stars which are just a bit fainter than this level) on the basis of simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR spectra which cover a broader range of energies. These new observations reveal spectral curvature above 6-8 keV that would be hard to detect without the broader energy coverage the NuSTAR data provide relative to Chandra and XMM-Newton. We show that the other three sources are also likely to be bright neutron star X-ray binaries, rather than black hole X-ray binaries. We discuss why it should already have been realized that it was unlikely that these objects were black holes on the basis of their being persistent sources, and we re-examine past work which suggested that tidal capture products would be persistently bright X-ray emitters. We discuss how this problem is likely due to neglecting disc winds in older work that predict which systems will be persistent and which will be transient.

  2. THE MASS-METALLICITY RELATION OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN THE CONTEXT OF NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICTY RELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeslee, John P.; Cantiello, Michele; Peng, Eric W.

    2010-01-01

    Two recent empirical developments in the study of extragalactic globular cluster (GC) populations are the color-magnitude relation of the blue GCs (the 'blue tilt') and the nonlinearity of the dependence of optical GC colors on metallicity. The color-magnitude relation, interpreted as a mass-metallicity relation, is thought to be a consequence of self-enrichment. Nonlinear color-metallicity relations have been shown to produce bimodal color distributions from unimodal metallicity distributions. We simulate GC populations including both a mass-metallicity scaling relation and nonlinear color-metallicity relations motivated by theory and observations. Depending on the assumed range of metallicities and the width of the GC luminosity function (GCLF), we find that the simulated populations can have bimodal color distributions with a 'blue tilt' similar to observations, even though the metallicity distribution appears unimodal. The models that produce these features have the relatively high mean GC metallicities and nearly equal blue and red peaks characteristic of giant elliptical galaxies. The blue tilt is less apparent in the models with metallicities typical of dwarf ellipticals; the narrower GCLF in these galaxies has an even bigger effect in reducing the significance of their color-magnitude slopes. We critically examine the evidence for nonlinearity versus bimodal metallicities as explanations for the characteristic double-peaked color histograms of giant ellipticals and conclude that the question remains open. We discuss the prospects for further theoretical and observational progress in constraining the models presented here and for uncovering the true metallicity distributions of extragalactic GC systems.

  3. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Marco, Orsola De [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davies, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Lotarevich, I. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harrington, J. Patrick [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lanz, Thierry, E-mail: gjacoby@lowell.edu, E-mail: orsola.demarco@mq.edu.au, E-mail: jdavies@stsci.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: jph@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: thierry.lanz@oca.eu [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2017-02-10

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M {sub ⊙} for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M {sub ⊙}) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and H α emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2.

  4. Two-color photographic photometry of variables in the globular cluster M28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehlau, A.; Butterworth, S.

    1990-01-01

    Visual magnitudes have been measured for 20 variables on 32 plates of M28. These have been combined with previously published as well as newly determined blue magnitudes in order to obtain colors for the variables. Blue and visual light curves are presented for 15 of the the variables, including one W Virginis star V4, one RV Tauri star V17, one field Mira variable V7, nine cluster RR Lyrae stars, and three field RR Lyrae stars. It is shown that V14, previously thought to be a c type RR Lyrae star, is to the red of the instability strip. The visual light curve of V9 suggests that the star may be a member of a binary or a very close optical double. Possible evidence for differential reddening in the vicinity of M28 is presented. The bimodal distribution of the periods of the RR Lyrae stars in M28 may indicate a spread in metallicity among the RR Lyrae variables. 16 refs

  5. A phenomenological modification of thermohaline mixing in globular cluster red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Kate; Karakas, Amanda I.; Lattanzio, John C.

    2017-08-01

    Thermohaline mixing is a favoured mechanism for the so-called `extra mixing' on the red giant branch of low-mass stars. The mixing is triggered by the molecular weight inversion created above the hydrogen shell during first dredge-up when helium-3 burns via 3He(3He,2p)4He. The standard 1D diffusive mixing scheme cannot simultaneously match carbon and lithium abundances to NGC 6397 red giants. We investigate two modifications to the standard scheme: (1) an advective two-stream mixing algorithm and (2) modifications to the standard 1D thermohaline mixing formalism. We cannot simultaneously match carbon and lithium abundances using our two-stream mixing approach. However, we develop a modified diffusive scheme with an explicit temperature dependence that can simultaneously fit carbon and lithium abundances to NGC 6397 stars. Our modified diffusive scheme induces mixing that is faster than the standard theory predicts in the hotter part of the thermohaline region and mixing that is slower in the cooler part. Our results infer that the extra mixing mechanism needs further investigation and more observations are required, particularly for stars in different clusters spanning a range in metallicity.

  6. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Durán, María Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between –1.6 and –0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <–0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope

  7. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCE EVIDENCE OF ENDURING HIGH STAR FORMATION RATES IN AN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY: HIGH [Ca/Fe] IN NGC 5128 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Duran, Maria Fernanda; Bernstein, Rebecca A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 1156 High Street, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); McWilliam, Andrew, E-mail: jcolucci@ucolick.org [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 {+-} 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 {+-} 0.09 and +0.24 {+-} 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope.

  8. Chemical Abundance Evidence of Enduring High Star Formation Rates in an Early-type Galaxy: High [Ca/Fe] in NGC 5128 Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Janet E.; Fernanda Durán, María; Bernstein, Rebecca A.; McWilliam, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    We present [Fe/H], ages, and Ca abundances for an initial sample of 10 globular clusters in NGC 5128 obtained from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio echelle spectra of their integrated light. All abundances and ages are obtained using our original technique for high-resolution integrated light abundance analysis of globular clusters. The clusters have a range in [Fe/H] between -1.6 and -0.2. In this sample, the average [Ca/Fe] for clusters with [Fe/H] <-0.4 is +0.37 ± 0.07, while the average [Ca/Fe] in our Milky Way (MW) and M31 GC samples is +0.29 ± 0.09 and +0.24 ± 0.10, respectively. This may imply a more rapid chemical enrichment history for NGC 5128 than for either the MW or M31. This sample provides the first quantitative picture of the chemical history of NGC 5128 that is directly comparable to what is available for the MW. Data presented here were obtained with the MIKE echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope. This Letter includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  9. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbordone, L.; Monaco, L.; Moni Bidin, C.; Bonifacio, P.; Villanova, S.; Bellazzini, M.; Ibata, R.; Chiba, M.; Geisler, D.; Caffau, E.; Duffau, S.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, it is suspected that the Sgr dSph has lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are thought to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed owing to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. Aims: NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two of these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. Methods: We analyze high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of unassociated MW halo globulars, and of the metal-poor Sgr dSph main body population. Results: We derive a metallicity of [Fe ii/H] = -2.26 ± 0.10 for NGC 5053, and of [Fe i/H] = -1.99 ± 0.075 and -1.97 ± 0.076 for the two stars in NGC 5634. This makes NGC 5053 one of the most metal-poor globular clusters in the MW. Both clusters display an α enhancement similar to the one of the halo at comparable metallicity. The two stars in NGC 5634 clearly display the Na-O anticorrelation widespread among MW globulars. Most other abundances are in good agreement with standard MW halo trends. Conclusions: The chemistry of the Sgr dSph main body populations is similar to that of the halo at low metallicity. It is thus difficult to discriminate between an origin of NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 in the Sgr dSph, and one in the MW. However, the abundances of these clusters do appear closer to that of Sgr dSph than of the halo, favoring an origin in the Sgr dSph system. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http

  10. VEGAS-SSS. II. Comparing the globular cluster systems in NGC 3115 and NGC 1399 using VEGAS and FDS survey data. The quest for a common genetic heritage of globular cluster systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Michele; D'Abrusco, Raffaele; Spavone, Marilena; Paolillo, Maurizio; Capaccioli, Massimo; Limatola, Luca; Grado, Aniello; Iodice, Enrica; Raimondo, Gabriella; Napolitano, Nicola; Blakeslee, John P.; Brocato, Enzo; Forbes, Duncan A.; Hilker, Michael; Mieske, Steffen; Peletier, Reynier; van de Ven, Glenn; Schipani, Pietro

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the globular cluster (GC) systems in two very different galaxies, NGC 3115 and NGC 1399. With the papers of this series, we aim at highlighting common and different properties in the GC systems in galaxies covering a wide range of parameter space. We compare the GCs in NGC 3115 and NGC 1399 as derived from the analysis of one square degree u-, g-, and i-band images taken with the VST telescope as part of the VST early-type galaxy survey (VEGAS) and Fornax deep survey (FDS). We selected GC candidates using as reference the morpho-photometric and color properties of confirmed GCs. The surface density maps of GCs in NGC 3115 reveal a morphology similar to the light profile of field stars; the same is true when blue and red GCs are taken separately. The GC maps for NGC 1399 are richer in structure and confirm the existence of an intra-cluster GC component. We confirm the presence of a spatial offset in the NGC 1399 GC centroid and find that the centroid of the GCs for NGC 3115 coincides well with the galaxy center. Both GC systems show unambiguous color bimodality in (g - i) and (u - i); the color-color relations of the two GC systems are slightly different with NGC 3115 appearing more linear than NGC 1399. The azimuthal average of the radial density profiles in both galaxies reveals a larger spatial extent for the total GCs population with respect to the galaxy surface brightness profile. For both galaxies, the red GCs have radial density profiles compatible with the galaxy light profile, while the radial profiles for blue GCs are shallower. As for the specific frequency of GCs, SN, we find it is a factor of two higher in NGC 1399 than for NGC 3115; this is mainly the result of extra blue GCs. By inspecting the radial behavior of the specific frequency, SN(

  11. Evolution of long-lived globular cluster stars. III. Effect of the initial helium spread on the position of stars in a synthetic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Charbonnel, C.; Meynet, G.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Globular clusters host multiple populations of long-lived low-mass stars whose origin remains an open question. Several scenarios have been proposed to explain the associated photometric and spectroscopic peculiarities. They differ, for instance, in the maximum helium enrichment they predict for stars of the second population, which these stars can inherit at birth as the result of the internal pollution of the cluster by different types of stars of the first population. Aims: We present the distribution of helium-rich stars in present-day globular clusters as it is expected in the original framework of the fast-rotating massive stars scenario (FRMS) as first-population polluters. We focus on NGC 6752. Methods: We completed a grid of 330 stellar evolution models for globular cluster low-mass stars computed with different initial chemical compositions corresponding to the predictions of the original FRMS scenario for [Fe/H] = -1.75. Starting from the initial helium-sodium relation that allows reproducing the currently observed distribution of sodium in NGC 6752, we deduce the helium distribution expected in that cluster at ages equal to 9 and 13 Gyr. We distinguish the stars that are moderately enriched in helium from those that are very helium-rich (initial helium mass fraction below and above 0.4, respectively), and compare the predictions of the FRMS framework with other scenarios for globular cluster enrichment. Results: The effect of helium enrichment on the stellar lifetime and evolution reduces the total number of very helium-rich stars that remain in the cluster at 9 and 13 Gyr to only 12% and 10%, respectively, from an initial fraction of 21%. Within this age range, most of the stars still burn their hydrogen in their core, which widens the MS band significantly in effective temperature. The fraction of very helium-rich stars drops in the more advanced evolution phases, where the associated spread in effective temperature strongly decreases. These

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motion (HSTPROMO) Catalogs of Galactic Globular Clusters. V. The Rapid Rotation of 47 Tuc Traced and Modeled in Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, A.; Bianchini, P.; Varri, A. L.; Anderson, J.; Piotto, G.; van der Marel, R. P.; Vesperini, E.; Watkins, L. L.

    2017-08-01

    High-precision proper motions of the globular cluster 47 Tuc have allowed us to measure for the first time the cluster rotation in the plane of the sky and the velocity anisotropy profile from the cluster core out to about 13‧. These profiles are coupled with prior measurements along the line of sight (LOS) and the surface brightness profile and fit all together with self-consistent models specifically constructed to describe quasi-relaxed stellar systems with realistic differential rotation, axisymmetry, and pressure anisotropy. The best-fit model provides an inclination angle i between the rotation axis and the LOS direction of 30° and is able to simultaneously reproduce the full three-dimensional kinematics and structure of the cluster, while preserving a good agreement with the projected morphology. Literature models based solely on LOS measurements imply a significantly different inclination angle (i = 45°), demonstrating that proper motions play a key role in constraining the intrinsic structure of 47 Tuc. Our best-fit global dynamical model implies an internal rotation higher than previous studies have shown and suggests a peak of the intrinsic V/σ ratio of ∼0.9 at around two half-light radii, with a nonmonotonic intrinsic ellipticity profile reaching values up to 0.45. Our study unveils a new degree of dynamical complexity in 47 Tuc, which may be leveraged to provide new insights into the formation and evolution of globular clusters. Based on archival observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters: Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. VI; The Second Parameter Pair M 3 and M 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, S.; Landsman, W. B.; Sweigart, A. V.; Grundahl, F.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic analyses of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in M 13 and M 3, which form a famous "second parameter" pair. F rom the spectra and Stromgren photometry we derived - for the first time in M 13 - atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity). For stars with Stromgren temperatures between 10,000 and 12,000 K we found excellent agreement between the atmospheric parameters derived from Stromgren photometry and those derived from Balmer line profile fits. However, for cooler stars there is a disagreement in the parameters derived by the two methods, for which we have no satisfactory explanation. Stars hotter than 12,000 K show evidence for helium depletion and iron enrichment, both in M 3 and M 13. Accounting for the iron enrichment substantially improves the agreement with canonical evolutionary models, although the derived gravities and masses are still somewhat too low. This remaining discrepancy may be an indication that scaled-solar metal-rich model atmospheres do not adequately represent the highly non-solar abundance ratios found in blue HB stars affected by diffusion. We discuss the effects of an enhancement in the envelope helium abundance on the atmospheric parameters of the blue HB stars, as might be caused by deep mixing on the red giant branch or primordial pollution from an earlier generation of intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars. Key words. Stars: atmospheres - Stars: evolution - Stars: horizontal branch - Globular clusters: individual: M 3 - Globular clusters: individual: M 13

  14. The quiescent state of the neutron-star X-ray transient GRS 1747-312 in the globular cluster Terzan 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vats, Smriti; Wijnands, Rudy; Parikh, Aastha S.; Ootes, Laura; Degenaar, Nathalie; Page, Dany

    2018-04-01

    We studied the transient neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312, located in the globular cluster Terzan 6, in its quiescent state after its outburst in August 2004, using an archival XMM-Newton observation. A source was detected in this cluster and its X-ray spectrum can be fitted with the combination of a soft, neutron-star atmosphere model and a hard, power-law model. Both contributed roughly equally to the observed 0.5-10 keV luminosity (˜4.8 × 1033 erg s-1). This type of X-ray spectrum is typically observed for quiescent neutron-star X-ray transients that are perhaps accreting in quiescence at very low rates. Therefore, if this X-ray source is the quiescent counterpart of GRS 1747-312, then this source is also accreting at low levels in-between outbursts. Since source confusion a likely problem in globular clusters, it is quite possible that part, if not all, of the emission we observed is not related to GRS 1747-312, and is instead associated with another source or conglomeration of sources in the cluster. Currently, it is not possible to determine exactly which part of the emission truly originates from GRS1747-312, and a Chandra observation (when no source is in outburst in Terzan 6) is needed to be conclusive. Assuming that the detected emission is due to GRS 1747-312, we discuss the observed results in the context of what is known about other quiescent systems. We also investigated the thermal evolution of the neutron-star in GRS 1747-312, and inferred that GRS 1747-312 can be considered a typical quiescent system under our assumptions.

  15. N-body modeling of globular clusters: detecting intermediate-mass black holes by non-equipartition in HST proper motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenti, Michele

    2010-09-01

    Intermediate Mass Black Holes {IMBHs} are objects of considerable astrophysical significance. They have been invoked as possible remnants of Population III stars, precursors of supermassive black holes, sources of ultra-luminous X-ray emission, and emitters of gravitational waves. The centers of globular clusters, where they may have formed through runaway collapse of massive stars, may be our best chance of detecting them. HST studies of velocity dispersions have provided tentative evidence, but the measurements are difficult and the results have been disputed. It is thus important to explore and develop additional indicators of the presence of an IMBH in these systems. In a Cycle 16 theory project we focused on the fingerprints of an IMBH derived from HST photometry. We showed that an IMBH leads to a detectable quenching of mass segregation. Analysis of HST-ACS data for NGC 2298 validated the method, and ruled out an IMBH of more than 300 solar masses. We propose here to extend the search for IMBH signatures from photometry to kinematics. The velocity dispersion of stars in collisionally relaxed stellar systems such as globular clusters scales with main sequence mass as sigma m^alpha. A value alpha = -0.5 corresponds to equipartition. Mass-dependent kinematics can now be measured from HST proper motion studies {e.g., alpha = -0.21 for Omega Cen}. Preliminary analysis shows that the value of alpha can be used as indicator of the presence of an IMBH. In fact, the quenching of mass segregation is a result of the degree of equipartition that the system attains. However, detailed numerical simulations are required to quantify this. Therefore we propose {a} to carry out a new, larger set of realistic N-body simulations of star clusters with IMBHs, primordial binaries and stellar evolution to predict in detail the expected kinematic signatures and {b} to compare these predictions to datasets that are {becoming} available. Considerable HST resources have been invested in

  16. The Brazil–Argentina Gemini Group for the Study of Globular Cluster Systems (BAGGs GCs: FLAMINGOS-2 and GMOS Data for NGC 1395

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favio Faifer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, we present preliminary results of the analysis of Flamingos-2 and GMOS-S photometry of the globular cluster (GC system of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1395. This is the first step of a long-term Brazilian–Argentinian collaboration for the study of GC systems in early-type galaxies. In the context of this collaboration, we obtained deep NIR photometric data in two different bands (J and K s, which were later combined with high quality optical Gemini + GMOS photometry previously obtained by the Argentinian team. This allowed us to obtain different color indices, less sensitive to the effect of horizontal branch (HB stars for several hundreds of GC candidates, and to make an initial assessment of the presence or absence of multiple GC populations in colors in NGC 1395.

  17. Toward a Better Understanding of the Distance Scale from RR Lyrae Variable Stars: A Case Study for the Inner Halo Globular Cluster NGC 6723

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Woo; López-Morales, Mercedes; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Kang, Young-Woon; Pohl, Brian L.; Walker, Alistair

    2014-01-01

    We present BV photometry for 54 variables in the metal-rich inner halo globular cluster NGC 6723. With the discovery of new RR Lyrae variables (RRLs), we obtain langP abrang = 0.541 ± 0.066 and langP crang = 0.292 ± 0.030 day, n(c)/n(ab+c) = 0.167, and langV(RR)rangint = 15.459 ± 0.055. We carry out the Fourier decomposition analysis and obtain [Fe/H]ZW = -1.23 ± 0.11 and E(B - V) = 0.063 ± 0.015 for NGC 6723. By calibrating the zero point from the recent absolute trigonometric parallax measurements for RR Lyr, we derive the revised MV (RR)-[Fe/H] relation, providing MV (RR) = 0.52 at [Fe/H] = -1.50 and (m - M)0 = 18.54 for the Large Magellanic Cloud, in excellent agreement with others. We obtain (m - M)0 = 14.65 ± 0.05, equivalent to a distance from the Sun of 8.47 ± 0.17 kpc, for NGC 6723 from various distance measurement methods using RRLs. We find that RRLs in NGC 6723 do not have magnitude dependency on the radial distance because there is not a severe degree of apparent crowdedness. Finally, we show that a relation exists between the degree of photometric contamination and the apparent crowdedness of the central region of globular cluster systems, |\\bar{\\mu } - \\mu _r| \\propto log \\rho _c d^2. The use of this relation can play a significant role in mitigating the discrepancy in establishing a cosmic distance scale using RRLs in resolved stellar populations in near-field cosmology. Partially based on observations made with telescopes operated by the SMARTS consortium.

  18. The SLUGGS survey: dark matter fractions at large radii and assembly epochs of early-type galaxies from globular cluster kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Adebusola B.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Janz, Joachim; Usher, Christopher; Spitler, Lee R.; Bellstedt, Sabine; Ferré-Mateu, Anna

    2017-07-01

    We use globular cluster kinematics data, primarily from the SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey, to measure the dark matter fraction (fDM) and the average dark matter density () within the inner 5 effective radii (Re) for 32 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) with stellar mass log (M*/M⊙) ranging from 10.1 to 11.8. We compare our results with a simple galaxy model based on scaling relations as well as with cosmological hydrodynamical simulations where the dark matter profile has been modified through various physical processes. We find a high fDM (≥0.6) within 5 Re in most of our sample, which we interpret as a signature of a late mass assembly history that is largely devoid of gas-rich major mergers. However, around log (M*/M⊙) ˜ 11, there is a wide range of fDM which may be challenging to explain with any single cosmological model. We find tentative evidence that lenticulars (S0s), unlike ellipticals, have mass distributions that are similar to spiral galaxies, with decreasing fDM within 5 Re as galaxy luminosity increases. However, we do not find any difference between the of S0s and ellipticals in our sample, despite the differences in their stellar populations. We have also used to infer the epoch of halo assembly (z ˜ 2-4). By comparing the age of their central stars with the inferred epoch of halo formation, we are able to gain more insight into their mass assembly histories. Our results suggest a fundamental difference in the dominant late-phase mass assembly channel between lenticulars and elliptical galaxies.

  19. Ages of the Bulge Globular Clusters NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28) from HST Proper-motion-cleaned Color–Magnitude Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, L. O.; Nardiello, D.; Ortolani, S.; Barbuy, B.; Bica, E.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Vieira, R. G.

    2018-01-01

    Bulge globular clusters (GCs) with metallicities [Fe/H] ≲ ‑1.0 and blue horizontal branches are candidates to harbor the oldest populations in the Galaxy. Based on the analysis of HST proper-motion-cleaned color–magnitude diagrams in filters F435W and F625W, we determine physical parameters for the old bulge GCs NGC 6522 and NGC 6626 (M28), both with well-defined blue horizontal branches. We compare these results with similar data for the inner halo cluster NGC 6362. These clusters have similar metallicities (‑1.3 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ ‑1.0) obtained from high-resolution spectroscopy. We derive ages, distance moduli, and reddening values by means of statistical comparisons between observed and synthetic fiducial lines employing likelihood statistics and the Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The synthetic fiducial lines were generated using α-enhanced BaSTI and Dartmouth stellar evolutionary models, adopting both canonical (Y ∼ 0.25) and enhanced (Y ∼ 0.30–0.33) helium abundances. RR Lyrae stars were employed to determine the HB magnitude level, providing an independent indicator to constrain the apparent distance modulus and the helium enhancement. The shape of the observed fiducial line could be compatible with some helium enhancement for NGC 6522 and NGC 6626, but the average magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars tend to rule out this hypothesis. Assuming canonical helium abundances, BaSTI and Dartmouth models indicate that all three clusters are coeval, with ages between ∼12.5 and 13.0 Gyr. The present study also reveals that NGC 6522 has at least two stellar populations, since its CMD shows a significantly wide subgiant branch compatible with 14% ± 2% and 86% ± 5% for first and second generations, respectively. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  20. Very Broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 Emission from the NGC 4472 Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and Implications for the Mass of Its Black Hole X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Stern, Daniel; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Kamionkowski, Marc; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl

    2008-08-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy of the black hole-hosting globular cluster RZ 2109 in the Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. We find that this object has extraordinarily broad [O III] λ5007 and [O III] λ4959 emission lines, with velocity widths of approximately 2000 km s-1. This result has significant implications for the nature of this accreting black hole system and the mass of the globular cluster black hole. We show that the broad [O III] λ5007 emission must arise from material driven at high velocity from the black hole system. This is because the volume available near the black hole is too small by many orders of magnitude to have enough [O III]-emitting atoms to account for the observed L([O III] λ5007) at high velocities, even if this volume is filled with oxygen at the critical density for [O III] λ5007. The Balmer emission is also weak, indicating the observed [O III] is not due to shocks. We therefore conclude that the [O III] λλ4959, 5007 is produced by photoionization of material driven across the cluster. The only known way to drive significant material at high velocity is for a system accreting mass near or above its Eddington limit, which indicates a stellar-mass black hole. Since it is dynamically implausible to form an accreting stellar-mass black hole system in a globular cluster with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH), it appears this massive globular cluster does not have an IMBH. We discuss further tests of this conclusion, and its implications for the MBH - Mstellar and MBH - σ relations. Based on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters - XIV. Multiple stellar populations within M 15 and their radial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardiello, D.; Milone, A. P.; Piotto, G.; Anderson, J.; Bedin, L. R.; Bellini, A.; Cassisi, S.; Libralato, M.; Marino, A. F.

    2018-03-01

    In the context of the Hubble Space Telescope UV Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters (GCs), we derived high-precision, multi-band photometry to investigate the multiple stellar populations in the massive and metal-poor GC M 15. By creating for red-giant branch (RGB) stars of the cluster a `chromosome map', which is a pseudo two-colour diagram made with appropriate combination of F275W, F336W, F438W, and F814W magnitudes, we revealed colour spreads around two of the three already known stellar populations. These spreads cannot be produced by photometric errors alone and could hide the existence of (two) additional populations. This discovery increases the complexity of the multiple-population phenomenon in M 15. Our analysis shows that M 15 exhibits a faint sub-giant branch (SGB), which is also detected in colour-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) made with optical magnitudes only. This poorly-populated SGB includes about 5% of the total number of SGB stars and evolves into a red RGB in the mF336W vs. mF336W - mF814W CMD, suggesting that M 15 belongs to the class of Type II GCs. We measured the relative number of stars in each population at various radial distances from the cluster centre, showing that all of these populations share the same radial distribution within statistic uncertainties. These new findings are discussed in the context of the formation and evolution scenarios of the multiple populations.

  2. Mapping diffuse interstellar bands in the local ISM on small scales via MUSE 3D spectroscopy. A pilot study based on globular cluster NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Martin; Husser, Tim-Oliver; Kamann, Sebastian; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Richter, Philipp; Brinchmann, Jarle; Dreizler, Stefan; Weilbacher, Peter M.; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2017-11-01

    Context. We map the interstellar medium (ISM) including the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in absorption toward the globular cluster NGC 6397 using VLT/MUSE. Assuming the absorbers are located at the rim of the Local Bubble we trace structures on the order of mpc (milliparsec, a few thousand AU). Aims: We aimed to demonstrate the feasibility to map variations of DIBs on small scales with MUSE. The sightlines defined by binned stellar spectra are separated by only a few arcseconds and we probe the absorption within a physically connected region. Methods: This analysis utilized the fitting residuals of individual stellar spectra of NGC 6397 member stars and analyzed lines from neutral species and several DIBs in Voronoi-binned composite spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Results: This pilot study demonstrates the power of MUSE for mapping the local ISM on very small scales which provides a new window for ISM observations. We detect small scale variations in Na I and K I as well as in several DIBs within few arcseconds, or mpc with regard to the Local Bubble. We verify the suitability of the MUSE 3D spectrograph for such measurements and gain new insights by probing a single physical absorber with multiple sight lines.

  3. THE OPTICAL COLORS OF GIANT ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES AND THEIR METAL-RICH GLOBULAR CLUSTERS INDICATE A BOTTOM-HEAVY INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudfrooij, Paul; Diederik Kruijssen, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    We report a systematic and statistically significant offset between the optical (g – z or B – I) colors of seven massive elliptical galaxies and the mean colors of their associated massive metal-rich globular clusters (GCs) in the sense that the parent galaxies are redder by ∼0.12-0.20 mag at a given galactocentric distance. However, spectroscopic indices in the blue indicate that the luminosity-weighted ages and metallicities of such galaxies are equal to that of their averaged massive metal-rich GCs at a given galactocentric distance, to within small uncertainties. The observed color differences between the red GC systems and their parent galaxies cannot be explained by the presence of multiple stellar generations in massive metal-rich GCs, as the impact of the latter to the populations' integrated g – z or B – I colors is found to be negligible. However, we show that this paradox can be explained if the stellar initial mass function (IMF) in these massive elliptical galaxies was significantly steeper at subsolar masses than canonical IMFs derived from star counts in the solar neighborhood, with the GC colors having become bluer due to dynamical evolution, causing a significant flattening of the stellar MF of the average surviving GC.

  4. Hot HB Stars in Globular Clusters - Physical Parameters and Consequences for Theory. VI. The Second Parameter Pair M3 and M13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehler, S.; Landsman, W. B.; Sweigart, A. V.; Grundahl, F.

    2002-01-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic analyses of hot horizontal branch (HB) stars in M13 and M3, which form a famous second parameter pair. From the spectra we derived - for the first time in M13 - atmospheric parameters (effective temperature and surface gravity) as well as abundances of helium, magnesium, and iron. Consistent with analyses of hot HB stars in other globular clusters we find evidence for helium depletion and iron enrichment in stars hotter than about 12,000 K in both M3 and M13. Accounting for the iron enrichment substantially improves the agreement with canonical evolutionary models, although the derived gravities and masses are still somewhat too low. This remaining discrepancy may be an indication that scaled-solar metal-rich model atmospheres do not adequately represent the highly non-solar abundance ratios found in blue HB stars with radiative levitation. We discuss the effects of an enhancement in the envelope helium abundance on the atmospheric parameters of the blue HB stars, as might be caused by deep mixing on the red giant branch or primordial pollution from an earlier generation of intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars.

  5. A view of the H-band light-element chemical patterns in globular clusters under the AGB self-enrichment scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Ventura, P.; Mészáros, Sz; Masseron, T.; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Tang, B.; Shetrone, M.; Zamora, O.; Lucatello, S.

    2018-04-01

    We discuss the self-enrichment scenario by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars for the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) by analysing data set of giant stars observed in nine Galactic GCs, covering a wide range of metallicities and for which the simultaneous measurements of C, N, O, Mg, Al, and Si are available. To this aim, we calculated six sets of AGB models, with the same chemical composition as the stars belonging to the first generation of each GC. We find that the AGB yields can reproduce the set of observations available, not only in terms of the degree of contamination shown by stars in each GC but, more important, also the observed trend with metallicity, which agrees well with the predictions from AGB evolution modelling. While further observational evidences are required to definitively fix the main actors in the pollution of the interstellar medium from which new generation of stars formed in GCs, the present results confirm that the gas ejected by stars of mass in the range 4 M_{⊙} ≤ M ≤ 8 M_{⊙} during the AGB phase share the same chemical patterns traced by stars in GCs.

  6. The photometric evolution of star clusters and the preferential loss of low-mass bodies – with an application to globular clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context. To obtain an accurate description of broad-band photometric star cluster evolution, certain effects should be accounted for. Energy equipartition leads to mass segregation and the preferential loss of low-mass stars, while stellar remnants severely influence cluster mass-to-light ratios.

  7. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AM 4 AND PALOMAR 13: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: khamren@ucolick.org [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster—age, mass, metallicity, extinction, and present day mass function (MF)—we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova, and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the CMD and yield an age of >13 Gyr, metallicity log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.68 ± 0.08, a distance modulus (m – M) {sub V} = 17.47 ± 0.03, and reddening A{sub V} = 0.19 ± 0.02. For Pal 13 the Dartmouth models give an age of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gyr, log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.55 ± 0.06, (m – M) {sub V} = 17.17 ± 0.02, and A{sub V} = 0.43 ± 0.01. We find that the systematic uncertainties due to choice in assumed stellar model greatly exceed the random uncertainties, highlighting the importance of using multiple stellar models when analyzing stellar populations. Assuming a single-sloped power-law MF, we find that AM 4 and Pal 13 have spectral indices α = +0.68 ± 0.34 and α = –1.67 ± 0.25 (where a Salpeter MF has α = +1.35), respectively. Comparing our derived slopes with literature measurements of cluster integrated magnitude (M{sub V} ) and MF slope indicates that AM 4 is an outlier. Its MF slope is substantially steeper than clusters of comparable luminosity, while Pal 13 has an MF in line with the general trend. We discuss both primordial and dynamical origins for the unusual MF slope of AM 4 and tentatively favor the dynamical scenario. However, MF slopes of more low luminosity clusters are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  8. Efectos de mareas en cúmulos globulares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, F.; Coenda, V.; Muriel, H.; Abadi, M.

    Using an N-body numerical simulation in the framework of the CDM cosmological model we study the globular cluster population in a simulated galaxy cluster. We select particles that trace the bimodal (red and blue) globular cluster system of each individual dark matter halo prior to their incorporation to the cluster virial radius. We found that the blue population is more prone to be removed from the halo than the red one. This result suggests that globular clusters are tidally disrupted; being the blue (more extended) population easily removed. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  9. MEASURING DETAILED CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES FROM CO-ADDED MEDIUM-RESOLUTION SPECTRA. I. TESTS USING MILKY WAY DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lei; Peng, Eric W.; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Cheng, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The ability to measure metallicities and α-element abundances in individual red giant branch (RGB) stars using medium-resolution spectra (R ≈ 6000) is a valuable tool for deciphering the nature of Milky Way dwarf satellites and the history of the Galactic halo. Extending such studies to more distant systems like Andromeda is beyond the ability of the current generation of telescopes, but by co-adding the spectra of similar stars, we can attain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to make detailed abundance measurements. In this paper, we present a method to determine metallicities and α-element abundances using the co-addition of medium-resolution spectra. We test the method of spectral co-addition using high-S/N spectra of more than 1300 RGB stars from Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies obtained with the Keck II telescope/DEIMOS spectrograph. We group similar stars using photometric criteria and compare the weighted ensemble average abundances ([Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) of individual stars in each group with the measurements made on the corresponding co-added spectrum. We find a high level of agreement between the two methods, which permits us to apply this co-added spectra technique to more distant RGB stars, like stars in the M31 satellite galaxies. This paper outlines our spectral co-addition and abundance measurement methodology and describes the potential biases in making these measurements.

  10. CHARACTERIZING THE HEAVY ELEMENTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER M22 AND AN EMPIRICAL s-PROCESS ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTION DERIVED FROM THE TWO STELLAR GROUPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, I. U.; Marino, A. F.; Sneden, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present an empirical s-process abundance distribution derived with explicit knowledge of the r-process component in the low-metallicity globular cluster M22. We have obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra for six red giants in M22 using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. In each star we derive abundances for 44 species of 40 elements, including 24 elements heavier than zinc (Z = 30) produced by neutron-capture reactions. Previous studies determined that three of these stars (the 'r+s group') have an enhancement of s-process material relative to the other three stars (the 'r-only group'). We confirm that the r+s group is moderately enriched in Pb relative to the r-only group. Both groups of stars were born with the same amount of r-process material, but s-process material was also present in the gas from which the r+s group formed. The s-process abundances are inconsistent with predictions for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with M ≤ 3 M ☉ and suggest an origin in more massive AGB stars capable of activating the 22 Ne(α,n) 25 Mg reaction. We calculate the s-process 'residual' by subtracting the r-process pattern in the r-only group from the abundances in the r+s group. In contrast to previous r- and s-process decompositions, this approach makes no assumptions about the r- and s-process distributions in the solar system and provides a unique opportunity to explore s-process yields in a metal-poor environment.

  11. Measuring Detailed Chemical Abundances from Co-added Medium-resolution Spectra. I. Tests Using Milky Way Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies and Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peng, Eric W.; Cheng, Lucy

    2013-05-01

    The ability to measure metallicities and α-element abundances in individual red giant branch (RGB) stars using medium-resolution spectra (R ≈ 6000) is a valuable tool for deciphering the nature of Milky Way dwarf satellites and the history of the Galactic halo. Extending such studies to more distant systems like Andromeda is beyond the ability of the current generation of telescopes, but by co-adding the spectra of similar stars, we can attain the necessary signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) to make detailed abundance measurements. In this paper, we present a method to determine metallicities and α-element abundances using the co-addition of medium-resolution spectra. We test the method of spectral co-addition using high-S/N spectra of more than 1300 RGB stars from Milky Way globular clusters and dwarf spheroidal galaxies obtained with the Keck II telescope/DEIMOS spectrograph. We group similar stars using photometric criteria and compare the weighted ensemble average abundances ([Fe/H], [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) of individual stars in each group with the measurements made on the corresponding co-added spectrum. We find a high level of agreement between the two methods, which permits us to apply this co-added spectra technique to more distant RGB stars, like stars in the M31 satellite galaxies. This paper outlines our spectral co-addition and abundance measurement methodology and describes the potential biases in making these measurements. Data herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E.; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS , are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ∼10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS >0.5 M ☉ ). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS , constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R NS =9.1 +1.3 -1.5 km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  13. Characterizing the Heavy Elements in Globular Cluster M22 and an Empirical s-process Abundance Distribution Derived from the Two Stellar Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, I. U.; Marino, A. F.; Sneden, C.

    2011-11-01

    We present an empirical s-process abundance distribution derived with explicit knowledge of the r-process component in the low-metallicity globular cluster M22. We have obtained high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra for six red giants in M22 using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan-Clay Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. In each star we derive abundances for 44 species of 40 elements, including 24 elements heavier than zinc (Z = 30) produced by neutron-capture reactions. Previous studies determined that three of these stars (the "r+s group") have an enhancement of s-process material relative to the other three stars (the "r-only group"). We confirm that the r+s group is moderately enriched in Pb relative to the r-only group. Both groups of stars were born with the same amount of r-process material, but s-process material was also present in the gas from which the r+s group formed. The s-process abundances are inconsistent with predictions for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with M <= 3 M ⊙ and suggest an origin in more massive AGB stars capable of activating the 22Ne(α,n)25Mg reaction. We calculate the s-process "residual" by subtracting the r-process pattern in the r-only group from the abundances in the r+s group. In contrast to previous r- and s-process decompositions, this approach makes no assumptions about the r- and s-process distributions in the solar system and provides a unique opportunity to explore s-process yields in a metal-poor environment. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  14. Measurement of the Radius of Neutron Stars with High Signal-to-noise Quiescent Low-mass X-Ray Binaries in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Servillat, Mathieu; Webb, Natalie A.; Rutledge, Robert E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter—present in the core of NSs—is best described by "normal matter" equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R NS, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of ~10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M NS>0.5 M ⊙). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R NS value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R NS, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R_NS =9.1^{+ 1.3}_{- 1.5} \\,km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R NS equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  15. Main-sequence and sub-giant stars in the globular cluster NGC 6397: The complex evolution of the lithium abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, J. I.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Behara, N.; Sbordone, L.; Cayrel, R.; Zaggia, S.

    2010-04-01

    Thanks to the high multiplex and efficiency of Giraffe at the VLT we have been able for the first time to observe the Li I doublet in the Main Sequence stars of a globular cluster. At the same time we observed Li in a sample of Sub-Giant stars of the same B-V colour. Our final sample is composed of 84 SG stars and 79 MS stars. In spite of the fact that SG and MS span the same temperature range we find that the equivalent widths of the Li I doublet in SG stars are systematically larger than those in MS stars, suggesting a higher Li content among SG stars. This is confirmed by our quantitative analysis carried out making use of 1D hydrostatic plane-parallel models and 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the stellar atmospheres. We derived the effective temperatures of stars in our the sample from Hα fitting. Theoretical profiles were computed using 3D hydrodynamical simulations and 1D ATLAS models. Therefore, we are able to determined 1D and 3D-based effective temperatures. We then infer Li abundances taking into account non-local thermodynamical equilibrium effects when using both 1D and 3D models. We find that SG stars have a mean Li abundance higher by 0.1 dex than MS stars. This result is obtained using both 1D and 3D models. We also detect a positive slope of Li abundance with effective temperature, the higher the temperature the higher the Li abundance, both for SG and MS stars, although the slope is slightly steeper for MS stars. These results provide an unambiguous evidence that the Li abundance changes with evolutionary status. The physical mechanisms responsible for this behaviour are not yet clear, and none of the existing models seems to describe accurately these observations. Based on these conclusions, we believe that the cosmological lithium problem still remains an open question.

  16. THE COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATION FOR METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87: CONFIRMATION FROM DEEP HST/ACS IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Eric W.; Jordan, Andres; Blakeslee, John P.; Cote, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura; Mieske, Steffen; Harris, William E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Meurer, Gerhardt R.

    2009-01-01

    Metal-poor globular clusters (GCs) are our local link to the earliest epochs of star formation and galaxy building. Studies of extragalactic GC systems using deep, high-quality imaging have revealed a small but significant slope to the color-magnitude relation for metal-poor GCs in a number of galaxies. We present a study of the M87 GC system using deep, archival HST/ACS imaging with the F606W and F814W filters, in which we find a significant color-magnitude relation for the metal-poor GCs. The slope of this relation in the I versus V-I color-magnitude diagram (γ I = -0.024 ± 0.006) is perfectly consistent with expectations based on previously published results using data from the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey. The relation is driven by the most luminous GCs, those with M I ∼ I = -7.8, a luminosity which is ∼1 mag fainter than our fitted Gaussian mean for the luminosity function (LF) of blue, metal-poor GCs (∼0.8 mag fainter than the mean for all GCs). These results indicate that there is a mass scale at which the correlation begins, and is consistent with a scenario where self-enrichment drives a mass-metallicity relationship. We show that previously measured half-light radii of M87 GCs from best-fit PSF-convolved King models are consistent with the more accurate measurements in this study, and we also explain how the color-magnitude relation for metal-poor GCs is real and cannot be an artifact of the photometry. We fit Gaussian and evolved Schechter functions to the luminosity distribution of GCs across all colors, as well as divided into blue and red subpopulations, finding that the blue GCs have a brighter mean luminosity and a narrower distribution than the red GCs. Finally, we present a catalog of astrometry and photometry for 2250 M87 GCs.

  17. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H2X-3R4 (Canada); Servillat, Mathieu [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Webb, Natalie A., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter-present in the core of NSs-is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R{sub NS}, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of {approx}10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M{sub NS}>0.5 M{sub Sun }). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R{sub NS} value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R{sub NS}, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R{sub NS}=9.1{sup +1.3}{sub -1.5} km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R{sub NS} equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  18. Sodium abundances of AGB and RGB stars in Galactic globular clusters. II. Analysis and results of NGC 104, NGC 6121, and NGC 6809

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Primas, F.; Charbonnel, C.; Van der Swaelmen, M.; Bono, G.; Chantereau, W.; Zhao, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We investigate the Na abundance distribution of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in Galactic globular clusters (GCs) and its possible dependence on GC global properties, especially age and metallicity. Methods: We analyze high-resolution spectra of a large sample of AGB and red giant branch (RGB) stars in the Galactic GCs NGC 104, NGC 6121, and NGC 6809 obtained with FLAMES/GIRAFFE at ESO/VLT, and determine their Na abundances. This is the first time that the AGB stars in NGC 6809 are targeted. Moreover, to investigate the dependence of AGB Na abundance dispersion on GC parameters, we compare the AGB [Na/H] distributions of a total of nine GCs, with five determined by ourselves with homogeneous method and four from literature, covering a wide range of GC parameters. Results: NGC 104 and NGC 6809 have comparable AGB and RGB Na abundance distributions revealed by the K-S test, while NGC 6121 shows a lack of very Na-rich AGB stars. By analyzing all nine GCs, we find that the Na abundances and multiple populations of AGB stars form complex picture. In some GCs, AGB stars have similar Na abundances and/or second-population fractions as their RGB counterparts, while some GCs do not have Na-rich second-population AGB stars, and various cases exist between the two extremes. In addition, the fitted relations between fractions of the AGB second population and GC global parameters show that the AGB second-population fraction slightly anticorrelates with GC central concentration, while no robust dependency can be confirmed with other GC parameters. Conclusions: Current data roughly support the prediction of the fast-rotating massive star (FRMS) scenario. However, considering the weak observational and theoretical trends where scatter and exceptions exist, the fraction of second-population AGB stars can be affected by more than one or two factors, and may even be a result of stochasticity. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal

  19. Feeling the Pull: A Study of Natural Galactic Accelerometers. II. Kinematics and Mass of the Delicate Stellar Stream of the Palomar 5 Globular Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Lewis, Geraint F.; Thomas, Guillaume; Martin, Nicolas F.; Chapman, Scott

    2017-06-01

    We present two spectroscopic surveys of the tidal stellar stream of the Palomar 5 globular cluster undertaken with the VLT/FLAMES and AAT/AAOmega instruments. We use these data in conjunction with photometric data presented in the previous contribution in this series to classify the survey stars in terms of their probability of belonging to the Palomar 5 stellar stream. We find that high-probability candidates are only found in a very narrow spatial interval surrounding the locus of the stream on the sky. PanSTARRS RR Lyrae stars in this region of the sky are also distributed in a similar manner. The absence of significant “fanning” of this stellar stream confirms that Palomar 5 does not follow a chaotic orbit. Previous studies have found that Palomar 5 is largely devoid of low-mass stars, and we show that this is true also of the stellar populations along the trailing arm out to 6^\\circ . Within this region, which contains 73% of the detected stars, the population is statistically identical to the core, implying that the ejection of the low-mass stars occurred before the formation of the stream. We also present an updated structural model fit to the bound remnant, which yields a total mass of 4297+/- 98{M}ȯ and a tidal radius 0.145+/- 0.009 {kpc}. We estimate the mass of the observed system including the stream to be 12,200 ± 400 M⊙, and the initial mass to have been ~47,000 ± 1500 M⊙. These observational constraints will be employed in our next study to model the dynamics of the system in detail. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institute National des Sciences de l’Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 081

  20. The evolution of and starburst-agn connection in luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies and their link to globular cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenza, Stephanie Lynn

    The evolutionary connection between nuclear starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGN) in luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; 1011 diagrams. I show that for the U/LIRGs in my sample the properties that describe their nuclear starbursts and AGN (e.g. star formation rate (SFR), L[O III], optical D parameter, D4000, and EW(Hdelta)) are independent of one another, ensuring that no biases affect correlations between these properties and objects' locations on the BPT diagrams. I then derive evolutionary paths on the BPT diagram involving [N II]/Halpha that are based on how these properties vary between two U/LIRGs positioned at the end-points. The paths involve U/LIRGs that decrease in SFR and increase in AGN activity. Paths with U/LIRGs that evolve into high luminosity AGN likely do so due to recent, strong starbursts. Second, to study how the properties of the IR power sources in U/LIRGs vary, I use a combination of photometric data points that I carefully measure (using photometry from SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and Spitzer) and that I retrieve from catalogues (IRAS, AKARI, and ISO) to perform UV to FIR SED-fitting with CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) for 34 U/LIRGs from the IRAS 2 Jy Redshift Survey with 0.01 125 Myr) agree with previous results, while those with younger starbursts show a large dispersion in Mstar. I conclude that this is supporting evidence that the star formation histories and timescales at which the IR power sources in U/LIRGs evolve are responsible for the scatter found for the SFR-Mstar relationship. U/LIRGs that form from merging gas-rich disk galaxies could also represent a stage of galaxy evolution involving heavy formation of globular clusters (GCs). It has been suggested that a large number of stellar clusters form during the merging of two gas-rich disk galaxies, leading to open and young massive clusters with the latter likely evolving into GCs. Furthering our understanding of GC formation can uncover the connection between GCs and

  1. Photometry of southern globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, R.D.; Stewart, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of prime focus plates taken on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope has been measured with an iris photometer, and calibrated using a faint photoelectric sequence. A colour-magnitude diagram has been obtained for about 300 faint stars in ω Cen. The main sequence turn-off point clearly lies below V = 18, confirming an earlier result that the difference in luminosity between the turn-off and the horizontal branch is larger than usual. However, this result probably does not imply an exceptionally large age for ω Cen. The improved precision of the present data permits an analysis of the intrinsic spread in colour among stars on the upper main sequence. The resultant distribution in colour is skew, after correction for field star contamination, and is consistent with a (presumably primordial) abundance spread similar to that found in the highly evolved giants and RR Lyrae stars. (author)

  2. Multiple stellar generations in the Large Magellanic Cloud Star Cluster NGC 1846

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milone, Antonino

    2010-09-01

    The recent discovery of multiple stellar populations in massive Galactic globular clusters poses a serious challenge for models of star cluster formation and evolution. The finding of multiple main sequences in the massive clusters NGC 2808 and omega Centauri, and multiple sub-giant-branch in NGC 1851 and many other globulars have demonstrated that star clusters are not as simple as we have imagined for decades. Surprisingly the only way to explain the main sequence splitting appears to be Helium enrichment, up to an astonishingly high Y 0.40.An unique angle on this problem can be provided by intermediate-age clusters in the Magellanic Clouds with peculiar main-sequence turn-off morphologies. Recent discoveries, based on ACS data of unparalleled photometric accuracy, have demonstrated that the CMDs of a large fraction of these clusters { 70 %} are not consistent with the simple, single stellar population hypothesis. Explanations for what conditions could give rise to multiple populations in Galactic Globular Clusters remain controversial; this is even more the case for LMC clustersTo properly constraint the multipopulation phenomenon in Magellanic Cloud star clusters, we propose deep UV/IR imaging of NGC 1846, a star cluster where multiple populations have already been identified. The proposed observation will allow us to accurately measure the age difference between the stellar populations providing fundamental clues on the formation mechanism. Our simulations of WFC3 performance suggest that we will be able to detect even the main sequence splitting caused by small He differences {Delta Y 0.02}.

  3. Macropolyhedral boron-containing cluster chemistry. Isolation and structure of the twenty-one-vertex globular cluster compound [(.eta..sup.5./sup.-C.sub.5./sub.Me.sub.5./sub.).sub.3./sub.Ir.sub.3./sub.B.sub.18./sub.H.sub.15./sub.(OH)].sup.1./sup..

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shea, S. L.; Jelínek, Tomáš; Štíbr, Bohumil; Thornton-Pett, M.; Kennedy, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2000), s. 169-172 ISSN 1387-7003 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4032701; GA ČR GA203/00/1042; GA AV ČR KSK2050602 Grant - others:EPSRC(GB) F/78323; EPSRC(GB) J/56929; EPSRC(GB) K/05818; EPSRC(GB) L/49505; EPSRC(GB) M/83360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : globular * cluster * borane Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.090, year: 2000

  4. STAR CLUSTERS IN M31. II. OLD CLUSTER METALLICITIES AND AGES FROM HECTOSPEC DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo; Morrison, Heather; Harding, Paul; Rose, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We present new high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data on the M31