WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate voltage inductor

  1. Systems and methods for switched-inductor integrated voltage regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kenneth L.; Sturcken, Noah Andrew

    2017-12-12

    Power controller includes an output terminal having an output voltage, at least one clock generator to generate a plurality of clock signals and a plurality of hardware phases. Each hardware phase is coupled to the at least one clock generator and the output terminal and includes a comparator. Each hardware phase is configured to receive a corresponding one of the plurality of clock signals and a reference voltage, combine the corresponding clock signal and the reference voltage to produce a reference input, generate a feedback voltage based on the output voltage, compare the reference input and the feedback voltage using the comparator and provide a comparator output to the output terminal, whereby the comparator output determines a duty cycle of the power controller. An integrated circuit including the power controller is also provided.

  2. An Integrated Inductor For Parallel Interleaved Three-Phase Voltage Source Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Three phase Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) are often connected in parallel to realize high current output converter system. The harmonic quality of the resultant switched output voltage can be improved by interleaving the carrier signals of these parallel connected VSCs. As a result, the line...... of the state-of-the-art filtering solution. The performance of the integrated inductor is also verified by the experimental measurements....

  3. An inductor-based converter with EMI reduction for low-voltage thermoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Zunchao

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a self-powered inductor-based converter which harvests thermoelectric energy and boosts extremely low voltage to a typical voltage level for supplying body sensor nodes. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the converter is reduced by spreading spectrum of fundamental frequency and harmonics via pseudo-random modulation, which is obtained via combining the linear feedback shift register and digitally controlled oscillator. Besides, the methods, namely extracting energy near MPP and reducing the power dissipation, are employed to improve the power efficiency. The presented inductor-based converter is designed and verified in CSMC CMOS 0.18-µm 1P6M process. The results reveal that it achieves the high efficiency and EMI reduction at the same time.

  4. Inductor Design Comparison of Three-wire and Four-wire Three-phase Voltage Source Converters in Power Factor Correction Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Nymand, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the inductor design for three-wire and four-wire power factor correction converter (PFC). Designing the efficient inductor for this converter (regardless of connecting the midpoint to the ground) requires a comprehensive knowledge of the inductor current and voltage behavior....... This paper investigates how changing three-wire PFC to four-wire counterpart influences the inductor design in terms of size, losses, and overall efficiency of the converter. Therefore, the inductor current and voltage waveforms are analyzed and generalized in both cases for one switching cycle to build...... a foundation for comparison. Accordingly, the analyses are able to interpret the differences between both configurations and explain the core losses and the copper losses of inductors, especially those caused by the high frequency ac current ripple. Finally, two inductors are designed for a 5 kW PFC...

  5. Resonant-inductor-voltage feedback active damping based control for grid-connected inverters with LLCL-filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    damping method with an extra feedback provides a high rejection of the resonance so that the dynamic is improved. In this paper, taking a Proportional-Resonant (PR) together with a harmonic compensator (HC), resonant-inductor-voltage-feedback active damping is applied on an LLCL-filter based three...... of the proposed method is investigated in simulation and by experimental results....

  6. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  7. Fabrication, characterization and comparison of composite magnetic materials for high efficiency integrated voltage regulators with embedded magnetic core micro-inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellaredj, Mohamed L F; Mueller, Sebastian; Davis, Anto K; Swaminathan, Madhavan; Mano, Yasuhiko; Kohl, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    High-efficiency integrated voltage regulators (IVRs) require the integration of power inductors, which have low loss and reduced size at very high frequency. The use of a magnetic material core can reduce significantly the inductor area and simultaneously increase the inductance. This paper focuses on the fabrication, characterization and modeling of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite and carbonyl iron powder (CIP)-epoxy magnetic composite materials, which are used as the magnetic core materials of embedded inductors in a printed wiring board (PWB) for a system in package (SIP) based buck type IVR. The fabricated composite materials and process are fully compatible with FR4 epoxy resin prepreg and laminate. For 85% weight loading of the magnetic powder (around 100 MHz at room temperature), the composite materials show a relative permeability of 7.5–8.1 for the NiZn ferrite composite and 5.2–5.6 for the CIP composite and a loss tangent value of 0.24–0.28 for the NiZn ferrite composite and 0.09–0.1 for the CIP-composite. The room temperature saturation flux density values are 0.1351 T and 0.5280 T for the NiZn ferrite and the CIP composites, respectively. The frequency dispersion parameters of the magnetic composites are modeled using a simplified Lorentz and Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation for a Debye type relaxation. Embedded magnetic core solenoid inductors were designed based on the composite materials for the output filter of a high-efficiency SIP based buck type IVR. Evaluation of a SIP based buck type IVR with the designed inductors shows that it can reach peak efficiencies of 91.7% at 11 MHz for the NiZn ferrite-composite, 91.6% at 14 MHz for CIP-composite and 87.5% (NiZn ferrite-composite) and 87.3% (CIP-composite) efficiency at 100 MHz for a 1.7 V:1.05 V conversion. For a direct 5 V:1 V conversion using a stacked topology, a peak efficiency of 82% at 10 MHz and 72% efficiency at 100 MHz can be achieved for both materials. (paper)

  8. Fabrication, characterization and comparison of composite magnetic materials for high efficiency integrated voltage regulators with embedded magnetic core micro-inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaredj, Mohamed L. F.; Mueller, Sebastian; Davis, Anto K.; Mano, Yasuhiko; Kohl, Paul A.; Swaminathan, Madhavan

    2017-11-01

    High-efficiency integrated voltage regulators (IVRs) require the integration of power inductors, which have low loss and reduced size at very high frequency. The use of a magnetic material core can reduce significantly the inductor area and simultaneously increase the inductance. This paper focuses on the fabrication, characterization and modeling of nickel zinc (NiZn) ferrite and carbonyl iron powder (CIP)-epoxy magnetic composite materials, which are used as the magnetic core materials of embedded inductors in a printed wiring board (PWB) for a system in package (SIP) based buck type IVR. The fabricated composite materials and process are fully compatible with FR4 epoxy resin prepreg and laminate. For 85% weight loading of the magnetic powder (around 100 MHz at room temperature), the composite materials show a relative permeability of 7.5-8.1 for the NiZn ferrite composite and 5.2-5.6 for the CIP composite and a loss tangent value of 0.24-0.28 for the NiZn ferrite composite and 0.09-0.1 for the CIP-composite. The room temperature saturation flux density values are 0.1351 T and 0.5280 T for the NiZn ferrite and the CIP composites, respectively. The frequency dispersion parameters of the magnetic composites are modeled using a simplified Lorentz and Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for a Debye type relaxation. Embedded magnetic core solenoid inductors were designed based on the composite materials for the output filter of a high-efficiency SIP based buck type IVR. Evaluation of a SIP based buck type IVR with the designed inductors shows that it can reach peak efficiencies of 91.7% at 11 MHz for the NiZn ferrite-composite, 91.6% at 14 MHz for CIP-composite and 87.5% (NiZn ferrite-composite) and 87.3% (CIP-composite) efficiency at 100 MHz for a 1.7 V:1.05 V conversion. For a direct 5 V:1 V conversion using a stacked topology, a peak efficiency of 82% at 10 MHz and 72% efficiency at 100 MHz can be achieved for both materials.

  9. Proposal of Carbon Nanotube Inductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsubaki, K; Nakajima, Y; Hanajiri, T; Yamaguchi, H

    2006-01-01

    The inductors made of carbon Nanotube (CNT) have been proposed. Though the fabrication of the proposed inductor is still challenging and has many problems, merits of the proposed inductor are following...

  10. Study on paralleled inverters with current-sharing coupled inductors on J-TEXT Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, J.; Rao, B., E-mail: borao@hust.edu.cn; Zhang, M.; Ma, S.X.; Liang, X.; Yu, K.X.; Pan, Y.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A modification scheme of heating field power supply system for plasma current modulation. • High-power fast control power supply with multilevel cascade circuit. • Restraining circulating current with coupled inductors in cyclic symmetric structure. • Analysis on the topology with current-sharing coupled inductors. - Abstract: The coupled inductors in paralleled inverters are applied to restrain the high frequency circulating current on J-TEXT Tokamak. Compared with individual inductor, this method has the benefit of high voltage utilization, less volume and weight of the inductor. In this paper, circuit topology of coupled inductors in cyclic symmetry structure for steady-state operation is analyzed and then the design of the inductor is introduced. The maximum circulating current is related to number of parallel branch, DC side voltage, self-inductance of the inductor and the frequency of carrier wave. The simulation and prototype experiment results verify the design.

  11. Characterization of embroidered inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jung-Sim; Chi, Yong-Seung; Lee, Jae-Hee; Nam, Sangwook; Kang, Tae Jin

    2010-11-01

    As the demand for wearable intelligent textile systems continues to expand, it is now essential to achieve a high-level of electronic circuit integration into textiles. By applying a commercial yarn manufacturing technique and a computer numerical control (CNC) embroidery process, metal composite embroidery yarns (MCEYs) comprised of three strands of fine metal filaments and polyester filaments, and embroidered circuits have been successfully produced. Using MCEYs, circular and square spiral inductors were embroidered on a textile substrate. Their inductive characteristics, i.e. inductance, self-resonance frequency, and quality factor, were investigated under three different environments, i.e. in free space, on a human body, and with a metal fabric ground. Their inductive characteristics could be easily modified by adjusting the circuit design. The validity of the MCEY inductors was demonstrated with Wheeler's formula and design equations for the MCEY inductors were proposed. When in contact with the human body, the self-resonance frequency of the circuit decreased but the inductance was not affected. Although the inductance and maximum quality factor decreased with a metal ground, the inductor gave a stable performance irrespective of the environment. The results also suggest that MCEY embroidery is a simple and eco-friendly process for producing flexible, light-weight, wearable circuitries in various designs.

  12. Characterization of embroidered inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Jung-Sim; Kang, Tae Jin; Chi, Yong-Seung; Lee, Jae-Hee; Nam, Sangwook

    2010-01-01

    As the demand for wearable intelligent textile systems continues to expand, it is now essential to achieve a high-level of electronic circuit integration into textiles. By applying a commercial yarn manufacturing technique and a computer numerical control (CNC) embroidery process, metal composite embroidery yarns (MCEYs) comprised of three strands of fine metal filaments and polyester filaments, and embroidered circuits have been successfully produced. Using MCEYs, circular and square spiral inductors were embroidered on a textile substrate. Their inductive characteristics, i.e. inductance, self-resonance frequency, and quality factor, were investigated under three different environments, i.e. in free space, on a human body, and with a metal fabric ground. Their inductive characteristics could be easily modified by adjusting the circuit design. The validity of the MCEY inductors was demonstrated with Wheeler's formula and design equations for the MCEY inductors were proposed. When in contact with the human body, the self-resonance frequency of the circuit decreased but the inductance was not affected. Although the inductance and maximum quality factor decreased with a metal ground, the inductor gave a stable performance irrespective of the environment. The results also suggest that MCEY embroidery is a simple and eco-friendly process for producing flexible, light-weight, wearable circuitries in various designs

  13. Low profile, low cost, new geometry integrated inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2011-01-01

    windings with well-defined thickness. Many advantages and disadvantages are described in depth. In this work, inverse coupling and direct coupling in the new geometry integrated inductors have been analyzed. Coupling characteristic caused by a special saturation behavior has been emphasis. And also...... variable inductors caused by the special saturation behavior may be utilized in some applications. The new integrated inductors make it possible to build low-profile, low-cost, flexibility DC/DC converters, and it can be extensively designed for the low-voltage and high-current required by the modern...

  14. Extended topologies of tapped-inductor Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Miao; Li, Ding; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two distinct types of tapped-inductor Z-source impedance networks are proposed for implementing high performance voltage-type inverters topologies with strong voltage boost inversion abilities and less components' stresses. All proposed topologies can in principle be unified...... into a generic network entity, which is termed hybrid-source tapped-inductor impedance network. The resulting novel Z-source inverters would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not yet been investigated. Theoretical analysis for explaining these operating features...

  15. Bubble inductors: Pneumatic tuning of a stretchable inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Nathan; Bedair, Sarah S.

    2018-05-01

    From adaptive matching networks in power systems to channel selectable RF filters and circuitry, tunable inductors are fundamental components for circuits requiring reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate a new continuously tunable inductor based on physically stretching the inductor traces themselves. Liquid-metal-based stretchable conductors are wrapped around a pneumatic bubble actuator, allowing the inductor to be collapsed or expanded by application of pressure. In vacuum the bubble collapses, bringing the loop area to nearly zero, while positive pressure brings a dramatic increase in area and loop inductance. Using this approach, the inductor demonstrated in this work was able to achieve a tuning ratio of 2.6 with 1-2 second response time. With conductors available that can stretch by hundreds of percent, this technique is promising for very large tuning ratios in continuously tunable inductors.

  16. An analytical inductor design procedure for three-phase PWM converters in power factor correction applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouchaki, Alireza; Niroumand, Farideh Javidi; Haase, Frerk

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyze...... to calculate the core loss in the PFC application. To investigate the impact of the dc link voltage level, two inductors for different dc voltage levels are designed and the results are compared.......This paper presents an analytical method for designing the inductor of three-phase power factor correction converters (PFCs). The complex behavior of the inductor current complicates the inductor design procedure as well as the core loss and copper loss calculations. Therefore, this paper analyzes...... circuit is used to provide the inductor current harmonic spectrum. Therefore, using the harmonic spectrum, the low and high frequency copper losses are calculated. The high frequency minor B-H loops in one switching cycle are also analyzed. Then, the loss map provided by the measurement setup is used...

  17. Fully On-chip High Q Inductors Based on Microtechnologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriyang SHAH

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless biosensor networks (WBSNs collect information about biological responses and process it using scattered battery-power sensor nodes. Such nodes demand ultra low-power consumption for longer operating time. Ultra Wide Band (UWB is a potential solution for WBSNs due to its advantage in low power consumption at reasonable data rate. However, such UBW technology requires high quality (Q factor passive components. This paper presents detailed analysis, design and optimization of physical parameters of silicon-on-sapphire (SOS and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS inductors for application in UWB transceivers. Results showed that the 1.5 nH SOS inductor achieved Q factor of 111 and MEMS inductor achieved Q factor of 45 at 4 GHz frequency. The voltage controlled oscillator (VCO designed with SOS inductor achieved more than 10 dBc/Hz reduction in phase noise and consumed half the power compared to VCO with MEMS inductor. Such low power VCO will improve battery life of a UWB wireless sensor node.

  18. Stress-based Variable-inductor for Electronic Ballasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lihui; Xia, Yongming; Lu, Kaiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Current-controlled variable inductors adjust the inductance of an alternating current (ac) coil by applying a controlled dc current to saturate the iron cores of the ac coil. The controlled dc current has to be maintained during operation, which results in increased power losses. This paper prese......-based variable inductor concept is validated using a 3-D finite-element analysis. A prototype was manufactured, and the experimental results are presented. A linear relationship between inductance and applied stress can be achieved.......Current-controlled variable inductors adjust the inductance of an alternating current (ac) coil by applying a controlled dc current to saturate the iron cores of the ac coil. The controlled dc current has to be maintained during operation, which results in increased power losses. This paper...... presents a new stress-based variable inductor to control inductance using the inverse magnetostrictive effect of a magnetostrictive material. The stress can be applied by a piezoelectrical material, and thus a voltage-controlled variable inductor can be realized with zero-power consumption. The new stress...

  19. Transformer and inductor design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    McLyman, Colonel Wm T

    2011-01-01

    With its practical approach to design, Transformer and Inductor Design Handbook, Fourth Edition distinguishes itself from other books by presenting information and guidance that is shaped primarily by the user's needs and point of view. Expanded and revised to address recent industry developments, the fourth edition of this classic reference is re-organized and improved, again serving as a constant aid for anyone seeking to apply the state of the art in transformer and inductor design. Carefully considering key factors such as overall system weight, power conversion efficiency, and cost, the a

  20. Two-inductor boost and buck converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J. L.; Muldoon, W. J.

    The derivation, analysis and design of a coupled inductor boost converter is presented. Aspects of the qualitative ac behavior of coupled inductor converters are discussed. Considerations for the design of the magnetics for such converters are addressed.

  1. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  2. Charged particle transport in gaseous nitrogen at intermediate E/N using the voltage transient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, P.H.; Fletcher, J.

    1992-01-01

    A pulsed swarm of charged particles crossing an inter-electrode gap under the influence of an applied electric field E will produce a pulsed current in the external circuit which, when integrated over time, will result in a transient voltage pulse, the shape and magnitude of which is characteristic of the number of type of charged particles. This voltage transient technique has been used to investigate a gas discharge in nitrogen gas at values of E/N (the ratio of applied electric field to gas number density), such that ionization is non-negligible. The voltage transients have been subjected to a theoretical analysis, which has previously been reported, which includes not only cathode and anode image terms but also both electron and ion diffusion terms. Electron transport parameters are reported for E/N ≤ 350 Td (1 Td = 10 -17 V cm 2 ). Data are also obtained for the drift velocities and diffusion coefficients of the ions operative within the nitrogen discharge. An estimate is obtained for the collisional decay rate of N 2 + . 21 refs., 7 figs

  3. A Tapped-Inductor Buck-Boost Converter for a Dielectric ElectroActive Polymer Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    of commercially-available, high-efficient, high-voltage, low-power semiconductor devices. In this paper, a high-efficient bidirectional tapped-inductor buck-boost converter, addressing high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, is proposed for energy harvesting applications based on DEAP...

  4. An Integrated Inductor for Parallel Interleaved VSCs and PWM Schemes for Flux Minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    The interleaving of the carrier signals of the parallel Voltage Source Converters (VSCs) can reduce the harmonic content in the resultant switched output voltages. As a result, the size of the line filter inductor can be reduced. However, in addition to the line filter, an inductive filter is often...

  5. Super conducting fault current limiter and inductor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, J.; Boenig, H.; Chowdhuri, P.; Schermer, R.; Weldon, D.; Wollan, J.

    1983-01-01

    A superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) that uses a biased superconducting inductor in a diode or thyristor bridge circuit was analyzed for transmission systems in 69, 138, and 230 rms kV utility transmission systems. The limiter was evaluated for costs with all components--superconducting coil, diode and/or SCR power electronics, high voltage insulation, high voltage bushings and vapor cooled leads, dewar, and refrigerator--included. A design was undertaken for the superconducting cable and coils for both diode and SCR 69 kV limiter circuits

  6. A Practical Core Loss Model for Filter Inductors of Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsumori, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Wang, Xiongfei

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a core loss model for filter inductors of power electronic converters. The model allows a computationally efficient analysis on the core loss of the inductor under the square voltage excitation and the premagnetization condition. First, the core loss of the filter inductor under...... buck chopper excitation is evaluated with the proposed model and compared with the conventional methods. The comparison shows that the proposed method results in a better core loss prediction under the premagnetized condition than that of conventional alternatives. Then, the core loss of the filter...... inductor with the pulsewidth modulated inverter excitation is evaluated, which shows that the proposed model not only accurately predicts the core loss but also identifies the hysteresis loss part. These results demonstrate that the approach can further be used for the development of magnetic materials...

  7. Microfabrication of air core power inductors with metal-encapsulated polymer vias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jungkwun; Herrault, Florian; Yu, Xuehong; Kim, Minsoo; Shafer, Richard H; Allen, Mark G

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports three-dimensional (3-D) microfabricated toroidal inductors intended for power electronics applications. A key fabrication advance is the exploitation of thick metal encapsulation of polymer pillars to form a vertical via interconnections. The radial conductors of the toroidal inductor are formed by conventional plating-through-mold techniques, while the vertical windings (up to 650 µm in height) are formed by polymer cores with metal plated on their external surfaces. This encapsulated polymer approach not only significantly reduces the required plating time but also exploits the relative ease of fabricating high-aspect-ratio SU-8 pillars. To form the top radial conductors, non-photopatternable SU-8 is introduced as a thick sacrificial layer. Two toroidal inductor geometries were fabricated and tested. The first inductor had an inner diameter of 2 mm, an outer diameter of 6 mm, 25 turns and a vertical via height of 650 µm. The second inductor had an inner diameter of 4 mm, an outer diameter of 8 mm, 50 turns and a vertical via height of 650 µm. Both inductor geometries were successfully fabricated and characterized in the frequency range of 0.1−100 MHz. Characterization results of the 25- and 50-turn inductors showed an average inductance of 76 and 200 nH, a low frequency (0.1 MHz) resistance of 0.2 and 1 Ω and a quality factor of 35 and 24 at 100 MHz, respectively. Finite-element simulations of the inductors were performed and agreed with the measured results to within 8%. The turn-to-turn breakdown voltage was measured to be in excess of 800 V and currents as high as 0.5 A could be successfully carried by the inductor windings. (paper)

  8. Comparison of three-phase three-level voltage source inverter with intermediate dc–dc boost converter and quasi-Z-source inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panfilov, Dmitry; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This study compares a three-phase three-level voltage source inverter with an intermediate dc-dc boost converter and a quasi-Z-source inverter in terms of passive elements values and dimensions, semiconductor stresses, and overall efficiency. A comparative analysis was conducted with relative...

  9. Analytical Approach to Circulating Current Mitigation in Hexagram Converter-Based Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems Using Multiwinding Coupled Inductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullrahman A. Al-Shamma’a

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hexagram multilevel converter (HMC is composed of six conventional two-level voltage source converters (VSCs, where each VSC module is connected to a string of PV arrays. The VSC modules are connected through inductors, which are essential to minimize the circulating current. Selecting inductors with suitable inductance is no simple process, where the inductance value should be large to minimize the circulating current as well as small to reduce an extra voltage drop. This paper analyzes the utilization of a multiwinding (e.g., two, three, and six windings coupled inductor to interconnect the six VSC modules instead of six single inductors, to minimize the circulating current inside the HMC. Then, a theoretical relationship between the total impedance to the circulating current, the number of coupled inductor windings, and the magnetizing inductance is derived. Owing to the coupled inductors, the impedance on the circulating current path is a multiple of six times the magnetizing inductance, whereas the terminal voltage is slightly affected by the leakage inductance. The HMC is controlled to work under variable solar radiation, providing active power to the grid. Additional functions such as DSTATCOM, during daytime, are also demonstrated. The controller performance is found to be satisfactory for both active and reactive power supplies.

  10. Ferrofluid-based Stretchable Magnetic Core Inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, N.; Meyer, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic materials are commonly used in inductor and transformer cores to increase inductance density. The emerging field of stretchable electronics poses a new challenge since typical magnetic cores are bulky, rigid and often brittle. This paper presents, for the first time, stretchable inductors incorporating ferrofluid as a liquid magnetic core. Ferrofluids, suspensions of nanoscale magnetic particles in a carrier liquid, provide enhanced magnetic permeability without changing the mechanical properties of the surrounding elastomer. The inductor tested in this work consisted of a liquid metal solenoid wrapped around a ferrofluid core in separate channels. The low frequency inductance was found to increase from 255 nH before fill to 390 nH after fill with ferrofluid, an increase of 52%. The inductor was also shown to survive uniaxial strains of up to 100%.

  11. Stretchable inductor with liquid magnetic core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, N.; Meyer, C. D.

    2016-03-01

    Adding magnetic materials is a well-established method for improving performance of inductors. However, traditional magnetic cores are rigid and poorly suited for the emerging field of stretchable electronics, where highly deformable inductors are used to wirelessly couple power and data signals. In this work, stretchable inductors are demonstrated based on the use of ferrofluids, magnetic liquids based on distributed magnetic particles, to create a compliant magnetic core. Using a silicone molding technique to create multi-layer fluidic channels, a liquid metal solenoid is fabricated around a ferrofluid channel. An analytical model is developed for the effects of mechanical strain, followed by experimental verification using two different ferrofluids with different permeabilities. Adding ferrofluid was found to increase the unstrained inductance by up to 280% relative to a similar inductor with a non-magnetic silicone core, while retaining the ability to survive uniaxial strains up to 100%.

  12. Square function analysis of the Inductor-Converter Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, M.; Kustom, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    The transfer of energy between two superconducting coils can be controlled with an Inductor-Converter Bridge (ICB) by changing the relative timing between the storage side bridge and the load side bridge. The average voltages on the coils have been previously derived as a function of relative timing between the two halves of the bridges and the relative currents in the two coils using a one-line, harmonic current source representation of each coil and its bridge network. Since the coil current in each of the ICB phases appears as bipolar rectangular pulses, an analysis based on unit step functions has been developed. The unit step function analysis leads to simple polynomial expressions relating the average coil voltages to relative timing. The new derivations are shown to have the same harmonic representation as previously developed. The polynomial expressions are more compatible to microprocessor control than are the harmonic function expressions

  13. Effect of state feedback coupling on the transient performance of voltage source inverters with LC filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michele; Antonio DeSouza Ribeiro, Luiz

    2016-01-01

    State feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current deteriorates notably the performance during transients of voltage and current regulators in stand-alone systems based on voltage source inverters. A decoupling technique is proposed, considering the limitations introduced...

  14. Ultra-Step-Up DC-DC Converter with Integrated Autotransformer and Coupled Inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-switch nonisolated dc-dc converter with very high voltage transfer ratio and reduced semiconductor voltage stress. The converter utilizes an integrated autotransformer and a coupled inductor on the same core to achieve a high step-up voltage gain without extreme...... duty cycle. Further, an integrated passive regenerative circuit recycles the leakage energy of the coupled magnetics and transfer the leakage energy to the load, which helps to avoid high voltage spikes across the switch. This feature along with low stress on the switching device enables the designer...

  15. Investigation of the open-circuit voltage in wide-bandgap InGaP-host InP quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Taketo; Tayagaki, Takeshi; Nagato, Yuki; Okano, Yoshinobu; Sugaya, Takeyoshi

    2018-04-01

    To analyze the open-circuit voltage (V oc) in intermediate-band solar cells, we investigated the current-voltage characteristics in wide-bandgap InGaP-based InP quantum dot (QD) solar cells. From the temperature dependence of the current-voltage curves, we show that the V oc in InP QD solar cells increases with decreasing temperature. We use a simple diode model to extract V oc at the zero-temperature limit, V 0, and the temperature coefficient C of the solar cells. Our results show that, while the C of InP QD solar cells is slightly larger than that of the reference InGaP solar cells, V 0 significantly decreases and coincides with the bandgap energy of the InP QDs rather than that of the InGaP host. This V 0 indicates that the V oc reduction in the InP QD solar cells is primarily caused by the breaking of the Fermi energy separation between the QDs and the host semiconductor in intermediate-band solar cells, rather than by enhanced carrier recombination.

  16. A 65 nm CMOS high efficiency 50 GHz VCO with regard to the coupling effect of inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yu; Tian Tong

    2013-01-01

    A 50 GHz cross-coupled voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) considering the coupling effect of inductors based on a 65 nm standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is reported. A pair of inductors has been fabricated, measured and analyzed to characterize the coupling effects of adjacent inductors. The results are then implemented to accurately evaluate the VCO's LC tank. By optimizing the tank voltage swing and the buffer's operation region, the VCO achieves a maximum efficiency of 11.4% by generating an average output power of 2.5 dBm while only consuming 19.7 mW (including buffers). The VCO exhibits a phase noise of −87 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset, leading to a figure of merit (FoM) of −167.5 dB/Hz and a tuning range of 3.8% (from 48.98 to 50.88 GHz). (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Multistage switched inductor boost converter for renewable energy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Bhaskar, Mahajan Sagar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper Multistage Switched Inductor Boost Converter (Multistage SIBC) is uttered for renewable energy applications. The projected converter is derived from an amalgamation of the conventional step-up converter and inductor stack. The number of inductor and duty ratio decides the overall...

  18. Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehsani, Mehrdad; Kustom, Robert L.

    1981-08-01

    The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis.

  19. Development, analysis, and control of the inductor-converter bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, M.; Kustom, R.L.

    1981-08-01

    The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state dc-ac-dc power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two high Q magnet coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field (EF) coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors, from another superconducting energy storage coil. This report presents work on the analysis and control of the ICB system. The process of energy transfer between the coils is explained on the basis of a simple one line equivalent circuit. This circuit is the topological dual of the one line diagram of the nonsalient pole synchoronous generator, connected to the infinite bus through its synchronous reactance. The changes in the average power, average coil currents, and voltages, as functions of time, are calculated by the conventional Fourier method of analysis

  20. Small inductor Loaded mobile phone Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a size reduction technique of the Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) is presented. Using an 18 nH lumped inductor in addition to a small 0.3 cm3 PIFA located on a 5 mm thick dielectric foam above a 40 x 100 mm2 ground plane it is possible to reduce the resonant frequency by 33 % for a...

  1. Generalized Switched-Inductor Based Buck-Boost Z-H Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Babaei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a generalized buck-boost Z-H converter based on switched inductors is proposed. This structure consists of a set of series connected switched-inductor cells. The voltage conversion ratio of the proposed structure is adjusted by changing the number of cells and the duty cycle. Like the conventional Z-H converter, the shoot-through switching state and the diode before LC network are eliminated. The proposed converter can provide high voltage gain in low duty cycles. Considering different values for duty cycle, the proposed structure works in two operating zones. In the first operating zone, it works as a buck-boost converter and in the second operating zone, it works as a boost converter. In this paper, a complete analysis of the proposed converter is presented. In order to confirm the accuracy of mathematic calculations, the simulations results by using PSCAD/EMTDC software are given.

  2. Single Switch Nonisolated Ultra-Step-Up DC-DC Converter with an Integrated Coupled Inductor for High Boost Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new single-switch nonisolated dc-dc converter with very high voltage gain and reduced semiconductor voltage stress. The converter utilizes an integrated autotransformer and a coupled inductor on the same core in order to achieve a very high voltage gain without using extreme...... duty cycle. Furthermore, a passive lossless clamp circuit recycles the leakage energy of the coupled magnetics and alleviates the voltage spikes across the main switch. This feature along with low stress on the switching device enables the designer to use a low voltage and low RDS-on MOSFET, which...

  3. A new soft-switched high step-up DC-DC converter with dual coupled inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Shen, Yanfeng; Yari, Keyvan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a new efficient high step-up dc-dc converter with a shared input path and dual series coupled inductors at the output. This converter is suitable for high power applications due to its shared input current that puts low current stresses on the low voltage side switches...

  4. A soft-switching coupled inductor bidirectional DC-DC converter with high-conversion ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Jheng, Yi-Cing

    2018-01-01

    A soft-switching bidirectional DC-DC converter is presented herein as a way to improve the conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic (PV) system. Adoption of coupled inductors enables the presented converter not only to provide a high-conversion ratio but also to suppress the transient surge voltage via the release of the energy stored in leakage flux of the coupled inductors, and the cost can kept down consequently. A combined use of a switching mechanism and an auxiliary resonant branch enables the converter to successfully perform zero-voltage switching operations on the main switches and improves the efficiency accordingly. It was testified by experiments that our proposed converter works relatively efficiently in full-load working range. Additionally, the framework of the converter intended for testifying has high-conversion ratio. The results of a test, where a generating system using PV module array coupled with batteries as energy storage device was used as the low-voltage input side, and DC link was used as high-voltage side, demonstrated our proposed converter framework with high-conversion ratio on both high-voltage and low-voltage sides.

  5. PEMODELAN DAN SIMULASI TOPOLOGI SINGLE ENDED PRIMARY INDUCTOR CONVERTER (SEPIC) UNTUK MINI 3 PLUS WIND TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    Prasetiyo, Ryan; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I Made

    2016-01-01

    In order to have a DC-DC buck boost converter with performances as desired specifications, the design process was performed by developing a model and simulation. The purpose of this research was to design a converter applied for a MINI 3 plus Wind Turbine. The converter topology was designed with Single Ended Primary Inductor Converter (SEPIC) using  a Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM). The output specifications of converter are input voltage 60 V, input current 7,5 A, output voltage 25 V...

  6. New C4D Sensor with a Simulated Inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchao Lyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D sensor with an improved simulated inductor is developed in this work. The improved simulated inductor is designed on the basis of the Riordan-type floating simulated inductor. With the improved simulated inductor, the negative influence of the coupling capacitances is overcome and the conductivity measurement is implemented by the series resonance principle. The conductivity measurement experiments are carried out in three pipes with different inner diameters of 3.0 mm, 4.6 mm and 6.4 mm, respectively. The experimental results show that the designs of the new C4D sensor and the improved simulated inductor are successful. The maximum relative error of the conductivity measurement is less than 5%. Compared with the C4D sensors using practical inductors, the measurement accuracy of the new C4D sensor is comparable. The research results also indicate that the adjustability of a simulated inductor can reduce the requirement for the AC source and guarantee the interchangeableness. Meanwhile, it is recommended that making the potential of one terminal of a simulated inductor stable is beneficial to the running stability. Furthermore, this work indirectly verifies the possibility and feasibility of the miniaturization of the C4D sensor by using the simulated inductor technique and lays a good foundation for future research work.

  7. High-frequency micro-machined power inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, N.; O'Donnell, T.; Roy, S.; Brunet, M.; McCloskey, P.; O'Mathuna, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    Power inductors have been fabricated on silicon substrates using low-temperature IC compatible processes. The electrical properties of these micro-inductors have been measured and discussed. A maximum quality factor of 6 at 4 MHz has been achieved with an inductance value of about 160 nH. The DC saturation currents of the non-gapped and gapped inductors are ∼500 and 700 mA, respectively. The relatively high Q factor and the load current characteristics allow these micro-machined inductors to be used in integrated power converters

  8. Design and analysis of spiral inductors

    CERN Document Server

    Haobijam, Genemala

    2013-01-01

    The book addresses the critical challenges faced by the ever-expanding wireless communication market and the increasing frequency of operation due to continuous innovation of high performance integrated passive devices. The challenges like low quality factor, design complexity, manufacturability, processing cost, etc., are studied with examples and specifics. Silicon on-chip inductor was first reported in 1990 by Nguyen and Meyer in a 0.8 µm silicon bipolar complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology (BiCMOS). Since then, there has been an enormous progress in the research on the perfo

  9. A Comparison between Buck-Boost Inverter with and without Buffer Inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwadi Agus Darwito

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle inverter requires an induction motor drive with a high output of voltage and current to reduce the number of batteries used and in turn reduce the vehicle’s weight. In this paper compared two single Phase BuckBoost Inverter (SPBBI, that is between the SPBBI conventional topology with SPBBI new topology uses a buffer inductor. The results of comparison are expected that the new inverter topology can strengthen the voltage greater than the conventional inverter topology. The inverter’s components of capacitor and inductor were reconfigured. The circuit was simulated for various carrier and signal frequencies with various load. The simulation results of the proposed topology compared with the simulation results of conventional topologies commonly used in a variety of frequency and load values. It is shown that the output voltage and current can be strengthened significantly, with a value of more than five times of the output voltage compared to the conventional inverter. The new inverter topology is useful to be implemented for the electric vehicle.

  10. Three-phase electric drive with modified electronic smoothing inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a three-phase electric drive with a modified electronic smoothing inductor (MESI) having reduced size of passive components. The classical electronic smoothing inductor (ESI) is able to control a diode bridge output current and also reduce not only mains current harmonics...

  11. Op-amp gyrator simulates high Q inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Gyrator circuit consisting of dual operational amplifier and four resistors inverts impedance of capacitor to simulate inductor. Synthetic inductor has high Q factor, good stability, wide bandwidth, and easily determined value of inductance that is independent of frequency. It readily lends itself to integrated-circuit applications, including filter networks.

  12. Performance of Inductors Attached to a Galvanizing Bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinping; Yuan, Shuo; Liu, Chi; Yang, Peng; Qian, Chaoqun; Song, Bao

    2013-12-01

    By taking a galvanizing bath with inductors from an Iron and Steel Co., Ltd as an example, the distributions of Lorentz force and generated heat in the inductor are simulated. As a result, the zinc flow and the temperature distribution driven by the Lorentz force and the generated heat in the inductor of a galvanizing bath are simulated numerically, and their characteristics are analyzed. The relationship of the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet and the effective power for the inductor is studied. Results show that with an increase in effective power for the inductor, the surface-weighted average velocity at the outlet and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet increase gradually. We envisage this work to lay a foundation for the study of the performance of the galvanizing bath in future.

  13. Properties of an intermediate-duration inactivation process of the voltage-gated sodium conductance in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Christopher R; Zeng, Zhen; Williams, David A; Hill-Yardin, Elisa L; O'Brien, Terence J

    2016-02-01

    Rapid transmembrane flow of sodium ions produces the depolarizing phase of action potentials (APs) in most excitable tissue through voltage-gated sodium channels (NaV). Macroscopic currents display rapid activation followed by fast inactivation (IF) within milliseconds. Slow inactivation (IS) has been subsequently observed in several preparations including neuronal tissues. IS serves important physiological functions, but the kinetic properties are incompletely characterized, especially the operative timescales. Here we present evidence for an "intermediate inactivation" (II) process in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons with time constants of the order of 100 ms. The half-inactivation potentials (V0.5) of steady-state inactivation curves were hyperpolarized by increasing conditioning pulse duration from 50 to 500 ms and could be described by a sum of Boltzmann relations. II state transitions were observed after opening as well as subthreshold potentials. Entry into II after opening was relatively insensitive to membrane potential, and recovery of II became more rapid at hyperpolarized potentials. Removal of fast inactivation with cytoplasmic papaine revealed time constants of INa decay corresponding to II and IS with long depolarizations. Dynamic clamp revealed attenuation of trains of APs over the 10(2)-ms timescale, suggesting a functional role of II in repetitive firing accommodation. These experimental findings could be reproduced with a five-state Markov model. It is likely that II affects important aspects of hippocampal neuron response and may provide a drug target for sodium channel modulation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. A Single-Stage High-Power-Factor Light-Emitting Diode (LED Driver with Coupled Inductors for Streetlight Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-An Cheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and implements a single-stage high-power-factor light-emitting diode (LED driver with coupled inductors, suitable for streetlight applications. The presented LED driver integrates an interleaved buck-boost power factor correction (PFC converter with coupled inductors and a half-bridge-type series-resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier into a single-stage power conversion circuit. Coupled inductors inside the interleaved buck-boost PFC converter sub-circuit are designed to operate in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM for achieving input-current shaping, and the half-bridge-type series resonant converter cascaded with a full-bridge rectifier is designed for obtaining zero-voltage switching (ZVS on two power switches to reduce their switching losses. Analysis of operational modes and design equations for the presented LED driver are described and included. In addition, the presented driver features a high power factor, low total harmonic distortion (THD of input current, and soft switching. Finally, a prototype driver is developed and implemented to supply a 165-W-rated LED streetlight module with utility-line input voltages ranging from 210 to 230 V. Experimental results demonstrate that high power factor (>0.99, low utility-line current THD (<7%, low-output voltage ripples (<1%, low-output current ripples (<10%, and high circuit efficiency (>90% are obtained in the presented single-stage driver for LED streetlight applications.

  15. PCB Embedded Inductor for High-Frequency ZVS SEPIC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dou, Yi; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thummala, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    The volume and temperature rise of passive components, especially inductors, limit the momentum toward high power density in high-frequency power converters. To address the limitations, PCB integration of passive components should be considered with the benefit of low profile, excellent thermal...... characteristic and cost reduction. This paper investigates an embedded structure of inductors to further increase the power density of a low power DC-DC converter. A pair of coupling inductors have been embedded into the PCB. The detailed embedded process has been described and the characteristics of embedded...

  16. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  17. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, Robert L. (Union City, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA); Newton, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  18. Characteristics of parallel reverse coil inductors with different current ratio in coils used for melting in a suspension state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel', A.A.; Sidorova, T.A.; Smirnov, V.V.; Mezdrogina, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    The paper studies the effect of the ratio of the currents in the coils of an inductor with a parallel-switched ''reverse coil'', where the ratio of the current in the upper coil to that in the lower coil is 0.72. A region of stable dependence of liquid niobium characterized by upper and lower limits has been found. The maximum permissible volume of liquid niobium increases as the ratio of current in the upper coil to current in the lower coil decreases. The temperature dependences of niobium on the voltage in the inductor have been derived. Experiments have shown that the greater the capillary constant of niobium, the larger the region of stable dependence of liquid niobium, the larger the range of possible temperature regulation and the larger the maximum permissible volume. (N.K.)

  19. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  20. Voltage and Current Regulators Design of Power Converters in Islanded Microgrids based on State Feedback Decoupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In stand-alone microgrids based on voltage source inverters state feedback coupling between the capacitor voltage and inductor current degrades significantly the dynamics performance of voltage and current regulators. The decoupling of the controlled states is proposed, considering the limitations...

  1. Design of 2.4Ghz CMOS Floating Active Inductor LNA using 130nm Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, M.; Soin, N.; Ramiah, H.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents about design and optimization of CMOS active inductor integrated circuit. This active inductor implements using Silterra 0.13μm technology and simulated using Cadence Virtuoso and Spectre RF. The center frequency for this active inductor is at 2.4 GHz which follow IEEE 802.11 b/g/n standard. To reduce the chip size of silicon, active inductor is used instead of passive inductor at low noise amplifier LNA circuit. This inductor test and analyse by low noise amplifier circuit. Comparison between active with passive inductor based on LNA circuit has been performed. Result shown that the active inductor has significantly reduce the chip size with 73 % area without sacrificing the noise figure and gain of LNA which is the most important criteria in LNA. The best low noise amplifier provides a power gain (S21) of 20.7 dB with noise figure (NF) of 2.1dB.

  2. Low-cost capacitor voltage inverter for outstanding performance in piezoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallart, Mickaël; Garbuio, Lauric; Richard, Claude; Guyomar, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new scheme for piezoelectric energy harvesting optimization. The proposed enhancement relies on a new topology for inverting the voltage across a single capacitor with reduced losses. The increase of the inversion quality allows a much more effective energy harvesting process using the so-called synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) nonlinear technique. It is shown that the proposed architecture, based on a 2-step inversion, increases the harvested power by a theoretical factor up to square root of 2 (i.e., 40% gain) compared with classical SSHI, allowing an increase of the harvested power by a factor greater than 1000% compared with the standard energy harvesting technique for realistic values of inversion components. The proposed circuit, using only 4 digital switches and an intermediate capacitor, is also ultra-low power, because the inversion circuit does not require any external energy and the command signals are very simple.

  3. Half Size Reduction of DC Output Filter Inductors With the Saturation-Gap Magnetic Bias Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, Andres Revilla; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Filter inductors are probably one of the heaviest and more voluminous components found in power supplies of most electronic devices. A known technique to reduce the inductor size in dc applications is the use of permanent magnet inductors (PMIs). One of the latest developed biasing topologies...

  4. Easy simulation and design of on-chip inductors in standard CMOS processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jørgensen, Allan

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to CMOS inductor modelling, that allow easy simulation in SPICE-like simulators. A number of test results are presented concerning optimal center hole, inductor area, wire spacing and self-inductance. Finally a comprehensive design guide is provided on how to design...... close-to-optimal inductors without the use of electromagnetic simulators...

  5. Mathematical Model of Induction Heating Processes in Axial Symmetric Inductor-Detail Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Streblau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of models for analysis of processes in the inductor-detail systems makes it necessary to summarize them. This is a difficult task because of the variety of inductor-detail system configurations. This paper aims to present a multi physics mathematical model for complex analysis of electromagnetic and thermal fields in axial symmetric systems inductor-detail.

  6. Intermittency-induced criticality in a resistor-inductor-diode circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potirakis, Stelios M; Contoyiannis, Yiannis; Diakonos, Fotios K; Hanias, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    The current fluctuations of a driven resistor-inductor-diode circuit are investigated here looking for signatures of critical behavior monitored by the driving frequency. The experimentally obtained time series of the voltage drop across the resistor (as directly proportional to the current flowing through the circuit) were analyzed by means of the method of critical fluctuations in analogy to thermal critical systems. Intermittent criticality was revealed for a critical frequency band signifying the transition between the normal rectifier phase in the low frequencies and a full-wave conducting, capacitorlike phase in the high frequencies. The transition possesses critical characteristics with a characteristic exponent p_{l}=1.65. A fractal analysis in terms of the rescale range (R/RSS) and detrended fluctuation analysis methods yielded results fully compatible with the critical dynamics analysis. Suggestions for the interpretation of the observed behavior in terms of p-n junction operation are discussed.

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN CYLINDRICAL INDUCTION INDUCTOR SYSTEM WITH MASSIVE SHIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Piskun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The processes in a cylindrical induction inductor system with a massive additional non-magnetic shield and a thin ferromagnetic sheet blank are considered and the formula for induced currents and the strength of excited fields have been obtained.

  8. A toroidal inductor integrated in a standard CMOS process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandi, Luca; Andreani, Pietro; Temporiti, Enrico

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a toroidal inductor integrated in a standard 0.13 um CMOS process. Finite-elements preliminary simulations are provided to prove the validity of the concept. In order to extract fundamental parameters by means of direct calculations, two different and well-known approaches...

  9. A 62GHz inductor-peaked rectifier with 7% efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, H.; Matters - Kammerer, M.; Milosevic, D.; Roermund, van A.H.M.; Baltus, P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the first 62 GHz fully onchip RF-DC rectifier in 65nm CMOS technology. The rectifier is the bottleneck in realizing on-chip wireless power receivers. In this paper, efficiency problems of the mm-wave rectifier are discussed and the inductor-peaked rectifier structure is proposed

  10. High-performance RF coil inductors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malba, V.; Young, D.; Ou, J.J.; Bernhardt, A.F.; Boser, B.E.

    1998-03-01

    Strong demand for wireless communication devices has motivated research directed toward monolithic integration of transceivers. The fundamental electronic component least compatible with silicon integrated circuits is the inductor, although a number of inductors are required to implement oscillators, filters and matching networks in cellular devices. Spiral inductors have been integrated into the silicon IC metallization sequence but have not performed adequately due to coupling to the silicon which results in parasitic capacitance and loss. We have, for the first time, fabricated three dimensional coil inductors on silicon which have significantly lower capacitive coupling and loss and which now exceed the requirements of potential applications. Quality factors of 30 at 1 GHz have been measured in single turn devices and Q > 16 in 2 and 4 turn devices. The reduced Q for multiturn devices appears to be related to eddy currents in outer turns generated by magnetic fields from current in neighboring turns. Higher Q values significantly in excess of 30 are anticipated using modified coil designs.

  11. Microfabricated Air-core Toroidal Inductor In Very High Frequency Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Nour, Yasser; Han, Anpan

    2018-01-01

    Miniaturization of power supplies is required for future intelligent electronic systems e.g. internet of things devices. Inductors play an essential role, and they are by far the most bulky and expensive components in power supplies. This paper presents a miniaturized microelectromechanical systems...... (MEMS) inductor and its performance in a very high frequency (VHF) power converter. The MEMS inductor is a siliconembedded air-core toroidal inductor, and it is constructed with through-silicon vias, suspended copper windings, silicon fixtures, and a silicon support die. The air-core inductors...

  12. Novel T-Z source inverter with high voltage gain and reduced transformer turn ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostaan, Ali; Sharifi Malfejani, Saeed; Soltani, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Novel voltage source inverter based on the Z source inverter structure is introduced in this paper. In this new inverter, two inductors of the impedance network in conventional Z source inverter are replaced with two transformers or coupled inductors, but unlike the T-Z source inverter that it......'s voltage gain is raised with increasing the transformers turn ratio, the voltage gain in the proposed inverter is raised with lowering the transformer turn ratio. Therefore, transformers with lower turn ratio are required in the proposed inverter in compare with T- Z source inverter that can lead to lower...

  13. 3D electroplated inductors with thickness variation for improved broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm-Guoo Tseng, Victor; Bedair, Sarah S.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The performance of an RF spiral inductor is based on the balance between ohmic losses in the outer turns and eddy current losses dominant in the inner turns where the magnetic field is the strongest. In this work, air-core spiral inductors with winding trace thicknesses decreasing towards the center are demonstrated, achieving quality factor improvement over a wide frequency range compared to uniform thickness inductors. A custom 3D copper electroplating process was used to produce spiral inductors with varying winding thicknesses in a single plating step, with patterned gaps in a seed layer used to create delays in the vertical plating. The fabricated center-lowered coil inductors were 80 nH within a one square millimeter area with thickness varying from 60 µm to 10 µm from outer to inner winding. Within the 16 MHz-160 MHz range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to have a maximum to minimum quality factor improvement of 90%-10% when compared to uniform thickness inductors with thicknesses ranging from 60 µm to 10 µm. Compared to the 20 µm uniform thickness inductor which has the optimal performance among all uniform thickness inductors in this frequency range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to achieve a maximum quality factor improvement of 20% at the edge frequencies of 16 MHz and 160 MHz, and a minimum quality factor improvement of 10% near the geometric mean center frequency of 46 MHz.

  14. A tapped-inductor buck-boost converter for a multi-DEAP generator energy harvesting system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Emmanouil; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2014-01-01

    the effective operational range of the power electronic converter. In this paper, a bidirectional tapped-inductor buck-boost converter is proposed, addressing high-efficient high step-up and high step-down voltage conversion ratios, for energy harvesting applications based on DEAP generators. The effective...... operational range of the converter is extended, by replacing its high-side switch with a string of three serialized MOSFETs, to accommodate the need for high-efficient high-voltage operation. Experiments conducted on a single DEAP generator - part of a quadruple DEAP generator energy harvesting system...... with all elements installed sequentially in the same circular disk with a 90 phase shift - validate the applicability of the proposed converter, demonstrating energy harvesting of 0.26 J, at 0.5 Hz and 60 % delta-strain; characterized by an energy density of 1.25 J per kg of active material....

  15. Robust and reliable rectifier based on electronic inductor with improved performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    of the rectifier, peak to peak voltage ripples to the front end of the inverter reduces significantly by the ESI, and it increases lifetime of the capacitor connected at the output and also reduces the voltage stress of the active power semiconductors of the inverter if any connected to the output. In this paper...... harmonic distortions (THDs) of the ac mains current in a three phase diode bridge rectifier. The ESI reduces the low frequency ripples and controls the intermediate dc-link voltage to a dc value and peak value of the mains current also reduces. In case of an inverter connected to the output...

  16. High-Efficiency High Step-Up DC-DC Converter with Dual Coupled Inductors for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouzesh, Mojtaba; Shen, Yanfeng; Siwakoti, Yam Prasad

    2018-01-01

    with a common ground connection of the input and output make the proposed topology a proper candidate for a transformer-less grid connected photovoltaic systems. The operating performance, analysis and mathematical derivations of the proposed dc-dc converter have been demonstrated in the paper. Moreover......This paper introduces a non-isolated high step-up dc-dc converter with dual coupled inductors suitable for distributed generation applications. By implementing an input parallel connection, the proposed dc-dc structure inherits shared input current with low ripple, which also requires small...... capacitive filter at its input. Moreover, this topology can reach high voltage gain by using dual coupled inductors in series connection at the output stage. The proposed converter uses active clamp circuits with a shared clamp capacitor for the main switches. In addition to the active clamp circuit...

  17. Three-level boost converter with zero voltage transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ing Hwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As compared with the traditional boost converter, the three-level boost converter possesses several advantages, such as lower switch voltage stresses and lower inductor current ripple. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a zero voltage transition (ZVT three-level boost converter. With the proposed ZVT circuit, the switches can achieve soft switching. Moreover, by using the voltage balance control, the output voltage can be equally across the output capacitors. In this study, the effectiveness of the proposed topology is verified by the experimental results based on the field-programmable gate array control.

  18. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  19. Evaluation of DC/DC switching power regulation with small-scale integrated inductors for PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biagi, Laura [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris and Fondazione Imago 7, Calambrone, Pisa (Italy); Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Camarlinghi, Niccolo [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Costagli, Mauro [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris and Fondazione Imago 7, Calambrone, Pisa (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Tosetti, Michela [IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris and Fondazione Imago 7, Calambrone, Pisa (Italy); Del Guerra, Alberto; Belcari, Nicola [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-05-18

    We present a feasibility study that has been carried out to determine the best power regulation strategy for the PET front-end electronics of the trimodal PET/MRI/EEG TRIMAGE scanner. Conventional power regulation strategies cannot be applied to PET/MRI because standard switching regulators stop working in presence of a high magnetic field. At the state of the art, linear regulators are used instead. However, linear regulators are inefficient and might not allow to fulfill power and thermal constraints if the electronics becomes more power demanding, such as in the case of FPGA based front-ends. Very recently, a new generation of switching power supplies has been introduced for EMI critical applications where the discrete inductor energy buffer is not allowed. These supplies have very small footprint, need few biasing peripherals and they use on-chip integrated inductors for energy storage. These switching power regulators coupled with an adequate EMI shield could be an achievable power solution for our PET front-end electronics. Test procedures for Enpirion. EN2390QI and the Enpirion. EN6347QI switching power regulators are presented. Measurements have been performed at GE 1.5T MRI scanner with the support of IRCCS Fondazione Stella Maris. All the board have been tested in two different configurations: with and without an additional EMI shield. Performance of these two switching power regulators have been compared with a linear power regulator (Enpirion. EY1501DI). Output voltage, output current and temperature have been measured. The stability of these three main characteristic will be presented in different operation conditions and will be discussed (output voltage vs. temperature, output voltage vs. output current and output current vs. temperature).

  20. 3D inkjet printed radio frequency inductors and capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2016-12-08

    Inkjet printing has emerged as an ideal method for the fabrication of low cost and efficient electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs at present utilize 2D inkjet printing of metallic inks on conventional substrates. In order to have fully printed RF components, the substrate must also be printed. 3D printing of polymers can be an ideal mechanism for printing substrates, however typically such materials cannot handle high sintering temperatures (>150 0C) required for nanoparticles based metallic inks. In this work, an all-inkjet printed process is demonstrated that utilizes 3D inkjet printing of a UV-cured dielectric material in combination with the printing of a particle free conductive silver organo-complex (SOC) ink for realization of inductors and capacitors. The processing temperature does not exceed 80 0C and still state of the art conductivity of 1×107 S/m is achieved. Both the conductive ink and dielectric have roughness values under 500 nm. The inductor and capacitor exhibit quality factors of 8 and 20 respectively in the high MHz and GHz regime.

  1. Analysis of high voltage step-up nonisolated DC-DC boost converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisson Alencar Freitas, Antônio; Lessa Tofoli, Fernando; Junior, Edilson Mineiro Sá; Daher, Sergio; Antunes, Fernando Luiz Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    A high voltage step-up nonisolated DC-DC converter based on coupled inductors suitable to photovoltaic (PV) systems applications is proposed in this paper. Considering that numerous approaches exist to extend the voltage conversion ratio of DC-DC converters that do not use transformers, a detailed comparison is also presented among the proposed converter and other popular topologies such as the conventional boost converter and the quadratic boost converter. The qualitative analysis of the coupled-inductor-based topology is developed so that a design procedure can be obtained, from which an experimental prototype is implemented to validate the theoretical assumptions.

  2. Simulation of the contribution of magnetic films on planar inductors characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamet, E.; Chatelon, J.P.; Rouiller, T.; Bayard, B.; Noyel, G.; Rousseau, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    We propose here to use the interesting properties of magnetic thin films in order to improve planar inductors characteristics. Magnetic thin films serve as a way of confining electromagnetic field into the coil.Radio-frequency components require high-quality inductors. But at high frequencies several effects degrade the quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Our investigation deals with planar inductors, and we first try to optimize methodology of inductors design. The inductor area is kept constant (300x300μm 2 ). Characteristics of spiral inductors heavily depend on coils structures (thickness, width, number of loops, shape ...). The impact of spiral inductor parameters on the L and Q factors is studied. Q profit can reach 100% after coils parameters optimization.On the other hand, different designs with magnetic films are tested. The relative permeability (μr) of magnetic material is set to 10 and dielectric/magnetic losses are assumed to be negligeable. Thicknesses of about 10μm of magnetic material are reasonable in terms of technology and especially compatible with integration. At 2GHz, with 10μm under the coils, L and Q values have a profit of 44% and 9%, respectively compared to the non magnetic-structure.The results are based on RL model and are obtained from simulations (Ansoft HFSS) for frequencies up to 5GHz

  3. Fabrication of 3D Air-core MEMS Inductors for High Frequency Power Electronic Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Mizushima, Io; Nour, Yasser

    2018-01-01

    footprints have an inductance from 34.2 to 44.6 nH and a quality factor from 10 to 13 at frequencies ranging from 30 to 72 MHz. The air-core inductors show threefold lower parasitic capacitance and up to a 140% higher-quality factor and a 230% higher-operation frequency than silicon-core inductors. A 33 MHz...... boost converter mounted with an air-core toroidal inductor achieves an efficiency of 68.2%, which is better than converters mounted with a Si-core inductor (64.1%). Our inductors show good thermal cycling stability, and they are mechanically stable after vibration and 2-m-drop tests.......We report a fabrication technology for 3D air-core inductors for small footprint and very-high-frequency power conversions. Our process is scalable and highly generic for fabricating inductors with a wide range of geometries and core shapes. We demonstrate spiral, solenoid, and toroidal inductors...

  4. Design and modeling of inductors, capacitors and coplanar waveguides at tens of GHz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Aryan, Naser Pour

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of designing and modelling inductors, MIM capacitors and coplanar waveguides at frequencies of several tens of GHz. The author explains the design and modelling of key, passive elements, such as capacitors, inductors and transmission lines that enable high frequency MEMS operating at frequencies in the orders of tens of GHz.

  5. Design and Fabrication of Air-core Inductors for Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lê Thanh, Hoà; Mizushima, Io; Tang, Peter Torben

    supply on chip (PwrSoC) [1]. Examples of PwrSoC applications are power adaptors for LED illumination and the “Internet of Things”. We report an air-core MEMS inductor. Our process is scalable and universal for making inductors with versatile geometries e.g. spiral, solenoid, toroid, and advanced...

  6. Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles for on-chip RF inductors

    KAUST Repository

    Koh, Kisik

    2013-01-01

    FeNi3 based core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are demonstrated as the magnetic core material for on-chip, radio frequency (RF) inductors. FeNi3 nanoparticles with 50-150 nm in diameter with 15-20 nm-thick SiO2 coating are chemically synthesized and deposited on a planar inductor as the magnetic core to enhance both inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the inductor. Experimentally, the ferromagnetic resonant frequency of the on-chip inductors based on FeNi3 core-shell nanoparticles has been shown to be over several GHz. A post-CMOS process has been developed to integrate the magnetic nanoparticles to a planar inductor and inductance enhancements up to 50% of the original magnitude with slightly enhanced Q-factor up to 1 GHz have been achieved. © 2013 IEEE.

  7. Analytical Comparison of Dual-Input Isolated dc-dc Converter with an ac or dc Inductor for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mira Albert, Maria del Carmen; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents two configurations of dualinput (DI) or three-port (TPC) isolated dc-dc converters for hybrid renewable energy systems such as photovoltaics and batteries. These two converters are derived by integrating an interleaved boost converter and a single-active bridge converter...... and control perspective, distinct in operation principles, voltage/power transfer functions, loss distributions, soft-switching constraints, and power efficiency under the same operating conditions. Moreover, the inductor design differs greatly between these two cases. In this paper, a comprehensive...

  8. Impedance matching for repetitive high voltage all-solid-state Marx generator and excimer DBD UV sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Tong, Liqing; Liu, Kefu

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of impedance matching for a Marx generator and DBD lamp is to limit the output current of the Marx generator, provide a large discharge current at ignition, and obtain fast voltage rising/falling edges and large overshoot. In this paper, different impedance matching circuits (series inductor, parallel capacitor, and series inductor combined with parallel capacitor) are analyzed. It demonstrates that a series inductor could limit the Marx current. However, the discharge current is also limited. A parallel capacitor could provide a large discharge current, but the Marx current is also enlarged. A series inductor combined with a parallel capacitor takes full advantage of the inductor and capacitor, and avoids their shortcomings. Therefore, it is a good solution. Experimental results match the theoretical analysis well and show that both the series inductor and parallel capacitor improve the performance of the system. However, the series inductor combined with the parallel capacitor has the best performance. Compared with driving the DBD lamp with a Marx generator directly, an increase of 97.3% in radiant power and an increase of 59.3% in system efficiency are achieved using this matching circuit.

  9. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  10. Rolled-up inductor structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen; Ferreira, Placid M.; Yu, Xin

    2015-12-29

    A rolled-up inductor structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC) comprises a multilayer sheet in a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises a conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, and the conductive pattern layer comprises at least one conductive strip having a length extending in a rolling direction. The at least one conductive strip thereby wraps around the longitudinal axis in the rolled configuration. The conductive pattern layer may also comprise two conductive feed lines connected to the conductive strip for passage of electrical current therethrough. The conductive strip serves as an inductor cell of the rolled-up inductor structure.

  11. Fabrication of a solenoid-type inductor with Fe-based soft magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Chong; Zhou Yong; Gao Xiaoyu; Ding Wen; Cao Ying; Choi, Hyung; Won, Jonghwa

    2007-01-01

    A solenoid-type inductor was fabricated by MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technique. The fabrication process uses UV-LIGA, dry etching, fine polishing, and electroplating technique to achieve high performance of the solenoid-type inductor. Fe-based soft magnetic thin film was sputtered as the magnetic core, and polyimide was used as the insulation materials. The inductor was in size of 4x4 mm with coil width of 20 μm and space of 35 μm. The inductance is 1.61 μH at a frequency of 5 MHz with the maximum quality factor of 1.42

  12. A wave shaping approach of ferrite inductors exhibiting hysteresis using orthogonal field bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, A. A.; Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.; Mahgoub, A. O.

    2018-05-01

    Advances in power electronic systems have considerably contributed to a wide spectrum of applications. In most power electronic circuits, inductors play crucial functions. Utilization of ferrite cores becomes a must when large inductances are required. Nevertheless, this results in an additional complexity due to their hysteresis nature. Recently, an efficient approach for modeling vector hysteresis using tri-node Hopfield neural networks (HNNs) has been introduced. This paper presents a wave shaping approach using hollow cylindrical ferrite core inductors having axial and toroidal windings. The approach investigates the possibility of tuning the inductor permeability to minimize circuit harmonics. Details of the approach are given in the paper.

  13. Cooperative Control with Virtual Selective Harmonic Capacitance for Harmonic Voltage Compensation in Islanded MicroGrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, A.; Apap, M.; Spitero-Stanies, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the islanded operation of microgrids. In this mode of operation, the microsources are required to cooperate autonomously to regulate the local grid voltage and frequency. Droop control is typically used to achieve this autonomous voltage and frequency regulation. Inverters...... having LCL output filters would cause voltage distortion to be present at the PCC of the local load when non-linear current is supplied to the load due to the voltage drop across the grid side inductor. Techniques to reduce the output voltage distortion typically consist of installing either passive...

  14. Novel MEMS-based fabrication technology of micro solenoid-type inductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, S; Yang, Z Q; Takagi, H; Itoh, T; Maeda, R; Zhang, Y; Toda, A; Hayase, M

    2013-01-01

    Solenoid configuration of micro inductor, which has advantages of high quality factor and low loss, is needed in micro energy and power electronics applications but it is difficult to prepare using conventional microfabrication processes. In this work, we present a new microelectromechanical systems-based technology of micro solenoid-type inductor by a newly developed cylindrical projection photolithography method. Direct electroplating process of copper film on coil patterns was also successfully developed for achieving thick windings so that thick photoresist-based electroplating molds are not needed. Micro solenoid-type inductor prototypes of the winding pitch of about 40 µm, the winding number of 20 and 50, and the winding thickness of about 14 µm, were successfully fabricated on a 1 mm diameter glass capillary. The prepared 20-turn and 50-turn micro inductors were of inductance of 69 and 205 nH at 30 MHz, respectively. (paper)

  15. Continuum Modeling of Inductor Hysteresis and Eddy Current Loss Effects in Resonant Circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pries, Jason L. [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Burress, Timothy A. [ORNL

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents experimental validation of a high-fidelity toroid inductor modeling technique. The aim of this research is to accurately model the instantaneous magnetization state and core losses in ferromagnetic materials. Quasi–static hysteresis effects are captured using a Preisach model. Eddy currents are included by coupling the associated quasi-static Everett function to a simple finite element model representing the inductor cross sectional area. The modeling technique is validated against the nonlinear frequency response from two different series RLC resonant circuits using inductors made of electrical steel and soft ferrite. The method is shown to accurately model shifts in resonant frequency and quality factor. The technique also successfully predicts a discontinuity in the frequency response of the ferrite inductor resonant circuit.

  16. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  17. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samoilov, V.N.; Sissakian, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    The project of a high current pulsed linear ion accelerator is described in this paper. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, a system of charge and energy separation, an inductor accelerator and an output system. The ion source with explosive ion emission can produce all kinds of ions. The separation system includes a pulsed magnetic system. The inductors are based on amorphous iron with inside magnetic elements. 3 refs., 3 figs

  18. Design and construction of an air inductor burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Camilo; Cardona, Mario; Arrieta, Andres Amell

    2001-01-01

    This article presents research results performed with the purpose of obtain design parameters, construction, and air inductor burner operation, which are used in industrial combustion systems, in several processes such as: metal fusion (fusion furnaces), fluids heating (immerse heating tubes), steam production (steam boiler), drying processes, etc. In order to achieve such objectives, a prototype with thermal power modulation from 6 to 52 kW, was built to be either operated with natural gas or with LPG. The burner was built taking in mind the know how (design procedure) developed according to theoretical schemes of different bibliographic references and knowledge of the research group in gas science and technology of the University of Antioquia. However, with such procedure only the burner mixer is dimensioned and five parameters must to be selected by the designer: burner thermal power, primary aeration ratio, counter pressure at combustion chamber, air pressure admission and gas fuel intended to use. For head design we took in mind research done before by the group of science and technology in gas research: Mono port and bar burner heads with their respective stabilization flame systems

  19. Directly writing resistor, inductor and capacitor to composite functional circuits: a super-simple way for alternative electronics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxia Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current strategies for making electronic devices are generally time, water, material and energy consuming. Here, the direct writing of composite functional circuits through comprehensive use of GaIn10-based liquid metal inks and matching material is proposed and investigated, which is a rather easy going and cost effective electronics fabrication way compared with the conventional approaches. METHODS: Owing to its excellent adhesion and electrical properties, the liquid metal ink was demonstrated as a generalist in directly making various basic electronic components such as planar resistor, inductor and capacitor or their combination and thus composing circuits with expected electrical functions. For a precise control of the geometric sizes of the writing, a mask with a designed pattern was employed and demonstrated. Mechanisms for justifying the chemical components of the inks and the magnitudes of the target electronic elements so as to compose various practical circuits were disclosed. RESULTS: Fundamental tests on the electrical components including capacitor and inductor directly written on paper with working time up to 48 h and elevated temperature demonstrated their good stability and potential widespread adaptability especially when used in some high frequency circuits. As the first proof-of-concept experiment, a typical functional oscillating circuit including an integrated chip of 74HC04 with a supply voltage of 5 V, a capacitor of 10 nF and two resistors of 5 kΩ and 1 kΩ respectively was directly composed on paper through integrating specific electrical elements together, which presented an oscillation frequency of 8.8 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: The present method significantly extends the roles of the metal ink in recent works serving as only a single electrical conductor or interconnecting wires. It opens the way for directly writing out complex functional circuits or devices on different substrates. Such circuit

  20. Directly writing resistor, inductor and capacitor to composite functional circuits: a super-simple way for alternative electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunxia; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The current strategies for making electronic devices are generally time, water, material and energy consuming. Here, the direct writing of composite functional circuits through comprehensive use of GaIn10-based liquid metal inks and matching material is proposed and investigated, which is a rather easy going and cost effective electronics fabrication way compared with the conventional approaches. Owing to its excellent adhesion and electrical properties, the liquid metal ink was demonstrated as a generalist in directly making various basic electronic components such as planar resistor, inductor and capacitor or their combination and thus composing circuits with expected electrical functions. For a precise control of the geometric sizes of the writing, a mask with a designed pattern was employed and demonstrated. Mechanisms for justifying the chemical components of the inks and the magnitudes of the target electronic elements so as to compose various practical circuits were disclosed. Fundamental tests on the electrical components including capacitor and inductor directly written on paper with working time up to 48 h and elevated temperature demonstrated their good stability and potential widespread adaptability especially when used in some high frequency circuits. As the first proof-of-concept experiment, a typical functional oscillating circuit including an integrated chip of 74HC04 with a supply voltage of 5 V, a capacitor of 10 nF and two resistors of 5 kΩ and 1 kΩ respectively was directly composed on paper through integrating specific electrical elements together, which presented an oscillation frequency of 8.8 kHz. The present method significantly extends the roles of the metal ink in recent works serving as only a single electrical conductor or interconnecting wires. It opens the way for directly writing out complex functional circuits or devices on different substrates. Such circuit composition strategy has generalized purpose and can be extended to more

  1. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs.

  2. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L.

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs

  3. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters.

  4. The development of differential inductors using double air-bridge structure based on integrated passive device technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Yao, Zhao; Fu, Xiao-Qian; Li, Zhi-Ming; Shan, Fu-Kai; Wang, Cong

    2017-05-01

    Recently, integrated passive devices have become increasingly popular; inductor realization, in particular, offers interesting high performance for RF modules and systems. In this paper, a development of differential inductor fabricated by integrated passive devices technology using a double air-bridge structure is presented. A study of the model development of the differential inductor is first demonstrated. In this model section, a segment box analysis method is applied to provide a clear presentation of the differential inductor. Compared with other work that only shows a brief description of the process, the integrated passive devices process used to fabricate the inductor in this study is elaborated on. Finally, a characterization of differential inductors with different physical layout parameters is illustrated based on inductance and quality factors, which provides a valuable reference for realizing high performance. The proposed work provides a good solution for the design, fabrication and practical application of RF modules and systems.

  5. Chromatin degradation under the effect of differentiation inductors and γ-radiation on thymus lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldatenkov, V.A.; Sorokina, N.I.; Filippovich, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical inductors of differentiation were shown to cause chromatin degradation in thymus lymphocytes. This process was prevented by the protein synthesis inhibitors. The fragments formed after the effect of chemical differentiation inductors on thymocytes were fully identical to chromatin internucleosome degradation products formed in the exposed cells. Chromatin degradation under the effect of chemical differentiation inductors was most pronounced in a more radiosensitive thymocyte fraction

  6. High voltage dc-dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  7. High voltage dc--dc converter with dynamic voltage regulation and decoupling during load-generated arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1995-05-23

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 Figs.

  8. Experimental study on using a high-temperature superconducting inductor for power loss reduction in an active power filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, C; To, H P; Grantham, C; Rahman, M F

    2006-01-01

    An active power filter improves the electric power quality through the compensation of harmonics in the power network. A current-source active power filter using a conventional copper inductor for its energy storage has a significant power loss. The loss in the copper inductor can be substantially reduced by using a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) inductor instead. Experiments have been conducted on a prototype current-source active power filter for studying the power loss reduction effect and harmonics compensation performance of the active power filter using a HTS inductor. Experimental results are analysed and discussed in this paper

  9. A Low Cost Bluetooth Low Energy Transceiver for Wireless Sensor Network Applications with a Front-end Receiver-Matching Network-Reusing Power Amplifier Load Inductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhen; Li, Bin; Huang, Mo; Zheng, Yanqi; Ye, Hui; Xu, Ken; Deng, Fangming

    2017-04-19

    In this work, a low cost Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) transceiver for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications, with a receiver (RX)-matching network-reusing power amplifier (PA) load inductor, is presented. In order to decrease the die area, only two inductors were used in this work. Besides the one used in the voltage control oscillator (VCO), the PA load inductor was reused as the RX impedance matching component in the front-end. Proper controls have been applied to achieve high transmitter (TX) input impedance when the transceiver is in the receiving mode, and vice versa. This allows the TRX-switch/matching network integration without significant performance degradation. The RX adopted a low-IF structure and integrated a single-ended low noise amplifier (LNA), a current bleeding mixer, a 4th complex filter and a delta-sigma continuous time (CT) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The TX employed a two-point PLL-based architecture with a non-linear PA. The RX achieved a sensitivity of -93 dBm and consumes 9.7 mW, while the TX achieved a 2.97% error vector magnitude (EVM) with 9.4 mW at 0 dBm output power. This design was fabricated in a 0.11 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology and the front-end circuit only occupies 0.24 mm². The measurement results verify the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed BLE transceiver for WSN applications.

  10. Controlling the structure of forced convective flow by means of rotating magnetic-field inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, M.Z.; Mozgirs, O.Kh.

    1993-01-01

    The forced convective flow generated by a rotating magnetic-field inductor is used in a melt as a means of controlling the transfer of mass and heat in the case of directed crystallization. An obvious advantage in using a rotating field is the generation of azimuthal twisting of the fluid, this providing for an evening out of the crystallization conditions in the azimuthal direction under nonsymmetrical boundary conditions in an actual technological process. From the standpoint of affecting the crystallization processes it would be preferable to use an inductor which would allow alteration of the intensity and of the direction of the meridional flow. Mixing in the form of velocity pulsations generated by the inductor within the melt would be if interest from the standpoint of affecting the crystallization processes, in particular to intensify the crystallization purification. The authors propose the use of a double magnetohydrodynmic rotator which consists of two rotating magnetic-field inductors, separated in altitude, with separate power supplies. The supply of power to the inductors with various current loads allows the generation of a controllable nonuniformity in field distribution and in the azimuthal velocity through the altitude and thus allows control of both the intensity and configuration of the meridional flows. The dual rotator makes it possible to purposefully control the structure of the meridional flows and the pulsation component of velocity and can be recommended for use in processes of directed crystallization as well as in crystallization purification. 4 refs., 3 figs

  11. Short-circuit protection of LLC resonant converter using voltages across resonant tank elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Igorovych Zaikin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two methods for the short-circuit protection of the LLC resonant converter. One of them uses the voltage across the capacitor and the other uses the voltage across the inductor of the resonant tank. These voltages can be processed (integrated or differentiated to recover the resonant tank current. The two circuits illustrated in the described methods make it possible to develop a robust LLC converter design and to avoid using lossy current measurement elements, such as a shunt resistor or current transformer. The methods also allow measuring resonant tank current without breaking high-current paths and connecting the measuring circuit in parallel with the inductor or capacitor of the resonant tank. Practical implementations of these indirect current measurements have been experimentally tested for the short-circuit protection of the 1600 W LLC converter.

  12. Mitigating voltage lead errors of an AC Josephson voltage standard by impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; van den Brom, Helko E.; Houtzager, Ernest

    2017-09-01

    A pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage standard (ACJVS) generates calculable AC voltage signals at low temperatures, whereas measurements are performed with a device under test (DUT) at room temperature. The voltage leads cause the output voltage to show deviations that scale with the frequency squared. Error correction mechanisms investigated so far allow the ACJVS to be operational for frequencies up to 100 kHz. In this paper, calculations are presented to deal with these errors in terms of reflected waves. Impedance matching at the source side of the system, which is loaded with a high-impedance DUT, is proposed as an accurate method to mitigate these errors for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Simulations show that the influence of non-ideal component characteristics, such as the tolerance of the matching resistor, the capacitance of the load input impedance, losses in the voltage leads, non-homogeneity in the voltage leads, a non-ideal on-chip connection and inductors between the Josephson junction array and the voltage leads, can be corrected for using the proposed procedures. The results show that an expanded uncertainty of 12 parts in 106 (k  =  2) at 1 MHz and 0.5 part in 106 (k  =  2) at 100 kHz is within reach.

  13. Fabrication of solenoid-type inductor with electroplated NiFe magnetic core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xiaoyu; Cao Ying; Zhou Yong; Ding Wen; Lei Chong; Chen Jian

    2006-01-01

    Solenoid-type inductor with ultra-low profile was fabricated by MEMS (Microelectromechanical systems) technique. NiFe film was electroplated as the magnetic core, and polyimide with a low relative permittivity was used as the insulation material. In the fabrication process, UV-LIGA, dry etching, fine polishing and electroplating technique have been adopted to achieve high performance of the solenoid-type inductor. The inductor was in size of 1.5 mmx0.9 mmx0.1 mm with coil width of 20 μm and aspect ratio of 5:1. The inductance and the quality factor were 0.42-0.345 μH and 1.8-5.3 in the frequency range of 1-10 MHz, respectively

  14. High-performance zig-zag and meander inductors embedded in ferrite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovic, Goran; Damnjanovic, Mirjana; Desnica, Vladan; Zivanov, Ljiljana; Raghavendra, Ramesh; Bellew, Pat; Mcloughlin, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, simulation and fabrication of zig-zag and meander inductors embedded in low- or high-permeability soft ferrite material. These microinductors have been developed with ceramic coprocessing technology. We compare the electrical properties of zig-zag and meander inductors structures installed as surface-mount devices. The equivalent model of the new structures is presented, suitable for design, circuit simulations and for prediction of the performance of proposed inductors. The relatively high impedance values allow these microinductors to be used in high-frequency suppressors. The components were tested in the frequency range of 1 MHz-3 GHz using an Agilent 4287A RF LCR meter. The measurements confirm the validity of the analytical model

  15. Low Capacitive Inductors for Fast Switching Devices in Active Power Factor Correction Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Botella, Juan Carlos; Petersen, Lars Press; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines different winding strategies for reduced capacitance inductors in active power factor correction circuits (PFC). The effect of the parasitic capacitance is analyzed from an electro magnetic compatibility (EMI) and efficiency point of views. The purpose of this work is to inves......This paper examines different winding strategies for reduced capacitance inductors in active power factor correction circuits (PFC). The effect of the parasitic capacitance is analyzed from an electro magnetic compatibility (EMI) and efficiency point of views. The purpose of this work...... is to investigate different winding approaches and identify suitable solutions for high switching frequency/high speed transition PFC designs. A low parasitic capacitance PCB based inductor design is proposed to address the challenges imposed by high switching frequency PFC Boost converters....

  16. Thermoluminescence of chip inductors from mobile phones for retrospective and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiedler, I.; Woda, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electronic components in portable electronic devices such as mobile phones and portable media player have previously been shown to be useful tools for retrospective and accident dosimetry. In this study the properties of alumina rich inductors removed from mobile phones are investigated using thermoluminescence (TL). The typical glow curve of this component has two main peaks at 170 and 270 °C. With a suitable measurement protocol sensitivity changes of both peaks could be corrected so that the TL signal shows a linear increase in the investigated dose range from 100 mGy to 5 Gy. All inductors studied showed essentially no signal for zero dose. We investigated the fading of the TL signals and the detection limit of inductors extracted from different mobile phones.

  17. Low Cost SU8 Based Above IC Process for High Q RF Power Inductors Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghannam, A.; Bourrier, D.; Viallon, Ch.; Parra, Th.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new process for integration of high-Q RF power inductors above low resistivity silicon substrates. The process uses the SU8 resin as a dielectric layer. The aim of using the SU8 is to form thick dielectric layer that can enhance the performance of the inductors. The flexibility of the process enables the possibility to realize complex shaped planar inductors with various dielectric and metal thicknesses to meet the requirements of the application. Q values of 55 at 5 GHz has been demonstrated for an inductance value of 0.8 nH using a 60 μm thick SU8 layer and 30 μm thick copper ribbons. (author)

  18. The influence of losses in the core of an inductor on characteristics of the boost converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, Krzysztof; Detka, Kalina

    2016-01-01

    In the paper the influence of core losses on characteristics of the boost converter is considered. In calculations, the average electrothermal models of the diode-transistor switch and of the inductor are used. The applied electrothermal models and the obtained results of calculations are presented. The selected results of calculations are compared with the results of measurements. The influence of such factors as converter load resistance and frequency of the control signal and lossiness of the core on characteristics of the considered converter and the loss of energy in the inductor are discussed

  19. Modeling and control of three phase rectifier with electronic smoothing inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, direct method for deriving the approximate, small-signal, average model and control strategy for three-phase diode bridge rectifier operating with electronic smoothing technique. Electronic smoothing inductor (ESI) performs the function of an inductor that has...... controlled variable impedance. This increases power factor (PF) and reduces total harmonic distortions (THDs) in mains current. The ESI based rectifier enables compact and cost effective design of three phase electric drive as size of passive components is reduced significantly. In order to carry out...

  20. Research on Power Factor Correction Boost Inductor Design Optimization – Efficiency vs. Power Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingnan; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, efficiency and power density are the most important issues for Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters development. However, it is a challenge to reach both high efficiency and power density in a system at the same time. In this paper, taking a Bridgeless PFC (BPFC) as an example......, a useful compromise between efficiency and power density of the Boost inductors on 3.2kW is achieved using an optimized design procedure. The experimental verifications based on the optimized inductor are carried out from 300W to 3.2kW at 220Vac input....

  1. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  2. A novel switched inductor configuration for modified SEPIC DC-to-DC converter for renewable energy application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Pandav Kiran; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    The proposed work is on the Modified SEPIC Converter (MSC) and its different configuration with switched inductor structure (SI). In this paper, five different configuration of modified SEPIC Converter namely-Modified SEPIC converter without switched inductor configuration (MSC-LLL), Modified SEP...

  3. A technique to reduce plasma armature formation voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.A.; Littrell, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of a plasma armature by foil vaporization in a railgun is often accompanied by a large, fast, voltage transient appearing on both the breech and muzzle of the gun. For a railgun driven by an inductor/opening switch power supply, this voltage transient becomes a concern during current commutation from the switch to the railgun. To lessen the requirements on the opening switch, techniques must be found to reduce the armature formation voltage. This paper presents the experimental results from railgun firings at AFATL's Electromagnetic Launcher Basic Research Facility (Site A-15, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida) using different shapes of initiation foils. These foils have been designed to vaporize into a plasma armature with reduced transient voltages. A design criteria was developed to ensure that all portions of the foil vaporize at slightly different times

  4. A dulal-functional medium voltage level DVR to limit downstream fault currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Li, Yun Wei; Vilathgamuwa, D. Mahinda

    2007-01-01

    on the other parallel feeders connected to PCC. Furthermore, if not controlled properly, the DVR might also contribute to this PCC voltage sag in the process of compensating the missing voltage, thus further worsening the fault situation. To limit the flow of large line currents, and therefore restore the PCC...... situations. Controlling the DVR as a virtual inductor would also ensure zero real power absorption during the DVR compensation and thus minimize the stress in the dc link. Finally, the proposed fault current limiting algorithm has been tested in Matlab/Simulink simulation and experimentally on a medium......The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) is a modern custom power device used in power distribution networks to protect consumers from sudden sags (and swells) in grid voltage. Implemented at medium voltage level, the DVR can be used to protect a group of medium voltage or low voltage consumers. However...

  5. Highly efficient maximum power point tracking using DC-DC coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quamruzzaman, M.; Mohammad, Nur; Matin, M. A.; Alam, M. R.

    2016-10-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PVs) have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics, with a distinct maximum power point (MPP) depending on factors such as solar irradiance and operating temperature. To extract maximum power from the PV array at any environmental condition, DC-DC converters are usually used as MPP trackers. This paper presents the performance analysis of a coupled inductor single-ended primary inductance converter for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) in a PV system. A detailed model of the system has been designed and developed in MATLAB/Simulink. The performance evaluation has been conducted on the basis of stability, current ripple reduction and efficiency at different operating conditions. Simulation results show considerable ripple reduction in the input and output currents of the converter. Both the MPPT and converter efficiencies are significantly improved. The obtained simulation results validate the effectiveness and suitability of the converter model in MPPT and show reasonable agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  6. Design Considerations of Very Low Profile Coupled Inductors for Flexible Photovoltaic Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouyang, Ziwei; Acanski, M; Popovic, J

    2012-01-01

    Power converters with flexible PCB integrated magnetic components are highly demanded in future photovoltaic (PV) applications, resulting in a higher power density. In this paper, a 1.5-mm thickness integrated coupled inductor with planar sandwich core structure is under investigation. Several...

  7. Experimental studies and computer simulation of the control of energy transfer using inductor-converter bridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.; Kustom, R.L.

    1984-03-01

    An inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state DC-AC-DC power converter system for bidirectional, controllable, energy transfer between two coils. The ICB is suitable for supplying large pulsed power to such magnets as the superconducting equilibrium field coil of the proposed tokamak power reactors from another superconducting energy storage coil

  8. Design Optimization of Printed Circuit Board Embedded Inductors through Genetic Algorithms with Verification by COMSOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Mønster, Jakob Døllner; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a complete design tool for design, analysis, optimization and production of PCB embedded inductors. The papers shows how the LiveLink between MATLAB and COMSOL makes it possible to combine the scripting and calculation power of MATLAB with the simulation...

  9. Design of protective inductors for HVDC transmission line within DC grid offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    in the HVDC link between the offshore station and the onshore station. The transient characteristics of the transmission system are analyzed in detail. The criteria of selecting protective inductors are proposed to effectively limit the short-circuit current and avoid the damage to the converters. A dc grid...

  10. Printed Circuit Board Embedded Inductors for Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes the design of three different structures for printed circuit board embedded inductors. Direct comparison of spirals, solenoids and toroids are made with regard to inductance, dc and ac resistance, electromagnetic field and design flexibility. First the equations for the impeda...

  11. Winding design of series AC inductor for dual active bridge converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Zhan; Wang, Huai; Shen, Yanfeng

    2018-01-01

    The ac resistance and parasitic capacitance of the inductor are the primary considerations in the winding design for the dual-active bridge converter (DAB). They are dependent of up to four independent structure variables. The interactive restrictions between those variables makes the design diff...

  12. Design and Implementation of High Frequency Buck Converter Using Multi-Layer PCB Inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nour, Yasser; Ouyang, Ziwei; Knott, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the switching frequency for switch mode power supplies is one of methods to achieve smaller, lighter weight and cheaper power converters. This work investigates the opportunity of using two layer circular spiral inductors implemented in a 150 μm finished thickness printed circuit board...

  13. MIDAS: Automated Approach to Design Microwave Integrated Inductors and Transformers on Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Aluigi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of modern radiofrequency integrated circuits on silicon operating at microwave and millimeter-waves requires the integration of several spiral inductors and transformers that are not commonly available in the process design-kits of the technologies. In this work we present an auxiliary CAD tool for Microwave Inductor (and transformer Design Automation on Silicon (MIDAS that exploits commercial simulators and allows the implementation of an automatic design flow, including three-dimensional layout editing and electromagnetic simulations. In detail, MIDAS allows the designer to derive a preliminary sizing of the inductor (transformer on the bases of the design entries (specifications. It draws the inductor (transformer layers for the specific process design kit, including vias and underpasses, with or without patterned ground shield, and launches the electromagnetic simulations, achieving effective design automation with respect to the traditional design flow for RFICs. With the present software suite the complete design time is reduced significantly (typically 1 hour on a PC based on Intel® Pentium® Dual 1.80GHz CPU with 2-GB RAM. Afterwards both the device equivalent circuit and the layout are ready to be imported in the Cadence environment.

  14. Reducing AC-Winding Losses in High-Current High-Power Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymand, Morten; Madawala, Udaya K.; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2009-01-01

    Foil windings are preferable in high-current high-power inductors to realize compact designs and to reduce dc-current losses. At high frequency, however, proximity effect will cause very significant increase in ac resistance in multi-layer windings, and lead to high ac winding losses. This paper ...

  15. Design of CMOS Tunable Image-Rejection Low-Noise Amplifier with Active Inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ler Chun Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully integrated CMOS tunable image-rejection low-noise amplifier (IRLNA has been designed using Silterra's industry standard 0.18 μm RF CMOS process. The notch filter is designed using an active inductor. Measurement results show that the notch filter designed using active inductor contributes additional 1.19 dB to the noise figure of the low-noise amplifier (LNA. A better result is possible if the active inductor is optimized. Since active inductors require less die area, the die area occupied by the IRLNA is not significantly different from a conventional LNA, which was designed for comparison. The proposed IRLNA exhibits S21 of 11.8 dB, S11 of −17.8 dB, S22 of −10.7 dB, and input 1 dB compression point of −12 dBm at 3 GHz

  16. Optimizing dc-resistance of a foil wounded toroidal inductor combining matlab and comsol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    An optimization routine is presented to optimize the shape of a foil winding of a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. MATLAB was used to define the geometry of the foil winding and COMSOL was used to import the geometry and create a 3D finite element model. The initial parameters...

  17. Discussion on the control method of the inductor-converter bridge by simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, M.; Kustom, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    With the development of the superconducting magnet as an energy storage unit, pulsed power loads between superconducting magnets of increasing magnitude up to several hundred megawatts or more appear within the realm of possibility. An energy storage unit that is independent of the power grid can be used in applications where the pulsed power required from the power grid may cause a hazardous effect on the power system. An energy transfer system between the storage and the load units eliminates the disturbance on the power grid. An inductor-converter bridge is proposed for such a purpose. The inductor-converter bridge (ICB) is a solid state DC-AC-DC converter system for reversible energy transfer between two high-inductance inductors. The converter thyristors are naturally commutated by a set of wye-connected capacitors on the AC lines of the circuit. The circuit is designed so that, in every converter cycle, a very small fraction of the magnet energy is stored in these capacitors. The characteristics of the inductor-converter bridge are briefly summarized as follows: low energy loss, reversibility of the energy transfer direction, controllability of the energy transfer rate, and no conversion to another energy form

  18. A novel variational method for deriving Lagrangian and Hamiltonian models of inductor-capacitor circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreau, L.; Aeyels, D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the dynamical equations of nonlinear inductor-capacitor circuits. We present a novel Lagrangian description of the dynamics and provide a variational interpretation, which is based on the maximum principle of optimal control theory. This gives rise to an alternative method for deriving the

  19. Generalized Multi-Cell Switched-Inductor and Switched-Capacitor Z-source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Chiang Loh, Poh; Zhu, Miao

    2013-01-01

    . Their boosting gains are, therefore, limited in practice. To overcome these shortcomings, the generalized switched-inductor and switched-capacitor Z-source inverters are proposed, whose extra boosting abilities and other advantages have already been verified in simulation and experiment....

  20. A Novel Quasi-SEPIC High-Voltage Boost DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; N. Soltani, Mohsen; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a modified coupled-inductor SEPIC dc-dc converter for low power and high voltage gain applications such as for piezoelectric drive systems. The converter uses the same components as of SEPIC converter with an additional diode. Compared to conventional topologies with similar...... voltage gain expression, the proposed topology uses less components to achieve same or even higher voltage gain. This helps to design a very compact and light weight converter with higher power density at lower cost. Due to brevity, the principle of operation, theoretical analysis and comparison supported...

  1. Novel MSVPWM to reduce the inductor current ripple for Z-source inverter in electric vehicle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianfan; Dong, Shuai; Xue, Ping; Zhou, Chaowei; Cheng, ShuKang

    2014-01-01

    A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results.

  2. Design and Implementation of a High Efficiency, Low Component Voltage Stress, Single-Switch High Step-Up Voltage Converter for Vehicular Green Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-En Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel, non-isolated, cascade-type, single-switch, high step-up DC/DC converter was developed for green energy systems. An integrated coupled inductor and voltage lift circuit were applied to simplify the converter structure and satisfy the requirements of high efficiency and high voltage gain ratios. In addition, the proposed structure is controllable with a single switch, which effectively reduces the circuit cost and simplifies the control circuit. With the leakage inductor energy recovery function and active voltage clamp characteristics being present, the circuit yields optimizable conversion efficiency and low component voltage stress. After the operating principles of the proposed structure and characteristics of a steady-state circuit were analyzed, a converter prototype with 450 W, 40 V of input voltage, 400 V of output voltage, and 95% operating efficiency was fabricated. The Renesas MCU RX62T was employed to control the circuits. Experimental results were analyzed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed system.

  3. Selective Harmonic Virtual Impedance for Voltage Source Inverters with LCL filter in Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savaghebi, Mehdi; Vasquez, Juan Carlos; Jalilian, Alireza Jalilian

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new control approach for voltage source inverters ended with LCL filters for microgrid applications. The control approach consists of voltage and current inner control loops in order to fix the filter capacitor voltage and a virtual impedance loop. The virtual impedance...... is added in order to mitigate the voltage distortion after the output inductor and improve the load sharing among parallel inverters. A general case with a combined voltage harmonic and unbalance distortion is considered. In such a case, voltage distortion is mitigated by inserting capacitive virtual...... impedance for negative sequence of fundamental component as well as positive and negative sequences of main harmonic components. Furthermore, resistive virtual impedances are added at these components in order to provide a proper load sharing and make the overall system more damped. Simulation results...

  4. Isolated DC-DC Converter for Bidirectional Power Flow Controlling with Soft-Switching Feature and High Step-Up/Down Voltage Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter is proposed, which is able to accomplish high step-up/down voltage conversion. Therefore, it is suitable for hybrid electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle, energy backup system, and grid-system applications. The proposed converter incorporates a coupled inductor to behave forward-and-flyback energy conversion for high voltage ratio and provide galvanic isolation. The energy stored in the leakage inductor of the coupled inductor can be recycled without the use of additional snubber mechanism or clamped circuit. No matter in step-up or step-down mode, all power switches can operate with soft switching. Moreover, there is a inherit feature that metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs with smaller on-state resistance can be adopted because of lower voltage endurance at primary side. Operation principle, voltage ratio derivation, and inductor design are thoroughly described in this paper. In addition, a 1-kW prototype is implemented to validate the feasibility and correctness of the converter. Experimental results indicate that the peak efficiencies in step-up and step-down modes can be up to 95.4% and 93.6%, respectively.

  5. Voltage regulation of the Y-source boost DC-DC converter considering effects of leakage inductances based on cascaded sliding-mode control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadzadeh, Soheil; Markadeh, Gholamreza Arab; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a sliding mode-based controller is designed for regulating the output voltage of a high step-up DC-DC converter with three coupled inductors called Y-source impedance network. As Y-source converter can provide a very high boost at a lower shoot-through duty cycle of the switch...

  6. Intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate uveitis (IU is described as inflammation in the anterior vitreous, ciliary body and the peripheral retina. In the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN working group′s international workshop for reporting clinical data the consensus reached was that the term IU should be used for that subset of uveitis where the vitreous is the major site of the inflammation and if there is an associated infection (for example, Lyme disease or systemic disease (for example, sarcoidosis. The diagnostic term pars planitis should be used only for that subset of IU where there is snow bank or snowball formation occurring in the absence of an associated infection or systemic disease (that is, "idiopathic". This article discusses the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, investigations and treatment of IU.

  7. General phase-frequency shifting in the three-phase inductor-converter bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, M.; Kustom, R.L.; Fuja, R.E.; Barnard, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    A fundamental method of shifting phase frequency in the inductor-converter bridge (ICB) for the purpose of controlling the power in real time is presented. Transient switching sequences needed to implement phase-frequency shifting can be developed by the use of this method and the other five system constraints. Two of the constraints that have been expressed in equation form so far are presented. Finally, an alternative algorithm for computing the frequency shifting transient sequences in real time is suggested

  8. MEMS based fabrication of high-frequency integrated inductors on Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, Ricky, E-mail: ricky.anthony@tyndall.ie; Wang, Ningning, E-mail: ning.wang@tyndall.ie; Casey, Declan P.; Ó Mathúna, Cian; Rohan, James F.

    2016-05-15

    A surface micro-machining process is described to realize planar inductors on ferrite (Ni{sub 0.49}Zn{sub 0.33}Cu{sub 0.18} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) for high-frequency applications (<30 MHz). The highly resistive nature (~10{sup 8} Ω m) of the Ni–Cu–Zn substrate allows direct conductor patterning by electroplating of Cu windings through a photoresist mold on a sputtered seed layer and eliminates the need for a dielectric layer to isolate the windings from the bottom magnetic core. Measured inductances~367 nH (DC resistance~1.16 Ω and Q-value>14 at 30 MHz) and ~244 nH (DC resistance~0.86 Ω and Q-value~18 at 30 MHz) at 1 MHz for elongated racetrack (10.75 nH/mm{sup 2}) and racetrack inductors (12.5 nH/mm{sup 2}), respectively show good agreement with simulated finite element method analysis. This device can be integrated with power management ICs PMICs for cost-effective, high-performance realization of power-supply in package (PSiP) or on-chip (PSoC). This simple process lays the foundation for fabricating closed core ferrite nano-crystalline core micro-inductors. - Graphical abstract: Material Characterization of Ni–Cu–Zn ferrite substrate and process developed for on-ferrite integrated micro-inductor fabrication. - Highlights: • High-frequency microinductors have been fabricated on Ni-Cu-Zn substrates. • High-resistive ferrite substrates assist direct conductor patterning on the surface. • Uniform inductances ~365 nH over 30 MHz frequency have been achieved. • High Q-values (>18 at 30 MHz) attained are applicable for high-frequency DC–DC conversion applications. • The described process lays the foundation for fabricating closed core ferrite nano-crystalline core.

  9. Application of genetic algorithm in modeling on-wafer inductors for up to 110 Ghz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nianhong; Fu, Jun; Liu, Hui; Cui, Wenpu; Liu, Zhihong; Liu, Linlin; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Quan; Guo, Ao

    2018-05-01

    In this work, the genetic algorithm has been introducted into parameter extraction for on-wafer inductors for up to 110 GHz millimeter-wave operations, and nine independent parameters of the equivalent circuit model are optimized together. With the genetic algorithm, the model with the optimized parameters gives a better fitting accuracy than the preliminary parameters without optimization. Especially, the fitting accuracy of the Q value achieves a significant improvement after the optimization.

  10. A Size Reduction Technique for Mobile Phone PIFA Antennas Using Lumped Inductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2005-01-01

    A size reduction technique for the planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) is presented. An 18 nH lumped inductor is used in addition to a small 0.3 cm3 PIFA. The PIFA is located on dielectric foam, 5 mm above a 40 mm × 100 mm ground plane. It is possible to reduce the center frequency (|S11|min) by 33 ...

  11. Active inductor shunt peaking in high-speed VCSEL driver design

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Futian; Hou, Suen; Liu, Chonghan; Liu, Tiankuan; Su, Da-Shung; Teng, Ping-Kun; Xiang, Annie; Ye, Jingbo; Jin, Ge

    2013-01-01

    An all transistor active inductor shunt peaking structure has been used in a prototype of 8-Gbps high-speed VCSEL driver which is designed for the optical link in ATLAS liquid Argon calorimeter upgrade. The VCSEL driver is fabricated in a commercial 0.25-um Silicon-on-Sapphire (SoS) CMOS process for radiation tolerant purpose. The all transistor active inductor shunt peaking is used to overcome the bandwidth limitation from the CMOS process. The peaking structure has the same peaking effect as the passive one, but takes a small area, does not need linear resistors and can overcome the process variation by adjust the peaking strength via an external control. The design has been tapped out, and the prototype has been proofed by the preliminary electrical test results and bit error ratio test results. The driver achieves 8-Gbps data rate as simulated with the peaking. We present the all transistor active inductor shunt peaking structure, simulation and test results in this paper.

  12. Skin effect suppression for Cu/CoZrNb multilayered inductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriyuki; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    The Cu/Co85Zr3Nb12 multilayer is studied as a conductor of a spiral inductor to suppress the skin effect at the 5 GHz range (matches IEEE 802.11 a standard) using negative-permeability in CoZrNb films beyond the ferromagnetic resonance frequency. The skin effect suppression becomes remarkable when the thickness of Cu in each period of the multilayer, tCu, is less than the skin depth of Cu at the targeting frequency. For the 5 GHz operation, tCu ≤ 750 nm. The resistance of the Cu/CoZrNb multilayered spiral inductor decreases as much as 8.7%, while keeping the same inductance of 1.1 nH as that of a similar air core. Accordingly, Q = 16. Therefore, the proposed method can contribute to realize a high-Q spiral inductor. We also study the potentially applicable frequency of this method. Given a soft magnetic material with Ms = 105 emu/cc and Hk = 5 Oe, the method can be applied at 700 MHz, the lowermost carrier frequency band for the 4th generation cellular phone system.

  13. Hydrodynamics of magnetizable suspensions in a traveling magnetic field of a single-sided inductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorov, M.M.; Tsebers, A.O.

    1979-01-01

    A few qualitative tests are described which validate the basic concepts about the behavior of magnetic fluids in a traveling field of a single-sided inductor. In the experiment small droplets of a magnetic fluid were deposited on both sides of a transparent plate. With the traveling field turned on, one could observe the motion of these droplets in opposite directions: the droplets on the inductor side of the plate moving in the direction of the traveling field. This pattern of motion can be explained by the action of antisymmetric stresses due to rotation of ferromagnetic particles, in the traveling field, on the surface of a droplet. On the basis of present results, it is concluded that accounting for the antisymmetric stresses in the selection of an adequate model of magnetic relaxation makes it possible to correctly describe the motion of a magnetic fluid in a traveling field of a single-sided inductor. An adequate model for describing the motion of a colloidal suspension of cobalt ferrite is magnetic relaxation of rigid dipoles. 10 refs

  14. Using a coupled inductor controlled by fuzzy logic to improve the efficiency of a Buck converter in a PV system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abouchabana Nabil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG produce a variable power according to the solar radiation (G and temperature (T. This variation affects the sizing of the components of DC / DC converters, powered by such PVG, and make it difficult. The effects may differ from one component to another. The main and critical one is presented by the inductor, the element that stores the energy during sampled periods. We propose in this work an auto-adaptation of these inductor values to maintain optimal performance of the power yield of these converters. Our idea is to replace the inductor by a coupled inductor where this adjustment is made by the addition of an adjustable electric field in the magnetic core. Low current intensities come from the PVG supply the second inductor of the coupled inductor through a circuit controlled by a fuzzy controller (FC. The whole system is modeled and simulated under MATLAB/SIMULINK for the control part of the system and under PSPICE for the power part of the system. The obtained results show good performances of the proposed converter over the standard one.

  15. Using a coupled inductor controlled by fuzzy logic to improve the efficiency of a Buck converter in a PV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouchabana, Nabil; Haddadi, Mourad; Rabhi, Abdelhamid; El Hajjaji, Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic generators (PVG) produce a variable power according to the solar radiation (G) and temperature (T). This variation affects the sizing of the components of DC / DC converters, powered by such PVG, and make it difficult. The effects may differ from one component to another. The main and critical one is presented by the inductor, the element that stores the energy during sampled periods. We propose in this work an auto-adaptation of these inductor values to maintain optimal performance of the power yield of these converters. Our idea is to replace the inductor by a coupled inductor where this adjustment is made by the addition of an adjustable electric field in the magnetic core. Low current intensities come from the PVG supply the second inductor of the coupled inductor through a circuit controlled by a fuzzy controller (FC). The whole system is modeled and simulated under MATLAB/SIMULINK for the control part of the system and under PSPICE for the power part of the system. The obtained results show good performances of the proposed converter over the standard one.

  16. A High Efficiency Charging Strategy for a Supercapacitor Using a Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Inductor/Capacitor/Capacitor (LCC Compensation Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Geng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the application of rail transit vehicles, when using typical wireless power transfer (WPT systems with series–series (SS compensation supply power for supercapacitors, the output current is in an approximately inverse relationship with the duty cycle in a wide range. This renders the typical buck circuit control inappropriate. In order to help resolve the above issues, this paper designs inductor/capacitor/capacitor (LCC compensation with new compensation parameters, which can achieve an adjustable quasi-constant voltage from the input of the inverter to the output of the rectifier. In addition, the two-port network method is used to analyze the resonant compensation circuit. The analysis shows that LCC compensation is more suitable for the WPT system using the supercapacitor as the energy storage device. In the case of LCC compensation topology combined with the charging characteristics of the supercapacitor, an efficient charging strategy is designed, namely first constant current charging, followed by constant power charging. Based on the analysis of LCC compensation, the system has an optimal load, by which the system works at the maximum efficiency point. Combined with the characteristics of the constant voltage output, the system can maintain high efficiency in the constant power stage by making constant output power the same as the optimal power point. Finally, the above design is verified through experiments.

  17. Discrete-Time Domain Modelling of Voltage Source Inverters in Standalone Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2017-01-01

    modelling of the LC plant with consideration of delay and sample-and-hold effects on the state feedback cross-coupling decoupling is derived. From this plant formulation, current controllers with wide bandwidth and good relative stability properties are developed. Two controllers based on lead compensation......The decoupling of the capacitor voltage and inductor current has been shown to improve significantly the dynamic performance of voltage source inverters in standalone applications. However, the computation and PWM delays still limit the achievable bandwidth. In this paper a discrete-time domain...

  18. Evaluación in vitro de Inductores de Resistencia sobre Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet In vitro Evaluation of Inductors of Resistance on Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela María Mogollón Ortiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La sigatoka negra (Mycosphaerella fijiensis M., es la enfermedad foliar más importante del plátano y banano, ocasiona pérdidas entre el 30 y 40%. Su manejo basado en agroquímicos, representa el 40% de los costos de producción. Con el fin de encontrar nuevas alternativas de manejo de la enfermedad en plátano, se evaluó el efecto in vitro sobre el hongo de los inductores de resistencia ácido salicílico (AS, acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, ácido 2,6- dicloroisonicotinico (INA, ácido 3- aminobutanoico (BABA y fosfito de potasio, y los fungicidas propiconazol y clorotalonil. Cada producto fue considerado como un experimento independiente con un diseño completamente aleatorio a una vía, constituido por cuatro tratamientos y 15 repeticiones. Se evaluó: número de colonias cm2-1, tamaño de colonias (mm, esporulación y germinación (% de M. fijiensis. El efecto de los inductores no mostró inhibición total sobre el crecimiento del hongo, pero, todas las variables de respuesta, a excepción de la germinación con AS, INA y BABA, presentaron diferencias significativas entre las concentraciones evaluadas. El número promedio de colonias cm2-1 con los inductores osciló entre 1,5 y 3,5 mientras el testigo presentó 2,1 y 3,8; el tamaño de las colonias varió entre 1 y 4,6 mm y en el testigo 3,8 y 4,6 mm; el número de conidias mL-1 fluctuó entre 1.142 y 4.700 y en el testigo 4.386 y 5.783; y la germinación de conidias con ASM y fosfito de potasio alternó entre 27 y 72,6%, mientras el testigo presentó 74 y 79%. Propiconazol y clorotalonil inhibieron completamente al hongo.Abstract. Black sigatoka (Mycosphaerella fijiensis M., is the most important foliar disease of both banana and plantain, causing yield losses between 30 and 40%. Its management based on fungicides, represents 40% of the production costs. In order to find new alternatives to manage the disease in plantain, it was evaluated in vitro the effect on the fungus of the

  19. Improving the quality factor of an RF spiral inductor with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform coil spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Pei; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun

    2011-01-01

    An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout. (semiconductor devices)

  20. Novel Interleaved Converter with Extra-High Voltage Gain to Process Low-Voltage Renewable-Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel interleaved converter (NIC with extra-high voltage gain to process the power of low-voltage renewable-energy generators such as photovoltaic (PV panel, wind turbine, and fuel cells. The NIC can boost a low input voltage to a much higher voltage level to inject renewable energy to DC bus for grid applications. Since the NIC has two circuit branches in parallel at frond end to share input current, it is suitable for high power applications. In addition, the NIC is controlled in an interleaving pattern, which has the advantages that the NIC has lower input current ripple, and the frequency of the ripple is twice the switching frequency. Two coupled inductors and two switched capacitors are incorporated to achieve a much higher voltage gain than conventional high step-up converters. The proposed NIC has intrinsic features such as leakage energy totally recycling and low voltage stress on power semiconductor. Thorough theoretical analysis and key parameter design are presented in this paper. A prototype is built for practical measurements to validate the proposed NIC.

  1. Multilayer, Stacked Spiral Copper Inductors on Silicon with Micro-Henry Inductance Using Single-Level Lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Reissman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present copper structures composed of multilayer, stacked inductors (MLSIs with tens of micro-Henry inductance for use in low frequency (sub 100 MHz, power converter technology. Unique to this work is the introduction of single-level lithography over the traditional two-level approach to create each inductor layer. The result is a simplified fabrication process which results in a reduction in the number of lithography steps per inductor (metal layer and a reduction in the necessary alignment precision. Additionally, we show that this fabrication process yields strong adhesion amongst the layers, since even after a postprocess abrasion technique at the inner diameter of the inductors, no shearing occurs and connectivity is preserved. In total, three separate structures were fabricated using the single-level lithography approach, each with a three-layered, stacked inductor design but with varied geometries. Measured values for each of the structures were extracted, and the following results were obtained: inductance values of 24.74, 17.25, and 24.74 μH, self-resonances of 9.87, 5.72, and 10.58 MHz, and peak quality factors of 2.26, 2.05, and 4.6, respectively. These values are in good agreement with the lumped parameter model presented.

  2. Soft-matter capacitors and inductors for hyperelastic strain sensing and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassler, A; Majidi, C

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors composed of microchannels of liquid-phase gallium–indium–tin alloy (galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex ® 00-30). In contrast to conventional (rigid) electronics, these circuit elements remain electronically functional even when stretched to several times their natural length. As the surrounding elastomer stretches, the capacitance and inductance of the embedded liquid channels change monotonically. Using a custom-built loading apparatus, we experimentally measure relative changes in capacitance and inductance as a function of stretch in three directions. These experimental relationships are consistent with theoretical predictions that we derive with finite elasticity kinematics. (paper)

  3. Soft-matter capacitors and inductors for hyperelastic strain sensing and stretchable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, A.; Majidi, C.

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors composed of microchannels of liquid-phase gallium-indium-tin alloy (galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex® 00-30). In contrast to conventional (rigid) electronics, these circuit elements remain electronically functional even when stretched to several times their natural length. As the surrounding elastomer stretches, the capacitance and inductance of the embedded liquid channels change monotonically. Using a custom-built loading apparatus, we experimentally measure relative changes in capacitance and inductance as a function of stretch in three directions. These experimental relationships are consistent with theoretical predictions that we derive with finite elasticity kinematics.

  4. Buck-Boost Current-Source Inverters With Diode-Inductor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Liang, Chao; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a number of novel currentsource inverters (CSIs) with enhanced current buck-boost capability. By adding a unique diode-inductor network between the inverter circuitry and current-boost elements, the proposed buck-boost CSIs demonstrate a doubling of current-boost capability......, as compared with other recently reported buck-boost CSIs. For controlling the proposed CSIs, two modulation schemes are designed for achieving either optimized harmonic performance or minimized commutation count without influencing the inverter current buck-boost gain. These theoretical findings were...

  5. Method of controlling switching of a multiphase inductor-converter bridge. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustom, R.L.; Fuja, R.E.

    In an inductor-convertor circuit for transferring electrical energy between a storage coil and a load coil through a storage thyristor bridge, a load thyristor bridge, and a set of commutating capacitors, operation is improved by a method of changing the rate of delivery of energy in a given direction. The change in rate corresponds to a predetermined change in phase angle between the load bridge and the storage bridge, and comprises changing the phase of the bridge by two steps, each equal to half the predetermined change and occurring 180/sup 0/ apart. The method assures commutation and minimizes imbalances that lead otherwise to overvoltages. 11 figures.

  6. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  7. A zero-voltage-switched three-phase interleaved buck converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Ching; Huang, Bing-Siang; Lin, Jing-Yuan; Pham, Phu Hieu; Chen, Po-Hao; Chiu, Huang-Jen

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a three-phase interleaved buck converter which is composed of three identical paralleled buck converters. The proposed solution has three shunt inductors connected between each other of three basic buck conversion units. With the help of the shunt inductors, the MOSFET parasitic capacitances will resonate to achieve zero-voltage-switching. Furthermore, the decreasing rate of the current through the free-wheeling diodes is limited, and therefore, their reverse-recovery losses can be minimised. The active power switches are controlled by interleaved pulse-width modulation signals to reduce the input and output current ripples. Therefore, the filtering capacitances on the input and output sides can be reduced. The power efficiency is measured to be as high as 98% in experiment with a prototype circuit.

  8. Influence of the inductor shape, and the magnetization processes on a trapped magnetic flux in a superconducting bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gony, B., E-mail: bashar.gony@univ-lorraine.fr; Linares, R.; Lin, Q.; Berger, K.; Douine, B.; Leveque, J.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We tested two inductors: vortex coil and system of three coils. • The system of three coils is better than the vortex coil. • We presented and compared two processes of PFM method. • Similar results were found for the two processes. - Abstract: In this paper, we study the form of the inductor for producing a magnetic field in a superconductor bulk by using a method of PFM (Pulsed Field Magnetization). We tested two inductors: vortex coil and system of three coils, where we found the best results with the system of three coils. After that, we presented two processes for trapping a magnetic field in the bulk: direct magnetization and successive magnetization where we found similar results.

  9. Frequency characterization of thin soft magnetic material layers used in spiral inductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriga, Adoum; Allassem, Désiré; Soultan, Malloum; Chatelon, Jean-Pierre; Siblini, Ali; Allard, Bruno; Rousseau, Jean Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The paper details the characterization of thin magnetic materials layers, particularly soft materials, with respect to their behaviour in frequency (from 10 MHz to 1 GHz). The proposed method is suitable for any soft but insulating magnetic material; Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) is used as an example. The principle is based on a comparison between simulations for different values of the permeability and measurement values versus frequency of planar inductor structures; an experimental validation is proposed as well. Thin magnetic material is first deposited on an alumina substrate using RF sputtering technique; a planar spiral winding of copper is then deposited on the magnetic material by the same technique. The effective permeability versus frequency is obtained by comparing two samples of spiral windings with and without magnetic material. Network analyser measurements on samples of various geometrical dimensions and of different thicknesses are necessary to determine the effective magnetic permeability; we have obtained a relative effective permeability of about 30 for seven turns spiral inductor of a 17 μm YIG film. - Highlights: ► A simple and original method is presented for the characterization of soft magnetic layer. ► This is a non-destructive method based on standard equipment. ► The principle is based on a comparison between simulations and measurement. ► An experimental validation is proposed as well.

  10. A Four-Phase High Voltage Conversion Ratio Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Battery Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Kun Xue

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a four-phase interleaved high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converter circuit based on coupled inductors and switched capacitors, which can eliminate the defects of conventional high voltage conversion ratio bidirectional DC-DC converters in terms of high-voltage/current stress, less efficiency and low-power limitation. Parallel channels are used to reduce current stress at the low-voltage side and series connected switched capacitors are used to enlarge voltage conversion ratio, reduce voltage stress and achieve auto current sharing. This paper proposes the operation principle, feature analysis and optimization design considerations. On this basis the objectives of high voltage conversion ratio, low voltage/current stress, high power density, high efficiency and high-power applications can be achieved. Some experimental results based on a 500 W prototype converter (24 V to 48 V at low-voltage side, 400 V at high-voltage side are given to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  11. Solid-state high voltage modulator and its application to rf source high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooker, J.F.; Huynh, P.; Street, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    A solid-state high voltage modulator is described in which series-connected insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) are switched at a fixed frequency by a pulse width modulation (PWM) regulator, that adjusts the pulse width to control the voltage out of an inductor-capacitor filter network. General Atomics proposed the HV power supply (HVPS) topology of multiple IGBT modulators connected to a common HVdc source for the large number of 1 MW klystrons in the linear accelerator of the Accelerator Production of Tritium project. The switching of 24 IGBTs to obtain 20 kVdc at 20 A for short pulses was successfully demonstrated. This effort was incorporated into the design of a -70 kV, 80 A, IGBT modulator, and in a short-pulse test 12 IGBTs regulated -5 kV at 50 A under PWM control. These two tests confirm the practicality of solid-state IGBT modulators to regulate high voltage at reasonable currents. Tokamaks such as ITER require large rf heating and current drive systems with multiple rf sources. A HVPS topology is presented that readily adapts to the three rf heating systems on ITER. To take advantage of the known economy of scale for power conversion equipment, a single HVdc source feeds multiple rf sources. The large power conversion equipment, which is located outside, converts the incoming utility line voltage directly to the HVdc needed for the class of rf sources connected to it, to further reduce cost. The HVdc feeds a set of IGBT modulators, one for each rf source, to independently control the voltage applied to each source, maximizing operational flexibility. Only the modulators are indoors, close to the rf sources, minimizing the use of costly near-tokamak floor space.

  12. A novel NiZn ferrite integrated magnetic solenoid inductor with a high quality factor at 0.7–6 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Integrated inductor is one of the fundamental components and has been widely used in radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs. It has been challenging to achieve simultaneously high inductance and quality factor, particularly at GHz frequencies. In this work, we reported a novel integrated solenoid inductor with a magnetic NiZn ferrite as the core material, which was deposited by a low-cost spin spray technique. These integrated inductors showed a significant improvement in both inductance and quality factor at GHz frequencies over their air core counterparts. A stable inductance was observed within a wide frequency ranged from 700 MHz to 6 GHz. The peak value of quality factor reached 23, a relatively higher value not reported for solenoid inductors up to date. Our results indicate that the integrated inductor are promising for applications in RFICs.

  13. Fully inkjet printed RF inductors and capacitors using polymer dielectric and silver conductive ink with through vias

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, fully inkjet printed multilayer capacitors and inductors are fabricated and characterized using poly 4-vinylphenol (PVP) ink as the dielectric layer and silver nanoparticle ink as the conductor. Inkjet printed through vias, created with a novel dissolving method are used to make RF structures in a multilayer inkjet printing process. The vias have been realized in a 350-nm PVP film and exhibit resistance better than 0.1 Ω. Spiral inductors from 10 to 75 nH have been realized with maximum quality factors around five. The 10-nH inductor exhibits a self-resonant frequency slightly below 1 GHz. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors are realized with densities of 50 pF/mm-2. These capacitors demonstrate values ranging from 16 to 50 pF. The 16-pF capacitor shows a self-resonant frequency over 1.5 GHz. The successful implementation of inductors and capacitors in an all inkjet printed multilayer process with vias is an important step toward fully inkjet-printed large area and flexible RF systems.

  14. An AC Resistance Optimization Method Applicable for Inductor and Transformer Windings with Full Layers and Partial Layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Zhan; Li, Zhiguang; Jin, Long

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an ac resistance optimization method applicable for both inductor and transformer windings with full layers and partial layers. The proposed method treats the number of layers of the windings as a design variable instead of as a predefined parameter, compared to existing methods...

  15. Fully inkjet printed RF inductors and capacitors using polymer dielectric and silver conductive ink with through vias

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret; Gonzalez Perez, Jose; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, fully inkjet printed multilayer capacitors and inductors are fabricated and characterized using poly 4-vinylphenol (PVP) ink as the dielectric layer and silver nanoparticle ink as the conductor. Inkjet printed through vias, created with a novel dissolving method are used to make RF structures in a multilayer inkjet printing process. The vias have been realized in a 350-nm PVP film and exhibit resistance better than 0.1 Ω. Spiral inductors from 10 to 75 nH have been realized with maximum quality factors around five. The 10-nH inductor exhibits a self-resonant frequency slightly below 1 GHz. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors are realized with densities of 50 pF/mm-2. These capacitors demonstrate values ranging from 16 to 50 pF. The 16-pF capacitor shows a self-resonant frequency over 1.5 GHz. The successful implementation of inductors and capacitors in an all inkjet printed multilayer process with vias is an important step toward fully inkjet-printed large area and flexible RF systems.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESSES IN AN INDUCTOR SYSTEM WITH AN ATTRACTING SCREEN EXCITED BY THE EXTERNAL CIRCULAR SOLENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Chaplygin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Developments in the field of magnetic-pulse treatment of metals (MPTM are increasingly used in the modern technologies of production and repair of the aviation, automotive and other machinery, as they are environmentally friendly and energy-efficient in comparison with classical approaches. One of the main components of the device MPTM is a tool – inductor or the inductor system with an attractive screen (ISAS. The calculated dependences to calculate the inductor system with an attractive screen were taken from previous works. The ratios were obtained for the low-frequency mode of the excited fields, when is place their significant penetration through a thin-walled metal screen and a deformed workpiece. As it was shown earlier this mode is the most efficient from point of view of a force action on the object of a processing. Purpose. The theoretical analysis of the spatial-temporal distributions of the induced currents and forces of an attraction in the inductor system with an attractive screen excited by a flat circular solenoid located on the outside of the auxiliary screen. Methodology. The calculations are shown that the induced currents both in the screen and the workpiece are unidirectional and their interaction, in accordance with the law of Ampere determines the amplitudes of excited forces of attraction. Let’s note the effective validity of the considered inductor system excited by an external circular solenoid. With sufficient simplicity of the design take place rather high values of the developed forces of attraction and their averages. Results. Physically, a higher power efficiency of the system with an «external» coil in comparison with a system where coil is located in the internal cavity, can be accounted for lade of «failure» in the radial distribution of the excited forces. This «failure» in the design with a coil between the sheet metal is caused by its screening action against the forces of attraction

  17. Highly Deformable Liquid Embedded Soft-Matter Capacitors and Inductors for Stretchable Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassler, Andrew; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a family of soft-matter capacitors and inductors that can be stretched to several times their natural length. These circuit elements are composed of microchannels of a liquid-phase Gallium-Indium-Tin alloy (Galinstan) embedded in a soft silicone elastomer (Ecoflex® 00-30). As the elastomer stretches, the embedded liquid channels deform, causing the capacitance and inductance to change monotonically. The relative changes in capacitance and inductance are experimentally measured as a function of stretch in three directions. The relationships found show potential for these devices to be used as strain sensors and tunable electronic filters. Additionally, theoretical predictions derived using finite elasticity kinematics are consistent with these experimentally found relationships.

  18. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenev, S A; Puzynin, I V; Samojlov, V N; Sissakyan, A N [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs.

  19. Coupled-Inductor-Based Aalborg Inverter With Input DC Energy Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Houqing; Wu, Weimin; Chung, Henry Shu-hung

    2018-01-01

    Due to the global environmental issues and energy crisis, the injection of renewable energy sources (RESs) into the power system is continuously increasing. As the interface between RESs and power grid, grid-tied inverters using MOSFET switches, without traditional line frequency transformers, show...... some potential advantages, in terms of low cost, high efficiency, and lightweight and small size. Among several proposed configurations, the Aalborg inverter was proposed as a new family of high efficiency MOSFET-switch-based hybrid source inverters. For a conventional “half bridge” type Aalborg...... inverter, due to the imbalance of two independent dc sources, the input dc energies may not be fully utilized, which may reduce the efficiency of whole system. In order to extract the maximum energy from two independent dc sources, a coupled-inductor-based “half bridge” type Aalborg inverter is proposed...

  20. High current pulsed ion inductor accelerator for destruction of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Puzynin, I.V.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sissakyan, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    A new high-current pulsed linear induction accelerator proposed for application in beam-driven transmutation technologies is described. The accelerator consists of an ion injector, of ion separation and induction accelerating systems, and of an output system for extracting an ion beam into open air. An ion source with explosive ion emission, capable of producing various kinds of ions, is used as an injector. The ion separator exploits a pulsed magnetic system. The induction acceleration structure includes inductors with amorphous iron cores. Imbedded magnetic elements assure the ion beam transport. Main parameters of the accelerator are given in the paper and the design of an ion injector is discussed in more detail. (J.U.). 3 figs., 3 refs

  1. Performance Evaluation of Electronic Inductor-Based Adjustable Speed Drives with Respect to Line Current Interharmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Davari, Pooya; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Inductor (EI)-based front-end rectifiers have a large potential to become the prominent next generation of Active Front End (AFE) topology used in many applications including Adjustable Speed Drives (ASDs) for systems having unidirectional power flow. The EI-based ASD is mostly...... attractive due to its improved harmonic performance compared to a conventional ASD. In this digest, the input currents of the EI-based ASD are investigated and compared with the conventional ASDs with respect to interharmonics, which is an emerging power quality topic. First, the main causes...... of the interharmonic distortions in the ASD applications are analyzed under balanced and unbalanced load conditions. Thereafter, the key role of the EI at the DC stage is investigated in terms of high impedance and current harmonics transfer. Obtained experiments and simulations for both EI-based and conventional ASD...

  2. Probing of multiple magnetic responses in magnetic inductors using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seongjae; Seo, Hosung; Seol, Daehee; Yoon, Young-Hwan; Kim, Mi Yang; Kim, Yunseok

    2016-02-08

    Even though nanoscale analysis of magnetic properties is of significant interest, probing methods are relatively less developed compared to the significance of the technique, which has multiple potential applications. Here, we demonstrate an approach for probing various magnetic properties associated with eddy current, coil current and magnetic domains in magnetic inductors using multidimensional magnetic force microscopy (MMFM). The MMFM images provide combined magnetic responses from the three different origins, however, each contribution to the MMFM response can be differentiated through analysis based on the bias dependence of the response. In particular, the bias dependent MMFM images show locally different eddy current behavior with values dependent on the type of materials that comprise the MI. This approach for probing magnetic responses can be further extended to the analysis of local physical features.

  3. The combined effect of interferon synthesis inductors, radiosensitizing and antitumoral agents on solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonidze, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    In experiments with mice bearing solid sarcoma 37 a study was conducted on the combined effect of radiation and inductors of endogenous inerferon synthesis (IEIS), together with hyperthermia or together with an alkylating and carbomoilating agent, dimethinur. The effect was estimated by the tumor growth coefficient and by the number of animals with the regressed tumors. Poly I; polyC was not shiown to influence the efficiency of hyperthermia combined with radiation with radiation; dextransulphate and tiloron increased the radiosensitizing effect of hyperthermia. Dimethinur aggravated the effect of radiation, but with IEIS used together with dimethynur and radiation, the response of the tumor increased insignificantly as compared to the effect of IEIS together with radiation

  4. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  5. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360 degree/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs

  6. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  7. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  8. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  9. Voltage-Dependent Gating: Novel Insights from KCNQ1 Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Gating of voltage-dependent cation channels involves three general molecular processes: voltage sensor activation, sensor-pore coupling, and pore opening. KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel whose distinctive properties have provided novel insights on fundamental principles of voltage-dependent gating. 1) Similar to other Kv channels, KCNQ1 voltage sensor activation undergoes two resolvable steps; but, unique to KCNQ1, the pore opens at both the intermediate and activated state of voltage sensor activation. The voltage sensor-pore coupling differs in the intermediate-open and the activated-open states, resulting in changes of open pore properties during voltage sensor activation. 2) The voltage sensor-pore coupling and pore opening require the membrane lipid PIP2 and intracellular ATP, respectively, as cofactors, thus voltage-dependent gating is dependent on multiple stimuli, including the binding of intracellular signaling molecules. These mechanisms underlie the extraordinary KCNE1 subunit modification of the KCNQ1 channel and have significant physiological implications. PMID:26745405

  10. Optimized Integrated Harmonic Filter Inductor for Dual-Converter-Fed Open-End Transformer Topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2017-01-01

    Many high power converter systems are often connected to the medium voltage network using a step-up transformer. In such systems, the converter-side windings of the transformer can be configured as an open-end and multi-level voltage waveforms can be achieved by feeding these open-end windings from...

  11. Development of a physically-based planar inductors VHDL-AMS model for integrated power converter design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammouri, Aymen; Ben Salah, Walid; Khachroumi, Sofiane; Ben Salah, Tarek; Kourda, Ferid; Morel, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Design of integrated power converters needs prototype-less approaches. Specific simulations are required for investigation and validation process. Simulation relies on active and passive device models. Models of planar devices, for instance, are still not available in power simulator tools. There is, thus, a specific limitation during the simulation process of integrated power systems. The paper focuses on the development of a physically-based planar inductor model and its validation inside a power converter during transient switching. The planar inductor model remains a complex device to model, particularly when the skin, the proximity and the parasitic capacitances effects are taken into account. Heterogeneous simulation scheme, including circuit and device models, is successfully implemented in VHDL-AMS language and simulated in Simplorer platform. The mixed simulation results has been favorably tested and compared with practical measurements. It is found that the multi-domain simulation results and measurements data are in close agreement.

  12. Intermediality and media change

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book is about intermediality as an approach to analysing and understanding media change. Intermediality and Media Change is critical of technological determinism that characterises 'new media discourse' about the ongoing digitalization, framed as a revolution and creating sharp contrasts between old and new media. Intermediality instead emphasises paying attention to continuities between media of all types and privileges a comparative perspective on technological changes in media over ti...

  13. Economics of superconductive energy storage inductor-converter units in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadavalli, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Since the original proposal by Boom and Peterson in 1972, there has been growing interest in superconductive energy storage inductor converter units (IC units) for use in large power systems for peak shaving and load leveling. Different aspects of it are being studied at the University of Wisconsin and elsewhere. An economic study of such IC units shows that large IC units, bigger than about 1000 MWh, are economically competitive with other peaking alternatives, larger units being more economical. External electrical circuit losses in IC units have negligible effect on their storage and power capacities. There are three credits which could be of significant economic value to IC units. These are: (1) transmission credit which varied from about $4 to $60/kW peak power, with a typical value of about $35/kW; (2) pollution credit which varied from about $5 to $160/kW with a typical value of $80/kW; and Spinning Reserve Credit which varied from about $20 to $370/kW with a typical value of $90/kW

  14. Complex impedance spectra of chip inductor using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Naoe, Masayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro

    2006-01-01

    A multi-layer chip inductor (MCI) was fabricated using polycrystalline Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite and the green-sheet technique, and its complex impedance spectrum was evaluated with the help of numerical calculations. The complex impedance spectra of the MCI component using Ni-Zn-Cu ferrite, which have been widely used for this application, were very sensitive to the residual stress and deviated much from the calculated values; however, it was found that the complex impedance spectrum of the MCI component using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite is quite well reproduced by calculation, where the complex permittivity and permeability of the polycrystalline ferrite as well as the MCI dimensions, were used. It implied that the magneto-striction effect was negligible in case of MCI using Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite, and that the difference was related to magneto-strictive coefficient of the polycrystalline ferrite. Consequently, utilization of Li-Zn-Cu-Mn ferrite enabled us to easily design the complex impedance of MCI component

  15. Development of high frequency spice models for ferrite core inductors and transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyshondt, G. Patrick; Portnoy, William M.

    In this work high frequency SPICE models were developed to simulate the hysteresis and saturation effects of toroidal shaped ferrite core inductors and transformers. The models include the nonlinear, multi-valued B-H characteristic of the core material, leakage flux, stray capacitances, and core losses. The saturation effects were modeled using two diode clamping arrangements in conjunction with nonlinear dependent sources. Two possible controlling schemes were developed for the saturation switch. One of the arrangements used the current flowing through a series RC branch to control the switch, while the other used a NAND gate. The NAND gate implementation of the switch proved to be simpler and the parameters associated with it were easier to determine from the measurements and the B-H characteristics of the material. Lumped parameters were used to simulate the parasitic effects. Techniques for measuring these effects are described. The models were verified using manganese-zinc ferrite-type toroidal cores and they have general applicability to all circuit analysis codes equivalent function blocks such as multipliers, adders, and logic components.

  16. A Low-Profile WLAN Antenna with Inductor and Tuning Stub for Broadband Impedance Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Su Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low-profile multiband antenna suitable for wireless local area networks (WLANs, using a chip inductor and tuning stub for broadband impedance matching. The proposed antenna is compact 12×10×1 mm3 and covers three bands: 2.4-GHz (2.400–2.484 GHz, 5.2-GHz (5.150–5.350 GHz, and 5.8-GHz (5.725–5.825 GHz. The measured 10-dB bandwidths are 12.0% (2.28–2.57 GHz in the lower band for 2.4-GHz WLANs and 39.1% (4.81–7.15 GHz in the upper band for 5 GHz-WLANs. The measured peak gain of the antenna is between 2.7 and 4.39 dBi and the radiation patterns are omnidirectional.

  17. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  18. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  19. Performance improvement of three phase rectifier by employing electronic smoothing inductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Yash Veer; Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andersen, Torben O.

    2014-01-01

    density of the rectifier. In case of an inverter connected to the output of the rectifier, peak to peak voltage ripples to the front end of the inverter reduces significantly by the ESI, and it increases lifetime of the capacitor connected to the dc link and reduces the voltage stress of the active power...... semiconductors of the inverter. In this paper, an average model of the ESI and its control schemes are presented....

  20. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  1. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  2. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  3. An Efficient and Robust Hybrid Damper for LCL- or LLCL-Based Grid-Tied Inverter With Strong Grid-Side Harmonic Voltage Effect Rejection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; He, Yuanbin

    2016-01-01

    to resist the effect of the BHV, a feedforward voltage compensator and a proportional resonant regulator with harmonic compensation are often adopted. However, they still have their own limitations, particularly when there are higher order BHVs at the point of common coupling and when the equivalent grid......A high-order (LCL or LLCL) power filter with a small grid-side inductor is becoming more preferred for a grid-tied inverter due to less total inductance and reduced costs. In a microgrid, the background harmonic voltage (BHV) may distort the injected currents of the grid-tied inverters. In order...

  4. Integrated Three-Voltage-Booster DC-DC Converter to Achieve High Voltage Gain with Leakage-Energy Recycling for PV or Fuel-Cell Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an integrated three-voltage-booster DC-DC (direct current to direct current converter is proposed to achieve high voltage gain for renewable-energy generation systems. The proposed converter integrates three voltage-boosters into one power stage, which is composed of an active switch, a coupled-inductor, five diodes, and five capacitors. As compared with conventional high step-up converters, it has a lower component count. In addition, the features of leakage-energy recycling and switching loss reduction can be accomplished for conversion efficiency improvement. While the active switch is turned off, the converter can inherently clamp the voltage across power switch and suppress voltage spikes. Moreover, the reverse-recovery currents of all diodes can be alleviated by leakage inductance. A 200 W prototype operating at 100 kHz switching frequency with 36 V input and 400 V output is implemented to verify the theoretical analysis and to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed high step-up DC-DC converter.

  5. Commissioning experiences on high voltage generator of 750 KeV DC accelerator at RRCAT, Indore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banwari, R.; Kasliwal, A.; Pandit, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Design approach of high voltage generator for 750 keV DC accelerator, developed at RRCAT Indore, inculcates a unique feature of high frequency operation of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton voltage generator. Apart from design simplicity and feasibility of modular construction, the high frequency use of symmetrical Cockcroft-Walton circuit gives added advantages of less ripple, better regulation, faster response and low stored energy in the system. Additionally the scheme allows us the use of low voltage, light weight components thus improving the overall economy of the system. The accelerator has been commissioned and made operational at its rated energy of 750 keV in the recent past. With brief introduction on design aspects of high voltage generator and filament power supply of this accelerator, the paper presented here describes the developmental steps of various components with focus on challenges encountered and solutions implemented. Development of high frequency inverter, high voltage ferrite core transformer, compensating inductors, interface bushings, voltage multiplier stack, and filament transformer along with floating power supply for electron emitter of the accelerator has been dealt in detail. The failures encountered during commissioning stages of the accelerator have been reported with measures taken for improvement of the specific components. Intricacies of the reflected capacitance of the multiplier stack and arc-current ground return are also described with their effects on system operation and reliability. (author)

  6. New series half-bridge converters with the balance input split capacitor voltages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren; Chiang, Huann-Keng; Wang, Shang-Lun

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a new dc/dc converter to perform the main functions of zero voltage switching (ZWS), low converter size, high switching frequency and low-voltage stress. Metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high switching frequency are used to reduce the converter size and increase circuit efficiency. To overcome low-voltage stress and high turn-on resistance of MOSFETs, the series half-bridge topology is adopted in the proposed converter. Hence, the low-voltage stress MOSFETs can be used for medium-input voltage applications. The asymmetric pulse-width modulation is used to generate the gating signals and achieve the ZWS. On the secondary side, the parallel connection of two diode rectifiers is adopted to reduce the current rating of passive components. On the primary side, the series connection of two transformers is used to balance two output inductor currents. Two flying capacitors are used to automatically balance the input split capacitor voltages. Finally, experiments with 1000 W rated power are performed to verify the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of proposed converter.

  7. Fast response double series resonant high-voltage DC-DC converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S S; Iqbal, S; Kamarol, M

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a novel double series resonant high-voltage dc-dc converter with dual-mode pulse frequency modulation (PFM) control scheme is proposed. The proposed topology consists of two series resonant tanks and hence two resonant currents flow in each switching period. Moreover, it consists of two high-voltage transformer with the leakage inductances are absorbed as resonant inductor in the series resonant tanks. The secondary output of both transformers are rectified and mixed before supplying to load. In the resonant mode operation, the series resonant tanks are energized alternately by controlling two Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) switches with pulse frequency modulation (PFM). This topology operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) with all IGBT switches operating in zero current switching (ZCS) condition and hence no switching loss occurs. To achieve fast rise in output voltage, a dual-mode PFM control during start-up of the converter is proposed. In this operation, the inverter is started at a high switching frequency and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target value, the switching frequency is reduced to a value which corresponds to the target output voltage. This can effectively reduce the rise time of the output voltage and prevent overshoot. Experimental results collected from a 100-W laboratory prototype are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  8. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  9. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  10. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende

  11. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  12. A Double-Resistive Active Power Filter System to Attenuate Harmonic Voltages of a Radial Power Distribution Feeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Han, Ruijing; Shen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    voltages. This paper proposes a double-resistive active power filter (D-RAPF) system consisting of a terminal-RAPF and an attenuation-RAPF for each individual harmonic. The terminal-RAPF operating as the characteristic impedance of the feeder is installed at the end bus to suppress harmonic propagation......Harmonic propagation between power-factor correction capacitors and system inductors seriously deteriorates power quality in a radial power distribution feeder. Installation of a resistive active power filter (RAPF) at the end bus only suppresses harmonic propagation, not attenuates harmonic...... at all harmonic frequencies. The attenuation-RAPF, whose control gain can be set according to the requirements of the harmonic voltage distortion limit, is installed at a specific position for each individual harmonic to attenuate the corresponding harmonic voltages. The D-RAPF system not only suppresses...

  13. A low temperature co-fired ceramic power inductor manufactured using a glass-free ternary composite material system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanxun; Xie, Yunsong; Xie, Ru; Chen, Daming; Han, Likun; Su, Hua

    2018-03-01

    A glass-free ternary composite material system (CMS) manufactured employing the low temperature ( 890 ° C ) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technique is reported. This ternary CMS consists of silver, NiCuZn ferrite, and Zn2SiO4 ceramic. The reported device fabricated from this ternary CMS is a power inductor with a nominal inductance of 1.0 μH. Three major highlights were achieved from the device and the material study. First, unlike most other LTCC methods, no glass is required to be added in either of the dielectric materials in order to co-fire the NiCuZn ferrite, Zn2SiO4 ceramic, and silver. Second, a successfully co-fired silver, NiCuZn, and Zn2SiO4 device can be achieved by optimizing the thermal shrinkage properties of both NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4, so that they have a very similar temperature shrinkage profile. We have also found that strong non-magnetic elemental diffusion occurs during the densification process, which further enhances the success rate of manufacturing co-fired devices. Last but not least, elemental mapping suggests that strong magnetic elemental diffusion between NiCuZn and Zn2SiO4 has been suppressed during the co-firing process. The investigation of electrical performance illustrates that while the ordinary binary CMS based power inductor can deal with 400 mA DC, the ternary CMS based power inductor is able to handle higher DC currents, 700 mA and 620 mA DC, according to both simulation and experiment demonstrations, respectively.

  14. NUMERICAL ESTIMATES OF ELECTRODYNAMICS PROCESSES IN THE INDUCTOR SYSTEM WITH AN ATTRACTIVE SCREEN AND A FLAT RECTANGULAR SOLENOID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Chaplygin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To carry out numerical estimates of currents and forces in the investigated inductor system with an attractive screen (ISAS and determine the effectiveness of the force attraction. Methodology. The calculated relationships and graphical constructions were obtained using the initial data of the system: induced current in the screen and sheet metal; the distributed force of attraction (Ampère force; the repulsive force acting on the sheet metal (Lorentz force; amplitude values of the force of attraction and repulsion; phase dependence of the force of attraction, the repulsive force and the total resulting force. Results. The results of calculations in the form of graphical dependencies of electrodynamic processes in the region under the conductors of a rectangular solenoid of inductor system with an attracting screen are presented. The graphs of forces and currents in region of dent are obtained. In the paper the analysis of electrodynamics processes for whole area under the winding of inductor system with an attractive screen is shown. The flowing this processes in the region of dent a given geometry is presented. Originality. The considered inductor system with an attractive screen and a rectangular solenoid is improved, in comparison with the previous developed ISAS. It has a working area under the lines of parallel conductors in the cross section of a rectangular solenoid, and this allows to place a predetermined portion of the sheet metal anywhere within the working region. Comparison of the indicators of electrodynamics processes in the considered variants of calculation shows an approximate growth of almost 1.5 times the power indicators in the area of the accepted dent in comparison with similar values for the entire area under the winding of the ISAS. Practical value. The results obtained are important for the practice of real estimates of the excited forces of attraction. With a decrease in the dent, the amplitude of the

  15. Optimizing Inductor Winding Geometry for Lowest DC-Resistance using LiveLink between COMSOL and MATLAB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Andersen, Thomas; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2013-01-01

    An optimization routine is presented to optimize a hybrid winding geometry for a toroid inductor in terms of the DC resistance. The hybrid winding geometry consist of bended foil pieces connected through traces in a printed circuit board. MATLAB is used to create a graphical user interface...... that visually plots the winding using input parameters such as core dimensions, number of turns, clearance between windings, and the winding angle of each segment of the winding. COMSOL LiveLink is used to import the winding geometry from MATLAB and create a 2D finite element model to simulate the DC...

  16. Engineering method of calculation and choice of main parameters of the linear induction accelerator inductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Т. Чемерис

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  There is a method of simplified calculation and design parameters choice elaborated in this article with corresponding basing for the induction system of electron-beam sterilizer on the base of linear induction accelerator taking into account the parameters of magnetic material for production of cores and parameters of pulsed voltage.

  17. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...

  18. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  19. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  20. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  1. Simulation and analysis of transient over voltages due to capacitor banks switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadid, Sh.; Yazdanpanah, D.

    2002-01-01

    The switching of any capacitor bank produces over voltages. Transient overvoltage will always occur in the switching device, the switching of shunt capacitor bank has become the most common source of transient voltage on power systems. Transient over voltages due to switching the capacitor bands hurt not only to the capacitor banks, but also to other equipment, such as circuit breakers and transformers. Several methods are available for reducing energising transients. These devices include pre-insertion resistors, pre-insertion inductors,synchronous closing, and MOV arresters. However, not all are practical or economical. The other important problem is existence of capacitor banks in presence of harmonics.Capacitors do not produce harmonics;however,the addition of capacitors to the electrical system will change the frequency response characteristics of the system will change the frequency response characteristics of the system, and in some cases can result in magnification of the voltage and current distortion in the system. In other word in presence of harmonic-producing loads,the capacitors used for power factor correction,may cause parallel resonance with the system inductance, so they increase the total harmonic distortion of voltage and current waveforms

  2. DIFFUSION OF THE PULSED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD INTO THE MULTI-LAYER CORE OF INDUCTOR AT PULSED DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr T. Chemerys

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available  The problem of the pulsed magnetic field distribution in the cross section of the inductor core at the induction accelerator of electron beam is under consideration in this paper. Owing to multi-layer structure of the core package it has the magnetic and electric anisotropy with different speed of the field diffusion along the sheets of magnetic and across the sheets. At the pulse duration less than one microsecond the essential non-uniformity of the field along both axes of the core cross section can be found. This effect reduces the efficiency of the ferromagnetic material using with corresponding loss of the accelerator efficiency. The main conclusion of the paper consists of the necessity to check the field diffusion characteristics in the process of inductor design to be sure that the pulsed field is able to fill the cross section of the core during the pulse switching. The magnetic characteristics of the anisotropic core have been investigated in the paper by one-dimensional and two-dimensional simulation in the quasi-stationary approximation using the traditional equation of the field diffusion.

  3. A Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics Manufactured Power Inductor Based on A Ternary Hybrid Material System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunsong; Chen, Ru

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) is one of the most important techniques to produce circuits with high working frequency, multi-functionality and high integration. We have developed a methodology to enable a ternary hybrid material system being implemented into the LTCC manufacturing process. The co-firing sintering process can be divided into a densification and cooling process. In this method, a successful ternary hybrid material densification process is achieved by tuning the sintering profile of each material to match each other. The system integrity is maintained in the cooling process is obtained by develop a strong bonding at the interfaces of each materials. As a demonstration, we have construct a power inductor device made of the ternary material system including Ag, NiCuZn ferrite and non-magnetic ceramic. The power inductors well maintains its physical integrity after sintering. The microscopic images show no obvious sign of cracks or structural deformation. More importantly, despite the bonding between the ferrite and ceramic is enhanced by non-magnetic element diffusion, the undesired magnetic elements diffusion is effectively suppressed. The electric performance shows that the power handling capability is comparable to the current state of art device.

  4. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  5. Money distribution with intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago

    2013-01-01

    This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...

  6. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  7. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  8. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W; Nitsch, Karol; Silberring, Jerzy; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2014-05-01

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma jet with high-voltage power supply based on piezoelectric transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babij, Michał; Kowalski, Zbigniew W., E-mail: zbigniew.w.kowalski@pwr.wroc.pl; Nitsch, Karol; Gotszalk, Teodor [Wrocław University of Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław (Poland); Silberring, Jerzy [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. A. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-05-15

    The dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, an example of the nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ), generates low-temperature plasmas that are suitable for the atomization of volatile species and can also be served as an ionization source for ambient mass and ion mobility spectrometry. A new design of APPJ for mass spectrometry has been built in our group. In these plasma sources magnetic transformers (MTs) and inductors are typically used in power supplies but they present several drawbacks that are even more evident when dealing with high-voltage normally used in APPJs. To overcome these disadvantages, high frequency generators with the absence of MT are proposed in the literature. However, in the case of miniaturized APPJs these conventional power converters, built of ferromagnetic cores and inductors or by means of LC resonant tank circuits, are not so useful as piezoelectric transformer (PT) based power converters due to bulky components and small efficiency. We made and examined a novel atmospheric pressure plasma jet with PT supplier served as ionization source for ambient mass spectrometry, and especially mobile spectrometry where miniaturization, integration of components, and clean plasma are required. The objective of this paper is to describe the concept, design, and implementation of this miniaturized piezoelectric transformer-based atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  10. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  11. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  12. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  13. Comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, S.

    2009-07-01

    During the past two decades, active power filters have increasingly grown their popularity as a viable method for improving electric power quality. The main reasons for this have been the advent of fast self-commutating solid-state devices, the progression of digital technology and the improved sensor technology. Four-wire active power filters provide an efficient solution for improving the quality of supply in grounded three-phase systems or three-phase systems with neutral conductors, which are commonly used for powering residential, office and public buildings. Four-wire active power filters are applicable in compensating current harmonics, reactive power, neutral current and load phase imbalance.This thesis presents a comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters. The study includes two voltage source topologies and a current source topology with two different dc-link energy storage structures, which are compared on the basis of their filtering properties, filtering performance and efficiency. The obtained results are used for determining the suitability of current source technology for four-wire active power filtering and finding the most viable four-wire shunt active power filter topology. One commonly recognized disadvantage of the current source active power filter has always been the bulky dc-link inductor. To reduce the size of the dc-link inductor, an alternative dc-link structure for current source active power filters was introduced in the late 80's. The hybrid energy storage consists of both inductive and capacitive energy storage elements, two diodes and two controllable semiconductor switching devices. Since the capacitive element is used as a main storage unit, the inductance of the dc-link inductor can be considerably reduced. However, the original dc current control method proposed is not able to utilize the full potential of the hybrid energy storage and the inductance

  14. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  15. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  16. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  17. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  18. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  19. Simplified 3D Finite Element Analysis of Linear Inductor Motor for Integrated Magnetic Suspension/Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Sang Sub; Jang Seok Myeong [Chungnam National University(Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The 4-pole linear homopolar synchronous motor (LHSM), so called linear inductor motor, is composed of the figure-of-eight shaped 3-phase armature windings, DC field windings, and the segmented secondary with the transverse bar track. To reduce the calculation time, the simplified 3D finite element model with equivalent reluctance and/or permanent magnet is presented. To obtain a clear understanding, propriety and usefulness of the developed mode., we compare with the results of simplified 3D FEA and test. Consequently, the results of simplified and 3D FEM analysis are nearly identical, but much larger than that of static test at d-axis armature excitation. Therefore the improved FEA model, such as full model with half slot, is needed for the precise analysis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  20. Prediction of multiple resonance characteristics by an extended resistor-inductor-capacitor circuit model for plasmonic metamaterials absorbers in infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolun; Li, Yongqian; Wang, Binbin; Zhou, Zili

    2015-10-01

    The resonance characteristics of plasmonic metamaterials absorbers (PMAs) are strongly dependent on geometric parameters. A resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit model has been extended to predict the resonance wavelengths and the bandwidths of multiple magnetic polaritons modes in PMAs. For a typical metallic-dielectric-metallic structure absorber working in the infrared region, the developed model describes the correlation between the resonance characteristics and the dimensional sizes. In particular, the RLC model is suitable for not only the fundamental resonance mode, but also for the second- and third-order resonance modes. The prediction of the resonance characteristics agrees fairly well with those calculated by the finite-difference time-domain simulation and the experimental results. The developed RLC model enables the facilitation of designing multi-band PMAs for infrared radiation detectors and thermal emitters.

  1. THE EXCITED LOADS OF ATTRACTION IN A SYMMETRICAL INDUCTOR SYSTEM FOR THE MAGNETIC PULSE REMOVING OF THE BODY CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gnatov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, repair and recovery of vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Results. The calculation of excited loads attractions in a symmetrical inductor system in the universal tool of magnetic-pulse straightening is provided. According to the obtained analytical dependence of the numerical evaluation of volumetric construction diagrams, phase and amplitude of the radial dependence of the spatial distribution of the excited efforts of attraction is obtained. The influence of the magnetic properties of the blank screen and manifested in the appearance of powerful magnetic attraction forces is determined. Originality. A new trend of research of magnetic-pulse working of thin-walled metals has been formulated and received further development, which allows to create not only new equipment, but principally new technological processes of external non-contact repair and recovery of vehicle body panels. Scientific basis of electrodynamic and magnetic attraction of thin-walled sheet metals with using the energy of high-power pulsed fields was created for the first time and proved theoretically and experimentally. Scientific and technical solutions in design of effective tools based on single-turn inductor systems of cylindrical geometry for straightening and recovery of car body panels were formulated and proved theoretically, as well as experimentally. Practical value. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic

  2. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...

  3. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Jesus had assumed. (concerning the 'intermediate state') as existing, anything which does not exist. Three basic things about the intermediate state emerge from the parable: (a) Jesus recognizes that at the moment of death, in ipso articulo.

  4. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  5. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  6. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  7. An improved low-voltage ride-through performance of DFIG based wind plant using stator dynamic composite fault current limiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, P K; Chatterjee, D; Goswami, S K

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an enhanced low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) performance of a grid connected doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has been presented with the usage of stator dynamic composite fault current limiter (SDCFCL). This protection circuit comprises of a suitable series resistor-inductor combination and parallel bidirectional semiconductor switch. The SDCFCL facilitates double benefits such as reduction of rotor induced open circuit voltage due to increased value of stator total inductance and concurrent increase of rotor impedance. Both effects will limit rotor circuit over current and over voltage situation more secured way in comparison to the conventional scheme like the dynamic rotor current limiter (RCL) during any type of fault situation. The proposed concept is validated through the simulation study of the grid integrated 2.0MW DFIG. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Voltage Gain Derivation Based on Energy-Balanced Criterion for a Novel Hybrid-Input PV-Wind Power Conversion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Lung Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies energy-balanced criterion to a novel hybrid-input PV-wind power conversion system (HPWPCS for voltage gain derivation. With the energy-balanced concept, complicated mathematical problems related to voltage gain derivation can be readily resolved. Based on the derived results, it is proven that the proposed HPWPCS is able to process two different kinds of renewable energy resources simultaneously. Even though the HPWPCS includes seven capacitors and three magnetic components, its voltage gain still can be found by the mathematical analysis. In the theoretical derivation, only the energy status of output inductor is dealt with such that complicated derivation procedure is avoided. This analysis method can also be applied to other hybrid green-energy conversion systems. In this paper, a 200 W 50 kHz prototype of HPWPCS is built and examined to verify the mathematical results.

  9. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  10. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  11. Influence of modulation method on using LC-traps with single-phase voltage source converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Min, Huang; Bai, Haofeng

    2015-01-01

    The switching-frequency LC-trap filter has recently been employed with high-order passive filters for Voltage Source Inverters (VSIs). This paper investigates the influence of modulation method on using the LC-traps with single-phase VSIs. Two-level (bipolar) and three-level (unipolar) modulations...... that include phase distortion and alternative phase opposition distortion methods are analyzed. Harmonic filtering performances of four LC-trap-based filters with different locations of LC-traps are compared. It is shown that the use of parallel-LC-traps in series with filter inductors, either grid...... or converter side, has a worse harmonic filtering performance than using series-LC-trap in the shunt branch. Simulations and experimental results are presented for verifications....

  12. High voltage, high power operation of the plasma erosion opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, J.M.; Boller, J.R.; Ottinger, P.F.; Weber, B.V.; Young, F.C.

    1987-01-01

    A Plasma Erosion Opening Switch (PEOS) is used as the opening switch for a vacuum inductive storage system driven by a 1.8-MV, 1.6-TW pulsed power generator. A 135-nH vacuum inductor is current charged to ∼750 kA in 50 ns through the closed PEOS which then opens in <10 ns into an inverse ion diode load. Electrical diagnostics and nuclear activations from ions accelerated in the diode yield a peak load voltage (4.25 MV) and peak load power (2.8 TW) that are 2.4 and 1.8 times greater than ideal matched load values for the same generator pulse

  13. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  14. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  15. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  16. Inductor-Free Wireless Energy Delivery via Maxwell's Displacement Current from an Electrodeless Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xia; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Jinrong; Jiang, Tao; Zou, Jingdian; Wang, Ning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-02-01

    Wireless power delivery has been a dream technology for applications in medical science, security, radio frequency identification (RFID), and the internet of things, and is usually based on induction coils and/or antenna. Here, a new approach is demonstrated for wireless power delivery by using the Maxwell's displacement current generated by an electrodeless triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) that directly harvests ambient mechanical energy. A rotary electrodeless TENG is fabricated using the contact and sliding mode with a segmented structure. Due to the leakage of electric field between the segments during relative rotation, the generated Maxwell's displacement current in free space is collected by metal collectors. At a gap distance of 3 cm, the output wireless current density and voltage can reach 7 µA cm -2 and 65 V, respectively. A larger rotary electrodeless TENG and flexible wearable electrodeless TENG are demonstrated to power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) through wireless energy delivery. This innovative discovery opens a new avenue for noncontact, wireless energy transmission for applications in portable and wearable electronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Coordinated Voltage Control of Distributed PV Inverters for Voltage Regulation in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the existing voltage control methods of distributed solar PV inverters to improve the voltage regulation and thereby the hosting capacity of a low-voltage distribution network. A novel coordinated voltage control method is proposed based on voltage sensitivity...... optimization. The proposed method is used to calculate the voltage bands and droop settings of PV inverters at each node by the supervisory controller. The local controller of each PV inverter implements the volt/var control and if necessary, the active power curtailment as per the received settings and based...... on measured local voltages. The advantage of the proposed method is that the calculated reactive power and active power droop settings enable fair contribution of the PV inverters at each node to the voltage regulation. Simulation studies are conducted using DigSilent Power factory software on a simplified...

  18. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  19. Magnetic integration of the harmonic filter inductor for dual-converter fed open-end transformer topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gohil, Ghanshyamsinh Vijaysinh; Bede, Lorand; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    Many high power converter systems are often connected to the medium voltage network using a step-up transformer. In such systems, the converter-side windings of the transformer can be configured as an open-end and multi-level voltage waveforms can be achieved by feeding these open-end windings from...

  20. Optimal Design of a Resonance-Based Voltage Boosting Rectifier for Wireless Power Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jaemyung; Lee, Byunghun; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the design procedure for a new multi-cycle resonance-based voltage boosting rectifier (MCRR) capable of delivering a desired amount of power to the load (PDL) at a designated high voltage (HV) through a loosely-coupled inductive link. This is achieved by shorting the receiver (Rx) LC-tank for several cycles to harvest and accumulate the wireless energy in the RX inductor before boosting the voltage by breaking the loop and transferring the energy to the load in a quarter cycle. By optimizing the geometries of the transmitter (Tx) and Rx coils and the number of cycles, N , for energy harvesting, through an iterative design procedure, the MCRR can achieve the highest PDL under a given set of design constraints. Governing equations in the MCRR operation are derived to identify key specifications and the design guidelines. Using an exemplary set of specs, the optimized MCRR was able to generate 20.9 V DC across a 100 kΩ load from a 1.8 V p , 6.78 MHz sinusoid input in the ISM-band at a Tx/Rx coil separation of 1.3 cm, power transfer efficiency (PTE) of 2.2%, and N = 9 cycles. At the same coil distance and loading, coils optimized for a conventional half-wave rectifier (CHWR) were able to reach only 13.6 V DC from the same source.

  1. A High-Efficiency Voltage Equalization Scheme for Supercapacitor Energy Storage System in Renewable Generation Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its fast charge and discharge rate, a supercapacitor-based energy storage system is especially suitable for power smoothing in renewable energy generation applications. Voltage equalization is essential for series-connected supercapacitors in an energy storage system, because it supports the system’s sustainability and maximizes the available cell energy. In this paper, we present a high-efficiency voltage equalization scheme for supercapacitor energy storage systems in renewable generation applications. We propose an improved isolated converter topology that uses a multi-winding transformer. An improved push-pull forward circuit is applied on the primary side of the transformer. A coupling inductor is added on the primary side to allow the switches to operate under the zero-voltage switching (ZVS condition, which reduces switching losses. The diodes in the rectifier are replaced with metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs to reduce the power dissipation of the secondary side. In order to simplify the control, we designed a controllable rectifying circuit to achieve synchronous rectifying on the secondary side of the transformer. The experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  2. Development of a compact generator for gigawatt, nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin, E-mail: zhoulin-2003@163.com; Jiang, Zhanxing; Liang, Chuan; Li, Mingjia; Wang, Wenchuan; Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-226, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A compact generator producing 2.2-ns 1.5 GW high-voltage pulses was developed. The generator employed a 27.6 Ω, 0.9 ns pulse-forming-line (PFL), which was charged by an iron core transformer with a turn ratio of 2:33.5 and a coefficient of 0.94. A 1.2 μF, 20 kV capacitor and a hydrogen thyratron were used in the primary circuit. When the thyratron closed at 14.5 kV, 3.4% of the energy stored in the capacitor was delivered to the PFL in 850 ns, producing a peak voltage of up to ∼500 kV. In addition, the principle of triple resonance transformation was employed by adding a 50 pF tuning capacitor and a 1.15 mH inductor between the transformer and the PFL, which led to a significant reduction of the duration and peak value of the transformer voltage without reducing that in the PFL. Meanwhile, an adjustable self-break oil switch was applied. By using transmission lines with impedance overmatched to that of the PFL, the generator delivered a 512 kV pulse across an electron beam diode, generating radiation with a dose of 20 mR/pulse at 20 cm ahead of the diode. The generator provides an excellent ultra-short radiation pulse source for the studies on radiation physics.

  3. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  4. Present status of intermediate band solar cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadra, L.; Marti, A.; Luque, A.

    2004-01-01

    The intermediate band solar cell is a theoretical concept with the potential for exceeding the performance of conventional single-gap solar cells. This novel photovoltaic converter bases its superior theoretical efficiency over single-gap solar cells by enhancing its photogenerated current, via the two-step absorption of sub-band gap photons, without reducing its output voltage. This is achieved through a material with an electrically isolated and partially filled intermediate band located within a higher forbidden gap. This material is commonly named intermediate band material. This paper centres on summarising the present status of intermediate band solar cell research. A number of attempts, which aim to implement the intermediate band concept, are being followed: the direct engineering of the intermediate band material, its implementation by means of quantum dots and the highly porous material approach. Among other sub-band gap absorbing proposals, there is a renewed interest on the impurity photovoltaic effect, the quantum well solar cells and the particularly promising proposal for the use of up- and down-converters

  5. Discourses and Models of Intermediality

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Discourses and Models of Intermediality" Jens Schröter discusses the question as to what relations do different discourses pose between different "media." Schröter identifies four models of discourse: 1) synthetic intermediality: a "fusion" of different media to super-media, a model with roots in the Wagnerian concept of Gesamtkunstwerk with political connotations, 2) formal (or transmedial) intermediality: a concept based on formal structures not "specific" to one medium but ...

  6. Information acquisition and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchenko, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...

  7. Microdosimetry of intermediate energy neutrons in fast neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saion, E.B.; Watt, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A coaxial double cylindrical proportional counter has been constructed for microdosimetry of intermediate energy neutrons in mixed fields. Details are given of the measured gas gain and resolution characteristics of the counter for a wide range of anode voltages. Event spectra due to intermediate neutrons in any desired energy band is achieved by an appropriate choice of thickness of the common dividing wall in the counter and by appropriate use of the coincidence, anticoincidence pulse counting arrangements. Calculated estimates indicate that the dose contribution by fast neutrons to the energy deposition events in the intermediate neutron range may be as large as 25%. Empirical procedures being investigated aim to determine the necessary corrections to be applied to the microdose distributions, with a precision of 10%. (author)

  8. Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell Using Gypsum Based Electrolyte And Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Nagai, Masayuki; Katagiri, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    The proton conductive electrolyte membrane and the electrodes for intermediate temperature fuel cell were made from the phosphoric acid treated gypsum as a proton conductor. The membrane and the electrodes were built into single cell and tested at intermediate temperature region. The power density of the fuel cell was 0.56 mW/cm -2 at 150 deg. C without any humidification and 1.38 mW/cm -2 at 150 deg. C, 5% relative humidity. The open circuit voltage of the cell was increased higher than 0.7 V when the electrodes were annealed at 150 deg. C, 5%R.H., however the reasons for this are still to be further investigated. The results show that the potential of the phosphoric acid treated gypsum for the intermediate temperature proton conductor.

  9. A high frequency high power IGBT inverter drive for 45 HP/16,000 rpm brushless homopolar inductor motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, J.; Lin, F. [Stone Safety Corp., Fountain Inn, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A microprocessor-based ultra-high speed brushless homopolar inductor motor drive system (HiDrive) with no gearing and using a high frequency IGBT inverter switching at 32 kHz is described and discussed in this paper. The homopolar motor features a solid steel rotor without magnets, windings, or laminations, which allows the motor to be operated at very high speed. The HiDrive system achieves 16,000 RPM, 45 Hp continuously. The drive system discussed in this paper can be used to replace conventional motors and speed increasing gear boxes in very high speed industrial applications such as centrifuges, compressors, blowers, pumps, and machine tool spindles. The HiDrive system discussed in this paper is used to drive a compressor for nuclear power application. In this paper, the detailed descriptions of the motor construction, equivalent circuit, operation and control principle are offered. The IGBT inverter drive system design and controls including motor speed sensing, load angle control, synchronization, brake control, power device switchings, and thermal issues are addressed. The simulation results various test results, and the typical application examples of the high speed drives are also presented in this paper.

  10. A high frequency high power IGBT inverter drive for 45 HP/16,000 rpm brushless homopolar inductor motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.; Lin, F.

    1995-01-01

    A microprocessor-based ultra-high speed brushless homopolar inductor motor drive system (HiDrive) with no gearing and using a high frequency IGBT inverter switching at 32 kHz is described and discussed in this paper. The homopolar motor features a solid steel rotor without magnets, windings, or laminations, which allows the motor to be operated at very high speed. The HiDrive system achieves 16,000 RPM, 45 Hp continuously. The drive system discussed in this paper can be used to replace conventional motors and speed increasing gear boxes in very high speed industrial applications such as centrifuges, compressors, blowers, pumps, and machine tool spindles. The HiDrive system discussed in this paper is used to drive a compressor for nuclear power application. In this paper, the detailed descriptions of the motor construction, equivalent circuit, operation and control principle are offered. The IGBT inverter drive system design and controls including motor speed sensing, load angle control, synchronization, brake control, power device switchings, and thermal issues are addressed. The simulation results various test results, and the typical application examples of the high speed drives are also presented in this paper

  11. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  12. The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models

  13. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  14. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  15. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  16. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  17. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  18. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  19. Intermediate neutron spectrum problems and the intermediate neutron spectrum experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Criticality benchmark data for intermediate energy spectrum systems does not exist. These systems are dominated by scattering and fission events induced by neutrons with energies between 1 eV and 1 MeV. Nuclear data uncertainties have been reported for such systems which can not be resolved without benchmark critical experiments. Intermediate energy spectrum systems have been proposed for the geological disposition of surplus fissile materials. Without the proper benchmarking of the nuclear data in the intermediate energy spectrum, adequate criticality safety margins can not be guaranteed. The Zeus critical experiment now under construction will provide this necessary benchmark data

  20. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  1. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  2. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  3. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  4. Elimination of bus voltage impact on temperature sensitive electrical parameter during turn-on transition for junction temperature estimation of high-power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Junction temperature is of great importance to safe operating area of IGBT modules. Various information of the IGBT operating state is reflected on electrical characteristics during turn-on transient. A unified extraction method for internal junction temperature via dynamic thermo......-sensitive electrical parameters (DTSEP) during turn-on transient is proposed. Two DTSEP, turn-on delay time (tdon) and the maximum increasing rate of collector current dic/dt(max), are combined to eliminate the bus voltage impact. Using the inherent emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE in high-power modules, the temperature......-dependent DTSEPs can be converted into a low-voltage and measurable signal. Finally, experiment results are exhibited to verify the effectiveness of proposed method....

  5. Voltage measurements at the vacuum post-hole convolute of the Z pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Waisman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented are voltage measurements taken near the load region on the Z pulsed-power accelerator using an inductive voltage monitor (IVM. Specifically, the IVM was connected to, and thus monitored the voltage at, the bottom level of the accelerator’s vacuum double post-hole convolute. Additional voltage and current measurements were taken at the accelerator’s vacuum-insulator stack (at a radius of 1.6 m by using standard D-dot and B-dot probes, respectively. During postprocessing, the measurements taken at the stack were translated to the location of the IVM measurements by using a lossless propagation model of the Z accelerator’s magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs and a lumped inductor model of the vacuum post-hole convolute. Across a wide variety of experiments conducted on the Z accelerator, the voltage histories obtained from the IVM and the lossless propagation technique agree well in overall shape and magnitude. However, large-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations are more pronounced in the IVM records. It is unclear whether these larger oscillations represent true voltage oscillations at the convolute or if they are due to noise pickup and/or transit-time effects and other resonant modes in the IVM. Results using a transit-time-correction technique and Fourier analysis support the latter. Regardless of which interpretation is correct, both true voltage oscillations and the excitement of resonant modes could be the result of transient electrical breakdowns in the post-hole convolute, though more information is required to determine definitively if such breakdowns occurred. Despite the larger oscillations in the IVM records, the general agreement found between the lossless propagation results and the results of the IVM shows that large voltages are transmitted efficiently through the MITLs on Z. These results are complementary to previous studies [R. D. McBride et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 13, 120401 (2010

  6. Intermediate Levels of Visual Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakayama, Ken

    1998-01-01

    ...) surface representation, here we have shown that there is an intermediate level of visual processing, between the analysis of the image and higher order representations related to specific objects; (2...

  7. Evaluation of the practical peak voltage quantity for clinical equipment in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Joao dos Santos Justo

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the calculation of the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) from the voltage waveform and the kerma contrast for two kinds of X-ray equipment: a single phase clinical equipment, a three phase clinical equipment. The PPV from a mammography system voltage waveform will also be established. The development of this work involves intermediate objectives that indicate the quality of the used methods to calculate the PPV. One of these intermediate objectives is the comparison between the invasive calculations of PPV (using a voltage divider) with the response of kVp meter that calculate the PPV. Another intermediate objective is to compare the PPV with the Contrast Equivalent Voltage (the original non-invasive PPV definition). The variation of the PPV with quantities that influence in the voltage waveform like ripple and sample rate will also be contemplated in this work. The results showed that the PPV quantity could be invasive determined trustworthy. Therefore, the ripple quantity is the mainly influence to determinate the PPV that affecting the non-invasive determination. This fact suggest that the non-invasive instruments manufacturers must reevaluate the calculation of the PPV quantity in their instruments. (author)

  8. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  9. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  10. Thyristor current-pulse generator for betatron electromagnet with independent low-voltage supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginskii, B.A.; Makarevich, V.N.; Shtein, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    A thyristor generator is described that produces unipolar current pulses in the winding of a betatron electromagnet. The voltage on the electro-magnet is increased and the shape of the current pulses is improved by use of an intermediate inductive storage device. The current pulses have a duration of 11 msec, an amplitude of 190 A, and a repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The maximum magnetic-field energy is 450 J, the voltage on the electromagnet winding is 1.5 kV, and the supply voltage is 27 V

  11. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  12. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W; Silverstein, Brian L [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  13. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  14. 40 keV Shaped electron beam lithography for LIGA intermediate mask fabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttge, R.; Adam, D.; Burkhardt, F.; Hoke, F.; Schacke, H.; Schmidt, M.; Wolf, H.; Schmidt, A.

    1999-01-01

    High precision LIGA masks require a soft X-ray pattern transfer from intermediate masks by means of electron beam lithography. Such a process has been realized using an upgraded Leica ZBA 23 machine with an acceleration voltage of 40 kV. Three process variations of the developer system, so called GG

  15. Intermediate stage of sleep and acute cerveau isolé preparation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    User, P; Gioanni, H; Gottesmann, C

    1980-01-01

    The acute cerveau isole rat shows spindle bursts of large amplitude alternating with low voltage activity in the frontal cortex and continuous theta rhythm in the dorsal hippocampus. These patterns closely resemble an "intermediate" stage of sleep-waking cycle, when the forebrain structures seem to be functionally disconnected from the brainstem.

  16. Macroeconomic Assessment of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Küfeoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.

  17. A matter of quantum voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M., E-mail: Shawn.Kathmann@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  18. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  19. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Rubbia, C.; van der Meer, S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 15 years a new class of unified theories has been developed to describe the forces acting between elementary particles. The most successful of the new theories establishes a link between electromagnetism and the weak force. A crucial prediction of this unified electroweak theory is the existence of three massive particles called intermediate vector bosons. If these intermediate vector bosons exist and if they have properties attributed to them by electroweak theory, they should soon be detected, as the world's first particle accelerator with enough energy to create such particles has recently been completed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The accelerator has been converted to a colliding beam machine in which protons and antiprotons collide head on. According to electroweak theory, intermediate vector bosons can be created in proton-antiproton collisions. (SC)

  20. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajn, D.B.; Rubbia, K.; Meer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Problem of registration and search for intermediate vector bosons is discussed. According to weak-current theory there are three intermediate vector bosons with +1(W + )-1(W - ) and zero (Z 0 ) electric charges. It was suggested to conduct the investigation into particles in 1976 by cline, Rubbia and Makintair using proton-antiproton beams. Major difficulties of the experiment are related to the necessity of formation of sufficient amount of antiparticles and the method of antiproton beam ''cooling'' for the purpose of reduction of its random movements. The stochastic method was suggested by van der Meer in 1968 as one of possible cooling methods. Several large detectors were designed for searching intermediate vector bosons

  1. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  2. Systematic analysis and experiment of inductive coupling and induced voltage for inductively coupled wireless implantable neurostimulator application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Ning; Cho, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Sung-Pil; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2012-01-01

    The main strategy for wireless power transfer to implantable devices is to use inductive coupling technology. The induced voltage of implanted devices highly depends on factors such as mutual inductance between the external transmitter coil and the receiver coil, quality factor of the receiver circuit and operation frequency. In this paper, the mutual inductance under a variety of geometries of external coil and under the condition of different vertical distances, lateral displacements and angular misalignments between two coils were theoretically calculated and simulated. To ascertain the condition of maximum power transmission for certain coils’ position requirements, an LC tank (2.7 mm × 2 mm) consisting of a microfabricated gold inductor coil and a small surface mounted capacitor was designed and fabricated as the telemetric part of a neurostimulator. The induced voltage of the LC tank was measured in both air and artificial tissue media under different sizes of power coil and operation frequencies. As a result, the optimum size of a transmitter coil is selected to be of 4 mm inner radius with six turns of coil, while the whole coupling system operates at 94 MHz resonant frequency within 5–11 mm vertical distance, 0–4 mm lateral and 0°–50° angular misalignment between two coils. With the change of the above coils’ positions, the measured induced voltage drops within 30%, satisfying the surgical requirement for neurostimulator implantation. (paper)

  3. Submicrosecond linear pulse transformer for 800 kV voltage with modular low-inductance primary power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: ekrastelev@yandex.ru; Popov, G. V.; Sedin, A. A.; Feduschak, V. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A pulsed power source with voltage amplitude up to 800 kV for fast charging (350–400 ns) of the forming line of a high-current nanosecond accelerator is developed. The source includes capacitive energy storage and a linear pulse transformer. The linear transformer consists of a set of 20 inductors with circular ferromagnetic cores surrounded by primary windings inside of which a common stock adder of voltage with film-glycerol insulation is placed. The primary energy storage consists of ten modules, each of which is a low-inductance assembly of two capacitors with a capacitance of 0.35 μF and one gas switch mounted in the same frame. The total energy stored in capacitors is 5.5 kJ at the operating voltage of 40 kV. According to test results, the parameters of the equivalent circuit of the source are the following: shock capacitance = 17.5 nF, inductance = 2 μH, resistance = 3.2 Ω.

  4. Impact reduction of the uncertain geometrical parameters on magnetic material identification of an EI electromagnetic inductor using an adaptive inverse algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallh, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic characteristics of the electromagnetic devices' core materials can be recovered by solving an inverse problem, where sets of measurements need to be properly interpreted using a forward numerical model of the device. However, the uncertainties of the geometrical parameter values in the forward model lead to appreciable recovery errors in the recovered values of the material parameters. In this paper, we propose an effective inverse approach technique, in which the influences of the uncertainties in the geometrical model parameters are minimized. In this proposed approach, the cost function that needs to be minimized is adapted with respect to the uncertain geometrical model parameters. The proposed methodology is applied onto the identification of the magnetizing B–H curve of the magnetic material of an EI core inductor. The numerical results show a significant reduction of the recovery errors in the identified magnetic material parameter values. Moreover, the proposed methodology is validated by solving an inverse problem starting from real magnetic measurements. - Highlights: ► A new method to minimize the influence of the uncertain parameters in inverse problems is proposed. ► The technique is based on adapting iteratively the objective function that needs to be minimized. ► The objective function is adapted by the model response sensitivity to the uncertain parameters. ► The proposed technique is applied for recovering the B–H curve of an EI core inductor material. ► The error in the inverse problem solution is dramatically reduced using the proposed methodology.

  5. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  6. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a ...

  7. Intermediate statistics in quantum maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, Olivier [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Marklof, Jens [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, Stephen [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-16

    We present a one-parameter family of quantum maps whose spectral statistics are of the same intermediate type as observed in polygonal quantum billiards. Our central result is the evaluation of the spectral two-point correlation form factor at small argument, which in turn yields the asymptotic level compressibility for macroscopic correlation lengths. (letter to the editor)

  8. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  9. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  10. Low-Energy Real-Time OS Using Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Variable Voltage Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Takanori; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time OS based on $ mu $ITRON using proposed voltage scheduling algorithm for variable voltage processors which can vary supply voltage dynamically. The proposed voltage scheduling algorithms assign voltage level for each task dynamically in order to minimize energy consumption under timing constraints. Using the presented real-time OS, running tasks with low supply voltage leads to drastic energy reduction. In addition, the presented voltage scheduling algorithm is ...

  11. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Toudeshki, Arash; Mariun, Norman; Hizam, Hashim; Abdul Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  12. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniadakis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials η κκ' . We show that, besides the FD-BE intermediate statistics extensively studied from the quantum point of view, we can also study the MB-FD and MB-BE ones. Moreover, our model allows us to treat the three-state mixing FD-MB-BE intermediate statistics. For boson and fermion mixing in a D-dimensional space, we obtain a family of FD-BE intermediate statistics by varying the transmutational potential η BF . This family contains, as a particular case when η BF =0, the quantum statistics recently proposed by L. Wu, Z. Wu, and J. Sun [Phys. Lett. A 170, 280 (1992)]. When we consider the two-dimensional FD-BE statistics, we derive an analytic expression of the fraction of fermions. When the temperature T→∞, the system is composed by an equal number of bosons and fermions, regardless of the value of η BF . On the contrary, when T=0, η BF becomes important and, according to its value, the system can be completely bosonic or fermionic, or composed both by bosons and fermions

  13. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  14. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  15. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling...

  16. The high voltage homopolar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. H.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1986-11-01

    System and component design features of proposed high voltage homopolar generator (HVHPG) are described. The system is to have an open circuit voltage of 500 V, a peak output current of 500 kA, 3.25 MJ of stored inertial energy and possess an average magnetic-flux density of 5 T. Stator assembly components are discussed, including the stator, mount structure, hydrostatic bearings, main and motoring brushgears and rotor. Planned operational procedures such as monitoring the rotor to full speed and operation with a superconducting field coil are delineated.

  17. Resilient architecture design for voltage variation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa

    2013-01-01

    Shrinking feature size and diminishing supply voltage are making circuits sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations within the microprocessor, caused by normal workload activity changes. If left unattended, voltage fluctuations can lead to timing violations or even transistor lifetime issues that degrade processor robustness. Mechanisms that learn to tolerate, avoid, and eliminate voltage fluctuations based on program and microarchitectural events can help steer the processor clear of danger, thus enabling tighter voltage margins that improve performance or lower power consumption. We describe

  18. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  19. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  20. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  1. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin–electromagnetic (EM coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin–EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  2. Correlated Default and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Financial intermediation naturally arises when knowledge about the aggregate state is valuable for managing investments and lenders cannot easily observe the aggregate state. I show this using a costly enforcement model in which lenders need ex-post incentives to enforce payments from defaulted loans and borrowers' payoffs are correlated. When projects have correlated outcomes, learning the state of one project (via enforcement) provides information about the states of other projects. A large...

  3. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  4. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H. [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, C. X. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-07-15

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  5. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.

    2012-07-01

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  6. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  7. A new method for compensation of the effect of charging transformer's leakage inductance on PFN voltage regulation in Klystron pulse modulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Akhil, E-mail: akhilpatel@rrcat.gov.in; Kale, Umesh; Shrivastava, Purushottam

    2017-04-21

    The Line type modulators have been widely used to generate high voltage rectangular pulses to power the klystron for high power RF generation. In Line type modulator, the Pulse Forming Network (PFN) which is a cascade combination of lumped capacitors and inductors is used to store the electrical energy. The charged PFN is then discharged into a klystron by firing a high voltage Thyratron switch. This discharge generates a high voltage rectangular pulse across the klystron electrodes. The amplitude and phase of Klystron's RF output is governed by the high voltage pulse amplitude. The undesired RF amplitude and phase stability issues arises at the klystron's output due to inter-pulse and during the pulse amplitude variations. To reduce inter-pulse voltage variations, the PFN is required to be charged at the same voltage after every discharge cycle. At present, the combination of widely used resonant charging and deQing method is used to regulate the pulse to pulse PFN voltage variations but the charging transformer's leakage inductance puts an upper bound on the regulation achievable by this method. Here we have developed few insights of the deQing process and devised a new compensation method to compensate this undesired effect of charging transformer's leakage inductance on the pulse to pulse PFN voltage stability. This compensation is accomplished by the controlled partial discharging of the split PFN capacitor using a low voltage MOSFET switch. Theoretically, very high values of pulse to pulse voltage stability may be achieved using this method. This method may be used in deQing based existing modulators or in new modulators, to increase the pulse to pulse voltage stability, without having a very tight bound on charging transformer's leakage inductance. Given a stable charging power supply, this method may be used to further enhance the inter-pulse voltage stability of modulators which employ the direct charging, after replacing the

  8. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  9. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  10. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  11. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  12. Photonuclear reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant feature of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies is the excitation of the δ resonance and one can therefore use such reactions to study the dynamics of δ propagation in a nucleus. Following an introductory section the author comments on photoabsorption on a single nucleon in Section II. A review of the δ-n Greens function and of the photonuclear amplitude is given in Section III. Results for photoabsorption on 4 He are shown in Section IV and compared with the data. Coherent π 0 photoproduction is discussed in Section V and calculations for 12 C are compared to recent measurements. (Auth.)

  13. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  14. Retention of intermediate polarization states in ferroelectric materials enabling memories for multi-bit data storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Dong; Asadi, Kamal; Blom, Paul W. M.; Leeuw, Dago M. de, E-mail: deleeuw@mpip-mainz.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Katsouras, Ilias [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Groen, Wilhelm A. [Holst Centre, High Tech Campus 31, 5656AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1 2629 HS, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-06-06

    A homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal exhibits only two remanent polarization states that are stable over time, whereas intermediate, or unsaturated, polarization states are thermodynamically instable. Commonly used ferroelectric materials however, are inhomogeneous polycrystalline thin films or ceramics. To investigate the stability of intermediate polarization states, formed upon incomplete, or partial, switching, we have systematically studied their retention in capacitors comprising two classic ferroelectric materials, viz. random copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE), and Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}. Each experiment started from a discharged and electrically depolarized ferroelectric capacitor. Voltage pulses were applied to set the given polarization states. The retention was measured as a function of time at various temperatures. The intermediate polarization states are stable over time, up to the Curie temperature. We argue that the remarkable stability originates from the coexistence of effectively independent domains, with different values of polarization and coercive field. A domain growth model is derived quantitatively describing deterministic switching between the intermediate polarization states. We show that by using well-defined voltage pulses, the polarization can be set to any arbitrary value, allowing arithmetic programming. The feasibility of arithmetic programming along with the inherent stability of intermediate polarization states makes ferroelectric materials ideal candidates for multibit data storage.

  15. Retention of intermediate polarization states in ferroelectric materials enabling memories for multi-bit data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Katsouras, Ilias; Asadi, Kamal; Groen, Wilhelm A.; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2016-06-01

    A homogeneous ferroelectric single crystal exhibits only two remanent polarization states that are stable over time, whereas intermediate, or unsaturated, polarization states are thermodynamically instable. Commonly used ferroelectric materials however, are inhomogeneous polycrystalline thin films or ceramics. To investigate the stability of intermediate polarization states, formed upon incomplete, or partial, switching, we have systematically studied their retention in capacitors comprising two classic ferroelectric materials, viz. random copolymer of vinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene, P(VDF-TrFE), and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3. Each experiment started from a discharged and electrically depolarized ferroelectric capacitor. Voltage pulses were applied to set the given polarization states. The retention was measured as a function of time at various temperatures. The intermediate polarization states are stable over time, up to the Curie temperature. We argue that the remarkable stability originates from the coexistence of effectively independent domains, with different values of polarization and coercive field. A domain growth model is derived quantitatively describing deterministic switching between the intermediate polarization states. We show that by using well-defined voltage pulses, the polarization can be set to any arbitrary value, allowing arithmetic programming. The feasibility of arithmetic programming along with the inherent stability of intermediate polarization states makes ferroelectric materials ideal candidates for multibit data storage.

  16. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-01-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  17. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrler, F., E-mail: felix.ehrler@student.kit.edu; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-11

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  19. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  20. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  1. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  2. Intermediality: Bridge to Critical Media Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailliotet, Ann Watts; Semali, Ladislaus; Rodenberg, Rita K.; Giles, Jackie K.; Macaul, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Defines "intermediality" as the ability to critically read and write with and across varied symbol systems. Relates it to critical media literacy. Offers rationales for teaching critical media literacy in general, and intermedial instruction in particular. Identifies seven guiding intermedial elements: theory, texts, processes, contexts,…

  3. Alternating voltage-induced electrochemical synthesis of colloidal Au nanoicosahedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Kevin; Cloud, Jacqueline E.; Yang, Yongan, E-mail: yonyang@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Department of Chemistry and Geochemistry (United States)

    2013-11-15

    A simple method of alternating voltage-induced electrochemical synthesis has been developed to synthesize highly dispersed colloidal Au nanoicosahedra of 14 ± 3 nm in size. This simple and effective method uses a common transformer to apply a zero-offset alternating voltage to a pair of identical Au electrodes that are immersed in an electrolyte solution containing ligands. The obtained Au nanoicosahedra in this work are among the smallest Au icosahedra synthesized in aqueous solutions. A series of experimental conditions have been studied, such as voltage, the electrolyte identity and concentration, stabilizer identity and concentration, and reaction temperature. The mechanistic study indicates that Au nanoicosahedra are produced on electrode surfaces through an intermediate state of AuO{sub x}. The kinetic rate constant of these Au icosahedra in catalyzing the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride is found much larger than the literature values of similar Au nanocrystals. In addition, the synthesis of Au–Pd-alloyed NCs has also been attempted.Graphical Abstract.

  4. Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.

  5. Ultra Low-Voltage Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    if in a solar battery charger the level of illumination were to drop due to cloud cover, the diode would prevent discharging of the battery when...the source voltage becomes lower than battery voltage. The drawback of a simple circuit like this is that once the source voltage is lower than the...longer charged when the battery voltage is above the OV setting. Figure 13. Block diagram of BQ25504 circuit . (From [10]) 18 THIS PAGE

  6. Post-crisis financial intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie MIHAI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that begun in 2007 in the US, which then swept around the world, has left deep scars on the already wrinkled face of the global economy. Some national and regional economies, which had money for expensive makeup, or created money[1], managed to blur or hide the scars left by the crisis, others are still facing difficulties in overcoming the effects of this. The rapacity of banks, their greed and risk ignorance, were the origin of the outbreak of the last major economic and financial crisis but unfortunately those who were responsible or, rather, irresponsible, paid little or nothing at all for the burden of their bad loan portfolio. This cost has been supported by the population, either directly by paying high interest and fees [Mihai I., 2007], or indirectly, through the use of public budgets to cover the losses of banks, most of which had private capital. In this context, we intend to examine the state of financial intermediation in Romania in the post-crisis period, and to primarily follow: (i The structure and evolution of the banking system; (ii Non-government credit situation; (iii The level of savings; (iiii Loan-deposit ratio; (v The degree of financial intermediation and disintegration phenomenon etc., and to articulate some conclusions and suggestions on the matters that have been explored.

  7. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  8. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  9. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  10. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall be...

  11. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  12. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  13. A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF receiver front-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chunhua; Ma Minglin; Sun Jingru; Du Sichun; Guo Xiaorong; He Haizhen, E-mail: wch1227164@sina.com [School of Information Science and Technology, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A differential low-voltage high gain current-mode integrated RF front end for an 802.11b WLAN is proposed. It contains a differential transconductance low noise amplifier (G{sub m}-LNA) and a differential current-mode down converted mixer. The single terminal of the G{sub m}-LNA contains just one MOS transistor, two capacitors and two inductors. The gate-source shunt capacitors, C{sub x1} and C{sub x2}, can not only reduce the effects of gate-source C{sub gs} on resonance frequency and input-matching impedance, but they also enable the gate inductance L{sub g1,2} to be selected at a very small value. The current-mode mixer is composed of four switched current mirrors. Adjusting the ratio of the drain channel sizes of the switched current mirrors can increase the gain of the mixer and accordingly increase the gain of RF receiver front-end. The RF front-end operates under 1 V supply voltage. The receiver RFIC was fabricated using a chartered 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. The integrated RF receiver front-end has a measured power conversion gain of 17.48 dB and an input referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of -7.02 dBm. The total noise figure is 4.5 dB and the power is only 14 mW by post-simulations. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  14. Hybrid Design Optimization of High Voltage Pulse Transformers for Klystron Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Sylvain, Candolfi; Davide, Aguglia; Jerome, Cros

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology for the design of high voltage pulse transformers used in klystron modulators. The optimization process is using simplified 2D FEA design models of the 3D transformer structure. Each intermediate optimal solution is evaluated by 3D FEA and correction coefficients of the 2D FEA models are derived. A new optimization process using 2D FEA models is then performed. The convergence of this hybrid optimal design methodology is obtained with a limited number of time consuming 3D FEA simulations. The method is applied to the optimal design of a monolithic high voltage pulse transformer for the CLIC klystron modulator.

  15. Low-Power, Low-Voltage Analog to Digital ΣΔ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, Ulrik Sørensen

    2007-01-01

    , and since long operation time is required, low supply voltage and low power consumption are of paramount importance. Consequently, various topologies have been compared to nd the most power ecient audio frequency modulator topology. Chapter 4 of this thesis compares power consumption of two of the most...... prevalent topologies, the single-loop modulator with integration in discrete time and the single-loop modulator with integration in continuous time. Both modulator topologies are with feedback, and all intermediate signals are in the voltage mode. Chapter 5 treats a modulator without feedback. Another...

  16. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis...

  17. 76 FR 70721 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Workshop on Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids on Thursday, December 1, 2011...

  18. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  19. Capacitor Voltages Measurement and Balancing in Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters Utilizing a Single Voltage Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farivar, Glen; Ghias, Amer M. Y. M.; Hredzak, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring capacitor voltages in multilevel flying capacitor (FC) converters that requires only one voltage sensor per phase leg. Multiple dc voltage sensors traditionally used to measure the capacitor voltages are replaced with a single voltage sensor at the ac...... side of the phase leg. The proposed method is subsequently used to balance the capacitor voltages using only the measured ac voltage. The operation of the proposed measurement and balancing method is independent of the number of the converter levels. Experimental results presented for a five-level FC...

  20. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  1. Intermediate photovoltaic system application experiment operational performance report. Volume 2 for Beverly High School, Beverly, MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    For the month of July 1981, performance data are listed and graphed for an intermediate photovoltaic system at a high school in Massachusetts. The energy production, incident solar energy and efficiency are given, and the daily energy production and efficiency, and energy production as a function of power and voltage are graphed. The output of the power conditioner, insolation, heating and cooling loads, temperature and wind data, and the number of freeze-thaw cycles are given. (LEW)

  2. Beyond voltage-gated ion channels: Voltage-operated membrane proteins and cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Xingjuan; Xue, Yucong; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-04-18

    Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified. Particularly, we will focus on the following. (1) Voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSP) with four transmembrane segments homologous to the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated ion channels; VSPs are the first family of proteins, other than the voltage-gated ion channels, for which there is sufficient evidence for the existence of the VSD domain; (2) Voltage-gated proton channels comprising of a single voltage-sensing domain and lacking an identified pore domain; (3) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the depolarization-evoked potentiation of Ca 2+ mobilization; (4) Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization-induced but Ca 2+ -independent exocytosis in neurons. (5) Voltage-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P 2 , PIP 2 ) in the PM. These recent discoveries expand our understanding of voltage-operated processes within cellular membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  4. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  5. FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium model of financial intermediation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. In this model, the role of financial intermediation is to pool savings and to lend the pooled funds to an entrepreneur, who in turn invests the funds in a new production technology. The adoption of the new production technology improves individual real income. Thus financial intermediation promotes economic growth through affecting individuals’ saving behaviour and enabl...

  6. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  7. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  8. Direct, coherent and incoherent intermediate state tunneling and scanning tunnel microscopy (STM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbritter, J.

    1997-01-01

    Theory and experiment in tunneling are still qualitative in nature, which hold true also for the latest developments in direct-, resonant-, coherent- and incoherent-tunneling. Those tunnel processes have recently branched out of the field of ''solid state tunnel junctions'' into the fields of scanning tunnel microscopy (STM), single electron tunneling (SET) and semiconducting resonant tunnel structures (RTS). All these fields have promoted the understanding of tunneling in different ways reaching from the effect of coherence, of incoherence and of charging in tunneling, to spin flip or inelastic effects. STM allows not only the accurate measurements of the tunnel current and its voltage dependence but, more importantly, the easy quantification via the (quantum) tunnel channel conductance and the distance dependence. This new degree of freedom entering exponentially the tunnel current allows an unique identification of individual tunnel channels and their quantification. In STM measurements large tunnel currents are observed for large distances d > 1 nm explainable by intermediate state tunneling. Direct tunneling with its reduced tunnel time and reduced off-site Coulomb charging bridges distances below 1 nm, only. The effective charge transfer process with its larger off-site and on-site charging at intermediate states dominates tunnel transfer in STM, biology and chemistry over distances in the nm-range. Intermediates state tunneling becomes variable range hopping conduction for distances larger than d > 2 nm, for larger densities of intermediate states n 1 (ε) and for larger temperatures T or voltages U, still allowing high resolution imaging

  9. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  10. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers

  11. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  12. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  13. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  14. Voltage-Controlled Floating Resistor Using DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumngern

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new simple configuration to realize the voltage-controlled floating resistor, which is suitable for integrated circuit implementation. The proposed resistor is composed of three main components: MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region, DDCC, and MOS voltage divider. The MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region is used to configure a floating linear resistor. The DDCC and the MOS transistor voltage divider are used for canceling the nonlinear component term of MOS transistor in the non-saturation region to obtain a linear current/voltage relationship. The DDCC is employed to provide a simple summer of the circuit. This circuit offers an ease for realizing the voltage divider circuit and the temperature effect that includes in term of threshold voltage can be compensated. The proposed configuration employs only 16 MOS transistors. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with PSPICE to confirm the presented theory.

  15. Spectrum analysis of a voltage source converter due to semiconductor voltage drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Eltouki, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    It is known that power electronic voltage source converters are non-ideal. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the effect of semiconductor voltage drop on the output voltage spectrum, using single-phase H-bridge two-level converter topology with natural sampled pulse width modulation....... The paper describes the analysis of output voltage spectrum, when the semiconductor voltage drop is added. The results of the analysis of the spectral contribution including and excluding semiconductor voltage drop reveal a good agreement between the theoretical results, simulations and laboratory...

  16. Distributed Monitoring of Voltage Collapse Sensitivity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of voltage stability margins is a promising direction for wide-area monitoring systems. Accurate monitoring architectures for long-term voltage instability are typically centralized and lack scalability, while completely decentralized approaches relying on local measurements tend towards inaccuracy. Here we present distributed linear algorithms for the online computation of voltage collapse sensitivity indices. The computations are collectively performed by processors embedded ...

  17. High voltage investigations for ITER coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, S.; Fietz, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting ITER magnets will be excited with high voltage during operation and fast discharge. Because the coils are complex systems the internal voltage distribution can differ to a large extent from the ideal linear voltage distribution. In case of fast excitations internal voltages between conductor and radial plate of a TF coil can be even higher than the terminal voltage of 3.5 kV to ground which appears during a fast discharge without a fault. Hence the determination of the transient voltage distribution is important for a proper insulation co-ordination and will provide a necessary basis for the verification of the individual insulation design and the choice of test voltages and waveforms. Especially the extent of internal overvoltages in case of failures, e. g. malfunction of discharge units and / or arcing is of special interest. Transient calculations for the ITER TF coil system have been performed for fast discharge and fault scenarios to define test voltages for ITER TF. The conductor and radial plate insulation of the ITER TF Model Coil were exposed at room temperature to test voltages derived from the results from these calculations. Breakdown appeared during the highest AC voltage step. A fault scenario for the TF fast discharge system is presented where one fault triggers a second fault, leading to considerable voltage stress. In addition a FEM model of Poloidal Field Coil 3 for the determination of the parameters of a detailed network model is presented in order to prepare detailed investigations of the transient voltage behaviour of the PF coils. (author)

  18. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  19. Microprocessor-controlled, programmable ramp voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.

    1978-11-01

    A special-purpose voltage generator has been developed for driving the quadrupole mass filter of a residual gas analyzer. The generator is microprocessor-controlled with desired ramping parameters programmed by setting front-panel digital thumb switches. The start voltage, stop voltage, and time of each excursion are selectable. A maximum of five start-stop levels may be pre-selected for each program. The ramp voltage is 0 to 10 volts with sweep times from 0.1 to 999.99 seconds

  20. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  1. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  2. Voltage-dependent gating in a "voltage sensor-less" ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley T Kurata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated cation channels is primarily attributed to conformational changes of a four transmembrane segment voltage-sensing domain, conserved across many levels of biological complexity. We have identified a remarkable point mutation that confers significant voltage dependence to Kir6.2, a ligand-gated channel that lacks any canonical voltage-sensing domain. Similar to voltage-dependent Kv channels, the Kir6.2[L157E] mutant exhibits time-dependent activation upon membrane depolarization, resulting in an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relationship. This voltage dependence is convergent with the intrinsic ligand-dependent gating mechanisms of Kir6.2, since increasing the membrane PIP2 content saturates Po and eliminates voltage dependence, whereas voltage activation is more dramatic when channel Po is reduced by application of ATP or poly-lysine. These experiments thus demonstrate an inherent voltage dependence of gating in a "ligand-gated" K+ channel, and thereby provide a new view of voltage-dependent gating mechanisms in ion channels. Most interestingly, the voltage- and ligand-dependent gating of Kir6.2[L157E] is highly sensitive to intracellular [K+], indicating an interaction between ion permeation and gating. While these two key features of channel function are classically dealt with separately, the results provide a framework for understanding their interaction, which is likely to be a general, if latent, feature of the superfamily of cation channels.

  3. Excitation of voltage oscillations in an induction voltage adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The induction voltage adder is an accelerator architecture used in recent designs of pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS, the Atomic Weapons Establishment’s planned Hydrus Facility, and the Naval Research Laboratory’s Mercury. Each of these designs relies on magnetic insulation to prevent electron loss across the anode-cathode gap in the vicinity of the adder as well as in the coaxial transmission line. Particle-in-cell simulations of the RITS adder and transmission line show that, as magnetic insulation is being established during a pulse, some electron loss occurs across the gap. Sufficient delay in the cavity pulse timings provides an opportunity for high-momentum electrons to deeply penetrate the cavities of the adder cells where they can excite radio-frequency resonances. These oscillations may be amplified in subsequent gaps, resulting in oscillations in the output power. The specific modes supported by the RITS-6 accelerator and details of the mechanism by which they are excited are presented in this paper.

  4. Using Peephole Optimization on Intermediate Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Staveren, H.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many portable compilers generate an intermediate code that is subsequently translated into the target machine's assembly language. In this paper a stack-machine-based intermediate code suitable for algebraic languages (e.g., PASCAL, C, FORTRAN) and most byte-addressed mini- and microcomputers is

  5. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  6. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  7. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  8. Pair production of intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    The production of intermediate vector boson pairs W + W - , Z 0 Z 0 , W +- Z 0 and W +- γ in pp and p anti p collisions is discussed. The motivation is to detect the self-interactions among the four intermediate vector bosons

  9. Mapping of Residues Forming the Voltage Sensor of the Voltage-Dependent Anion-Selective Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lorie; Blachly-Dyson, Elizabeth; Colombini, Marco; Forte, Michael

    1993-06-01

    Voltage-gated ion-channel proteins contain "voltage-sensing" domains that drive the conformational transitions between open and closed states in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues affecting the voltage sensitivity of a mitochondrial channel, the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC). Although charge changes at many sites had no effect, at other sites substitutions that increased positive charge also increased the steepness of voltage dependance and substitutions that decreased positive charge decreased voltage dependance by an appropriate amount. In contrast to the plasma membrane K^+ and Na^+ channels, these residues are distributed over large parts of the VDAC protein. These results have been used to define the conformational transitions that accompany voltage gating of an ion channel. This gating mechanism requires the movement of large portions of the VDAC protein through the membrane.

  10. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  11. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  12. Voltage stability in low voltage microgrids in aspects of active and reactive power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parol Mirosław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage microgrids are autonomous subsystems, in which generation, storage and power and electrical energy consumption appear. In the paper the main attention has been paid to the voltage stability issue in low voltage microgrid for different variants of its operation. In the introduction a notion of microgrid has been presented, and also the issue of influence of active and reactive power balance on node voltage level has been described. Then description of voltage stability issue has been presented. The conditions of voltage stability and indicators used to determine voltage stability margin in the microgrid have been described. Description of the low voltage test microgrid, as well as research methodology along with definition of considered variants of its operation have been presented further. The results of exemplary calculations carried out for the daily changes in node load of the active and reactive power, i.e. the voltage and the voltage stability margin indexes in nodes have been presented. Furthermore, the changes of voltage stability margin indexes depending on the variant of the microgrid operation have been presented. Summary and formulation of conclusions related to the issue of voltage stability in microgrids have been included at the end of the paper.

  13. Influence of current limitation on voltage stability with voltage sourced converter HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A first study of voltage stability with relevant amount of Voltage Sourced Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (VSC-HVDC) transmission is presented, with particular focus on the converters’ behaviour when reaching their rated current. The detrimental effect of entering the current...

  14. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired pow...

  15. On-site voltage measurement with capacitive sensors on high voltage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    In Extra/High-Voltage (EHV/HV) power systems, over-voltages occur e.g. due to transients or resonances. At places where no conventional voltage measurement devices can be installed, on-site measurement of these occurrences requires preferably non intrusive sensors, which can be installed with little

  16. 76 FR 72203 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda As announced in the Notice of Staff..., from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. to explore the interaction between voltage control, reliability, and economic...

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Low Voltage Arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghezzi, L.; Balestrero, A.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation of Low Voltage Arcs is an attempt to improve the physical understanding, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the electric arcs that are found during current interruptions in low voltage circuit breakers. An empirical description is gained by refined electrical

  18. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  19. The LMF triaxial MITL voltage adder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.; Lockner, T.R.; Olson, R.E.; Poukey, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The light-ion microfusion driver design consists of multiple accelerating modules fired in coincidence and sequentially in order to provide the desired ion energy, power pulse shape and energy deposition uniformity on an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. The basic energy source is a number of Marx generators which, through the appropriate pulse power conditioning, provide the necessary voltage pulse wave form to the accelerating gaps or feeds of each module. The cavity gaps are inductively isolated, and the voltage addition occurs in the center conductor of the voltage adder which is the positive electrode while the electrons of the sheath flow closer to the outer cylinder which is the magnetically insulated cathode electrode. Each module powers a separate two-stage extraction diode which provides a low divergence ion beam. In order to provide the two separate voltage pulses required by the diode, a triaxial adder system is designed for each module. The voltage addition occurs in two separate MITLs. The center hollow cylinder (anode) of the second MITL also serves as the outer cathode electrode for the extension of the first voltage adder MITL. The voltage of the second stage is about twice that of the first stage. The cavities are connected in series to form the outer cylinder of each module. The accelerating modules are positioned radially in a symmetrical way around the fusion chamber. A preliminary conceptual design of the LMF modules with emphasis on the voltage adders and extension MITLs will be presented and discussed

  20. Time isolation high-voltage impulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodorow, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lewis' high-voltage impulse generator is analyzed in greater detail, demonstrating that voltage between adjacent nodes can be equalized by proper selection of parasitic impedances. This permits improved TEM mode propagation to a matched load, with more faithful source waveform preservation

  1. High-voltage engineering and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Hugh M

    2013-01-01

    This 3rd edition of High Voltage Engineering Testing describes strategic developments in the field and reflects on how they can best be managed. All the key components of high voltage and distribution systems are covered including electric power networks, UHV and HV. Distribution systems including HVDC and power electronic systems are also considered.

  2. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...

  3. Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest

    1994-01-01

    Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.

  4. An Original Transformer and Switched-Capacitor (T & SC-Based Extension for DC-DC Boost Converter for High-Voltage/Low-Current Renewable Energy Applications: Hardware Implementation of a New T & SC Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeevikumar Padmanaban

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article a new Transformer and Switched Capacitor-based Boost Converter (T & SC-BC is proposed for high-voltage/low-current renewable energy applications. The proposed T & SC-BC is an original extension for DC-DC boost converter which is designed by utilizing a transformer and switched capacitor (T & SC. Photovoltaic (PV energy is a fast emergent segment among the renewable energy systems. The proposed T & SC-BC combines the features of the conventional boost converter and T & SC to achieve a high voltage conversion ratio. A Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT controller is compulsory and necessary in a PV system to extract maximum power. Thus, a photovoltaic MPPT control mechanism also articulated for the proposed T & SC-BC. The voltage conversion ratio (Vo/Vin of proposed converter is (1 + k/(1 − D where, k is the turns ratio of the transformer and D is the duty cycle (thus, the converter provides 9.26, 13.88, 50/3 voltage conversion ratios at 78.4 duty cycle with k = 1, 2, 2.6, respectively. The conspicuous features of proposed T & SC-BC are: (i a high voltage conversion ratio (Vo/Vin; (ii continuous input current (Iin; (iii single switch topology; (iv single input source; (v low drain to source voltage (VDS rating of control switch; (vi a single inductor and a single untapped transformer are used. Moreover, the proposed T & SC-BC topology was compared with recently addressed DC-DC converters in terms of number of components, cost, voltage conversion ratio, ripples, efficiency and power range. Simulation and experimental results are provided which validate the functionality, design and concept of the proposed approach.

  5. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  6. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  8. Voltage-gated lipid ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic lipid membranes can display channel-like ion conduction events even in the absence of proteins. We show here that these events are voltage-gated with a quadratic voltage dependence as expected from electrostatic theory of capacitors. To this end, we recorded channel traces and current...... histograms in patch-experiments on lipid membranes. We derived a theoretical current-voltage relationship for pores in lipid membranes that describes the experimental data very well when assuming an asymmetric membrane. We determined the equilibrium constant between closed and open state and the open...... probability as a function of voltage. The voltage-dependence of the lipid pores is found comparable to that of protein channels. Lifetime distributions of open and closed events indicate that the channel open distribution does not follow exponential statistics but rather power law behavior for long open times...

  9. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  10. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  11. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  12. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  13. Simulation of forward dark current voltage characteristics of tandem solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinelli, F.A.

    2012-01-01

    The transport mechanisms tailoring the shape of dark current–voltage characteristics of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based tandem solar cell structures are explored with numerical simulations. Our input parameters were calibrated by fitting experimental current voltage curves of single and double junction structures measured under dark and illuminated conditions. At low and intermediate forward voltages the dark current–voltage characteristics show one or two regions with a current–voltage exponential dependence. The diode factor is unique in tandem cells with the same material in both intrinsic layers and two dissimilar diode factors are observed in tandem cells with different materials on the top and bottom intrinsic layers. In the exponential regions the current is controlled by recombination through gap states and by free carrier diffusion. At high forward voltages the current grows more slowly with the applied voltage. The current is influenced by the onset of electron space charge limited current (SCLC) in tandem cells where both intrinsic layers are of amorphous silicon and by series resistance of the bottom cell in tandem cells where both intrinsic layers are of microcrystalline silicon. In the micromorph cell the onset of SCLC becomes visible on the amorphous top sub-cell. The dark current also depends on the thermal generation of electron–hole (e–h) pairs present at the tunneling recombination junction. The highest dependence is observed in the tandem structure where both intrinsic layers are of microcrystalline silicon. The prediction of meaningless dark currents at low forward and reverse voltages by our code is discussed and one solution is given. - Highlights: ► Transport mechanisms shaping the dark current-voltage curves of tandem devices. ► The devices are amorphous and microcrystalline based tandem solar cells. ► Two regions with a current-voltage exponential dependence are observed. ► The tandem J-V diode factor is the

  14. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  15. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  16. A Novel Index for Online Voltage Stability Assessment Based on Correlation Characteristic of Voltage Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aghamohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Voltage instability is a major threat for security of power systems. Preserving voltage security margin at a certain limit is a vital requirement for today’s power systems. Assessment of voltage security margin is a challenging task demanding sophisticated indices. In this paper, for the purpose of on line voltage security assessment a new index based on the correlation characteristic of network voltage profile is proposed. Voltage profile comprising all bus voltages contains the effect of network structure, load-generation patterns and reactive power compensation on the system behaviour and voltage security margin. Therefore, the proposed index is capable to clearly reveal the effect of system characteristics and events on the voltage security margin. The most attractive feature for this index is its fast and easy calculation from synchronously measured voltage profile without any need to system modelling and simulation and without any dependency on network size. At any instant of system operation by merely measuring network voltage profile and no further simulation calculation this index could be evaluated with respect to a specific reference profile. The results show that the behaviour of this index with respect to the change in system security is independent of the selected reference profile. The simplicity and easy calculation make this index very suitable for on line application. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on IEEE 39 bus test system with promising results showing its effectiveness and applicability.

  17. Novel Voltage limiting concept for avalance breakdown protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, L.C.H.; Bezooijen, van A.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Destructive over-voltage breakdown of cellular phone power transistors is prevented by using a new voltage-limiting concept. The output voltage is detected by an avalanche-based detector, and limited by decreasing the output power when needed. The voltage detector contains a low voltage bipolar NPN

  18. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  19. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  20. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  1. On intermediate structures in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, I.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptions of the nuclear reaction theory are reinvestigated on the basis of the continuum shell model. The correlation of the resonance states via the continuum can lead to intermediate structures in the cross section. (Auth.)

  2. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  3. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  4. Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.

  5. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  6. Investigation of voltage swell mitigation using STATCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N A Abdul; Jaafar, S; Hussain, I S

    2013-01-01

    STATCOM is one of the best applications of a self commutated FACTS device to control power quality problems in the distribution system. This project proposed a STATCOM model with voltage control mechanism. DQ transformation was implemented in the controller system to achieve better estimation. Then, the model was used to investigate and analyse voltage swell problem in distribution system. The simulation results show that voltage swell could contaminate distribution network with unwanted harmonic frequencies. Negative sequence frequencies give harmful effects to the network. System connected with proposed STATCOM model illustrates that it could mitigate this problems efficiently.

  7. Analysis of NSTX TF Joint Voltage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley R

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings of analyses of recorded current and voltage data associated with 72 electrical joints operating at high current and high mechanical stress. The analysis goal was to characterize the mechanical behavior of each joint and thus evaluate its mechanical supports. The joints are part of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) pulsed plasma device operating at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Since there is not sufficient space near the joints for much traditional mechanical instrumentation, small voltage probes were installed on each joint and their voltage monitoring waveforms have been recorded on sampling digitizers during each NSTX ''shot''

  8. Associations of Systemic Diseases with Intermediate Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.

  9. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters

  10. Design and Control of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Godsk

    voltage until the energy storage is completely drained or the voltages have returned to normal voltage levels. The control of the HV-DVR is a combined feedforward and feedback control to have a fast response time and load independent voltages. The control is implemented in a rotating dq-reference frame...... electric consumers against voltage dips and surges in the medium and low voltage distribution grid. The thesis first gives an introduction to relevant power quality issues for a DVR and power electronic controllers for voltage dip mitigation. Thereafter the operation and the elements in a DVR are described...... of symmetrical and non-symmetrical voltage dips. In most cases the DVR is capable of restoring the load voltages within 2 ms. During the transition phases load voltage oscillations can be generated and during the return of the supply voltages short time over-voltages can be generated by the DVR. Both...

  11. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  12. Constant potential high-voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, T.A.; Dupuis, W.A.; Palermo, T.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray tube voltage generator with automatic stabilization circuitry is disclosed. The generator includes a source of pulsating direct current voltage such as from a rectified 3 phase transformer. This pulsating voltage is supplied to the cathode and anode of an X-ray tube and forms an accelerating potential for electrons within that tube. The accelerating potential is stabilized with a feedback signal which is provided by a feedback network. The network includes an error signal generator which compares an instantaneous accelerating potential with a preferred reference accelerating potential and generates an error function. This error function is transmitted to a control tube grid which in turn causes the voltage difference between X-ray tube cathode and anode to stabilize and thereby reduce the error function. In this way stabilized accelerating potentials are realized and uniform X-ray energy distributions produced. (Auth.)

  13. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  14. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  15. Some device implications of voltage controlled magnetic anisotropy in Co/Gd2O3 thin films through REDOX chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guanhua; Noviasky, Nicholas; Cao, Shi; Sabirianov, Ildar; Yin, Yuewei; Ilie, Carolina C.; Kirianov, Eugene; Sharma, Nishtha; Sokolov, Andrei; Marshall, Andrew; Xu, Xiaoshan; Dowben, Peter A.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of intermediate interfacial oxidation on the in-plane magnetization of multilayer stack Pt/Co/Gd2O3, on a p-type silicon substrate, has been investigated by magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements, the anomalous Hall effect, and magnetoresistance measurements. While voltage controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of a metal/oxide heterostructure is known, this heterostructure displays an inverse relationship between voltage and coercivity. The anomalous Hall effect demonstrates a significant change in hysteresis, with the applied bias sign. There is a higher perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with positive bias exposure.

  16. Voltage, Temperature, Frequency Margin Test Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the tests is to establish the camera functionality when it is exposed to an extreme environment for prolonged periods, thus simulating the end of life performance. This environment covers temperature, input clock frequency and supply voltage variation......The purpose of the tests is to establish the camera functionality when it is exposed to an extreme environment for prolonged periods, thus simulating the end of life performance. This environment covers temperature, input clock frequency and supply voltage variation...

  17. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  18. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique.

  19. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique......, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique....

  20. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  1. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  2. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  3. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  4. Beam induced rf cavity transient voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Wang, J.M.

    1998-10-01

    The authors calculate the transient voltage induced in a radio frequency cavity by the injection of a relativistic bunched beam into a circular accelerator. A simplified model of the beam induced voltage, using a single tone current signal, is generated and compared with the voltage induced by a more realistic model of a point-like bunched beam. The high Q limit of the bunched beam model is shown to be related simply to the simplified model. Both models are shown to induce voltages at the resonant frequency ω r of the cavity and at an integer multiple of the bunch revolution frequency (i.e. the accelerating frequency for powered cavity operation) hω ο . The presence of two nearby frequencies in the cavity leads to a modulation of the carrier wave exp(hω ο t). A special emphasis is placed in this paper on studying the modulation function. These models prove useful for computing the transient voltage induced in superconducting rf cavities, which was the motivation behind this research. The modulation of the transient cavity voltage discussed in this paper is the physical basis of the recently observed and explained new kinds of longitudinal rigid dipole mode which differs from the conventional Robinson mode

  5. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.

    2015-07-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF{sub 6} is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF{sub 6} in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF{sub 6} based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media.

  6. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF_6) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF_6 is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF_6 in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF_6 based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media

  7. Advanced Control of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigating Voltage Sags in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Vo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vector control with two cascaded loops to improve the properties of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR to minimize Voltage Sags on the grid. Thereby, a vector controlled structure was built on the rotating dq-coordinate system with the combination of voltage control and the current control. The proposed DVR control method is modelled using MATLAB-Simulink. It is tested using balanced/unbalanced voltage sags as well as fluctuant and distorted voltages. As a result, by using this controlling method, the dynamic characteristics of the system have been improved significantly. The system performed with higher accuracy, faster response and lower distortion in the voltage sags compensation. The paper presents real time experimental results to verify the performance of the proposed method in real environments.

  8. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  9. Carrier behavior in special multilayer device composed of different transition metal oxide-based intermediate connectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Yan-Hong; Chen, Xiang-Yu; Ou, Qing-Dong; Wang, Qian-Kun; Jiang, Xiao-Cheng; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Li, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The impact of illumination on the connection part of the tandem organic light-emitting diodes was studied by using a special organic multilayer sample consisted of two organic active layers coupled with different transition metal oxide (TMO)-based intermediate connectors (ICs). Through measuring the current density-voltage characteristic, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristic, we observe an unsymmetrical phenomenon in current density-voltage and capacitance-voltage curves of Mg:Alq 3 /MoO 3 and MoO 3 composed devices, which was induced by the charge spouting zone near the ICs region and the recombination state in the MoO 3 layer. Moreover, Mg:Alq 3 /MoO 3 composed device displays a photovoltaic effect and the V oc shifts to forward bias under illumination. Our results demonstrate that the TMO-based IC structure coupled with photovoltaic effect can be a good approach for the study of photodetector, light sensor, and so on.

  10. Nonsensing residues in S3-S4 linker's C terminus affect the voltage sensor set point in K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-de-Souza, Joao L; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2018-02-05

    Voltage sensitivity in ion channels is a function of highly conserved arginine residues in their voltage-sensing domains (VSDs), but this conservation does not explain the diversity in voltage dependence among different K + channels. Here we study the non-voltage-sensing residues 353 to 361 in Shaker K + channels and find that residues 358 and 361 strongly modulate the voltage dependence of the channel. We mutate these two residues into all possible remaining amino acids (AAs) and obtain Q-V and G-V curves. We introduced the nonconducting W434F mutation to record sensing currents in all mutants except L361R, which requires K + depletion because it is affected by W434F. By fitting Q-Vs with a sequential three-state model for two voltage dependence-related parameters ( V 0 , the voltage-dependent transition from the resting to intermediate state and V 1 , from the latter to the active state) and G-Vs with a two-state model for the voltage dependence of the pore domain parameter ( V 1/2 ), Spearman's coefficients denoting variable relationships with hydrophobicity, available area, length, width, and volume of the AAs in 358 and 361 positions could be calculated. We find that mutations in residue 358 shift Q-Vs and G-Vs along the voltage axis by affecting V 0 , V 1 , and V 1/2 according to the hydrophobicity of the AA. Mutations in residue 361 also shift both curves, but V 0 is affected by the hydrophobicity of the AA in position 361, whereas V 1 and V 1/2 are affected by size-related AA indices. Small-to-tiny AAs have opposite effects on V 1 and V 1/2 in position 358 compared with 361. We hypothesize possible coordination points in the protein that residues 358 and 361 would temporarily and differently interact with in an intermediate state of VSD activation. Our data contribute to the accumulating knowledge of voltage-dependent ion channel activation by adding functional information about the effects of so-called non-voltage-sensing residues on VSD dynamics. © 2018

  11. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  12. Engineering of a genetically encodable fluorescent voltage sensor exploiting fast Ci-VSP voltage-sensing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Alicia; Mutoh, Hiroki; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Akemann, Walther; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2008-06-25

    Ci-VSP contains a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) homologous to that of voltage-gated potassium channels. Using charge displacement ('gating' current) measurements we show that voltage-sensing movements of this VSD can occur within 1 ms in mammalian membranes. Our analysis lead to development of a genetically encodable fluorescent protein voltage sensor (VSFP) in which the fast, voltage-dependent conformational changes of the Ci-VSP voltage sensor are transduced to similarly fast fluorescence read-outs.

  13. Voltage scheduling for low power/energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzak, Ali

    2001-07-01

    Power considerations have become an increasingly dominant factor in the design of both portable and desk-top systems. An effective way to reduce power consumption is to lower the supply voltage since voltage is quadratically related to power. This dissertation considers the problem of lowering the supply voltage at (i) the system level and at (ii) the behavioral level. At the system level, the voltage of the variable voltage processor is dynamically changed with the work load. Processors with limited sized buffers as well as those with very large buffers are considered. Given the task arrival times, deadline times, execution times, periods and switching activities, task scheduling algorithms that minimize energy or peak power are developed for the processors equipped with very large buffers. A relation between the operating voltages of the tasks for minimum energy/power is determined using the Lagrange multiplier method, and an iterative algorithm that utilizes this relation is developed. Experimental results show that the voltage assignment obtained by the proposed algorithm is very close (0.1% error) to that of the optimal energy assignment and the optimal peak power (1% error) assignment. Next, on-line and off-fine minimum energy task scheduling algorithms are developed for processors with limited sized buffers. These algorithms have polynomial time complexity and present optimal (off-line) and close-to-optimal (on-line) solutions. A procedure to calculate the minimum buffer size given information about the size of the task (maximum, minimum), execution time (best case, worst case) and deadlines is also presented. At the behavioral level, resources operating at multiple voltages are used to minimize power while maintaining the throughput. Such a scheme has the advantage of allowing modules on the critical paths to be assigned to the highest voltage levels (thus meeting the required timing constraints) while allowing modules on non-critical paths to be assigned

  14. Partially filled intermediate band of Cr-doped GaN films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the band structure of sputtered Cr-doped GaN (GaCrN) films using optical absorption, photoelectron yield spectroscopy, and charge transport measurements. It was found that an additional energy band is formed in the intrinsic band gap of GaN upon Cr doping, and that charge carriers in the material move in the inserted band. Prototype solar cells showed enhanced short circuit current and open circuit voltage in the n-GaN/GaCrN/p-GaN structure compared to the GaCrN/p-GaN structure, which validates the proposed concept of an intermediate-band solar cell.

  15. Fast-responding short circuit protection system with self-reset for use in circuit supplied by DC power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor); Blalock, Norman N. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A short circuit protection system includes an inductor, a switch, a voltage sensing circuit, and a controller. The switch and inductor are electrically coupled to be in series with one another. A voltage sensing circuit is coupled across the switch and the inductor. A controller, coupled to the voltage sensing circuit and the switch, opens the switch when a voltage at the output terminal of the inductor transitions from above a threshold voltage to below the threshold voltage. The controller closes the switch when the voltage at the output terminal of the inductor transitions from below the threshold voltage to above the threshold voltage.

  16. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  17. Investigation of phase-wise voltage regulator control logics for compensating voltage deviations in an experimental low voltage network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the control logics of an on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer by means of an experimental system validation. The experimental low-voltage unbalanced system consists of a decoupled single-phase OLTC transformer, a 75-metre 16 mm2 cable, a controllable single-phase resistive...... load and an electric vehicle, which has the vehicle-to-grid function. Three control logics of the OLTC transformer are described in the study. The three control logics are classified based on their control objectives and control inputs, which include network currents and voltages, and can be measured...... either locally or remotely. To evaluate and compare the control performances of the three control logics, all the tests use the same loading profiles. The experimental results indicate that the modified line compensation control can regulate voltage in a safe band in the case of various load...

  18. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  19. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  20. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...... and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  1. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond......This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...

  2. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  3. Transmission of power at high voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, F J

    1963-01-01

    High voltage transmission is considered to be concerned with circuits and systems operating at or above 132 kV. While the general examination is concerned with ac transmission, dc systems are also included. The choice of voltage for a system will usually involve hazardous assessments of the future requirements of industry, commerce and a changing population. Experience suggests that, if the estimated economic difference between two voltages is not significant, there is good reason to choose the higher voltage, as this will make the better provision for unexpected future expansion. Two principal functions served by transmission circuits in a supply system are: (a) the transportation of energy in bulk from the generator to the reception point in the distribution system; and (b) the interconnection and integration of the generating plant and associated loads. These functions are considered and various types of system are discussed in terms of practicability, viability, quality and continuity of supply. Future developments requiring transmission voltages up to 750 kV will raise many problems which are in the main empirical. Examples are given of the type of problem envisaged and it is suggested that these can only be partially solved by theory and model operation.

  4. Induced Voltage in an Open Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, K.; Gilbert, M.; Trupp, A.

    2017-07-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law has been considered and solved concerning the question which voltage will be induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of the magnetic field and the enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field with respect to the wave vector contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a spatially homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models of the Maxwell equations for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications.

  5. Dispersion of breakdown voltage of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Itaru; Noguchi, Takuya

    1978-01-01

    As for the electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium, the discrepancy among the measured values by each person is very large even in the fundamental DC breakdown voltage in uniform electric field. The dispersion of experimental values obtained in the experiments by the same person is also large. Hereafter, the difference among the mean values obtained by each experimenter will be referred to as ''deviation of mean values'', and the dispersion of measured values around the mean value obtained by the same person as ''deviation around the man value''. The authors have mainly investigated on the latter experimentally. The cryostat was made of stainless steel, and the innermost helium chamber was of 500 mm I.D. and approximately 1200 mm deep. The high voltage electrode was of brass sphere of 25 mm diameter, and the low voltage electrode was of brass plate. The experiment was conducted for liquid helium boiling at 4.2 K and 1 atm, and the breakdown voltage and time lag were measured by applying the approximately square wave impulses of fast rise and long tail, ramp and DC voltages. The cause of the deviation of mean values may be the presence of impurity particles or the effect of electrode shape. As for the deviation around the mean value, the dispersion is large, and its standard deviation may amount to 10 to 20% of the man value. The dispersion is not due to the statistical time lag, but is due to parameters that vary with breakdown. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  6. Voltage breakdown on niobium and copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, G.R.; Padamsee, H.; Betzwieser, J.C.; Liu, Y.G.; Rubin, K.H.R.; Shipman, J.E.; Ying, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that voltage breakdown in superconducting niobium RF cavities is in many ways similar to voltage breakdown on niobium cathodes in DC voltage gaps; most striking are the distinctive starburst patterns and craters that mark the site of voltage breakdown in both superconducting cavities and DC vacuum gaps. Therefore, we can learn much about RF breakdown from simpler, faster DC experiments. We have direct evidence, in the form of before'' and ''after'' pictures, that breakdown events caused by high surface electric fields occur with high probability at contaminant particles on surfaces. Although the pre-breakdown behavior (field emission) seems to depend mostly on the contaminant particles present and little on the substrate, the breakdown event itself is greatly affected by the substrate-niobium, heavily oxidized niobium, electropolished copper, and diamond-machined copper cathodes lead to different kinds of breakdown events. By studying DC voltage breakdown we hope to learn more details about the processes involved in the transition from field emission to catastrophic arcing and the cratering of the surface; as well as learning how to prevent breakdown, we would like to learn how to cause breakdown, which could be important when ''processing'' cavities to reduce field emission. (author)

  7. A Smart Load Interface and Voltage Regulator for Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedier, Mohammed; Basset, Philippe; Galayko, Dimitri

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new implementation in ams 0.35μm HV technology of a complete energy management system for an electrostatic vibrational energy harvester (e-VEH). It is based on the Bennet's doubler architecture and includes a load voltage regulator (LVR) and a smart Load Interface (LI) that are self-controlled with internal voltages for maximum power point tracking (MMPT). The CMOS implementation makes use of an energy harvester that is capable of producing up to 1.8μW at harmonic excitation, given its internal voltage is kept within its optimum. An intermediate LI stage and its controller makes use of a high side switch with zero static power level shifter, and a low power hysteresis comparator. A full circuit level simulation with a VHDL-AMS model of the e-VEH presented was successfully achieved, indicating that the proposed load interface controller consumes less than 100nW average power. Moreover, a LVR regulates the buffer and discharge the harvested energy into a generic resistive load maintaining the voltage within a nominal value of 2 Volts.

  8. The current-voltage relation of a pore and its asymptotic behavior in a Nernst-Planck model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Birlea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for current-voltage nonlinearity and asymmetry is a good starting point for explaining the electrical behavior of the nanopores in synthetic or biological membranes. Using a Nernst-Planck model, we found three behaviors for the current density in a membrane's pore as a function of voltage: a quasi-ohmic, slow rising linear current at low voltages, a nonlinear current at intermediate voltages, and a non-ohmic, fast rising linear current at large voltages. The slope of the quasi-ohmic current depends mainly on the height of energy barrier inside the pore, w, through an exponential term, ew. The magnitude of the non-ohmic linear current is controlled by the potential energy gradient at the pore entrance, w/r. The current-voltage relation is asymmetric if the ion's potential energy inside the pore has an asymmetric triangular profile. The model has only two assumed parameters, the energy barrier height, w, and the relative size of the entrance region of the pore, r, which is a useful feature for fitting and interpreting experimental data.

  9. Vivitron 1995, transient voltage simulation, high voltage insulator tests, electric field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, G.; Osswald, F.; Heusch, B.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary investigations showed clearly that, because of the discrete electrode structure of the Vivitron, important overvoltage leading to insulator damage can appear in case of a spark. The first high voltage tests showed damage connected with such events. This fact leads to a severe voltage limitation. This work describes, at first, studies made to understand the effects of transients and the associated over-voltage appearing in the Vivitron. Then we present the high voltage tests made with full size Vivitron components using the CN 6 MV machine as a pilot machine. Extensive field calculations were made. These involve simulations of static stresses and transient overvoltages, on insulating boards and electrodes. This work gave us the solutions for arrangements and modifications in the machine. After application, the Vivitron runs now without any sparks and damage at 20 MV. In the same manner, we tested column insulators of a new design and so we will find out how to get to higher voltages. Electric field calculation around the tie bars connecting the discrete electrodes together showed field enhancements when the voltages applied on the discrete electrodes are not equally distributed. This fact is one of the sources of discharges and voltage limitations. A scenario of a spark event is described and indications are given how to proceed towards higher voltages, in the 30 MV range. (orig.)

  10. Low-Voltage Consumption Coordination for Loss Minimization and Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for minimizing active power losses in low-voltage grids, by coordinating the consumption of electric vehicles and power generation from solar panels. We show that minimizing losses, also reduces voltage variations, and illustrate how this may be employed for increasing...

  11. Analysis of Voltage Support by Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic in a Real Danish Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Juul Møller, René

    2014-01-01

    of incorporating electric vehicles (EVs) in a low voltage distribution network with high penetration of photovoltaic installations (PVs), and focuses on analysing potential voltage support functions from EVs and PVs. In addition, the paper evaluates the benefits that reactive power control may provide...

  12. Light emitting diode driver with differential voltage supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The current invention relates to a driver for driving one or a plurality of LEDs (D1, D2), comprising at least one driving unit (201, 202) adapted to be supplied with a differential voltage, between one first bias voltage (VB1) and one second bias voltage (VB2), the differential voltage being

  13. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  14. 30 CFR 75.813 - High-voltage longwalls; scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage longwalls; scope. 75.813 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.813 High-voltage longwalls; scope. Sections 75.814 through 75.822 of this...

  15. Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles in Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the voltage support functions from electric vehicles (EVs) on a typical Danish distribution grid with high EV penetration. In addition to the popular voltage control modes, such as voltage droop charging (low voltage level leads to low charging power) and reactive power support...

  16. 47 CFR 17.54 - Rated lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated lamp voltage. 17.54 Section 17.54... voltage. To insure the necessary lumen output by obstruction lights, the rated voltage of incandescent lamps used shall correspond to be within 3 percent higher than the voltage across the lamp socket during...

  17. Determination of the cathode fall voltage in fluorescent lamps by measurement of the operating voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the cathode fall voltage of fluorescent lamps is shown. The cathode fall voltage can be determined by measurement of the lamp operating voltage at constant lamp wall temperature, constant discharge current and variation of the electrode heating current. Commercial lamps, which do not need to be specially prepared, can be used for the measurement. The results show good correlation to other measurements of the cathode fall voltage at various discharge currents by means of capacitive coupling. The measured values of the cathode fall voltage are used for determining the minimum, target and maximum setting of the sum of the squares of the pin currents of one electrode (the so-called SOS value) as a function of the discharge current in fluorescent lamp dimming. (author)

  18. A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) with selective harmonic compensation at medium voltage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, M.J.; Holmes, D.G.; Nielsen, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are now becoming more established in industry to reduce the impact of voltage sags to sensitive loads. However, DVRs spend most of their time in standby mode, since voltage sags occur very infrequently, and hence their utilization is low. In principle, it would...... be advantageous if the series-connected inverter of a DVR could also be used to compensate for any steady-state load voltage harmonics, since this would increase the power quality "value-added" benefits to the grid system. However, before this can be done, consideration must be given to the control of steady......-state power through the DVR, the increased losses, and the low modulation depths at which the scheme must operate to achieve acceptable harmonic compensation performance. This paper presents a selective harmonic feedback control strategy that can be easily added to medium-voltage DVR systems to provide...

  19. Electrocardiogram voltage discordance: Interpretation of low QRS voltage only in the precordial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Diana H; Verdino, Ralph J

    To define clinical correlates of low voltage isolated to precordial leads on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Low voltage (V) on the ECG is defined as QRS Vvoltage isolated to the precordial leads with normal limb lead voltages is unclear. Twelve-lead ECGs with QRS V>5mm in one or more limb leads and voltage was found in 256 of 150,000 ECGs (~0.2%). 50.4% of patients had discordant ECGs that correlated with classic etiologies, with a higher incidence of LV dilation in those with classic etiologies than those without. Low precordial voltage is associated with classic etiologies and LV dilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Voltage stability, bifurcation parameters and continuation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, F L [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the importance of the choice of bifurcation parameter in the determination of the voltage stability limit and the maximum power load ability of a system. When the bifurcation parameter is power demand, the two limits are equivalent. However, when other types of load models and bifurcation parameters are considered, the two concepts differ. The continuation method is considered as a method for determination of voltage stability margins. Three variants of the continuation method are described: the continuation parameter is the bifurcation parameter the continuation parameter is initially the bifurcation parameter, but is free to change, and the continuation parameter is a new `arc length` parameter. Implementations of voltage stability software using continuation methods are described. (author) 23 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Critical voltage effects in electron channeling patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Electron channeling patterns were used to study critical voltage effects in the metals molybdenum and tungsten. The purpose was to characterize both theoretically and experimentally how a critical voltage will affect the channeling pattern line shapes. The study focused on the second order critical voltage that results from the degeneracy between the Bloch wave states of the (110) and (220) reflections. Theoretical (110) series electron channeling pattern line profiles were calculated using the dynamical theory of Hirsch and Humphreys (1970). A 10 beam dynamical electron diffraction calculation was performed (using complex Fourier lattice potentials) to generate Bloch wave coefficients, excitation amplitudes, and absorption coefficients needed for determining backscattering coefficients and subsequent backscattered electron intensities. The theoretical model is applicable to electron diffraction at all energies since no high energy approximation or perturbation method was used

  2. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B; Kliem, H

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depen...

  3. Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.

  4. Coplanar strips for Josephson voltage standard circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; May, T.; Wende, G.; Fritzsch, L.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2001-01-01

    We present a microwave circuit for Josephson voltage standards. Here, the Josephson junctions are integrated in a microwave transmission line designed as coplanar strips (CPS). The new layout offers the possibility of achieving a higher scale of integration and to considerably simplify the fabrication technology. The characteristic impedance of the CPS is about 50 Ω, and this should be of interest for programmable Josephson voltage standard circuits with SNS or SINIS junctions. To demonstrate the function of the microwave circuit design, conventional 10 V Josephson voltage standard circuits with 17000 Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions were prepared and tested. Stable Shapiro steps at the 10 V level were generated. Furthermore, arrays of 1400 SINIS junctions in this microwave layout exhibited first-order Shapiro steps. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  5. Voltage control of cavity magnon polariton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S., E-mail: kaurs3@myumanitoba.ca; Rao, J. W.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M., E-mail: hu@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Yao, B. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-07-18

    We have experimentally investigated the microwave transmission of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) generated by integrating a low damping magnetic insulator onto a 2D microwave cavity. The high tunability of our planar cavity allows the cavity resonance frequency to be precisely controlled using a DC voltage. By appropriately tuning the voltage and magnetic bias, we can observe the cavity photon magnon coupling and the magnetic coupling between a magnetostatic mode and the generated CMP. The dispersion of the generated CMP was measured by either tuning the magnetic field or the applied voltage. This electrical control of CMP may open up avenues for designing advanced on-chip microwave devices that utilize light-matter interaction.

  6. Sensorless Control of IPMSM by Voltage Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.; Bech, Michael Møller

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a sensorless discrete current control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchrouns Motor (IPMSM) by voltage injection is designed and tested. The whole controller is operating in the dq-frame and for this reason the rotor position is essential to know, to transform between the station......In this paper a sensorless discrete current control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchrouns Motor (IPMSM) by voltage injection is designed and tested. The whole controller is operating in the dq-frame and for this reason the rotor position is essential to know, to transform between...... the stationary frame and the rotor xed dq-frame. To obtain the position even at standstill a sensorless scheme using voltage injection is added to the current controller....

  7. Semisupervised Community Detection by Voltage Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications show that semisupervised community detection is one of the important topics and has attracted considerable attention in the study of complex network. In this paper, based on notion of voltage drops and discrete potential theory, a simple and fast semisupervised community detection algorithm is proposed. The label propagation through discrete potential transmission is accomplished by using voltage drops. The complexity of the proposal is OV+E for the sparse network with V vertices and E edges. The obtained voltage value of a vertex can be reflected clearly in the relationship between the vertex and community. The experimental results on four real networks and three benchmarks indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective and flexible. Furthermore, this algorithm is easily applied to graph-based machine learning methods.

  8. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  9. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  10. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  11. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of

  12. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharge...

  13. Financial intermediation with credit constrained agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2007), s. 741-759 ISSN 0164-0704 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial intermediation * occupational choice * general equilibrium Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2007

  14. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  15. Essays in financial intermediation and political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Mancy

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in financial intermediation and political economy. The first chapter studies how investors’ preference for local stocks affects global mutual funds’ investment behaviors, and shows that mutual funds overweight stocks from their client countries (i.e., where

  16. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  17. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    networks without breaking known necessary or sufficient conditions for persistence, by iteratively removing socalled intermediates and catalysts from the network. The procedures are easy to apply and, in many cases, lead to highly simplified network structures, such as monomolecular networks. For specific...

  18. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  19. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  20. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA,