WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate stage pupils

  1. The adolescent and his experience during the intermediate stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophía González Zúñiga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescence is considered a vulnerable stage on all people’s life. Within the health system, this population is characterized by a low coverage exclusively aimed at finding the problems, which requires more specialization. This article aims to present the situational diagnosis of a group of teenagers in the intermediate stage in order to further develop a program of Pediatric Nursing care for the adolescent in the intermediate stage, in an institution of secondary education for the years 2013-2014.Method. The implemented methodology is qualitative with a constructivist epistemological approach; triangulating the information gathered performed data analysis.Results. Among the main findings of the diagnostic phase was obtained teenagers prioritized issues such as the phenomenon of drugs and situations related to sexuality; also describe their experience along this stage of life, the changes that occurred, and interaction with peers and family, information necessary for a pediatric nurse practitioner intervene appropriately. The main findings on the diagnose phase show that adolescents prioritized issues like drugs and situations related to sexuality. They also describe their experience through this life stage, all the changes occurred and the interaction with partners and family.Conclusion. The study reveals that it is essential to establish a first contact with the adolescent to identify all their needs in an integral form, and to give them the opportunity to propose possible solutions. Being continuously in contact stimulates the development of empathy in order to obtain a greater openness from the individual to the nurse-practitioner as an accompaniment figure throughout their adolescence.

  2. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  3. INTERMEDIATE STAGES OF REACTIONS FORMING CARBIDES OF TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, VANADIUM, NIOBIUM, AND TANTALIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    intermediate and final products, and also during the calculation of approximate heat values of their formation, the passage of the reaction is confirmed...for obtaining TiC, and ZrC through the stage of intermediate oxides Ti2O3, Ti3O5, TiO and Zr2O3, ZrO, respectively and also for the reaction of...forming carbides of V (from V2O3 + 5C), of Nb and Ta (from Nb2O5 + 7C and Ta205 + 7C) through the stage of intermediate oxides VO, V4O and TaO2, Ta4O. The

  4. Pre-design stage of the intermediate heat exchanger for experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, M.; Borges, E.M.; Braz Filho, F.A.; Hirdes, V.R.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents the outlines of a thermal-hydraulic calculation procedure for the pre-design stage of the Intermediate Heat Exchanger for a 5 MW Experimental Fast Reactor (EFR), which can be used in other similar projects, at the same stage of evolution. Heat transfer and heat loss computations for the preliminary design of the heat exchanger are presented. (author) [pt

  5. Transarterial chemoembolization versus resection for intermediate-stage (BCLC B hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Several studies have suggested that surgical resection (SR can provide a survival benefit over transarterial chemoembolization (TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC at the intermediate stage according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC staging system. However, the criteria for SR remain to be determined. This study compared the long-term outcome of intermediate-stage HCC patients treated by either TACE or SR as a primary treatment modality, with the aim of identifying the patient subgroup that gained a survival benefit by either modality. Methods: In total, 277 BCLC intermediate-stage HCC patients treated by either TACE (N=225 or SR (N=52 were analyzed. Results: The overall median survival time was significantly better for SR than TACE (61 vs. 30 months, P=0.002. Decision-tree analysis divided patients into seven nodes based on tumor size and number, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level, and Child-Pugh score, and these were then simplified into four subgroups (B1–B4 based on similarities in the overall hazard rate. SR provided a significant survival benefit in subgroup B2, characterized by ‘oligo’ (2–4 nodules of intermediate size (5–10 cm when the AFP levels was <400 ng/ml, or ‘oligo’ (2–4 nodules of small to intermediate size (<10 cm plus a Child-Pugh score of 5 when the AFP level was ≥400 ng/mL (median survival 73 vs. 28 months for SR vs. TACE respectively; P=0.014. The survival rate did not differ significantly between SR and TACE in the other subgroups (B1 and B3. Conclusion: SR provided a survival benefit over TACE in intermediate-stage HCC, especially for patients meeting certain criteria. Re-establishing the criteria for optimal treatment modalities in this stage of HCC is needed to improve survival rates.

  6. Determination Bounds for Intermediate Products in a Two-Stage Network DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Bagherzadeh Valami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The internal structure of decision making unit (DMU is the key element at extension of network DEA. In general considering internal performance evaluation of system is a better criterion than the conventional DEA-models, essentially based on the initial inputs and final outputs of the system. The internal performance of a system is dependent on the relation between sub-DMUs and intermediate products. Since the intermediate measures are consumed by some sub-DMUs produced by the others, it is possible to produce systems; the role of intermediate production is twice output and input. That's why they can be analyzed based on conventional mathematical modeling. In this paper we introduce a new method for determining bounds for intermediate product in a two stage network DEA structure.

  7. Intermediate stage of sleep and acute cerveau isolé preparation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    User, P; Gioanni, H; Gottesmann, C

    1980-01-01

    The acute cerveau isole rat shows spindle bursts of large amplitude alternating with low voltage activity in the frontal cortex and continuous theta rhythm in the dorsal hippocampus. These patterns closely resemble an "intermediate" stage of sleep-waking cycle, when the forebrain structures seem to be functionally disconnected from the brainstem.

  8. Influence of capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage in two-stage food production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Gaalman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In food processing, two-stage production systems with a batch processor in the first stage and packaging lines in the second stage are common and mostly separated by capacity- and time-constrained intermediate storage. This combination of constraints is common in practice, but the literature hardly...... of systems like this. Contrary to the common sense in operations management, the LPT rule is able to maximize the total production volume per day. Furthermore, we show that adding one tank has considerable effects. Finally, we conclude that the optimal setup frequency for batches in the first stage...... pays any attention to this. In this paper, we show how various capacity and time constraints influence the performance of a specific two-stage system. We study the effects of several basic scheduling and sequencing rules in the presence of these constraints in order to learn the characteristics...

  9. 85,000-GPM, single-stage, single-suction LMFBR intermediate centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fair, C.E.; Cook, M.E.; Huber, K.A.; Rohde, R.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanical and hydraulic design features of the 85,000-gpm, single-stage, single-suction pump test article, which is designed to circulate liquid-sodium coolant in the intermediate heat-transport system of a Large-Scale Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LS-LMFBR), are described. The design and analytical considerations used to satisfy the pump performance and operability requirements are presented. The validation of pump hydraulic performance using a hydraulic scale-model pump is discussed, as is the featute test for the mechanical-shaft seal system

  10. Appropriate Pupilness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    for football are selected. The article opens up for a microanalysis of everyday practices at the margins and at the core of what this article terms `pupilness'. The concept of intersectionality is suggested as a useful analytical tool to understand the multiple activities of pupils in everyday school life...

  11. Neutrino masses in the SO(10) model with intermediate stage of the symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetovoj, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    An effect for the neutrino masses of an intermediate stage in the symmetry spontaneous breaking, different from SU(5), is investigated in some detail for the SO(1O) model. There are two possibilities depending on the composition of the Higgs sector: i) msub(ν) approximately msub(f)(Msub(W)/Msub(1)); ii) msub(ν) approximately msub(f)sub(b)/Msub(1))(M/Msub(1)), where M, M 1 and Msub) are the scales of the breaking of the original SO(10) simmetry, the intermediate symmetry, and the standard SUsub(c)(3)xSUsub(L)(2)xU(1) symmetry, respectively, and msub(f) is a typical fermion mass. It as shown that a Majorana mass of the right neutrino (νsub(R)) of a purely loop origin would result in a too large mass of the usual neutrinos, so a tree-graph contribution to the mass of νsub(R) is necessary. Numerical estimates for the neutrino masses are discussed [ru

  12. Neutrino masses in an SO(10) model with an intermediate stage of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetovoi, V.B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect on neutrino masses of an intermediate stage in symmetry breaking different from SU(5) is investigated in detail for the SO(10) model. There are two possibilities depending on the contents of the Higgs sector: i) m/sub ν/approx.m/sub f/(M/sub W//M 1 ); ii) m/sub ν/approx.m/sub f/(M/sub W//M 1 )(M/M 1 ), where M, M 1 and M/sub W/ are the scales of the breaking of the original SO(10) symmetry, the intermediate symmetry, and the standard SU/sub c/(3) x SU/sub L/(2) x U(1) symmetry, respectively, and m/sub f/ is a typical fermion mass. It is shown that a Majorana mass of the right-handed-neutrino (ν/sub R/) of a purely loop origin would result in too large a mass of the usual neutrinos, so a tree-graph contribution to the mass of ν/sub R/ is necessary. Numerical estimates for the neutrino masses are discussed

  13. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2007-01-01

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through...... the performance improvements for the prioritized product, as well as the negative effects for the other products. We also show how the effect decreases with more storage tanks, and increases with more products....... the dedication of a storage tank. This type of situation has hardly been investigated, although planners struggle with it in practice. This paper aims at investigating the fundamental effect of prioritization and dedicated storage in a two-stage production system, for various product mixes. We show...

  14. The influence of particle size on intermediate and final stages of molybdenum sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskokovic, D.; Novakovic, B.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of initial particle size on kinetics of molybdenum sintering was investigated. Three fractions of monodispersed molybdenum powder (2, 5 and 10 μm) were used as well as a polydispersed powder with mean particle size of 12 μm. Decrease in particle size accelerates to a great extent densification and grain growth processes. During sintering of 10 μm powder and to a smaller extent in the case of polydispersed powder, Zeners's relation was confirmed. Quantitative equations for the intermediate sintering stages could not be fitted to the investigated particulate systems, even though the grain growth process could be described by cubic law and though the volume diffusion coefficient and the surface energy were known with great reliability. (Auth.)

  15. Implications of results from the CERN e+e- collider LEP for SO(10) grand unification with two intermediate stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Keith, E.; Pal, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the breaking of the grand unification group SO(10) to the standard model gauge group through several chains containing two intermediate stages. Using the values of the gauge coupling constants at a scale M Z derived from recent data from the CERN e + e- collider LEP, we determine the range of their intermediate and unification scales. In particular, we identify those chains that permit new gauge structure at relatively low energy (∼1 TeV)

  16. The optimum intermediate pressure of two-stages vapor compression refrigeration cycle for Air-Conditioning unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Sihombing, H. V.

    2018-03-01

    Vapor compression cycle is mainly employed as a refrigeration cycle in the Air-Conditioning (AC) unit. In order to save energy, the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the need to be improved. One of the potential solutions is to modify the system into multi-stages vapor compression cycle. The suitable intermediate pressure between the high and low pressures is one of the design issues. The present work deals with the investigation of an optimum intermediate pressure of two-stages vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Typical vapor compression cycle that is used in AC unit is taken into consideration. The used refrigerants are R134a. The governing equations have been developed for the systems. An inhouse program has been developed to solve the problem. COP, mass flow rate of the refrigerant and compressor power as a function of intermediate pressure are plotted. It was shown that there exists an optimum intermediate pressure for maximum COP. For refrigerant R134a, the proposed correlations need to be revised.

  17. Product prioritization in a two-stage food production system with intermediate storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, R.; van Donk, D.P.

    In the food-processing industry, usually a limited number of storage tanks for intermediate storage is available, which are used for different products. The market sometimes requires extremely short lead times for some products, leading to prioritization of these products, partly through the

  18. Natural History of Clinically Staged Low- and Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Monotherapeutic Permanent Interstitial Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Wallner, Kent E.; Butler, Wayne M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with permanent interstitial seed implants as monotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and May 2005, 463 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer underwent brachytherapy as the sole definitive treatment. Men who received supplemental external beam radiotherapy or androgen deprivation therapy were excluded. Dosimetric implant quality was determined based on the minimum dose that covered 90% of the target volume and the volume of the prostate gland receiving 100% of the prescribed dose. Multiple parameters were evaluated as predictors of treatment outcomes. Results: The 12-year biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates for the entire cohort were 97.1%, 99.7%, and 75.4%, respectively. Only pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level, percent positive biopsy cores, and minimum dose that covered 90% of the target volume were significant predictors of biochemical recurrence. The bPFS, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were 97.4%, 99.6%, and 76.2%, respectively, for low-risk patients and 96.4%, 100%, and 74.0%, respectively, for intermediate-risk patients. The bPFS rate was 98.8% for low-risk patients with high-quality implants versus 92.1% for those with less adequate implants (p < 0.01), and it was 98.3% for intermediate-risk patients with high-quality implants versus 86.4% for those with less adequate implants (p < 0.01). Conclusions: High-quality brachytherapy implants as monotherapy can provide excellent outcomes for men with clinically staged low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer. For these men, a high-quality implant can achieve results comparable to high-quality surgery in the most favorable pathologically staged patient subgroups.

  19. Identification and characterization of monoclonal antibodies specific for macrophages at intermediate stages in the tumoricidal activation pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulnock, D.M.; Lambert, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Macrophage activation for tumor cell killing is a multistep pathway in which responsive macrophages interact sequentially with priming and triggering stimuli in the acquisition of full tumoricidal activity. A number of mediators have been identified which have activating capability, including in particular IFN-gamma and bacterial LPS. Although the synergistic functional response of normal macrophages to sequential incubation with these activation signals has been well-established, characterization of the intermediate stages in the activation pathway has been difficult. We have developed a model system for examination of various aspects of macrophage activation, through the use of the murine macrophage tumor cell line, RAW 264.7. These cells, like normal macrophages, exhibit a strict requirement for interaction with both IFN-gamma and LPS in the development of tumor cytolytic activity. In addition, these cells can be stably primed by the administration of gamma-radiation. In the studies reported here, we have used RAW 264.7 cells treated with IFN-gamma alone or with IFN-gamma plus LPS to stimulate the production of rat mAb probes recognizing cell surface changes occurring during the activation process. In this way we have identified three Ag associated with intermediate stages of the activation process. One Ag, TM-1, is expressed on RAW 264.7 cells primed by IFN-gamma or gamma-radiation. This surface Ag thus identifies cells at the primed cell intermediate stage of the tumoricidal activation pathway regardless of the mechanism of activation. A second Ag, TM-2, is expressed on IFN-treated RAW 264.7 cells but not on RAW 264.7 cells primed with gamma-radiation alone. Expression of this Ag can be induced by treatment of irradiated cells with IFN-gamma, but is not induced by IFN-gamma treatment of a noncytolytic cell line, WEHI-3

  20. Combination of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and interrupted dosing sorafenib improves patient survival in early–intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Teng-Yu; Lin, Chen-Chun; Chen, Chiung-Yu; Wang, Tsang-En; Lo, Gin-Ho; Chang, Chi-Sen; Chao, Yee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objective: The survival benefit of treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with sorafenib remains uncertain. We compared the survival of patients treated with TACE and sorafenib with that of patients treated with TACE alone. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the Study in Asia of the Combination of TACE with Sorafenib in Patients with HCC (START) trial. All patients who received TACE and interrupted dosing of sorafenib for early or intermediate-stage HCC in Taiwan from 2009 to 2010 were recruited into the TACE and sorafenib group. They were randomly matched 1:1 by age, sex, Child–Pugh score, tumor size, tumor number, and tumor stage with patients from Taichung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan who received TACE alone and who fulfilled the selection criteria of the START trial during the same time period (control group). Patient survival [cumulative incidence and hazard ratio (HR)] of the 2 groups were analyzed and compared. Results: The baseline characteristics of the 36 patients in each group were similar. Tumor response rates were significantly better in the TACE and sorafenib group (P < .04). Overall survival of the TACE and sorafenib group was also significantly better than that of the control (TACE alone) group over the 2 years [78%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 64–91 vs 49, 95% CI 32–66; P = .012]. In the multivariate regression analysis, TACE and sorafenib was found to be independently associated with a decreased risk of mortality (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.12–0.89; P = .015). Multivariate stratified analyses verified this association in each patient subgroup (all HR < 1.0). Conclusion: With a high patient tolerance to an interrupted sorafenib dosing schedule, the combination of TACE with sorafenib was associated with improved overall survival in early–intermediate stage HCC when compared with treatment with TACE alone. PMID

  1. Choice of Scottish Gaelic-Medium and Welsh-Medium Education at the Primary and Secondary School Stages: Parent and Pupil Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the reasons for parental choice of Scottish Gaelic-medium and Welsh-medium primary education in the year 2000 and of the reasons for pupils' decisions to continue with Gaelic or Welsh-medium education at secondary school in 2007. Parents in both contexts cited the quality of Celtic-medium education…

  2. RPA and XPA interaction with DNA structures mimicking intermediates of the late stages in nucleotide excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasikova, Yuliya S; Rechkunova, Nadejda I; Maltseva, Ekaterina A; Lavrik, Olga I

    2018-01-01

    Replication protein A (RPA) and the xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA) protein are indispensable for both pathways of nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we analyze the interaction of RPA and XPA with DNA containing a flap and different size gaps that imitate intermediates of the late NER stages. Using gel mobility shift assays, we found that RPA affinity for DNA decreased when DNA contained both extended gap and similar sized flap in comparison with gapped-DNA structure. Moreover, crosslinking experiments with the flap-gap DNA revealed that RPA interacts mainly with the ssDNA platform within the long gap and contacts flap in DNA with a short gap. XPA exhibits higher affinity for bubble-DNA structures than to flap-gap-containing DNA. Protein titration analysis showed that formation of the RPA-XPA-DNA ternary complex depends on the protein concentration ratio and these proteins can function as independent players or in tandem. Using fluorescently-labelled RPA, direct interaction of this protein with XPA was detected and characterized quantitatively. The data obtained allow us to suggest that XPA can be involved in the post-incision NER stages via its interaction with RPA.

  3. RPA and XPA interaction with DNA structures mimicking intermediates of the late stages in nucleotide excision repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya S Krasikova

    Full Text Available Replication protein A (RPA and the xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA protein are indispensable for both pathways of nucleotide excision repair (NER. Here we analyze the interaction of RPA and XPA with DNA containing a flap and different size gaps that imitate intermediates of the late NER stages. Using gel mobility shift assays, we found that RPA affinity for DNA decreased when DNA contained both extended gap and similar sized flap in comparison with gapped-DNA structure. Moreover, crosslinking experiments with the flap-gap DNA revealed that RPA interacts mainly with the ssDNA platform within the long gap and contacts flap in DNA with a short gap. XPA exhibits higher affinity for bubble-DNA structures than to flap-gap-containing DNA. Protein titration analysis showed that formation of the RPA-XPA-DNA ternary complex depends on the protein concentration ratio and these proteins can function as independent players or in tandem. Using fluorescently-labelled RPA, direct interaction of this protein with XPA was detected and characterized quantitatively. The data obtained allow us to suggest that XPA can be involved in the post-incision NER stages via its interaction with RPA.

  4. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Creating Pupils' Internet Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Šimic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an action research, which aimed to improve pupils' literary creativity and enable them to use computers connected to the internet. The study was conducted in a small district village school in Croatia. Creating a pupils' internet magazine appeared to be an excellent way for achieving the educational aims of almost all…

  6. Pupil Evaluation of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John; Chopra, Pran

    1979-01-01

    This investigation is concerned with (a) constructing a pupil evaluation of teachers (PET) scale, for use in grades 7-11, incorporating certain areas of teaching behavior, and affective pupil responses to teachers; and (b) using the scale as a source of feedback to both regular and student teachers. (Author)

  7. TAPS for Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    By placing the Focused Assessment approach within the TAPS pyramid framework, schools are beginning to find a number of ways in which learning in science can be enhanced for pupils. The quotations in this article provide examples of the ways in which science subject leaders (SSL) describe the impact of TAPS on their pupils.

  8. [Comparative analysis of TACE alone or plus RFA in the treatment of 167 cases of intermediate and advanced staged primary hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Wang, Jian-peng; Wu, Pei-hong; Zhang, Fu-jun; Huang, Zi-lin; Li, Wang; Zhang, Liang; Pan, Chang-chuan; Li, Chuan-xing; Jiang, Yong

    2010-11-09

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and survival rate of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) alone or plus radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with intermediate or advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this retrospective study, 467 cases received RFA or TACE plus RFA. Among them, 167 cases with strict clinical procedure (TACE alone or plus RFA) and complete follow-up data were included. Eighty-seven cases received TACE and 80 cases had TACE plus RFA between January 2000 and December 2006. Hierarchical analyses were performed using log-rank tests and survival curve was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 167 patients received TACE alone or plus RFA for a follow-up period of 1 to 89 months. In the TACE alone group, the time-to-progression (TTP) was an average of 3.6 months. The median survival was 13 months, one-year survival rate 52.9%, three-year survival rate 11.5% and five-year survival rate 4.6%. In the TACE plus RFA group, the TTP time was an average of 10.8 months. The median survival time was 30 months, one-year survival rate 85.0%, three-year survival rate 45.0% and five-year survival rate 11.3%. In the TACE alone group, the median survival of intermediate stage HCC was 14 months, one-year survival rate 62.2%, three-year survival rate 13.3% and five-year survival rate 4.4%; In the TACE plus RFA group, the median survival of intermediate stage HCC was 14 months, one-year survival rate 90.1%, three-year survival rate 52.9% and five-year survival rate 13.7%. All differences of two groups has statistical significance (P advanced stage HCC, the median survival time was 12 months, one-year survival rate 35%, three-year survival rate 7.1% and five-year survival rate 0 in the TACE alone group versus 28 months, 62.1%, 24.1% and 6.9% in the TACE plus RFA group (P = 0.00). There was significantly statistic difference between both groups in intermediate and advanced staging HCC. Among them, 60/485 (12.4%) patients required a therapy

  9. Growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (L.,1758 in an intermediate stage of culture in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MCP Albuquerque

    Full Text Available There are no records in Brazil for the culture of Pteridae family oysters, genus Pteria and Pinctada. The intermediate culture can be considered one of the critical stages during the oyster farming. The changes in life conditions from a semi-closed environment provided by the collector to the structures utilized for the growth represents a considerable stress factor to which the animals are subjected. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758 kept in intermediate lanterns. Seeds of P. hirundo, obtained through larviculture carried out at the Marine Molluscs Laboratory (UFSC, southern Brazil were detached from the collectors, transferred and kept in an intermediate culture system (oyster lantern. During 6 months, growth (dorso-ventral height - DVH in mm and survival (% were evaluated. Two size classes were tested: medium (M, between 3.4 and 4.4 mm, and large (L, bigger than 4.5 mm. The density of occupation in each floor of the lantern was 50%. At the end of the experiment, the survivals observed were 90 and 94% for the sizes M and L, respectively. Medium juveniles of Pteria hirundo had an average (Std increase of 16.1 (±4.38 mm in the dorso-ventral height, and large juveniles an average increase of 11.4 (±3.77 mm after six months of experiment. The results observed during the intermediate stage of cultivation indicate that Pteria hirundo presents survival and growth similar to other species of pearl oysters traditionally used in the pearl industry in several countries.

  10. Growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (L.,1758) in an intermediate stage of culture in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, M C P; Alves, R; Zanandrea, A C V; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R; Magalhães, A R M

    2012-02-01

    There are no records in Brazil for the culture of Pteridae family oysters, genus Pteria and Pinctada. The intermediate culture can be considered one of the critical stages during the oyster farming. The changes in life conditions from a semi-closed environment provided by the collector to the structures utilized for the growth represents a considerable stress factor to which the animals are subjected. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the growth and survival of the pearl oyster Pteria hirundo (Linnaeus, 1758) kept in intermediate lanterns. Seeds of P. hirundo, obtained through larviculture carried out at the Marine Molluscs Laboratory (UFSC), southern Brazil were detached from the collectors, transferred and kept in an intermediate culture system (oyster lantern). During 6 months, growth (dorso-ventral height - DVH in mm) and survival (%) were evaluated. Two size classes were tested: medium (M), between 3.4 and 4.4 mm, and large (L), bigger than 4.5 mm. The density of occupation in each floor of the lantern was 50%. At the end of the experiment, the survivals observed were 90 and 94% for the sizes M and L, respectively. Medium juveniles of Pteria hirundo had an average (Std) increase of 16.1 (±4.38) mm in the dorso-ventral height, and large juveniles an average increase of 11.4 (±3.77) mm after six months of experiment. The results observed during the intermediate stage of cultivation indicate that Pteria hirundo presents survival and growth similar to other species of pearl oysters traditionally used in the pearl industry in several countries.

  11. The Feasibility of Djibouti as an Intermediate Staging Base for U.S. Land Force Operations in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Turkey, Kuwait, and Qatar as possible staging bases.3 The complexity of religious and cultural allegiances may alter the political position of these...government will, through its regulatory role, ensure a sustainable use of the aquifers utilized by the urban water utility by requiring that its

  12. Analysis of the intermediate stage in the heavy ion interactions of 208Pb+197Au and 197Au+197Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Tabassum; Khan, E.U.; Baluch, J.J.; Qureshi, I.E.; Sajid, M.; Shahzad, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    Two different projectiles 208 Pb and 197 Au at the same energy (11.67MeV/u) have been bombarded on 197 Au target to study heavy ion interactions using mica as a passive detector. In this paper we present results on the study of energy damping and time scale of the existence of di-nuclear composite system in the intermediate reaction step. The plots of Q-values as well as reaction cross sections in various angular bins of scattering angles suggest that K.E. damping was complete and dynamic equilibrium was established between the first and second reaction steps. The time scale of this duration was also determined

  13. Cryogenic Pupil Alignment Test Architecture for Aberrated Pupil Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Brent; Kubalak, David A.; Antonille, Scott; Ohl, Raymond; Hagopian, John G.

    2009-01-01

    A document describes cryogenic test architecture for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) integrated science instrument module (ISIM). The ISIM element primarily consists of a mechanical metering structure, three science instruments, and a fine guidance sensor. One of the critical optomechanical alignments is the co-registration of the optical telescope element (OTE) exit pupil with the entrance pupils of the ISIM instruments. The test architecture has been developed to verify that the ISIM element will be properly aligned with the nominal OTE exit pupil when the two elements come together. The architecture measures three of the most critical pupil degrees-of-freedom during optical testing of the ISIM element. The pupil measurement scheme makes use of specularly reflective pupil alignment references located inside the JWST instruments, ground support equipment that contains a pupil imaging module, an OTE simulator, and pupil viewing channels in two of the JWST flight instruments. Pupil alignment references (PARs) are introduced into the instrument, and their reflections are checked using the instrument's mirrors. After the pupil imaging module (PIM) captures a reflected PAR image, the image will be analyzed to determine the relative alignment offset. The instrument pupil alignment preferences are specularly reflective mirrors with non-reflective fiducials, which makes the test architecture feasible. The instrument channels have fairly large fields of view, allowing PAR tip/tilt tolerances on the order of 0.5deg.

  14. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka; Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3 + apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB + interneurons, although the number of reelin + interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of cholinergic

  15. Cuprizone decreases intermediate and late-stage progenitor cells in hippocampal neurogenesis of rats in a framework of 28-day oral dose toxicity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kimura, Masayuki; Mizukami, Sayaka [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Saito, Fumiyo; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi [Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan, 1-4-25 Koraku, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0004 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Developmental exposure to cuprizone (CPZ), a demyelinating agent, impairs intermediate-stage neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rat offspring. To investigate the possibility of alterations in adult neurogenesis following postpubertal exposure to CPZ in a framework of general toxicity studies, CPZ was orally administered to 5-week-old male rats at 0, 120, or 600 mg/kg body weight/day for 28 days. In the subgranular zone (SGZ), 600 mg/kg CPZ increased the number of cleaved caspase-3{sup +} apoptotic cells. At ≥ 120 mg/kg, the number of SGZ cells immunoreactive for TBR2, doublecortin, or PCNA was decreased, while that for SOX2 was increased. In the granule cell layer, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased the number of postmitotic granule cells immunoreactive for NEUN, CHRNA7, ARC or FOS. In the dentate hilus, CPZ at ≥ 120 mg/kg decreased phosphorylated TRKB{sup +} interneurons, although the number of reelin{sup +} interneurons was unchanged. At 600 mg/kg, mRNA levels of Bdnf and Chrna7 were decreased, while those of Casp4, Casp12 and Trib3 were increased in the dentate gyrus. These data suggest that CPZ in a scheme of 28-day toxicity study causes endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis of granule cell lineages, resulting in aberrations of intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis and following suppression of immediate early gene-mediated neuronal plasticity. Suppression of BDNF signals to interneurons caused by decreased cholinergic signaling may play a role in these effects of CPZ. The effects of postpubertal CPZ on neurogenesis were similar to those observed with developmental exposure, except for the lack of reelin response, which may contribute to a greater decrease in SGZ cells. - Highlights: • Effect of 28-day CPZ exposure on hippocampal neurogenesis was examined in rats. • CPZ suppressed intermediate neurogenesis and late-stage neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. • CPZ suppressed BDNF signals to interneurons by decrease of

  16. Ectopic Cdx2 expression in murine esophagus models an intermediate stage in the emergence of Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Kong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE is an intestinal metaplasia that occurs in the setting of chronic acid and bile reflux and is associated with a risk for adenocarcinoma. Expression of intestine-specific transcription factors in the esophagus likely contributes to metaplasia development. Our objective was to explore the effects of an intestine-specific transcription factor when expressed in the mouse esophageal epithelium. Transgenic mice were derived in which the transcription factor Cdx2 is expressed in squamous epithelium using the murine Keratin-14 gene promoter. Effects of the transgene upon cell proliferation and differentiation, gene expression, and barrier integrity were explored. K14-Cdx2 mice express the Cdx2 transgene in esophageal squamous tissues. Cdx2 expression was associated with reduced basal epithelial cell proliferation and altered cell morphology. Ultrastructurally two changes were noted. Cdx2 expression was associated with dilated space between the basal cells and diminished cell-cell adhesion caused by reduced Desmocollin-3 mRNA and protein expression. This compromised epithelial barrier function, as the measured trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER of the K14-Cdx2 epithelium was significantly reduced compared to controls (1189 Ohm*cm(2 ±343.5 to 508 Ohm*cm(2±92.48, p = 0.0532. Secondly, basal cells with features of a transitional cell type, intermediate between keratinocytes and columnar Barrett's epithelial cells, were observed. These cells had reduced keratin bundles and increased endoplasmic reticulum levels, suggesting the adoption of secretory-cell features. Moreover, at the ultrastructural level they resembled "Distinctive" cells associated with multilayered epithelium. Treatment of the K14-Cdx2 mice with 5'-Azacytidine elicited expression of BE-associated genes including Cdx1, Krt18, and Slc26a3/Dra, suggesting the phenotype could be advanced under certain conditions. We conclude that ectopic Cdx2 expression in

  17. A New Unified Solution for Circular Tunnel Based on a Four-Stage Constitutive Model considering the Intermediate Principal Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the triaxial test, the elasto-perfectly plastic strain-softening damage model (EPSDM is proposed as a new four-stage constitutive model. Compared with traditional models, such as the elasto-brittle-plastic model (EBM, elasto-strain-softening model (ESM, elasto-perfectly plastic model (EPM, and elasto-peak plastic-brittle plastic model (EPBM, this model incorporates both the plastic bearing capacity and strain-softening characteristics of rock mass. Moreover, a new closed-form solution of the circular tunnel is presented for the stress and displacement distribution, and a plastic shear strain increment is introduced to define the critical condition where the strain-softening zone begins to occur. The new analysis solution obtained in this paper is a series of results rather than one specific solution; hence, it is suitable for a wide range of rock masses and engineering structures. The numerical simulation has been used to verify the correctness of the EPSDM. The parametric studies are also conducted to investigate the effects of supporting resistance, residual cohesion, dilation angle, strain-softening coefficient, plastic shear strain increment, and yield parameter on the result. It is shown that when the supporting resistance is fully released, both the post-peak failure radii and surface displacement could be summarized as EBM > EPBM > ESM > EPSDM > EPM; the dilation angle in the damage zone had the highest influence on the surface displacement, whereas the dilation angle in the perfectly plastic zone had the lowest influence; the strain-softening coefficient had the most significant effect on the damage zone radii; the EPSDM is recommended as the optimum model for support design and stability evaluation of the circular tunnel excavated in the perfectly plastic strain-softening rock mass.

  18. Make pupils young researchers!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouhier, Armelle

    2015-04-01

    With the 2011 educational reform in France, a new course has been created in secondary schools : Methods & Practices in Science (MPS). The main goal was to improve the pupils working methods in science, including laboratory and field works. In addition, the pedagogy develops pupils autonomy and creativity, a key factor in a research process. Three teachers are working together (Mathematics, Physics and Geology-Biology), showing how different disciplines complement one another. Eventually, this is aimed at attracting more students in scientific sections. This course is optional, in the "seconde" class in French secondary schools (i.e., for 15 years old students). For the next class, they will have to choose between scientific, economic and literature sections : it is a useful option for them to decide which section has their preference. In my high-school in Clermont-Ferrand, we have chosen a research subject on hydrogeology & water quality improvement in region "Auvergne". The pupils will have to develop and set up appropriate tools to check and improve the water quality, related to different disciplines : - Geology & Biology: hydrogeology, effects of different pollutants on aquatic life, solutions to improve water quality (example of the natural water treatment zone in the lake of "Aydat, Auvergne, France"). - Physics & Chemistry: water potability criteria, pollution tests in water, water treatment plants working. - Mathematics: algorithm development, modeling on excel of the dispersion of pollutants The pedagogy of this course is new in French high-schools : pupils work in groups of three, so as to develop cooperation and autonomy. The teachers give the guidelines at the beginning of each working session, and answer the students questions when necessary. The evaluation is competence-based : instead of a mark, which is the main evaluation method in France, the pupils have to evaluate their own skills. Then, the teachers make an evaluation, and the global process is

  19. Is Intermediate Radiation Dose Escalation With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer Beneficial? A Multi-Institutional Propensity Score Matched Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, George, E-mail: george.rodrigues@lhsc.on.ca [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Oberije, Cary [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Senan, Suresh [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tsujino, Kayoko [Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (Japan); Wiersma, Terry [MAASTRO Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands); Moreno-Jimenez, Marta [Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Kim, Tae Hyun [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si, Gy eonggi (Korea, Republic of); Marks, Lawrence B. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Rengan, Ramesh [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); De Petris, Luigi [Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Ramella, Sara [Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome (Italy); DeRuyck, Kim [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); De Dios, Núria Rodriguez [Universidad Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Warner, Andrew [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Palma, David A. [London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical benefits and risks of dose escalation (DE) for stage III non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain uncertain despite the results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0617. There is significant heterogeneity of practice, with many clinicians prescribing intermediate dose levels between the 0617 study arms of 60 and 74 Gy. This study investigated whether this strategy is associated with any survival benefits/risks by analyzing a large multi-institutional database. Methods and Materials: An individual patient database of stage III NSCLC patients treated with radical intent concurrent chemoradiation therapy was created (13 institutions, n=1274 patients). Patients were divided into 2 groups based on tumor Biological Effective Dose at 10 Gy (BED 10): those receiving standard dose (SD; n=552), consisting of 72Gy ≤ BED 10 ≤ 76.8 Gy (eg 60-64 Gy/30-32 fractions [fr]), and those receiving intermediate dose (ID; n=497), consisting of 76.8Gy < BED 10 < 100.8 Gy (eg >64 Gy/32 fr and <74 Gy/37 fr), with lower-dose patients (n=225) excluded from consideration. Patients were then matched using propensity scores, leading to 2 matched groups of 196 patients. Outcomes were compared using various statistics including interquartile range (IQR), Kaplan-Meier curves, and adjusted Cox regression analysis. Results: Matched groups were found to be balanced except for N stage (more N3 disease in SD), median treatment year (SD in 2003; ID in 2007), platinum and taxane chemotherapy (SD in 28%; ID in 39%), and median follow-up (SD were 89 months; ID were 40 months). Median dose fractionation was 60 Gy/30 fr in SD (BED 10 IQR: 72.0-75.5 Gy) and 66 Gy/33 fr (BED 10 IQR: 78.6-79.2 Gy) in ID. Survival curves for SD and ID matched cohorts were statistically similar (P=.27); however, a nonstatistically significant trend toward better survival for ID was observed after 15 months (median survival SD: 19.3 months; ID: 21.0

  20. Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...

  1. Automated Windowing Processing for Pupil Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebisawa, Y

    2001-01-01

    .... The pupil center in the video image is a focal point to determine the eye gaze. Recently, to improve the disadvantages of traditional pupil detection methods, a pupil detection technique using two light sources (LEDs...

  2. Cooking and Hammering: Primary School Pupils' Concepts of their Craft Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare MÜÜRSEPP

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to clear the significance of craft skills for the pupils in age nine and twelve years. More than 200 pupils were asked to define, what are the most important skills for the pupils of their age. The results bring out that category of the skills related to craft subject is of the most presented categories in pupils' self description. Thus the primary school pupils essentially defined themselves by the activities they could do practically (building, cooking, repairing of things. The most undefined relation to craft activities is reflected in the answer of smaller boys in our study. A suspicion arisen from the analysis of pupils' sayings, that the craft lessons in the 1st school stage tend to be organized kind of poorly was asserted by the teachers who pointed out the need for special rooms and materials to implement different techniques.

  3. The Complete Mitochondrial DNA Sequence of Scenedesmus obliquus Reflects an Intermediate Stage in the Evolution of the Green Algal Mitochondrial Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Lee, Robert W.; Lemieux, Claude; Gray, Michael W.; Burger, Gertraud

    2000-01-01

    Two distinct mitochondrial genome types have been described among the green algal lineages investigated to date: a reduced–derived, Chlamydomonas-like type and an ancestral, Prototheca-like type. To determine if this unexpected dichotomy is real or is due to insufficient or biased sampling and to define trends in the evolution of the green algal mitochondrial genome, we sequenced and analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Scenedesmus obliquus. This genome is 42,919 bp in size and encodes 42 conserved genes (i.e., large and small subunit rRNA genes, 27 tRNA and 13 respiratory protein-coding genes), four additional free-standing open reading frames with no known homologs, and an intronic reading frame with endonuclease/maturase similarity. No 5S rRNA or ribosomal protein-coding genes have been identified in Scenedesmus mtDNA. The standard protein-coding genes feature a deviant genetic code characterized by the use of UAG (normally a stop codon) to specify leucine, and the unprecedented use of UCA (normally a serine codon) as a signal for termination of translation. The mitochondrial genome of Scenedesmus combines features of both green algal mitochondrial genome types: the presence of a more complex set of protein-coding and tRNA genes is shared with the ancestral type, whereas the lack of 5S rRNA and ribosomal protein-coding genes as well as the presence of fragmented and scrambled rRNA genes are shared with the reduced–derived type of mitochondrial genome organization. Furthermore, the gene content and the fragmentation pattern of the rRNA genes suggest that this genome represents an intermediate stage in the evolutionary process of mitochondrial genome streamlining in green algae. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession no. AF204057.] PMID:10854413

  4. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  5. Developing a Pupil Transportation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Dave

    1987-01-01

    District-level pupil transportation manuals that contain clear, concise information about objectives, policies, and regulations are a must. These manuals should also specify procedures concerning evaluation processes, personnel recruitment and selection, and the driver training program. (MLH)

  6. Maternal exposure to hexachlorophene targets intermediate-stage progenitor cells of the hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring via dysfunction of cholinergic inputs by myelin vacuolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of maternal exposure to HCP on rat hippocampal neurogenesis was examined. • HCP induces myelin vacuolation of nerve tracts in the septal–hippocampal pathway. • Myelin changes suppress Chrnb2-mediated cholinergic inputs to the dentate gyrus. • SGZ apoptosis occurs via the mitochondrial pathway and targets type-2b cells. • Dysfunction of cholinergic inputs is related to type-2b SGZ cell apoptosis. - Abstract: Hexachlorophene (HCP) is known to induce myelin vacuolation corresponding to intramyelinic edema of nerve fibers in the central and peripheral nervous system in animals. This study investigated the effect of maternal exposure to HCP on hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring using pregnant rats supplemented with 0 (controls), 100, or 300 ppm HCP in the diet from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, the numbers of T box brain 2 + progenitor cells and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling + apoptotic cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) decreased in female offspring at 300 ppm, which was accompanied by myelin vacuolation and punctate tubulin beta-3 chain staining of nerve fibers in the hippocampal fimbria. In addition, transcript levels of the cholinergic receptor, nicotinic beta 2 (Chrnb2) and B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) decreased in the dentate gyrus. HCP-exposure did not alter the numbers of SGZ proliferating cells and reelin- or calcium-binding protein-expressing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneuron subpopulations in the dentate hilus on PND 21 and PND 77. Although some myelin vacuolation remained, all other changes observed in HCP-exposed offspring on PND 21 disappeared on PND 77. These results suggest that maternal HCP exposure reversibly decreases type-2b intermediate-stage progenitor cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in offspring hippocampal neurogenesis at 300 ppm HCP. Neurogenesis may be affected by dysfunction

  7. Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Brabcová, Věra

    2015-01-01

    Title: English: Gender Differences in the Approach to caterring Basic School Pupils Author: Věra Brabcová Department: Pedagogy Supervisor: PaedDr. Eva Marádová, CSc. ANNOTATION: The objective of the Bachelor Thesis, divided into two parts, is to find out whether there are any differences in the approach to catering; the discussed group of diners are basic school pupils of the second stage (Czech education system). The work compares the attitude of boys and girls at the age of 11 - 16. The the...

  8. Is Chemistry Attractive for Pupils? Czech Pupils' Perception of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Chemistry is an important subject due to understanding the composition and structure of the things around us. The main aim of the study was to find out the perception of chemistry by lower secondary school pupils. The partial aims were to find out the influence of gender, year of study and favorite subject on the perception of chemistry. The…

  9. Diagnostic Accuracy of 64Copper Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Primary Lymph Node Staging of Intermediate- to High-risk Prostate Cancer: Our Preliminary Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantiello, Francesco; Gangemi, Vincenzo; Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Calabria, Ferdinando; Moschini, Marco; Ferro, Matteo; Musi, Gennaro; Butticè, Salvatore; Salonia, Andrea; Briganti, Alberto; Damiano, Rocco

    2017-08-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of 64 Copper prostate-specific membrane antigen ( 64 Cu-PSMA) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the primary lymph node (LN) staging of a selected cohort of intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients. An observational prospective study was performed in 23 patients with intermediate- to high-risk PCa, who underwent 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT for local and lymph nodal staging before laparoscopic radical prostatectomy with an extended pelvic LN dissection. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for LN status of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT were calculated using the final pathological findings as reference. Furthermore, we evaluated the correlation of intraprostatic tumor extent and grading with 64 Cu-PSMA intraprostatic distribution. Pathological analysis of LN involvement in 413 LNs harvested from our study cohort identified a total of 22 LN metastases in 8 (5%) of the 23 (35%) PCa patients. Imaging-based LN staging in a per-patient analysis showed that 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT was positive in 7 of 8 LN-positive patients (22%) with a sensitivity of 87.5%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, and NPV of 93.7%, considering the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) at 4 hours as our reference. Receiver operating characteristic curve was characterized by an area under the curve of 0.938. A significant positive association was observed between SUV max at 4 hours with Gleason score, index, and cumulative tumor volume. In our intermediate- to high-risk PCa patients study cohort, we showed the high diagnostic accuracy of 64 Cu-PSMA PET/CT for primary LN staging before radical prostatectomy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the "Pupil Enterprise Programme" Influence Grades among Pupils with Special Needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Somby, Hege M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks whether the Pupil Enterprise Programme (PEP) is a suitable working method for improving academic performance among pupils with special needs. Overall, 20% of pupils participate in PEP at some point during lower secondary school. Results from multilevel regression modelling indicate that pupils with special needs who have…

  11. Pupil and Staff Perceptions of Rewards at a Pupil Referral Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capstick, Joanna

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated the perceptions of both pupils and staff at a pupil referral unit (PRU) towards the reward system currently in use. The main aims were to establish whether teachers and pupils perceived the same rewards as effective, to determine whether staff and pupils perceived that rewards changed behaviour, and finally whether…

  12. Stage design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shacter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage

  13. Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation Project in Uyo ... and retraining in the hope that this will impact on the pupils' literacy development. ... process and often fail to engage the pupils in activities that promote literacy ... In other to empower such children for meaningful learning, reading needs to ...

  14. Adaptive instruction and pupil achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtveen, A.A M; Booy, N; de Jong, Robert (Rob); van de Grift, W.J C M

    In this article the results are reported of a quasi-experiment on effects of adaptive instruction on reading results of children in the first year of reading instruction in Dutch primary schools. The research involved 456 pupils from 23 schools (12 experimental and 11 control group schools).

  15. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  16. Pupils teach to pupils about genetics or global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Delphine

    2013-04-01

    The idea of this project is to put pupils in a teaching situation. Classes of teenagers go to primary schools and animate a science workshop. Junior pupils are separated in small groups and they attend two different sessions in the same half-day. The whole workshop consists of 4 sessions. Each session is organized with an activity (microscope observation, counting of chromosomes, drawing of a curve, etc.) in which senior pupils coach the younger, and ends with a debate or an assessment. The first experiment of this type of project was realized with a class of 14 to 15 year old pupils on the theme: How do your parents transmit your characteristics? The four sessions are attended in disorder but when knowledge of other sessions are necessary, senior pupils explain them at the beginning of the session. Junior pupils have a notebook to write their activities and to note their conclusions. Session 1: What did my father give to make me? Drawing and measuring microscopic observations of human spermatozoons. Conclusion: my father gave a spermatozoon which measures less than one mm long, this spermatozoon met my mother's egg and it made my first cell. Session 2: What does the program that made me look like? Microscope observation of blood cells, identification of chromosomes in the core. On microscope pictures, counting of chromosomes. Conclusion: My program is in each cell of my body, inside the core. Sometimes, in this core, we can observe short sticks that are called chromosomes. All human beings have the same number of chromosomes in their cells: 46. Session 3: Where do my chromosomes come from? Counting of chromosomes in spermatozoons or ovums and playing with sets of chromosomes to deduct sex of a baby. Conclusion: Daddy gave me 23 chromosomes and mummy gave me 23 chromosomes too. My program is then constituted from half of daddy's program and half of mummy's program. My brothers and sisters also have half and half, but not the same halves! Session 4: Where is the

  17. Structure, texture, and mechanical properties of an MA2-1hp magnesium alloy after two-stage equal-channel angular pressing and intermediate annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryany, V. N.; Perezhogin, V. Yu.; Raab, G. I.; Kopylov, V. I.; Tabachkova, N. Yu.; Sirotinkin, V. P.; Dobatkin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two-stage equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) on the microstructure, the texture, and the mechanical properties of an MA2-1hp magnesium alloy is analyzed. ECAP leads to the formation of a submicrocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 640 nm, which includes Mg17Al12 phase particles with an average grain size of 240 nm and a volume fracture of 5.5%. A scattered tilted basal texture forms after ECAP, and its experimental pole figures are used for calculating orientation distribution functions and determining the volume fractions of the main orientations and the Schmid factors for different deformation systems. An increased activation of basal slip is found after both the first and the second stages of ECAP. As a result of two-stage ECAP, the strength properties of the alloy that correspond to the minimum acceptable values achieved by direct compression are obtained. Ductility is 44 and 18% after the first stage of ECAP plus subsequent annealing and after the second stage, respectively, which is almost four and two times higher than the initial value. The resulting strength mechanical properties of the alloy after the first and the second ECAP stages are analyzed using the Hall-Petch relation.

  18. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  19. Pupils with sensory disabilities in physical education classes: Attitudes and preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Kurková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The key factor that affects the success of shaping positive attitudes towards regular life-long performance of physical activity (PA is the pupils' level of inner motivation. This is influenced, among other things, by their family background, the educational institution that they attend and the educator's competencies. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the attitudes among pupils with sensory disabilities in physical education (PE classes. A partial objective was to compare the preferences for various PA by pupils with sensory disabilities in PE classes. Method: A non-standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data. The sample was based on the following features: a a participant had to be deaf or hard of hearing, b a participant had to have a visual disability, and c had to have been educated in special educational settings. The data were quantified on the percentage basis. To carry out cross-group statistical testing of differences, a ratio analysis with the help of the Chi-square test was applied. The level of statistical significance was set to p < .05. We analysed the data of 70 pupils attending the second stage of two elementary schools in Slovakia: a 37 pupils (22 boys and 15 girls, age 13.3 ± 1.45 years from a school for the deaf, and b 33 pupils (14 boys and 19 girls, age 13.4 ± 1.41 years from a school for the blind. Results: The differences in the preferences for various PA during PE classes in the cross-group comparison of pupils with sensory disabilities were discovered. A comparison of the opinions of pupils with sensory disabilities pointed out a difference consisting in a higher percentage of positive attitudes among pupils with visual disabilities in indicators of popularity, importance, the pupils' efforts and feelings towards education. A statistically significant difference was discovered only in feelings during PE classes. This result may be considered

  20. The attitude of elementary school pupils towards healthy nutrition recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Positive attitude to healthy diet, recommendations and advice on healthy eating is very important during childhood and teenage years. As children develop healthy eating practices, the choice of foods and their eating style will be part of the lifestyle. This helps to maintain good health through all the stages of their lives and prevents chronic non-contagious diseases as well as promotes a good well-being. The intention of this degree thesis is to determine what is the attitude of pupils ...

  1. Analysis of the intermediate stage in the heavy ion interactions of {sup 208}Pb+{sup 197}Au and {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, Tabassum [Department of Physics, Gomal University D.I. Khan (Pakistan); Khan, E.U. [Department of Physics, CIIT, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: ehsan@comsats.edu.pk; Baluch, J J [Department of Environmental Sciences, CIIT, Abbottabad (Pakistan); Qureshi, I E [Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 1114, Islamabad (Pakistan); Sajid, M; Shahzad, M I [Physics Division, PINSTECH, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-08-15

    Two different projectiles {sup 208}Pb and {sup 197}Au at the same energy (11.67MeV/u) have been bombarded on {sup 197}Au target to study heavy ion interactions using mica as a passive detector. In this paper we present results on the study of energy damping and time scale of the existence of di-nuclear composite system in the intermediate reaction step. The plots of Q-values as well as reaction cross sections in various angular bins of scattering angles suggest that K.E. damping was complete and dynamic equilibrium was established between the first and second reaction steps. The time scale of this duration was also determined.

  2. On written expression of primary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Normative rules of standard Serbian language are acquired during primary and secondary education through curriculum demands of Serbian language instruction, which takes place in three fields: grammar, orthography and culture of expression. Topic of interest in this paper is the quality of written expression of 6th and 7th grade pupils, in the context of all three fields specified to be mastered by the curriculum of Serbian language. Research comprised 148 primary school pupils from Belgrade. Linguistic analysis of spontaneously created written text was performed, in the conditions where it was not explicitly demanded form the pupil to write correctly. The results indicate that the majority of pupils make spelling and grammatical errors, meeting the condition for the basic level of mastering the knowledge in Serbian language according to the standards specified for the end of compulsory education. In addition to this, a considerable majority of pupils has a satisfactory level of culture of written expression. Pupils more often make spelling than grammatical errors. Seventh grade pupils are better than sixth grade pupils with respect to adhering to grammar rules and according to culture of written expression, while the mark in Serbian language and general school achievement of pupils correlate only with the degree of adhering to the orthographic rules. It was concluded that not only individual programs of support for pupils who make more errors are necessary, but also launching national projects for the development of linguistic competence of the young in Serbia.

  3. Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Hu, Hongyou; Ji, Hongfang; Cai, Jiyuan; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2014-08-01

    The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Artificial pupil versus contralateral balanced contact lens fit for presbyopia correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago García-Lázaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess and compare the effects of contact lens-based artificial pupil design and contralateral balanced multifocal contact lens combination (CBMCLC on visual performance. Methods: This randomized crossover study conducted at the University of Valencia, Spain included 38 presbyopic patients using an artificial pupil contact lens in the nondominant eye and a CBMCLC. After a month of lens wear, the binocular distance visual acuity (BDVA, binocular near visual acuity (BNVA, defocus curve, binocular distance, and near contrast sensitivity and near stereoacuity (NSA were measured under photopic conditions (85 cd/m2. Moreover, BDVA and binocular distance contrast sensitivity were examined under mesopic conditions (5 cd/m2. Results: Visual acuity at an intermediate distance and near vision was better with the CBMCLC than with the artificial pupil (p<0.05. Statistically significant differences were found in contrast sensitivity between the two types of correction for distance (under mesopic conditions and for near vision, with the CBMCLC exhibiting better results in both cases (p<0.05. The mean NSA values obtained for the artificial pupil contact lens were significantly worse than those for the CBMCLC (p=0.001. Conclusion: The CBMCLC provided greater visual performance in terms of intermediate and near vision compared with the artificial pupil contact lens.

  5. Technical Case Report of Deep Brain Stimulation: Is it Possible Single Electrode Reach to Both of Subthalamic Nucleus and Ventral Intermediate Nucleus in One Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptan, Hülagu; Çakmur, Raif

    2018-04-15

    The primary target of this operation is Ventral Intermediate Nucleus (VIM); however VIM - Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) were tried to be reached with one electrode, adjusting the angle well, the coronal section; medial of VIM can partially reach the STN. Using the properties of the electrode; we believe we could act on a wide area. An analysis was performed on one patient who underwent VIM Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in 3 periods (pre - peri - post-operation). A 53 - year - old woman diagnosed with Parkinson's disease 8 years earlier including symptoms of severe tremor on the right than left underwent bilateral DBS VIM. Obtaining a satisfactory improvement of tremor, the patient did well, and postoperative complications were not observed. The patient was discharged from hospital on postoperative thirty day. It is certain that more research and experience are needed. However, we believe that the two targets can reach the same point and the second operations for another target can be avoided.We believe that this initiative is advantageous and promising regarding patient and cost.

  6. The Active Pupil: Pupil size in attention, working memory, and active vision

    OpenAIRE

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Slides for the following talk: Mathôt, S. (2015, June). The Active Pupil: Pupil Size in Attention, Working Memory, and Active Vision. Talk presented at the Laboratoire de Psychologie de la Perception, Paris, France.

  7. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža, Bojana; Đerić, Ivana; Gutvajn, Nikoleta

    2015-01-01

    Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gen...

  8. How pupils percieve the teacher's motivational techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodroža Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current research in the field of education indicates that the behaviour of the teacher affects significantly the quality and level of the pupil's motivation. The aim of our research was to determine the structure of the motivational style of teachers seen from the pupils' perspective, and to find out whether the pupils' perceptions of the teacher's motivational style depend upon cultural-educational influences of the family, and some characteristics of the students (academic achievements, gender. The sample included 856 pupils from 40 elementary schools in Serbia. We used the questionnaire with Likert's scale to obtain the evaluation of the teachers' behaviours. By the factor analysis we extracted three components of the teacher' behaviour: stimulating pupils' interest and competences, de-motivational teachers' behaviours and stimulating freedom of thinking and expression. The results show that the pupils whose parents have lower levels of education think that the behaviour of the teachers is directed to stimulating interest and competencies, as well as freedom of thinking and speech than the pupils of the parents of higher educational status. The control of the influence of the education of parents showed that the pupils of lower academic achievement perceive the teacher's behaviour as de-motivational. Compared to girls boys estimate more highly that teachers stimulate their interests and competencies. A suggestion is offered how a teacher should develop a behavioural style which would positively influence the quality of the pupils' motivation.

  9. Physical education problems of 5–9 grade pupils in the context of health preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Idrisova

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of the causes of deterioration of health and related problems of physical education of 5–9 grade pupils. Material & Methods: analysis of the causes and definition of the behavioral characteristics of pupils in relation to physical education was studied during 2012–2017 in one parallel class. In the experiment conducted in two stages, 52 pupils of the secondary school No. 1 of Melitopol took part. In the study used questionnaires, analytical, comparative, experimental and statistical methods. Result: tendency of deterioration of pupils health during training in middle classes is proved; obtained data in accordance with the typology compiled reflect the awareness of some students health as a means of raising the status, as well as the failure to understand half the researched values of physical education in maintaining health and disinterest in physical education. Conclusion: problems of school physical education are determined by the low level of the culture of health of the entire Ukrainian society.

  10. The Investigation of Intermediate Stage of Template Etching with Metal Droplets by Wetting Angle Analysis on (001 GaAs Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyamkina AA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, we study metal droplets on a semiconductor surface that are the initial stage for both droplet epitaxy and local droplet etching. The distributions of droplet geometrical parameters such as height, radius and volume help to understand the droplet formation that strongly influences subsequent nanohole etching. To investigate the etching and intermixing processes, we offer a new method of wetting angle analysis. The aspect ratio that is defined as the ratio of the height to radius was used as an estimation of wetting angle which depends on the droplet material. The investigation of the wetting angle and the estimation of indium content revealed significant materials intermixing during the deposition time. AFM measurements reveal the presence of two droplet groups that is in agreement with nanohole investigations. To explain this observation, we consider arsenic evaporation and consequent change in the initial substrate. On the basis of our analysis, we suggest the model of droplet evolution and the formation of two droplet groups.

  11. Pupil size tracks perceptual content and surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Niels A; Meindertsma, Thomas; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Bonneh, Yoram S; Donner, Tobias H

    2015-04-01

    Changes in pupil size at constant light levels reflect the activity of neuromodulatory brainstem centers that control global brain state. These endogenously driven pupil dynamics can be synchronized with cognitive acts. For example, the pupil dilates during the spontaneous switches of perception of a constant sensory input in bistable perceptual illusions. It is unknown whether this pupil dilation only indicates the occurrence of perceptual switches, or also their content. Here, we measured pupil diameter in human subjects reporting the subjective disappearance and re-appearance of a physically constant visual target surrounded by a moving pattern ('motion-induced blindness' illusion). We show that the pupil dilates during the perceptual switches in the illusion and a stimulus-evoked 'replay' of that illusion. Critically, the switch-related pupil dilation encodes perceptual content, with larger amplitude for disappearance than re-appearance. This difference in pupil response amplitude enables prediction of the type of report (disappearance vs. re-appearance) on individual switches (receiver-operating characteristic: 61%). The amplitude difference is independent of the relative durations of target-visible and target-invisible intervals and subjects' overt behavioral report of the perceptual switches. Further, we show that pupil dilation during the replay also scales with the level of surprise about the timing of switches, but there is no evidence for an interaction between the effects of surprise and perceptual content on the pupil response. Taken together, our results suggest that pupil-linked brain systems track both the content of, and surprise about, perceptual events. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-17

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  13. Intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate uveitis (IU is described as inflammation in the anterior vitreous, ciliary body and the peripheral retina. In the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN working group′s international workshop for reporting clinical data the consensus reached was that the term IU should be used for that subset of uveitis where the vitreous is the major site of the inflammation and if there is an associated infection (for example, Lyme disease or systemic disease (for example, sarcoidosis. The diagnostic term pars planitis should be used only for that subset of IU where there is snow bank or snowball formation occurring in the absence of an associated infection or systemic disease (that is, "idiopathic". This article discusses the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, investigations and treatment of IU.

  14. The Voice of the Pupils: An Experimental Comparison of Decisions Made by Elected Pupil Councils, Pupils in Referenda, and Teaching Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilljam, Mikael; Esaiasson, Peter; Lindholm, Torun

    2010-01-01

    This article tests whether the form of decision-making used in school environments affects pupils' views on the legitimacy of the decisions made, and of the decision-making procedure. Building on political science theory on democratic decision-making, it compares pupils' reactions towards decisions made by pupil councils, by pupils via referendum,…

  15. PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lected from school pupils between. 11.00 and 14.00 hours, a period when the eggs of Schistosoma hae- matobium are concentrated in the urine. Pupils involved in this study were randomly selected using the class register in each endemic school to avoid bias. Examination of the urine specimens was done qualitatively.

  16. Turkish Primary School Pupils' Views on Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bahri

    2010-01-01

    Teachers meet with unwanted behavior when they are acting as facilitators of the learning process and they resort to certain tactics to deal with them. One of these tactics is punishment. This study aimed to identify the views held by Turkish primary school pupils on punishment. According to the results of the study, pupils were punished for…

  17. Ability of Slovakian Pupils to Identify Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Pavol; Rodak, Rastislav

    2009-01-01

    A pupil's ability to identify common organisms is necessary for acquiring further knowledge of biology. We investigated how pupils were able to identify 25 bird species following their song, growth habits, or both features presented simultaneously. Just about 19% of birds were successfully identified by song, about 39% by growth habit, and 45% of…

  18. Pupil Absenteeism and the Educational Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, H. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    From a review of the literature, it is concluded that (i) each form of pupil absenteeism relates to a heterogeneous group of children; (ii) because of such heterogeneity, those who are involved in assessment and intervention in relation to pupil absenteeism are faced with a demanding task; (iii) as a consequence of their education and training,…

  19. Pupils as Victims of Peer Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvek Mihaela

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The school is an educational institution that has to provide appropriate control of adults over pupils, which they do. Nevertheless, violence cannot be avoided. Pupils encounter peer violence in different roles, as observers, victims, perpetrators, or both. The objective of our research was to examine how often pupils are victims of peer violence, and to what extent the latter depends on pupils’ gender and age. The results of the research made among pupils in the fifth, seventh, and eighth grades of various primary schools across Slovenia showed that 24.1 per cent of pupils had already been victims of peer violence. The ones that they tend to tell about such episodes are their parents. The results have also shown that school is really a place where violence is very common, and that psychological and verbal abuse are the most common types of violence used.

  20. Pattern of ocular trauma among primary school pupils in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanniyi, A A; Mahmoud, O A; Olatunji, F O; Ayanniyi, R O

    2009-06-01

    To report the pattern of ocular trauma among school pupils in Ilorin, Nigeria, a cross sectional survey of primary school children in 10 randomly selected primary schools within Ilorin, Nigeria was carried out between July 2005 and January 2006. Relevant ocular history and basic ocular examinations were carried out on the children that were selected from a multi-stage sampling process. Diagnosis of ocular trauma was based on historical recollection together with corroborating ocular signs among affected pupils. Ocular trauma was found among 11 (8 boys and 3 girls) out of 1393 (0.8%) pupils and their ages ranged from 5 to 13 years. The trauma related ocular pathology found among the 11 pupils included unilateral phthisis bulbi (2, 0.14%), couching (1, 0.07%) and retinal detachment (1, 0.07%) all leading to blindness in the affected eyes. There was also a unilateral visual impairment caused by traumatic optic atrophy. Others included eyelid bruises (2, 0.14%) and one pupil (0.07%) each with hyphema, eyelid ecchymosis, eyelid laceration, and subconjunctival haemorrhage. The ocular trauma occurred following unsupervised play (4, 36.40%), corporal punishment at school and at home (3, 27.30%), fight (2, 18.20%), home accident (1, 9.10%) and couching (1, 9.10%). School pupils can lose vision to preventable traumatic eye injuries both at school and at home. Measures to minimize ocular trauma both in the home and at school are advocated.

  1. Dietary Factors Associated To Obesity In Ahwaz Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosty A.R; Tabatabaei M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increase in obesity prevalence in recent years are associated to genetics as well environmental and behavioral factors. Change in dietary patterns including fatty and high density energy foods consumption have been reported to be very important. This study aimed to determine dietary factors (daily energy and macronutrient intakes, energy percentage of macronutrient, energy and macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight, frequency of cola, natural fruit juice drinking, dairy products except cheese, tomato chips, puff, chocolate and fast food consumption and eating speed associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils. Materials and Methods: Using two stage cluster sampling from 35 Ahwaz primary schools, all 10-11y students who had a BMI 95th percentile of Hosseini et al. (1999 reference, were identified as obese (n=150 and 150 same age and gender pupils (having BMI0.05. macronutrient intakes per kilogram body weight were significantly lower in obese group (p0.05. Obese students used to eat faster (p<0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, high intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate, tomato chips and puff and high eating speed were associated to obesity in Ahwaz primary school pupils.

  2. Pupil-class determinants of aggressive and victim behaviour in pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, T

    1998-09-01

    Aggressive behaviour in pupils is expressed in, e.g., bullying, sexual harassment, and violence. Different kinds of variables could be relevant in explaining a pupil's aggressive or victim behaviour. To develop a multilevel theoretical and empirical explanation for different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils in a classroom and school environment. A national survey was carried out to identify different kinds of aggressive and victim behaviour displayed by pupils and to assess other variables related to pupils, classes, and schools. A total of 1998 pupils from 100 third and fourth year classes attending 71 different secondary schools took part in the research. Data were analysed by a series of secondary multilevel analyses using the MLA-program. Being a boy, being more extravert, being more disagreeable, coming across fewer teachers with positive teaching behaviour, and attending a lower type of secondary school, help explain why someone is a perpetrator as such. Being a boy, being more disagreeable, being more emotionally unstable, being open to new ideas, and seeing more teachers as being strict, function as explanatory pupil variables for victim behaviour. Other pupil level variables determine more specific aggressive and victim behaviour aspects. Various other class level and school level variables are relevant, too. Personal and environmental pupil variables are more important than class variables but class variables are in turn more important than school variables in explaining a pupil's aggressive and victim behaviour.

  3. Forming of healthylife style of pupils via prism of physical culture outside of school (historical aspect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakova T.S.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of the development of physical education of pupils during the second half of the twentieth century were defined. The study was divided into the following stages: 50's - 60's, 70's - 80's, 90 years of the twentieth century. Each of the stages were analyzed. Consider the organization of physical education in extra-curricular and extracurricular activities of pupils. Established that physical training in the monitoring period was enough character development. Proved that a critical role in extracurricular activities pupils have institutions such as children's youth-sports schools, pioneers' housed, children's tourist station, pioneer camps. Importance was also given to various areas of education of schoolchildren in the community. Of particular importance in the physical tempering school, improving their sporting skills were sports clubs in different sports (tennis, skating, swimming, gymnastics, etc. for children's youth-sports schools, organized by the voluntary sports organizations.

  4. Teacher Pupil Contact in Junior Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, D.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory study reported here was to examine the nature of teacher-pupil contact in informal junior classrooms in terms of the teacher's method of talking to children and the teacher's conversational approach. (Author/RK)

  5. Learning Environment And Pupils Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learning Environment And Pupils Academic Performance: Implications For Counselling. ... facilities as well as learning materials to make teaching and learning easy. In addition, teachers should provide conducive classroom environment to ...

  6. Holocaust Denial among Slovenian Secondary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Pavlič

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents tendencies of Holocaust denial among secondary school pupils in Slovenia. It focuses on research implemented in January 2012, in which 400 Slovenian secondary school pupils were included. In spite of the assumption that Holocaust denial amongst the youth in Slovenia already exists, we also assumed that a degree of Holocaust denial amongs Slovenian pupils is lower that amongst their peers in other EU countries. Research also inquired about the level of anti-Semitism in conjunction with Holocaust denial. The research project confirmed that students on lower levels of high school education and with less history and sociology lessons in curriculum are more receptive for the Holocaust denial and anti-Semitism is more present in this demographic. The level of Holocaust denial amongst secondary school pupils is not negligible; it suggests that this topic should be more thoroughly discussed in secondary schools.

  7. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. The study examined Junior High School (JHS) pupils' ideas of the concept air. The ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had ... Research studies found that even after having been taught the particulate theory and.

  8. Understanding pressure: didactical transpositions and pupils' conceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariotogloy, P.; Psillos, D.; Vallassiades, O.

    1990-03-01

    Using the concept of pressure two research trends-content analysis and pupils' conceptions of subject matter-are drawn together, in an attempt to understand the issues in teaching and learning specific domains of physics.

  9. Vocational Orientation of the Deaf Pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevská, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of the bachelor thesis is to learn about vocational orientation of deaf pupils in their last years of study at selected elementary schools for the Deaf and to compare the results to results of similar studies done with pupils without hearing impairment. Based on relevant scientific sources, the paper introduces general aspects that shape vocational orientation, also describes vocational development on D. E. Super's Career Development Theory. The thesis continues with characteriz...

  10. Pupil shape in the animal kingdom: from the pseudopupil to the vertical pupil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Gómez-Sanz, F; Sales-Sanz, A; Huguet-Baudin, E; Murube-del-Castillo, J

    2014-12-01

    To study the different pupil shapes adopted by the different animal species. Review of the related literature, using PubMed database. The initial search strategy was pupil shape (limited to animals). The first volume of System of Ophthalmology (Duke-Elder) and Evolution's witness (I. Schwab) were also reviewed. An optic illusion called pseudopupil is usually observed in the compound eyes of insects. The pupil is circular in most vertebrates, however slit vertical pupils are present in cats and in some snake species. Vertical pupils could have a photoprotective function, as it makes a more complete closure possible in photopic conditions, and helps to camouflage the predator. It has also been hypothesized that it could help to correct chromatic aberration. Ruminants are usually endowed with horizontal pupils. This shape could improve the capacity of the eye to detect vertical silhouettes. Some marine animals have crescent-shaped pupils. In these animals, a superior operculum helps to protect the inferior retina from the great amount of light coming from above. There is a surprising variability in pupil shape. Through this variability, nature has fitted the eye to different circumstances. The theories proposed to explain this high variability are discussed in detail in the article. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimation of mental effort in learning visual search by measuring pupil response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuto Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Perceptual learning refers to the improvement of perceptual sensitivity and performance with training. In this study, we examined whether learning is accompanied by a release from mental effort on the task, leading to automatization of the learned task. For this purpose, we had subjects conduct a visual search for a target, defined by a combination of orientation and spatial frequency, while we monitored their pupil size. It is well known that pupil size reflects the strength of mental effort invested in a task. We found that pupil size increased rapidly as the learning proceeded in the early phase of training and decreased at the later phase to a level half of its maximum value. This result does not support the simple automatization hypothesis. Instead, it suggests that the mental effort and behavioral performance reflect different aspects of perceptual learning. Further, mental effort would be continued to be invested to maintain good performance at a later stage of training.

  12. The pupil as an indicator of unconscious memory: Introducing the pupil priming effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Carlos Alexandre; Montaldi, Daniela; Mayes, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    We explored whether object behavioral priming and pupil changes occur in the absence of recognition memory. Experiment 1 found behavioral priming for unrecognized objects (Ms) regardless of whether they had been encoded perceptually or conceptually. Using the same perceptual encoding task, Experiment 2 showed greater pupil dilation for Ms than for correct rejections of unstudied objects (CRs) when reaction times were matched. In Experiment 3, there was relatively less pupil dilation for Ms than for similarly matched CRs when objects had been encoded conceptually. Mean/peak pupil dilation for CRs, but not Ms, increased in Experiment 3, in which novelty expectation was also reduced, and the pupillary time course for both Ms and CRs was distinct in the two experiments. These findings indicate that both behavioral and pupil memory occur for studied, but unrecognized stimuli, and suggest that encoding and novelty expectation modulate pupillary memory responses. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Year 7 Pupils' Views of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Roberts

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings from a study among 610 Year 7 (typically age 12 pupils at 27 nonselective secondary schools in three English regions: Cornwall and Devon, London, and Greater Manchester. Data was gathered in workshops, each with 15–25 pupils, who completed questionnaires and performed individual tasks, all related to their vocational and educational aims, their ideas on what counted as success, and the main influences on their forward thinking, then discussed their answers and results. The discussions were tape recorded. Most pupils expressed robust occupational aims, and most said that they wanted to go to university. Family class did not predict levels of educational or occupational aims, but was related to the importance attached to “the job that I want to do” in the pupils' forward thinking. SAT scores did predict levels of occupational aspiration, ideas on what counted as success, and by whom and what the pupils were most influenced. These findings are interpreted to challenge the view, on which a raft of current policies are based, that social class disparities in educational and labour market outcomes are due to the intergenerational transmission of low aspirations in lower-class families and neighbourhoods. The paper concludes with an alternative model of status transmission processes in which attainments during secondary education are posited as the key intervening variable.

  14. Pupil size in Jewish theological seminary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, G; Kesler, A; Lazar, M; Rothkoff, L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the authors' clinical impression that pupil size among myopic Jewish theological seminary students is different from pupil size of similar secular subjects. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 male Jewish theological seminary students and 28 secular students or workers who were matched for age and refraction. All participants were consecutively enrolled. Scotopic and photopic pupil size was measured by means of a Colvard pupillometer. Comparisons of various parameters between the groups were performed using the two-sample t-test, Fisher exact test, a paired-sample t-test, a two-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. The two groups were statistically matched for age, refraction, and visual acuity. The seminary students were undercorrected by an average of 2.35 diopters (D), while the secular subjects were undercorrected by only 0.65 D (pwork or of apparently characteristic undercorrection of the myopia is undetermined.

  15. Dataset of red light induced pupil constriction superimposed on post-illumination pupil response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Lei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We collected and analyzed pupil diameter data from of 7 visually normal participants to compare the maximum pupil constriction (MPC induced by “Red Only” vs. “Blue+Red” visual stimulation conditions.The “Red Only” condition consisted of red light (640±10 nm stimuli of variable intensity and duration presented to dark-adapted eyes with pupils at resting state. This condition stimulates the cone-driven activity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC. The “Blue+Red” condition consisted of the same red light stimulus presented during ongoing blue (470±17 nm light-induced post-illumination pupil response (PIPR, representing the cone-driven ipRGC activity superimposed on the melanopsin-driven intrinsic activity of the ipRGCs (“The Absence of Attenuating Effect of Red light Exposure on Pre-existing Melanopsin-Driven Post-illumination Pupil Response” Lei et al. (2016 [1].MPC induced by the “Red Only” condition was compared with the MPC induced by the “Blue+Red” condition by multiple paired sample t-tests with Bonferroni correction. Keywords: Pupil light reflex, Chromatic pupillometry, Melanopsin, Post-illumination pupil response

  16. prevalence of rheumatic heart disease among primary school pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the prevalence of RHD among primary school pupils in Egor ... Results: Of the 1764 pupils recruited, 900 (51.02%) were females while 864 (48.98%) were males. The mean age of the pupils was 8.86 ± 2.14 years. ..... of socio-economic class in voluntary infertility control.

  17. Assisting Pupils in Mathematics Achievement (The Common Core Standards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics teachers must expect reasonably high standards of achievement from pupils. Too frequently, pupils attain at a substandard level and more optimal achievement is necessary. Thus, pupils should have self esteem needs met in the school and classroom setting. Thus, learners feel that mathematics is worthwhile and effort must be put forth to…

  18. Pupil – Teacher Ratio: Implication for Quality Education in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significantly, pupil-teacher ratios are very essential to quality of education. They perhaps rank alongside professional knowledge, skill, as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This paper discusses pupil-teacher ratio and relevance that pupils seem to have a greater impact on ...

  19. Pupils' Humour Directed at Teachers: Its Types and Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šedová, Klára

    2013-01-01

    Based on an analysis of 137 texts written by pupils, this paper examines pupils' humour directed at teachers, its types and social functions. The collected data are divided into three categories that describe different modes of teachers as targets of pupils' humour. The first mode describes teachers as unintentionally comical, the second as duped…

  20. Cyberbullying: Its Nature and Impact in Secondary School Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K.; Mahdavi, Jess; Carvalho, Manuel; Fisher, Sonja; Russell, Shanette; Tippett, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cyberbullying describes bullying using mobile phones and the internet. Most previous studies have focused on the prevalence of text message and email bullying. Methods: Two surveys with pupils aged 11-16 years: (1) 92 pupils from 14 schools, supplemented by focus groups; (2) 533 pupils from 5 schools, to assess the generalisability of…

  1. Getting the Most from Working with Higher Education: A Review of Methods Used within a Participatory Design Activity Involving KS3 Special School Pupils and Undergraduate and Post-Graduate Industrial Design Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, George Edward; Newton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides education-based researchers and practitioners with the preferred research and design methods used by Higher Education Institute (HEI) students and Key Stage 3 (KS3) pupils applied within a participatory approach to a design activity. The outcomes were that both pupils and students found informal (unstructured) interview to be…

  2. Environmental Variables and Pupils' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This causal-comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of environmental variables on pupils' academic performance in primary science in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Two instruments were used to collect data for the study namely: environmental ...

  3. Pupil Dilation and Object Permanence in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Sylvain; Jackson, Iain R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the relative merits of looking time and pupil diameter measures in the study of early cognitive abilities of infants. Ten-month-old infants took part in a modified version of the classic drawbridge experiment used to study object permanence (Baillargeon, Spelke, & Wasserman, 1985). The study involved a factorial design where…

  4. Grouping Pupils for Language Arts Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    A major task involved in teaching pupils is to group them wisely for instruction. Most elementary schools group learners in terms of a self-contained classroom. While it may seem extreme, all curriculum areas on each grade in the elementary school may be departmentalized. In some ways, departmentalization harmonizes more with a separate subjects…

  5. Curricular Content for Pupils' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Seyed Hossein; Keshtiaray, Narges; Aghaei, Asghar; Yousefy, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Present-day curricular designs have to take the pupils' psychological needs in account, thus becoming melodies of mental health and happiness for the next generation. Emphasizing the findings from previous investigations using the research synthesis methodology, the present study has been conducted aiming at achieving some integrative knowledge…

  6. Professional determination problems of modern senior pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.N. Danylenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Today, young people are more focused on getting education as such, without taking into account the profession. The relevance of this study is the identification of the level of professional self-determination of senior pupils, the mechanisms of formation of professional preferences. The article contains the concept and content of professional self-determination in adolescence; the results of the study on the formation of professional self-determination in senior pupils are presented. The study conducted among 9th grade pupils of secondary schools has revealed that the further gradual self-determination of the future specialty depends not only on psychological readiness for conscious choice. Materials and methods. The study involved 982 pupils of secondary schools in Ukraine. To study the level of formation of professional readiness, there was conducted a survey on the developed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out using MS Excel and SPSS 17. Results. The results showed that professional intents of 9-graders are a key feature for solving the problem of high school selection and future careers. But for most students, these intentions are contradictory due to objective reasons. Radio, television, books don’t have a significant impact on the choice of professional self-determination. Conclusions. The conducted survey is self-sufficient for the analysis of professional orientation. But the choice of profession by the students is influenced by many factors. Therefore, carrying out the studies on vocational guidance requires an integrated approach.

  7. Attitudes to Science of Pupils in Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Akbar bin

    1984-01-01

    Attitudes toward science of 654 pupils aged 14-15 were assessed, and relationships between attitude and locality, achievement, and sex studied. Achievement was mildly correlated with attitude, but locality and sex had no influence. Other findings are also discussed. (MNS)

  8. How Finland Serves Gifted and Talented Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirri, Kirsi; Kuusisto, Elina

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the ways gifted and talented pupils are served in Finland. The trend toward individualism and freedom of choice as well as national policy affecting gifted education are discussed. Empirical research on Finnish teachers' attitudes toward gifted education with respect to the national…

  9. Psychometric aspects of pupil monitoring systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Geerlings, Hanneke

    2009-01-01

    Pupil monitoring systems support the teacher in tailoring teaching to the individual level of a student and in comparing the progress and results of teaching with national standards. The systems are based on the availability of an item bank calibrated using item response theory. The assessment of

  10. Class composition influences on pupils' cognitive development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; van der Veen, I.; Koopman, P.; van Schooten, E.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of low-achieving children in a class can affect the progress of individual pupils in that class. Having a large proportion of low achievers in a class could slow down growth in cognitive achievement but, might also boost such growth, due to the effects of specialist teaching geared to

  11. Pupils' Difficulties: What Can the Teacher Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)

  12. Appropriate Pupilness: Social Categories Intersecting in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Jette

    2008-01-01

    The analytical focus in this article is on how social categories intersect in daily school life and how intersections intertwine with other empirically relevant categories such as normality, pupilness and (in)appropriatedness. The point of empirical departure is a daily ritual where teams for football are selected. The article opens up for a…

  13. Objective Lens Optimized for Wavefront Delivery, Pupil Imaging, and Pupil Ghosting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzcak, Gene

    2009-01-01

    An interferometer objective lens (or diverger) may be used to transform a collimated beam into a diverging or converging beam. This innovation provides an objective lens that has diffraction-limited optical performance that is optimized at two sets of conjugates: imaging to the objective focus and imaging to the pupil. The lens thus provides for simultaneous delivery of a high-quality beam and excellent pupil resolution properties.

  14. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders, Joske

    2013-11-06

    Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors' understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils' mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and apply strategies to improve students' mental

  15. Objective lens simultaneously optimized for pupil ghosting, wavefront delivery and pupil imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens includes multiple optical elements disposed between a first end and a second end, each optical element oriented along an optical axis. Each optical surface of the multiple optical elements provides an angle of incidence to a marginal ray that is above a minimum threshold angle. This threshold angle minimizes pupil ghosts that may enter an interferometer. The objective lens also optimizes wavefront delivery and pupil imaging onto an optical surface under test.

  16. Teachers on Perceived Traits and Academic Achievements of Regular Pupils and Pupils with Special Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesar, Irena; Cuk, Ivan; Pecek, Mojca

    2014-01-01

    When looking for answers to the question of academic (non)achievement of regular pupils and pupils with special needs, it is necessary to take into account the extraordinary complexity of factors, ranging from psychological across instructional to home environment variables. The academic achievement is not only a reflection of the pupil's…

  17. School and Pupil Effects on Secondary Pupils' Feelings of Safety in School, around School, and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton; Fettelaar, Daan

    2013-01-01

    In line with fear of crime research, schools should be secure places where pupils feel safe in order to function well. Various types of risk and promotive variables at school and pupil level may differently influence a pupil's feelings of safety in school, the school surroundings, and at home. The aim is to elaborate and test a theoretical…

  18. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  19. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  20. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  1. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam. The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods A qualitative design was used to address the main study question including: six in-depth interviews conducted with professionals (with two researchers, two psychiatrists, and two secondary school teachers) to learn about their experience of mental health problems among secondary school pupils; 13 focus group discussions (four with teachers, four with parents, and five with pupils); and 10 individual in-depth interviews with pupils who did not take part in the FGDs, to reflect on the collected data and to deepen the authors’ understanding. All interviews and FGDs were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed for the identification of emerging issues using qualitative techniques of progressive coding, analytic memoing and ongoing comparison. Results Our study confirms the need to pay attention to mental health of pupils in Vietnam. Depression, anxiety, stress, suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts were seen as major problems by all stakeholders. Mental health problems were mainly associated with academic pressure, resulting from an overloaded curriculum and pressure from teachers and parents to succeed. The study found that pupils’ mental health demands interventions at many levels, including at the level of government (Ministry of Education and Training), schools, communities, families and pupils themselves. Conclusions Vietnamese secondary school pupils feel that their mental health status is poor, because of many risk factors in their learning and living environment. The need now is to investigate further to identify and

  2. Intermediality and media change

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book is about intermediality as an approach to analysing and understanding media change. Intermediality and Media Change is critical of technological determinism that characterises 'new media discourse' about the ongoing digitalization, framed as a revolution and creating sharp contrasts between old and new media. Intermediality instead emphasises paying attention to continuities between media of all types and privileges a comparative perspective on technological changes in media over ti...

  3. Bullying in Basic School: the Perspectives of Teachers and Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Posnic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of our study was to investigate how basic school pupils and teachers perceive and understand bullying. The participants in the study were 58 teachers and 396 pupils in basic school. The results indicate that both teachers and pupils perceive verbal bullying as the most frequent form of bullying compared to physical and relational bullying. Pupils report perceiving more bullying than teachers. Both pupils and teachers perceive physical and verbal bullying as more serious forms of bullying compared to relational bullying and report feeling more empathy toward victims of these two forms of bullying. In addition, teachers report that they are more willing to intervene in cases of physical and verbal bullying. There are significant differences between pupils’ and teachers’ reports of the likelihood of teachers’ interventions in cases of bullying; compared to pupils teachers report a higher likelihood of their intervention..

  4. Assessment of Teacher of Nursing Subjects by Pupils and Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bednářová, Markéta

    2006-01-01

    The dissertation Assessment of a teacher of nursing subjects by pupils and students focuses on finding the opinion of pupils of secondary nursing schools and students of higher nursing schools and universities on teachers of nursing. The subject of the interest was particularly qualities and skills of the nursing teachers which pupils and students consider important and desirable. The theoretical part of the work summarizes conclusions from thematically similar studies. The empirical part of ...

  5. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  6. Influences on Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopheak Song

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Employing education production function approach, this article investigates the influences of school and pupil background factors on academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia. Based on achievement data of 1,080 Grade 6 pupils from one rural and one semi-urban area, the study reveals that school and teacher quality exerts a considerable effect on pupils’ performance. Teachers’ experience and teacher guides are positively correlated with academic achievement, while instructional time loss is significantly associated with poor performance. In light of these results, policies to boost academic achievement of primary school pupils in Cambodia are discussed.

  7. Sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils and professional qualification of teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Zachová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The presented text shows the results of research carried out within the dissertation thesis. The main topic is the phenomenon of sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The research is based on the expert belief that integration of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue into Czech schools and the training of teachers in this field is still somewhat marginal, even though there is a growing debate about increasing cultural diversity, increasing heterogeneity of schools and introduction of inclusive measures. The aim of the research was to analyze professional training of teachers in relation to the sociocultural handicap of foreign pupils (pupils with a different mother tongue. The goal was refined by the formulation of research questions: What possible problems (difficulties reflect teachers in the teaching process of foreign pupils? What procedures and strategies do teachers use to help these pupils to be integrated successfully? How do teachers assess their professional readiness for education of foreign pupils (whether they were sufficiently prepared to work with foreign pupils in the course of their undergraduate studies, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? How do students assess their undergraduate education for foreign-pupil teaching (whether they were ready to work with foreign pupils in their previous undergraduate education, where they find benefits, deficiencies in this training? The research used questionnaire survey techniques for teachers and students and semi-structured interviews for teachers. The partial technique was the analysis of study subjects focused on the education of foreign pupils at the Faculty of Education at West Bohemian University in Pilsen (hereinafter WBU. The research group was made up of teachers of the 1st grade of primary schools of the Pilsen and Karlovy Vary regions and students of the 4th grade of the field of Teaching for the

  8. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of

  9. Quiet pupils can be effective learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnhildur Óskarsdóttir

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the importance for pupils’ learning of being generally visibly active participant in a classroom discussion. A class of six year-old pupils was taught about the human skeletal system and other organs. To determine what they had learnt, they were asked to produce drawings before and after the course of teaching. The pupils’ participation in the class discussion during the course of teaching was given values on a scale from 1–8, the most talkative receiving the value 1 and the least talkative (or most quiet the value 8. The study showed that the less talkative the pupils were in the discussion the more they gained from the teaching. The results could not be accounted for by ceiling effects and similar patterns obtained across the materials used support the robustness of the findings. The study suggests that it cannot be assumed that participating in classroom discussion during the learning process is a necessary precondition for learning.

  10. Inclusive School Is (Not) Possible--Pupil's Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education has been the focus of a number of research studies in Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, most of the research was based on the teachers and to a lesser extent on parents' attitudes towards inclusive education, while pupils' views and voice were mainly neglected. The core of this paper is survey research on primary school pupils'…

  11. Knowledge and Experiences of Risks among Pupils in Vocational Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Marie Andersson

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: A systematic approach to pupils' training in work environment, which is a basis for a safe and healthy workplace, is lacking. The study findings indicate that pupils are offered knowledge far from that intended by laws and by state-of-the-art occupational health risk research.

  12. Understanding Pupil Behaviour: Classroom Management Techniques for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    This book describes a system of successful classroom behaviour management techniques developed by the author over more than twenty-five years. It outlines the difficulties confronting teachers trying to manage pupils' misbehaviour in schools and describes four types of pupil who can be helped to behave responsibly. In "Understanding Pupil…

  13. The Relationship of Teacher Affective Behavior to Pupil Affective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameen, Marilyn C.; Brown, Jeannette A.

    The study investigated the relationship of teacher affective behavior changes to pupil affective behavior changes in the presence of elementary school guidance services for both populations. Specifically, the study asked: Is teacher change in Intimacy and Esprit related to pupil change in Self Perception and Peer Acceptance? Activities were…

  14. Oregon Pupil Transportation Manual. Revised Regulations and Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed for use by Oregon school bus drivers and administrators, this manual answers common questions about school bus transportation in Oregon, including those about the laws governing pupil transportation, the regulations governing pupil transportation administration, and the laws on school bus operation. A chapter of advisory materials covers…

  15. The Importance of Engaging Pupils Actively in Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomela, Liisa; Juuti, Kalle; Ahtee, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Demonstrating is a traditional method in teaching science that can raise interest and encourage pupils to think about a topic. While demonstrating, the teacher can focus the pupils' attention on the relevant facts and introduce scientific principles and concepts. Through discussion and actively making observations and inferences, rather than…

  16. Pupils' Plans to Study Abroad: Social Reproduction of Transnational Capital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, D.; Gerhards, J.; Hans, S.; Carlson, S.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter analyses Dutch pupils' plans to study abroad. The main question is to what extent these plans are related to their social class position, their parents' and their own transnational capital and the school type they attend. The analyses are based on survey data of 549 Dutch pupils, aged

  17. Teaching High-Ability Pupils in Early Primary School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Elma

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of the intervention 'Excel Kwadraat' in primary schools. This intervention aims to improve teachers’ differentiation practices in order to better anticipate pupil differences, including excellent or high-ability pupils. In the end, the intervention

  18. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naho; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-08-01

    Ocular coloboma is sometimes accompanied by corectopia in humans and therefore ectopic pupil may indicate ocular coloboma in experimental animals. The RCS strain of rats has a low incidence of microphthalmia. We found that inferior ectopic pupil is associated exclusively with small-sized eyes in this strain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether inferior ectopic pupil is associated with iridal coloboma and other types of ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Both eyes of RCS rats were examined clinically, and those with inferior ectopic pupils underwent morphologic and morphometric examinations. In a prenatal study, coronal serial sections of eyeballs from fetuses at gestational day 16.5 were examined by using light microscopy. Ectopic pupils in RCS rats were found exclusively in an inferior position, where the iris was shortened. Fundic examination revealed severe chorioretinal coloboma in all cases of inferior ectopic pupil. The morphologic characteristics closely resembled those of chorioretinal coloboma in humans. Histopathologic examination of primordia showed incomplete closure of the optic fissure in 4 eyeballs of RCS fetuses. Neither F(1) rats nor N(2) (progeny of RCS × BN matings) displayed any ocular anomalies, including ectopic pupils. The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma.

  19. Better for Both--Thoughts on Teacher-Pupil Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, John

    1978-01-01

    To remove the adversary emphasis from pupil-teacher interactions, the author presents a simple model, showing how an intervention can potentially make a situation better, worse, or unchanged for the pupil and the teacher. A sample scenario is provided of two teachers dealing with a misbehaving child. (SJL)

  20. Perspective reports of corporal punishment by pupils in Lesotho schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyooe, L A

    1993-10-01

    This study surveyed reports of practices of corporal punishment at secondary schools in Lesotho by 60 randomly selected pupils. There were 34 males and 26 females, whose mean age was 21 years, with a range between 14 and 29 years. Responses to a questionnaire confirmed that punishment was associated with pupils' reports of academic impairment, psychological damage, and physical injury.

  1. Does Lego Training Stimulate Pupils' Ability to Solve Logical Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Jorgen; Holgersson, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of a one-year regular robotic toys (lego) training on school pupils' performance. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the "constructionist theory," where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made…

  2. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  3. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    on the data and an independent sample 2-tailed t-test was used to explore the ... pupils' knowledge, attitudes towards and conceptions of the environmental ... challenges with 1200 fifteen-year-old Norwegian pupils as part of ROSE and ... Some comparative studies were carried out among children from different cultures.

  4. Pupils, the Forgotten Partners in Education Action Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Joan; Clough, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Education action zones (EAZs) involving local partnerships are one of the government's policies set up to help raise standards in pupils' performance and behaviour in areas of economic and social disadvantage. This article explores the nature of these partnerships and the fact that pupils are excluded. It reviews literature on student voice and…

  5. EFFICIENCY OF READING COMPREHENSION TRAINING IN PUPILS LIVING IN POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Kosak Babuder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of Slovene and foreign studies reveal the connection between literacy levels and the level of education, employment opportunities and consequent socio-economic status of individuals and families. Reading efficiency relating to reading comprehension is an important element of reading literacy performance. The findings of several authors indicate empirical evidence of the existence of deficits and poor reading comprehension in pupils living in poverty and stress the importance of offsetting deficits and developing reading comprehension. Results of both foreign and Slovene studies indicate that the program of reading comprehension should be implemented in this group of pupils. In the article, we want to present effectiveness of the reading comprehension improvement program in pupils living in poverty. According to the findings of our research, in which we structured and implemented the reading comprehension program for pupils living in poverty with the Metacognitive-intersentential model of reading comprehension, the reading comprehension of the experimental group pupils who participated in the program improved compared to the control group pupils who did not participate in the program. Experimental group pupils also significantly improved correctness of their reading, their vocabulary and skills of verbal expression. When the program ended, we tested its efficiency by applied tests. The results on the manifest variables indicated that the program was good and efficient for pupils who live in poverty and experience reading comprehension problems.

  6. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  7. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  8. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende

  9. Future engineers: the intrinsic technology motivation of secondary school pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lewis C. R.; McDermott, Hilary J.; Tyrer, John R.; Zanker, Nigel P.

    2018-07-01

    The supply of students motivated to study engineering in higher education is critical to the sector. Results are presented from the 'Mindsets STEM Enhancement Project'. Fifty-seven new resources packs, designed to improve STEM education in Design and Technology, were given to schools across London. A modified Intrinsic Motivation Inventory questionnaire measured pupils' (n = 458) motivation towards technology. The results show that although pupils have positive reactions to the technology content within Design and Technology lessons, the type of STEM resources and lessons created through the project had made no significant difference on pupils' interest/enjoyment towards technology. This suggests stand-alone resources do not improve pupil motivation. The impact of this work to engineering higher education is that the existing levels and the inability to improve pupil motivation in technology at school could be a factor affecting the pursuit of a technology or engineering related education or career.

  10. Joint optimization of source, mask, and pupil in optical lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lam, Edmund Y.

    2014-03-01

    Mask topography effects need to be taken into consideration for more advanced resolution enhancement techniques in optical lithography. However, rigorous 3D mask model achieves high accuracy at a large computational cost. This work develops a combined source, mask and pupil optimization (SMPO) approach by taking advantage of the fact that pupil phase manipulation is capable of partially compensating for mask topography effects. We first design the pupil wavefront function by incorporating primary and secondary spherical aberration through the coefficients of the Zernike polynomials, and achieve optimal source-mask pair under the condition of aberrated pupil. Evaluations against conventional source mask optimization (SMO) without incorporating pupil aberrations show that SMPO provides improved performance in terms of pattern fidelity and process window sizes.

  11. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  12. Schooling adaptation of Romanian remigrants pupils to the primary education in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Langa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The way and the level a school-aged pupil adapts to different learning systems are mainly influenced by the family, the social background, the educational background, all of which will later reflect upon school success. The theme of the present study places us on a new territory, being of interest for the specialists in the field of educational sciences, for all those who have concerns in the field of education, as well as for parents. Its main purpose has been the research of the impact this fact has on the students that returned to their homeland, who are at the early schooling stage, as well as how elementary teachers respond to the real needs of their adaptation through specialized psycho-pedagogical assistance to such children. The method used in this investigative approach was the questionnaire-based research. The study was carried out on elementary teachers from the Olt county, who, during the current school year, have enrolled remigrants pupils in their classroom. The study objectives were aimed at analyzing the factors involved in adapting remigrants pupils to schools

  13. Career representations in high school pupils and students in relation to gender characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sheveleva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe a study of career representations in school and university students in relation to gender characteristics. The sample consisted of 36 students of XI grade and 40 students of I year of high school. We tested the hypothesis about relationship of career representations with gen-der characteristics of the subjects and their stage of professional development. The methods we used were “career anchors” by E. Schein, “Psychological gender” by S. Bem, survey “Professional career ideals" by A.M. Sheveleva. The statistical significance level of results was 0.05. It was re-vealed that, despite both school pupils and students preferred achievements, wealth and social recognition as the content of the ideal career, there are differences between the samples. Pupils are more focused on the “General managerial competence” and “Security/stability”, the students –on “Service/dedication to a cause” and “Technical/functional competence”. Regardless of sex, school pupils with an increase of masculinity have enhanced value of ”Pure challenge” orienta-tion and lowered value of the “Mode of Life” ideal career. The female students with increased femininity have higher importance of such content ideal career as “Experience Acquisition” and “Professional Path”, the value of career orientation “Autonomy/independence” is increased.

  14. Perspectives of pupils, parents, and teachers on mental health problems among Vietnamese secondary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dat Tan; Dedding, Christine; Pham, Tam Thi; Bunders-Aelen, J.G.F.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Secondary school can be a stressful period for adolescents, having to cope with many life changes. Very little research has been conducted on the mental health status of secondary school pupils in South East Asian countries, such as Vietnam.The study aimed to explore perceptions of mental health status, risk factors for mental health problems and strategies to improve mental health among Vietnamese secondary school students. Methods. A qualitative design was used to address the ma...

  15. Engaging Parents and Pupils in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rod

    2016-04-01

    "The British National Space Centre partnership has recognised for some time that Space and Astronomy are particularly attractive subjects for school students and that including these in the science curriculum can have a positive effect on student interest in science. Drivers are that the number of young people studying science and engineering subjects at A-level and beyond is declining; young people should have an understanding of the importance of science and technology to the world around them; and that UK space industry (including technology, engineering, space science, Earth observation science) must renew itself." BRINGING SPACE INTO SCHOOL Professor Martin Barstow, University of Leicester Published by PPARC on behalf of the British National Space Centre Partnership October 2005 "It has become more and more difficult to persuade young people to follow a career in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics) subjects. Across the EU, the number of graduates in STEM subjects has dropped from 24.3% in 2002 to 22.6% in 2011" (Source EUSTAT) It was Martin Barstow's report in 2005 that started my attempt to interest people in Science and Technology, At Ormiston Victory Academy (OVA) for the past two years, we have embarked on a program to enthuse pupils to study science related subject through the medium of Astronomy. We teach Edexcel GCSE Astronomy to a joint parent and pupil group. They study together and at the end of the course, both take the GCSE examination. The idea is that the pupils see that science is important to their parents and that a very practical facet of science is also fun. Astronomy is a multidisciplinary course bringing together elements of Science, Maths, Technology, Geography and History. It is hoped that the enthusiasm shown by the pupils will spill over into the mainstream subjects including maths. The parents get an idea of the work and level of knowledge required by their children to complete a GCSE level subject. They also report

  16. Pupil identity in the context of testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Rasmussen, Annette

    Based on results from a long term research project (two years) in three school classes focusing on the implementation of national standardized testing in Danish schools this paper discuss how testing and assessment influence processes of in- and exclusion in class rooms. The analysis will draw...... on theory of Basil Bernstein about different pedagogies (visible and invisible) (Bernstein 1997). Recently national mandatory standardized testing has been implemented in compulsory school in Denmark (2010). Getting insight into how and by which processes such kind of assessment affect pedagogic practise...... in school classes and in- and exclusion of pupils, is relevant since assessment play an important role in such processes (McDermott & Varenne, 1995; Reay, 2006). The implementation formed a situation making it possible to make research on this. Such influence are reflected in and depending on what can...

  17. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  18. PECULIARITIES OF GRAMMAR STUDY OF MOUNTAIN FIRST-FORM PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kiryk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The articles describes the role of analiztor system (auditory, visual, kinesthetic at the initial stage of learning literacy and language development six years old. They from specific integration system, that provides more efficient perception, memorization and reproduction of educational material. The article deals with attempt to ascertain linguadidactic interconnections and interdependence between grammar education (reading, writing and speech of six-year pupils. Summing up it should be mentioned to organize 6-year pupils studing in the country mountain school becides pedagogical, economical, geographic and social problems psychologic linguadidactic are added. Preferences of mountain country children: –                    Formation from childhood ability to live in harmony with nature; –                    Sensitive  perception of alive and inanimate surrounding nature; –                    Life-style form children’s responsibility for entrusted things, labour habits, training by hard nature conditions. They should be solved in complex providing achievents of psychology, pedagogics, linguists and up-to-date technology. The aim of the article  - to reveal individual peculiarities of country mountain child who needs special method of approach to grammar studing as well as to help country teacher who strongly feels lack for efficient method help. All these affect on prepearing level, children’s outlook, general development. Scientific and methodogical institutions have not easy task-system training and skill raising of primary school teachers to realize State standart of primary general education. Acquaintance of country teacher with up-to-date achievements in psychologic, pedagogic and linguistic education will help him to organize his work in the country school on rather higher level as well as let him give more qualitative education services and save country school as the

  19. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  20. Money distribution with intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago

    2013-01-01

    This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...

  1. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented

  2. Holographic analysis of dispersive pupils in space--time optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatroni, J.; Vienot, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    Extension of space--time optics to objects whose transparency is a function of the temporal frequency v = c/lambda is examined. Considering the effects of such stationary pupils on white light waves, they are called temporal pupils. It is shown that simultaneous encoding both in the space and time frequency domains is required to record pupil parameters. The space-time impulse response and transfer functions are calculated for a dispersive nonabsorbent material. An experimental method providing holographic recording of the dispersion curve of any transparent material is presented.

  3. Ethnic School Segregation and Self-Esteem: The Role of Teacher-Pupil Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdag, Orhan; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van Avermaet, Piet

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine whether school segregation is related to pupils' global self-esteem and whether this association is mediated by teacher-pupil relationships. Multilevel analyses based on a survey of 2,845 pupils (aged 10 to 12) in 68 primary schools in Belgian urban areas reveal that, for native-Belgian pupils, a higher proportion of immigrants…

  4. Cooking and Hammering: Primary School Pupils' Concepts of Their Craft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müürsepp, Mare; Kikkull, Andry

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to clear the significance of craft skills for the pupils in age nine and twelve years. More than 200 pupils were asked to define, what are the most important skills for the pupils of their age. The results bring out that category of the skills related to craft subject is of the most presented categories in pupils' self…

  5. Social Social Media and the Moral Development of Adolescent Pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social Social Media and the Moral Development of Adolescent Pupils: ... this article interrogates the impact of this rapid growth of social media networks, ... Given that the abuse of Internet by adolescents and other social groups who interact ...

  6. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference.

  7. Pupil Response and the Subliminal Mere Exposure Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants’ pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference. PMID:24587408

  8. Brief Report Teachers' work as appreciated by pupils, parents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brief Report Teachers' work as appreciated by pupils, parents, department heads and principals. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee ... one does contributes to job satisfaction which in turn leads to a high level of

  9. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendar, Nils Ola Ebbe; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore...... patterns of achievements of deaf pupils to see if these reforms had improved attainment outcomes. International surveys such as PISA do not include deaf pupils. This article describes two independent large-scale surveys about deaf pupils in Sweden and Scotland. The similar results from both countries show...... that deaf children, after two decades of social reform and technical advances, still lag behind their hearing peers. The results also show how large-scale surveys can contribute to a greater understanding of educational outcomes in a small, vulnerable group and make it possible to continue to reform...

  10. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  11. Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of elementary school teachers of their pupils\\' eye health in ilorin, nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... roles that school teachers are expected to play in school eye health programmes, their perceptions ...

  12. The psichological peculiarity structure organization of pupils and students

    OpenAIRE

    N P Kirina

    2009-01-01

    The article considers age differences of the psychological structure of pupils and students organization baseol on the general-functional approach to studying the qualities of the personality, which gives an opportunity to study age pecularities of organization in detail.

  13. Pupil response and the subliminal mere exposure effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Yoshimoto

    Full Text Available The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associate with SMEE strength since the former is known to reflect mental effort. To examine this hypothesis, we measured participants' pupil diameter during exposure to subthreshold stimuli. Following exposure, a preference test was administered. Average pupil diameter throughout exposure was smaller when the SMEE was induced than when the SMEE was not induced. This supports the hypothesis that increasing perceptual fluency during mere exposure modulates autonomic nervous responses, such as pupil diameter, and eventually leads to preference.

  14. teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve ... such scientific attitudes such as persistence, objectivity, ... abilities out of the learners right from the primary school. ... effectively conceptualizing generalized methods.

  15. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  16. Error analysis of pupils in calculating with fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Uranič, Petra

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I examine the correlation between the frequency of errors that seventh grade pupils make in their calculations with fractions and their level of understanding of fractions. Fractions are a relevant and demanding theme in the mathematics curriculum. Although we use fractions on a daily basis, pupils find learning fractions to be very difficult. They generally do not struggle with the concept of fractions itself, but they frequently have problems with mathematical operations ...

  17. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilde, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  18. Pupils' evaluation and generation of evidence and explanation in argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassner, Amnon; Weinstock, Michael; Neuman, Yair

    2005-03-01

    Studies on argument have found that participants tend to prefer explanations to evidence. This apparent bias toward explanation has been qualified recently by research that has found it to diminish with the availability of evidence. This study examines the use of explanation versus evidence in the context of argumentation with reference to the goals of particular argument situations. Seventy-nine eighth-grade pupils at a regular, urban middle school. The pupils read argumentation scenarios, each having the stated goal of either explaining or proving a claim. The pupils rated the degree to which each of two provided assertions (one a theoretical explanation, and the other evidence-based) helped achieve the goal of the argument. On a second task, the pupils chose which of the two assertions should be more effective in achieving the argument goal. On the third task, the pupils generated either an explanation or evidence for each of the argumentation scenarios. Pupils demonstrated sensitivity to the relative epistemic strength of explanation and evidence. They rated explanations as more advantageous in achieving the explanation goal, and evidence as more advantageous in achieving the proof goal. Conversely, however, when asked to generate or recall an explanation or evidence, pupils produced more explanations than evidence independent of the argumentation goal. The study refines the definition of argumentation context to include specific goals. Pupils were sensitive to the context of the argumentation situation (e.g.goals, availability of evidence). However, they appeared to have a disposition toward explanation when asked to produce an explanation or evidence-based justification.

  19. Pupil-led sex education in England (RIPPLE study): cluster-randomised intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, J M; Strange, V; Forrest, S; Oakley, A; Copas, A; Allen, E; Babiker, A; Black, S; Ali, M; Monteiro, H; Johnson, A M

    Improvement of sex education in schools is a key part of the UK government's strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England. We examined the effectiveness of one form of peer-led sex education in a school-based randomised trial of over 8000 pupils. 29 schools were randomised to either peer-led sex education (intervention) or to continue their usual teacher-led sex education (control). In intervention schools, peer educators aged 16-17 years delivered three sessions of sex education to 13-14 year-old pupils from the same schools. Primary outcome was unprotected (without condom) first heterosexual intercourse by age 16 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. By age 16 years, significantly fewer girls reported intercourse in the peer-led arm than in the control arm, but proportions were similar for boys. The proportions of pupils reporting unprotected first sex did not differ for girls (8.4% intervention vs 8.3% control) or for boys (6.2% vs 4.7%). Stratified estimates of the difference between arms were -0.4% (95% CI -3.7% to 2.8%, p=0.79) for girls and -1.4% (-4.4% to 1.6%, p=0.36) for boys. At follow-up (mean age 16.0 years [SD 0.32]), girls in the intervention arm reported fewer unintended pregnancies, although the difference was borderline (2.3% vs 3.3%, p=0.07). Girls and boys were more satisfied with peer-led than teacher-led sex education, but 57% of girls and 32% of boys wanted sex education in single-sex groups. Peer-led sex education was effective in some ways, but broader strategies are needed to improve young people's sexual health. The role of single-sex sessions should be investigated further.

  20. Are teachers' judgements of pupils' ability influenced by body shape?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, N L; Campbell, T

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that teachers can judge pupils on the basis of their physical appearance, including their body shape. Teacher bias towards obese pupils has been suggested as a potential pathway through which obese children attain relatively lower academic levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by the body shape of the child. The sample includes English, singleton children in state schools from the Millennium Cohort Study. The data were taken from the fourth wave of data collection, when the children were approximately 7 years old. In all, 5086/5072 children had teacher ability ratings of reading and maths. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether teachers' perceptions of the child's reading and mathematics ability were influenced by the pupil's waist circumference, conditional upon cognitive test scores of reading and maths ability. After adjustment for cognitive test scores, no significant overall relationship was found between the pupil's waist circumference and the teacher's judgements of ability. No statistically significant differences were observed in the probability of being judged as above average after further adjustments were made for potential confounders. There is little evidence that teachers' judgements of pupils' ability are influenced by obesity.

  1. PRAGMATIC ABILITIES OF PUPILS WITH MILD INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja SHILC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research analyses characteristics of pragmatic abilities of storytelling of pupils with mild intellectual disabilities (MID, in the light of vocabulary characteristics, grammar structure and substantive structure of a story, considering their age and gender. The sample consists of 60 pupils with MID, aged 7 to 9, who attend special school. Child’s pragmatic abilities are assessed with The Storytelling Test. The research results reveal considerable progress of the older group in vocabulary, whereas the progress in grammatical and substantive structure was less substantial. When comparing achievements of pupils with MID according to the vocabulary, grammatical and substantive story structure, no gender differences are determined. A comparison of pragmatic abilities of younger and older groups of pupils with MID with the norms for peers with typical development shows minor deviation of the younger group. The research results reveal characteristics of pragmatic abilities of pupils with MID and can provide insights to speech therapists, teachers, special education teachers and counsellors when considering profiles of individuals that are taken as a basis for designing intervention programs. By implementing such program, we would encourage development of pragmatic abilities of pupils, thus affecting their academic achievements, communication competency and social skills.

  2. Mitigating mask roughness via pupil filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylav, B.; Maloney, C.; Levinson, Z.; Bekaert, J.; Vaglio Pret, A.; Smith, B.

    2014-03-01

    The roughness present on the sidewalls of lithographically defined patterns imposes a very important challenge for advanced technology nodes. It can originate from the aerial image or the photoresist chemistry/processing [1]. The latter remains to be the dominant group in ArF and KrF lithography; however, the roughness originating from the mask transferred to the aerial image is gaining more attention [2-9], especially for the imaging conditions with large mask error enhancement factor (MEEF) values. The mask roughness contribution is usually in the low frequency range, which is particularly detrimental to the device performance by causing variations in electrical device parameters on the same chip [10-12]. This paper explains characteristic differences between pupil plane filtering in amplitude and in phase for the purpose of mitigating mask roughness transfer under interference-like lithography imaging conditions, where onedirectional periodic features are to be printed by partially coherent sources. A white noise edge roughness was used to perturbate the mask features for validating the mitigation.

  3. Dealing with pupils digital everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl F. Dons.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to answer the following research question: How can we prepare student teachers to deal with pupils who have a wide range of day-to-day experiences of the digital world? This question arises out of the understanding that today's student-teacher training is inadequately equipped to realize the potential for learning found in the way that digital technology is now an integral part of the social and cultural practices of children and young people. Based on theory and practice from research and development activities in primary and lower secondary school, the article points out some perspectives connected to the technology culture of children and young people that may have importance for the professional training of student teachers. The article concludes by summarizing some findings from a research project in general teacher education, where it is argued that student teachers can be qualified to cope with the way children and young people use technology by teaching them to adopt solutions based on personal publishing. In many ways the article deals with classical issues in the education field; how the relations between cognition, learning, technology and fellow-citizenship raise practical issues connected to teaching and learning (Dewey, 1915; 1938; 1958.

  4. Born Pupils? Natural Pedagogy and Cultural Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-03-01

    The theory of natural pedagogy is an important focus of research on the evolution and development of cultural learning. It proposes that we are born pupils; that human children genetically inherit a package of psychological adaptations that make them receptive to teaching. In this article, I first examine the components of the package-eye contact, contingencies, infant-directed speech, gaze cuing, and rational imitation-asking in each case whether current evidence indicates that the component is a reliable feature of infant behavior and a genetic adaptation for teaching. I then discuss three fundamental insights embodied in the theory: Imitation is not enough for cumulative cultural inheritance, the extra comes from blind trust, and tweaking is a powerful source of cognitive change. Combining the results of the empirical review with these insights, I argue that human receptivity to teaching is founded on nonspecific genetic adaptations for social bonding and social learning and acquires its species- and functionally specific features through the operation of domain-general processes of learning in sociocultural contexts. We engage, not in natural pedagogy, but in cultural pedagogy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  6. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  7. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  8. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  9. Influence of affective significance on different levels of processing using pupil dilation in an analogical reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of cognition and emotion in decision making, using an analogical reasoning task. In this task, two word pairs were presented simultaneously. Each word pair could be characterized by an associative conceptual relation (object, actor, or location relation) as well as an emotional relation (negative, neutral, or positive valence). Both types of relations were equally task-relevant: Participants had to identify both types of relations, to compare them, and to decide whether or not the word pairs were analogous, i.e., corresponding in both conceptual and emotional relations. Behavioral data showed that emotional relations were identified preferentially and faster than conceptual relations. Pupil dilations reflected the descending difficulty of the conditions and were greatest in amplitude when both conceptual and emotional correspondence was shown, intermediate when only one type of relation (either the emotional or the conceptual) corresponded, and least when neither correspondence existed. Additionally, a negative valence of the word material slowed down response times and increased pupil dilation relative to positive and neutral items. In summary, pupil and response time data together support recent (neurobiological) models concerning the interaction of emotion and cognition by showing that affective significance leads to a processing advantage at a cognitively lower level of information processing (here, identification or retrieval of relations from long-term memory) but can also distract people from higher level cognitive processes (here, from the controlled comparison of retrieved relations). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  11. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Jesus had assumed. (concerning the 'intermediate state') as existing, anything which does not exist. Three basic things about the intermediate state emerge from the parable: (a) Jesus recognizes that at the moment of death, in ipso articulo.

  12. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  13. Eye gaze tracking based on the shape of pupil image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Eye tracker is an important instrument for research in psychology, widely used in attention, visual perception, reading and other fields of research. Because of its potential function in human-computer interaction, the eye gaze tracking has already been a topic of research in many fields over the last decades. Nowadays, with the development of technology, non-intrusive methods are more and more welcomed. In this paper, we will present a method based on the shape of pupil image to estimate the gaze point of human eyes without any other intrusive devices such as a hat, a pair of glasses and so on. After using the ellipse fitting algorithm to deal with the pupil image we get, we can determine the direction of the fixation by the shape of the pupil.The innovative aspect of this method is to utilize the new idea of the shape of the pupil so that we can avoid much complicated algorithm. The performance proposed is very helpful for the study of eye gaze tracking, which just needs one camera without infrared light to know the changes in the shape of the pupil to determine the direction of the eye gazing, no additional condition is required.

  14. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A

    2017-04-01

    PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (Pcaffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (Pcaffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.

  15. Pupil size reflects the focus of feature-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binda, Paola; Pereverzeva, Maria; Murray, Scott O

    2014-12-15

    We measured pupil size in adult human subjects while they selectively attended to one of two surfaces, bright and dark, defined by coherently moving dots. The two surfaces were presented at the same location; therefore, subjects could select the cued surface only on the basis of its features. With no luminance change in the stimulus, we find that pupil size was smaller when the bright surface was attended and larger when the dark surface was attended: an effect of feature-based (or surface-based) attention. With the same surfaces at nonoverlapping locations, we find a similar effect of spatial attention. The pupil size modulation cannot be accounted for by differences in eye position and by other variables known to affect pupil size such as task difficulty, accommodation, or the mere anticipation (imagery) of bright/dark stimuli. We conclude that pupil size reflects not just luminance or cognitive state, but the interaction between the two: it reflects which luminance level in the visual scene is relevant for the task at hand. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Pupil-mimicry conditions trust in partners: moderation by oxytocin and group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kret, Mariska E; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-03-15

    Across species, oxytocin, an evolutionarily ancient neuropeptide, facilitates social communication by attuning individuals to conspecifics' social signals, fostering trust and bonding. The eyes have an important signalling function; and humans use their salient and communicative eyes to intentionally and unintentionally send social signals to others, by contracting the muscles around their eyes and pupils. In our earlier research, we observed that interaction partners with dilating pupils are trusted more than partners with constricting pupils. But over and beyond this effect, we found that the pupil sizes of partners synchronize and that when pupils synchronously dilate, trust is further boosted. Critically, this linkage between mimicry and trust was bound to interactions between ingroup members. The current study investigates whether these findings are modulated by oxytocin and sex of participant and partner. Using incentivized trust games with partners from ingroup and outgroup whose pupils dilated, remained static or constricted, this study replicates our earlier findings. It further reveals that (i) male participants withhold trust from partners with constricting pupils and extend trust to partners with dilating pupils, especially when given oxytocin rather than placebo; (ii) female participants trust partners with dilating pupils most, but this effect is blunted under oxytocin; (iii) under oxytocin rather than placebo, pupil dilation mimicry is weaker and pupil constriction mimicry stronger; and (iv) the link between pupil constriction mimicry and distrust observed under placebo disappears under oxytocin. We suggest that pupil-contingent trust is parochial and evolved in social species in and because of group life. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Youtube? SFBTube! - Through pupils to the people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Mareike; Dengg, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Humankind is strongly affected by natural hazards: Earthquakes and volcanoes shake the solid earth, storms and floods happen more and more frequently due to climate change, tsunamis threaten coastal areas. As the human population continues to expand, and stresses on the environment multiply, the need for an understanding of the fundamental issues becomes more urgent. A major task of Collaborative Research Centre "Climate - Biogeochemistry Interactions in the Tropical Ocean" and Collaborative Research Centre "Volatiles and Fluids in Subduction Zones" is to explain how the different components of the earth system interact and how they affect the world's population. Both Collaborative Research Centres implement a joint outreach program to communicate their research activities and results to the general public. In doing so, new strategies in public outreach are essential - considering the fast pace of changes in communication media and the increasing importance of edutainment as a way to reach the public and particularly the younger generations. Outreach materials have to be interesting, easy to understand and fun to explore, but without sacrificing the scientific content. Therefore, videos for the internet (e. g. Youtube) are one promising way to reach that target group. Blogs, podcasts, wikis or being part of social networks such as Facebook are further ways. But "being present where young people are" is not enough. You have to speak their language, too. To take another step forward we hence involve a critical part of the target audience actively into this new communication strategy. School students are able to contribute innovative views and their own language in presenting science to the public. In cooperation with pupils and teachers, we experiment with those new approaches to public outreach. Wherever it is possible, we are also making use of international cooperations of both Collaborative Research Centres with partner institutions in Latin America and Western

  18. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dijken, F.; van Bronswijk, J.E.M.H.; Sundell, Jan

    2006-01-01

    the associations between indoor environmental quality in Dutch schools and pupils' health, also taking into account the children's home environment and personal factors. A cross-sectional study was performed in 11 classrooms in 11 different schools in the Netherlands. The study included exposure measurements......Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess......, building inspections, and a questionnaire survey on pupils' health and domestic exposure. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and non-parametric tests were performed to assess relationships. None of the schools complied with all indoor environmental quality standards. The importance of both the school...

  19. Zircon Carburation Studies as Intermediate Stage in the Zirconium Fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almagro Huertas, V.; Saenz de Tejada Gonzalez, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1963-01-01

    Zirconium carbide and carbonitride mixtures were obtained by Kroll's method.Reaction products have been identified by micrography and X-ray diffraction analysis. The optimum graphite content in the initial charge for the carburation reaction has been studied. zirconium, silicon and carbon content in the final product has been controlled as a function of current in the furnace and reaction time.Further chlorination of the final product was performed successfully. (Author) 16 refs

  20. Discovering New Variable Stars at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Katy; Hood, Rosie; Wilson, Thomas; Holdship, Jonathan; Hutton, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Details of the London pilot of the "Discovery Project" are presented, where university-based astronomers were given the chance to pass on some real and applied knowledge of astronomy to a group of selected secondary school pupils. It was aimed at students in Key Stage 3 of their education, allowing them to be involved in real…

  1. Pupil's motivation in the 3. grades for required reading and The Reading Badge

    OpenAIRE

    Logar, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Reading is extremely important for pupils and their development. The pupil with reading habits riches his vocabulary and gaining knowledge. On the other hand the pupil through reading entry into the world of imagination and stories. Major role in motivating students to read have parents and teachers. In this graduation thesis I was interested in how third grade teachers motivate their pupils to read. In doing so, I was focused mainly to reading for required reading and The Reading Badge. ...

  2. Performing below the Targeted Level: An Investigation into KS3 Pupils' Attitudes towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Anusha; Hussain, Nasreen

    2018-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate the attitude KS3 pupils have towards mathematics and the factors that influence this attitude. A case study approach was used as the pupils were a unit of the school under study and a survey method was chosen to provide scope to the study. Purposeful sampling was employed for the selection of 200 pupils from…

  3. Adie’s Tonic Pupil in Systemic Sclerosis: A Rare Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Venkataraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare association of Adie’s tonic pupil in a patient with systemic sclerosis who was otherwise systemically stable. This paper is an effort to unravel whether the tonic pupil and systemic sclerosis are an association by chance (which may be the case or systemic sclerosis is the source of the tonic pupil.

  4. Entrepreneurship Education: Motivation and Effort for Pupils with Special Needs in Norwegian Compulsory School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somby, Hege Merete; Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    Pupil enterprises are a widespread type of entrepreneurship education. In this working method, pupils start up, manage and close a business over short period of time. National and international policy documents claim that practical working methods through the use of pupil enterprises are beneficial to increase motivation by being a realistic and…

  5. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  6. Are Polish Primary School Pupils in Favor of Wearing Uniforms? Snapshot Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asotska, Julia; Butler, Norman L.; Davidson, Barry S.; Griffith, Kimberly Grantham; Brown, Veda E.; Kritsonis, Wiilliam Allan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss whether Polish primary school pupils want to wear uniforms, and it is motivated by the Polish government's recently proposed policy: Zero Tolerance for Violence at School. Seventy one pupils, who attend Podstawowka Nr30 school in Cracow, were surveyed, and the authors found that most pupils are not in…

  7. Sticky Assessments--The Impact of Teachers' Grading Standard on Pupils' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that school grades cannot be interpreted solely as a reward for a given school performance, since they also reflect teachers' assessments of pupils. A teacher's evaluation of a pupil's performance, as reflected in the grade awarded, might influence the effort that the pupil invests in learning. Grades might therefore serve as…

  8. Pupils' Perceptions of Sex and Reproductive Health Education in Primary Schools in Tanzania: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapinga, Orestes Silverius; Hyera, Daniel Frans

    2015-01-01

    This study explored pupils' perceptions of sex and reproductive health education in primary schools in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed at (i) exploring pupils' views on sex and reproductive health education in primary schools; (ii) determining opinions on the appropriateness of sex and reproductive health education for pupils in primary…

  9. What Can National Data Sets Tell Us about Inclusion and Pupil Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Lani; Rouse, Martyn; Black-Hawkins, Kristine; Jull, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Recent developments in the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) have produced a national pupil database (NPD) that contains information about the attainments of individual pupils. Every child in the country has been allocated a unique pupil number (UPN), which means that the academic progress of individuals can be tracked over time. It is…

  10. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a

  11. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a baseline period. Baseline correction is useful in experiments that investigate the effect of some experimental manipulation on pupil size. In such experiments, baseline correction improves statistical power by taking into account random fluctuations in pupil size over time. However, we show that baseline correction can also distort data if unrealistically small pupil sizes are recorded during the baseline period, which can easily occur due to eye blinks, data loss, or other distortions. Divisive baseline correction (corrected pupil size = pupil size/baseline) is affected more strongly by such distortions than subtractive baseline correction (corrected pupil size = pupil size - baseline). We discuss the role of baseline correction as a part of preprocessing of pupillometric data, and make five recommendations: (1) before baseline correction, perform data preprocessing to mark missing and invalid data, but assume that some distortions will remain in the data; (2) use subtractive baseline correction; (3) visually compare your corrected and uncorrected data; (4) be wary of pupil-size effects that emerge faster than the latency of the pupillary response allows (within ±220 ms after the manipulation that induces the effect); and (5) remove trials on which baseline pupil size is unrealistically small (indicative of blinks and other distortions).

  12. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, that is, analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a

  13. The Matthew effect in Dutch primary education, differences between school, cohorts and pupils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, Johannes W.; Cremers-van Wees, L.M.C.M.; Bosker, Roel

    2003-01-01

    Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from Dutch primary education was used to assess to what extent differences between educationally disadvantaged pupils and other pupils increase during their school careers. For language and arithmetic the differences between pupils with poorly educated and

  14. Roma Pupils' Identification with School in Slovenia and Serbia: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macura-Milovanovic, Suncica; Munda, Milanka; Pecek, Mojca

    2013-01-01

    The research presented in this paper aims to challenge the belief held by some education professionals that Roma pupils do not value education. The research sample included groups of Roma pupils from two countries (Slovenia and Serbia) and from different socio-economic backgrounds. The results suggest that the majority of the pupils are aware of…

  15. Learning a Musical Instrument: The Influence of Interpersonal Interaction on Outcomes for School-Aged Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Researchers in recent years have increasingly placed an emphasis on seeking pupils' perceptions of educational settings. Alongside this shift towards attaching value to the pupil viewpoint has been a growing interest concerning how interpersonal relationships, manifested as control or responsiveness between teachers and pupils or parents and…

  16. Tomorrow's Workforce: School Pupils' Views of a Career in Hospitality. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregaskis, Olga; And Others

    A survey involving 1,024 secondary pupils and 22 career educators from schools throughout the United Kingdom collected information on pupils' perceptions of entering the hotel and catering industry as a career. The research looked in detail at the job expectations of pupils, the status they associated with hotel and catering and nonhotel and…

  17. Comparative Study of Pupils' Academic Performance between Private and Public Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Sunday B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares pupils' academic performance between the private and public primary schools. The sample, made up of 240 pupils were randomly selected from the private and public primary schools in Ilesa East and West Local Government Council Areas of Osun State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used. A structured questionnaire and Pupils'…

  18. High School Pupils' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy of Using Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2017-01-01

    This paper regards a study aiming to investigate junior high school pupils' attitudes and self-efficacy of using mobile devices. A 25-item questionnaire was administered to 260 pupils aged 12-15 years old, in Greece. Pupils' attitudes were positive, and four factors were extracted, "perceived usefulness", "affection",…

  19. Discourses and Models of Intermediality

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Discourses and Models of Intermediality" Jens Schröter discusses the question as to what relations do different discourses pose between different "media." Schröter identifies four models of discourse: 1) synthetic intermediality: a "fusion" of different media to super-media, a model with roots in the Wagnerian concept of Gesamtkunstwerk with political connotations, 2) formal (or transmedial) intermediality: a concept based on formal structures not "specific" to one medium but ...

  20. Information acquisition and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchenko, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...

  1. Guided Reading: Young Pupils' Perspectives on Classroom Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Guided reading is widely perceived to be tricky in English primary schools; prior research has found difficulties with teacher interpretation and implementation. The study reported here suggests that to understand the problems associated with it we should also take into account pupils' perspectives on their guided reading lessons. In this case,…

  2. Pupils Learning Preferences and Interest Development in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikpo, Ofem U.; Domike, Grace

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the extent pupils learning preference and interest development influences their learning in schools. Interest is refers to an individual's relatively enduring psychological predisposition (preference) to re-engage in particular classes of objects, available evidence indicates that, there are many factors that…

  3. Applying a workbook at Aikido lessons when teaching younger pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova O. P.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to creating the structure and the contents of a workbook for the first year children learning Aikido. The results prove the effectiveness of using the workbook: children learn the material successfully, younger pupils get enough theoretical and practical Aikido skills during the course of this martial art.

  4. Nurses struggle to help pupils with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, Chris

    2016-10-07

    Most school nurses are not confident they can give essential support to pupils with long-term health conditions. Research by the National Children's Bureau found that, due to heavy workloads and the need to work across several schools, nine out of ten school nurses were less confident they can help children with conditions such as diabetes and asthma.

  5. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically ...

  6. breakfast skipping and academic / social development of pupils

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abasiama Akpan

    “Assessment of the effects of skipping breakfast on the children by pupils was the basic ... concludes that since proper feeding is necessary for the child's academic and social development, the ... people feed influence their behaviour in a variety ... J. C. Duruamaku-Dim, Department of Curriculum & Teaching, Faculty of ...

  7. Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Stereotyping and Female Pupils' Perception of Studying Advanced Level Sciences: A Survey of One Province in Zimbabwe. C Pinias, VS Matswetu. Abstract. In spite of advances in the field of science and technology, females are still under-represented in the sciences. The study sought to explore the perceptions of ...

  8. How Is Interreligious Sensitivity Related to Finnish Pupils' Religiousness Profiles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Elina; Kuusisto, Arniika; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines, through a non-probability sample of 451 Finnish lower secondary-school pupils belonging to the 15- to 16-year-old age group, how interreligious sensitivity is related to religiousness profiles of Finnish youth. The data were gathered in two geographical locations: Helsinki, Finland's capital, and a smaller municipality in the…

  9. The Value of Bilingualism in Pupils' Understanding of Scientific Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsey, John; Turner, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    Argues that, although some bilingual pupils may be at a disadvantage in understanding scientific language, there may be some circumstances where being bilingual is an advantage in understanding scientific language. Presents evidence of circumstances where being bilingual was an advantage and circumstances where it was a disadvantage in…

  10. Finnish Pupils' Views on the Place of Religion in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuusisto, Arniika; Poulter, Saila; Kallioniemi, Arto

    2017-01-01

    This mixed method study examines Finnish pupils' (N = 825; age groups 12-13, 15-16) views on the place of religion in the public school. Religious landscape in Finnish society has changed significantly in recent years, as the "new" diversity (Vertovec 2015) has supplemented the "old" one. The role of institutionalized religion…

  11. Assess the physical activity of pupils aged 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to assess physical activity among pupils in primary schools in Novi Sad, aged 11 years. The sample consisted of 185 participants (90 boys and 95 girls. Data were collected through a questionnaire, and modified Beacke Q questionnaire was used. Physical activity related to school - physical education, sports and leisure were assessed. Frequencies were calculated for all data, and significance of differences in inclusion and type of physical activity of pupils by sex was determined by Chi-square test. In all three dimensions of physical activity, the significant differences between boys and girls (p ≤ 0.05 were established. Boys have a higher level of physical activity compared to girls. Regular attendance of physical education is high, but the class intensity is low, while girls exercise with yet lower intensity compared to the boys. Boys are more active in sports and the most common sports for them are: football and basketball, while for girls those are volleyball and tennis. Pupils involved in sports generally carry out their activities more than 4 hours per week and 9 months per year. Most of their leisure time pupils spend with computers and TV, boys spend more time in sports, while girls spend more time walking.

  12. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significance of the differences in the items' mean at p ≤ 0.05. On the average, the results suggest that the majority of pupils in the sample, irrespective of the gender shared almost similar sentiments towards environmental protection issues and to a large extent, placed the same items on top as well as at the bottom of their ...

  13. Carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of islamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a cross-sectional study that determined the carriage rate of Neisseria meningitides among pupils of Islamic boarding schools (Tsangaya Almajirai) in Kano, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were randomly collected from 150 children aged 5 years to 10 years and above from three selected Tsangaya Almajiri schools in ...

  14. Pupil Clustering in English Secondary Schools: One Pattern or Several?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; Cheng, Shou Chen

    2011-01-01

    Previous international work has shown that clustering pupils with similar characteristics in particular schools yields no clear academic benefit, and can be disadvantageous both socially and personally. Understanding how and why this clustering happens, and how it may be reduced, is therefore important for policy. Yet previous work has tended to…

  15. Engaging Pupils in Decision-Making about Biodiversity Conservation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus; Byrne, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Our pupils' generation will eventually have the daunting responsibility of making decisions about local and global biodiversity. School provides an early opportunity for them to enter into formal discussion about the science and values associated with biodiversity conservation; but the crowded curriculum offers little time for such activities.…

  16. "All in Favour, Say Aye!" Voting in Pupils' Collaborative Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on the findings of an Economic and Social Research Council and British Telecom-funded project which explored the teaching of collaborative talk in the secondary English classroom. During the analysis of the video data collected, voting was observed as a strategy in pupils' collaborative decision-making. Converse to its democratic…

  17. Prevalence and pattern of intestinal parasites among pupils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Intestinal parasitic infestation remains a very common health issue among the children particularly in the public schools. Distribution of free antiparasitic drugs to pupils at the beginning of every term should be incorporated into the school health program. Key words: Intestinal Parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, ...

  18. Indoor environment and pupils' health in primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, F; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Sundell, J.

    2006-01-01

    Dutch children are legally bound to spend 15% of their time in a school setting. The indoor environment in Dutch primary schools is known to be substandard. However, it is unclear to what extent the health of pupils is affected by the indoor school environment. The paper aims to assess the

  19. Effects of Bilingual Teaching Strategy on Pupils' Achievement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After a careful analytical observation, Primary Education which is the foundation upon which further education is built is considered not to be at its best presently in Nigeria. The mode of instruction used by teachers of Mathematics (being a core subject) seems to be contributory to the performance of pupils in primary schools ...

  20. Teachers pattern of instruction and location on pupils critical thinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to ascertain the influence of teachers' pattern of instruction and location on pupils' critical thinking in science achievement in Imo State. To achieve this objective, two hypotheses were formulated. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. A total of ninety (90) teachers and one thousand ...

  1. Intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among primary school pupils in Ekwulumili Community, Nnewi South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria, between April and July 2012. Five primary schools were involved in the study namely, Bethel Nursery and Primary ...

  2. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  3. Pupils' Fear in the Classroom: Portraits from Palestine and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore; Affouneh, Saida

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the concept of fear related to the authoritarian classroom and how children express its influence on their learning. Its investigations draw on the comments of four classes of primary-age pupils, two from a school near London, England, and two from boys' and girls' schools in the West Bank, Palestine. It is written by one…

  4. Junior Secondary School Pupils' Perception of the Relevance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Department of Science Education, Faculty of Science Education, Winneba, Ghana. .... therefore imperative to assess pupils' attitude to the environmental challenges ..... with skills that will allow them during their teaching to employ innovative, ... improve on the existing level of interest, belief, hope and concern with regard to ...

  5. The Relationship between Pupil Control Ideology and Academic Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between pupil control ideology and academic optimism. Information was generated through responses to a questionnaire emailed to teachers in two school districts in Central New Jersey. The districts were categorized GH, as determined by the State's district factor grouping. The research concludes that there…

  6. ROOTing Out Meaning: More Morphemic Analysis for Primary Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Lee

    2005-01-01

    In an elementary-school professional development program, a group of primary teachers and a university consultant reviewed the research on morphemic analysis and then explored ways to give pupils in grades 1, 2, and 3 an early start on using prefixes, suffixes, and roots to construct word meaning. The teachers examined some middle-grade strategies…

  7. Pupils, Tools and the Zone of Proximal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtahi, Yasmine

    2018-01-01

    In this article, I use the Vygotskian concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to examine the learning experience of two grade seven pupils as they attempted to solve an addition of fractions problem using fraction strips. The aim is to highlight how tools can facilitate the enactment of a ZPD, within which the tool provides the guidance.…

  8. Primary Education in Vietnam and Pupil Online Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Thi; Naguib, Raouf N. G.; Das, Ashish K.; Papathomas, Michail; Vallar, Edgar A.; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini; Santos, Gil Nonato; Galvez, Maria Cecilia; Nguyen, Viet Anh

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the disparities in social awareness and use of the internet between urban and rural school children in the North of Vietnam. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 525 pupils, aged 9-11 years old, randomly selected from seven urban and rural schools, who are internet users, participated in the…

  9. Inverse Argyll Robertson pupil in Burkitt′s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakarla V Chalam

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Kakarla V Chalam, Shailesh K Gupta, Vikram S BrarDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida Health Science Center, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: We present a case of an 18 year old white male with Burkitt’s lymphoma who was operated on for hydrocephalus and subsequently referred for evaluation of new onset diplopia. On examination, his visual acuity (VA was 20/20 in both eyes with a right superior oblique palsy. His pupillary reaction to light was intact while on near gaze there was no constriction of the pupils, bilaterally. The other two responses of the near gaze triad ie, convergence and accommodation were present. These findings were suggestive of an Inverse Argyll Robertson pupil (IARP, a rare entity in the literature. We could not find a specific cause attributable to this manifestation in this patient, though we feel it may be secondary to infiltration from Burkitt’s lymphoma and/or compression from elevated intracranial pressure of the efferent pupillary near reflex pathway.Keywords: Inverse Argyll Robertson pupil, Argyll Robertson pupil, pupillary abnormalities, Burkitt’s lymphoma

  10. Radio listening habits of pupils of Nomadic Pastoralists and Migrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to integrate Nigeria with other nations in the world that have achieved landmark results in Interactive Radio Instruction (IRI) innovation necessitated this study on radio listening habits of pupils of nomadic pastoralists and migrant fisherfolks in Nigeria. The study was carried out in four pastoralists' states of Borno, ...

  11. A Comparison of Middle School Teachers' Pupil Control Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Garner, Arthur E.

    1978-01-01

    Compares pupil control ideology--discipline policy--of middle school classroom teachers with the intent of finding what attributes are needed for middle school teachers and the particular type classroom environment that facilitates optimum learning conditions for middle school children. (Author/RK)

  12. Mathematical literacy of school leaving pupils in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howie, S.; Plomp, T.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some results of South African (SA) grade 12 pupils on an international test of mathematical literacy, administered in the framework of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of

  13. Pupils' Response to a Model for Water Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Mahmoud, N. A.

    1981-01-01

    Described is a model, based on the physical sciences, designed to teach secondary students about water transport through the use of an animated film. Pupils (N=440) taught by this method developed a self-consistent, although reduced, picture and understanding of osmosis. (Author/DC)

  14. Family Integrants Obstructing Pupils' School Attendance and Girl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is hinged on finding out the family integrants obstructing pupils' school attendance, the girl – child education and proffering solution to it via counsellors' strategies. The samples were three hundred (300) parents and twenty (20) counsellors. This brought the total sample to three hundred and twenty (320).

  15. The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models

  16. Expectancy modulates pupil size during endogenous orienting of spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragone, Alessio; Lasaponara, Stefano; Pinto, Mario; Rotondaro, Francesca; De Luca, Maria; Doricchi, Fabrizio

    2018-05-01

    fMRI investigations in healthy humans have documented phasic changes in the level of activation of the right temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) during cued voluntary orienting of spatial attention. Cues that correctly predict the position of upcoming targets in the majority of trials, i.e., predictive cues, produce higher deactivation of the right TPJ as compared with non-predictive cues. Since the right TPJ is the recipient of noradrenergic (NE) innervation, it has been hypothesised that changes in the level of TPJ activity are matched with changes in the level of NE activity. Based on aforementioned fMRI findings, this might imply that orienting with predictive cues is matched with different levels of NE activity as compared with non-predictive cues. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in pupil dilation, an indirect index of NE activity, during voluntary orienting of attention with highly predictive (80% validity) or non-predictive (50% validity) cues. In agreement with current interpretations of the tonic/phasic activity of the Locus Coeruleus-Norepinephrinic system (LC-NE), we found that the steady level of cue predictiveness that characterised both the predictive and non-predictive conditions caused, across consecutive blocks of trials, a progressive decrement in pupil dilation during the baseline-fixation period that anticipated the cue period. With predictive cues we observed increased pupil dilation as compared with non-predictive cues. In addition, the relative reduction in pupil size observed with non-predictive cues increased as a function of cue-duration. These results show that changes in the predictiveness of cues that guide voluntary orienting of spatial attention are matched with changes in pupil dilation and, putatively, with corresponding changes in LC-NE activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  18. Parity violation experiments at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1996-06-01

    The status of the TRIUMF 221 MeV proton-proton violation experiment is reviewed. Several other proton-proton parity violation experiments in the in the intermediate energy range, currently in various stages of preparation, are discussed. A new experiment at an energy of 5.13 GeV (and if confirmed also at an energy of tens of GeV) is needed to follow on the earlier unexpected large result obtained at 5.13 GeV. (author)

  19. High School Class for Gifted Pupils in Physics and Sciences and Pupils' Skills Measured by Standard and Pisa Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, G. S.; Pavlovic-Babic, D.

    2010-01-01

    The "High school class for students with special abilities in physics" was founded in Nis, Serbia (www.pmf.ni.ac.yu/f_odeljenje) in 2003. The basic aim of this project has been introducing a broadened curriculum of physics, mathematics, computer science, as well as chemistry and biology. Now, six years after establishing of this specialized class, and 3 years after the previous report, we present analyses of the pupils' skills in solving rather problem oriented test, as PISA test, and compare their results with the results of pupils who study under standard curricula. More precisely results are compared to the progress results of the pupils in a standard Grammar School and the corresponding classes of the Mathematical Gymnasiums in Nis. Analysis of achievement data should clarify what are benefits of introducing in school system track for gifted students. Additionally, item analysis helps in understanding and improvement of learning strategies' efficacy. We make some conclusions and remarks that may be useful for the future work that aims to increase pupils' intrinsic and instrumental motivation for physics and sciences, as well as to increase the efficacy of teaching physics and science.

  20. Pupil Selection Segments Urban Comprehensive Schooling in Finland: Composition of School Classes in Pupils' School Performance, Gender, and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisha, Anna-Kaisa; Seppänen, Piia

    2017-01-01

    The Finnish comprehensive school system is regularly referred to as a uniform and "no-tracking". In this article, we show with novel urban case data in Finland that school performance differed significantly between schools, most strikingly between school classes, and was connected to the school's selectiveness in pupil admission. A…

  1. Effective Teaching of Able Pupils in the Primary School: The Findings of the Oxfordshire Effective Teachers of Able Pupils Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Deborah; Coates, David; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Higgins, Chris; McClure, Lynne; Wilson, Helen; Chamberlin, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    A review of British research on effective teaching of able students leads to a report on the Oxfordshire Effective Teachers of Able Pupils Project. This study found effective teachers shared similar beliefs about learning, had empathy with the needs of able children, created a secure classroom environment, held high expectations, used…

  2. Educational Applications for Blind and Partially Sighted Pupils Based on Speech Technologies for Serbian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučić, Branko; Ostrogonac, Stevan; Vujnović Sedlar, Nataša; Sečujski, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of persons with disabilities has always represented an important issue. Advancements within the field of computer science have enabled the development of different types of aids, which have significantly improved the quality of life of the disabled. However, for some disabilities, such as visual impairment, the purpose of these aids is to establish an alternative communication channel and thus overcome the user's disability. Speech technologies play the crucial role in this process. This paper presents the ongoing efforts to create a set of educational applications based on speech technologies for Serbian for the early stages of education of blind and partially sighted children. Two educational applications dealing with memory exercises and comprehension of geometrical shapes are presented, along with the initial tests results obtained from research including visually impaired pupils. PMID:26171422

  3. Educational Applications for Blind and Partially Sighted Pupils Based on Speech Technologies for Serbian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lučić, Branko; Ostrogonac, Stevan; Vujnović Sedlar, Nataša; Sečujski, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of persons with disabilities has always represented an important issue. Advancements within the field of computer science have enabled the development of different types of aids, which have significantly improved the quality of life of the disabled. However, for some disabilities, such as visual impairment, the purpose of these aids is to establish an alternative communication channel and thus overcome the user's disability. Speech technologies play the crucial role in this process. This paper presents the ongoing efforts to create a set of educational applications based on speech technologies for Serbian for the early stages of education of blind and partially sighted children. Two educational applications dealing with memory exercises and comprehension of geometrical shapes are presented, along with the initial tests results obtained from research including visually impaired pupils.

  4. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  5. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  6. Pupil Perspectives on the Purposes and Benefits of Studying History in High School: A View from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Terry; Harris, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on data from 1740 pupil questionnaires and 160 pupils in focus-group interviews, the study aimed to gain insight into British pupils' ideas about why they study history at school. The paper considers the implications of these ideas for history teachers and teacher educators. The data suggest that many pupils have very vague ideas about the…

  7. Assessment Accommodations for Foreign Pupils in the Light of Educational Justice: Empirical Research among Slovenian Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelic, Mojca Žveglic

    2017-01-01

    The starting points of primary school pupils in a foreign country differ significantly from those of native pupils. In Slovenia, the knowledge of pupils who are foreign citizens (foreign pupils) may be assessed with different accommodations for no more than two years. The presented research conducted on a representative sample of 697 Slovenian…

  8. Intermediate neutron spectrum problems and the intermediate neutron spectrum experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Criticality benchmark data for intermediate energy spectrum systems does not exist. These systems are dominated by scattering and fission events induced by neutrons with energies between 1 eV and 1 MeV. Nuclear data uncertainties have been reported for such systems which can not be resolved without benchmark critical experiments. Intermediate energy spectrum systems have been proposed for the geological disposition of surplus fissile materials. Without the proper benchmarking of the nuclear data in the intermediate energy spectrum, adequate criticality safety margins can not be guaranteed. The Zeus critical experiment now under construction will provide this necessary benchmark data

  9. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  10. Pupil interest in physics: A survey in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Lavonen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Factors interrelating with interest in physics learning are gender, perceived relevance, contents and contexts of physics, and teaching methods. Finnish ninth grade secondary school pupil interest in physics in different contexts was investigated with a survey conducted in connection with the international ROSE project. The sample consisted of 3626 pupils (median age 15 in 61 schools. Means of all items that belong to school physics context for both girls and boys were under the middle of the scale. The most interesting things (especially for girls were connected with human being and the less interesting (especially for girls were connected in artefacts and technological processes. Astronomical context was rather interesting for both genders. The main message of the study is that interesting new curricular approaches and textbooks can be developed by combining technological and human or astronomical contexts.

  11. Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optics for microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Na; Milkie, Daniel E.; Betzig, Eric

    2011-03-01

    Inhomogeneous optical properties of biological samples make it difficult to obtain diffraction-limited resolution in depth. Correcting the sample-induced optical aberrations needs adaptive optics (AO). However, the direct wavefront-sensing approach commonly used in astronomy is not suitable for most biological samples due to their strong scattering of light. We developed an image-based AO approach that is insensitive to sample scattering. By comparing images of the sample taken with different segments of the pupil illuminated, local tilt in the wavefront is measured from image shift. The aberrated wavefront is then obtained either by measuring the local phase directly using interference or with phase reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in astronomical AO. We implemented this pupil-segmentation-based approach in a two-photon fluorescence microscope and demonstrated that diffraction-limited resolution can be recovered from nonbiological and biological samples.

  12. Forecasting transient sleep episodes by pupil size variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schumann Andy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to predict when a person is about to fall asleep is an important challenge in recent biomedical research and has various possible applications. Sleepiness and fatigue are known to increase pupillary fluctuations and the occurrence of eye blinks. In this study, we evaluated the use of the pupil diameter to forecast sleep episodes of short duration (>1s. We conducted multi-channel physiological and pupillometric recordings (diameter, gaze position in 91 healthy volunteers at rest in supine position. Although they were instructed to keep their eyes open, short sleep episodes were detected in 20 participants (16 males, age: 26.2±5.6 years, 53 events in total. Before each sleep event, pupil size was extracted in a window of 30s (without additional sleep event. Mean pupil diameter and its standard deviation, Shannon entropy and wavelet entropy in the first half (15s were compared to the second half of the window (15s. Linear and nonlinear measures demonstrated an elevation of pupil size variability before sleep onset. Most obviously, WE and SD increased significantly from 0.054±0.056 and 0.38±0.16 mm to 0.113±0.103 (T(102=2.44, p<0.001 and 0.46±0.18 mm (T(104=3.67, p<0.05 in the second half of each analysis window. We were able to identify 83% of the pre-sleep segments by linear discriminant analysis. Although our data was acquired in an experimental condition, it suggests that pupillary unrest might be a suitable predictor of events related to transient sleep or inattentiveness. In the future, we are going to involve the other recorded physiological signals into the analysis.

  13. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Helen R; Magee, Linda; Osborne, Susan; Hall, Linda K; Whorwell, Peter J

    2012-09-05

    As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW). This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. 620 pupils (aged 11-17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1%) males, 322 (51.9%) females) at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an 'experiment' to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p color was chosen by 48.9% of normal and only 18.8% of depressed pupils (p colors which reached significance for sport and music. This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  14. Sibling constellation effects on learning and career aspirations of pupils.

    OpenAIRE

    KOROTVIČKOVÁ, Blanka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis "Sibling Constellation Effects on Learning and Career Aspirations of Pupils" is aimed at the description of a relationship between birth order and personality development. It also deals with the general characteristics of sibling constellation and its historical development. It points out the importance of sibling constellation in human life and presents the personality description with regard to birth order in relation to parents, siblings, peers, education and occupation. The the...

  15. Developing Teachers' Capacity for Teaching Pupils' Initial Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The t-test results showed a significant difference between the pre- and post-test scores of the pupils and this difference was attributed to the treatment given to the teachers t- calculated value of 24.6 and t-value of 1.984 at 0.05 level of significance with degree of freedom 98. Also the t-test t-test comparison of the mean ...

  16. Pupils with leukemia and their reintegration into school

    OpenAIRE

    Purkat, Maja

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common childhood malignancies is leukemia. Treatments are now much more successful than in the past, but many children with leukemia are facing difficulties when returning to school. For pupils with leukemia, school is very important, providing them with a feeling of normalcy and hope for the future. But when such a child, with all his or her characteristics, returns to school, he meets with certain requirements. He or she encounters obstacles which are directly or indirectly ...

  17. Comparison of mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils

    OpenAIRE

    Wasilewská, Eliška

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to describe the role of educational strategy especially in field of the teaching of mathematics and to compare the mathematical problem solving strategies of primary school pupils which are taught by using different educational strategies. In the theoretical part, the main focus is on divergent educational strategies and their characteristics, next on factors affected teaching/learning process and finally on solving the problems. The empirical part of the disse...

  18. Teaching Foreign Languages to Pupils with Specific Learning Disability

    OpenAIRE

    VOLDÁNOVÁ, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    This diploma thesis deals with the topic of specific learning disability. In the theoretical part I define the term specific learning disability and I mention the related terms. I deal with the history, types and causes of specific learning disability, further I describe the possibilities of diagnostics and re-education concerning specific learning disability. I also attend to the situation of a pupil in the family and school background. The main attention is especially paid to teaching forei...

  19. Pupil Response and the Subliminal Mere Exposure Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshimoto, Sanae; Imai, Hisato; Kashino, Makio; Takeuchi, Tatsuto

    2014-01-01

    The subliminal mere exposure effect (SMEE) is the phenomenon wherein people tend to prefer patterns they have repeatedly observed without consciously identifying them. One popular explanation for the SMEE is that perceptual fluency within exposed patterns is misattributed to a feeling of preference for those patterns. Assuming that perceptual fluency is negatively correlated with the amount of mental effort needed to analyze perceptual aspects of incoming stimuli, pupil diameter should associ...

  20. The influence of playing computer games on pupil's development

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about the effects of playing computer games on pupils and students behavior. It is divided into a theoretical and an investigative part. The theoretical part is dedicated to historical development of technologies and principals of game systems in relationship to technical progress. It adverts to psychological, social and biological effects of long time, intensive playing of games. It shows positive and negative effects ofthis activity. The work analyses typical pathological eve...

  1. Intermediate Levels of Visual Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakayama, Ken

    1998-01-01

    ...) surface representation, here we have shown that there is an intermediate level of visual processing, between the analysis of the image and higher order representations related to specific objects; (2...

  2. Olanzapine Overdose in a Pin Point Pupil with Altered Sensorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Midha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background:Olanzapine is a highly tolerable and easily affordable atypical antipsychotic drug which has been commonly prescribed in both inpatient and outpatient settings for several mental disorders. Olanzapine overdose is commonly seen in psychiatric patients, who attempt suicide by intoxicating themselves with their own prescribed medications. Increased olanzapine use is associated with increased incidence of overdosing. Case Presentation:We are reporting a case of olanzapine overdosage as a cause of pinpoint pupils and altered sensorium with exclusion of other differentials. The mainstay of managementof olanzapine overdose is general supportive and symptomatic measures. Discussion: Pinpoint pupils with altered sensorium and agitation are always an alarming situation for a clinician, because of differentials like organophosphorus poisoning, pontine hemorrhage and opium overdosing. Due to olanzapine overdosage, similar clinical picture can be confusing in the emergency department and early identification of such cases is helpful to decrease the risk of fatality. Conclusion: This case highlights the significance of olanzapine overdosing as a differential diagnosis for patients presented with altered sensorium and pinpoint pupils in the emergency department. Olanzapine overdosage is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, appropriate history, assessment and early diagnosis are very useful for the better outcome.

  3. Capsule-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Small Pupil Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schojai, Merita; Schultz, Tim; Burkhard Dick, H

    2017-08-01

    To describe a new technique for implantation of capsule-fixated intraocular lenses (IOLs) (FEMTIS; Oculentis, Berlin, Germany) in patients with small pupils. In 4 eyes with small pupils, an anterior capsule-fixated IOL was implanted into the capsular bag after femtosecond laser treatment. The two large and two small flaps of the IOL were elevated to the front of the iris and the anterior capsule. Finally, the iris was flipped over the flaps to ensure a fixation of the capsule inside of the capsulotomy. In all cases, the implantation of anterior capsule-fixated IOLs was possible. No complications occurred during surgery or within the first months after surgery. With the described technique, capsulefixated IOLs can be implanted in eyes with small pupil easily and safely. This type of IOL has great potential to improve the refractive outcome by better prediction of the postoperative IOL position and eliminating IOL rotation after cataract surgery. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(8):568-570.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Adaptive optics with pupil tracking for high resolution retinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Betul; Lamory, Barbara; Levecq, Xavier; Harms, Fabrice; Dainty, Chris

    2012-02-01

    Adaptive optics, when integrated into retinal imaging systems, compensates for rapidly changing ocular aberrations in real time and results in improved high resolution images that reveal the photoreceptor mosaic. Imaging the retina at high resolution has numerous potential medical applications, and yet for the development of commercial products that can be used in the clinic, the complexity and high cost of the present research systems have to be addressed. We present a new method to control the deformable mirror in real time based on pupil tracking measurements which uses the default camera for the alignment of the eye in the retinal imaging system and requires no extra cost or hardware. We also present the first experiments done with a compact adaptive optics flood illumination fundus camera where it was possible to compensate for the higher order aberrations of a moving model eye and in vivo in real time based on pupil tracking measurements, without the real time contribution of a wavefront sensor. As an outcome of this research, we showed that pupil tracking can be effectively used as a low cost and practical adaptive optics tool for high resolution retinal imaging because eye movements constitute an important part of the ocular wavefront dynamics.

  5. Power constellations between Roma pupils and their teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Rožníčková

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this empirical study is to describe power constellations that are generated in interactions between Roma pupils and their teachers, and also to summarize the basic findings of this research and to point out some real situations that can occur during the teaching lessons. The first part of the thesis describes the differences in the social interaction of Roma pupils. The second part is focused on the authority of the teachers and also on using this authority during the lessons. The third part is focused on pupils‘ strategies that are created based on the requirements of teachers. The basic findings of the research are selected in the methodological section. The research survey revealed five power constellations, which are the subject of this empirical study. The empirical study suggests how teachers and pupils define and shape relationships. From the present paper, a lot of influences are involved in the formation of power constellation, ranging from the personality of the teachers, socializing in school, through family upbringing to cultural differences.

  6. The interaction of pupil response with the vergence system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, Moritz; Moser, Barbara; Abegg, Mathias

    2017-11-01

    A gaze shift from a target at distance to a target at near leads to pupillary constriction. The regulation of this pupillary near response is ill known. We investigated the impact of accommodation, convergence, and proximity on the pupillary diameter. We recorded pupil size and vergence eye movements with the use of an infrared eye tracker. We determined the pupillary response in four conditions: (1) after a gaze shift from far to near without accommodation, (2) after a gaze shift from far to near with neither accommodation nor convergence, (3) after accommodation alone, and (4) after accommodation with convergence without a gaze shift to near. These responses were compared to the pupil response of a full near response and to a gaze shift from one far target to another. We found a reliable pupillary near response. The removal of both accommodation and convergence in gaze shift from far to near abolished the pupillary near response. Accommodation alone did not induce pupillary constriction, while convergence and accommodation together induced a pupil response similar to the full near response. The main trigger for the pupillary response seems to be convergence. Neither accommodation nor proximity alone induce a significant pupillary constriction. This suggests that the miosis of the near triad is closely coupled to the vergence system rather than being independently regulated.

  7. Students Teach Pupils Environmental Issues and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, H.; Banner, I.; Tuchin, B. S.; Einav, Y.

    2018-05-01

    Technological advances and accessibility to information on the internet have opened a new channel of pupils that are being taught by students throughout the country. Students, full of motivation and a will to learn and teach, have understood that this way is good for them – enabling them to profit from a side job and take advantage of the knowledge they have accumulated in their degree. Holon Institute of Technology (“HIT”) developed a new program at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. The Renewable Energy program gives the students technical and practical aspects of energy use (technology and methodology of the study) and energy efficiency. The program also deals with minimizing the environmental impacts of energy use, as well as with energy economy and environmental policy. The entrance of students to the field of teaching pupils while still in their studies brings many advantages, such as: fresh knowledge, motivation to teach, and innovative, out of the ordinary methods that arouse interest in the pupils and intrigue them.

  8. Orienting of attention, pupil size, and the norepinephrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Shai; Pertzov, Yoni; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    This research examined a novel suggestion regarding the involvement of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system in orienting reflexive (exogenous) attention. A common procedure for studying exogenous orienting of attention is Posner's cuing task. Importantly, one can manipulate the required level of target processing by changing task requirements, which, in turn, can elicit a different time course of inhibition of return (IOR). An easy task (responding to target location) produces earlier onset IOR, whereas a demanding task (responding to target identity) produces later onset IOR. Aston-Jones and Cohen (Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450, 2005) presented a theory suggesting two different modes of LC activity: tonic and phasic. Accordingly, we suggest that in the more demanding task, the LC-NE system is activated in phasic mode, and in the easier task, it is activated in tonic mode. This, in turn, influences the appearance of IOR. We examined this suggestion by measuring participants' pupil size, which has been demonstrated to correlate with the LC-NE system, while they performed cuing tasks. We found a response-locked phasic dilation of the pupil in the discrimination task, as compared with the localization task, which may reflect different firing modes of the LC-NE system during the two tasks. We also demonstrated a correlation between pupil size at the time of cue presentation and magnitude of IOR.

  9. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  10. When science takes centre stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The teachers at 'Science on stage' are not emotionally attached to their chalk. Neither are they are weary old men who sport tweed jackets with elbow-patches and enter into conversation with their blackboards. Actually, 'Science on stage' teachers are far from the cliché of the boring physics teacher who can only inspire yawns from his pupils. Some present the basic principles of mechanics using a bicycle, others explain chemistry with examples from everyday life. The most audacious of them go so far as to explain the Doppler effect by means of a play in which Einstein dreams about jumping cows... These are but a few of the activities and plays that will be shown during the EIROforum1 Science on Stage Festival (organised by 7 European scientific organisations including CERN), to be held from 21 to 25 November at CERN, Geneva. This festival is dedicated to the teaching science in order to make it more attractive. After the first edition 'Physics on Stage' which was held in 2000 at CERN, the laboratory agai...

  11. Judging a book by its cover: the unconscious influence of pupil size on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Richard; Watt, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Past research suggests that men perceive women with large pupils as especially attractive. We employed an innovative methodology to examine whether this effect influences consumer decision-making. A popular psychology book was published with two slightly different front covers. Both covers contained the same photograph of a woman; however, the woman's pupils on one cover were digitally enlarged. Readers indicated whether they were male or female, and whether they possessed the cover with small or large pupils. A significantly greater percentage of men than women had chosen the cover with the large pupils. None of the participants who attempted to guess the nature of the experiment was correct, suggesting that the influence exerted by pupil size was unconscious. These findings provide further support for the notion that people's judgments are unconsciously swayed by pupil size, and demonstrate that this effect operates in a real world setting.

  12. Pupils' reasons for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving in English and maths lessons in a secondary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwich, B

    1999-12-01

    There is renewed interest in motivation and school learning, though there has been relatively little theory-linked research in English schools. In the first stage, to explore pupils' reasons for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving in English, maths and other subjects. In the second stage, to examine differences in reasons across subjects, for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving for boys and girls in two year groups in one secondary school. Stage 1, 16 pupils in years 7, 8 and 9 in two London secondary schools; Stage 2, 267 pupils in years 7 and 9 in one of these schools. Stage 1--semi-structured interviews were conducted to elicit different kinds of reasons conceptualised in terms of the Deci & Ryan's (1985) framework of self-determination. From these elicited reasons, an inventory 'Why I Learn' was designed. Stage 2--the inventory was administered to identify reasons for learning and behaving and for not learning and behaving in English and maths. Parent introjected reasons were the highest for learning and behaving while teacher introjected and intrinsic reasons were the lowest. Intrinsic reasons were highest for not learning and behaving. Year group differences in reason levels were more significant than gender or subject differences. Reasons for learning and behaving were more differentiated from each other than reasons for not learning and behaving. The results are discussed in terms of their significance for self-determination theory, research into the conditions promoting greater self-determination in school learning and further development of the inventory for programme evaluation.

  13. [The role of physical education teachers to support overweight and obese pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Tabak, Izabela; Radiukiewicz, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    School-based physical education (PE) is often proposed as a strategy for obesity prevention and treatment. Thus the role of PE teachers is crucial on this field. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of PE teachers towards overweight and obese pupils aged 13-15 years, especially psychosomatic problems and support for obese adolescents in realisation of physical activity programme. A random sample of 185 PE teachers from 112 lower secondary schools in Poland were surveyed regarding their perception of pupils obesity and their support for obese adolescents. PE teachers observed many negative features among obese pupils: Two thirds of teachers (67% male and 74% teachers with work experience 6-10 years) observed decreased physical fitness and exercise capacity in this group of pupils. Body-related barriers in obese pupils and anxiety caused by weight related peer teasing were observed by respectively 30% and 20% teachers more often women teachers and teachers with shorter work experience. PE teachers were engaged in activities to support obese pupils: 90% of them assessed obese pupils by personal development, 70% conducted counseling and 20% cooperated with obese pupils' parents. Two third of teachers reported successes in their work with obese pupils. Their difficulties were connected with body-related barriers in pupils (24%), and aversion to exercise and physical efforts and location of PE lessons at school (9-16%). 1. The PE teachers can play an important role in preventing and combating obesity in pupils. 2. PE teachers should be motivated to organize interesting PE lessons, school sport and competitions for both normal and overweight pupils.

  14. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The natio...

  15. A Study on the Influence of Teacher's Verbal Guidance on Pupil's Emotional Functions

    OpenAIRE

    後藤, 靖宏

    2006-01-01

    How do the pupils accept teachers' words of guidance? The purpose of this paper is to study the influence of teachers' verbal guidance on pupil's consciousness ( of emotions and enthusiasm). Although speech (language) is the fastest method of communication between people, it is not the only means of communication. We usually have two means of communication in human interaction, that is verbal communication and nonverbal communication. This is the same with pupil or student guidance. Nonverbal...

  16. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  17. The Predictive Role of Maternal Parenting and Stress on Pupils' Bullying involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Maralani, Fatemeh; Mirnasab, Mirmahmoud; Hashemi, Touraj

    2016-10-01

    The link between inappropriate parenting style and both bullying and victimization is well documented. However, it is not clear as to which kind of parenting style is associated with victimization. Furthermore, no studies have yet been conducted regarding the role of parental stress in bullying and victimization. This study aimed to examine the role of parenting styles and maternal stress in pupils' bullying and victimization. A total of 300 primary school pupils, enrolled in fourth and fifth grades, participated in the study. Initially, 100 noninvolved pupils were randomly selected using a multistage cluster sampling method. Then using a screening method, 100 bully pupils and 100 victimized peers were selected. Olweus Bullying Scale and teacher nomination were administered for screening these pupils. Baumrind Parenting Style Questionnaire and revised version of Abidin Parental Stress Index (short form) were also applied to all pupils in the study. Data were analyzed using discriminant function analysis. The findings showed that (a) with regard to parenting styles, significant differences were found among groups. Authoritarian parenting style could significantly predict pupils' bullying behavior, whereas victimization was predictable in families with permissive parenting style. In addition, noninvolved pupils were predicted to have authoritative parenting style. (b) Considering maternal stress, significant differences were observed across groups. Parents of bullies and victims were predicted to have higher maternal stress than noninvolved pupils. The implications of the study in relation to the role of mothers in bullying and victimization are discussed.

  18. Science investigation: the views of 14 to 16 year old pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplis, Rob; Cleaves, Anna

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports research about upper secondary school pupils' views about science investigations in school. Although researchers, teachers and examiners have expressed opinions about investigative work in science, there have been relatively few studies of pupils' experiences. The present study identified pupils' concerns about the limited time available, timing of the investigations, lack of familiarity with apparatus and the association of investigation almost exclusively with assessment, all factors which contributed to stress. One exceptional school apart, pupils perceived the teacher's role as a didactic supporter of strategies to maximise performance for assessment. We discuss these views and examine the potential for putting policy into practice.

  19. Is Tadpole Pupil in an Adolescent Girl Caused by Denervation Hypersensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jonas Kjeldbjerg; Møller, Hans Ulrik

    2017-06-01

    Tadpole pupil is a rarely encountered phenomenon caused by episodic, segmental iris dilator muscle spasm of short duration (2-15 minutes), occurring in clusters without a known precipitating factor. It has most commonly been described in women aged 28 to 48 years. A few hypotheses on pathogenesis have been discussed but none has been proved. Here, we present an adolescent girl with bilateral tadpole pupil that appeared during physical exercise. This is the first pediatric case of tadpole pupil, not caused by preceding surgery, to be published. Based on (1) this case in which tadpole pupil developed when the norepinephrine level rose during exercise, (2) the high ratio of patients with tadpole pupil who concurrently have or later develop Horner syndrome, in which denervation hypersensitivity is well described, (3) a previous report of a patient with both tadpole pupil and Horner syndrome who had denervation hypersensitivity on pharmacological testing, (4) a 29-year-old man with unilateral tadpole pupil induced by exercise, and (5) a 19-year-old man with bilateral tadpole pupil and possible autonomic neuropathy, we suggest denervation hypersensitivity as a probable pathogenic mechanism causing tadpole pupil. In addition, a suggestion for investigations to be performed in future pediatric cases is provided. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The national orientation of military patriotic education of senior pupils is marked. It is based on ethnology and regional principles of education, respect to history of the people and state.

  1. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Rubbia, C.; van der Meer, S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 15 years a new class of unified theories has been developed to describe the forces acting between elementary particles. The most successful of the new theories establishes a link between electromagnetism and the weak force. A crucial prediction of this unified electroweak theory is the existence of three massive particles called intermediate vector bosons. If these intermediate vector bosons exist and if they have properties attributed to them by electroweak theory, they should soon be detected, as the world's first particle accelerator with enough energy to create such particles has recently been completed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The accelerator has been converted to a colliding beam machine in which protons and antiprotons collide head on. According to electroweak theory, intermediate vector bosons can be created in proton-antiproton collisions. (SC)

  2. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajn, D.B.; Rubbia, K.; Meer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Problem of registration and search for intermediate vector bosons is discussed. According to weak-current theory there are three intermediate vector bosons with +1(W + )-1(W - ) and zero (Z 0 ) electric charges. It was suggested to conduct the investigation into particles in 1976 by cline, Rubbia and Makintair using proton-antiproton beams. Major difficulties of the experiment are related to the necessity of formation of sufficient amount of antiparticles and the method of antiproton beam ''cooling'' for the purpose of reduction of its random movements. The stochastic method was suggested by van der Meer in 1968 as one of possible cooling methods. Several large detectors were designed for searching intermediate vector bosons

  3. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  4. MOTIVATION AND COMMUNICATIVE ATTITUDES AMONG JAPANESE EFL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Adachi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes how gender and age affect Japanese pupils’ motivation for learning English and their attitudes to communication with people from different cultures. A new foreign language curriculum was introduced to Japanese elementary schools in 2011. Although each school can officially choose any foreign language in its own right, most elementary schools are now conducting English activity. However, as most homeroom teachers lack both experiences and qualifications for teaching English, this activity puts them under pressure. In addition, the number of foreign assistant language teachers (ALTs is not sufficient in most elementary schools. The writer surveyed fifth and sixth grade pupils’ motivation and their communicative attitudes in Japan during 2010, before the new course program, “foreign language activities,” began in 2011. The data were collected from three elementary schools in Japan via a questionnaire. The items on the questionnaire are related to motivational attitudes, orientations (reasons for studying a foreign language, communicative attitudes and some other variables relevant to learning foreign languages. The main focus of this study is to examine motivational and attitudinal variables among the pupils with regard to learning English, especially gender and age effects on these variables. The results show that girls generally have higher scores on motivation and communicative attitudes. Most previous studies have also shown that girls generally have a positive attitude toward learning a foreign language. This study argues that the reason behind this positive attitude toward learning English is due to their positive attitude toward communication in general. With regard to the age, there are a few differences between two school grades. As there is only one year difference in age between fifth and sixth grade pupils, the result is to be expected. The study suggests that Japanese elementary schools face a number of

  5. The Manchester Color Wheel: validation in secondary school pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruthers Helen R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of our research programme into facilitating improved ways of communicating with patients, especially about more sensitive clinical issues, we have been investigating whether there are any non-verbal methods that might aid this process. One such approach is to ask patients to choose a color in response to a particular question, for instance about health or psychological status, and for this purpose we developed the Manchester Color Wheel (MCW. This instrument consists of positive, neutral and negative colors and its validation in normal adults and those with anxiety or depression showed that it is responsive to change and reproducible. It also has the capacity to identify a positive frame of mind. We concluded that it might be a particularly useful instrument in adolescents and therefore this study aimed to validate it in a secondary school. Methods 620 pupils (aged 11–17 years, mean age 14.0 years, 298 (48.1% males, 322 (51.9% females at Sale Grammar School in Greater Manchester were asked to relate their mood to a MCW color and also complete the Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD questionnaire. To give these pupils an experience in science, 197 were divided into four subgroups for an ‘experiment’ to ascertain whether, compared to controls, a change in mood color choice could be induced by participation in sport, music or art activities. Results Although mood color and HAD depression score are unlikely to be measuring exactly the same psychological state, a negative mood color was chosen by 62.5% of HAD depressed compared to only 14.5% of HAD normal pupils (p  Conclusion This study confirms the potential utility of the MCW to rapidly and easily assess a variety of health issues in large populations, including adolescents. Some of our results should also be of interest to educationalists.

  6. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...

  7. Wavefront control performance modeling with WFIRST shaped pupil coronagraph testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hanying; Nemati, Bijian; Krist, John; Cady, Eric; Kern, Brian; Poberezhskiy, Ilya

    2017-09-01

    NASA's WFIRST mission includes a coronagraph instrument (CGI) for direct imaging of exoplanets. Significant improvement in CGI model fidelity has been made recently, alongside a testbed high contrast demonstration in a simulated dynamic environment at JPL. We present our modeling method and results of comparisons to testbed's high order wavefront correction performance for the shaped pupil coronagraph. Agreement between model prediction and testbed result at better than a factor of 2 has been consistently achieved in raw contrast (contrast floor, chromaticity, and convergence), and with that comes good agreement in contrast sensitivity to wavefront perturbations and mask lateral shear.

  8. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a ...

  9. Intermediate statistics in quantum maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, Olivier [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Marklof, Jens [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, Stephen [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-16

    We present a one-parameter family of quantum maps whose spectral statistics are of the same intermediate type as observed in polygonal quantum billiards. Our central result is the evaluation of the spectral two-point correlation form factor at small argument, which in turn yields the asymptotic level compressibility for macroscopic correlation lengths. (letter to the editor)

  10. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  11. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  12. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniadakis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials η κκ' . We show that, besides the FD-BE intermediate statistics extensively studied from the quantum point of view, we can also study the MB-FD and MB-BE ones. Moreover, our model allows us to treat the three-state mixing FD-MB-BE intermediate statistics. For boson and fermion mixing in a D-dimensional space, we obtain a family of FD-BE intermediate statistics by varying the transmutational potential η BF . This family contains, as a particular case when η BF =0, the quantum statistics recently proposed by L. Wu, Z. Wu, and J. Sun [Phys. Lett. A 170, 280 (1992)]. When we consider the two-dimensional FD-BE statistics, we derive an analytic expression of the fraction of fermions. When the temperature T→∞, the system is composed by an equal number of bosons and fermions, regardless of the value of η BF . On the contrary, when T=0, η BF becomes important and, according to its value, the system can be completely bosonic or fermionic, or composed both by bosons and fermions

  13. The peculiarities of physical development of pupils and students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Menshikh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Presented results of physical development of young people. 965 pupils and 438 students participated in research. One measured length and mass of the body, registered cardiorespiratory indexes – cardiac rate at peace and after 20 squats, vital capacity of lungs, breath-holding on inhalation and exhalation. The coefficient of physical development was calculated on a formula taking into account actual and middling population indexes. Gradual development of morphofunctional indexes is set for pupils and students from 7 to 20 years old. Rates of such changes were different both in age-old and sexual groups. It is educed that for boys and girls 7-8 years middling the statistical values of coefficient of physical development exceeded standard indexes. In 9-13 years on a background of further increase of morphofunctional parameters the rates of increase of physical development diminished a bit. From 13 to 16 years the index of coefficient of physical development changed a little, except for an insignificant increase in 14 years. It is shown that in an age-old period 17-20 years a mesosomia prevails for the inspected students. It is educed reliable differences between the values of coefficient of physical development in the groups of boys and girls 17 and 19 years.

  14. The prevalence of computer and Internet addiction among pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Talarowska, Monika; Darmosz, Anna; Janiak, Aneta; Janiak, Marcin; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2009-02-02

    Media have an influence on the human psyche similar to the addictive actions of psychoactive substances or gambling. Computer overuse is claimed to be a cause of psychiatric disturbances such as computer and Internet addiction. It has not yet been recognized as a disease, but it evokes increasing controversy and results in mental disorders commonly defined as computer and Internet addiction. This study was based on a diagnostic survey in which 120 subjects participated. The participants were pupils of three kinds of schools: primary, middle, and secondary school (high school). Information for this study was obtained from a questionnaire prepared by the authors as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Psychological Inventory of Aggression Syndrome (IPSA-II). he results confirmed that every fourth pupil was addicted to the Internet. Internet addiction was very common among the youngest users of computers and the Internet, especially those who had no brothers and sisters or came from families with some kind of problems. Moreover, more frequent use of the computer and the Internet was connected with higher levels of aggression and anxiety. Because computer and Internet addiction already constitute a real danger, it is worth considering preventive activities to treat this phenomenon. It is also necessary to make the youth and their parents aware of the dangers of uncontrolled Internet use and pay attention to behavior connected with Internet addiction.

  15. A Xhosa communicative test for senior L2 pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Gxilishe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The writer shows to what extent the aims of the Xhosa syllabus for the Senior Certificate examination (Higher and Standard Grade under the Cape Education Department are met by constructing and administering an oral proficiency test in Xhosa. The writer takes into account the two main objectives of the syllabus: to use the communication means in every day situations and to develop the listening and speaking skills of the pupils. The emphasis of the test items is not on linguistic accuracy but on the pupil's ability to function effectively through language in particular settings and contexts. The validity, reliability and practicability of the test are discussed as well as the trial test and the administration. Die skrywer wys in watter mate die doelstellings van die Xhosaleerplan vir die Senior Sertifikaat-eksamen (Hoer en Standaard Graad van die Kaapse Onderwysdepartement bereik word deur die samestelling en toepassing van 'n vaardigheidstoets in mondelinge werk. Die skrywer neem die twee hoofdoelstellings van die leerplan in ag, nl. om die bedrewenheid om te kommunikeer in alledaagse situasies te gebruik en die luister- en mondelinge vermoe van die Ieerlinge te ontwikkel. Die klem van die toetsitems val nie op taalkundige akkuraatheid nie, maar op die vermoe van die leerlinge om in spesifieke situasies en omstandighede doeltreffend te kommunikeer. Die geldigheid, betroubaarheid en uitvoerbaarheid van die toets word bespreek asook die voorlopige toets en die administrasie daarvan.

  16. Extracting information of fixational eye movements through pupil tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, JiangWei; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqin; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Human eyes are never completely static even when they are fixing a stationary point. These irregular, small movements, which consist of micro-tremors, micro-saccades and drifts, can prevent the fading of the images that enter our eyes. The importance of researching the fixational eye movements has been experimentally demonstrated recently. However, the characteristics of fixational eye movements and their roles in visual process have not been explained clearly, because these signals can hardly be completely extracted by now. In this paper, we developed a new eye movement detection device with a high-speed camera. This device includes a beam splitter mirror, an infrared light source and a high-speed digital video camera with a frame rate of 200Hz. To avoid the influence of head shaking, we made the device wearable by fixing the camera on a safety helmet. Using this device, the experiments of pupil tracking were conducted. By localizing the pupil center and spectrum analysis, the envelope frequency spectrum of micro-saccades, micro-tremors and drifts are shown obviously. The experimental results show that the device is feasible and effective, so that the device can be applied in further characteristic analysis.

  17. Using Songs To Support Vocabulary Learning For Grade Four Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al-Azri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the recent years the teaching of foreign language vocabulary has been the subject of much discussion and arguments and a number of research and methodology books on such topic have emerged as it is the case for example with Nation 2001 and Schmitt 2000. For a long time grammar seemed to have attracted more attention but this renewed interest in vocabulary reflects the belief that it is becoming a major component in knowing a language and as some recent scholars would admit even more important than grammar already. In addition to the various strategies used to promote vocabulary learning in the classroom environment songs are widely being used nowadays as a powerful tool in teaching new vocabulary to early grades pupils. Throughout our teaching of young learners we have noticed that they are amazingly captured by songs and they always enjoy listening to them. This might be one of the main reasons why songs have now become one of the cornerstones in the demanding and challenging process of teaching children. The purpose of this research paper is to find out as to what extent and how the use of songs may support new vocabulary learning for grade four pupils in Oman and how much it actually helps these young learners in developing their vocabulary learning habits.

  18. Researching Pupil Well-Being in UK Secondary Schools: Community Psychology and the Politics of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, Paul; Sixsmith, Judith; Kagan, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between a school, its staff and its pupils and the impact of these relationships on school pupils' well-being. The authors adopted a community psychological perspective and applied critical, social constructionist epistemologies and participatory, multi-method research tools. The article discusses the…

  19. Image quality comparison of two multifocal IOLs: influence of the pupil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Domene, Mari Carmen; Felipe, Adelina; Peris-Martínez, Cristina; Navea, Amparo; Artigas, Jose M; Pons, Álvaro M

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of pupil size on image quality of a sectorial multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), the Lentis Mplus (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany), and the Acri.LISA IOL (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany). The authors measured the MTFs of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL and the Acri.LISA 366D IOL with three different sizes of pupil diameters: 3, 4, and 5 mm. The MTF was calculated from the cross-line spread function recorded with the OPAL Vector System (Image Science Ltd., Oxford, UK) by using fast Fourier-transform techniques. In distance focus, the image quality provided by the Lentis Mplus IOL was better than that of the Acri. LISA IOL with all pupil diameters. In near focus, the MTF of the Acri.LISA IOL was better with a 3-mm pupil, but poor with larger pupils. The aberration effect was equal in both IOLs in distance focus, but in near focus and with a 3-mm pupil, the Acri.LISA IOL was less affected by the aberration than the Lentis Mplus IOL. The Lentis Mplus IOL provides better distance image quality than the Acri.LISA IOL, whereas the near image quality of the Acri.LISA IOL is better with small-pupil diameter. The sectorial design makes this IOL more suitable for patients with a pupil diameter greater than 3 mm. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Pupil size reflects successful encoding and recall of memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucewicz, Michal T; Dolezal, Jaromir; Kremen, Vaclav; Berry, Brent M; Miller, Laura R; Magee, Abigail L; Fabian, Vratislav; Worrell, Gregory A

    2018-03-21

    Pupil responses are known to indicate brain processes involved in perception, attention and decision-making. They can provide an accessible biomarker of human memory performance and cognitive states in general. Here we investigated changes in the pupil size during encoding and recall of word lists. Consistent patterns in the pupil response were found across and within distinct phases of the free recall task. The pupil was most constricted in the initial fixation phase and was gradually more dilated through the subsequent encoding, distractor and recall phases of the task, as the word items were maintained in memory. Within the final recall phase, retrieving memory for individual words was associated with pupil dilation in absence of visual stimulation. Words that were successfully recalled showed significant differences in pupil response during their encoding compared to those that were forgotten - the pupil was more constricted before and more dilated after the onset of word presentation. Our results suggest pupil size as a potential biomarker for probing and modulation of memory processing.

  1. Prevalence for Private Tuition among Parents, Teachers and Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Machakos County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigwi, Lucy Wambui; Maithya, Redempta

    2016-01-01

    Private tuition refers to tutoring offered outside mainstream teaching. The study sought to establish the difference in prevalence for private tuition among parents, teachers and pupils in public primary schools in Machakos County. The study employed descriptive survey design. The target populations were all teachers, parents and pupils of public…

  2. A Study of the Relationship between Academic Achievement Motivation and Home Environment among Standard Eight Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muola, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic achievement motivation and home environment among standard eight pupils. The study was carried out on 235 standard eight Kenyan pupils from six urban and rural primary schools randomly selected from Machakos district. Their age ranged between 13 and 17 years. Two…

  3. Pupils' Readiness for Self-Regulated Learning in the Forethought Phase of Exploratory Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne; Virta, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses pupils' readiness for self-regulation in Exploratory Production in Technology Education. In the forethought phase of Exploratory Production, pupils envision and regulate their technological production activities. Next, in the performance phase, the envisioned goals are tried and implemented through ideating, planning and…

  4. Habermas, Pupil Voice, Rationalism, and Their Meeting with Lacan's Objet Petit A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Paul; Murphy, Mark

    2012-01-01

    "Pupil voice" is a movement within state education in England that is associated with democracy, change, participation and the raising of educational standards. While receiving much attention from educators and policy makers, less attention has been paid to the theory behind the concept of pupil voice. An obvious point of theoretical…

  5. Including Pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders in the Classroom: The Role of Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Wendy; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were (i) to explore the extent to which pupils with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were effectively included in lessons, compared with pupils with dyslexia (DYS) or no Special Educational Needs (CON) and (ii) to understand how the presence of a teaching assistant (TA) influences the inclusion/exclusion process. One…

  6. Socio-demographic factors of pupils who use tobacco in randomly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To report the prevalence and socio-economic correlates of tobacco use among primary school pupils in Nairobi‚ Kenya. Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Setting: Ten primary schools in Nairobi‚ Kenya. Subjects: A questionnaire was administered to 1198 primary school pupils aged 12 to 17 years ...

  7. What Pupils Can Learn from Working with Robotic Direct Manipulation Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slangen, Lou; van Keulen, Hanno; Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four perspectives were distinguished with increasing…

  8. Differential ability and attainment in language and arithmetic of Dutch primary school pupils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton; Driessen, Geert

    2016-01-01

    Background. In pre-school and primary education pupils differ in many abilities and competences (‘giftedness’). Yet mainstream educational practice seems rather homogeneous in providing age-based or grade-class subject matter approaches. Aims. To clarify whether pupils scoring initially at high

  9. Inclusion in education: comparing pupils' development in special and regular education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.T.D.; Vergeer, M.M.; Roeleveld, J.; Karsten, S.

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale longitudinal data on differences in pupils' cognitive and psychosocial development in various types of special and mainstream schools are reported in this article. The study focuses on comparing the development of matched pairs of primary-aged pupils in mainstream and special education

  10. Showing You're Working: A Project Using Former Pupils' Experiences to Engage Current Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musto, Garrod

    2008-01-01

    To help students view mathematics in a more favourable light, a number of former pupils were contacted and asked to give details of how they use mathematics in their daily lives. This information was gathered through an online questionnaire or visits to the school to talk to pupils--a booklet of responses was also given to students. Attitudinally…

  11. Learning Barriers among Grade 6 Pupils Attending Rural Schools in Uganda: Implications to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Ngware, Moses; Mahuro, Gerald; Muhia, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The paper uses multilevel analysis procedures to examine individual- and group-level learning barriers that have the greatest impact on pupil achievement in Uganda. The data for this study were collected in 2014 among 2711 Grade 6 pupils attending 82 schools in two rural districts of Iganga and Mayuge in Uganda. Data used in this paper are part of…

  12. Brazilian Primary and Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Science and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoszeck, Amauri Betini; Bartoszeck, Flavio Kulevicz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand in an exploratory way pupils' perception of science and the image of scientists at primary and secondary school levels. Data was collected by means of a survey questionnaire and a drawing representing pupils' depiction what scientists do during their working hours. A questionnaire anchored on a Likert…

  13. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  14. Teacher Stress and Pupil Behaviour Explored through a Rational-Emotive Behaviour Therapy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using the psychological framework of rational-emotive behaviour therapy, the principal aim of this study was to establish whether irrational beliefs, self-efficacy or pupil behaviour predicted teacher reports of stress. A secondary aim was to establish whether these variables, in addition to teachers' verbal feedback to pupils in class, predicted…

  15. How Dr Math reaches pupils with competitions and computer games by using MXit

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In a world where school books, pencils and paper have to compete with cell phones, IPODs, and MP3 players for pupils' attention, Dr Math entices pupils to practice basic mathematics skills by providing games and competitions using Mxit over cell...

  16. Sensitive "Heritage" of Slavery in a Multicultural Classroom: Pupils' Ideas Regarding Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Geerte; van Boxtel, Carla; Grever, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pupils' attribution of significance to sensitive "heritage" of slavery may differ, particularly in multicultural classrooms. Little is known about the ways in which pupils establish a relationship with the present when discussing the significance of heritage of slavery. Starting from theories of historical significance and identity,…

  17. Monitoring the Achievement of Deaf Pupils in Sweden and Scotland: Approaches and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendar, Ola; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been major developments in deaf education in many countries. Medical and technical advances have made it possible for more deaf children to hear and speak successfully. Most deaf pupils learn in ordinary classes in mainstream schools. In this article we explore patterns of achievements of deaf pupils to see if…

  18. Contradictions around Differentiation for Pupils with Dyslexia Learning English as a Foreign Language at Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with differentiation of teaching methods and extra time in class for pupils with dyslexia by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in two Greek state secondary schools. Activity theory is applied to analyse the contradictions that emerge around the issue of differentiation for pupils with dyslexia from data compiled from…

  19. What pupils can learn from working with robotic direct manipulation environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou Slangen; Hanno van Keulen; Koeno Gravemeijer

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four

  20. What pupils can learn from working with robotic direct manipulation environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou Slangen; Hanno van Keulen; Koeno Gravemeijer

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates what pupils aged 10-12 can learn from working with robots, assuming that understanding robotics is a sign of technological literacy. We conducted cognitive and conceptual analysis to develop a frame of reference for determining pupils' understanding of robotics. Four

  1. Free Primary Education Policy and Pupil School Mobility in Urban Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Ngware, Moses; Ezeh, Alex C.; Epari, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines pupil school mobility in urban Kenya using African Population and Health Research Centre (APHRC) household survey data which contain information on pupil transfers between schools. The aim is to identify which school characteristics attract the greatest demand for incoming transfers. The analysis reveals that there are frequent…

  2. Using of Video Modeling in Teaching a Simple Meal Preparation Skill for Pupils of Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Salahat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the impact of video modeling upon teaching three pupils with Down syndrome the skill of preparing a simple meal (sandwich), where the training was conducted in a separate classroom in schools of normal students. The training consisted of (i) watching the video of an intellectually disabled pupil, who is…

  3. A Web-Based Screening System for Dyslexic Pupils: Do Teachers Need It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubaidullah, Nor Hasbiah Bt.; Hamid, Jamilah

    2012-01-01

    Currently in Malaysia, schools that conduct the Dyslexia Special Program for dyslexic pupils have to rely on a manual screening instrument, which is cumbersome and slow in diagnosing dyslexic traits in pupils. Thus, this study was carried out to examine prevailing problems that helped in formulating an appropriate solution to overcome existing…

  4. Measuring Attitude towards RE: Factoring Pupil Experience and Home Faith Background into Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have increasingly favoured contextualisation of religious education (RE) to pupils' home faith background in spite of current assessment methods that might hinder this. For a multi-religious, multi-ethnic sample of 369 London school pupils aged from 13 to 15 years, this study found that the participatory, transformative and…

  5. An Examination of the Role of Nursery Education on Primary School Pupils in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniwon, H. O. Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the role of Nursery education among primary school pupils. The sole objective of the study was to find out the differences in academic achievement between primary school pupils who received nursery education and those who did not. Descriptive survey research design was adopted to achieve the study objective. Consequently, 20…

  6. Basic personality dimensions and vocational orientation with pupils of fourth grade of secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Ranđelović Dušan; Kašić Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The main goal of this research was to explore relationship between basic personality dimensions of 'Big Five' model of personality (neuroticism, extraversion, opennes, agreeableness and conscientiousness) and thirteen different groups of activities which orienting pupils toward some vocations (administration, security, electrotechnics, creativity, culture, literature, science, helping jobs, agriculture, practical jobs, sport and management and services). The participants were 219 pupils of fo...

  7. A Study of Pupil Control Ideology: A Person-Oriented Approach to Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwere-Boamah, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Responses of urban school teachers to the Pupil Control Ideology questionnaire were studied using Latent Class Analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that the best fitting model to the data is a two-cluster solution. In particular, the pupil control ideology of the sample delineates into two clusters of teachers, those with humanistic and…

  8. Pupils' perceptions of teaching behaviour : Evaluation of an instrument and importance for academic motivation in Indonesian secondary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; van de Grift, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the psychometric quality of a measure tapping pupils' perceptions of teachers' teaching behaviour in the Indonesian context. It also examines the relationship between pupils' perceptions of teaching behaviour and their perceived academic motivation. Surveys from a

  9. An Extra Radiator? Teachers' Views of Support Teaching and Withdrawal in Developing the English of Bilingual Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, John

    1989-01-01

    Explores the attitudes of British secondary school teachers toward withdrawal and mainstream support as ways of helping bilingual pupils develop competence in English. Suggests that the results allow for envisaging an ideal classroom situation for teaching bilingual pupils. (KO)

  10. Understanding Basic Temporal Relations in Primary School Pupils with Hearing Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulcić, Adinda; Bakota, Koraljka; Saler, Zrinka

    2015-09-01

    Time can be observed as a subjective, as well as an objective phenomenon which is a component of our life, and due to its communicational needs, it is standardized by temporal signs and symbols. The aim of this study was to determine the understanding of basic temporal relations of pupils with hearing impairments. We assumed that the knowledge of basic time relations is a precondition for the acquisition of knowledge that is connected with the understanding of the syllabus in regular school programs. Three groups of pupils have been examined: pupils with hearing impairments who attend the primary school of SUVAG Polyclinic under special condition, integrated hearing impaired pupils with minor additional difficulties who attend regular primary schools in Zagreb with a prolonged expert procedure and pupils of the control group. The subjects have been examined with a measuring instrument constructed by the expert team of the Polyclinic Suvag. Twenty nine subjects have been questioned, chronologically aged between 10 and 12.

  11. Using Pupil Diameter Changes for Measuring Mental Workload under Mental Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, Ihsan; Ozturk, Mustafa

    In this study, it is aimed to evaluate the mental workload by using a practical way which based on measuring pupil diameter changes that occurs under mental processing. To determine the mental effort required for each task, the video record of subjects` eyes are taken while they are performed different tasks and pupils were measured from the records. A group of university student, one female 9 males participated to the experiment. Additionally, NASA-TLX questionnaire is applied for the related mental tasks. For verification of results obtained from both indices, the correlation coefficient is calculated task base. The results show that there is weak and negative correlation between the indices on task base except 3rd task. By investigating pupil diameter measurements data too, it is founded that pupil dilates under mental workload during performing related tasks. For all tasks, pupil diameters of response periods increased according to reference baseline period.

  12. Effects of a six-session introductory psychology programme on Year 9 pupils' interest in psychology and approaches to learning

    OpenAIRE

    Norris, E.; De Aguiar Chaves, T.; Dunsmuir, S.

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is a popular UK A-level, despite many pupils having no previous taught experience of it. Prior introduction to psychology teaching could help pupils make more informed choices to study it. This study evaluates a six-session introduction to psychology programme for 20 Year 9 pupils called ‘Myth-Busting the Brain’. A pre-/post-programme questionnaire investigated pupil interest towards future psychology study, interest in the programme and approaches to learning. There wa...

  13. Unilateral Adie's tonic pupil and viral hepatitis: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadžić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adie’s (tonic pupil is a neuro-ophthalmological disorder characterized by a tonically dilated pupil, which is unresponsive to light. It is caused by damage to postganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic innervation of the eye, usually by a viral or bacterial infection. Adie’s syndrome includes diminished deep tendon reflexes. Outline of Cases. We report data of a 59-year-old female with unequal pupil sizes. She complained of blurred vision and headache mainly while reading. She had a 35-year history of hepatitis B and liver cirrhosis. On exam, left pupil was mydriatic and there was no response to light and at slit lamp we saw segments of the sphincter constrict. We performed 0.125% pilocarpine test and there was a remarkable reduction of size in the left pupil. The second case is a 55-year-old female who was referred to the University Eye Clinic because of a headache and mydriatic left pupil. She had diabetes mellitus type 2, as well as hepatitis A virus 20 years earlier. On exam, the left pupil was mydriatic, with no response to light. Test with diluted pilocarpine was positive. Neurological examinations revealed no abnormality in either case so we excluded Adie’s syndrome. Conclusion. Adie’s tonic pupil is benign neuro-ophthalmological disorder of unknown etiology. Most patients commonly present no symptoms and anisocoria is noticed accidentally. Although the etiology is unknown, there are some conditions that cause tonic pupil. It may be a part of a syndrome in which tonic pupil is associated with absent deep tendon reflexes.

  14. Growing Musicians in English Secondary Schools at Key Stage 3 (Age 11-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalladay, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The National Curriculum for Music in England at Key Stage 3 (KS3; age 11-14) declares its purpose that pupils should be inspired to "develop a love of music and their talent as musicians" (DfE, 2013: KS3 Music). The Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) have criticised secondary schools for a lack of progress in the musical…

  15. Correlated Default and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Financial intermediation naturally arises when knowledge about the aggregate state is valuable for managing investments and lenders cannot easily observe the aggregate state. I show this using a costly enforcement model in which lenders need ex-post incentives to enforce payments from defaulted loans and borrowers' payoffs are correlated. When projects have correlated outcomes, learning the state of one project (via enforcement) provides information about the states of other projects. A large...

  16. Configuration and Dynamics of the Earth-Sun-Moon System: An Investigation into Conceptions of Deaf and Hearing Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roald, Ingvild; Mikalsen, Oyvind

    2001-01-01

    Reports and analyzes the day and night cycle, the seasons, and the phases of the moon as seen by Norwegian deaf pupils aged 7, 9, 11, and 17 years, and by hearing Norwegian pupils 9 years old. Among the 9-year-olds there was no difference in the inner coherence of the conceptions between deaf pupils. (Author/SAH)

  17. Learning for self-regulation: Improving instructional benefits for pupils, teachers, parents, schools, and society at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2016-01-01

    Compulsory education laws oblige primary and secondary schools to give each pupil positive encouragement in, for example, social, emotional, cognitive, creative, and ethical respects. This is a fairly smooth process for most pupils, but it is not as easy to achieve with others. A pattern of pupil,

  18. Effects of a Six-Session Introductory Psychology Programme on Year 9 Pupils' Interest in Psychology and Approaches to Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Emma; Chaves, Tahirah De Aguiar; Dunsmuir, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is a popular UK A-level, despite many pupils having no previous taught experience of it. Prior introduction to psychology teaching could help pupils make more informed choices to study it. This study evaluates a six-session introduction to psychology programme for 20 Year 9 pupils called "Myth-Busting the Brain." A…

  19. Pupils' Self-Perceptions: The Role of Teachers' Judgment Controlling for Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressoux, Pascal; Pansu, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to study the relationship between teachers' judgment and pupils' self-perceptions controlling for the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE). Three studies were conducted among third-grade pupils. Study 1 (n = 585) focused on pupils' perceptions of their scholastic competence. Teachers' judgment and BFLPE were found to have an…

  20. Peculiarities of adaptive and compensatory abilities of the modern pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Володимирівна Фролова

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of an intense functioning of child organism an influence of unfavorable factors can result into breakdown of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and to become a presupposition for forming pathology.Aim: to define peculiarities of adaptive and compensatory abilities of school-aged children during the school year.Methods. 970 children 9-17 years old were examined at the beginning and at the end of school year. Children were divided in 2 groups: I – 673 children with chronic somatic diseases, II – 297 conventionally healthy children.The study of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms was carried out with a glance to vegetative regulation of body functions. Robinson index (IR was used for an express-assessment of somatic health. Statistic data-processing was done according to the requirements of evidence-based medicine.Result. An analysis of an examination results at the beginning of the school year showed that the pupils of the I group have a complex disturbances of vegetative regulation, low level of aerobic abilities of organism. Among the children of the II group no more than 25% have a satisfactory state of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms that ensure an adequate response of child organism on the stress factors of educational process.At the end of the school year the part of children who have a balanced level of neuroreflex systems of organism decreases by 50%, the number of children with an overstrain of regulatory systems of organism increases by 28%, with unsatisfactory state of adaptive and compensatory mechanisms – by 22% that becomes presupposition for formation and chronization of somatic pathology.An examination of pupils health level at the end of the school year showed that the number of conventionally healthy children decreases by 19,2%. The syntropy of pathological states formed in 54,2% of pupils with chronic somatic pathology, in 34,5% of children the functional disturbance transformed into somatic pathology

  1. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  2. Modern approaches to forming value orientations of junior pupils nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Matsuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of approaches to the formation of value orientations of primary school children today is outlined in the article. One of the most important tasks of the school in terms of national revival of Ukraine appears education of harmonious, spiritually rich and nationally conscious personality. Educating of the current generation needs serious updating of educational content, development of a wide spectrum of problems associated with the formation of ideological orientations of a personality, development and activity, independence, consciousness, self-consciousness. The solution of the abovementioned problem is possible subject to optimize management of process education through the humanization of education that will ensure the establishment of priority of human values in society.Key words: values, value orientations, training and education, junior pupils, patriotism, identity, dignity, courage, duty, responsibility, tolerance.

  3. Reading strategies of primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Najvarová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on reading with comprehension – an activity of the readerwhich is seen as an interaction between the author and the recipient. In order tounderstand a text better, a reader may employ various techniques and strategies. Thearticle consists of three parts. In the first part, categories reading strategy and readingskill and the relationship between them are defined. In the second part, classificationsof reading strategies are presented and sorted according to various criteria. The thirdpart summarises the findings of a research project that concentrated on the readingstrategies of primary school pupils in Czech primary schools in the 2005/06 schoolyear. The findings indicate primary school teachers’ preferred procedures of using textsin teaching and pupils’ preferred reading strategies by the end of primary education.

  4. Skills of Chemistry Pupils during the Period of Curricular Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Bayerová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Univerzita Karlova v Praze, Přírodovědecká fakulta Katedra učitelství a didaktiky chemie Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science Department of Teaching and Didactics of Chemistry Doktorský studijní program: Vzdělávání v chemii Ph.D. study program: Education in Chemistry Autoreferát disertační práce Summary of the Ph.D. Thesis Mgr. Anna Bayerová Dovednosti žáků v chemii v období kurikulární reformy Skills of Chemistry Pupils during the Period of Curricular Reform Školitel/Supervisor: ...

  5. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  6. Microarcsecond relative astrometry from the ground with a diffractive pupil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammons, S M; Bendek, E; Guyon, O

    2011-09-08

    The practical use of astrometry to detect exoplanets via the reflex motion of the parent star depends critically on the elimination of systematic floors in imaging systems. In the diffractive pupil technique proposed for space-based detection of exo-earths, extended diffraction spikes generated by a dotted primary mirror are referenced against a wide-field grid of background stars to calibrate changing optical distortion and achieve microarcsecond astrometric precision on bright targets (Guyon et al. 2010). We describe applications of this concept to ground-based uncrowded astrometry using a diffractive, monopupil telescope and a wide-field camera to image as many as {approx}4000 background reference stars. Final relative astrometric precision is limited by differential tip/tilt jitter caused by high altitude layers of turbulence. A diffractive 3-meter telescope is capable of reaching {approx}35 {micro}as relative astrometric error per coordinate perpendicular to the zenith vector in three hours on a bright target star (I < 10) in fields of moderate stellar density ({approx}40 stars arcmin{sup -2} with I < 23). Smaller diffractive apertures (D < 1 m) can achieve 100-200 {micro}as performance with the same stellar density and exposure time and a large telescope (6.5-10 m) could achieve as low as 10 {micro}as, nearly an order of magnitude better than current space-based facilities. The diffractive pupil enables the use of larger fields of view through calibration of changing optical distortion as well as brighter target stars (V < 6) by preventing star saturation. Permitting the sky to naturally roll to average signals over many thousands of pixels can mitigate the effects of detector imperfections.

  7. A teacher's decade passed with pupils and a simple radiometric instrument. Could junior and senior high school pupils see the radiation with their eyes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The author, a teacher of Naragakuen Junior High School-High School in Nara Prefecture, looks back the history of his given education about radiation to 3rd year pupils for the decade from 2002. The main theme of the education includes an actual radiometric study of the already attained, naturally cleaned-up radioactivity derived from A-bomb from the ground of Hiroshima City, and an asking investigation to know how many people misunderstand, as pupils have done so, that Hiroshima ground surface is still radio-contaminated. In 2011, pupils stayed at Fukushima, not Hiroshima. For the radiometric study, pupils first learn the movement of substances in the ground by rain with a model of naturally abundant 40 KCl using a simple radiometer, HAKARUKUN. Then in Hiroshuma, they measure the ambient dose at >600 spots to compare with the doses in other cities like Nara and Kyoto, and the beta-ray of A-bomb-exposed buildings and air dust to see the same half life as that measured in Nara. Their asking investigation revealed that 32.2% and 31.5% of Hiroshima citizen and the resident in other cities, respectively, misunderstand that radiation in the City is higher than other cities. These results have been presented at the conference for pupils mainly held by the Kinki Branch of Chemical Society of Japan. The author expects the exchange of radiological information between learned pupils and parents who have probably not been taught about radiation as its education has been absent during these 30 years. Though, the education is to be given to all pupils hereafter in Japan. (T.T.)

  8. On spallation and fragmentation of heavy ions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musulmanbekov, G.; Al-Haidary, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new code for simulation of spallation and (multi)fragmentation of nuclei in proton and nucleus induced collisions at intermediate and high energies is developed. The code is a combination of modified intranuclear cascade model with traditional fission - evaporation part and multifragmentation part based on lattice representation of nuclear structure and percolation approach. The production of s-wave resonances and formation time concept included into standard intranuclear cascade code provides correct calculation of excitation energy of residues. This modified cascade code served as a bridge between low and high energy model descriptions of nucleus-nucleus collisions. A good agreement with experiments has been obtained for multiparticle production at intermediate and relatively high energies. Nuclear structure of colliding nuclei is represented as face centered cubic lattice. This representation, being isomorphic to the shell model of nuclear structure, allows to apply percolation approach for nuclear fragmentation. The offered percolation model includes both site and bond percolation. Broken sites represent holes left by nucleons knocked out at cascade state. Therefore, in the first cascade stage mutual rescattering of the colliding nuclei results in knocking some nucleons out of them. After this fast stage paltrily destruct and excited residues remain. On the second stage residual nuclei either evaporate nucleons and light nuclei up to alpha-particles or fragment into pieces with intermediate masses. The choice depends on residue's destruction degree. At low excitation energy and small destruction of the residue the evaporation and fission mechanisms are preferable. The more excitation energy and destruction the more probability of (multi)fragmentation process. Moreover, the more destruction degree of the residual the more the site percolation probability. It is concluded, that at low and intermediate excitation energies the fragmentation of nuclei is slow

  9. [Correspondence analysis of association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Dongmei; Wang, Peixi

    2015-07-01

    To explore the association between types of unintentional injuries and influential factors among rural rear pupils. The multistage stratified sampling method was used to select the study participant and thus 594 rural pupils were sampled, 292 rear pupils were confirmed and measured with unintentional injuries and influential factors of rural rear pupils scale. Binary logistic regression analysis indicate that the risk facts related to unintentional injury were left-behind status (OR = 2.68, 95% CI 1.06-6.79), gender (OR = 5.12, 95% C2.68-9.79) and surrounding environment (OR = 3.44, 95% CI 1.37-8.70). Correspondence analysis showed living with father, middle personality and low age were related possibly with traffic accident injury. Living with grandparents, extrovert personality and elder pupils were related possibly with unintentional falls injury. Living with mother, introvert personality and middle-age pupils were related possibly with animmal injury. The personality, ages and guardian types of rural rear pupils are correlated with types of unintentional injuries.

  10. Pupil size directly modulates the feedforward response in human primary visual cortex independently of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombeke, Klaas; Duthoo, Wout; Mueller, Sven C; Hopf, Jens-Max; Boehler, C Nico

    2016-02-15

    Controversy revolves around the question of whether psychological factors like attention and emotion can influence the initial feedforward response in primary visual cortex (V1). Although traditionally, the electrophysiological correlate of this response in humans (the C1 component) has been found to be unaltered by psychological influences, a number of recent studies have described attentional and emotional modulations. Yet, research into psychological effects on the feedforward V1 response has neglected possible direct contributions of concomitant pupil-size modulations, which are known to also occur under various conditions of attentional load and emotional state. Here we tested the hypothesis that such pupil-size differences themselves directly affect the feedforward V1 response. We report data from two complementary experiments, in which we used procedures that modulate pupil size without differences in attentional load or emotion while simultaneously recording pupil-size and EEG data. Our results confirm that pupil size indeed directly influences the feedforward V1 response, showing an inverse relationship between pupil size and early V1 activity. While it is unclear in how far this effect represents a functionally-relevant adaptation, it identifies pupil-size differences as an important modulating factor of the feedforward response of V1 and could hence represent a confounding variable in research investigating the neural influence of psychological factors on early visual processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  12. Pupils' liking for school: ability grouping, self-concept and perceptions of teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireson, Judith; Hallam, Susan

    2005-06-01

    Research indicates that affective aspects of development provide a basis for autonomous learning. Pupils' liking for school may be a useful indicator of their relationships with teachers and the school. The aim of the research reported in this paper is to establish the properties of a measure of pupils' liking for school and to examine associations between this measure, pupils' experiences in lessons, their self-concepts and the amount of setting implemented in school. A stratified sample of 45 mixed secondary comprehensive schools was selected for the research. Schools represented a variety of ability-grouping practices in the lower school (Years 7-9), from completely mixed-ability to setting in all academic subjects. All Year 9 pupils were included in the sample. Pupils completed a questionnaire containing items on their self-concept, liking for school, and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science. Data on pupils' gender, ethnic origin, social disadvantage and attainment was also collected. The properties and correlates of scales indicating pupils' liking for school and their perceptions of teaching in English, mathematics, and science are established. Liking for school is greater among girls, pupils with higher academic self-concepts, and those with more positive perceptions of teaching. Pupils are more positive about teaching they experience in English than in mathematics or science. When other variables are statistically controlled, there is no significant effect of the extent of ability grouping in the school as a whole. Affective aspects of learning should not be neglected in the drive to raise standards.

  13. School Xenophobia and Interethnic Relationships Among Secondary Level Pupils in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Deusdad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Migratory processes in southern Europe over the last two decades have brought about substantial changes to the ethnic makeup of secondary schools. Classrooms have increased in their complexity in terms of teaching, as there are pupils with different cultural and economic backgrounds and educational needs, but also in the relationships among the peer groups of pupils. What kinds of attitudes and relations can be found among the members of this culturally diverse pupil body? What kinds of views are held by the pupils about each other? The aim of this paper is to shed light on stereotypes and xenophobic attitudes towards immigrant pupils in secondary schools in Spain, principally among peer groups, and on how teachers address this multicultural classroom dynamic and complexity and any possible prejudices towards stereotypes and racist attitudes that surface inside the classroom. Relationships tend to be formed among peer groups of the same ethnicity and there is a marked rejection of pupils from Moroccan origin. Teachers are neither aware of pupils’ stereotypes nor of their own. As a consequence, they are not giving sufficient pedagogical responses to resolve arguments or disrespectful situations against immigrant pupils. This in turn is contributing, on the one hand, to racist and xenophobic societies (Banks 2011; Deusdad 2013. On the other hand, teachers’ low expectations of these immigrant pupils has had an effect on their academic achievements and on dropout rates (Deusdad 2009. The present study is based on 2196 questionnaires administered to pupils at 43 Spanish secondary schools. In-depth interviews with 54 secondary school teachers were also carried out, so as to understand teachers’ discourses and pedagogical resources. 

  14. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  15. Photonuclear reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant feature of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies is the excitation of the δ resonance and one can therefore use such reactions to study the dynamics of δ propagation in a nucleus. Following an introductory section the author comments on photoabsorption on a single nucleon in Section II. A review of the δ-n Greens function and of the photonuclear amplitude is given in Section III. Results for photoabsorption on 4 He are shown in Section IV and compared with the data. Coherent π 0 photoproduction is discussed in Section V and calculations for 12 C are compared to recent measurements. (Auth.)

  16. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  17. Intermediality: Bridge to Critical Media Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailliotet, Ann Watts; Semali, Ladislaus; Rodenberg, Rita K.; Giles, Jackie K.; Macaul, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Defines "intermediality" as the ability to critically read and write with and across varied symbol systems. Relates it to critical media literacy. Offers rationales for teaching critical media literacy in general, and intermedial instruction in particular. Identifies seven guiding intermedial elements: theory, texts, processes, contexts,…

  18. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in “normal” science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p motivated pupils. PMID:25741301

  19. Investigating the motivational behavior of pupils during outdoor science teaching within self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettweiler, Ulrich; Ünlü, Ali; Lauterbach, Gabriele; Becker, Christoph; Gschrey, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents data from a mixed-method pilot study (n = 84) searching into learning psychological aspects of an outdoor science teaching program. We use data from qualitative explorations into the pupils' learning motivation during field observation, a group interview, and open questionnaires, in order to understand quantitative measures from the Self-Determination Index (SDI), and the Practical Orientation (PO) of the program. Our data suggest that lower self-regulated pupils in "normal" science classes show a significantly higher self-regulated learning motivational behavior in the outdoor educational setting (p tool to trigger interest in science in youngsters, especially for less motivated pupils.

  20. Unification of favourable intermediate-, unfavourable intermediate-, and very high-risk stratification criteria for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Zelefsky, Michael J; Woo, Kaitlin M; Spratt, Daniel E; Kollmeier, Marisa A; McBride, Sean; Pei, Xin; Sandler, Howard M; Zhang, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    To improve on the existing risk-stratification systems for prostate cancer. This was a retrospective investigation including 2 248 patients undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single institution. We separated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk prostate cancer into 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Similarly, NCCN high-risk prostate cancer was stratified into 'standard' and 'very high-risk' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Patients with unfavourable-intermediate-risk (UIR) prostate cancer had significantly inferior prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P prostate cancer. Similarly, patients with very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA-RFS (P prostate cancer. Moreover, patients with FIR and low-risk prostate cancer had similar outcomes, as did patients with UIR and SHR prostate cancer. Consequently, we propose the following risk-stratification system: Group 1, low risk and FIR; Group 2, UIR and SHR; and Group 3, VHR. These groups have markedly different outcomes, with 8-year distant metastasis rates of 3%, 9%, and 29% (P < 0.001) for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 8-year PCSM of 1%, 4%, and 13% (P < 0.001) after EBRT. This modified stratification system was significantly more accurate than the three-tiered NCCN system currently in clinical use for all outcomes. Modifying the NCCN risk-stratification system to group FIR with low-risk patients and UIR with SHR patients, results in modestly improved prediction of outcomes, potentially allowing better personalisation of therapeutic recommendations. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Post-crisis financial intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie MIHAI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that begun in 2007 in the US, which then swept around the world, has left deep scars on the already wrinkled face of the global economy. Some national and regional economies, which had money for expensive makeup, or created money[1], managed to blur or hide the scars left by the crisis, others are still facing difficulties in overcoming the effects of this. The rapacity of banks, their greed and risk ignorance, were the origin of the outbreak of the last major economic and financial crisis but unfortunately those who were responsible or, rather, irresponsible, paid little or nothing at all for the burden of their bad loan portfolio. This cost has been supported by the population, either directly by paying high interest and fees [Mihai I., 2007], or indirectly, through the use of public budgets to cover the losses of banks, most of which had private capital. In this context, we intend to examine the state of financial intermediation in Romania in the post-crisis period, and to primarily follow: (i The structure and evolution of the banking system; (ii Non-government credit situation; (iii The level of savings; (iiii Loan-deposit ratio; (v The degree of financial intermediation and disintegration phenomenon etc., and to articulate some conclusions and suggestions on the matters that have been explored.

  2. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  3. Negotiating comfort in low energy housing: The politics of intermediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandclément, Catherine; Karvonen, Andrew; Guy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Optimising the energy performance of buildings is technically and economically challenging but it also has significant social implications. Maintaining comfortable indoor conditions while reducing energy consumption involves careful design, construction, and management of the built environment and its inhabitants. In this paper, we present findings from the study of a new low energy building for older people in Grenoble, France where conflicts emerged over the simultaneous pursuit of energy efficiency and comfort. The findings contribute to the contemporary literature on the sociotechnical study of buildings and energy use by focusing on intermediation, those activities that associate a technology to end users. Intermediation activities take many forms, and in some cases, can result in the harmonisation or alignment of energy efficiency goals and comfort goals. In other cases, intermediation is unsuccessful, leading to the conventional dichotomy between optimising technical performance and meeting occupant preferences. By highlighting the multiple ways that comfort and energy efficiency is negotiated, we conclude that buildings are provisional achievements that are constantly being intermediated. This suggests that building energy efficiency policies and programmes need to provide opportunities for intermediaries to negotiate the desires and preferences of the multiple stakeholders that are implicated in low energy buildings. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency and comfort are two possibly contradictory aims of buildings. •We study the pursuit of these aims at the occupation stage of a new building. •Aligning these aims involve negotiating them with occupants. •Intermediation processes are key to such negotiations. •Intermediation processes involve both actors and technical devices

  4. Dr Math Rocks!: Using instant messaging to help pupils with mathematics homework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, LL

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics education in South Africa needs help. This paper describes a project where school aged pupils could get help with their mathematics homework using MXit, South Africa's most popular instant messaging system, on their cell phones...

  5. Designing instruction and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Mooij, T. (2013). Designing education and learning for cognitively gifted pupils in preschool and primary school. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 17(6), 597-613. doi:10.1080/13603116.2012.696727

  6. Pupil-linked arousal is driven by decision uncertainty and alters serial choice bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urai, Anne E.; Braun, Anke; Donner, Tobias H.

    2017-03-01

    While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty. Pupil dilation, after choice but before external feedback, reflects three hallmark signatures of decision uncertainty derived from a computational model. This increase in pupil-linked arousal boosts observers' tendency to alternate their choice on the subsequent trial. We conclude that decision uncertainty drives rapid changes in pupil-linked arousal state, which shape the serial correlation structure of ongoing choice behaviour.

  7. The pupil response is sensitive to divided attention during speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelewijn, Thomas; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kramer, Sophia E

    2014-06-01

    Dividing attention over two streams of speech strongly decreases performance compared to focusing on only one. How divided attention affects cognitive processing load as indexed with pupillometry during speech recognition has so far not been investigated. In 12 young adults the pupil response was recorded while they focused on either one or both of two sentences that were presented dichotically and masked by fluctuating noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In line with previous studies, the performance decreases when processing two target sentences instead of one. Additionally, dividing attention to process two sentences caused larger pupil dilation and later peak pupil latency than processing only one. This suggests an effect of attention on cognitive processing load (pupil dilation) during speech processing in noise. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Workshop to review problem-behavior research programs : pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the proceedings of a workshop on pedestrian, bicycle, and pupil transportation safety. The purpose of this workshop was to develop specific recommendations for the planning and implementation of NHTSA research, development, and d...

  9. ADAPTATION OF THE FIRST FORM PUPILS TO EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микола Прозар

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study of adaptive possibilities (social and psychological of pupils of the first form to the educational activities in secondary schools. Using the research methods, an one-year experiment was conducted: the pupils of the first forms of Kamjanets-Podilsky secondary schools  № 13 and № 14 (73 boys and 87 girls were selected by the method of random sample. The study found that the living conditions of the 6-year-olds (due to the beginning of education in secondary school do not assist formation of adequate adaptation: at the beginning, the social and psychological adaptation correspond to the average level, and in the end – to the lowest one. Obtained results give reason to conclude that the learning activities in the first year of study negatively affects the adaptive possibilities of the first form pupils; it results in poor mental capacity and health of pupils.

  10. Pupil Diameter Does Not Correlate with Fixation Duration - or Does It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt; Carl, Michael; Elming, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    A number of pupillometric studies have suggested that dynamic differences in pupil diameter correlate with dierent levels of cognitive intensity or excitement. Other studies have suggested a similar correlation between fixation duration and cognitive effort. Since both methodologies for hypothesi...

  11. Preventive oral health practices of school pupils in Southern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Onyejaka, Nneka; Popoola, Bamidele O; Adeyemo, Yewande Isabella

    2014-07-07

    One of the goals of the World Health Organisation goal is to ensure increased uptake of preventive oral self-care by 2020. This would require the design public health programmes that will ensure children place premium on preventive oral health care uptake. One effort in that direction is the need for countries to define baseline measures on use of preventive oral self-care measures by their population as well as identify factors that impact on its use. This study aims to determine the prevalence and the impact of age and sex on the use of recommended oral self-care measures by pupils in Southern Nigeria. Pupils age 8 to 16 years (N = 2,676) in two urban sites in Southern Nigeria completed a questionnaire about recommended oral self-care (use of fluoridated toothpaste, flossing, regularity of consuming sugary snacks between main meals), time of the last dental check-up and cigarette smoking habit. Chi square was used to test association between age (8-10years, 11-16 years), sex, and use of recommended oral self-care. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of use of recommended oral self-care. Only 7.8% of the study population practiced the recommended oral self-care. Older adolescents had an 8.0% increased odds (OR: 1.08; CI:0.81-1.43; p = 0.61) and males had a 20.0% decreased odds (OR: 0.80; CI:0.60-1.06; p = 0.12) of practicing recommended oral self-care though observed differences were not statistically significant. Very few respondents (12.7%) had visited the dental clinic for a check-up in the last one year. Majority of the respondents (92.2%) were non-smokers. The use of a combination of oral self-care approaches was very low for this study population. Age and sex were predictive factors for the use of components of the oral self-care measures but not significant predictors of use of recommended oral self-care. Future studies would be required to understand 'why' and 'how' age and sex impacts on the use of caries

  12. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  13. The development of creativity of primary school pupils by fairy-tales

    OpenAIRE

    Bražienė, Nijolė

    2005-01-01

    This summary shows that the positive improvements of creativity are obtained by broadening and deepening the knowledge of fairy tales of primary school pupils in the theoretical and practical level, and by realization of potentialities rendered by teaching means of Lithuanian language for the develpment of divergent thinking and imagination of pupils and nurturance of sense of humour, emotionality and empathy purposefully employing additional educational activities.

  14. Special Issue: Every picture tells a story: Pupil representations of learning the violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Creech

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The influence on learning outcomes of interpersonal interaction amongst teachers, pupils and parents is the subject of an inquiry that took this researcher on a voyage from the qualitative to the quantitative side of the “methodological divide”, and back again. This paper presents findings from first phase of the research, which included a quantitative survey to examine how learning and teaching experience for violin pupils was influenced by the interpersonal dynamics of responsiveness and control, within pupilparent and pupil-teacher relationships. As part of the survey pupils were asked to draw pictures of their violin lessons. It was thought that the pictures might reveal pupils’ perceptions of their experience of learning an instrument and that the pictures would add depth to the quantitative scales that measured interpersonal mechanisms and pupil outcomes. The pictures were subjected to content analysis and coded accordingly. These codes were matched with pupil artists’ scores for control and responsiveness, as well as with their scores for outcomes that included enjoyment of music, personal satisfaction, self esteem, self efficacy, friendship, motivation and musical attainment. Analysis of variance was computed in order to test the null hypotheses that a pupil-teacher-parent interpersonal behaviour (control and responsiveness was not represented in their pictures and b pupil outcomes were not reflected in their depictions of violin lessons. This paper presents the results of this analysis, thus addressing the question of whether the pictures could be accepted as telling a credible and coherent story about pupils’ perceptions of learning the violin.

  15. Swimming level of pupils from elementary schools with own swimming pool

    OpenAIRE

    Zálupská, Klára

    2012-01-01

    Title: Swimming level of pupils from primary school with private swimming pool. Work objectives: The aim is to identify assess level of swimming of pupils from first to ninth grade of primary school with a private pool in Chomutov district using continuous swimming test with regular swimming lessons, which is started in the first grade and persists until the ninth grade. The condition was organizing a school swimming lessons once a week for 45 minutes in all grades. Methodology: Swimming leve...

  16. Teleological reasoning in 4-month-old infants: pupil dilations and contextual constraints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Gredebäck

    Full Text Available Four-month-old infants were presented with feeding actions performed in a rational or irrational manner. Infants reacted to the irrational feeding actions by dilating their pupils, but only in the presence of rich contextual constraints. The study demonstrates that teleological processes are online at 4 months of age and illustrates the usefulness of pupil dilations as a measure of social cognitive processes early in infancy.

  17. Numerical stress analysis of the iris tissue induced by pupil expansion: Comparison of commercial devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Perera, Shamira A.; Girard, Michaël J. A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose (1) To use finite element (FE) modelling to estimate local iris stresses (i.e. internal forces) as a result of mechanical pupil expansion; and to (2) compare such stresses as generated from several commercially available expanders (Iris hooks, APX dilator and Malyugin ring) to determine which design and deployment method are most likely to cause iris damage. Methods We used a biofidelic 3-part iris FE model that consisted of the stroma, sphincter and dilator muscles. Our FE model simulated expansion of the pupil from 3 mm to a maximum of 6 mm using the aforementioned pupil expanders, with uniform circular expansion used for baseline comparison. FE-derived stresses, resultant forces and area of final pupil opening were compared across devices for analysis. Results Our FE models demonstrated that the APX dilator generated the highest stresses on the sphincter muscles, (max: 6.446 MPa; average: 5.112 MPa), followed by the iris hooks (max: 5.680 MPa; average: 5.219 MPa), and the Malyugin ring (max: 2.144 MPa; average: 1.575 MPa). Uniform expansion generated the lowest stresses (max: 0.435MPa; average: 0.377 MPa). For pupil expansion, the APX dilator required the highest force (41.22 mN), followed by iris hooks (40.82 mN) and the Malyugin ring (18.56 mN). Conclusion Our study predicted that current pupil expanders exert significantly higher amount of stresses and forces than required during pupil expansion. Our work may serve as a guide for the development and design of next-generation pupil expanders. PMID:29538452

  18. Disorders in melanopsin effect of pupil constriction as a risk factor causing eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kaptsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Risks of eye damage and eyesight deterioration to a great extent depend on how efficient a biomechanical eye system is under energy-saving lighting conditions. The system's efficiency is determined by its adequacy in managing pupils and ciliary muscle. We analyzed mathematical models describing changes in pupil's diameter which were determined by light-technical parameters of illumination environment (luminance level and brightness. We highlighted the importance of ganglionic cells and the role they play in managing pupil's diameter (miosis when they are exposed to blue light within 480 nm spectrum. Basing on the assessment of a pupil's constriction under exposure to various light stimuli (blue, red, and green ones we worked out a melanopsin effect concept of a pupil's retention at miosis and showed that it could be a diagnostic sign of some diseases (age-related direct retinopathy, pancreatic diabetes under exposure to a blue light impulse with a certain wave length. Under exposure to blue light within 480 nm spectrum ganglionic cells form a managing signal for a sphincter muscle of a pupil and ciliary muscle which provides accommodation (as per Helmholtz and regulates aqueous humor flow in ciliary channel. All modern energy-saving light sources have a low energy level at wave length equal to 480 nm due to gap in their spectrum in comparison with sunlight spectrum with the same light temperature and luminance level. Inadequate management of pupil's diameter under artificial lighting conditions leads to melanopsin effect disorders and causes disharmony in managing aqueous humor outflow. All the above-stated factors under long-term visual load cause eye diseases risks in modern illumination environment. We detected that contemporary mathematic models describing pupil's diameter fluctuations needed to be refined allowing for new knowledge on functional peculiarities of retina cells and energy-saving light sources spectrum.

  19. Fine-grained versus categorical: Pupil size differentiates between strategies for spatial working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega

    2017-05-01

    Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Permanent alterations in muscarinic receptors and pupil size produced by chronic atropinization in kittens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.L.; Redburn, D.A.; Harwerth, R.S.; Maguire, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    Chronic mydriasis was induced in six kittens (four monocular, two binocular) and two adult cats (both monocular) by the daily topical application of atropine. Both the kittens and the adult cats were atropinized for a 13-week period with the treatment regimen beginning at the time of eye opening for the kittens. Pupil size measurements, obtained 1 year after the atropinization were discontinued, revealed that, although the pupils of the adult cats were normal, the pupils of the kittens' treated eyes were consistently smaller than pupils in control eyes. The status of the muscarinic receptors in the kittens' irides was investigated using 3 H-QNB binding assays. In comparison with iris muscle homogenates from the control eyes, those from the treated eyes demonstrated an eightfold increase in the number of receptor binding sites. The results indicate that pupil size can be altered permanently by chronic mydriasis initiated early in the life of a kitten and that the permanent change in pupil size may result, in part, from a type of permanent supersensitivity response in the muscle following chronic blockade of muscarinic transmission by atropine

  1. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhagaze, Patrick; Njuguna, Kahaki Kimani Margaret; Kandeke, Lévi; Courtright, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2%) were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%), followed by lens pathology (18.3%), uveal lesions (14.7%) and optic nerve lesions (11.9%). In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%). More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  2. Teachers' perceptions of academic failure: Is it worth to bother about unsuccesful pupils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinić Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the convictions of the teachers about scholastic failure and their perception of the activities they use in work with unsuccessful pupils. The theoretical basis for our research was the belief that there is a connection between the teacher's convictions and their everyday practices. The aim was to examine: 1 the teachers' convictions about the nature of academic failure, traits of the failing students, adequacy of after-class sessions and group work in overcoming the problem of academic failure, and 2 the teachers' perception of their own responsibility and engagement in supporting failing pupils. A set of parametric statistical techniques was used to analyze the responses of 1441 elementary-school teachers to the items related to academic failure in the questionnaire about current school problems. The results show that 1 the teachers have optimistic convictions about cognitive abilities of failing pupils and see after-class sessions as a good opportunity to work with them; they state that 2 they additionally prepare classes for work with failing pupils and stimulate them during regular classes and believe that failing pupils are successful in outdoor activities; 3 they have no definite opinion about the role of the teacher and adequacy of group work in overcoming the problem. The concluding observations stress the need for a detailed analysis of the activities based on the teacher's convictions about academic failure and support to failing pupils.

  3. Pupil dilation reveals top-down attentional load during spatial monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Matteo; Bonato, Mario; Zorzi, Marco

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that the diameter of human pupil enlarges with increasing effort during the execution of a task. This has been observed not only for purely mechanical effort but also for mental effort, as for example the computation of arithmetic problems with different levels of difficulty. Here we show that pupil dilation reflects changes in visuospatial awareness induced by attentional load during multi-tasking. In the single-task condition, participants had to report the position of lateralized, briefly presented, masked visual targets ("right", "left", or "both" sides). In the multitasking conditions, participants also performed additional tasks, either visual or auditory, to increase the attentional load. Sensory stimulation was kept constant across all conditions to rule out the influence of low-level factors. Results show that event-related pupil dilation strikingly increased with task demands, mirroring a concurrent decrease in visuospatial awareness. Importantly, pupil dilation significantly differed between two dual-task conditions that required to process the same number of stimuli but yielded differed levels of accuracy (difficulty). In contrast, pupil dilation did not differ between two conditions which were equally challenging but differed both in the modality of the dual task (auditory vs. visual) and in the number of stimuli to be attended. We conclude that pupil dilation genuinely reflects the top-down allocation of supramodal attentional resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pupil Size Tracks Attentional Performance In Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainstein, G; Rojas-Líbano, D; Crossley, N A; Carrasco, X; Aboitiz, F; Ossandón, T

    2017-08-15

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis is based on reported symptoms, which carries the potential risk of over- or under-diagnosis. A biological marker that helps to objectively define the disorder, providing information about its pathophysiology, is needed. A promising marker of cognitive states in humans is pupil size, which reflects the activity of an 'arousal' network, related to the norepinephrine system. We monitored pupil size from ADHD and control subjects, during a visuo-spatial working memory task. A sub group of ADHD children performed the task twice, with and without methylphenidate, a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Off-medication patients showed a decreased pupil diameter during the task. This difference was no longer present when patients were on-medication. Pupil size correlated with the subjects' performance and reaction time variability, two vastly studied indicators of attention. Furthermore, this effect was modulated by medication. Through pupil size, we provide evidence of an involvement of the noradrenergic system during an attentional task. Our results suggest that pupil size could serve as a biomarker in ADHD.

  5. Pupil diameter as predictor of cognitive load: A novel tool for geoscience education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, R.; McNeal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Pupils can truly serve as windows to the mind. Since the early part of the last decade, pupillometry, the study of pupils in response to cognitive tasks, have gained traction in psychophysiological studies. Muscles of the iris work in tandem with the autonomic nervous system in response to light condition to either dilate or contract the pupil, usually between 2 to 7 mm. Along with this response to light conditions, the pupils also contract or dilate in response to emotional or mental response. Therefore, for a cognitive task, if the ambient brightness is controlled, pupil dilation reflects the cognitive load associated with the task. Simple tasks such as counting, memorizing, multiplying and visual searching have been found to have pupillometry profiles reflective of the cognitive load involved with such tasks. In this study, we investigate whether pupil diameter can be used for education research where tasks can be more complex. In particular, we look at two specific types of tasks common in geoscience and several other STEM fields: graph reading and spatial problem solving.

  6. Effect of pupil size on visual acuity in a laboratory model of pseudophakic monovision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamorita, Takushi; Uozato, Hiroshi; Handa, Tomoya; Ito, Misae; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of pupil size on visual acuity in pseudophakic monovision. For the simulation, a modified Liou-Brennan model eye was used. The model eye was designed to include a centered optical system, corneal asphericity, an iris pupil, a Stiles-Crawford effect, an intraocular lens, and chromatic aberration. Calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) was performed with ZEMAX software. Visual acuity was estimated from the MTF and the retinal threshold curve. The sizes of the entrance pupil were 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 4.0 mm. Decreasing pupil diameter and increasing myopia progressively improved near visual acuity. For an entrance pupil size of 2.5 mm and a refractive error of -1.50 diopters, the logMAR value (Snellen; metric) in the non-dominant eye at 40 cm was 0.06 (20/23; 6/6.9). Knowledge of the patient's pupil diameter at near fixation can assist surgeons in determining the optimum degree of myopia for successful monovision.

  7. Optimal power distribution for minimizing pupil walk in a 7.5X afocal zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanyue; Zhao, Yang; Berman, Rebecca; Bodell, S. Yvonne; Fennig, Eryn; Ni, Yunhui; Papa, Jonathan C.; Yang, Tianyi; Yee, Anthony J.; Moore, Duncan T.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive design study was conducted to find the best optimal power distribution and stop location for a 7.5x afocal zoom lens that controls the pupil walk and pupil location through zoom. This afocal zoom lens is one of the three components in a VIS-SWIR high-resolution microscope for inspection of photonic chips. The microscope consists of an afocal zoom, a nine-element objective and a tube lens and has diffraction limited performance with zero vignetting. In this case, the required change in object (sample) size and resolution is achieved by the magnification change of the afocal component. This creates strict requirements for both the entrance and exit pupil locations of the afocal zoom to couple the two sides successfully. The first phase of the design study looked at conventional four group zoom lenses with positive groups in the front and back and the stop at a fixed location outside the lens but resulted in significant pupil walk. The second phase of the design study focused on several promising unconventional four-group power distribution designs with moving stops that minimized pupil walk and had an acceptable pupil location (as determined by the objective and tube lens).

  8. Monitoring risk behaviour in adolescent pupils regarding consumption of psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Klimberg, Aneta; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Diatczyk, Jarosław; Urbaniak, Monika; Ulatowska-Szostak, Ewa; Bołdowski, Tomasz; Wojtyła, Andrzej; Marcinkowski, Jerzy T

    2017-06-06

    Introduction. Taking psychoactive substances constitutes a significant problem for Public Health, particularly in preventing drug abuse and addiction. Objectives. To estimate the amount and incidence of drug consumption in middle and high school pupils, including the circumstances in which drug taking first started, and to determine pupils' knowledge about the consequences of taking psychoactive substances and designer drugs (DDs). Materials and methods. A randomised study was conducted throughout Poland on 9,360 pupils attending middle school (junior high school) in 2009 and 7,971 pupils from middle and high school pupils in 2011. The survey consisted of a questionnaire devised by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate (GIS) and the replies obtained were subject to the relevant statistical analyses. Results. Drug taking was found to have increased between 2009-2011, especially among those attending high school; proportionally rising from 4% - 11%. The numbers who had ever taken designer drugs were 3% for middle school pupils and 4% from high school. Conclusions. 1) Adolescent drug consumption has increased, particularly in those of older age and in boys. 2) Despite the only brief interval for which designer drugs were legal, they have gained high popularity among the young. 3) Adolescents have insufficient knowledge about the dangers of using DDs. 4) Faced with the growing threat of a dynamic designer drug market, appropriate counter-measures in education and prevention are therefore necessary.

  9. Pupil dilation indicates the coding of past prediction errors: Evidence for attentional learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Stephan; Uengoer, Metin; Lachnit, Harald

    2018-04-01

    The attentional learning theory of Pearce and Hall () predicts more attention to uncertain cues that have caused a high prediction error in the past. We examined how the cue-elicited pupil dilation during associative learning was linked to such error-driven attentional processes. In three experiments, participants were trained to acquire associations between different cues and their appetitive (Experiment 1), motor (Experiment 2), or aversive (Experiment 3) outcomes. All experiments were designed to examine differences in the processing of continuously reinforced cues (consistently followed by the outcome) versus partially reinforced, uncertain cues (randomly followed by the outcome). We measured the pupil dilation elicited by the cues in anticipation of the outcome and analyzed how this conditioned pupil response changed over the course of learning. In all experiments, changes in pupil size complied with the same basic pattern: During early learning, consistently reinforced cues elicited greater pupil dilation than uncertain, randomly reinforced cues, but this effect gradually reversed to yield a greater pupil dilation for uncertain cues toward the end of learning. The pattern of data accords with the changes in prediction error and error-driven attention formalized by the Pearce-Hall theory. © 2017 The Authors. Psychophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Corneal aberrations in keratoconic eyes: influence of pupil size and centering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comastri, S A; Perez, G D; Martin, G; Bianchetti, A; Perez, L I

    2011-01-01

    Ocular aberrations vary among subjects and under different conditions and are commonly analyzed expanding the wavefront aberration function in Zernike polynomials. In previous articles, explicit analytical formulas to transform Zernike coefficients of up to 7th order corresponding to an original pupil into those related to a contracted displaced new pupil are obtained. In the present paper these formulas are applied to 20 keratoconic corneas of varying severity. Employing the SN CT1000 topographer, aberrations of the anterior corneal surface for a pupil of semi-diameter 3 mm centered on the keratometric axis are evaluated, the relation between the higher-order root mean square wavefront error and the index KISA% characterizing keratoconus is studied and the size and centering of the ocular photopic natural pupil are determined. Using these data and the transformation formulas, new coefficients associated to the photopic pupil size are computed and their variation when coordinates origin is shifted from the keratometric axis to the ocular pupil centre is analyzed.

  11. Russification of non-Estonian pupils in Tallinn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülle Rannut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article home languages, their qualities and use by pupils in grades 2 to 5 in Tallinn are analyzed. Two larger and more characteristic groups (Ukrainians and Belarusians and two groups with Islamic backgrounds (Azerbaijanis and Tatars were compared with the aim of analysing different language loss and preservation factors. Although Ukrainians and Belarusians form much larger ethnic groups within Estonia, they have not managed to preserve their language anywhere near as successfully as the Azerbaijanis and Tatars. Comparison of the data suggests that language preservation in Estonia and the ability to withstand Russification are most influenced by the degree of difference of the language from Russian and the religious difference from the Russian Orthodox faith (and Soviet era atheism. Home languages are characterised by their use mainly in the verbal form, with skills in the literary language generally low or even non-existent. Languages are for the most part learned informally, primarily through communication with parents and/or grandparents. The result is a supersaturated vernacular with a large degree of variation and loans from superstratum languages which falls far from the standard of the language in question.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa6.15

  12. MSE spectrograph optical design: a novel pupil slicing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer shall be mainly devoted to perform deep, wide-field, spectroscopic surveys at spectral resolutions from ~2000 to ~20000, at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Simultaneous spectral coverage at low resolution is required, while at high resolution only selected windows can be covered. Moreover, very high multiplexing (3200 objects) must be obtained at low resolution. At higher resolutions a decreased number of objects (~800) can be observed. To meet such high demanding requirements, a fiber-fed multi-object spectrograph concept has been designed by pupil-slicing the collimated beam, followed by multiple dispersive and camera optics. Different resolution modes are obtained by introducing anamorphic lenslets in front of the fiber arrays. The spectrograph is able to switch between three resolution modes (2000, 6500, 20000) by removing the anamorphic lenses and exchanging gratings. Camera lenses are fixed in place to increase stability. To enhance throughput, VPH first-order gratings has been preferred over echelle gratings. Moreover, throughput is kept high over all wavelength ranges by splitting light into more arms by dichroic beamsplitters and optimizing efficiency for each channel by proper selection of glass materials, coatings, and grating parameters.

  13. Efektivitas Penambahan Natrium Diklofenak terhadap Larutan Obat Dilatasi Pupil pada Pasien Retinopati Diabetik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief S. Kartasasmita

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemeriksaan fundus memerlukan akses visualisasi yang baik. Pada penderita diabetes melitus, pupil sulit lebar menggunakan obat pelebar pupil standar sehingga perlu ditambahkan agen pelebar pupil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Rumah Sakit Mata Cicendo periode Januari sampai Juli 2014 menggunakan metode double masked rendomized cotrolled trial terhadap 64 mata dari 32 subjek penelitian yang telah didiagnosis menderita retinopati diabetika dengan tingkat yang sama antara mata kiri dan kanan. Dibuat larutan kombinasi campuran 10 mL tropikamid 0,5%/fenilefrin 0,5%, 10 mL fenilefrin 5% dan 10 ml 0,1% Na diklofenak (larutan I dan campuran 10 mL tropikamid 0,5%/fenilefrin 0,5%, dan 10 mL fenilefrin 5% (larutan II. Setiap subjek mendapat salah satu larutan pada mata dan larutan yang lain pada sebelahnya secara acak. Dilakukan pemantauan dengan cara memotret pupil pada menit ke-15, 20, dan 25 pada kedua mata. Lebar pupil kedua kelompok perlakuan diukur dengan perangkat lunak khusus (image processing. Dari penenelitian terdapat perbedaan bermakna antara penggunaan larutan I dan larutan II dalam melebarkan pupil baik pada menit ke-15 (t=2,02; p=0,047, menit ke 20 (t=2,23; p=0,029, dan pada menit ke-25 (t=2,041; p=0,045. Larutan kombinasi fenilefrin, tropikamid, dan natrium diklofenak menghasilkan efek dilatasi pupil yang lebih baik dibanding dengan larutan kombinasi fenilefrin dan tropikamid saja pada kasus retinopati diabetes. [MKB. 2017;49(3:199–207] Kata kunci: Dilatasi pupil, natrium diklofenak, retinopati diabetika Effectiveness of Sodium Diclofenac Addition to Pupil Dilatation Agent on Diabetic Retinopathy Patients Fundus examination requires good visualization of fundus. In diabetic patients, it is difficult for the pupil to dilate using the standard pupilarry dilating agent. To achieve proper dilation, special agents have to be added to the standard dilation agent. The study was conducted in Cicendo Eye Hospital from January to July 2014, using

  14. Transport description of intermediate processes in heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayik, S.; Shivakumar, B.; Shapira, D.

    1986-01-01

    An extension of the diffusion model is proposed in order to describe the intermediate processes and the compound nucleus formation in heavy ion collisions. The model describes the intermediate processes and fusion in terms of the formation and the evolution of a long-lived dinuclear molecular complex (DMC) and its subsequent decay by fragmentation. The colliding ions can be trapped into the pocket of the entrance channel nucleus-nucleus potential and a DMC is formed. This DMC acts as a doorway state towards formation of a completely equilibrated compound nucleus (CN). It evolves through the exchange of nucleons to different dinuclear configurations. At each stage of its evolution, there is a finite probability for direct fragmentation into outgoing channels by thermal penetration over the barrier. The doorway states that do not fragment relax into a CN configuration and are identified as the fusion yield. 8 refs

  15. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  16. A matter of interpretation: developing primary pupils' enquiry skills using position-linked datalogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of their science teaching; (2) pupils' abilities to collect and interpret relevant environmental monitoring data; and (3) the use of scientific data within environmental education in the project schools. Programme description: The project used software which integrates data from Global Positioning System (GPS) with sensor data collected outdoors to produce Google Earth visualisations of environmental quality in each school's locality. Sample: Phase 1 involved 10 primary schools in the South West of England (2008-9), and phase 2 was implemented in six primary schools in Greater London during 2010. All pupils in the 9-10-year-old age range participated to some extent (N ≈ 450) and each school identified a focus group of between two and four pupils (n = 38) together with two members of staff (n = 32) to be more closely involved in the project. Design and methods: The evaluation adopted a multi-method approach, drawing upon documentary sources (n = 40); observations of continuing professional development (CPD) cluster days (n = 8) and dissemination events (June 2009 and January 2011): baseline pupil assessment tasks (n = 291) and teachers' baseline questionnaire (n = 25) in September 2008 and March 2010; classroom observations; samples of pupil work (n = 31); end-of-project pupil assessment (n = 38) and teachers' and pupils' responses to the project (n ≈ 180) in June 2009 and December 2010; and a longitudinal evaluation in February 2012. Results: Datalogging had become a regular feature of practical science in nearly all project schools up to 30 months after the end of the project, but the use of position-linked logging had

  17. Interaction of aberrations, diffraction, and quantal fluctuations determine the impact of pupil size on visual quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renfeng; Wang, Huachun; Thibos, Larry N; Bradley, Arthur

    2017-04-01

    Our purpose is to develop a computational approach that jointly assesses the impact of stimulus luminance and pupil size on visual quality. We compared traditional optical measures of image quality and those that incorporate the impact of retinal illuminance dependent neural contrast sensitivity. Visually weighted image quality was calculated for a presbyopic model eye with representative levels of chromatic and monochromatic aberrations as pupil diameter was varied from 7 to 1 mm, stimulus luminance varied from 2000 to 0.1  cd/m2, and defocus varied from 0 to -2 diopters. The model included the effects of quantal fluctuations on neural contrast sensitivity. We tested the model's predictions for five cycles per degree gratings by measuring contrast sensitivity at 5  cyc/deg. Unlike the traditional Strehl ratio and the visually weighted area under the modulation transfer function, the visual Strehl ratio derived from the optical transfer function was able to capture the combined impact of optics and quantal noise on visual quality. In a well-focused eye, provided retinal illuminance is held constant as pupil size varies, visual image quality scales approximately as the square root of illuminance because of quantum fluctuations, but optimum pupil size is essentially independent of retinal illuminance and quantum fluctuations. Conversely, when stimulus luminance is held constant (and therefore illuminance varies with pupil size), optimum pupil size increases as luminance decreases, thereby compensating partially for increased quantum fluctuations. However, in the presence of -1 and -2 diopters of defocus and at high photopic levels where Weber's law operates, optical aberrations and diffraction dominate image quality and pupil optimization. Similar behavior was observed in human observers viewing sinusoidal gratings. Optimum pupil size increases as stimulus luminance drops for the well-focused eye, and the benefits of small pupils for improving defocused image

  18. FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium model of financial intermediation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. In this model, the role of financial intermediation is to pool savings and to lend the pooled funds to an entrepreneur, who in turn invests the funds in a new production technology. The adoption of the new production technology improves individual real income. Thus financial intermediation promotes economic growth through affecting individuals’ saving behaviour and enabl...

  19. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  20. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  1. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers

  2. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  3. Intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed in developing meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yay, A; Ozdamar, S; Canoz, O; Baran, M; Tucer, B; Sonmez, M F

    2014-01-01

    Nestin is a type VI intermediate filament protein known as a marker for progenitor cells that can be mostly found in tissues during the embryonic and fetal periods. In our study, we aimed to determine the expression of nestin in meninges covering the brain tissue at different developmental stages and in the new born. In this study 10 human fetuses in different development stages between developmental weeks 9-34 and a newborn brain tissue were used. Fetuses in paraffin section were stained with H+E and nestin immunohistochemical staining protocol was performed. In this study, in the human meninges intense nestin expression was detected as early as in the 9th week of development. Intensity of this expression gradually decreased in later stages of development and nestin expression still persisted in a small population of newborn meningeal cells. In the present study, nestin positive cells gradually diminished in the developing and maturing meninges during the fetal period. This probably depends on initiation of a decrease in nestin expression and replacement with other tissue-specific intermediate filaments while the differentiation process continues. These differences can make significant contributions to the investigation and diagnosis of various pathological disorders (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 36).

  4. The effects of human relations training on reported teacher stress, pupil control ideology and locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E; Hall, C; Abaci, R

    1997-12-01

    This study presents the reported outcomes of a two-year, part-time Masters' programme in human relations using an experiential learning methodology based mainly on humanistic psychological theory. The following hypotheses were examined. That as a result of the two-year programme: the experience of reported stress would be reduced; reported attitudes to student classroom control would shift from custodial to humanistic; there would be an increase in reports from participants of a sense of control over their lives; changes of behaviour in work, social settings and at home related to these three variables would be reported. Involved in the study were 42 experienced teachers. These included 32 women and 10 men, with an average age of 35, who worked in a wide range of educational institutions. Their learning style preferences were also considered as independent variables. A control group of 42 was established with similar demographic characteristics. Prior to the course, the experimental group and the control group were given the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Pupil Control Ideology Form. In the early stages of the course, the experimental group completed the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and an informal measure of locus of control which was repeated at the end of the first year of the course. A sample of 32 from the experimental group were given semi-structured interviews relating to changes in their professional and personal lives. The results indicated that, following the training, there was a reduction in reported stress, indications of a more humanistic orientation towards pupil control and an increase in a sense of an internal locus of control. The quantitative data were confirmed by qualitative data generated from semi-structured interviews, which involved substantial reports of applications of the training in their professional and personal lives. These results provide support for including experiential human relations training as part of both the in

  5. The impact of a multiple intelligences teaching approach drug education programme on drug refusal skills of Nigerian pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwagu, Evelyn N; Ezedum, Chuks E; Nwagu, Eric K N

    2015-09-01

    The rising incidence of drug abuse among youths in Nigeria is a source of concern for health educators. This study was carried out on primary six pupils to determine the effect of a Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach Drug Education Programme (MITA-DEP) on pupils' acquisition of drug refusal skills. A programme of drug education based on the Multiple Intelligences Teaching Approach (MITA) was developed. An experimental group was taught using this programme while a control group was taught using the same programme but developed based on the Traditional Teaching Approach. Pupils taught with the MITA acquired more drug refusal skills than those taught with the Traditional Teaching Approach. Urban pupils taught with the MITA acquired more skills than rural pupils. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean refusal skills of male and female pupils taught with the MITA. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Condition of physical health of pupils of the 7th-8th classes of the comprehensive school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mameshina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the level of physical health of pupils of the 7th-8th classes. Material & Methods: pupils of the 7th-8th classes of the comprehensive school No. 150 of Kharkov participated in the research. The following methods were used: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific literature, method of express-assessment of physical health, mathematical statistics. Results: the comparative analysis of the obtained data in age aspect and on gender sign is carried out; the general assessment of the level of physical health of pupils of the 7th-8th classes is defined. Conclusions: the insignificant prevalence of indicators of the separate components of health of boys over the data of girls and, generally, the reliable improvement of indicators of pupils with age are established; the "average" level of physical health of pupils of the 7th classes and "below the average" level of pupils of the 8th classes are determined.

  7. To What Extent Do Pupils Perceive Science to Be Inconsistent with Religious Faith? An Exploratory Survey of 13-14 Year-Old English Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Keith S.; Billingsley, Berry; Riga, Fran; Newdick, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Scientists hold a wide range of beliefs on matters of religion, although popular media coverage in the UK commonly suggests that atheism is a core commitment for scientists. Considering the relationship between religion and science is a recommended topic in the English National Curriculum for lower secondary pupils (11-14 year-olds), and it is…

  8. The Ethnic Prejudice of Flemish Pupils: The Role of Pupils' and Teachers' Perceptions of Multicultural Teacher Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaet, Roselien; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: As a result of migration processes, schools in Flanders (the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium) are notably ethnically diverse. This evolution has coincided with an increasing number of studies focusing on ethnic-minority pupils' experiences of ethnic prejudice from their ethnic majority counterparts. Purpose/Objective/Research…

  9. Pupil cycle time and contrast sensitivity in type II diabetes mellitus patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoung Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Pupil cycle time (PCT has been widely used for examination of ocular diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN. Aims: The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of contrast sensitivity according to PCT results, and the secondary aim was to determine the factors associated with PCT difference for type II diabetes patients. Settings and Design: A clinical pilot study that included a total of 60 eyes of 60 type II diabetes patients. Materials and Methods: We divided all patients into three groups according to PCT results. Group A and Group C were composed of patients who had upper one third PCT and lower one third PCT, respectively. We analyzed difference of age, diabetes duration, hypertension duration, mean best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, mean spherical equivalent (SE, HbA1C, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, stage of diabetic retinopathy, and Cardiac Autonomic Function Score (CAFS. Contrast sensitivity and decrease of visual acuity by glare were also estimated and analyzed for 28 eyes of 28 non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR patients. Group [NPDR] A and Group [NPDR] C were defined as those who had lower one third PCT and upper one third PCT, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 17.0 software. Results and Conclusions: Each group contained 20 eyes. Significant differences between Group A and Group C were observed in duration of diabetes and CAFS (P ≤ 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. Contrast sensitivity in Group [NPDR] A was significantly more than in Group [NPDR] C at all cpds (all P ≤ 0.001. We found that PCT can influence contrast sensitivity or glare in diabetes patients and also confirmed a significant correlation of PCT with CAFS and duration of diabetes.

  10. The Impact on Pupils' Altruistic Attitudes : a Comparison of the Effects of Direct Activity and Indirect Interventions.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyasato, Tomoe

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the impact on pupils' altruistic attitudes of participating in either direct experiential activity or indirect interventions. In the direct condition, 4th grade pupils interacted experientially with kindergarten children in naturalistic social settings; in the indirect condition, the older pupils read a story about social interaction to the kindergarten children and discussed it with them afterwards. Seventy 4th-graders took part. After they participa...

  11. Parasympathetic nervous system dysfunction, as identified by pupil light reflex, and its possible connection to hearing impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Zekveld, Adriana A.; Naylor, Graham; Ohlenforst, Barbara; Jansma, Elise P.; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2016-01-01

    Context\\ud Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment is relatively unknown.\\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud To 1) review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive meth...

  12. Intraoperative cyclorotation and pupil centroid shift during LASIK and PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narváez, Julio; Brucks, Matthew; Zimmerman, Grenith; Bekendam, Peter; Bacon, Gregory; Schmid, Kristin

    2012-05-01

    To determine the degree of cyclorotation and centroid shift in the x and y axis that occurs intraoperatively during LASIK and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Intraoperative cyclorotation and centroid shift were measured in 63 eyes from 34 patients with a mean age of 34 years (range: 20 to 56 years) undergoing either LASIK or PRK. Preoperatively, an iris image of each eye was obtained with the VISX WaveScan Wavefront System (Abbott Medical Optics Inc) with iris registration. A VISX Star S4 (Abbott Medical Optics Inc) laser was later used to measure cyclotorsion and pupil centroid shift at the beginning of the refractive procedure and after flap creation or epithelial removal. The mean change in intraoperative cyclorotation was 1.48±1.11° in LASIK eyes and 2.02±2.63° in PRK eyes. Cyclorotation direction changed by >2° in 21% of eyes after flap creation in LASIK and in 32% of eyes after epithelial removal in PRK. The respective mean intraoperative shift in the x axis and y axis was 0.13±0.15 mm and 0.17±0.14 mm, respectively, in LASIK eyes, and 0.09±0.07 mm and 0.10±0.13 mm, respectively, in PRK eyes. Intraoperative centroid shifts >100 μm in either the x axis or y axis occurred in 71% of LASIK eyes and 55% of PRK eyes. Significant changes in cyclotorsion and centroid shifts were noted prior to surgery as well as intraoperatively with both LASIK and PRK. It may be advantageous to engage iris registration immediately prior to ablation to provide a reference point representative of eye position at the initiation of laser delivery. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Emotion Regulation Characteristics Development in Iranian Primary School Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dadkhah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Emotion regulations refer to the ability of experiencing emotions as a basic human capacity and the experience of the basic emotions happiness, anger, sadness and fear are considered as reular characteristics among nations. In school-age children, problems in socioemotional development typically shows themselves as challenging, socially disruptive paterns of behavior. The purpose of the present study was to understand Emotion Regulation characteristics in Iranian primary school pupils and whether Iranian children enable to identify common emotions. Methods: Participants included 900 children, 9 to 10 years, from elementary schools from 21 provinces in Iran. In pilot work we presented 200 children with four hypothetical vignettes of the kind typically used in display rule research. In the main study children’s knowledge regarding hiding their emotions was assessed through a structured interview. The participants were presented with the interview questions after the vignettes. The answers were coded by two people and the interrater reliability was high. The children were assessed on the basis of four common emotions:Happiness, Anger,Fear,and, Sadness. Results: The analysis of the data indicated that: 1 all children were enabled to identify and differentiate all four emotions from each other, most of students hide their happiness, anger, fear and sadness, they hide their emotions in specific situation such as school and home, hide happiness and anger against peers and hide fear and sadness in front of adults. Discussion: The study indicates that Iranian children not only differ from other culture peers in the amount of display rule use in daily life, but also in the situations they report using it and their motives for doing so they suppress their overall emotions more frequently, especially in presence of family and for pro-social and self-protective reasons. These findings provides the basic knowledge about Iranian children

  14. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs designs for future segmented space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Laurent, Kathryn; Fogarty, Kevin; Zimmerman, Neil; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Stark, Chris; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Pueyo, Laurent; Vanderbei, Robert; Soummer, Remi

    2018-01-01

    A coronagraphic starlight suppression system situated on a future flagship space observatory offers a promising avenue to image Earth-like exoplanets and search for biomarkers in their atmospheric spectra. One NASA mission concept that could serve as the platform to realize this scientific breakthrough is the Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR). Such a mission would also address a broad range of topics in astrophysics with a multi-wavelength suite of instruments.In support of the community’s assessment of the scientific capability of a LUVOIR mission, the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) has launched a multi-team technical study: Segmented Coronagraph Design and Analysis (SCDA). The goal of this study is to develop viable coronagraph instrument concepts for a LUVOIR-type mission. Results of the SCDA effort will directly inform the mission concept evaluation being carried out by the LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team. The apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) is one of several coronagraph design families that the SCDA study is assessing. The APLC is a Lyot-style coronagraph that suppresses starlight through a series of amplitude operations on the on-axis field. Given a suite of seven plausible segmented telescope apertures, we have developed an object-oriented software toolkit to automate the exploration of thousands of APLC design parameter combinations. In the course of exploring this parameter space we have established relationships between APLC throughput and telescope aperture geometry, Lyot stop, inner working angle, bandwidth, and contrast level. In parallel with the parameter space exploration, we have investigated several strategies to improve the robustness of APLC designs to fabrication and alignment errors and integrated a Design Reference Mission framework to evaluate designs with scientific yield metrics.

  15. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  16. Learning sequences on the subject of energy. Secondary school stage 1. Lernsequenzen zum Thema Energie. Sekundarstufe 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The ten learning sequences follow on one another. Each picks on a particular aspect from the energy field. The subject notebooks are self-contained and can therefore be used independently. Apart from actual data and energy-related information, the information for the teacher contains: - proposals for teaching - suggestions for further activities - sample solutions for the pupil's sheets - references to the literature and media. The worksheets for the pupils are different; it should be possible to use the learning sequences in all classes of secondary school stage 1. The multicoloured foils for projectors should motivate, on the one hand, and on the other hand should help to check the results of learning.

  17. Using Peephole Optimization on Intermediate Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Staveren, H.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many portable compilers generate an intermediate code that is subsequently translated into the target machine's assembly language. In this paper a stack-machine-based intermediate code suitable for algebraic languages (e.g., PASCAL, C, FORTRAN) and most byte-addressed mini- and microcomputers is

  18. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  19. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  20. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  1. Pair production of intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    The production of intermediate vector boson pairs W + W - , Z 0 Z 0 , W +- Z 0 and W +- γ in pp and p anti p collisions is discussed. The motivation is to detect the self-interactions among the four intermediate vector bosons

  2. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  3. Stimulating the development of coordination in pupils with developmental difficulties in elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Jasna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effects of specially programmed types of physical activities on the development of coordination of the pupils with developmental difficulties in regular elementary schools. The method of pedagogical research with parallel groups was used in the research which included 135 junior elementary-school pupils. Among them 90 pupils had one of developmental difficulties (intellectual disability, visual and hearing disturbances and they were divided into an experimental and a control group 1, while other pupils had typical development and they formed the control group 2 (n=45. Besides regular classes of physical education the experimental group was engaged in a special programme, devised and implemented into the Individual Educational Plan, as one of the types of intervention within the system of inclusive education. The research lasted for three months during which the groups were tested by the tests of coordination and the data obtained at the beginning and the end of the research period were processed by the application of univariant analysis of covariance and the T-test of the paired samples. The results show that the pupils with developmental difficulties can considerably progress in the development of coordination if their individual characteristics are recognized and optimal conditions are provided.

  4. Decision-related factors in pupil old/new effects: Attention, response execution, and false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Andreas; Graf, Tim

    2017-07-28

    In this study, we investigate the effects of decision-related factors on recognition memory in pupil old/new paradigms. In Experiment 1, we used an old/new paradigm with words and pseudowords and participants made lexical decisions during recognition rather than old/new decisions. Importantly, participants were instructed to focus on the nonword-likeness of presented items, not their word-likeness. We obtained no old/new effects. In Experiment 2, participants discriminated old from new words and old from new pseudowords during recognition, and they did so as quickly as possible. We found old/new effects for both words and pseudowords. In Experiment 3, we used materials and an old/new design known to elicit a large number of incorrect responses. For false alarms ("old" response for new word), we found larger pupils than for correctly classified new items, starting at the point at which response execution was allowed (2750ms post stimulus onset). In contrast, pupil size for misses ("new" response for old word) was statistically indistinguishable from pupil size in correct rejections. Taken together, our data suggest that pupil old/new effects result more from the intentional use of memory than from its automatic use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pupil dilations reflect why Rembrandt biased female portraits leftward and males rightward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Schirillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Portrait painters are experts at examining faces and since emotional content may be expressed differently on each side of the face, consider that Rembrandt biased his male portraits to show their right cheek more often and female portraits to show their left cheek more often. This raises questions regarding the emotional significance of such biased positions. I presented rightward and leftward facing male and female portraits. I measured observers’ pupil size while asking observers to report how (displeasing they found each image. This was a methodological improvement over the type of research initially done by Eckhard Hess who claimed that pupils dilate to pleasant images and constrict to unpleasant images. His work was confounded since his images’ luminances and contrasts across conditions were inconsistent potentially affecting pupil size. To overcome this limitation I presented rightward or leftward facing male and female portraits by Rembrandt to observers in either their original or mirror-reversed position. I found that in viewing male portraits pupil diameter was a function of arousal. That is, larger pupil diameter occurred for images rated both low and high in pleasantness. This was not the case with female portraits. I discuss these findings in regard to the perceived dominance of males and how emotional expressions may be driven by hemispheric laterality.

  6. Daytime eyeshine contributes to pupil camouflage in a cryptobenthic marine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santon, Matteo; Bitton, Pierre-Paul; Harant, Ulrike K; Michiels, Nico K

    2018-05-09

    Ocular reflectors enhance eye sensitivity in dim light, but can produce reflected eyeshine when illuminated. Some fish can occlude their reflectors during the day. The opposite is observed in cryptic sit-and-wait predators such as scorpionfish and toadfish, where reflectors are occluded at night and exposed during the day. This results in daytime eyeshine, proposed to enhance pupil camouflage by reducing the contrast between the otherwise dark pupil and the surrounding tissue. In this study, we test this hypothesis in the scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus and show that eyeshine is the result of two mechanisms: the previously described Stratum Argenteum Reflected (SAR) eyeshine, and Pigment Epithelium Transmitted (PET) eyeshine, a newly described mechanism for this species. We confirm that the ocular reflector is exposed only when the eye is light-adapted, and present field measurements to show that eyeshine reduces pupil contrast against the iris. We then estimate the relative contribution of SAR and PET eyeshine to pupil brightness. Visual models for different light scenarios in the field show that daytime eyeshine enhances pupil camouflage from the perspective of a prey fish. We propose that the reversed occlusion mechanism of some cryptobenthic predators has evolved as a compromise between camouflage and vision.

  7. Influence of graphic design of the text on reading quality of pupils with dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zikl Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution contains research results focused on reading quality of pupils with dyslexia according to the graphic design of the text. Our aim was to prove if commonly recommended graphic text editing has a certain influence on reading speed and occurrence of mistakes of children with dyslexia. The research sample consisted of pupils with dyslexia and a control group then selected in pairs of intact pupils of 4th and 5th class of primary school (in total 150 pupils. For the purpose of data collection there had been a text used in an unfamiliar language (a nonsensical text, which corresponds to the Czech language in its structure; is a part of standardized reading test. There were four text versions prepared for the research which had been modified into frequently recommended modifications for dyslexics (increased font size, a use of bigger gaps between words and also rows, syllables highlight in words and a standard text corresponding to common reading-books. Conclusion depicts a presentation of impacts of individual texts modifications and also subjective opinions of pupils about these texts.

  8. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  9. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  10. Intermediate structures in alpha scattering on 28Si nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamys, B.; Bobrovska, A.; Budzanovski, A. et al.

    1975-01-01

    Excitation functions and angular distributions of α-particles scattering on 28 Si nuclei, measured by various authors, are analyzed. Theoretical processing of results is divided into two stages: statistical analysis and analysis in terms of the Regge pole model (RPM). The aim of the statistical analysis is to demonstrate that the structure of excitation curves contains resonance effects. RMP with non-resonance background, described by the optical model (OM), is used to obtain data on properties of intermediate resonances. Autocorrelation functions for one elastic and two inelastic scattering channels are calculated. The mean width of compound states is about 100keV, which is in a good agreement with results of other authores. An analysis of correlation coefficients calculated for all pairs of excitation curves for elastic and two inelastic channels points to the existence of intermediate resonances in each of investigated reaction channels. In the case of large-angle scattering the contribution of potential interaction into the total cross-section is 20-30%, and that of resonance scattering is 50-60%. Energy dependence of Regge pole parameters has also been studied to obtain data on the existence and properties of intermediate resonances

  11. Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment is relatively unknown.To 1 review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive method to evaluate parasympathetic dysfunction, 2 review the evidence relating hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity and 3 seek evidence of possible connections between hearing impairment and the pupil light reflex.Literature searches were performed in five electronic databases. All selected articles were categorized into three sections: pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction, hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity, pupil light reflex and hearing impairment.Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. Among them, 36 articles addressed the pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction. We summarized the information in these data according to different types of parasympathetic-related diseases. Most of the studies showed a difference on at least one pupil light reflex parameter between patients and healthy controls. Two articles discussed the relationship between hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity. Both studies reported a reduced parasympathetic activity in the hearing impaired groups. The searches identified no results for pupil light reflex and hearing impairment.As the first systematic review of the evidence, our findings suggest that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive tool to assess the presence of parasympathetic dysfunction. Maximum constriction velocity and relative constriction amplitude appear to be the most sensitive parameters. There are only two studies investigating the relationship between parasympathetic activity and hearing

  12. Parasympathetic Nervous System Dysfunction, as Identified by Pupil Light Reflex, and Its Possible Connection to Hearing Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zekveld, Adriana A; Naylor, Graham; Ohlenforst, Barbara; Jansma, Elise P; Lorens, Artur; Lunner, Thomas; Kramer, Sophia E

    2016-01-01

    Although the pupil light reflex has been widely used as a clinical diagnostic tool for autonomic nervous system dysfunction, there is no systematic review available to summarize the evidence that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive method to detect parasympathetic dysfunction. Meanwhile, the relationship between parasympathetic functioning and hearing impairment is relatively unknown. To 1) review the evidence for the pupil light reflex being a sensitive method to evaluate parasympathetic dysfunction, 2) review the evidence relating hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity and 3) seek evidence of possible connections between hearing impairment and the pupil light reflex. Literature searches were performed in five electronic databases. All selected articles were categorized into three sections: pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction, hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity, pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. Thirty-eight articles were included in this review. Among them, 36 articles addressed the pupil light reflex and parasympathetic dysfunction. We summarized the information in these data according to different types of parasympathetic-related diseases. Most of the studies showed a difference on at least one pupil light reflex parameter between patients and healthy controls. Two articles discussed the relationship between hearing impairment and parasympathetic activity. Both studies reported a reduced parasympathetic activity in the hearing impaired groups. The searches identified no results for pupil light reflex and hearing impairment. As the first systematic review of the evidence, our findings suggest that the pupil light reflex is a sensitive tool to assess the presence of parasympathetic dysfunction. Maximum constriction velocity and relative constriction amplitude appear to be the most sensitive parameters. There are only two studies investigating the relationship between parasympathetic activity and hearing impairment

  13. The coupling of emotion and cognition in the eye: introducing the pupil old/new effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võ, Melissa L-H; Jacobs, Arthur M; Kuchinke, Lars; Hofmann, Markus; Conrad, Markus; Schacht, Annekathrin; Hutzler, Florian

    2008-01-01

    The study presented here investigated the effects of emotional valence on the memory for words by assessing both memory performance and pupillary responses during a recognition memory task. Participants had to make speeded judgments on whether a word presented in the test phase of the experiment had already been presented ("old") or not ("new"). An emotion-induced recognition bias was observed: Words with emotional content not only produced a higher amount of hits, but also elicited more false alarms than neutral words. Further, we found a distinct pupil old/new effect characterized as an elevated pupillary response to hits as opposed to correct rejections. Interestingly, this pupil old/new effect was clearly diminished for emotional words. We therefore argue that the pupil old/new effect is not only able to mirror memory retrieval processes, but also reflects modulation by an emotion-induced recognition bias.

  14. Super-resolution pupil filtering for visual performance enhancement using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lina; Dai, Yun; Zhao, Junlei; Zhou, Xiaojun

    2018-05-01

    Ocular aberration correction can significantly improve visual function of the human eye. However, even under ideal aberration correction conditions, pupil diffraction restricts the resolution of retinal images. Pupil filtering is a simple super-resolution (SR) method that can overcome this diffraction barrier. In this study, a 145-element piezoelectric deformable mirror was used as a pupil phase filter because of its programmability and high fitting accuracy. Continuous phase-only filters were designed based on Zernike polynomial series and fitted through closed-loop adaptive optics. SR results were validated using double-pass point spread function images. Contrast sensitivity was further assessed to verify the SR effect on visual function. An F-test was conducted for nested models to statistically compare different CSFs. These results indicated CSFs for the proposed SR filter were significantly higher than the diffraction correction (p vision optical correction of the human eye.

  15. Threat but not arousal narrows attention: Evidence from pupil dilation and saccade control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk eVan Steenbergen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that negative affect causes attentional narrowing. According to Easterbrook’s (1959 influential hypothesis this effect is driven by the withdrawal motivation inherent to negative emotions and might be related to increases in arousal. We investigated whether valence-unspecific increases in physiological arousal, as measured by pupil dilation, could account for attentional narrowing effects in a cognitive control task. Following the presentation of a negative, positive, or neutral picture, participants performed a saccade task with a prosaccade versus an antisaccade instruction. The reaction time difference between pro- and antisaccades was used to index attentional selectivity, and while pupil diameter was used as an index of physiological arousal. Pupil dilation was observed for both negative and positive pictures, which indicates increased physiological arousal. However, increased attentional selectivity was only observed following negative pictures. Our data show that motivational intensity effects on attentional narrowing can occur independently of physiological arousal effects.

  16. Theoretical foundations of forming value orientation of pupils by means of school sports abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Kh. Turchyk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the theoretical basis for the formation of value orientations of pupils by means of school sports facilities abroad. Material: detailed analysis of 14 published sources. Results: found that in a foreign academic and journalistic literature dominates positive appreciation of cultural values of humanistic school sports in the formation of value orientations of pupils. Found that school sport abroad plays an important role not only as a means of forming the basic values - health, but also an important area of communication, the manifestations of social activity. As well as physical and mental form of organization and leisure facilities, excellent vehicle impacts on other values of human life: the authority and position in society, work, the structure of moral and volitional characteristics, aesthetic ideals and other value orientations. Conclusions: confirmed that the global experience of formation values pupil means school sports deserves attention and requires selective introduction into the domestic education system.

  17. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  18. [Survey on pinworm infection and egg contamination among urban, suburban and rural pupils in Shangqiu City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin-Huan; Wang, Chenl; Xu, Ying; Man, Na; Cui, Yue; Yang, Xia; Cui, Yan-Mei

    2012-12-30

    Seven hundred and ninety-eight preschool children and grade one pupils from three schools in the city of Shangqiu were sampled randomly in urban, suburban and rural areas. The transparent tape method was used to examine the infection of pinworm and the contamination of pinworm eggs on the environments. The average infection rate of pinworm was 9.9% (79/798). The prevalence of pinworm infection among the pupils of urban(4.6%) was statistically lower than those of suburban (11.2%) and rural (13.8%) (P pinworm eggs from armor, fingers, bedclothes, briefs,and stationery in infected pupils are 23.8% (5/21), 18.0% (9/50), 15.8% (3/19), 12.9% (4/31) and 5.0% (2/40), respectively, which showed no statistical significance (P > 0.05).

  19. Pedagogical terms of forming of healthy method of life of modern pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odarchenko V.I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of conditioning forming of healthy method of life of pupils of general educational educational establishments are probed. In an experiment 156 pupils took part in age from 6 to 17 years. It is set that the characteristic feature of bodily condition of health of pupils is a result of the protracted unfavorable influence of socio-economic, ecological and pedagogical factors. An idea speaks out, that search of the new going near organization of an educational educate process at school it is necessary to send educations to humanizing. It will provide creation of optimum terms for spiritual growth of personality, valuable realization of psychophysical possibilities, maintainance and strengthening of health. It is well-proven that realization of the personality oriented approach taking into account basic valeological principles positively influences on the process of education of responsible attitude toward an own health as to the greatest individual and public value.

  20. Pupil dilation with intracameral lidocaine during phacoemulsification: Benefits for the patient and surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikeghbali Aminollah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical and/or intracameral administration of anticholinergic and/or sympathomimetic mydriatic agents which are usually used for pupillary dilation during cataract surgery, have some disadvantages such as slow onset of dilation and adverse ocular and systemic effects. We evaluated intracameral injection of preservative-free 1% lidocaine without using any preoperative or intraoperative mydriatics to induce pupil dilation in 31 consecutive eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Pupil diameter was measured before and 90 sec after intracameral lidocaine injection. After intracameral lidocaine injection, the mean pupil diameter was significantly greater than the baseline measurement (P< 0.001. No additional mydriatics were needed up to the end of the operations. Intracameral preservative-free lidocaine 1% has a rapid and effective mydriasis that could be a safe alternative to topical and intracameral mydriatics in phacoemulsification.

  1. Criminal investigations: pupil pharmacological reactivity as method for assessing time since death is fallacious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Marco; Melotti, Roberto; Mantovani, Anna; Avesani, Barbara; De Marco, Roberto; De Leo, Domenico

    2008-12-01

    Determination of the time since death in the early postmortem period is one of the most critical issues to be faced by criminal investigators. One of the techniques is the evaluation of the pupil pharmacological reactivity. In the present work, we aim at identifying whether an objective and single method, based on pharmacological pupil reaction, is feasible or not. Between 2002 and 2003 calendar years, we observed 309 bodies, whose eyes have been each instilled apart, within 26 hours since death, with either a myotic substance or a mydriatic solution. Our results show that the real effectiveness of pupil pharmacological reactivity as method for assessing the time since death in early postmortem period is not only questionable but even highly misleading if not replaced by alternative objective physiological tests and appropriate professional judgments by the investigators.

  2. Managed airing behaviour and the effect on pupil perceptions and indoor climate in classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Wohlgemuth, Mette Malene; Christensen, Ulrik Sloth

    2016-01-01

    An intervention study with four different scenarios for airing classrooms were carried out in a school where manual opening of windows was the main source of ventilation. Two scenarios included a visual CO2 display unit to signal to the pupils and teachers when to open windows. The other two...... and reduce by approximately 40-60% the duration when the CO2 concentration was above 1000 ppm. With only scheduled window opening, a similar improvement was not observed. Although not significant, pupils’ perception of the air quality seemed better when the intervention was running, but they also perceived...... scenarios used two different window opening schedules. Measurements of CO2, temperature and periods with open windows were recorded, and pupils expressed their perception of the indoor environment in the classroom. With a visual CO2 display unit in the classroom, pupils were able to modify their behavior...

  3. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  4. MODEL OF METHODS OF FORMING BIOLOGICAL PICTURE OF THE WORLD OF SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Yakunchev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the problem of development of a model of methods of forming the biological picture of the world of pupils as a multicomponent and integrative expression of the complete educational process is considered in the article. It is stated that the results of the study have theoretical and practical importance for effective subject preparation of senior pupils based on acquiring of systematic and generalized knowledge about wildlife. The correspondence of the main idea of the article to the scientific profile of the journal “Integration of Education” determines the choice of the periodical for publication. Materials and Methods: the results of the analysis of materials on modeling of the educational process, on specific models of the formation of a complete comprehension of the scientific picture of the world and its biological component make it possible to suggest a lack of elaboration of the aspect of pedagogical research under study. Therefore, the search for methods to overcome these gaps and to substantiate a particular model, relevant for its practical application by a teacher, is important. The study was based on the use of methods of theoretical level, including the analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature, modeling and generalized expression of the model of forming the biological picture of the world of secondary school senior pupils, which were of higher priority. Results: the use of models of organization of subject preparation of secondary school pupils takes a priority position, as they help to achieve the desired results of training, education and development. The model of methods of forming a biological picture of the world is represented as a theoretical construct in the unity of objective, substantive, procedural, diagnostic and effective blocks. Discussion and Conclusions: in a generalized form the article expresses the model of methods of forming the biological picture of the world of secondary school

  5. Estimation of operators’ fatigue using optical methods for determination of pupil activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Różanowski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The purpose of this study was to develop and initially validate an objective, yet quick, method for assessment of human fatigue. This aim can be achieved by the use of an optical, non-contact method of analysis of pupil activity. The study involved 2 phenomena typical for the behavior of the human pupil: pupillary reflex and pupillary movements. The 1st phenomenon is related to the pupillary light reflex (PLR, which presents the results of physiological adaptation mechanisms of the human eye. The pupillary unrest index (PUI is an additional parameter referring to the tendency for instability of the pupil. Material and methods Indicators of these 2 mechanisms were assessed under the same experimental laboratory conditions. Assessment was conducted on a group of volunteers (N = 10 during 4 controlled series of measurements performed at night. Pupillary reflex parameters associated with PLR and pupillary unrest index (PUI were recorded using F²D Fit-For-Duty, a commercially available system made by AMTech Pupilknowlogy GmbH. Baseline pupil diameter, oscillations, reflex latency, maximum reaction time, pupil constriction time, pupil dilation time, and constriction amplitude were recorded. Results As a result of the study, we were able to demonstrate correlation and confirm the usefulness of PLR and PST methods in the assessment of sleep deprivation. Parameters of PLR that may indicate human fatigue were identified. The effect of light impulse sequences on the dynamics of pupillary reflex and the relationship between PUI (pupillary unrest index measurement duration and sleepiness assessment validity, were assessed. Conclusions The results of the pilot studies were sufficient to develop minimum requirements for a PLR sensor that would be capable of estimating the level of fatigue with accuracy of a PUI method, but at a 5 times faster rate.

  6. MCNP6 fragmentation of light nuclei at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan G., E-mail: mashnik@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kerby, Leslie M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States)

    2014-11-11

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light target nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the latest Los Alamos Monte Carlo transport code MCNP6 and with its cascade-exciton model (CEM) and Los Alamos version of the quark-gluon string model (LAQGSM) event generators, version 03.03, used as stand-alone codes. Such reactions are involved in different applications, like cosmic-ray-induced single event upsets (SEU's), radiation protection, and cancer therapy with proton and ion beams, among others; therefore, it is important that MCNP6 simulates them as well as possible. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. Both CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to {sup 4}He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  7. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  8. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  9. The age-related changes in figural perceptual abilities of pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Blagoje V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of a broader research in the field of development of different intellectual abilities in primary schools. Using a transverse - longitudinal research strategy, the pupils from nine to fifteen years of age are observed in order to find answers to the following questions: 1 Do the important developmental changes in the figural-perceptual abilities occur in this developmental period? 2 Is the pace of changes in these abilities the same at all ages, grades? 3 Do the developmental changes in these abilities depend on the type of tests, that is, mental operations which register the applied tests? Figural-perceptual abilities are defined as the ability to identify the elements in space, to imagine and transform the elements in space, the ability for spatial reasoning, perceptual shaping flexibility, the ability of eduction of relations and correlates, the ability to identify the elements that are injected into the right material, the ability to notice the difference in the forms and dimensions of the characters, speed observations of similarities and differences between elements in the field of perception. The measurement (assessment of these abilities was performed with the help of 11 tests of intellectual abilities of the figural content. The individual progresses as baseline data were used for the data analysis. The progresses of the subjects were compared with the analysis and the results are the following: 1 The pupils from third to eighth grade showed positive changes in the figurative perceptive abilities. This is shown in all the tests that were used and progresses are statistically significant in all tests 2 There is a tendency that the pupils in the sixth grade made the best progress, and the seventh-grade pupils made the least progress. 3 However, when the progresses are compared in certain tests, then significant differences in the pace of development of these abilities are determined. Namely, the pupils in the higher

  10. Block Model Approach in Problem Solving: Effects on Problem Solving Performance of the Grade V Pupils in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…

  11. Pupil Voice on Being Gifted and Talented in Physical Education: "They Think It's Just, Like, a Weekend Sort of Thing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Penny; Lane, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pupils' views have been elicited in physical education over a long period, but is a comparatively under-examined area within literature on gifted and talented (G&T) in physical education concerns pupil voice and their accounts of being placed on their schools' G&T register. Purpose: This small-scale qualitative study consulted…

  12. Observations of teachers in Ilorin, Nigeria on their practices of corporal punishment that are potentially injurious to their pupils' eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Abdulraheem Olarongbe; Ayanniyi, Abdulkabir Ayansiji; Salman, Medinat Folorunso

    2011-01-01

    To document the observations of elementary school teachers (ESTs) in Ilorin, Nigeria on their practice of some types of corporal punishment (CP) that could result in eye injuries among their pupils. A short battery of questions that explored ESTs' observations on attitudes to, and knowledge of some commonly used CP practices was self-administered on 172 consenting teachers from six sampled schools. The potentials for their pupils to sustain eye injuries while receiving such CP practices were inferred from the usage of items with sharp and protruding ends to administer CP, and the application of CP onto pupils' body parts that are in close proximity to the eye such as the head and face. Only 50 of the 172 ESTs favored the practice of CP of pupils by their teachers. Analyses of several potentially moderating variables on this response such as ESTs' ages, years of EST teaching experience, school, and class or grade that EST teaches did not prove significant. Over three-quarters of ESTs (80.2%) had ever observed that pupils were being disciplined by ESTs with a cane. About a fifth of them had also observed that ESTs applied CP to the head (19.8%) and the face (16.3%) of pupils. Findings suggest that ESTs' commonly employed CP practices have significant injurious potential to their pupils' eyes. It is recommended that CP be abolished in elementary schools, and instead alternative nonabusive methods of disciplining erring pupils by teachers be introduced.

  13. Formative Assessment: Using Concept Cartoon, Pupils' Drawings, and Group Discussions to Tackle Children's Ideas about Biological Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Christine; Teou, Lay-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out in the context of formative assessment where assessment and learning were integrated to enhance both teaching and learning. The purpose of the study was to: (a) identify pupils' ideas about biological inheritance through the use of a concept cartoon, pupils' drawings and talk, and (b) devise scaffolding structures that…

  14. Assessments and Intervention for Pupils with Reading Difficulties in Sweden--A Text Analysis of Individual Education Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Ingela; Wolff, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Since 1995 all Swedish compulsory schools have been required to establish Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs. According to the Swedish Education Act such a plan should be drawn up if pupils do not achieve the goals in the curriculum or the syllabus. The process of IEPs covers a prior investigation to…

  15. Helwan University Project Developing Primary School Pupils' Abilities and Skills at Some Egyptian Underprivileged Areas (Slums). (Field Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tayeb, Mahmoud N.; El Nashar, Mohamed; Zeid, Mai M.; El-Sayed, Magda; Ramadan, Mohamed A.; Hamdi, Safia M.; El-Affy, Nabila; Ebeid, Amina K.; El-Marasi, Sonia S.; Abou-Elmahty, Maher

    2010-01-01

    Through directing concerted efforts and educational services of seven Faculties of Helwan University towards socially underprivileged pupils in slum areas (EL-Marg area in big Cairo) this research project had two main aims: firstly, modifying a set of arbitrary behaviors of those pupils, in a trial to develop some behavior skills associated with…

  16. Shaping Attitude toward Christianity among Year Seven Pupils: The Influence of Sex, Church, Home and Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindells, Tracy; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    This study set out to examine the differences in attitude toward Christianity among year seven secondary school pupils who had undertaken their primary education either in a Church of England voluntary aided school or a non-denominational state-maintained school. Data were provided by 492 year-seven pupils attending three Church of England…

  17. Changes in Primary School Pupils' Conceptions of Water in the Context of Science, Technology, and Society (STS) Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havu-Nuutinen, Sari; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Keinonen, Tuula

    2018-01-01

    Pupils' conceptual change processes that have led to long-term changes in learning processes can be very challenging and interwoven with several issues. Meanwhile, school learning is often determined as fragmented, without providing connections to pupils' different life and societal contexts. In this study, Science, Technology, and Society (STS)…

  18. The Relationship between Social Participation and Social Skills of Pupils with an Intellectual Disability: A Study in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers claim that a lack of social skills might be the main reason why pupils with special educational needs (SEN) in inclusive classrooms often experience difficulties in social participation. However, studies that support this assumption are scarce, and none include pupils with an intellectual disability (ID). This article seeks to make an…

  19. Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Online International Learning Exchange of Korean School Pupils with English-Speaking Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Yeon; Park, Sanghoon

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the factors influencing the success of online international learning exchange (ILE) among Korean school pupils who partnered with American and Australian pupils. In particular, it examined the effects of self-efficacy (SE), exchange infrastructure (EI) and quality of exchange activities (QEA) on the students' learning…

  20. Pupil diameter, working distance and illumination during habitual tasks. Implications for simultaneous vision contact lenses for presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genís Cardona

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Potential multifocal contact lens users may present with different ages, different jobs or hobbies and different preferences regarding lighting conditions and working distances. This results in different pupil size, even within the same task. This information may be critical when selecting a particular lens design and add power. Eye care practitioners are therefore advised to assess pupil diameter in real life conditions.

  1. Impact of Discipline on Academic Performance of Pupils in Public Primary Schools in Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simba, Nicholas Odoyo; Agak, John Odwar; Kabuka, Eric K.

    2016-01-01

    In Muhoroni Sub-County, Kenya, pupils' academic performance has received little attention in relation to discipline. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of discipline and extent of impact of discipline on academic performance among class eight pupils in the sub-county's public primary schools. The study adopted descriptive…

  2. Pupil Exchange in the European Community Venice Colloquium (October 24-28, 1977). Collection Studies. Education Series No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg).

    This publication contains the papers of the Venice Colloquium held in October, 1977 by educators from European countries to discuss the topic of visits and exchanges for pupils. There are seven chapters. Chapter one discusses the context and objectives of the colloquium. Chapter two describes pupil visits and exchanges in the European community.…

  3. Visual Thinking in Teaching History: Reading the Visual Thinking Skills of 12 Year-Old Pupils in Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Gulcin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the visual thinking skills of some sixth grade (12-13 year-old) primary pupils who created visual interpretations during history courses. Pupils drew pictures describing historical scenes or events based on visual sources. They constructed these illustrations by using visual and written primary and secondary sources in…

  4. Hearing-Impaired Pupils in Mainstream Education in Finland: Teachers' Experiences of Inclusion and Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Marjatta; Sume, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Today, in Finland, the majority of hearing-impaired pupils attend regular schools. This is in line with inclusive policy. This study aims to investigate do these pupils receive support from teachers, what kind of support is given and how is inclusion functioning. A questionnaire was used with 109 Finnish teachers, with both closed- and open-ended…

  5. The Effect of LEGO Training on Pupils' School Performance in Mathematics, Problem Solving Ability and Attitude: Swedish Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shakir; Lindh, Jorgen; Shukur, Ghazi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of one year of regular "LEGO" training on pupils' performances in schools. The underlying pedagogical perspective is the constructivist theory, where the main idea is that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the pupil by active learning. The investigation has been made in two…

  6. The Influence of Gender, Grade Level and Favourite Subject on Czech Lower Secondary School Pupils' Perception of Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiatko, Milan; Janko, Tomas; Mrazkova, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Geography is an important school subject that brings pupils' description and explanation of social, economic and/or political aspects of the changing world. It has been affirmed that the interest in a subject depends on the attitude to this subject. This study investigates Czech lower secondary school pupils' perception of geography. The research…

  7. What Frameworks Are Helpful to Science Teachers and Their Pupils When Thinking about the Relationship between Science and Religion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeaud, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Secondary school science teachers report that their approaches to some topics are affected by the recognition that some pupils hold religious beliefs, while primary school teacher trainees express concern about teaching evolution to children with a religious faith. Pupils in British schools and internationally often assume a conflict between…

  8. Personal, Family and School Influences on Secondary Pupils' Feelings of Safety at School, in the School Surroundings and at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    Different types of variables seem to influence school safety and a pupil's feelings of safety at school. The research question asks which risk and promotive variables should be integrated in a theoretical model to predict a pupil's feelings of safety at school, in the school surroundings and at home; what the outcomes are of an empirical check of…

  9. Learning for Everyday Life: Pupils' Conceptions of Hearing and Knowledge about Tinnitus from a Teaching-Learning Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Eva

    2011-01-01

    As a result of young people frequently exposing themselves to loud sounds, researchers are advocating education about the risks of contracting tinnitus. However, how pupils conceive of and learn about the biological aspects of hearing has not been extensively investigated. Consequently, the aim of the present study is to explore pupils' learning…

  10. Pupils' and Teachers' Perceptions of a Culminating Festival within a Sport Education Season in Irish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Gary D.; Macphail, Ann; Chroinin, Deirdre Ni

    2009-01-01

    Background: While there is considerable literature on Sport Education, little attention has been afforded to an investigation into the use of a specific festival as a culmination to a season. Aims: The purpose of this paper is to examine primary school pupils' and teachers' perceptions of an inter-school festival. Methods: Pupils from eight…

  11. The Actual and Potential Participation of Primary School Pupils at Parents' Evenings: A Challenge to the Established Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gillian H.

    2014-01-01

    As curricular development in Scotland espoused the importance of pupil participation, the extent to which this has been embedded across teachers' pedagogy into assessment and reporting practices warranted investigation. This article reports a mixed-methods study with parents, pupils and teachers from three Scottish primary schools that examined…

  12. Is Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy Overtreatment in Cervical Cancer Patients With Intermediate Risk Factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Sang-Young; Park, Sang-Il; Nam, Byung-Ho; Cho, Chul-Koo; Kim, Kidong; Kim, Beob-Jong; Kim, Moon-Hong; Choi, Seok-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Don; Lee, Kyoung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves the outcome of cervical cancer patients with intermediate risk factors. Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and June 2006, the medical records of 735 patients who had undergone radical surgery for Stage IB-IIA cervical cancer were reviewed retrospectively. Of the 735 patients, 172 with two or more intermediate risk factors (i.e., lymphovascular space involvement, deep stromal invasion, and tumor size ≥2 cm) were grouped as follows according to the adjuvant treatment received: 34 patients, no further treatment; 49 patients, RT; and 89 patients, CRT. The significance of the clinical parameters and recurrence-free survival of each group were analyzed. Results: Of the 172 patients with any of the intermediate risk factors, 137 (79.6%) had two or more intermediate risk factors. Of the 172 patients, 12 developed recurrences (6.4%)->(7.0%), with 6 in the pelvis and 6 in distant sites. All 12 recurrences occurred in those who had two or more intermediate risk factors (sensitivity, 100%); however, only six recurrences were detected in patients who met the Gynecologic Oncology Group criteria for the intermediate-risk group (sensitivity, 50%; Z test, p .05). Conclusion: Postoperative adjuvant CRT can improve the outcome of cervical cancer patients with intermediate risk factors, with low increase in toxicity.

  13. "Ten in a Bed": Literacy, Intermediality and the Potentials of Low-Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Katie

    2016-01-01

    "Ten in Bed" was a project led by participatory arts organisation Phakama, in partnership with Queen Mary University of London. Over an eight-week period we ran a series of intermedial arts workshops and staged a performance with under five-year-olds and their families at a community centre in Bethnal Green, London. We attempted to…

  14. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  15. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  16. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  17. On intermediate structures in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, I.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptions of the nuclear reaction theory are reinvestigated on the basis of the continuum shell model. The correlation of the resonance states via the continuum can lead to intermediate structures in the cross section. (Auth.)

  18. Classroom Curricular Preparedness For Inclusion Of Pupils With Physical Disability Within Public Inclusive Schools For The Pupils With Physical Disability In Bungoma County Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesborn Mutoro Chonge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of Special education in Kenya in 1946 numerous special schools have been established. However there has been a move toward integration and later inclusion of students with disabilities in regular schools. Inclusion has its own challenges. Kenya as a rapidly developing country is undergoing drastic social economic and cultural changes. Consequently learners with disabilities in inclusive schools experience a number of challenges. These challenges bring into focus the need of reinforcing various modifications especially in classroom environments in learning institutions to counteract challenges brought about by the change from integration to inclusive education. With this realization the study sought to examine the classroom curricular preparedness of inclusive schools for the pupils with physical disability. Adaptations that ought to be made under classroom curricular category should ideally aid in lessening these challenges and impact positively on the pupils with physical disability and enhance their learning activities. The study utilized mixed method research approach where both Phenomenology and Descriptive survey research designs were made use of. The findings indicate that there are adequate classroom curricular adaptations for inclusion of pupils with physical disability

  19. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  20. Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.