WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate spin-liquid phase

  1. Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of alpha-RuCl3

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zhengxin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang

    2017-01-01

    $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ is a leading candidate material for theobservation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the $ab$ plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result...

  2. Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α -RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B.; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang

    2017-12-01

    α -RuCl3 is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α -RuCl3 undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the a b plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α -RuCl3 .

  3. Role of quantum fluctuations on spin liquids and ordered phases in the Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Jaime; Ralko, Arnaud

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the rich physics of honeycomb magnetic materials, we obtain the phase diagram and analyze magnetic properties of the spin-1 /2 and spin-1 J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model on the honeycomb lattice. Based on the SU(2) and SU(3) symmetry representations of the Schwinger boson approach, which treats disordered spin liquids and magnetically ordered phases on an equal footing, we obtain the complete phase diagrams in the (J2,J3) plane. This is achieved using a fully unrestricted approach which does not assume any pre-defined Ansätze. For S =1 /2 , we find a quantum spin liquid (QSL) stabilized between the Néel, spiral, and collinear antiferromagnetic phases in agreement with previous theoretical work. However, by increasing S from 1 /2 to 1, the QSL is quickly destroyed due to the weakening of quantum fluctuations indicating that the model already behaves as a quasiclassical system. The dynamical structure factors and temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility are obtained in order to characterize all phases in the phase diagrams. Moreover, motivated by the relevance of the single-ion anisotropy, D , to various S =1 honeycomb compounds, we have analyzed the destruction of magnetic order based on an SU(3) representation of the Schwinger bosons. Our analysis provides a unified understanding of the magnetic properties of honeycomb materials realizing the J1-J2-J3 Heisenberg model from the strong quantum spin regime at S =1 /2 to the S =1 case. Neutron scattering and magnetic susceptibility experiments can be used to test the destruction of the QSL phase when replacing S =1 /2 by S =1 localized moments in certain honeycomb compounds.

  4. Gapless Spin Excitations in the Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid Phase of α-RuCl_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Ran, Kejing; Li, Tianrun; Wang, Jinghui; Wang, Pengshuai; Liu, Bin; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B; Wen, Jinsheng; Yu, Weiqiang

    2017-12-01

    α-RuCl_{3} is a leading candidate material for the observation of physics related to the Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL). By combined susceptibility, specific-heat, and nuclear-magnetic-resonance measurements, we demonstrate that α-RuCl_{3} undergoes a quantum phase transition to a QSL in a magnetic field of 7.5 T applied in the ab plane. We show further that this high-field QSL phase has gapless spin excitations over a field range up to 16 T. This highly unconventional result, unknown in either Heisenberg or Kitaev magnets, offers insight essential to establishing the physics of α-RuCl_{3}.

  5. Magnetic fluctuations and correlations in MnSi : Evidence for a chiral skyrmion spin liquid phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pappas, C.; Lelièvre-Berna, E.; Bentley, P.; Falus, P.; Fouquet, P.; Farago, B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of high-resolution neutron scattering data involving neutron spin echo spectroscopy and spherical polarimetry, which confirm the first-order nature of the helical transition in MnSi. The experiments reveal the existence of a totally chiral dynamic phase in a very

  6. Tunable Quantum Spin Liquidity in the 1 /6 th-Filled Breathing Kagome Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, A.; Sinclair, R.; Verrier, A.; Ziat, D.; Zhou, H. D.; Sun, X. F.; Quilliam, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    We present measurements on a series of materials, Li2 In1 -xScx Mo3 O8 , that can be described as a 1 /6 th-filled breathing kagome lattice. Substituting Sc for In generates chemical pressure which alters the breathing parameter nonmonotonically. Muon spin rotation experiments show that this chemical pressure tunes the system from antiferromagnetic long range order to a quantum spin liquid phase. A strong correlation with the breathing parameter implies that it is the dominant parameter controlling the level of magnetic frustration, with increased kagome symmetry generating the quantum spin liquid phase. Magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest that this is related to distinct types of charge order induced by changes in lattice symmetry, in line with the theory of Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. B 93, 245134 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.245134]. The specific heat for samples at intermediate Sc concentration, which have the minimum breathing parameter, show consistency with the predicted U (1 ) quantum spin liquid.

  7. Electrodynamics of quantum spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Martin; Pustogow, Andrej

    2018-05-01

    Quantum spin liquids attract great interest due to their exceptional magnetic properties characterized by the absence of long-range order down to low temperatures despite the strong magnetic interaction. Commonly, these compounds are strongly correlated electron systems, and their electrodynamic response is governed by the Mott gap in the excitation spectrum. Here we summarize and discuss the optical properties of several two-dimensional quantum spin liquid candidates. First we consider the inorganic material herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 and related compounds, which crystallize in a kagome lattice. Then we turn to the organic compounds -EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Ag2(CN)3 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3, where the spins are arranged in an almost perfect triangular lattice, leading to strong frustration. Due to differences in bandwidth, the effective correlation strength varies over a wide range, leading to a rather distinct behavior as far as the electrodynamic properties are concerned. We discuss the spinon contributions to the optical conductivity in comparison to metallic quantum fluctuations in the vicinity of the Mott transition.

  8. Mermin-Wagner physics, (H ,T ) phase diagram, and candidate quantum spin-liquid phase in the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet Ba8CoNb6O24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y.; Dai, J.; Zhou, P.; Wang, P. S.; Li, T. R.; Song, W. H.; Wang, J. C.; Ma, L.; Zhang, Z.; Li, S. Y.; Luke, G. M.; Normand, B.; Xiang, T.; Yu, W.

    2018-04-01

    Ba8CoNb6O24 presents a system whose Co2 + ions have an effective spin 1/2 and construct a regular triangular-lattice antiferromagnet (TLAFM) with a very large interlayer spacing, ensuring purely two-dimensional character. We exploit this ideal realization to perform a detailed experimental analysis of the S =1 /2 TLAFM, which is one of the keystone models in frustrated quantum magnetism. We find strong low-energy spin fluctuations and no magnetic ordering, but a diverging correlation length down to 0.1 K, indicating a Mermin-Wagner trend toward zero-temperature order. Below 0.1 K, however, our low-field measurements show an unexpected magnetically disordered state, which is a candidate quantum spin liquid. We establish the (H ,T ) phase diagram, mapping in detail the quantum fluctuation corrections to the available theoretical analysis. These include a strong upshift in field of the maximum ordering temperature, qualitative changes to both low- and high-field phase boundaries, and an ordered regime apparently dominated by the collinear "up-up-down" state. Ba8CoNb6O24 , therefore, offers fresh input for the development of theoretical approaches to the field-induced quantum phase transitions of the S =1 /2 Heisenberg TLAFM.

  9. Fermionic spin liquid analysis of the paramagnetic state in volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Li Ern; Schaffer, Robert; Sorn, Sopheak; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-10-01

    Recently, thermal Hall effect has been observed in the paramagnetic state of volborthite, which consists of distorted kagome layers with S =1 /2 local moments. Despite the appearance of magnetic order below 1 K , the response to external magnetic field and unusual properties of the paramagnetic state above 1 K suggest possible realization of exotic quantum phases. Motivated by these discoveries, we investigate possible spin liquid phases with fermionic spinon excitations in a nonsymmorphic version of the kagome lattice, which belongs to the two-dimensional crystallographic group p 2 g g . This nonsymmorphic structure is consistent with the spin model obtained in the density functional theory calculation. Using projective symmetry group analysis and fermionic parton mean field theory, we identify twelve distinct Z2 spin liquid states, four of which are found to have correspondence in the eight Schwinger boson spin liquid states we classified earlier. We focus on the four fermionic states with bosonic counterpart and find that the spectrum of their corresponding root U (1 ) states features spinon Fermi surface. The existence of spinon Fermi surface in candidate spin liquid states may offer a possible explanation of the finite thermal Hall conductivity observed in volborthite.

  10. Entanglement in 3D Kitaev spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matern, S.; Hermanns, M.

    2018-06-01

    Quantum spin liquids are highly fascinating quantum liquids in which the spin degrees of freedom fractionalize. An interesting class of spin liquids are the exactly solvable, three-dimensional Kitaev spin liquids. Their fractionalized excitations are Majonara fermions, which may exhibit a variety of topological band structures—ranging from topologically protected Weyl semi-metals over nodal semi-metals to systems with Majorana Fermi surfaces. We study the entanglement spectrum of such Kitaev spin liquids and verify that it is closely related to the topologically protected edge spectrum. Moreover, we find that in some cases the entanglement spectrum contains even more information about the topological features than the surface spectrum, and thus provides a simple and reliable tool to probe the topology of a system.

  11. Quantum spin liquid signatures in Kitaev-like frustrated magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Matthias; Wachtel, Gideon; Yamaji, Youhei; Pollmann, Frank; Kim, Yong Baek

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on α -RuCl3 , we investigate a possible quantum spin liquid ground state of the honeycomb-lattice spin model with bond-dependent interactions. We consider the K -Γ model, where K and Γ represent the Kitaev and symmetric-anisotropic interactions between spin-1/2 moments on the honeycomb lattice. Using the infinite density matrix renormalization group, we provide compelling evidence for the existence of quantum spin liquid phases in an extended region of the phase diagram. In particular, we use transfer-matrix spectra to show the evolution of two-particle excitations with well-defined two-dimensional dispersion, which is a strong signature of a quantum spin liquid. These results are compared with predictions from Majorana mean-field theory and used to infer the quasiparticle excitation spectra. Further, we compute the dynamical structure factor using finite-size cluster computations and show that the results resemble the scattering continuum seen in neutron-scattering experiments on α -RuCl3 . We discuss these results in light of recent and future experiments.

  12. Quantum spin liquids in the absence of spin-rotation symmetry: Application to herbertsmithite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Tyler; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Kim, Yong Baek

    2013-12-01

    It has been suggested that the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the Kagome lattice may be a good starting point for understanding the spin-liquid behavior discovered in herbertsmithite. In this work, we investigate possible quantum spin liquid phases in the presence of spin-rotation symmetry-breaking perturbations such as Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya and Ising interactions, as well as second-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions. Experiments suggest that such perturbations are likely to be present in herbertsmithite. We use the projective symmetry group analysis within the framework of the slave-fermion construction of quantum spin liquid phases and systematically classify possible spin liquid phases in the presence of perturbations mentioned above. The dynamical spin-structure factor for relevant spin liquid phases is computed and the effect of those perturbations are studied. Our calculations reveal dispersive features in the spin structure factor embedded in a generally diffuse background due to the existence of fractionalized spin-1/2 excitations called spinons. For two of the previously proposed Z2 states, the dispersive features are almost absent, and diffuse scattering dominates over a large energy window throughout the Brillouin zone. This resembles the structure factor observed in recent inelastic neutron-scattering experiments on singlet crystals of herbertsmithite. Furthermore, one of the Z2 states with the spin structure factor with mostly diffuse scattering is gapped, and it may be adiabatically connected to the gapped spin liquid state observed in recent density-matrix renormalization group calculations for the nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. The perturbations mentioned above are found to enhance the diffuse nature of the spin structure factor and reduce the momentum dependencies of the spin gap. We also calculate the electron spin resonance (ESR) absorption spectra that further characterize the role of

  13. Landau Levels of Majorana Fermions in a Spin Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel, Stephan; Fritz, Lars; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-04-22

    Majorana fermions, originally proposed as elementary particles acting as their own antiparticles, can be realized in condensed-matter systems as emergent quasiparticles, a situation often accompanied by topological order. Here we propose a physical system which realizes Landau levels-highly degenerate single-particle states usually resulting from an orbital magnetic field acting on charged particles-for Majorana fermions. This is achieved in a variant of a quantum spin system due to Kitaev which is distorted by triaxial strain. This strained Kitaev model displays a spin-liquid phase with charge-neutral Majorana-fermion excitations whose spectrum corresponds to that of Landau levels, here arising from a tailored pseudomagnetic field. We show that measuring the dynamic spin susceptibility reveals the Landau-level structure by a remarkable mechanism of probe-induced bound-state formation.

  14. Machine learning Z2 quantum spin liquids with quasiparticle statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Melko, Roger G.; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2017-12-01

    After decades of progress and effort, obtaining a phase diagram for a strongly correlated topological system still remains a challenge. Although in principle one could turn to Wilson loops and long-range entanglement, evaluating these nonlocal observables at many points in phase space can be prohibitively costly. With growing excitement over topological quantum computation comes the need for an efficient approach for obtaining topological phase diagrams. Here we turn to machine learning using quantum loop topography (QLT), a notion we have recently introduced. Specifically, we propose a construction of QLT that is sensitive to quasiparticle statistics. We then use mutual statistics between the spinons and visons to detect a Z2 quantum spin liquid in a multiparameter phase space. We successfully obtain the quantum phase boundary between the topological and trivial phases using a simple feed-forward neural network. Furthermore, we demonstrate advantages of our approach for the evaluation of phase diagrams relating to speed and storage. Such statistics-based machine learning of topological phases opens new efficient routes to studying topological phase diagrams in strongly correlated systems.

  15. Designing Kitaev Spin Liquids in Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masahiko G.; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki

    2017-08-01

    Kitaev's honeycomb lattice spin model is a remarkable exactly solvable model, which has a particular type of spin liquid (Kitaev spin liquid) as the ground state. Although its possible realization in iridates and α -RuCl3 has been vigorously discussed recently, these materials have substantial non-Kitaev direct exchange interactions and do not have a spin liquid ground state. We propose metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with Ru3 + (or Os3 + ), forming the honeycomb lattice as promising candidates for a more ideal realization of Kitaev-type spin models, where the direct exchange interaction is strongly suppressed. The great flexibility of MOFs allows generalization to other three-dimensional lattices for the potential realization of a variety of spin liquids, such as a Weyl spin liquid.

  16. Unusual Thermal Hall Effect in a Kitaev Spin Liquid Candidate α -RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Sugii, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Shimozawa, M.; Yamashita, M.; Kurita, N.; Tanaka, H.; Nasu, J.; Motome, Y.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.

    2018-05-01

    The Kitaev quantum spin liquid displays the fractionalization of quantum spins into Majorana fermions. The emergent Majorana edge current is predicted to manifest itself in the form of a finite thermal Hall effect, a feature commonly discussed in topological superconductors. Here we report on thermal Hall conductivity κx y measurements in α -RuCl3 , a candidate Kitaev magnet with the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice. In a spin-liquid (Kitaev paramagnetic) state below the temperature characterized by the Kitaev interaction JK/kB˜80 K , positive κx y develops gradually upon cooling, demonstrating the presence of highly unusual itinerant excitations. Although the zero-temperature property is masked by the magnetic ordering at TN=7 K , the sign, magnitude, and T dependence of κx y/T at intermediate temperatures follows the predicted trend of the itinerant Majorana excitations.

  17. Quantum spin liquids: A flood or a trickle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Arthur P.

    2008-06-01

    Many have reported evidence for a quantum spin liquid state - in which quantum fluctuations prevent spin order - but thermodynamic evidence has been lacking, until now. Although it points the way, is it enough?

  18. Dirac and Chiral Quantum Spin Liquids on the Honeycomb Lattice in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B.

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by recent experimental observations in α -RuCl3 , we study the K -Γ model on the honeycomb lattice in an external magnetic field. By a slave-particle representation and variational Monte Carlo calculations, we reproduce the phase transition from zigzag magnetic order to a field-induced disordered phase. The nature of this state depends crucially on the field orientation. For particular field directions in the honeycomb plane, we find a gapless Dirac spin liquid, in agreement with recent experiments on α -RuCl3 . For a range of out-of-plane fields, we predict the existence of a Kalmeyer-Laughlin-type chiral spin liquid, which would show an integer-quantized thermal Hall effect.

  19. Dirac and Chiral Quantum Spin Liquids on the Honeycomb Lattice in a Magnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng-Xin; Normand, B

    2018-05-04

    Motivated by recent experimental observations in α-RuCl_{3}, we study the K-Γ model on the honeycomb lattice in an external magnetic field. By a slave-particle representation and variational Monte Carlo calculations, we reproduce the phase transition from zigzag magnetic order to a field-induced disordered phase. The nature of this state depends crucially on the field orientation. For particular field directions in the honeycomb plane, we find a gapless Dirac spin liquid, in agreement with recent experiments on α-RuCl_{3}. For a range of out-of-plane fields, we predict the existence of a Kalmeyer-Laughlin-type chiral spin liquid, which would show an integer-quantized thermal Hall effect.

  20. Quasiparticle Breakdown in a Quantum Spin Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Matthew B.; Zalinznyak, I.; Hong, T.; Broholm, C.L.; Reich, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Much of modern condensed matter physics is understood in terms of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles -- fundamental quanta of energy and momentum. Various strongly interacting atomic systems are successfully treated as a collection of quasiparticles with weak or no interactions. However, there are interesting limitations to this description: in some systems the very existence of quasiparticles cannot be taken for granted. Like unstable elementary particles, quasiparticles cannot survive beyond a threshold where certain decay channels become allowed by conservation laws; their spectrum terminates at this threshold. Such quasiparticle breakdown was first predicted for an exotic state of matter -- super-fluid 4 He at temperatures close to absolute zero, a quantum Bose liquid where zero-point atomic motion precludes crystallization. Here we show, using neutron scattering, that quasiparticle breakdown can also occur in a quantum magnet and, by implication, in other systems with Bose quasiparticles. We have measured spin excitations in a two-dimensional quantum magnet, piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC), in which spin-1/2 copper ions form a non-magnetic quantum spin liquid, and find remarkable similarities with excitations in superfluid 4 He. We observe a threshold momentum beyond which the quasiparticle peak merges with the two-quasiparticle continuum. It then acquires a finite energy width and becomes indistinguishable from a leading-edge singularity, so that excited states are no longer quasiparticles but occupy a wide band of energy. Our findings have important ramifications for understanding excitations with gapped spectra in many condensed matter systems, ranging from band insulators to high-transition-temperature superconductors.

  1. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date and i...

  2. Competing Spin Liquids and Hidden Spin-Nematic Order in Spin Ice with Frustrated Transverse Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Taillefumier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Frustration in magnetic interactions can give rise to disordered ground states with subtle and beautiful properties. The spin ices Ho_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} and Dy_{2}Ti_{2}O_{7} exemplify this phenomenon, displaying a classical spin-liquid state, with fractionalized magnetic-monopole excitations. Recently, there has been great interest in closely related “quantum spin-ice” materials, following the realization that anisotropic exchange interactions could convert spin ice into a massively entangled, quantum spin liquid, where magnetic monopoles become the charges of an emergent quantum electrodynamics. Here we show that even the simplest model of a quantum spin ice, the XXZ model on the pyrochlore lattice, can realize a still-richer scenario. Using a combination of classical Monte Carlo simulation, semiclassical molecular-dynamics simulation, and analytic field theory, we explore the properties of this model for frustrated transverse exchange. We find not one, but three competing forms of spin liquid, as well as a phase with hidden, spin-nematic order. We explore the experimental signatures of each of these different states, making explicit predictions for inelastic neutron scattering. These results show an intriguing similarity to experiments on a range of pyrochlore oxides.

  3. Symmetry fractionalization of visons in Z2 spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yang; Cheng, Meng; Fang, Chen

    In this work we study symmetry fractionalization of vison excitations in topological Z2 spin liquids. We show that in the presence of the full SO (3) spin-rotational symmetry and if there is an odd number of spin-1/2 per unit cell, the symmetry fractionalization of visons is completely fixed. On the other hand, visons can have different classes of symmetry fractionalization if the spin-rotational symmetry is reduced. As a concrete example, we show that visons in the Balents-Fisher-Girvin Z2 spin liquid have crystal symmetry fractionalization classes which are not allowed in SO (3) symmetric spin liquids, due to the reduced spin-rotational symmetry.

  4. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  5. Interplay of nonsymmorphic symmetry and spin-orbit coupling in hyperkagome spin liquids: Applications to Na4Ir3O8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Kim, Yong Baek; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Na4Ir3O8 provides a material platform to study three-dimensional quantum spin liquids in the geometrically frustrated hyperkagome lattice of Ir4 + ions. In this work, we consider quantum spin liquids on a hyperkagome lattice for generic spin models, focusing on the effects of anisotropic spin interactions. In particular, we classify possible Z2 and U (1 ) spin liquid states, following the projective symmetry group analysis in the slave-fermion representation. There are only three distinct Z2 spin liquids, together with 2 different U (1 ) spin liquids. The nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the hyperkagome lattice plays a vital role in simplifying the classification, forbidding "π -flux" or "staggered-flux" phases in contrast to symmorphic space groups. We further prove that both U (1 ) states and one Z2 state among all 3 are symmetry-protected gapless spin liquids, robust against any symmetry-preserving perturbations. Motivated by the "spin-freezing" behavior recently observed in Na4Ir3O8 at low temperatures, we further investigate the nearest-neighbor spin model with the dominant Heisenberg interaction subject to all possible anisotropic perturbations from spin-orbit couplings. We find that a U (1 ) spin liquid ground state with spinon Fermi surfaces is energetically favored over Z2 states. Among all spin-orbit coupling terms, we show that only the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction can induce spin anisotropy in the ground state when perturbing from the isotropic Heisenberg limit. Our work paves the way for a systematic study of quantum spin liquids in various materials with a hyperkagome crystal structure.

  6. Classification and properties of quantum spin liquids on the hyperhoneycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Choi, Wonjune; Kim, Yong Baek; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2018-05-01

    The family of "Kitaev materials" provides an ideal platform to study quantum spin liquids and their neighboring magnetic orders. Motivated by the possibility of a quantum spin liquid ground state in pressurized hyperhoneycomb iridate β -Li2IrO3 , we systematically classify and study symmetric quantum spin liquids on the hyperhoneycomb lattice, using the Abrikosov-fermion representation. Among the 176 symmetric U (1 ) spin liquids (and 160 Z2 spin liquids), we identify eight "root" U (1 ) spin liquids in proximity to the ground state of the solvable Kitave model on the hyperhonecyomb lattice. These eight states are promising candidates for possible U (1 ) spin liquid ground states in pressurized β -Li2IrO3 . We further discuss physical properties of these eight U (1 ) spin liquid candidates, and show that they all support nodal-line-shaped spinon Fermi surfaces.

  7. Tunable Quantum Spin Liquidity in Mo3O13 Cluster Mott Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Sharbaf, Arash; Ziat, Djamel; Verrier, Aime; Quilliam, Jeffrey A.; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong D.; Sun, Xuefeng F.

    A study of a tunable quantum spin liquid (QSL) phase in the compound Li2In1- x ScxMo3O8 (x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1) will be presented. Crystal structure of these compounds can be viewed as Mo ions arranged on an asymmetric Kagome lattice (KL), with two different Mo-Mo bond lengths, separated by nonmagnetic layers composed of Li, In, and Sc ions. Using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, muon spin relaxation spectroscopy, bulk magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurements we show that by changing the composition of the nonmagnetic layers we can drive the system from an ordered antiferromagnetic state to a quantum spin liquid state. The mechanism responsible for the tunability of the magnetic phase in this class of materials may be associated with the degree of asymmetry of the KL controlled by the composition of the nonmagnetic layers. For high degree of asymmetry the constraint on the electronic distribution leads to a configuration of Mo3O8 clusters with net spin-1/2 per cluster arrange on a triangular lattice and long range antiferromagnetic order. For low degree of asymmetry the electronic distribution leads to a magnetic phase with QSL character. We acknowledge support from NSERC and CFREF.

  8. Storage Stability and Improvement of Intermediate Moisture Foods, Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1975-01-01

    Methods were determined for the improvement of shelf-life stability of intermediate moisture foods (IMF). Microbial challenge studies showed that protection against molds and Staphylococcus aureus could be achieved by a combination of antimicrobial agents, humectants and food acids. Potassium sorbate and propylene glycol gave the best results. It was also confirmed that the maximum in heat resistance shown by vegetative pathogens at intermediate water activities also occurred in a solid food. Glycols and sorbitol both achieve browning inhibition because of their action as a medium for reaction and effect on viscosity of the adsorbed phase. Chemical availability results showed rapid lysine loss before visual discoloration occurred. This is being confirmed with a biological test using Tetrahymena pyriformis W. Accelerated temperature tests show that effectiveness of food antioxidants against rancidity development can be predicted; however, the protection factor changes with temperature. BHA was found to be the best antioxidant for iron catalyzed oxidation.

  9. Iridates and RuCl3 - from Heisenberg antiferromagnets to potential Kitaev spin-liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Jeroen

    The observed richness of topological states on the single-electron level prompts the question what kind of topological phases can develop in more strongly correlated, many-body electron systems. Correlation effects, in particular intra- and inter-orbital electron-electron interactions, are very substantial in 3 d transition-metal compounds such as the copper oxides, but the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is weak. In 5 d transition-metal compounds such as iridates, the interesting situation arises that the SOC and Coulomb interactions meet on the same energy scale. The electronic structure of iridates thus depends on a strong competition between the electronic hopping amplitudes, local energy-level splittings, electron-electron interaction strengths, and the SOC of the Ir 5d electrons. The interplay of these ingredients offers the potential to stabilise relatively well-understood states such as a 2D Heisenberg-like antiferromagnet in Sr2IrO4, but in principle also far more exotic ones, such a topological Kitaev quantum spin liquid, in (hyper)honeycomb iridates. I will discuss the microscopic electronic structures of these iridates, their proximity to idealized Heisenberg and Kitaev models and our contributions to establishing the physical factors that appear to have preempted the realization of quantum spin liquid phases so far and include a discussion on the 4d transition metal chloride RuCl3. Supported by SFB 1143 of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft.

  10. Topological Symmetry, Spin Liquids and CFT Duals of Polyakov Model with Massless Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat

    2008-04-30

    We prove the absence of a mass gap and confinement in the Polyakov model with massless complex fermions in any representation of the gauge group. A U(1){sub *} topological shift symmetry protects the masslessness of one dual photon. This symmetry emerges in the IR as a consequence of the Callias index theorem and abelian duality. For matter in the fundamental representation, the infrared limits of this class of theories interpolate between weakly and strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) depending on the number of flavors, and provide an infinite class of CFTs in d = 3 dimensions. The long distance physics of the model is same as certain stable spin liquids. Altering the topology of the adjoint Higgs field by turning it into a compact scalar does not change the long distance dynamics in perturbation theory, however, non-perturbative effects lead to a mass gap for the gauge fluctuations. This provides conceptual clarity to many subtle issues about compact QED{sub 3} discussed in the context of quantum magnets, spin liquids and phase fluctuation models in cuprate superconductors. These constructions also provide new insights into zero temperature gauge theory dynamics on R{sup 2,1} and R{sup 2,1} x S{sup 1}. The confined versus deconfined long distance dynamics is characterized by a discrete versus continuous topological symmetry.

  11. Chiral spin liquids at finite temperature in a three-dimensional Kitaev model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuyuki; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2017-11-01

    Chiral spin liquids (CSLs) in three dimensions and thermal phase transitions to paramagnet are studied by unbiased Monte Carlo simulations. For an extension of the Kitaev model to a three-dimensional tricoordinate network dubbed the hypernonagon lattice, we derive low-energy effective models in two different anisotropic limits. We show that the effective interactions between the emergent Z2 degrees of freedom called fluxes are unfrustrated in one limit, while highly frustrated in the other. In both cases, we find a first-order phase transition to the CSL, where both time-reversal and parity symmetries are spontaneously broken. In the frustrated case, however, the CSL state is highly exotic—the flux configuration is subextensively degenerate while showing a directional order with broken C3 rotational symmetry. Our results provide two contrasting archetypes of CSLs in three dimensions, both of which allow approximation-free simulation for investigating the thermodynamics.

  12. A mathematics vocabulary questionnaire for use in the intermediate phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthie van der Walt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers and psychologists need an instrument to assess learners' language proficiency in mathematics to enable them to plan and evaluate interventions and to facilitate best practice in mathematics classrooms. We describe the development of a mathematics vocabulary questionnaire to measure learners' language proficiency in mathematics in the intermediate phase. It covers all the steps from designing the preliminary questionnaire to standardising the final instrument. A sample of 1 103 Grades 4 to 7 Afrikaans-, English- and Tswana-speaking learners in North West Province completed the Mathematics Vocabulary questionnaire (Primary (MV(P, consisting of 12 items. We analysed the data by calculating discrimination values, performing a factor analysis, determining reliability coefficients, and investigating item bias by language, gender, and grade. We concluded that there was strong evidence of validity and reliability for the MV(P.

  13. Phonon activity and intermediate glassy phase of YVO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, Nestor E.; Piamonteze, Cinthia; Tolentino, Helio C.N.; Alonso, Jose Antonio; Martinez-Lope, Maria Jesus; Casais, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    We show that in YVO 3 additional hard phonons gradually become zone center infrared active below ∼210 K, verifying that a lattice phase transition takes place at about that temperature. Their gradual increment in intensity between ∼210 and ∼77 K is associated with a 'glassy' behavior found in the temperature-dependent V K edge pseudoradial distribution. This translates into an increase in the Debye-Waller factors ascribed to the appearance of V local structural disorder below ∼150 K. Conflicts between various ordering mechanisms in YVO 3 bring up similarities of the intermediate phase to known results in dielectric incommensurate systems, suggesting the formation of commensurate domains below 116 K, the onset temperature of G-type antiferromagnetism. We propose that ∼210 and ∼77 K be understood as the temperatures where the commensurate-incommensurate and incommensurate-commensurate 'lock-in' phase transitions take place. We found support for this interpretation in the inverted λ shapes of the measured heat capacity and in the overall temperature dependence of the hard phonons

  14. Evidence for a Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid in α -RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S.-H.; Do, S.-H.; Choi, K.-Y.; Kwon, Y. S.; Wolter, A. U. B.; Nishimoto, S.; van den Brink, Jeroen; Büchner, B.

    2017-07-01

    We report a 35Cl nuclear magnetic resonance study in the honeycomb lattice α -RuCl3 , a material that has been suggested to potentially realize a Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL) ground state. Our results provide direct evidence that α -RuCl3 exhibits a magnetic-field-induced QSL. For fields larger than ˜10 T , a spin gap opens up while resonance lines remain sharp, evidencing that spins are quantum disordered and locally fluctuating. The spin gap increases linearly with an increasing magnetic field, reaching ˜50 K at 15 T, and is nearly isotropic with respect to the field direction. The unusual rapid increase of the spin gap with increasing field and its isotropic nature are incompatible with conventional magnetic ordering and, in particular, exclude that the ground state is a fully polarized ferromagnet. The presence of such a field-induced gapped QSL phase has indeed been predicted in the Kitaev model.

  15. Theory of a quantum spin liquid in the hydrogen-intercalated honeycomb iridate H3LiIr2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagle, Kevin; Choi, Wonjune; Chern, Li Ern; Kim, Yong Baek

    2018-03-01

    We propose a theoretical model for a gapless spin liquid phase that may have been observed in a recent experiment on H3LiIr2O6 . Despite the insulating and nonmagnetic nature of the material, the specific heat coefficient C /T ˜1 /√{T } in zero magnetic field and C /T ˜T /B3 /2 with finite magnetic field B have been observed. In addition, the NMR relaxation rate shows 1 /(T1T ) ˜(C/T ) 2 . Motivated by the fact that the interlayer/in-plane lattice parameters are reduced/elongated by the hydrogen intercalation of the parent compound Li2IrO3 , we consider four layers of the Kitaev honeycomb lattice model with additional interlayer exchange interactions. It is shown that the resulting spin liquid excitations reside mostly in the top and bottom layers of such a layered structure and possess a quartic dispersion. In an applied magnetic field, each quartic mode is split into four Majorana cones with the velocity v ˜B3 /4 . We suggest that the spin liquid phase in these "defect" layers, placed between different stacking patterns of the honeycomb layers, can explain the major phenomenology of the experiment, which can be taken as evidence that the Kitaev interaction plays the primary role in the formation of a quantum spin liquid in this material.

  16. Two-Step Amyloid Aggregation: Sequential Lag Phase Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, Fabio; Paredes, Jose M.; Ruedas-Rama, Maria J.; Martin, Miguel; Roldan, Mar; Casares, Salvador; Orte, Angel

    2017-01-01

    The self-assembly of proteins into fibrillar structures called amyloid fibrils underlies the onset and symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. However, the molecular basis and mechanism of amyloid aggregation are not completely understood. For many amyloidogenic proteins, certain oligomeric intermediates that form in the early aggregation phase appear to be the principal cause of cellular toxicity. Recent computational studies have suggested the importance of nonspecific interactions for the initiation of the oligomerization process prior to the structural conversion steps and template seeding, particularly at low protein concentrations. Here, using advanced single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of a model SH3 domain, we obtained direct evidence that nonspecific aggregates are required in a two-step nucleation mechanism of amyloid aggregation. We identified three different oligomeric types according to their sizes and compactness and performed a full mechanistic study that revealed a mandatory rate-limiting conformational conversion step. We also identified the most cytotoxic species, which may be possible targets for inhibiting and preventing amyloid aggregation.

  17. Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behaviour in a honeycomb magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, A; Bridges, C A; Yan, J-Q; Aczel, A A; Li, L; Stone, M B; Granroth, G E; Lumsden, M D; Yiu, Y; Knolle, J; Bhattacharjee, S; Kovrizhin, D L; Moessner, R; Tennant, D A; Mandrus, D G; Nagler, S E

    2016-07-01

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are topological states of matter exhibiting remarkable properties such as the capacity to protect quantum information from decoherence. Whereas their featureless ground states have precluded their straightforward experimental identification, excited states are more revealing and particularly interesting owing to the emergence of fundamentally new excitations such as Majorana fermions. Ideal probes of these excitations are inelastic neutron scattering experiments. These we report here for a ruthenium-based material, α-RuCl3, continuing a major search (so far concentrated on iridium materials) for realizations of the celebrated Kitaev honeycomb topological QSL. Our measurements confirm the requisite strong spin-orbit coupling and low-temperature magnetic order matching predictions proximate to the QSL. We find stacking faults, inherent to the highly two-dimensional nature of the material, resolve an outstanding puzzle. Crucially, dynamical response measurements above interlayer energy scales are naturally accounted for in terms of deconfinement physics expected for QSLs. Comparing these with recent dynamical calculations involving gauge flux excitations and Majorana fermions of the pure Kitaev model, we propose the excitation spectrum of α-RuCl3 as a prime candidate for fractionalized Kitaev physics.

  18. Isomerization Intermediates In Solution Phase Photochemistry Of Stilbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doany, F. E.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Greene, B. I.

    1985-04-01

    Picosecond and subpicosecond spectroscopic studies have revealed evidence for an isomerization intermediate between cis and trans in the photoinduced isomerism of both stilbene and biindanyledene ("stiff" stilbene). In stiff stilbene, a transient absorption at 351 nm displays time evolution and viscosity dependence consistent with absorption by a twisted intermediate ("phantom" state) with a lOps lifetime. An analagous bottleneck state with a life-time of 4ps is also consistent with the ground state recovery dynamics of t-stilbene following excitation of c-stilbene when monitored with 0.1ps resolution.

  19. Improving Orientation Outcomes: Implementation of Phased Orientation Process in an Intermediate Special Care Nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Emily K; Shedenhelm, Heidi J; Gibbs, Ardyce L

    2015-01-01

    In response to changing needs of registered nurse orientees, the staff education committee in the Intermediate Special Care Nursery has implemented a phased orientation process. This phased process includes a mentoring experience postorientation to support a new nurse through the first year of employment. Since implementing the phased orientation process in the Intermediate Special Care Nursery, orientee satisfaction and preparation to practice have increased, and length of orientation has decreased.

  20. Intermediate phase evolution in YBCO thin films grown by the TFA process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalamova, K; Pomar, A; Palau, A; Puig, T; Obradors, X

    2010-01-01

    The YBCO thin film growth process from TFA precursors involves a complex reaction path which includes several oxide, fluoride and oxyfluoride intermediate phases, and the final microstructure and properties of the films are strongly influenced by the morphological and chemical evolution of these intermediate phases. In this work we present a study of the evolution of the intermediate phases involved in the TFA YBCO growth process under normal pressure conditions and we show that the oxygen partial pressure during pyrolysis of the TFA precursors is an important parameter. The Cu phase after the TFA pyrolysis can be either CuO, Cu 2 O or a mixture of both as the oxygen partial pressure is modified. The kinetics evolution of the intermediate phases has been determined for films pyrolysed in oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres and it is concluded that non-equilibrium phase transformations influence the reaction path towards epitaxial YBCO films and its microstructure. The intermediate phase evolution in these two series of films is summarized in kinetic phase diagrams.

  1. Evidence for a Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid in α-RuCl_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S-H; Do, S-H; Choi, K-Y; Kwon, Y S; Wolter, A U B; Nishimoto, S; van den Brink, Jeroen; Büchner, B

    2017-07-21

    We report a ^{35}Cl nuclear magnetic resonance study in the honeycomb lattice α-RuCl_{3}, a material that has been suggested to potentially realize a Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL) ground state. Our results provide direct evidence that α-RuCl_{3} exhibits a magnetic-field-induced QSL. For fields larger than ∼10  T, a spin gap opens up while resonance lines remain sharp, evidencing that spins are quantum disordered and locally fluctuating. The spin gap increases linearly with an increasing magnetic field, reaching ∼50  K at 15 T, and is nearly isotropic with respect to the field direction. The unusual rapid increase of the spin gap with increasing field and its isotropic nature are incompatible with conventional magnetic ordering and, in particular, exclude that the ground state is a fully polarized ferromagnet. The presence of such a field-induced gapped QSL phase has indeed been predicted in the Kitaev model.

  2. Excitations in the field-induced quantum spin liquid state of α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Knolle, Johannes; Balz, Christian; Aczel, Adam Anthony; Winn, Barry; Liu, Yaohua; Pajerowski, Daniel; Yan, Jiaqiang; Bridges, Craig A.; Savici, Andrei T.; Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Tennant, David Alan; Moessner, Roderich; Mandrus, David G.; Nagler, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    The celebrated Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL) is the paradigmatic example of a topological magnet with emergent excitations in the form of Majorana Fermions and gauge fluxes. Upon breaking of time-reversal symmetry, for example in an external magnetic field, these fractionalized quasiparticles acquire non-Abelian exchange statistics, an important ingredient for topologically protected quantum computing. Consequently, there has been enormous interest in exploring possible material realizations of Kitaev physics and several candidate materials have been put forward, recently including α-RuCl3. In the absence of a magnetic field this material orders at a finite temperature and exhibits low-energy spin wave excitations. However, at moderate energies, the spectrum is unconventional and the response shows evidence for fractional excitations. Here we use time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering to show that the application of a sufficiently large magnetic field in the honeycomb plane suppresses the magnetic order and the spin waves, leaving a gapped continuum spectrum of magnetic excitations. Our comparisons of the scattering to the available calculations for a Kitaev QSL show that they are consistent with the magnetic field induced QSL phase.

  3. Neutronography of an intermediate phase in dysprosium near the Neel point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessergenev, V G; Gogava, V V; Kovalevskaya, Yu A; Mandzhavidze, A G; Fedorov, V M; Shilo, S I

    1985-11-25

    Neutronographical study of dysprosium magnetic structure near the point of magnetic disordering depending on thermal prehistory of the sample is carried out. Intermediate vortex phase transformed then into the helical one is shown to occur from the paramagnetic phase under cooling.

  4. Dynamics of a quantum spin liquid beyond integrability: The Kitaev-Heisenberg-Γ model in an augmented parton mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knolle, Johannes; Bhattacharjee, Subhro; Moessner, Roderich

    2018-04-01

    We present an augmented parton mean-field theory which (i) reproduces the exact ground state, spectrum, and dynamics of the quantum spin-liquid phase of Kitaev's honeycomb model, and (ii) is amenable to the inclusion of integrability breaking terms, allowing a perturbation theory from a controlled starting point. Thus, we exemplarily study dynamical spin correlations of the honeycomb Kitaev quantum spin liquid within the K -J -Γ model, which includes Heisenberg and symmetric-anisotropic (pseudodipolar) interactions. This allows us to trace changes of the correlations in the regime of slowly moving fluxes, where the theory captures the dominant deviations when integrability is lost. These include an asymmetric shift together with a broadening of the dominant peak in the response as a function of frequency, the generation of further-neighbor correlations and their structure in real and spin space, and a resulting loss of an approximate rotational symmetry of the structure factor in reciprocal space. We discuss the limitations of this approach and also view the neutron-scattering experiments on the putative proximate quantum spin-liquid material α -RuCl3 in the light of the results from this extended parton theory.

  5. Beryllium-rich intermediate phases in beryllium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynor, G.V.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a survey of the factors affecting the formation of phases of stoichiometry MBe 5 , M 2 Be 17 , MBe 12 and MBe 13 are presented. Using published information it is shown that the structures adopted at the higher Be:M ratios involve different characteristics from those adopted at lower Be:M ratios. In the ThMn 12 and NaZn 13 structures adopted in the former case dsub(M-Be) > (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)), (where the atomic radii refer to coordination number 12) and the dsub(Be-Be) distances are contracted. In the CaCu 5 structure adopted at composition MBe 5 , dsub(M-Be) < (rsub(M) + rsub(Be)) and interactions between unlike atoms are significant. The structural characteristics, occurrence, and the stabilities of these phases, and of the others mentioned above, are discussed in terms of atomic radius ratios, the position of the M component in the periodic table, and the value of the univalent ionic radius of the M component, taken as a measure of the extension in space of the hard incompressible ionic core. Though the compound-forming characteristics of beryllium are largely dictated by its small atomic diameter, other factors such as the nature of the bonding which can be exerted by the partner atoms are also significant. In particular, the proportions of the volumes of the atoms which are occupied by the hard incompressible ionic cores assume importance. (author)

  6. Misjudging frustrations in spin liquids from oversimplified use of Curie-Weiss law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, Abhishek, E-mail: msan@iacs.res.in [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ray, Sugata [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Centre for Advanced Materials, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Absence of a single smoking-gun experiment to identify a quantum spin liquid, has kept their characterisation difficult till date. Featureless dc magnetic susceptibility and large antiferromagnetic frustration are always considered as the essential pointers to these systems. However, we show that the amount of frustration estimated by using generalised Curie-Weiss law on these susceptibility data are prone to errors and thus should be dealt with caution. We measure and analyse susceptibility data of Ba{sub 3}ZnIr{sub 2}O{sub 9}, a spin orbital liquid candidate and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, a 1.5 K antiferromagnet and show the distinguishing features between them. A continuous and significant change in Curie and Weiss constants is seen to take place in Ba{sub 3}ZnIr{sub 2}O{sub 9} and other reported spin liquids with the change in the range of fitting temperatures showing the need of a temperature ‘range-of-fit’ analysis before commenting on the Weiss constants of spin liquids. The variation observed is similar to fluctuations among topological sectors persisting over a range of temperature in spin-ice candidates. On the other hand, even though we find correlations to exist at even 100 times the ordering temperature in Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, no such fluctuation is observed which may be used as an additional distinguishing signature of spin liquids over similarly featureless correlated paramagnets. - Highlights: • Curie-Weiss fitting may give erroneous frustration parameters in spin-liquids. • The results depend upon choice of fitting method and temperature range used. • More appropriate method is to use a ʽrange of fit’ analysis. • Can distinguish between spin-liquids and correlated paramagnets.

  7. Persistence of the gapless spin liquid in the breathing kagome Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Poilblanc, Didier; Thomale, Ronny; Becca, Federico

    2018-03-01

    The nature of the ground state of the spin S =1 /2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice with breathing anisotropy (i.e., with different superexchange couplings J▵ and J▿ within elementary up- and down-pointing triangles) is investigated within the framework of Gutzwiller projected fermionic wave functions and Monte Carlo methods. We analyze the stability of the U(1 ) Dirac spin liquid with respect to the presence of fermionic pairing that leads to a gapped Z2 spin liquid. For several values of the ratio J▿/J▵ , the size scaling of the energy gain due to the pairing fields and the variational parameters are reported. Our results show that the energy gain of the gapped spin liquid with respect to the gapless state either vanishes for large enough system size or scales to zero in the thermodynamic limit. Similarly, the optimized pairing amplitudes (responsible for opening the spin gap) are shown to vanish in the thermodynamic limit. Our outcome is corroborated by the application of one and two Lanczos steps to the gapless and gapped wave functions, for which no energy gain of the gapped state is detected when improving the quality of the variational states. Finally, we discuss the competition with the "simplex" Z2 resonating-valence-bond spin liquid, valence-bond crystal, and nematic states in the strongly anisotropic regime, i.e., J▿≪J▵ .

  8. Life orientation in the intermediate phase (grades 4-6): A survey in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this article was on the Intermediate Phase (IP [Grades 4-6]) in the General Education and Training Band (GET). The main problem was to determine the perspectives of LO teachers regarding the implementation of LO and particularly the Learning Outcome, PDM, in the IP in selected primary schools in the ...

  9. Identification and characterization of the intermediate phase in hybrid organic-inorganic MAPbI3 perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xin; McCleese, Christopher; Kolodziej, Charles; Samia, Anna C S; Zhao, Yixin; Burda, Clemens

    2016-03-07

    Perovskite films were prepared using single step solution deposition at different annealing temperatures and annealing times. The crystal structure, phases and grain size were investigated with XRD, XPS and SEM/EDX. The prepared films show a typical orientation of tetragonal perovskite phase and a gradual transition at room temperature from the yellow intermediate phase to the black perovskite phase. Films with high purity were obtained by sintering at 100 °C. In addition, the chemical composition and crystal structure of intermediate phase were investigated in detail. FTIR, UV-vis and NMR spectra revealed the occurance of DMF complexes. Interestingly, the intermediate phase could be transformed to the black perovskite phase upon X-ray irradiation. In addition, the recovery of the aged perovskite films from a yellow intermediate phase back to the black perovskite was shown to be viable via heating and X-ray irradiation.

  10. Intermediate phases in the hydrogen disproportionated state of NdFeB-type powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, G.; Chapman, J. N.; Brown, D. N.; Harris, I. R.

    2001-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy studies have been carried out on partially disproportionated NdFeB-type alloys. A new intermediate magnetic (NIM) phase has been identified. Moreover, the lamella structure which subsequently develops from the tetragonal NIM phase comprises a tetragonal NdFe-containing (IL) phase and α-Fe. The experimental data show strong evidence of a well-defined crystallographic relation between both the NIM and lamella phases and between the IL phase and α-Fe. These observations give insight into how crystallographic texture, and hence anisotropy, can be developed in NdFeB-type powders processed by the hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption, and recombination route. copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  11. HoTbTi2O7, the mixtures of spin ice and spin liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.J.; Terashita, H.; Schweika, W.; Chen, Y.Y.; Gardner, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of Ho 2- x Tb x Ti 2 O 7 (x=0.5, 1, and 1.5) have been prepared and characterized. No long-range order is observed for HoTbTi 2 O 7 in magnetization and specific heat measurements down to 2 K. The low-energy magnetic excitation measurements suggests that HoTbTi 2 O 7 possesses both characteristics of spin ice and spin liquid in the ground state

  12. 3D Spin-Liquid State in an Organic Hyperkagome Lattice of Mott Dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Asato; Shuku, Yoshiaki; Matsushita, Michio M.; Tsuchiizu, Masahisa; Hara, Yuuki; Wada, Nobuo; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Awaga, Kunio

    2017-08-01

    We report the first 3D spin liquid state of isotropic organic spins. Structural analysis, and magnetic and heat-capacity measurements were carried out for a chiral organic radical salt, (TBA) 1.5[(-)-NDI -Δ ] (TBA denotes tetrabutylammonium and NDI denotes naphthalene diimide), in which (-)-NDI -Δ forms a K4 structure due to its triangular molecular structure and an intermolecular π -π overlap between the NDI moieties. This lattice was identical to the hyperkagome lattice of S =1 /2 Mott dimers, and should exhibit 3D spin frustration. In fact, even though the high-temperature magnetic susceptibility followed the Curie-Weiss law with a negative Weiss constant of θ =-15 K , the low-temperature magnetic measurements revealed no long-range magnetic ordering down to 70 mK, and suggested the presence of a spin liquid state with a large residual paramagnetism χ0 of 8.5 ×10-6 emu g-1 at the absolute zero temperature. This was supported by the N 14 NMR measurements down to 0.38 K. Further, the low-temperature heat capacities cp down to 68 mK clearly indicated the presence of cp for the spin liquid state, which can be fitted to the power law of T0.62 in the wide temperature range 0.07-4.5 K.

  13. Systematic construction of spin liquids on the square lattice from tensor networks with SU(2) symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mambrini, Matthieu; Orús, Román; Poilblanc, Didier

    2016-11-01

    We elaborate a simple classification scheme of all rank-5 SU(2) spin rotational symmetric tensors according to (i) the onsite physical spin S , (ii) the local Hilbert space V⊗4 of the four virtual (composite) spins attached to each site, and (iii) the irreducible representations of the C4 v point group of the square lattice. We apply our scheme to draw a complete list of all SU(2)-symmetric translationally and rotationally invariant projected entangled pair states (PEPS) with bond dimension D ≤6 . All known SU(2)-symmetric PEPS on the square lattice are recovered and simple generalizations are provided in some cases. More generally, to each of our symmetry class can be associated a (D -1 )-dimensional manifold of spin liquids (potentially) preserving lattice symmetries and defined in terms of D -independent tensors of a given bond dimension D . In addition, generic (low-dimensional) families of PEPS explicitly breaking either (i) particular point-group lattice symmetries (lattice nematics) or (ii) time-reversal symmetry (chiral spin liquids) or (iii) SU(2) spin rotation symmetry down to U(1 ) (spin nematics or Néel antiferromagnets) can also be constructed. We apply this framework to search for new topological chiral spin liquids characterized by well-defined chiral edge modes, as revealed by their entanglement spectrum. In particular, we show how the symmetrization of a double-layer PEPS leads to a chiral topological state with a gapless edge described by a SU (2) 2 Wess-Zumino-Witten model.

  14. Fractional Spin Fluctuations as a Precursor of Quantum Spin Liquids: Majorana Dynamical Mean-Field Study for the Kitaev Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Junki; Nasu, Joji; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-10-07

    Experimental identification of quantum spin liquids remains a challenge, as the pristine nature is to be seen in asymptotically low temperatures. We here theoretically show that the precursor of quantum spin liquids appears in the spin dynamics in the paramagnetic state over a wide temperature range. Using the cluster dynamical mean-field theory and the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method, which are newly developed in the Majorana fermion representation, we calculate the dynamical spin structure factor, relaxation rate in nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetic susceptibility for the honeycomb Kitaev model whose ground state is a canonical example of the quantum spin liquid. We find that dynamical spin correlations show peculiar temperature and frequency dependence even below the temperature where static correlations saturate. The results provide the experimentally accessible symptoms of the fluctuating fractionalized spins evincing the quantum spin liquids.

  15. Vaporization thermodynamics of Pd-rich intermediate phases in the Pd–Yb system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciccioli, A., E-mail: andrea.ciccioli@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Balducci, G.; Gigli, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Sapienza Università di Roma, p.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy); Provino, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Istituto SPIN-CNR, Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy); Palenzona, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Manfrinetti, P. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università degli Studi di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Istituto SPIN-CNR, Corso Perrone 24, 16152 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-20

    Highlights: • Vaporization equilibria of Pd–Yb intermediate phases investigated by effusion techniques. • Heats of formation of Pd–Yb compounds determined from decomposition/atomization enthalpies. • Phase diagram of the Pd–Yb system re-drawn. • Influence of the Yb valence state on the thermodynamic properties observed. - Abstract: The vaporization thermodynamics of several intermediate phases in the Pd–Yb system was investigated by means of vaporization experiments performed under Knudsen conditions (KEML, Knudsen Effusion Mass Loss). The following thermal decomposition processes were studied in the overall temperature range 819–1240 K and their enthalpy changes determined: 4 PdYb(s) = Pd{sub 4}Yb{sub 3}(s) + Yb(g); 5/3 Pd{sub 4}Yb{sub 3}(s) = 4/3 Pd{sub 5}Yb{sub 3}(s) + Yb(g); 21/13 Pd{sub 5}Yb{sub 3}(s) = 5/13 Pd{sub 21}Yb{sub 10}(s) + Yb(g); 1/3 Pd{sub 21}Yb{sub 10}(s) = 21/9 Pd{sub 3}Yb(s) + Yb(g). Additional measurements were performed by KEMS (Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry) on a Pd-rich two-phase sample, which allowed to detect both Yb(g) and Pd(g) in the vapor phase and to determine the atomization enthalpy of the Pd{sub 3}Yb phase (Pd-rich composition boundary, Pd{sub 3.08}Yb{sub 0.92}): Pd{sub 3.08}Yb{sub 0.92}(s) = 0.92 Yb(g) + 3.08 Pd(g). The enthalpy of formation of this compound was thereafter determined as −68 ± 2 kJ/mol at. and, by combining this value with the decomposition enthalpies derived by KEML, the enthalpies of formation of the studied Pd–Yb intermediate phases were evaluated (kJ/mol at.): −75 ± 4 (Pd{sub 21}Yb{sub 10}), −75 ± 3 (Pd{sub 5}Yb{sub 3}), −73 ± 3 (Pd{sub 4}Yb{sub 3}), and −66 ± 3 (PdYb). A modified version of the Pd–Yb phase diagram is also reported, re-drawn on the basis of literature data and of new experimental information recently become available.

  16. Magnetic Excitations and Continuum of a Possibly Field-Induced Quantum Spin Liquid in α-RuCl_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Reschke, S; Hüvonen, D; Do, S-H; Choi, K-Y; Gensch, M; Nagel, U; Rõõm, T; Loidl, A

    2017-12-01

    We report on terahertz spectroscopy of quantum spin dynamics in α-RuCl_{3}, a system proximate to the Kitaev honeycomb model, as a function of temperature and magnetic field. We follow the evolution of an extended magnetic continuum below the structural phase transition at T_{s2}=62  K. With the onset of a long-range magnetic order at T_{N}=6.5  K, spectral weight is transferred to a well-defined magnetic excitation at ℏω_{1}=2.48  meV, which is accompanied by a higher-energy band at ℏω_{2}=6.48  meV. Both excitations soften in a magnetic field, signaling a quantum phase transition close to B_{c}=7  T, where a broad continuum dominates the dynamical response. Above B_{c}, the long-range order is suppressed, and on top of the continuum, emergent magnetic excitations evolve. These excitations follow clear selection rules and exhibit distinct field dependencies, characterizing the dynamical properties of a possibly field-induced quantum spin liquid.

  17. Phase equilibria, crystal structure and oxygen content of intermediate phases in the Y-Ba-Co-O system

    OpenAIRE

    Urusova, A. S.; Cherepanov, V. A.; Aksenova, T. V.; Gavrilova, L. Y.; Kiselev, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The phase equilibria in the Y-Ba-Co-O system were systematically studied at 1373 K in air. The intermediate phases formed in the Y-Ba-Co-O system at 1373 K in air were: YBaCo2O5+δ, YBaCo4O 7 and BaCo1-yYyO3-δ (0.09≤y≤0.42). It was shown that YBaCo2O5+δ possesses tetragonal structure with the 3ap×3a p×2ap superstructure (sp. gr. P4/mmm). High-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis of the YBaCo2O 5+δ in the temperature range from 298 K up to 1073 K under Po2=0.21 atm has not shown any phase tra...

  18. Low temperature heat capacity measurements of the spin-liquid states of hydrogenated and deuterated κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakazawa, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Heat capacity measurements of organic triangular lattice compound κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 were performed to discuss the low energy excitations from the spin-liquid ground states. Existence of the T-linear electronic coefficient with finite electronic heat capacity coefficient γ was confirmed in three different samples from different batches, although small sample dependence was observed in the absolute values of the heat capacities. Concerning the sample in which hydrogen atoms in ethylene group in BEDT-TTF molecule have been substituted by deuterons, we have observed almost similar thermodynamic behavior as the hydrogenated sample. The absence of drastic change of electronic properties of this compound is consistent with the electronic phase diagram given by Kurosaki et al. [11] (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 (2005) 17001). The obtained data are well consistent with the previous heat capacity experiments. The existence of the γ term demonstrates that the excitations from the quantum spin-liquid states show a gapless behavior at least down to 0.7 K.

  19. General topological features and instanton vacuum in quantum Hall and spin liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruisken, A.M.M.; Shankar, R.; Surendran, Naveen

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the concept of superuniversality in quantum Hall liquids and spin liquids. This concept has emerged from previous studies of the quantum Hall effect and states that all the fundamental features of the quantum Hall effect are generically displayed as general topological features of the θ parameter in nonlinear σ models in two dimensions. To establish superuniversality in spin liquids we revisit the mapping by Haldane who argued that the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg spin-s chain in 1+1 space-time dimensions is effectively described by the O(3) nonlinear σ model with a θ term. By combining the path integral representation for the dimerized spin s=1/2 chain with renormalization-group decimation techniques we generalize the Haldane approach to include a more complicated theory, the fermionic rotor chain, involving four different renormalization-group parameters. We show how the renormalization-group calculation technique can be used to build a bridge between the fermionic rotor chain and the O(3) nonlinear σ model with the θ term. As an integral and fundamental aspect of the mapping we establish the topological significance of the dangling spin at the edge of the chain. The edge spin in spin liquids is in all respects identical to the massless chiral edge excitations in quantum Hall liquids. We consider various different geometries of the spin chain such as open and closed chains, chains with an even and odd number of sides. We show that for each of the different geometries the θ term has a distinctly different physical meaning. We compare each case with a topologically equivalent quantum Hall liquid

  20. Signatures of a gearwheel quantum spin liquid in a spin-1/2 pyrochlore molybdate Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Müller, Tobias; Riedl, Kira; Reuther, Johannes; Rachel, Stephan; Valentí, Roser; Gingras, Michel J. P.; Thomale, Ronny; Jeschke, Harald O.

    2017-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the low-temperature phase of the recently synthesized Lu2Mo2O5N2 material, an extraordinarily rare realization of a S =1 /2 three-dimensional pyrochlore Heisenberg antiferromagnet in which Mo5 + are the S =1 /2 magnetic species. Despite a Curie-Weiss temperature (ΘCW) of -121 (1 ) K, experiments have found no signature of magnetic ordering or spin freezing down to T*≈0.5 K. Using density functional theory, we find that the compound is well described by a Heisenberg model with exchange parameters up to third nearest neighbors. The analysis of this model via the pseudofermion functional renormalization group method reveals paramagnetic behavior down to a temperature of at least T =| ΘCW|/100 , in agreement with the experimental findings hinting at a possible three-dimensional quantum spin liquid. The spin susceptibility profile in reciprocal space shows momentum-dependent features forming a "gearwheel" pattern, characterizing what may be viewed as a molten version of a chiral noncoplanar incommensurate spiral order under the action of quantum fluctuations. Our calculated reciprocal space susceptibility maps provide benchmarks for future neutron scattering experiments on single crystals of Lu2Mo2O5N2 .

  1. Evidence for a Field-induced Quantum Spin Liquid in $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, S. -H.; Do, S. -H.; Choi, K. -Y.; Kwon, Y. S.; Wolter, A. U. B.; Nishimoto, S.; Brink, Jeroen van den; Büchner, B.

    2017-01-01

    We report a $^{35}$Cl nuclear magnetic resonance study in the honeycomb lattice, $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$, a material that has been suggested to potentially realize a Kitaev quantum spin liquid (QSL) ground state. Our results provide direct evidence that $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ exhibits a magnetic field-induced QSL. For fields larger than $\\sim 10$ T a spin-gap opens up while resonance lines remain sharp, evidencing that spins are quantum disordered and locally fluctuating. The spin gap increases linearly...

  2. Low Energy Spectrum of Proximate Kitaev Spin Liquid α -RuCl3 by Terahertz Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Arielle; Wu, Liang; Kelley, Paige; Banerjee, Arnab; Bridges, Craig; Yan, Jiaqiang; Nagler, Stephen; Mandrus, David; Orenstein, Joseph

    A Quantum Spin Liquid (QSL) is an ultra-quantum state of matter with no ordered ground state. Recently, a route to a QSL identified by Kitaev has received a great deal of attention. The compound α -RuCl3, in which Ru atoms form a honeycomb lattice, has been shown to possess Kitaev exchange interactions, although a smaller Heisenberg interaction exists and leads to a zig-zag antiferromagnetic state below 7 K. Because of proximity to the exactly-solvable Kitaev spin-liquid model, this material is considered a potential host for Majorana-like modes. In this work, we use time-domain terahertz (THz) Spectroscopy to probe the low-energy excitations of α -RuCl3. We observe the emergence of a sharp magnetic spin-wave absorption peak below the AFM ordering temperature at 7 K on top of a broad continuum that persists up to room temperature. Additionally we report the polarization dependence of the THz absorption, which reveals optical birefringence, indicating the presence of large monoclinic domains.

  3. Spin liquid in a single crystal of the frustrated diamond lattice antiferromagnet CoAl2O4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharko, O.; Christensen, Niels Bech; Cervellino, A.

    2011-01-01

    at the q = 0 positions are broad and their line shapes have strong Lorentzian contributions. Additionally, the peaks are connected by weak diffuse streaks oriented along the directions. The observed short-range magnetic correlations are explained within the spiral spin-liquid model. The specific...... shape of the energy landscape of the system, with an extremely flat energy minimum around q = 0 and many low-lying excited spiral states with q = , results in thermal population of this manifold at finite temperatures. The agreement between the experimental results and the spiral spin-liquid model...... is only qualitative, indicating that microstructure effects might be important to achieve quantitative agreement. Application of a magnetic field significantly perturbs the spiral spin-liquid correlations. The magnetic peaks remain broad but acquire more Gaussian line shapes and increase in intensity...

  4. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways. PMID:24381049

  5. Advantages of intermediate X-ray energies in Zernike phase contrast X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Gao, Kun; Chen, Jian; Hong, Youli; Ge, Xin; Wang, Dajiang; Pan, Zhiyun; Zhu, Peiping; Yun, Wenbing; Jacobsen, Chris; Wu, Ziyu

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the hierarchical organizations of molecules and organelles within the interior of large eukaryotic cells is a challenge of fundamental interest in cell biology. Light microscopy is a powerful tool for observations of the dynamics of live cells, its resolution attainable is limited and insufficient. While electron microscopy can produce images with astonishing resolution and clarity of ultra-thin (3D images of cryo-preserved cells. The relatively low X-ray energy (3D imaging (e.g., ~1 μm DoF for 20 nm resolution). An X-ray microscope operating at intermediate energy around 2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast can overcome the above limitations and reduces radiation dose to the specimen. Using a hydrated model cell with an average chemical composition reported in literature, we calculated the image contrast and the radiation dose for absorption and Zernike phase contrast, respectively. The results show that an X-ray microscope operating at ~2.5 keV using Zernike phase contrast offers substantial advantages in terms of specimen size, radiation dose and depth-of-focus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intermediate Photovoltaic System Application Experiment. Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts. Phase II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the key results of the Phase II efforts for the Intermediate PV System Applications Experiment at the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts (OCSA). This phase of the project involved fabrication, installation and integration of a nominal 140 kW flat panel PV system made up of large, square polycrystalline-silicon solar cell modules, each nominally 61 cm x 122 cm in size. The output of the PV modules, supplied by Solarex Corporation, was augmented, 1.35 to 1 at peak, by a row of glass reflectors, appropriately tilted northward. The PV system interfaces with the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Utility at the OCSA main switchgear. Any excess power generated by the system is fed into the utility under a one to one buyback arrangement. Except for a shortfall in the system output, presently suspected to be due to the poor performance of the modules, no serious problems were encountered. Certain value engineering changes implemented during construction and early operational failure events associated with the power conditioning system are also described. The system is currently undergoing extended testing and evaluation.

  7. Semi-classical approaches to the phase space evolutions in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remaud, B; Sebille, F; Raffray, Y; Gregoire, C; Vinet, L

    1986-01-06

    The properties of semi-classical phase space evolution equations - as the Vlasov/Boltzmann equations - are discussed in the context of the heavy ion reaction theory at intermediate energies (from 10 to 100 MeV per nucleon). The generalized coherent state set is shown to form a (over) complete basis for the phase space; then every solution of the Vlasov/Boltzmann equations can be defined as a convolution product of the generalized coherent state basis by an appropriate weight function w. The uniform approximation for w is shown to provide an accurate semi-classical description of fermion systems in their ground state: the examples of fermions in a harmonic well and of cold nuclei are discussed. The solution of the Vlasov equation amounts to follow the time evolution of the coherent states which play the role of a moving basis. For the Boltzmann equation, the collision term is taken into account by explicit or implicit variations of the function w. Typical applications are discussed: nuclear response to the giant monopole resonance excitation, fast nucleon emission in heavy-ion reactions. (orig.).

  8. Synthesis of iron oxide nanorods via chemical scavenging and phase transformations of intermediates at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshmukh, Ruchi; Mehra, Anurag; Thaokar, Rochish, E-mail: rochish@che.iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Department of Chemical Engineering (India)

    2017-01-15

    Chemically induced shape transformations of isotropic seeds, comprised of iron oxyhydroxides and iron oxide borate into nanorods, is reported. Transient growth studies show that the nanorods are formed via phase transformation and aggregation of various metastable species. Addition of tetra-methyl-ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) to the in situ synthesized seeds ensures a typical reaction pathway that favors formation of magnetite (Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4}) via the steps of chemical etching, phase transformation of intermediates, and crystal consolidation. Whereas, with addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), either magnetite (Fe {sub 3}O{sub 4}) or a mixture of (γ-Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} + α-FeOOH) is obtained. The shape with both the additives is always that of nanorods. When the seeds treated with TMAH were aged in an ultrasonication bath, rods with almost twice the length and diameter (length = 2800 nm, diameter = 345 nm) are obtained as compared to the sample aged without ultrasonication (length = 1535 nm, diameter = 172 nm). The morphology of nanostructures depending upon other experimental conditions such as, aging the sample at 60 {sup ∘}C, seeds synthesized under ultrasonication/ stirring or externally added are also examined and discussed in detail. All the samples show high coercivity and strong ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature and should be promising candidates as ferro-fluids for various applications.

  9. Evidence of an Intermediate Phase in bulk alloy oxide glass sysem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Boolchand, P.

    2011-03-01

    Reversibility windows have been observed in modified oxides (alkali-silicates and -germanates) and identified with Intermediate Phases(IPs). Here we find preliminary evidence of an IP in a ternary oxide glass, (B2 O3)5 (Te O2)95-x (V2O5)x , which is composed of network formers. Bulk glasses are synthesized across the 18% x 35 % composition range, and examined in Raman scattering, modulated DSC and molar volume experiments. Glass transition temperatures Tg (x) steadily decrease with V2O5 content x, and reveal the enthalpy of relaxation at Tg to show a global minimum in the 24% x < 27 range, the reversibility window (IP). Molar volumes reveal a minimum in this window. Raman scattering reveals a Boson mode, and at least six other vibrational bands in the 100cm-1 < ν < 1700cm-1 range. Compositional trends in vibrational mode strengths and frequency are established. These results will be presented in relation to glass structure evolution with vanadia content and the underlying elastic phases. Supported by NSF grant DMR 08-53957.

  10. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  11. Gapless Spin-Liquid Ground State in the S =1 /2 Kagome Antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, H. J.; Xie, Z. Y.; Chen, J.; Liu, Z. Y.; Xie, H. D.; Huang, R. Z.; Normand, B.; Xiang, T.

    2017-03-01

    The defining problem in frustrated quantum magnetism, the ground state of the nearest-neighbor S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice, has defied all theoretical and numerical methods employed to date. We apply the formalism of tensor-network states, specifically the method of projected entangled simplex states, which combines infinite system size with a correct accounting for multipartite entanglement. By studying the ground-state energy, the finite magnetic order appearing at finite tensor bond dimensions, and the effects of a next-nearest-neighbor coupling, we demonstrate that the ground state is a gapless spin liquid. We discuss the comparison with other numerical studies and the physical interpretation of this result.

  12. Proximate Kitaev quantum spin liquid behavior in α-RuCl{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, Stephen [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic semiconductor α-RuCl{sub 3} is composed of very weakly coupled honeycomb layers of edge-sharing RuCl{sub 6} octahedra. The Ru{sup 3+} ion has 5d electrons in a low spin state, and the system is expected to have an effective J = 1/2 single ion ground state with an interacting spin Hamiltonian containing Kitaev-like terms. Inelastic neutron scattering on powders and single crystals has been used to determine the energy scale of the magnetic interactions and the overall form of the magnetic fluctuations. The results indicate that the Kitaev term is significant. Moreover, detailed measurements of the response show evidence for the fractionalized excitations that are characteristic of the Kitaev Quantum Spin-liquid.

  13. A spin-liquid with pinch-line singularities on the pyrochlore lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Owen; Jaubert, L D C; Yan, Han; Shannon, Nic

    2016-05-26

    The mathematics of gauge theories lies behind many of the most profound advances in physics in the past 200 years, from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism to Einstein's theory of general relativity. More recently it has become clear that gauge theories also emerge in condensed matter, a prime example being the spin-ice materials which host an emergent electromagnetic gauge field. In spin-ice, the underlying gauge structure is revealed by the presence of pinch-point singularities in neutron-scattering measurements. Here we report the discovery of a spin-liquid where the low-temperature physics is naturally described by the fluctuations of a tensor field with a continuous gauge freedom. This gauge structure underpins an unusual form of spin correlations, giving rise to pinch-line singularities: line-like analogues of the pinch points observed in spin-ice. Remarkably, these features may already have been observed in the pyrochlore material Tb2Ti2O7.

  14. Neutron scattering in the proximate quantum spin liquid α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Arnab; Yan, Jiaqiang; Knolle, Johannes; Bridges, Craig A.; Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; Mandrus, David G.; Tennant, David A.; Moessner, Roderich; Nagler, Stephen E.

    2017-06-01

    The Kitaev quantum spin liquid (KQSL) is an exotic emergent state of matter exhibiting Majorana fermion and gauge flux excitations. The magnetic insulator α-RuCl3 is thought to realize a proximate KQSL. We used neutron scattering on single crystals of α-RuCl3 to reconstruct dynamical correlations in energy-momentum space. We discovered highly unusual signals, including a column of scattering over a large energy interval around the Brillouin zone center, which is very stable with temperature. This finding is consistent with scattering from the Majorana excitations of a KQSL. Other, more delicate experimental features can be transparently associated with perturbations to an ideal model. Our results encourage further study of this prototypical material and may open a window into investigating emergent magnetic Majorana fermions in correlated materials.

  15. High-pressure behavior of intermediate scapolite: compressibility, structure deformation and phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Paolo; Comboni, Davide; Merlini, Marco; Hanfland, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Scapolites are common volatile-bearing minerals in metamorphic rocks. In this study, the high-pressure behavior of an intermediate member of the scapolite solid solution series (Me47), chemical formula (Na1.86Ca1.86K0.23Fe0.01)(Al4.36Si7.64)O24[Cl0.48(CO3)0.48(SO4)0.01], has been investigated up to 17.79 GPa, by means of in situ single-crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The isothermal elastic behavior of the studied scapolite has been described by a III-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state, which provided the following refined parameters: V 0 = 1110.6(7) Å3, {K_{{V_0}}} = 70(2) GPa ({β _{{V_0}}} = 0.0143(4) GPa-1) and {K_{{V}}^' = 4.8(7). The refined bulk modulus is intermediate between those previously reported for Me17 and Me68 scapolite samples, confirming that the bulk compressibility among the solid solution increases with the Na content. A discussion on the P-induced structure deformation mechanisms of tetragonal scapolite at the atomic scale is provided, along with the implications of the reported results for the modeling of scapolite stability. In addition, a single-crystal to single-crystal phase transition, which is displacive in character, has been observed toward a triclinic polymorph at 9.87 GPa. The high-pressure triclinic polymorph was found to be stable up to the highest pressure investigated.

  16. Kitaev exchange and field-induced quantum spin-liquid states in honeycomb α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; van den Brink, Jeroen; Hozoi, Liviu

    2016-11-01

    Large anisotropic exchange in 5d and 4d oxides and halides open the door to new types of magnetic ground states and excitations, inconceivable a decade ago. A prominent case is the Kitaev spin liquid, host of remarkable properties such as protection of quantum information and the emergence of Majorana fermions. Here we discuss the promise for spin-liquid behavior in the 4d5 honeycomb halide α-RuCl3. From advanced electronic-structure calculations, we find that the Kitaev interaction is ferromagnetic, as in 5d5 iridium honeycomb oxides, and indeed defines the largest superexchange energy scale. A ferromagnetic Kitaev coupling is also supported by a detailed analysis of the field-dependent magnetization. Using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group techniques for extended Kitaev-Heisenberg spin Hamiltonians, we find indications for a transition from zigzag order to a gapped spin liquid when applying magnetic field. Our results offer a unified picture on recent magnetic and spectroscopic measurements on this material and open new perspectives on the prospect of realizing quantum spin liquids in d5 halides and oxides in general.

  17. The impact of intermediate wet states on two-phase flow in porous media, studied by network modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeiland, Linda Kaada

    2006-04-15

    Reservoir wettability is a measure of a rocks preference for the oil and/or the brine phase. Wettability has a dominant impact on fluid movements in porous media, hence oil displacement in reservoir rocks. Understanding the local wettability and the effect of wettability on the fluid movements are therefore of interest in relation to oil recovery processes. Contrary to the earlier believed homogenous wetted cases where the porous media was strongly oil-wet for carbonate reservoirs or strongly water-wet for clastic reservoirs, it is now believed that most reservoir rocks experience some kind of intermediate wet state. Since wettability affects oil recovery, different classes of intermediate wettability are expected to have different impacts on the fluid flow processes. The major subject treated in this thesis is how different intermediate wet states affect fluid flow parameters which are important for the oil recovery. This is done by use of a capillary dominated network model of two-phase flow, where the network is based on a model of reconstructed sandstone. The existence of different intermediate wet classes is argued in Paper I, while Paper II, III and IV analyse the effect different intermediate wet classes have on wettability indices, residual oil saturation, capillary pressure and relative permeability (author)

  18. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product......, obtained in continuous mode by a Grignard reaction in THF, reacted with acidic water to produce partially miscible organic and aqueous phases containing Mg salts. Despite the partial THF–water miscibility, the two phases could be separated at total flow rates up to 40 mL/min at different flow ratios, using...

  19. Comprehensive study of the dynamics of a classical Kitaev Spin Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Banerjee, Arnab; Batista, Cristian; Kamiya, Yoshitomo; Tennant, Alan; Nagler, Stephen

    Quantum spin liquids (QSLs) have achieved great interest in both theoretical and experimental condensed matter physics due to their remarkable topological properties. Among many different candidates, the Kitaev model on the honeycomb lattice is a 2D prototypical QSL which can be experimentally studied in materials based on iridium or ruthenium.Here we study the spin-1/2 Kitaev model using classical Monte-Carlo and semiclassical spin dynamics of classical spins on a honeycomb lattice. Both real and reciprocal space pictures highlighting the differences and similarities of the results to the linear spin wave theory will be discussed in terms dispersion relations of the pure-Kitaev limit and beyond. Interestingly, this technique could capture some of the salient features of the exact quantum solution of the Kitaev model, such as features resembling the Majorana-like mode comparable to the Kitaev energy, which is spectrally narrowed compared to the quantum result, can be explained by magnon excitations on fluctuating onedimensional manifolds (loops). Hence the difference from the classical limit to the quantum limit can be understood by the fractionalization of a magnon to Majorana fermions. The calculations will be directly compared with our neutron scattering data on α-RuCl3 which is a prime candidate for experimental realization of Kitaev physics.

  20. New insights on the complex dynamics of two-phase flow in porous media under intermediate-wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Harris Sajjad; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Pak, Tannaz; Shokri, Nima

    2017-07-04

    Multiphase flow in porous media is important in a number of environmental and industrial applications such as soil remediation, CO 2 sequestration, and enhanced oil recovery. Wetting properties control flow of immiscible fluids in porous media and fluids distribution in the pore space. In contrast to the strong and weak wet conditions, pore-scale physics of immiscible displacement under intermediate-wet conditions is less understood. This study reports the results of a series of two-dimensional high-resolution direct numerical simulations with the aim of understanding the pore-scale dynamics of two-phase immiscible fluid flow under intermediate-wet conditions. Our results show that for intermediate-wet porous media, pore geometry has a strong influence on interface dynamics, leading to co-existence of concave and convex interfaces. Intermediate wettability leads to various interfacial movements which are not identified under imbibition or drainage conditions. These pore-scale events significantly influence macro-scale flow behaviour causing the counter-intuitive decline in recovery of the defending fluid from weak imbibition to intermediate-wet conditions.

  1. Quantum lattice model solver package HΦ. Applications to thermal and spin excitations in proximity of spin liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Youhei; Misawa, Takahiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Kawashima, Naoki; Todo, Synge

    2017-01-01

    HΦ is a program package based on the Lanczos-type method applicable to a broad range of quantum lattice models. HΦ has a flexible and simple-to-use interface, and runs efficiently on massively parallel computers. Unlike most existing packages, HΦ supports finite-temperature calculations. In this article, we apply HΦ to typical strongly correlated electron systems in proximity to quantum spin liquids. (author)

  2. Intermediate phases in the formation of the Cu-Ba-Y high-Tc superconductor from xerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcon, I.; Bele, M.; Hribar, M.; Kodre, A.; Stuhec, M.; Pejovnik, S.; Frahm, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the synthesis of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor ceramics by the sol-gel method, yttrium K EXAFS spectra of the intermediate products give evidence of the dynamics of the Y ion in the reaction. Together with previous data on Cu K and Ba L 3 EXAFS, the results give information on the processes in the amorphous phase, complementing the diffraction data on crystallite growth. ((orig.))

  3. Crystallographic information of intermediate phases in binary Mg–X (X=Sn, Y, Sc, Ag alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compositions and structures of thermodynamically stable or metastable precipitations in binary Mg-X (X=Sn, Y, Sc, Ag alloys are predicted using ab-initio evolutionary algorithm. The geometry optimizations of the predicted intermetallic compounds are carried out in the framework of density functional theory (DFT [1]. A complete list of the optimized crystallographic information (in cif format of the predicted intermetallic phases is presented here. The data is related to “Predictions on the compositions, structures, and mechanical properties of intermediate phases in binary Mg–X (X=Sn, Y, Sc, Ag alloys” by Liu et al. [2].

  4. Influence of the intermediate bcc phase on the evolution of superfluid inclusions in hcp matrix 3He-4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchenko, A.P.; Mikhin, N.P.; Neoneta, A.S.; Rudavskij, Eh.Ya.; Fisun, Ya.Yu.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of liquid inclusions which are formed in the hcp matrix by rapid cooling of the 3 He- 4 He solution containing 1.05% 3 He was studied by pulse NMR. The diffusion coefficient of 3 He in the liquid was measured by two-pulses spin-echo method during evolution of the inclusions. Measurements were carried out at 1.67 K which corresponds to the bcc phase existence in the phase diagram, as well as at 1.38 K, where the bcc phase is absent. It is found that in the process of the evolution, in both cases the size of the liquid inclusions is less than diffusion length and so the diffusion is restricted. The measured restricted dif-fusion coefficient allowed to find the characteristic size of the inclusions. In the first case, during the evolution of liquid inclusions, dendrites of intermediate bcc phase is forming and the inclusions are separating into a lot of smaller droplets. Due to the rapid growth of the bcc dendrites, the droplet size decreases rapidly, and the process comes to disappearance of bcc phase and an amorphous state appearance. The results obtained by measuring the diffusion coefficient, correlated with the behavior of the spin-lattice relaxation time in such a system. In the second case at a lower temperature bcc phase is not formed, and the size of the liquid inclusions decreases very slow until the completion of their solidification.

  5. Accommodating High Transformation Strains in Battery Electrodes via the Formation of Nanoscale Intermediate Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiang, Kai; Xing, Wenting; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2017-01-01

    discontinuous volume changes (∼17% by volume) during its first-order transition between two otherwise isostructural phases. Using synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, we discover a new strain-accommodation mechanism wherein a third, amorphous phase...

  6. Comparison of the Supercooled Spin Liquid States in the Pyrochlore Magnets Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Anna; Eyvazov, Azar B.; Dusad, Ritika; Munsie, Timothy J. S.; Luke, Graeme M.; Davis, J. C. Séamus

    Despite a well-ordered crystal structure and strong magnetic interactions between the Dy or Ho ions, no long-range magnetic order has been detected in the pyrochlore titanates Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7. The low temperature state in these materials is governed by spin-ice rules. These constrain the Ising like spins in the materials, yet does not result in a global broken symmetry state. To explore the actual magnetic phases, we simultaneously measure the time- and frequency-dependent magnetization dynamics of Dy2Ti2O7 and Ho2Ti2O7 using toroidal, boundary-free magnetization transport techniques. We demonstrate a distinctive behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of both compounds, that is indistinguishable in form from the permittivity of supercooled dipolar liquids. Moreover, we show that the microscopic magnetic relaxation times for both materials increase along a super-Arrhenius trajectory also characteristic of supercooled glass-forming liquids. Both materials therefore exhibit characteristics of a supercooled spin liquid. Strongly-correlated dynamics of loops of spins is suggested as a possible mechanism which could account for these findings. Potential connections to many-body spin localization will also be discussed.

  7. Spin-1/2 Triangular-Lattice Heisenberg Antiferromagnet with √{3} × √{3} -Type Distortion — Behavior around the Boundaries of the Intermediate Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Alisa; Nakano, Hiroki; Sakai, Tôru; Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi

    2018-03-01

    The S = 1/2 triangular-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with distortion is investigated by the numerical-diagonalization method. The examined distortion type is √{3} × √{3} . We study the case when the distortion connects the undistorted triangular lattice and the dice lattice. For the intermediate phase reported previously in this system, we obtain results of the boundaries of the intermediate phase for a larger system than those in the previous report and examine the system size dependence of the boundaries in detail. We also report the specific heat of this system, which shows a marked peak structure related to the appearance of the intermediate state.

  8. Vapor-phase hydrothermal transformation of HTiOF3 intermediates into {001} faceted anatase single-crystalline nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Porun; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Haimin; An, Taicheng; Yang, Huagui; Tang, Zhiyong; Cai, Weiping; Zhao, Huijun

    2012-12-07

    For the first time, a facile, one-pot hydrofluoric acid vapor-phase hydrothermal (HF-VPH) method is demonstrated to directly grow single-crystalline anatase TiO(2) nanosheets with 98.2% of exposed {001} faceted surfaces on the Ti substrate via a distinctive two-stage formation mechanism. The first stage produces a new intermediate crystal (orthorhombic HTiOF(3) ) that is transformed into anatase TiO(2) nanosheets during the second stage. The findings reveal that the HF-VPH reaction environment is unique and differs remarkably from that of liquid-phase hydrothermal processes. The uniqueness of the HF-VPH conditions can be readily used to effectively control the nanostructure growth. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Kinetics of disorder-to-fcc phase transition via an intermediate bcc state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongsheng; Nie Huifen; Bansil, Rama; Steinhart, Milos; Bang, Joona; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved small-angle x-ray scattering measurements reveal that a long-lived intermediate bcc state forms when a poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer solution in an isoprene selective solvent is rapidly cooled from the disordered micellar fluid at high temperature to an equilibrium fcc state. The kinetics of the epitaxial growth of the [111] fcc peak from the [110] bcc peak was obtained by fitting the scattering data to a simple model of the transformation. The growth of the [111] fcc peak agrees with the Avrami model of nucleation and growth kinetics with an exponent n=1.4, as does the initial decay of the [110] bcc peak, with an exponent n=1.3. The data were also found to be in good agreement with the Cahn model of grain boundary nucleation and growth

  10. Liquid-gas phase transition and isospin fractionation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yongzhong; Liu Jianye; Guo Wenjun

    2004-01-01

    The liquid-gas phase transition in the heavy ion collisions and nuclear matter has been an important topic and got achievements, such as, based on the studies by H.Q. Song et al the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition enhances with increasing the mass of system and reduces as the increase of the neutron proton ratio of system. As authors know that both the liquid-gas phase transition and the isospin fractionation occur in the spinodal instability region at the nuclear density below the normal nuclear density. In particular, these two dynamical processes lead to the separation of nuclear matter into the liquid phase and gas phase. In this case to compare their dynamical behaviors is interested. The authors investigate the dependence of isospin fractionation degree on the mass and neutron proton ratio of system by using the isospin dependent quantum molecular dynamics model. The authors found that the degree of isospin fractionation (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf decreases with increasing the mass of the system. This is just similar to the enhance of the critical temperature of liquid-gas phase transition T c as the increase of system mass. Because the enhance of T c is not favorable for the liquid-gas transition taking place, which reduces the isospin fractionation process and leads to decrease of (N/Z) n /(N/Z) imf . However the degree of isospin fractionation enhances with increasing the neutron proton ratio of the system. It is just corresponding to the reduce of T c of the liquid-gas phase transition as the increase of the isospin fractionation of the system. Because the reduce of T c enhances the liquid-gas phase transition process and also prompts the isospin fractionation process leading the increase of the isospin fractionation degree. To sum up, there are very similar dynamical behaviors for the degree of isospin fractionation and the critical temperature of the liquid-gas phase transition. So dynamical properties of the liquid-gas phase transition can

  11. Elemental gas-phase abundances of intermediate redshift type Ia supernova star-forming host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Galbany, L.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Mollá, M.; González-Gaitán, S.; Vílchez, J. M.; Carnero, A.

    2018-05-01

    The maximum luminosity of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) depends on the oxygen abundance of the regions of the host galaxies, where they explode. This metallicity dependence reduces the dispersion in the Hubble diagram (HD) when included with the traditional two-parameter calibration of SN Ia light-curve parameters and absolute magnitude. In this work, we use empirical calibrations to carefully estimate the oxygen abundance of galaxies hosting SNe Ia from the SDSS-II/SN (Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova) survey at intermediate redshift by measuring their emission-line intensities. We also derive electronic temperature with the direct method for a small fraction of objects for consistency. We find a trend of decreasing oxygen abundance with increasing redshift for the most massive galaxies. Moreover, we study the dependence of the HD residuals (HR) with galaxy oxygen abundance obtaining a correlation in line with those found in other works. In particular, the HR versus oxygen abundance shows a slope of -0.186 ± 0.123 mag dex-1 (1.52σ) in good agreement with theoretical expectations. This implies smaller distance modulii after corrections for SNe Ia in metal-rich galaxies. Based on our previous results on local SNe Ia, we propose this dependence to be due to the lower luminosity of the SNe Ia produced in more metal-rich environments.

  12. Emergent Chiral Spin State in the Mott Phase of a Bosonic Kane-Mele-Hubbard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plekhanov, Kirill; Vasić, Ivana; Petrescu, Alexandru; Nirwan, Rajbir; Roux, Guillaume; Hofstetter, Walter; Le Hur, Karyn

    2018-04-01

    Recently, the frustrated X Y model for spins 1 /2 on the honeycomb lattice has attracted a lot of attention in relation with the possibility to realize a chiral spin liquid state. This model is relevant to the physics of some quantum magnets. Using the flexibility of ultracold atom setups, we propose an alternative way to realize this model through the Mott regime of the bosonic Kane-Mele-Hubbard model. The phase diagram of this model is derived using bosonic dynamical mean-field theory. Focusing on the Mott phase, we investigate its magnetic properties as a function of frustration. We do find an emergent chiral spin state in the intermediate frustration regime. Using exact diagonalization we study more closely the physics of the effective frustrated X Y model and the properties of the chiral spin state. This gapped phase displays a chiral order, breaking time-reversal and parity symmetry, but is not topologically ordered (the Chern number is zero).

  13. Structural study of intermediate phase in layered perovskite SrBi sub 2 Ta sub 2 O sub 9 single crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Onodera, A; Yamashita, H

    2003-01-01

    The crystal structure of an intermediate phase of Bi-layered ferroelectric SrBi sub 2 Ta sub 2 O sub 9 single crystals was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. An analysis of the extinction rules and X-ray intensities demonstrated that the crystal structure is orthorhombic with space group A2 sub 1 am in the ferroelectric phase and Amam in the intermediate phase; this conclusion is in good agreement with the findings of previous powder neutron diffraction studies.

  14. Measuring Dirac CP-violating phase with intermediate energy beta beam facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhti, P.; Farzan, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Taking the established nonzero value of , we study the possibility of extracting the Dirac CP-violating phase by a beta beam facility with a boost factor . We compare the performance of different setups with different baselines, boost factors, and detector technologies. We find that an antineutrino beam from He decay with a baseline of km has a very promising CP-discovery potential using a 500 kton water Cherenkov detector. Fortunately this baseline corresponds to the distance between FermiLAB to Sanford underground research facility in South Dakota.

  15. Investigation of representing hysteresis in macroscopic models of two-phase flow in porous media using intermediate scale experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Trevisan, Luca; Gonzalez-Nicolas, Ana; Illangasekare, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating hysteresis into models is important to accurately capture the two phase flow behavior when porous media systems undergo cycles of drainage and imbibition such as in the cases of injection and post-injection redistribution of CO2 during geological CO2 storage (GCS). In the traditional model of two-phase flow, existing constitutive models that parameterize the hysteresis associated with these processes are generally based on the empirical relationships. This manuscript presents development and testing of mathematical hysteretic capillary pressure—saturation—relative permeability models with the objective of more accurately representing the redistribution of the fluids after injection. The constitutive models are developed by relating macroscopic variables to basic physics of two-phase capillary displacements at pore-scale and void space distribution properties. The modeling approach with the developed constitutive models with and without hysteresis as input is tested against some intermediate-scale flow cell experiments to test the ability of the models to represent movement and capillary trapping of immiscible fluids under macroscopically homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions. The hysteretic two-phase flow model predicted the overall plume migration and distribution during and post injection reasonably well and represented the postinjection behavior of the plume more accurately than the nonhysteretic models. Based on the results in this study, neglecting hysteresis in the constitutive models of the traditional two-phase flow theory can seriously overpredict or underpredict the injected fluid distribution during post-injection under both homogeneous and heterogeneous conditions, depending on the selected value of the residual saturation in the nonhysteretic models.

  16. Two-dimensional variable range hopping in the spin-liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čulo, M.; Tafra, E.; Basletić, M.; Tomić, S.; Hamzić, A.; Korin-Hamzić, B.; Dressel, M.; Schlueter, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the measurements of the magnetotransport properties of the spin liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 . The temperature dependencies of dc resistivity and Hall coefficient R H as well as magnetoresistance at fixed temperatures in magnetic fields up to 5 T suggest that the charge transport takes place via 2D variable range hopping among localized states

  17. Fermionic Spinon Theory of Square Lattice Spin Liquids near the Néel State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Thomson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum fluctuations of the Néel state of the square lattice antiferromagnet are usually described by a CP^{1} theory of bosonic spinons coupled to a U(1 gauge field, and with a global SU(2 spin rotation symmetry. Such a theory also has a confining phase with valence bond solid (VBS order, and upon including spin-singlet charge-2 Higgs fields, deconfined phases with Z_{2} topological order possibly intertwined with discrete broken global symmetries. We present dual theories of the same phases starting from a mean-field theory of fermionic spinons moving in π flux in each square lattice plaquette. Fluctuations about this π-flux state are described by (2+1-dimensional quantum chromodynamics (QCD_{3} with a SU(2 gauge group and N_{f}=2 flavors of massless Dirac fermions. It has recently been argued by Wang et al. [Deconfined Quantum Critical Points: Symmetries and Dualities, Phys. Rev. X 7, 031051 (2017.PRXHAE2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.7.031051] that this QCD_{3} theory describes the Néel-VBS quantum phase transition. We introduce adjoint Higgs fields in QCD_{3} and obtain fermionic dual descriptions of the phases with Z_{2} topological order obtained earlier using the bosonic CP^{1} theory. We also present a fermionic spinon derivation of the monopole Berry phases in the U(1 gauge theory of the VBS state. The global phase diagram of these phases contains multicritical points, and our results imply new boson-fermion dualities between critical gauge theories of these points.

  18. Thermal transport in a two-dimensional Z2 spin liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metavitsiadis, Alexandros; Pidatella, Angelo; Brenig, Wolfram

    2017-11-01

    We study the dynamical thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional Kitaev spin model on the honeycomb lattice. We find a strongly temperature dependent low-frequency spectral intensity as a direct consequence of fractionalization of spins into mobile Majorana matter and a static Z2 gauge field. The latter acts as an emergent thermally activated disorder, leading to the appearance of a pseudogap which closes in the thermodynamic limit, indicating a dissipative heat conductor. Our analysis is based on complementary calculations of the current correlation function, comprising exact diagonalization by means of a complete summation over all gauge sectors, as well as a phenomenological mean-field treatment of thermal gauge fluctuations, valid at intermediate and high temperatures. The results will also be contrasted against the conductivity discarding gauge fluctuations.

  19. Comparison of three-phase three-level voltage source inverter with intermediate dc–dc boost converter and quasi-Z-source inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panfilov, Dmitry; Husev, Oleksandr; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This study compares a three-phase three-level voltage source inverter with an intermediate dc-dc boost converter and a quasi-Z-source inverter in terms of passive elements values and dimensions, semiconductor stresses, and overall efficiency. A comparative analysis was conducted with relative...

  20. Possibility of a two-dimensional spin liquid in CePdAl induced by partial geometric frustration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, V. [Universitaet Augsburg, Institut fuer Physik, Experimentalphysik VI (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Grube, K.; Kittler, W.; Taubenheim, C.; Loehneysen, H. von [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany); Huesges, Z.; Lucas, S.; Stockert, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany); Green, E. [Hochfeldzentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    CePdAl crystallizes in the hexagonal ZrNiAl structure, where the magnetic ions form a distorted kagome lattice. At T{sub N} = 2.7 K the onset of antiferromagnetic (AF) order is observed. Neutron scattering experiments revealed a partial frustration in the distorted kagome planes of this structure: two-thirds of the Ce moments form ferromagnetic chains, which are antiferromagnetically coupled, the remaining third do not participate in any long-range order. Along the c-axis the magnetic moments exhibit an amplitude modulation. Accordingly, the kagome planes are stacked on top of each other, resulting in corrugated AF planes parallel to the c-axis formed by the ordered magnetic moments, which are separated by the frustrated moments. It is an intriguing and yet unresolved question if this third of frustrated moments forms a spin liquid state in CePdAl. Based on measurements of specific heat, thermal expansion, magnetization and electrical resistivity we want to discuss this possibility.

  1. Absence of magnetic long range order in Ba3ZnRu2O9. A spin-liquid candidate in the S = 3/2 dimer lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasaki, Ichiro; Igarashi, Taichi; Nagai, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    We have discovered a novel candidate for a spin liquid state in a ruthenium oxide composed of dimers of S = 3/2 spins of Ru 5+ , Ba 3 ZnRu 2 O 9 . This compound lacks a long range order down to 37 mK, which is a temperature 5000-times lower than the magnetic interaction scale of around 200 K. Partial substitution for Zn can continuously vary the magnetic ground state from an antiferromagnetic order to a spin-gapped state through the liquid state. This indicates that the spin-liquid state emerges from a delicate balance of inter- and intra-dimer interactions, and the spin state of the dimer plays a vital role. This unique feature should realize a new type of quantum magnetism. (author)

  2. ESR studies on the spin-liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3: Anomalous response below T=8 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmalekha, K.G.; Blankenhorn, M.; Ivek, T.; Bogani, L.; Schlueter, J.A.; Dressel, M.

    2015-01-01

    The organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 seems to form a quantum spin liquid, although at low temperatures unusual properties are seen in the charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. Here we report results of X-band ESR studies of κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 single crystals as a function of temperature and angle. We find indications of two anisotropic relaxation mechanisms at low temperatures and compare them to the spin-liquid behavior observed in other strongly correlated systems. In addition, we can recognize charge inhomogeneities in the copper ions of the anion layer. This disorder might be linked to the dielectric response measured in this compound

  3. ESR studies on the spin-liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu{sub 2}(CN){sub 3}: Anomalous response below T=8 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padmalekha, K.G.; Blankenhorn, M.; Ivek, T.; Bogani, L. [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Schlueter, J.A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Dressel, M., E-mail: dressel@pi1.physik.uni-stuttgart.de [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-03-01

    The organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu{sub 2}(CN){sub 3} seems to form a quantum spin liquid, although at low temperatures unusual properties are seen in the charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. Here we report results of X-band ESR studies of κ-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu{sub 2}(CN){sub 3} single crystals as a function of temperature and angle. We find indications of two anisotropic relaxation mechanisms at low temperatures and compare them to the spin-liquid behavior observed in other strongly correlated systems. In addition, we can recognize charge inhomogeneities in the copper ions of the anion layer. This disorder might be linked to the dielectric response measured in this compound.

  4. ESR studies on the spin-liquid candidate κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3: Anomalous response below T=8 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmalekha, K. G.; Blankenhorn, M.; Ivek, T.; Bogani, L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Dressel, M.

    2015-03-01

    The organic conductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 seems to form a quantum spin liquid, although at low temperatures unusual properties are seen in the charge, spin and lattice degrees of freedom. Here we report results of X-band ESR studies of κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 single crystals as a function of temperature and angle. We find indications of two anisotropic relaxation mechanisms at low temperatures and compare them to the spin-liquid behavior observed in other strongly correlated systems. In addition, we can recognize charge inhomogeneities in the copper ions of the anion layer. This disorder might be linked to the dielectric response measured in this compound.

  5. Investigation of the phase relations in the U-Al-Ge ternary system: Influence of the Al/Ge substitution on the properties of the intermediate phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, C.; El Sayah, Z. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Chajewski, G. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Berche, A.; Dorcet, V. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Pikul, A.P. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Okólna 2, 50-422 Wrocław (Poland); Pasturel, M. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Joanny, L. [ScanMAT – CMEBA, University of Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Stepnik, B. [AREVA/CERCA, 10 Rue Juliette Récamier, 69006 Lyon (France); Tougait, O., E-mail: tougait@univ-rennes1.fr [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Chimie du Solide et Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6226, Université Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UMR CNRS 8181, Université de Lille, 59695 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2016-11-15

    The phase relations within the U-Al-Ge ternary system were studied for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25–100 at% U. The identification of the phases, their composition ranges and stability were determined by x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis. The tie-lines and the solubility domains were determined for the U-Ge and U-Al binaries, the UAl{sub 3}-UGe{sub 3} solid-solution and for the unique ternary intermediate phase U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x}. The experimental isopleth section of the pseudo-binary UAl{sub 3}-UGe{sub 3} reveals an isomorphous solid solution based on the Cu{sub 3}Au-type below the solidus. The U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x} solid solution extends for −0.1≤x≤1.35 and −0.2≤x≤1.5 at 673 K and 1173 K respectively. It crystallizes in the I-centered tetragonal symmetry. The reciprocal lattice of several compositions of the U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x} solid solution was examined by electron diffraction at room temperature, revealing the presence of a c-glide plane. Their crystal structure was refined by single crystal x-ray diffraction suggesting an isomorphous solid solution best described with the non-centrosymmetric space group I4cm in the paramagnetic domain. The magnetic measurements confirm the ferromagnetic ordering of the solid solution U{sub 3}Al{sub 2−x}Ge{sub 3+x} with an increase of Tc with the Al content. The thermal variation of the specific heat bear out the magnetic transitions with some delocalized character of the uranium 5f electrons. - Graphical abstract: The phase relations within the U-Al-Ge ternary system were experimentally assessed for two isothermal sections, at 673 K for the whole Gibbs triangle and at 1173 K for the concentration range 25–100 at% U. A complete UAl{sub 3}-UGe{sub 3} solid-solution based on the Cu{sub 3}Au-type forms

  6. The acceleration intermediate phase (NiS and Ni3S2) evolution by nanocrystallization in Li/NiS2 thermal batteries with high specific capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chuanyu; Zhou, Lingping; Fu, Licai; Zhu, Jiajun; Li, Deyi; Yang, Wulin

    2017-06-01

    The intermediate phase of NiS2 is thought to be a bottleneck currently to improve the overall performance of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries because of its low conductivity and close formation enthalpy between NiS2 and the intermediate phase (NiS, Ni3S2, etc). For improving the discharge performances of Li/NiS2 thermal batteries, the nano NiS2 with an average size of 85 ± 5 nm is designated as a cathode material. The electrochemical measurements show that the specific capacity of nano NiS2 cathode is higher than micro NiS2. The nano NiS2 cathode exhibits excellent electrochemical performances with high specific capacities of 794 and 654 mAh g-1 at current density of 0.1 and 0.5 A cm-2 under a cut-off voltage of 0.5 V, respectively. These results show that the rapid intermediate phase evolution from the nanocrystallization can obviously enhance use efficiency of NiS2 and improve discharge performances of thermal batteries.

  7. Intermediate treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; Wayne D. Shepperd

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate treatments are those applied after a new stand is successfully established and before the final harvest. These include not only intermediate cuttings - primarily thinning - but also fertilization, irrigation, and protection of the stand from damaging agents.

  8. Neutron diffraction and NQR study of the intermediate turn angle phase formed during AFI to AFII recording in YBa2Cu3-xAlxO6+#delta#

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brecht, E.; Schmahl, W.W.; Fuess, H.

    1997-01-01

    The reordering mechanism from the antiferromagnetic phase AFI to the antiferromagnetic phase AFII in an oxygen-deficient YBa2Cu2.94Al0.06O6+delta single crystal with an oxygen content delta=0.18 in the Cu(1) layer has been studied by neutron diffraction and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR......). The crystal orders magnetically from the paramagnetic state to the antiferromagnetic AFI state at the Neel temperature T-N=403 K with an empirical critical exponent of beta = 0.26. Reordering to the antiferromagnetic AFII state sets in at T-2 = 12 K. In both the AFI and AFII phases the ordered magnetic...... as a function of temperature. This result indicates unequivocally that the AFIAFII reordering takes place via a noncollinear intermediate turn angle phase AFI+II....

  9. Liquid-vapor phase transition, collective flow and entropy determination from future measurements of intermediate mass fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffin, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Some global variables reflecting the highly collective character of nuclear matter produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are briefly reviewed on the basis of presently available experimental results and of Quantum Statistical Model and Quantum Molecular Dynamic Model predictions relative to intermediate mass fragments. Possible future measurements are suggested. (author) 27 refs., 8 figs

  10. Magnetic Phase Diagram of α-RuCl3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jennifer; Kim, Young-June; Zhao, Yang; Lynn, Jeffrey

    The layered honeycomb material α-RuCl3 is thought to possess unusual magnetic interactions including a strong bond-dependent Kitaev term, offering a potential opportunity to study a material near a well understood spin liquid phase. Although this material orders magnetically at low temperatures and is thus not a realization of a Kitaev spin liquid, it does show a broad continuum of magnetic excitations reminiscent of that expected for the spin liquid phase. It has also been proposed that a magnetic field could destabilize the magnetic order in this material and induce a transition into a spin liquid phase. Low temperature magnetization and specific heat measurements in this material have suggested a complex magnetic phase diagram with multiple unidentified magnetic phases present at low temperature. This has provided motivation for our work characterizing the magnetic transitions and phase diagram in α-RuCl3. I will present detailed bulk measurements combined with magnetic neutron diffraction measurements to map out the phase diagram and identify the various phases present.

  11. Hypofractionated stereotactic boost in intermediate risk prostate carcinoma: Preliminary results of a multicenter phase II trial (CKNO-PRO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pasquier

    Full Text Available Dose escalation may improve curability in intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma. A multicenter national program was developed to assess toxicity and tumor response with hypofractionated stereotactic boost after conventional radiotherapy in intermediate-risk prostate cancer.Between August 2010 and April 2013, 76 patients with intermediated-risk prostate carcinoma were included in the study. A first course delivered 46 Gy by IMRT (68.4% of patients or 3D conformal radiotherapy (31.6% of patients. The second course delivered a boost of 18 Gy (3x6Gy within 10 days. Gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicities were evaluated as defined by NCI-CTCAE (v4.0. Secondary outcome measures were local control, overall and metastasis-free survival, PSA kinetics, and patient functional status (urinary and sexual according to the IIEF5 and IPSS questionnaires.The overall treatment time was 45 days (median, range 40-55. Median follow-up was 26.4 months (range, 13.6-29.9 months. Seventy-seven per cent (n = 58 of patients presented a Gleason score of 7. At 24 months, biological-free survival was 98.7% (95% CI, 92.8-99.9% and median PSA 0.46 ng/mL (range, 0.06-6.20 ng/mL. Grade ≥2 acute GI and GU toxicities were 13.2% and 23.7%, respectively. Grade ≥2 late GI and GU toxicities were observed in 6.6% and 2.6% of patients, respectively. No grade 4 toxicity was observed.Hypofractionated stereotactic boost is effective and safely delivered for intermediate-risk prostate carcinoma after conventional radiation. Mild-term relapse-free survival and tolerance results are promising, and further follow-up is warranted to confirm the results at long term.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01596816.

  12. Quasi-continuous transition from a Fermi liquid to a spin liquid in κ-(ET)2Cu2(CN)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tetsuya; Kobashi, Kazuhiko; Kurosaki, Yosuke; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Kanoda, Kazushi

    2018-01-22

    The Mott metal-insulator transition-a manifestation of Coulomb interactions among electrons-is known as a discontinuous transition. Recent theoretical studies, however, suggest that the transition is continuous if the Mott insulator carries a spin liquid with a spinon Fermi surface. Here, we demonstrate the case of a quasi-continuous Mott transition from a Fermi liquid to a spin liquid in an organic triangular-lattice system κ-(ET) 2 Cu 2 (CN) 3 . Transport experiments performed under fine pressure tuning have found that as the Mott transition is approached, the Fermi liquid coherence temperature continuously falls to the scale of kelvins, with a divergent quasi-particle decay rate on the metal side, and the charge gap continuously closes on the insulator side. A Clausius-Clapeyron analysis provides thermodynamic evidence for the extremely weak first-order nature of the transition. These results provide additional support for the existence of a spinon Fermi surface, which becomes an electron Fermi surface when charges are delocalized.

  13. Determination of the Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mo Phase Diagrams at Intermediate Temperatures using a Novel Dual-Anneal Diffusion-Multiple Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Siwei

    Phase diagrams at intermediate temperatures are critical both for alloy design and for improving the reliability of thermodynamic databases. There is a significant shortage of experimental data for phase diagrams at the intermediate temperatures which are defined as around half of the homologous melting point (in Kelvin). The goal of this study is to test a novel dual-anneal diffusion multiple (DADM) methodology for efficient determination of intermediate temperature phase diagrams using both the Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mo systems as the test beds since both are very useful for steel development. Four Fe-Cr-Ni-Mo-Co diffusion multiples were made and annealed at 1200 °C for 500 hrs. One sample was used directly for evaluating the isothermal sections at 1200 ° C. The other samples (and cut slices) were used to perform a subsequent dual annealing at 900 °C (500 hrs), 800 °C (1000 hrs), 700 °C (1000 hrs), and 600 °C (4500 hrs), respectively. The second annealing induced phase precipitation from the supersaturated solid solutions that were created during the first 1200 °C annealing. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to identify the phases and precipitation locations in order to obtain the compositions to construct the isothermal sections of both ternary systems at four different temperatures. The major results obtained from this study are isothermal sections of the Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Mo systems at 1200 °C, 900 °C, 800 °C, and 700 °C. For the Fe-Cr-Ni system, the results from DADMs agree with the majority of the literature results except for results at both 800 °C and 700 °C where the solubility of Cr in the fcc phase was found to be significantly higher than what was computed from thermodynamic calculations using the TCFE5 database. Overall, it seems that the Fe-Cr-Ni thermodynamic assessment only needs slight improvement to

  14. Experimental Phase Equilibria Studies of the Pb-Fe-O System in Air, in Equilibrium with Metallic Lead and at Intermediate Oxygen Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, M.; Jak, E.

    2017-12-01

    The phase equilibria information on the Pb-Fe-O system is of practical importance for the improvement of the existing thermodynamic database of lead-containing slag systems (Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Si-Ca-Al-Mg-O). Phase equilibria of the Pb-Fe-O system have been investigated: (a) in air at temperatures between 1053 K and 1373 K (780 °C and 1100 °C); (b) in equilibrium with metallic lead at temperatures between 1053 K and 1373 K (780 °C and 1100 °C); and (c) at intermediate oxidation conditions for the liquid slag in equilibrium with two solids (spinel + magnetoplumbite), at temperatures between 1093 K and 1373 K (820 °C and 1100 °C). The high-temperature equilibration/quenching/electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique has been used to accurately determine the compositions of the phases in equilibrium in the system. The Pb and Fe concentrations in the phases were determined directly; preliminary thermodynamic modeling with FactSage was used to estimate the ferrous-to-ferric ratios and to present the results in the ternary diagram.

  15. In situ mid-infrared analyses of reactive gas-phase intermediates in TEOS/Ozone SAPCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whidden, Thomas K.; Doiron, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    In this report, we present in situ characterizations of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) reactors used in silicon dioxide thin film depositions. The characterizations are based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The infrared absorption data are interpreted within the context of process and thin film properties and the bearing of the spectroscopic data upon the chemical mechanisms extant in the deposition reaction. The relevance of the interpretations to real-time process control is discussed. The process under study in this work is TEOS/ozone-based deposition of silicon dioxide thin films at subatmospheric pressures. This process exhibits many desirable properties but has fundamental problems that may be solvable by reaction control based on in situ analyses and the real-time manipulation of reagent concentrations and process conditions. Herein we discuss our preliminary data on characterizations of TEOS/ozone chemistries in commercial reactor configurations. Reaction products and reactive intermediate species are detected and identified. Quantitative in situ measurements of the reagent materials are demonstrated. Preliminary correlations of these data with process and thin film properties are discussed

  16. Young novice drivers and the risky behaviours of parents and friends during the provisional (intermediate) licence phase: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J; Hyde, Melissa K

    2014-08-01

    While there is research indicating that many factors influence the young novice driver's increased risk of road crash injury during the earliest stages of their independent driving, there is a need to further understand the relationship between the perceived risky driving behaviour of parents and friends and the risky behaviour of drivers with a Provisional (intermediate) licence. As part of a larger research project, 378 drivers aged 17-25 years (M=18.22, SD=1.59, 113 males) with a Provisional licence completed an online survey exploring the perceived riskiness of their parents' and friends' driving, and the extent to which they pattern (i.e. base) their driving behaviour on the driving of their parents and friends. Young drivers who reported patterning their driving on their friends, and who reported they perceived their friends to be risky drivers, reported more risky driving. The risky driving behaviour of young male drivers was associated with the perceived riskiness of their fathers' driving, whilst for female drivers the perceived riskiness of their mothers' driving approached significance. The development and application of countermeasures targeting the risky behaviour of same-sex parents appears warranted by the robust research findings. In addition, countermeasures need to encourage young people in general to be non-risky drivers; targeting the negative influence of risky peer groups specifically. Social norms interventions may minimise the influence of potentially-overestimated riskiness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure and phase transitions of monolayers of intermediate-length n-alkanes on graphite studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diama, A.; Matthies, B.; Herwig, K. W.; Hansen, F. Y.; Criswell, L.; Mo, H.; Bai, M.; Taub, H.

    2009-08-01

    We present evidence from neutron diffraction measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three different monolayer phases of the intermediate-length alkanes tetracosane (n-C24H50 denoted as C24) and dotriacontane (n-C32H66 denoted as C32) adsorbed on a graphite basal-plane surface. Our measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows of molecules in their all-trans conformation aligned with their long axis parallel to the surface and forming so-called lamellas of width approximately equal to the all-trans length of the molecule. The RC structure is uniaxially commensurate with the graphite surface in its [110] direction such that the distance between molecular rows in a lamella is 4.26 Å=√3 ag, where ag=2.46 Å is the lattice constant of the graphite basal plane. Molecules in adjacent rows of a lamella alternate in orientation between the carbon skeletal plane being parallel and perpendicular to the graphite surface. Upon heating, the crystalline monolayers transform to a "smectic" phase in which the inter-row spacing within a lamella expands by ˜10% and the molecules are predominantly oriented with the carbon skeletal plane parallel to the graphite surface. In the smectic phase, the MD simulations show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously.

  18. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J.; Gutierrez B, O.

    2014-10-01

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the 87m Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g -1 are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  19. Prospective Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Cytotoxic Gene Therapy in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freytag, Svend O., E-mail: sfreyta1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Stricker, Hans [Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Lu, Mei [Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Elshaikh, Mohamed; Aref, Ibrahim; Pradhan, Deepak; Levin, Kenneth; Kim, Jae Ho [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Peabody, James [Vattikuti Urology Institute, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Siddiqui, Farzan; Barton, Kenneth; Pegg, Jan; Zhang, Yingshu; Cheng, Jingfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Bourgeois, Renee [Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Gupta, Nilesh; Lane, Zhaoli [Pathology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan (United States); Rodriguez, Ron [Urology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-four men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either OAMCGT plus IMRT (arm 1; n=21) or IMRT only (arm 2; n=23). The primary phase 2 endpoint was acute (≤90 days) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL), prostate biopsy (12-core) positivity at 2 years, freedom from biochemical/clinical failure (FFF), freedom from metastases, and survival. Results: Men in arm 1 exhibited a greater incidence of low-grade influenza-like symptoms, transaminitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than men in arm 2. There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal or genitourinary events or QOL between the 2 arms. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from 37 men (84%). Thirty-three percent of men in arm 1 were biopsy-positive versus 58% in arm 2, representing a 42% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm (P=.13). There was a 60% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm in men with <50% positive biopsy cores at baseline (P=.07). To date, 1 patient in each arm exhibited biochemical failure (arm 1, 4.8%; arm 2, 4.3%). No patient developed hormone-refractory or metastatic disease, and none has died from prostate cancer. Conclusions: Combining OAMCGT with IMRT does not exacerbate the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy and suggests a clinically meaningful reduction in positive biopsy results at 2 years in men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

  20. Prospective Randomized Phase 2 Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Oncolytic Adenovirus-Mediated Cytotoxic Gene Therapy in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, Svend O.; Stricker, Hans; Lu, Mei; Elshaikh, Mohamed; Aref, Ibrahim; Pradhan, Deepak; Levin, Kenneth; Kim, Jae Ho; Peabody, James; Siddiqui, Farzan; Barton, Kenneth; Pegg, Jan; Zhang, Yingshu; Cheng, Jingfang; Oja-Tebbe, Nancy; Bourgeois, Renee; Gupta, Nilesh; Lane, Zhaoli; Rodriguez, Ron; DeWeese, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of combining oncolytic adenovirus-mediated cytotoxic gene therapy (OAMCGT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in intermediate-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-four men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer were randomly assigned to receive either OAMCGT plus IMRT (arm 1; n=21) or IMRT only (arm 2; n=23). The primary phase 2 endpoint was acute (≤90 days) toxicity. Secondary endpoints included quality of life (QOL), prostate biopsy (12-core) positivity at 2 years, freedom from biochemical/clinical failure (FFF), freedom from metastases, and survival. Results: Men in arm 1 exhibited a greater incidence of low-grade influenza-like symptoms, transaminitis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia than men in arm 2. There were no significant differences in gastrointestinal or genitourinary events or QOL between the 2 arms. Two-year prostate biopsies were obtained from 37 men (84%). Thirty-three percent of men in arm 1 were biopsy-positive versus 58% in arm 2, representing a 42% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm (P=.13). There was a 60% relative reduction in biopsy positivity in the investigational arm in men with <50% positive biopsy cores at baseline (P=.07). To date, 1 patient in each arm exhibited biochemical failure (arm 1, 4.8%; arm 2, 4.3%). No patient developed hormone-refractory or metastatic disease, and none has died from prostate cancer. Conclusions: Combining OAMCGT with IMRT does not exacerbate the most common side effects of prostate radiation therapy and suggests a clinically meaningful reduction in positive biopsy results at 2 years in men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer

  1. Intermediate Fragment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This text and its connected exhibition are aiming to reflect both on the thoughts, the processes and the outcome of the design and production of the artefact ‘Intermediate Fragment’ and making as a contemporary architectural tool in general. Intermediate Fragment was made for the exhibition ‘Enga...... of realising an exhibition object was conceived, but expanded, refined and concretised through this process. The context of the work shown here is an interest in a tighter, deeper connection between experimentally obtained material knowledge and architectural design....

  2. Magnetic ordering of CoCl2-GIC, a spin ceramic: hierarchical successive transitions and the intermediate glassy phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Itsuko S; Matsuura, Motohiro

    2007-01-01

    Stage-2 CoCl 2 -graphite intercalation compound (GIC) is a spin ceramic which shows hierarchical successive transitions at T cu (= 8.9 K) and T cl (= 7.0 K) from the paramagnetic phase into an intra-cluster (two-dimensional ferromagnetic) order with inter-cluster disorder and then to an inter-cluster (three-dimensional antiferromagnetic like) order over the whole system. The nature of the inter-cluster disorder was suggested to be of spin glass by nonlinear magnetic response analyses around T cu and by studies on dynamical aspects of ordering between T cu and T cl . Here, we present a further extensive examination of a series of time dependence of zero-field cooled magnetization M ZFC after the ageing protocol below T cu . The time dependence of the relaxation rates S ZFC (t) = (1/H) dM ZFC (t)/dlnt dramatically changes from the curves of simple spin glass ageing effect below T cl to those of two peaks above T cl . The characteristic relaxation behaviour apparently indicates that there coexist two different kinds of glassy correlated region below T cu

  3. Reconstruction of settlement phases at Intermediate Bronze Age structures in the Negev Highlands (Israel) using luminescence dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Andrea; Lomax, Johanna; Shahack-Gross, Ruth; Dunseth, Zachary C.; Finkelstein, Israel; Fuchs, Markus

    2016-04-01

    OSL dating is usually applied to sediments in paleoenvironmental sciences. However, there is only limited experience with determining the age of archaeological stone structures by OSL using dust deposits associated with these structures. The age of trapped dust deposits may be used to date the onset of settlement (sediment below structures), settlement activity (occupation layer), or the time after settlement (sediment between collapsed walls and roofs). In this study, OSL dating is applied for establishing a chronology of settlement structures situated in the Negev Highlands, Israel. Two archaeological sites are investigated to identify the occupation history, by dating the aeolian dust trapped within the remains of ancient buildings. OSL dating techniques are applied using coarse grain quartz and a standard SAR protocol. First results indicate that the luminescence properties of the trapped sediments are suitable for OSL dating. Therefore, it was possible to date the onset of sedimentation in a later phase of the human occupation or shortly after the settlement was abandoned, which is supported by archaeological evidence gained from pottery finds and the architecture of the buildings.

  4. Intermediate uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate uveitis (IU is described as inflammation in the anterior vitreous, ciliary body and the peripheral retina. In the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN working group′s international workshop for reporting clinical data the consensus reached was that the term IU should be used for that subset of uveitis where the vitreous is the major site of the inflammation and if there is an associated infection (for example, Lyme disease or systemic disease (for example, sarcoidosis. The diagnostic term pars planitis should be used only for that subset of IU where there is snow bank or snowball formation occurring in the absence of an associated infection or systemic disease (that is, "idiopathic". This article discusses the clinical features, etiology, pathogenesis, investigations and treatment of IU.

  5. An Effective Method to Detect Volatile Intermediates Generated in the Bioconversion of Coal to Methane by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry after In-Situ Extraction Using Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction under Strict Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianmin; Wang, Baoyu; Tai, Chao; Wu, Li; Zhao, Han; Guan, Jiadong; Chen, Linyong

    2016-01-01

    Bioconversion of coal to methane has gained increased attention in recent decades because of its economic and environmental advantages. However, the mechanism of this process is difficult to study in depth, partly because of difficulties associated with the analysis of intermediates generated in coal bioconversion. In this investigation, we report on an effective method to analyze volatile intermediates generated in the bioconversion of coal under strict anaerobic conditions. We conduct in-situ extraction of intermediates using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bioconversion simulation equipment was modified and combined with a solid-phase micro-extraction device. In-situ extraction could be achieved by using the combined units, to avoid a breakdown in anaerobic conditions and to maintain the experiment continuity. More than 30 intermediates were identified qualitatively in the conversion process, and the variation in trends of some typical intermediates has been discussed. Volatile organic acids (C2-C7) were chosen for a quantitative study of the intermediates because of their importance during coal bioconversion to methane. Fiber coating, extraction time, and solution acidity were optimized in the solid-phase micro-extraction procedure. The pressure was enhanced during the bioconversion process to investigate the influence of headspace pressure on analyte extraction. The detection limits of the method ranged from 0.0006 to 0.02 mmol/L for the volatile organic acids and the relative standard deviations were between 4.6% and 11.5%. The volatile organic acids (C2-C7) generated in the bioconversion process were 0.01-1.15 mmol/L with a recovery range from 80% to 105%. The developed method is useful for further in-depth research on the bioconversion of coal to methane.

  6. Ground-state phases of the spin-1 J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the zero-temperature quantum phase diagram of a spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice with both nearest-neighbor exchange coupling J1>0 and frustrating next-nearest-neighbor coupling J2≡κ J1>0 , using the coupled cluster method implemented to high orders of approximation, and based on model states with different forms of classical magnetic order. For each we calculate directly in the bulk thermodynamic limit both ground-state low-energy parameters (including the energy per spin, magnetic order parameter, spin stiffness coefficient, and zero-field uniform transverse magnetic susceptibility) and their generalized susceptibilities to various forms of valence-bond crystalline (VBC) order, as well as the energy gap to the lowest-lying spin-triplet excitation. In the range 0 κc 2=0.340 (5 ) . Two different paramagnetic phases are found to exist in the intermediate region. Over the range κc1<κ<κci=0.305 (5 ) we find a gapless phase with no discernible magnetic order, which is a strong candidate for being a quantum spin liquid, while over the range κci<κ <κc 2 we find a gapped phase, which is most likely a lattice nematic with staggered dimer VBC order that breaks the lattice rotational symmetry.

  7. Randomised trial of proton vs. carbon ion radiation therapy in patients with low and intermediate grade chondrosarcoma of the skull base, clinical phase III study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikoghosyan, Anna V; Rauch, Geraldine; Münter, Marc W; Jensen, Alexandra D; Combs, Stephanie E; Kieser, Meinhard; Debus, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Low and intermediate grade chondrosarcomas are relative rare bone tumours. About 5-12% of all chondrosarcomas are localized in base of skull region. Low grade chondrosarcoma has a low incidence of distant metastasis but is potentially lethal disease. Therefore, local therapy is of crucial importance in the treatment of skull base chondrosarcomas. Surgical resection is the primary treatment standard. Unfortunately the late diagnosis and diagnosis at the extensive stage are common due to the slow and asymptomatic growth of the lesions. Consequently, complete resection is hindered due to close proximity to critical and hence dose limiting organs such as optic nerves, chiasm and brainstem. Adjuvant or additional radiation therapy is very important for the improvement of local control rates in the primary treatment. Proton therapy is the gold standard in the treatment of skull base chondrosarcomas. However, high-LET (linear energy transfer) beams such as carbon ions theoretically offer advantages by enhanced biologic effectiveness in slow-growing tumours. The study is a prospective randomised active-controlled clinical phase III trial. The trial will be carried out at Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie (HIT) centre as monocentric trial. Patients with skull base chondrosarcomas will be randomised to either proton or carbon ion radiation therapy. As a standard, patients will undergo non-invasive, rigid immobilization and target volume definition will be carried out based on CT and MRI data. The biologically isoeffective target dose to the PTV (planning target volume) in carbon ion treatment will be 60 Gy E ± 5% and 70 Gy E ± 5% (standard dose) in proton therapy respectively. The 5 year local-progression free survival (LPFS) rate will be analysed as primary end point. Overall survival, progression free and metastasis free survival, patterns of recurrence, local control rate and morbidity are the secondary end points. Up to now it was impossible to compare two different

  8. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Wit, Ronald; Skoneczna, Iwona; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC)....

  9. InAs quantum dot growth on AlxGa1−xAs by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy for intermediate band solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakomin, R.; Kawabata, R. M. S.; Souza, P. L.; Mourão, R. T.; Pires, M. P.; Micha, D. N.; Xie, H.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A.

    2014-01-01

    InAs quantum dot multilayers have been grown using Al x Ga 1−x As spacers with dimensions and compositions near the theoretical values for optimized efficiencies in intermediate band photovoltaic cells. Using an aluminium composition of x = 0.3 and InAs dot vertical dimensions of 5 nm, transitions to an intermediate band with energy close to the ideal theoretical value have been obtained. Optimum size uniformity and density have been achieved by capping the quantum dots with GaAs following the indium-flush method. This approach has also resulted in minimization of crystalline defects in the epilayer structure

  10. Dimensional crossover and cold-atom realization of gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Scheurer, Mathias; Rachel, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    We propose a realistic cold-atom setup which allows for a dimensional crossover from a two-dimensional quantum spin Hall insulating phase to a three-dimensional strong topological insulator phase by simply tuning the hopping between the layers. We further employ cluster slave-rotor mean-field theory to study the effect of additional Hubbard onsite interactions that give rise to various spin liquid-like phases such as gapless and semi-metallic Mott insulating states.

  11. Randomized phase III study comparing paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) to standard BEP in intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer: Intergroup study EORTC 30983

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Wit (Ronald); I. Skoneczna (I.); G. Daugaard (Gedske); M. de Santis (Maria); A. Garin (A.); N. Aass (N.); J.A. Witjes (Alfred); P. Albers (Peter); J.D. White (Jeffrey); J.R. Germa-Lluch; S. Marreaud (Sandrine); L.A.J. Collette (Lau)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To compare the efficacy of four cycles of paclitaxel-bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) to four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in previously untreated patients with intermediate-prognosis germ-cell cancer (GCC). Patients and Methods: Patients were

  12. Long term results of a prospective dose escalation phase-II trial: Interstitial pulsed-dose-rate brachytherapy as boost for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettmaier, Sebastian; Lotter, Michael; Kreppner, Stephan; Strnad, Annedore; Fietkau, Rainer; Strnad, Vratislav

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our seven year single institution experience with pulsed dose rate brachytherapy dose escalation study in patients with intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. Materials and methods: We treated a total of 130 patients for intermediate and high risk prostate cancer at our institution between 2000 and 2007 using PDR-brachytherapy as a boost after conformal external beam radiation therapy to 50.4 Gy. The majority of patients had T2 disease (T1c 6%, T2 75%, T3 19%). Seventy three patients had intermediate-risk and 53 patients had high-risk disease according to the D’Amico classification. The dose of the brachytherapy boost was escalated from 25 to 35 Gy – 33 pts. received 25 Gy (total dose 75 Gy), 63 pts. 30 Gy (total dose 80 Gy) and 34 pts. 35 Gy, (total dose 85 Gy) given in one session (dose per pulse was 0.60 Gy or 0.70 Gy/h, 24 h per day, night and day, with a time interval of 1 h between two pulses). PSA-recurrence-free survival according to Kaplan–Meier using the Phoenix definition of biochemical failure was calculated and also late toxicities according to Common Toxicity Criteria scale were assessed. Results: At the time of analysis with a median follow-up of 60 months biochemical control was achieved by 88% of patients – only 16/130 patients (12.3%) developed a biochemical relapse. Biochemical relapse free survival calculated according to Kaplan–Meier for all patients at 5 years was 85.6% (83.9% for intermediate-risk patients and 84.2% for high-risk patients) and at 9 years’ follow up it was 79.0%. Analysing biochemical relapse free survival separately for different boost dose levels, at 5 years it was 97% for the 35 Gy boost dose and 82% for the 25 and 30 Gy dose levels. The side effects of therapy were negligible: There were 18 cases (15%) of grade 1/2 rectal proctitis, one case (0.8%) of grade 3 proctitis, 18 cases (15%) of grade 1/2 cystitis, and no cases (0%) with dysuria grade 3. No patient had a bulbourethral

  13. The intermediate phase and low wave number phonon modes in antiferroelectric (Pb{sub 0.97}La{sub 0.02}) (Zr{sub 0.60}Sn{sub 0.40−y}Ti{sub y})O{sub 3} ceramics discovered from temperature dependent Raman spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiaojuan; Guo, Shuang [Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Hu, Zhigao, E-mail: zghu@ee.ecnu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chen, Xuefeng; Wang, Genshui [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Functional Materials and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Dong, Xianlin; Chu, Junhao [Department of Electronic Engineering, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Optical phonons and phase transitions of (Pb{sub 0.97}La{sub 0.02}) (Zr{sub 0.60}Sn{sub 0.40−y}Ti{sub y})O{sub 3} (PLZST 97/2/60/40-100y/100y) ceramics with different compositions have been investigated by x-ray diffraction and temperature dependent Raman spectra. From the temperature dependence of low wavenumber phonon modes, two phase transitions (antiferroelectric orthorhombic to intermediate phase and intermediate phase to paraelectric cubic phase) were detected. The intermediate phase could be the coexistence one of antiferroelectric orthorhombic and ferroelectric rhombohedral phase. In addition, two modes (a soft mode and an anharmonic hopping central mode) were found in the high temperature paraelectric cubic phase. On cooling, the anharmonic hopping central mode splits into two modes in the terahertz range. Moreover, the antiferrodistortive mode appears in the antiferroelectric orthorhombic phase. Based on the analysis, the phase diagram of PLZST ceramics can be well improved. - Highlights: • The evolution of phonon modes in antiferroelectric PLZST ceramics. • An intermediate phase was found between orthorhombic and cubic phase. • The phase diagram of PLZST ceramics can be well improved.

  14. Regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukova, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The experimental data, characterizing the regularities of intermediate adsorption complex relaxation in the polycrystalline Mo-N 2 system at 77 K are given. The method of molecular beam has been used in the investigation. The analytical expressions of change regularity in the relaxation process of full and specific rates - of transition from intermediate state into ''non-reversible'', of desorption into the gas phase and accumUlation of the particles in the intermediate state are obtained

  15. Decomposition of the single-phase high-entropy alloy CrMnFeCoNi after prolonged anneals at intermediate temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otto, F.; Dlouhý, Antonín; Pradeep, K. G.; Kuběnová, Monika; Raabe, D.; Eggeler, G.; George, E. P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, JUN (2016), s. 40-52 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22834S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : High-entropy alloy * Phase stability * Solid solution * Aging * Phase transformations Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  16. Accommodating High Transformation Strains in Battery Electrodes via the Formation of Nanoscale Intermediate Phases: Operando Investigation of Olivine NaFePO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kai; Xing, Wenting; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B; Hong, Liang; Tang, Ming; Li, Zheng; Wiaderek, Kamila M; Borkiewicz, Olaf J; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2017-03-08

    Virtually all intercalation compounds exhibit significant changes in unit cell volume as the working ion concentration varies. Na x FePO 4 (0 topotactic, high-strain systems as it exhibits one of the largest discontinuous volume changes (∼17% by volume) during its first-order transition between two otherwise isostructural phases. Using synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, we discover a new strain-accommodation mechanism wherein a third, amorphous phase forms to buffer the large lattice mismatch between primary phases. The amorphous phase has short-range order over ∼1nm domains that is characterized by a and b parameters matching one crystalline end-member phase and a c parameter matching the other, but is not detectable by powder diffraction alone. We suggest that this strain-accommodation mechanism may generally apply to systems with large transformation strains.

  17. Phase transition of a cobalt-free perovskite as a high-performance cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanshan; Zhou, Wei; Niu, Yingjie; Zhu, Zhonghua; Shao, Zongping

    2012-10-01

    It is generally recognized that the phase transition of a perovskite may be detrimental to the connection between cathode and electrolyte. Moreover, certain phase transitions may induce the formation of poor electronic and ionic conducting phase(s), thereby lowering the electrochemical performance of the cathode. Here, we present a study on the phase transition of a cobalt-free perovskite (SrNb(0.1)Fe(0.9)O(3-δ), SNF) and evaluate its effect on the electrochemical performance of the fuel cell. SNF exists as a primitive perovskite structure with space group P4mm (99) at room temperature. As evidenced by in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements over the temperature range of 600 to 1000 °C, SNF undergoes a transformation to a tetragonal structure with a space group I4/m (87). This phase transition is accompanied by a moderate change in the volume, allowing a good cathode/electrolyte interface on thermal cycling. According to the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy evaluation, the I4/m phase exhibits positive effects on the cathode's performance, showing the highest oxygen reduction reaction activity of cobalt-free cathodes reported so far. This activity improvement is attributed to enhanced oxygen surface processes. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Structure and phase transitions of monolayers of intermediate-length n-alkanes on graphite studied by neutron diffraction and molecular dynamics simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diama, A.; Matthies, B.; Herwig, K. W.

    2009-01-01

    measurements indicate that the two monolayer films differ principally in the transition temperatures between phases. At the lowest temperatures, both C24 and C32 form a crystalline monolayer phase with a rectangular-centered (RC) structure. The two sublattices of the RC structure each consists of parallel rows...... show evidence of broadening of the lamella boundaries as a result of molecules diffusing parallel to their long axis. At still higher temperatures, they indicate that the introduction of gauche defects into the alkane chains drives a melting transition to a monolayer fluid phase as reported previously...

  19. Reactions of stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Luc; Harder, Hartwig; Novelli, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Carbonyl oxides (Criegee intermediates) were proposed as key intermediates in the gas phase ozonolysis of alkenes in 1975 by Rudolf Criegee. Despite the importance of ozonolysis in atmospheric chemistry, direct observation of these intermediates remained elusive, with only indirect experimental evidence for their role in the oxidation of hydrocarbons, e.g. through scavenging experiments. Direct experimental observation of stabilized CI has only been achieved since 2008. Since then, a concerted effort using experimental and theoretical means is in motion to characterize the chemistry and kinetics of these reactive intermediates. We present the results of theoretical investigations of the chemistry of Criegee intermediates with a series of coreactants which may be of importance in the atmosphere, in experimental setups, or both. This includes the CI+CI cross-reaction, which proceeds with a rate coefficient near the collision limit and can be important in experimental conditions. The CI + alkene reactions show strong dependence of the rate coefficient depending on the coreactants, but is generally found to be rather slow. The CI + ozone reaction is sufficiently fast to occur both in experiment and the free troposphere, and acts as a sink for CI. The reaction of CI with hydroperoxides, ROOH, is complex, and leads both to the formation of oligomers, as to the formation of reactive etheroxides, with a moderately fast rate coefficient. The importance of these reactions is placed in the context of the reaction conditions in different atmospheric environments ranging from unpolluted to highly polluted.

  20. Potential Impacts of two SO2 oxidation pathways on regional sulfate concentrations: acqueous-hase oxidation by NO2 and gas-phase oxidation by Stabilized Criegee Intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine the potential impacts of two additional sulfate production pathways using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system. First we evaluate the impact of the aqueous-phase oxidation of S(IV) by nitrogen dioxide using two published rate constants, differing by 1-2...

  1. The influence of zirconia precursor/binding polymer mass ratio in the intermediate electrospun composite fibers on the phase transformation of final zirconia nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodaev, Vyacheslav V.; Zhigachev, Andrey O.; Korenkov, Viktor V.; Golovin, Yuri I. [Institute for Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials, Tambov State University, Internatsionalnaya Str. 33, 392000, Tambov (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Nanofibrous zirconia was fabricated by calcination of electrospun zirconium oxychloride/polyethylene oxide (PEO) composite fibers with different mass fraction of the components. ZrO{sub 2} nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It was revealed that increase in ZrOCl{sub 2}/PEO mass ratio above the threshold value significantly decreases tetragonal phase (t-ZrO{sub 2}) content and increases monoclinic phase (m-ZrO{sub 2}) content in final ceramic nanofibers. Distinct t-ZrO{sub 2} → m-ZrO{sub 2} transformation takes place when average ZrO{sub 2} grain size approaches to 30 nm. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. EXAFS analysis of intermediate phases in the synthesis of the YBa2Cu3O7-x high-Tc superconductor from xerogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcon, I.; Bele, M.; Hribar, M.; Kodre, A.; Pejovnik, S.; Stuhec, M.; Drube, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the synthesis of superconducting cuprate ceramics starting from gels, the advantage of stoichiometric homogeneity of the constituent atoms on the molecular level is exploited. However, x-ray diffraction analysis of samples taken in consecutive temperature points in the process of calcination shows formation of a number of well-crystalized intermediary products. EXAFS spectrometry gives additional insight into the process, providing the information on the neighborhood of constituent atoms in the crystalline as well as amorphous phase. (orig.)

  3. Symmetric Topological Phases and Tensor Network States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shenghan

    Classification and simulation of quantum phases are one of main themes in condensed matter physics. Quantum phases can be distinguished by their symmetrical and topological properties. The interplay between symmetry and topology in condensed matter physics often leads to exotic quantum phases and rich phase diagrams. Famous examples include quantum Hall phases, spin liquids and topological insulators. In this thesis, I present our works toward a more systematically understanding of symmetric topological quantum phases in bosonic systems. In the absence of global symmetries, gapped quantum phases are characterized by topological orders. Topological orders in 2+1D are well studied, while a systematically understanding of topological orders in 3+1D is still lacking. By studying a family of exact solvable models, we find at least some topological orders in 3+1D can be distinguished by braiding phases of loop excitations. In the presence of both global symmetries and topological orders, the interplay between them leads to new phases termed as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We develop a framework to classify a large class of SET phases using tensor networks. For each tensor class, we can write down generic variational wavefunctions. We apply our method to study gapped spin liquids on the kagome lattice, which can be viewed as SET phases of on-site symmetries as well as lattice symmetries. In the absence of topological order, symmetry could protect different topological phases, which are often referred to as symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We present systematic constructions of tensor network wavefunctions for bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases respecting both onsite and spatial symmetries.

  4. Kinetics and intermediate phases in epitaxial growth of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} films from deposition and thermal reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaozhe [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-Equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, ShaanXi (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Yang, Sen; Yang, Zhimao, E-mail: zmyang@xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [School of Science, MOE Key Laboratory for Non-Equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049, ShaanXi (China); Xu, Xiaoshan, E-mail: zmyang@xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiaoshan.xu@unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    We have studied the kinetics of the transitions between the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases as thin epilayers (∼2.5 nm) on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) substrates using time-resolved reflection high energy electron diffraction. The different iron oxide phases were identified using a combination of in-situ and ex-situ characterizations. The transition from an α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) epilayer to a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) epilayer through thermal reduction was found to be determined by the Fe-O bonding energy, resulting in a long time scale. The oxidation at high temperature converts a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) epilayer to an α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (001) epilayer quickly; at low temperature, a γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (111) epilayer was slowly generated instead. By repeating the deposition/thermal reduction processes, a thicker Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (111) film was obtained, which exhibit high crystallinity and moderate magnetic coercivity.

  5. Intermediality and media change

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This book is about intermediality as an approach to analysing and understanding media change. Intermediality and Media Change is critical of technological determinism that characterises 'new media discourse' about the ongoing digitalization, framed as a revolution and creating sharp contrasts between old and new media. Intermediality instead emphasises paying attention to continuities between media of all types and privileges a comparative perspective on technological changes in media over ti...

  6. Effect of diameter and axial location on upward gas–liquid two-phase flow patterns in intermediate-scale vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.R.; Azadi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A vertical two-phase flow system is manufactured to study flow behavior adiabatically. • Two test sections are studied with inner diameters of 40 mm and 70 mm at two locations. • Flow pattern maps are presented for both tubes. • Effects of tube diameter and heights on pattern transition boundaries are investigated. • Three sub-patterns bubbly flow and two types of slug pattern are recognized. - Abstract: In the present research, a two-phase flow system is designed, manufactured, assembled and adjusted to study two-phase flow behavior isothermally. Test sections are tubes standing in vertical position and are made of transparent acrylic with inner diameters of 40 mm and 70 mm. Two axial locations of 1.73 m and 3.22 m are chosen for data acquisition. Flow pattern maps are presented for both tubes. Effects of tube diameter and axial location on pattern transition boundaries are investigated. Air and water are chosen as working fluids. The range of air and water superficial velocities are 0.054–9.654 m/s and 0.015–0.877 m/s for the 40 mm diameter tube, but these values are 0.038–20.44 m/s and 0.036–1.530 m/s for 70 mm diameter tube. The results show that for both tubes, increasing axial location does not affect flow transition boundaries significantly. However, slug pattern region shrinks considerably by changing tube diameter from 40 mm to 70 mm. Using image processing techniques, recorded high speed movies were investigated accurately. As a result, bubbly flow in the 40 mm tube can be divided into three sub-patterns as dispersed, agitated and agglomerated bubbly. Also, two types of slug pattern are also recognized in the same tube diameter which are called small and large slugs. Semi-annular flow is observed as an independent pattern in the 70 mm tube that does not behave as known churn or annular patterns.

  7. Investigation/evaluation of water cooled fast reactor in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. Intermediate evaluation of phase-II study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotake, Syoji; Nishikawa, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems aims at investigation and evaluation of FBR design requirement's attainability, operation and maintenance, and technical feasibility of the candidate system. Development targets are 1) ensuring safety, 2) economic competitiveness, 3) efficient utilization of resources, 4) reduction of environmental load and 5) enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. Based on the selection of the promising concepts in the first phase, conceptual design for the plant system has proceeded with the following plant system: a) sodium cooled reactors at large size and medium size module reactors, b) a lead-bismuth cooled medium size reactor, c) a helium gas cooled large size reactor and d) a BWR type large size FBR. Technical development and feasibility has been assessed and the study considers the need of respective key technology development for the confirmation of the feasibility study. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Derived emergency reference levels for the introduction of countermeasures in the early to intermediate phases of emergencies involving the release of radioactive materials to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.S.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.; Haywood, S.M.

    1986-03-01

    Derived Emergency Reference Levels (DERLs) are practical quantities intended for use in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials to atmosphere and for use in preparing emergency plans for the protection of the public. The results of environmental measurements may be compared with them as a means of assessing the seriousness of the release and in order to form judgements on the need to institute protective countermeasures. DERLs are the practical expression of Emergency Reference Levels, the radiological criteria for planning the introduction of emergency countermeasures. DERLs have been evaluated for a range of radionuclides which could be released in the event of an accident and for a number of different exposure pathways that are relevant in the initial phase of an accident. These pathways are: inhalation of activity both in the plume and resuspended from the ground; skin irradiation by β-emitting noble gases in the cloud; doses from β-emitters deposited on the skin; and external γ irradiation from ground deposits. (author)

  9. Absence of magnetic ordering and field-induced phase diagram in the gadolinium aluminum garnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florea, O.; Lhotel, E.; Jacobsen, H.; Knee, C. S.; Deen, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    The robustness of spin liquids with respect to small perturbations, and the way magnetic frustration can be lifted by slight changes in the balance between competing magnetic interactions, remains a rich and open issue. We address this question through the study of the gadolinium aluminum garnet Gd3Al5O12 , a related compound to the extensively studied Gd3Ga5O12 . We report on its magnetic properties at very low temperatures. We show that despite a freezing at about 300 mK, no magnetic transition is observed, suggesting the presence of a spin-liquid state down to the lowest temperatures, similarly to Gd3Ga5O12 , in spite of a larger ratio between exchange and dipolar interactions. Finally, the phase diagram as a function of field and temperature is strongly reminiscent of the one reported in Gd3Ga5O12 . This study reveals the robust nature of the spin-liquid phase for Gd ions on the garnet lattice, in stark contrast to Gd ions on the pyrochlore lattice for which a slight perturbation drives the compound into a range of magnetically ordered states.

  10. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... traditional SM muscle without compromising quality. ... technique is intermediate moisture food processing. ... Traditionally, most tsire suya producers use ..... quality of Chinese purebred and European X Chinese crossbred ...

  11. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  12. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende

  13. The magnetic strip(s) in the advanced phases of stellar evolution. Theoretical convective turnover timescale and Rossby number for low- and intermediate-mass stars up to the AGB at various metallicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, C.; Decressin, T.; Lagarde, N.; Gallet, F.; Palacios, A.; Aurière, M.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Mathis, S.; Anderson, R. I.; Dintrans, B.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Recent spectropolarimetric observations of otherwise ordinary (in terms e.g. of surface rotation and chemical properties) G, K, and M giants have revealed localized magnetic strips in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram coincident with the regions where the first dredge-up and core helium burning occur. Aims: We seek to understand the origin of magnetic fields in such late-type giant stars, which is currently unexplained. In analogy with late-type dwarf stars, we focus primarily on parameters known to influence the generation of magnetic fields in the outer convective envelope. Methods: We compute the classical dynamo parameters along the evolutionary tracks of low- and intermediate-mass stars at various metallicities using stellar models that have been extensively tested by spectroscopic and asteroseismic observations. Specifically, these include convective turnover timescales and convective Rossby numbers, computed from the pre-main sequence (PMS) to the tip of the red giant branch (RGB) or the early asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. To investigate the effects of the very extended outer convective envelope, we compute these parameters both for the entire convective envelope and locally, that is, at different depths within the envelope. We also compute the turnover timescales and corresponding Rossby numbers for the convective cores of intermediate-mass stars on the main sequence. Results: Our models show that the Rossby number of the convective envelope becomes lower than unity in the well-delimited locations of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram where magnetic fields have indeed been detected. Conclusions: We show that α - Ω dynamo processes might not be continuously operating, but that they are favored in the stellar convective envelope at two specific moments along the evolution tracks, that is, during the first dredge-up at the base of the RGB and during central helium burning in the helium-burning phase and early-AGB. This general behavior can explain

  14. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  15. The BIG 2.04 MRC/EORTC SUPREMO Trial: pathology quality assurance of a large phase 3 randomised international clinical trial of postmastectomy radiotherapy in intermediate-risk breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J S; Hanby, A M; Russell, N; van Tienhoven, G; Riddle, K; Anderson, N; Cameron, D A; Bartlett, J M S; Piper, T; Cunningham, C; Canney, P; Kunkler, I H

    2017-05-01

    SUPREMO is a phase 3 randomised trial evaluating radiotherapy post-mastectomy for intermediate-risk breast cancer. 1688 patients were enrolled from 16 countries between 2006 and 2013. We report the results of central pathology review carried out for quality assurance. A single recut haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) tumour section was assessed by one of two reviewing pathologists, blinded to the originally reported pathology and patient data. Tumour type, grade and lymphovascular invasion were reviewed to assess if they met the inclusion criteria. Slides from potentially ineligible patients on central review were scanned and reviewed online together by the two pathologists and a consensus reached. A subset of 25 of these cases was double-reported independently by the pathologists prior to the online assessment. The major contributors to the trial were the UK (75%) and the Netherlands (10%). There is a striking difference in lymphovascular invasion (LVi) rates (41.6 vs. 15.1% (UK); p = grade 3 carcinomas (54.0 vs. 42.0% (UK); p = grade and/or lymphovascular invasion status. Following online consensus review, this fell to 70 cases (16.3% of N- cases, 4.1% of all cases). These data have important implications for the design, powering and interpretation of outcomes from this and future clinical trials. If critical pathology criteria are determinants for trial entry, serious consideration should be given to up-front central pathology review.

  16. Final analysis of the prospective WSG-AGO EC-Doc versus FEC phase III trial in intermediate-risk (pN1) early breast cancer: efficacy and predictive value of Ki67 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitz, U; Gluz, O; Huober, J; Kreipe, H H; Kates, R E; Hartmann, A; Erber, R; Moustafa, Z; Scholz, M; Lisboa, B; Mohrmann, S; Möbus, V; Augustin, D; Hoffmann, G; Weiss, E; Böhmer, S; Kreienberg, R; Du Bois, A; Sattler, D; Thomssen, C; Kiechle, M; Jänicke, F; Wallwiener, D; Harbeck, N; Kuhn, W

    2014-08-01

    Taxane-based adjuvant chemotherapy is standard in node-positive (N+) early breast cancer (BC). The magnitude of benefit in intermediate-risk N+ early BC is still unclear. WSG-AGO epiribicine and cyclophosphamide (EC)-Doc is a large trial evaluating modern taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) only. A total of 2011 BC patients (18-65 years, pN1) were entered into a randomized phase III trial comparing 4 × E90C600 q3w followed by 4 × docetaxel 100 q3w (n = 1008) with the current standard: 6 × F500E100C500 q3w (n = 828) or C600M40F600 d1, 8× q4w (n = 175). Primary end point was event-free survival (EFS); secondary end points were overall survival (OS), toxicity, translational research, and quality of life. Central tumor bank samples were evaluable in a representative collective (n = 772; 40%). Ki-67 was assessed centrally in hormone receptor-positive disease as a surrogate marker for the distinction of luminal A/B-like tumors. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between study arms in both main study and central tumor bank subset. At 59-month median follow-up, superior efficacy of EC-Doc [versus FEC (a combination of 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide)] was seen in EFS and OS: 5-year EFS: 89.8% versus 87.3% (P = 0.038); 5-year OS: 94.5% versus 92.8% (P = 0.034); both tests one-tailed. EC-Doc caused more toxicity. In hormone receptor-positive (HR)+ disease, only high-Ki-67 tumors (≥ 20%) derived significant benefit from taxane-based therapy: hazard ratio = 0.39 (95% CI 0.18-0.82) for EC-Doc versus FEC (test for interaction; P = 0.01). EC-Doc significantly improved EFS and OS versus FEC in intermediate-risk BC (1-3 LNs) within all subgroups as defined by local pathology. In HR+ disease, patients with luminal A-like tumors may be potentially over-treated by taxane-based chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02115204. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for

  17. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  18. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    communicative affordances of mobile devices in order to understand how people choose between them for different purposes. It is argued that mobile communication makes intermediality especially central, as the choice of medium is detached from the location of stationary media and begins to follow the user across......The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  19. Money distribution with intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Caio Augusto Colnago

    2013-01-01

    This pap er analyzes the distribution of money holdings in a commo dity money search-based mo del with intermediation. Intro ducing heterogeneity of costs to the Kiyotaki e Wright ( 1989 ) mo del, Cavalcanti e Puzzello ( 2010) gives rise to a non-degenerated distribution of money. We extend further this mo del intro ducing intermediation in the trading pro cess. We show that the distribution of money matters for savings decisions. This gives rises to a xed p oint problem for the ...

  20. Facile preparation of surface-exchangeable core@shell iron oxide@gold nanoparticles for magnetic solid-phase extraction: Use of gold shell as the intermediate platform for versatile adsorbents with varying self-assembled monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yaping [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qi, Li, E-mail: qili@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shen, Ying [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Graduate School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ma, Huimin [Beijing National Laboratory of Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-02-06

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •The core@shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au nanoparticles functionalized with SAMs were successfully constructed. •The SAMs could be transformed from one kind to another via thiol exchange process. •The developed nanomaterials could be applied in mode switching MSPE. -- Abstract: The core@shell Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with exchangeable self-assembled monolayers have been developed for mode switching magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The adsorbents were synthesized by chemical coprecipitation to prepare magnetic cores followed by sonolysis to produce gold shells. Functionalization of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@Au NPs surface was realized through self-assembly of commercially available low molecular weight thiol-containing ligands using gold shells as intermediate platform and the dynamic nature of Au–S chemistry allowed substituent of one thiol-containing ligand with another simply by thiol exchange process. The resultant adsorbents were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, contact angle measurement, and vibrating sample magnetometry. To evaluate the versatile performance of the developed MSPE adsorbents, they were applied for normal-phase SPE followed by reversed-phase SPE. A few kinds of diphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were employed as model analytes, respectively. The predominant parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum experimental conditions, wide dynamic linear range (6.25–1600 μg L{sup −1} for diphenols and 1.56–100 μg L{sup −1} for PAHs) with good linearity (r{sup 2} ≥ 0.989) and low detection limits (0.34–16.67 μg L{sup −1} for diphenols and 0.26–0.52 μg L{sup −1} for PAHs) were achieved. The advantage of the developed method is that the Fe{sub 3}O

  1. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  2. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  3. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  4. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  5. Simultaneous Integrated Boost Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in the Postoperative Treatment of High-Risk to Intermediate-Risk Endometrial Cancer: Results of ADA II Phase 1-2 Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macchia, Gabriella, E-mail: gmacchia@rm.unicatt.it [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cilla, Savino [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Deodato, Francesco [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Ianiro, Anna [Medical Physics Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Legge, Francesco [Gynecologic Oncology Unit, F. Miulli General Regional Hospital, Acquaviva delle Fonti, Bari (Italy); Marucci, Martina [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Cammelli, Silvia [Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Perrone, Anna Myriam; De Iaco, Pierandrea [Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Gambacorta, Maria Antonietta; Autorino, Rosa [Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); Valentini, Vincenzo [Radiotherapy Unit, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura Giovanni Paolo II, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Campobasso (Italy); Department of Radiotherapy, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-11-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase 1-2 clinical trial aimed at determining the recommended postoperative dose of simultaneous integrated boost volumetric modulated arc therapy (SIB-VMAT) in a large series of patients with high-risk and intermediate-risk endometrial cancer (HIR-EC) is presented. The study also evaluated the association between rate and severity of toxicity and comorbidities and the clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: Two SIB-VMAT dose levels were investigated for boost to the vaginal vault, whereas the pelvic lymph nodes were always treated with 45 Gy. The first cohort received a SIB-VMAT dose of 55 Gy in 25 consecutive 2.2-Gy fractions, and the subsequent cohort received higher doses (60 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Results: Seventy consecutive HIR-EC patients, roughly half of whom were obese (47.1%) or overweight (37.1%), with Charlson Age-Comorbidity Index >2 (48.5%), were enrolled. Thirty-one patients (44.3%) were administered adjuvant chemotherapy before starting radiation therapy. All patients (n=35 per dose level) completed irradiation without any dose-limiting toxicity. Proctitis (any grade) was associated with radiation therapy dose (P=.001); not so enterocolitis. Grade ≥2 gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity were recorded in 17 (24.3%) and 14 patients (20.0%), respectively, and were not associated with radiation dose. As for late toxicity, none of patients experienced late grade ≥3 GI or grade ≥2 GU toxicity. The 3-year late grade ≥2 GI and GU toxicity–free survival were 92.8% and 100%, respectively, with no difference between the 2 dose levels. With a median follow-up period of 25 months (range, 4-60 months), relapse/progression of disease was observed in 10 of 70 patients (14.2%). The 3-year cumulative incidence of recurrence was 1.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2-10.7), whereas the 3-year disease-free survival was 81.3% (95% CI: 65.0-90.0). Conclusions: This clinical study showed the feasibility of this

  6. The intermediate state in Patd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) Jesus had assumed. (concerning the 'intermediate state') as existing, anything which does not exist. Three basic things about the intermediate state emerge from the parable: (a) Jesus recognizes that at the moment of death, in ipso articulo.

  7. [Intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes work in experimental Intermediate Energy Nuclear Physics carried out between October 1, 1988 and October 1, 1989 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under grant DE-FG02-86ER-40269 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental program is very broadly based, including pion-nucleon studies at TRIUMF, inelastic pion scattering and charge exchange reactions at LAMPF, and nucleon charge exchange at LAMPF/WNR. In addition, a number of other topics related to accelerator physics are described in this report

  8. InAs quantum dot growth on Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy for intermediate band solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakomin, R., E-mail: robertojakomin@xerem.ufrj.br [Campus de Xerém, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Duque de Caxias-RJ (Brazil); Campus de Xerém, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Duque de Caxias-RJ (Brazil); Kawabata, R. M. S.; Souza, P. L. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutoires–DISSE–PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Marques de São Vicente 225, Rio de Janeiro, 22452-900 RJ (Brazil); Mourão, R. T.; Pires, M. P. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutoires–DISSE–PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Micha, D. N. [Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Nanodispositivos Semicondutoires–DISSE–PUC-Rio, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Coordenação de Licenciatura em Física, CEFET/RJ, Petrópolis-RJ (Brazil); Xie, H.; Fischer, A. M.; Ponce, F. A. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    InAs quantum dot multilayers have been grown using Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As spacers with dimensions and compositions near the theoretical values for optimized efficiencies in intermediate band photovoltaic cells. Using an aluminium composition of x = 0.3 and InAs dot vertical dimensions of 5 nm, transitions to an intermediate band with energy close to the ideal theoretical value have been obtained. Optimum size uniformity and density have been achieved by capping the quantum dots with GaAs following the indium-flush method. This approach has also resulted in minimization of crystalline defects in the epilayer structure.

  9. Discourses and Models of Intermediality

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Discourses and Models of Intermediality" Jens Schröter discusses the question as to what relations do different discourses pose between different "media." Schröter identifies four models of discourse: 1) synthetic intermediality: a "fusion" of different media to super-media, a model with roots in the Wagnerian concept of Gesamtkunstwerk with political connotations, 2) formal (or transmedial) intermediality: a concept based on formal structures not "specific" to one medium but ...

  10. Information acquisition and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchenko, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...

  11. The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models

  12. Intermediate valence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsson, O.; Schoenhammer, K.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic properties of intermediate valence compounds are studied using the Anderson model. Due to the large orbital and spin degeneracy N/sub f/ of the 4f-level, 1/N/sub f/ can be treated as a small parameter. This approach provides exact T = 0 results for the Anderson impurity model in the limit N/sub f/ → ∞, and by adding 1/N/sub f/ corrections some properties can be calculated accurately even for N/sub f/ = 1 or 2. In particular valence photoemission and resonance photoemission spectroscopies are studied. A comparison of theoretical and experimental spectra provides an estimate of the parameters in the model. Core level photoemission spectra provide estimates of the coupling between the f-level and the conduction states and of the f-level occupancy. With these parameters the model gives a fair description of other electron spectroscopies. For typical parameters the model predicts two structures in the f-spectrum, namely one structure at the f-level and one at the Fermi energy. The resonance photoemission calculation gives a photon energy dependence for these two peaks in fair agreement with experiment. The peak at the Fermi energy is partly due to a narrow Kondo resonance, resulting from many-body effects and the presence of a continuous, partly filled conduction band. This resonance is related to a large density of low-lying excitations, which explains the large susceptibility and specific heat observed for these systems at low temperatures. 38 references, 11 figures, 2 tables

  13. Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in a pyrochlore Kondo lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefe, Sarah; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao

    The metallic variant of the pyrochlore iridates Pr2Ir2O7 has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state [PRL 96 087204 (2006), PRL 98, 057203 (2007), Nature 463, 210 (2010)] and quantum criticality [Nat. Mater. 13, 356 (2014)]. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr2Ir2O7 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on the pyrochlore lattice. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations and determine the zero-temperature phase diagram. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr2Ir2O7 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.

  14. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  15. Intermediate structure and threshold phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel

    2004-01-01

    The Intermediate Structure, evidenced through microstructures of the neutron strength function, is reflected in open reaction channels as fluctuations in excitation function of nuclear threshold effects. The intermediate state supporting both neutron strength function and nuclear threshold effect is a micro-giant neutron threshold state. (author)

  16. Comments on intermediate-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.

    1987-04-23

    Some superstring-inspired models employ intermediate scales m/sub I/ of gauge symmetry breaking. Such scales should exceed 10/sup 16/ GeV in order to avoid prima facie problems with baryon decay through heavy particles and non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings above m/sub I/. However, the intermediate-scale phase transition does not occur until the temperature of the Universe falls below O(m/sub W/), after which an enormous excess of entropy is generated. Moreover, gauge symmetry breaking by renormalization group-improved radiative corrections is inapplicable because the symmetry-breaking field has not renormalizable interactions at scales below m/sub I/. We also comment on the danger of baryon and lepton number violation in the effective low-energy theory.

  17. Comments on intermediate-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Olive, K.

    1987-01-01

    Some superstring-inspired models employ intermediate scales m I of gauge symmetry breaking. Such scales should exceed 10 16 GeV in order to avoid prima facie problems with baryon decay through heavy particles and non-perturbative behaviour of the gauge couplings above m I . However, the intermediate-scale phase transition does not occur until the temperature of the Universe falls below O(m W ), after which an enormous excess of entropy is generated. Moreover, gauge symmetry breaking by renormalization group-improved radiative corrections is inapplicable because the symmetry-breaking field has not renormalizable interactions at scales below m I . We also comment on the danger of baryon and lepton number violation in the effective low-energy theory. (orig.)

  18. Exotic Quantum Phases and Phase Transitions of Strongly Interacting Electrons in Low-Dimensional Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishmash, Ryan V.

    Experiments on strongly correlated quasi-two-dimensional electronic materials---for example, the high-temperature cuprate superconductors and the putative quantum spin liquids kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3 and EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2---routinely reveal highly mysterious quantum behavior which cannot be explained in terms of weakly interacting degrees of freedom. Theoretical progress thus requires the introduction of completely new concepts and machinery beyond the traditional framework of the band theory of solids and its interacting counterpart, Landau's Fermi liquid theory. In full two dimensions, controlled and reliable analytical approaches to such problems are severely lacking, as are numerical simulations of even the simplest of model Hamiltonians due to the infamous fermionic sign problem. Here, we attempt to circumvent some of these difficulties by studying analogous problems in quasi-one dimension. In this lower dimensional setting, theoretical and numerical tractability are on much stronger footing due to the methods of bosonization and the density matrix renormalization group, respectively. Using these techniques, we attack two problems: (1) the Mott transition between a Fermi liquid metal and a quantum spin liquid as potentially directly relevant to the organic compounds kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu 2(CN)3 and EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2] 2 and (2) non-Fermi liquid metals as strongly motivated by the strange metal phase observed in the cuprates. In both cases, we are able to realize highly exotic quantum phases as ground states of reasonable microscopic models. This lends strong credence to respective underlying slave-particle descriptions of the low-energy physics, which are inherently strongly interacting and also unconventional in comparison to weakly interacting alternatives. Finally, working in two dimensions directly, we propose a new slave-particle theory which explains in a universal way many of the intriguing experimental results of the triangular lattice organic spin

  19. Intermediate neutron spectrum problems and the intermediate neutron spectrum experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegers, P.J.; Sanchez, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Criticality benchmark data for intermediate energy spectrum systems does not exist. These systems are dominated by scattering and fission events induced by neutrons with energies between 1 eV and 1 MeV. Nuclear data uncertainties have been reported for such systems which can not be resolved without benchmark critical experiments. Intermediate energy spectrum systems have been proposed for the geological disposition of surplus fissile materials. Without the proper benchmarking of the nuclear data in the intermediate energy spectrum, adequate criticality safety margins can not be guaranteed. The Zeus critical experiment now under construction will provide this necessary benchmark data

  20. Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in frustrated Kondo lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschen, Silke; Grefe, Sarah Elaine; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao

    Among the pyrochlore iridates, the metallic compound Pr2 Ir2O7 (Pr-227) has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state and quantum criticality. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr-227 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on frustrated lattices. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr-227 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.

  1. Intermediate Levels of Visual Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakayama, Ken

    1998-01-01

    ...) surface representation, here we have shown that there is an intermediate level of visual processing, between the analysis of the image and higher order representations related to specific objects; (2...

  2. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacak, B.V.; Britt, H.C.; Claesson, G.

    1986-01-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the production of intermediate mass fragments (A > 4) in intermediate and high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The mechanism for production of these fragments is not well understood and has been described by models employing a variety of assumptions. Some examples are: disassembly of a system in thermal equilibrium into nucleons and nuclear fragments, liquid-vapor phase transitions in nuclear matter, final state coalescence of nucleons and dynamical correlations between nucleons at breakup. Previous studies of fragment production, with one exception, have been single particle inclusive measurements; the observed fragment mass (or charge) distributions can be described by all of the models above. To gain insight into the fragment production mechanism, the authors used the GSI/LBL Plastic Ball detector system to get full azimuthal coverage for intermediate mass fragments in the forward hemisphere in the center of mass system while measuring all the light particles in each event. The authors studied the systems 200 MeV/nucleon Au + Au and Au + Fe

  3. Isoporphyrin Intermediate in Heme Oxygenase Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P.; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-01-01

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the α-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin π-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of α-meso-phenylheme-IX, α-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and α-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593–42604), only the α-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced α-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation. PMID:18487208

  4. Optical evidences for an intermediate phase in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of low-temperature structural transformation and evolution of polar nano-structures in relaxor ferroelectric Pb(In1/2Nb1/2O3-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-xPbTiO3 (x = 0.33, 0.35, and 0.42 single crystals have been investigated with the aid of temperature dependent low-wavenumber Raman scattering (LWRS and photoluminescence (PL spectra. The E(TO1 phonon mode reveals the characteristic relaxational polarization fluctuations associated with the reorientation of either polar nano-regions or polar nano-domains. It was found that these mechanisms are not independent and they can be ascribed to the phonon localization. In addition, a short-range monoclinic phase (Mc can be found below 250 K in the tetragonal phase region by LWRS, which is always associated with the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB and excellent electromechanical properties. It is interesting that PL spectra confirm these results. The present work indicates that external field modulation and change of composition can result in the monoclinic phase and co-existence of multi-phase.

  5. Hydrogen separation through tailored dual phase membranes with nominal composition BaCe0.8Eu0.2O3-δ:Ce0.8Y0.2O2-δ at intermediate temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Mariya E.; Escolástico, Sonia; Balaguer, Maria; Palisaitis, Justinas; Sohn, Yoo Jung; Meulenberg, Wilhelm A.; Guillon, Olivier; Mayer, Joachim; Serra, Jose M.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrogen permeation membranes are a key element in improving the energy conversion efficiency and decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions from energy generation. The scientific community faces the challenge of identifying and optimizing stable and effective ceramic materials for H2 separation membranes at elevated temperature (400-800 °C) for industrial separations and intensified catalytic reactors. As such, composite materials with nominal composition BaCe0.8Eu0.2O3-δ:Ce0.8Y0.2O2-δ revealed unprecedented H2 permeation levels of 0.4 to 0.61 mL·min-1·cm-2 at 700 °C measured on 500 μm-thick-specimen. A detailed structural and phase study revealed single phase perovskite and fluorite starting materials synthesized via the conventional ceramic route. Strong tendency of Eu to migrate from the perovskite to the fluorite phase was observed at sintering temperature, leading to significant Eu depletion of the proton conducing BaCe0.8Eu0.2O3-δ phase. Composite microstructure was examined prior and after a variety of functional tests, including electrical conductivity, H2-permeation and stability in CO2 containing atmospheres at elevated temperatures, revealing stable material without morphological and structural changes, with segregation-free interfaces and no further diffusive effects between the constituting phases. In this context, dual phase material based on BaCe0.8Eu0.2O3-δ:Ce0.8Y0.2O2-δ represents a very promising candidate for H2 separating membrane in energy- and environmentally-related applications.

  6. Orthorhombic intermediate phase originating from {110} nanotwinning in Ni.sub.50.0./sub.Mn.sub.28.7./sub.Ga.sub.21.3./sub. modulated martensite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straka, Ladislav; Drahokoupil, Jan; Veřtát, Petr; Kopeček, Jaromír; Zelený, Martin; Seiner, Hanuš; Heczko, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 132, Jun (2017), s. 335-344 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-00043S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 Keywords : Ni 2 MnGa * magnetic shape memory * martensitic transformation * nanotwins * adaptive phase Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016

  7. Radionuclides retention in C-S-H, main phases of cement matrices for low and intermediate-level wastes; Retencion de radionuclidos en C-S-H, principales fases de matrices de cemento para desechos de bajo y medio nivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Lopez R, C.; Vidal M, J. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Gutierrez B, O., E-mail: veronica.badillo@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Exrancho La Virgen, Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    Knowing that the behavior of cementitious materials based on hydraulic binder called cement is essentially determined by the physicochemical evolution of the cement paste (water + cement) which constitutes it, the evolution of the cement paste in contact with different aqueous solutions is studied since one of the main risks in safety of systems is composed of surface and groundwater, which contribute to the alteration of the different barriers and represent the main way of radionuclides transport. The calcium silicates CSH are the main phases that compose the systems based on Portland cement. The hydrates calcium silicates possess a high degree of structural complexity which includes crystalline, partially crystalline and amorphous phases. In this study the microstructures of the CSH phases as well as the retention of radionuclide Sr (II) are studied through the {sup 87m}Sr in formulations of water/cement w/c = 0.55; experimental values of K d low around 20 ml g{sup -1} are obtained in function of hydration time of the cement paste in equilibrium with aqueous solutions. (Author)

  8. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.B.; Rubbia, C.; van der Meer, S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past 15 years a new class of unified theories has been developed to describe the forces acting between elementary particles. The most successful of the new theories establishes a link between electromagnetism and the weak force. A crucial prediction of this unified electroweak theory is the existence of three massive particles called intermediate vector bosons. If these intermediate vector bosons exist and if they have properties attributed to them by electroweak theory, they should soon be detected, as the world's first particle accelerator with enough energy to create such particles has recently been completed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva. The accelerator has been converted to a colliding beam machine in which protons and antiprotons collide head on. According to electroweak theory, intermediate vector bosons can be created in proton-antiproton collisions. (SC)

  9. Search for intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klajn, D.B.; Rubbia, K.; Meer, S.

    1983-01-01

    Problem of registration and search for intermediate vector bosons is discussed. According to weak-current theory there are three intermediate vector bosons with +1(W + )-1(W - ) and zero (Z 0 ) electric charges. It was suggested to conduct the investigation into particles in 1976 by cline, Rubbia and Makintair using proton-antiproton beams. Major difficulties of the experiment are related to the necessity of formation of sufficient amount of antiparticles and the method of antiproton beam ''cooling'' for the purpose of reduction of its random movements. The stochastic method was suggested by van der Meer in 1968 as one of possible cooling methods. Several large detectors were designed for searching intermediate vector bosons

  10. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  11. Projecting non-diffracting waves with intermediate-plane holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Argha; Yevick, Aaron; Blackburn, Lauren C; Kanellakopoulos, Nikitas; Grier, David G

    2018-02-19

    We introduce intermediate-plane holography, which substantially improves the ability of holographic trapping systems to project propagation-invariant modes of light using phase-only diffractive optical elements. Translating the mode-forming hologram to an intermediate plane in the optical train can reduce the need to encode amplitude variations in the field, and therefore complements well-established techniques for encoding complex-valued transfer functions into phase-only holograms. Compared to standard holographic trapping implementations, intermediate-plane holograms greatly improve diffraction efficiency and mode purity of propagation-invariant modes, and so increase their useful non-diffracting range. We demonstrate this technique through experimental realizations of accelerating modes and long-range tractor beams.

  12. Investigations on site suitability for a final repository of low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Status report of phase I investigations for the feasible Bois de la Glaive site (community of Ollon, VD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    On 30 th September 1985, site suitability investigations with a view to disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste were licensed by the Federal Government at three locations - Bois de la Glaive (Canton Vaud), Oberbauenstock (Canton Uri) and Piz Pian Grand (Canton Graubuenden). This report presents the status of the investigations at Bois de la Glaive as at the end of 1987 and discusses the results of the programme. Because of the opposition of the community of Ollon, none of the investigations subject to authorization have been carried out, even though these investigations had been approved by the Federal Government on 30 th September 1985. Nevertheless, various investigations not requiring a license have provided a considerable store of data. The details of the work actually carried out are as follows: (1) Detailed geological mapping of the earth's surface over an area of 22.5 km 2 on a scale of 1:5000. This study included the first geological recording of the Galerie de Salin (Salin drift) which formed part of an 18 th -century mine. (2) The existing hydrogeological data on the area were compiled and provided a first impression of the overall hydrogeological conditions. (3) The provisional concept of a possible repository at Bois de la Glaive and of the corresponding exploration gallery was elaborated under the point of view of civil engineering and the long-term behaviour of the host rock was assessed qualitatively. To summarize, based on the present stage of the investigations and on rock- resp. site-specific knowledge of the anhydrite as a host rock, there are no real reasons for ruling out the site. 54 refs., 11 figs

  13. SUPREMO (Selective Use of Postoperative Radiotherapy aftEr MastectOmy) - a phase III randomised trial assessing the role of postmastectomy chest wall irradiation in 'intermediate risk' women with operable breast cancer receiving adjuvant systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunkler, I.H.; Price, A.; Dixon, M.; Canney, P.; Prescott, R.; Sainsbury, R.; Aird, E.

    2003-01-01

    Danish and Canadian randomised trials of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) have shown the importance of loco-regional control to survival in 'high risk' pre and postmenopausal women receiving adjuvant systemic therapy. The effects of radiotherapy (RT) in terms of improving survival are similar to those of systemic therapy. International consensus now supports the use of postmastectomy chest wall irradiation in women with 4 or more involved axillary nodes or primary tumour size=/> 5cm. The role of PMRT in women at intermediate risk' with 1-3 involved nodes or node negative with other risk factors is controversial. The absolute reduction in risk of loco-regional recurrence varies widely (3-23%) in trials of PMRT in women with 1-3 involved nodes receiving systemic therapy. A UK survey of clinical oncologists (Kunkler et al,The Breast 1999;8:235) showed wide variations in opinion on the use of radiotherapy in these subgroups. It is possible that while RT may confer most benefit in loco-regional control, a greater survival benefit might accrue in patients with smaller tumours and fewer involved nodes. The 2000 Oxford overview of randomised trials of postoperative RT identifies non breast cancer deaths from RT related vascular morbidity as counterbalancing the benefits of RT in reducing breast cancer mortality. With the more extensive use of potentially cardiotoxic anthracycline containing adjuvant systemic therapy there are concerns about greater cardiac morbidity in patients receiving PMRT in addition. A large randomised international trial (SUPREMO) is proposed to recruit 3500 patients with (a) 1-3 involved axillary nodes or (b) node negative with other risk factors (grade 3 or lymphovascular invasion) treated by mastectomy, axillary clearance and appropriate systemic therapy for T0-3,N0-1,MO breast cancer. The primary endpoint is overall survival. Secondary endpoints are disease free survival, quality of life, morbidity (including cardiac), cost per life year saved

  14. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer a ...

  15. Intermediate statistics in quantum maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, Olivier [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Marklof, Jens [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, Stephen [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-16

    We present a one-parameter family of quantum maps whose spectral statistics are of the same intermediate type as observed in polygonal quantum billiards. Our central result is the evaluation of the spectral two-point correlation form factor at small argument, which in turn yields the asymptotic level compressibility for macroscopic correlation lengths. (letter to the editor)

  16. Intermediality and the Child Performer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    This report details examples of praxis in the creation and presentation of "Joy Fear and Poetry": an intermedial theatre performance in which children aged 7-12 years generated aesthetic gestures using a range of new media forms. The impetus for the work's development was a desire to make an intervention into habituated patterns of…

  17. Material Voices: Intermediality and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimingham, Melissa; Shaughnessy, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Autism continues to be regarded enigmatically; a community that is difficult to access due to perceived disruptions of interpersonal connectedness. Through detailed observations of two children participating in the Arts and Humanities Research Council funded project "Imagining Autism: Drama, Performance and Intermediality as Interventions for…

  18. Classical model of intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniadakis, G.

    1994-01-01

    In this work we present a classical kinetic model of intermediate statistics. In the case of Brownian particles we show that the Fermi-Dirac (FD) and Bose-Einstein (BE) distributions can be obtained, just as the Maxwell-Boltzmann (MD) distribution, as steady states of a classical kinetic equation that intrinsically takes into account an exclusion-inclusion principle. In our model the intermediate statistics are obtained as steady states of a system of coupled nonlinear kinetic equations, where the coupling constants are the transmutational potentials η κκ' . We show that, besides the FD-BE intermediate statistics extensively studied from the quantum point of view, we can also study the MB-FD and MB-BE ones. Moreover, our model allows us to treat the three-state mixing FD-MB-BE intermediate statistics. For boson and fermion mixing in a D-dimensional space, we obtain a family of FD-BE intermediate statistics by varying the transmutational potential η BF . This family contains, as a particular case when η BF =0, the quantum statistics recently proposed by L. Wu, Z. Wu, and J. Sun [Phys. Lett. A 170, 280 (1992)]. When we consider the two-dimensional FD-BE statistics, we derive an analytic expression of the fraction of fermions. When the temperature T→∞, the system is composed by an equal number of bosons and fermions, regardless of the value of η BF . On the contrary, when T=0, η BF becomes important and, according to its value, the system can be completely bosonic or fermionic, or composed both by bosons and fermions

  19. Inducement of ferromagnetic-metallic phase in intermediate-doped charge-ordered Pr0.75Na0.25MnO3 manganite by K+ substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozilah, R.; Ibrahim, N.; Mohamed, Z.; Yahya, A. K.; Khan, Nawazish A.; Khan, M. Nasir

    2017-09-01

    Polycrystalline Pr0.75Na0.25-xKxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20) ceramics were prepared using conventional solid-state method and their structural, magnetic and electrical transport properties were investigated. Magnetization versus temperature measurements showed un-substituted sample exhibited paramagnetic behavior with charge-ordered temperature, TCO around 218 K followed by antiferromagnetic behavior at transition temperature, TN ∼ 170 K. K+-substitution initially weakened CO state for x = 0.05-0.10 then successfully suppressed the CO state for x = 0.15-0.20 and inducing ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition with Curie temperature, TC increased with x. In addition, deviation of the temperature dependence of inverse magnetic susceptibility curves from the Curie-Weiss law suggests the existence of Griffiths phase-like increased with x. Magnetization versus magnetic field curves show existence of hysteresis loops at T critical field. Electrical resistivity measurements showed an insulating behavior for x = 0 sample while for x = 0.05-0.20 samples showed metal-insulator transition and transition temperature, TMI increased with x. The increased in TC and TMI are attributed to the increase in tolerance factor which indicates reduction in MnO6 octahedral distortion consequently enhanced double exchange interaction.

  20. Correlated Default and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Phelan

    2015-01-01

    Financial intermediation naturally arises when knowledge about the aggregate state is valuable for managing investments and lenders cannot easily observe the aggregate state. I show this using a costly enforcement model in which lenders need ex-post incentives to enforce payments from defaulted loans and borrowers' payoffs are correlated. When projects have correlated outcomes, learning the state of one project (via enforcement) provides information about the states of other projects. A large...

  1. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Colleen A., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Firat, Selim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Scranton, PA (United States); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Kuettel, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Morton, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  2. MHD intermediate shock discontinuities: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, C.F.; Blandford, R.D.; Coppi, P.

    1989-01-01

    Recent numerical investigations have focused attention once more on the role of intermediate shocks in MHD. Four types of intermediate shock are identified using a graphical representation of the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot conditions. This same representation can be used to exhibit the close relationship of intermediate shocks to switch-on shocks and rotational discontinuities. The conditions under which intermediate discontinuities can be found are elucidated. The variations in velocity, pressure, entropy and magnetic-field jumps with upstream parameters in intermediate shocks are exhibited graphically. The evolutionary arguments traditionally advanced against intermediate shocks may fail because the equations of classical MHD are not strictly hyperbolic. (author)

  3. Commercialising university inventions for sustainability : A case study of (non-)intermediating 'cleantech' at Aalto University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kivimaa, Paula; Boon, Wouter; Antikainen, Riina

    2017-01-01

    The challenge to transform towards more sustainable societies requires action on multiple levels, including commercialisation of inventions created in universities. We examine intermediation in the pre-commercialisation phase of cleantech inventions developed at Aalto University, Finland, focusing

  4. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  5. Mechanisms of deterioration of intermediate moisture food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A study of shelf stability in intermediate moisture foods was made. Major efforts were made to control lipid oxidation and nonenzymatic browning. In order to determine means of preventing these reactions, model systems were developed having the same water activity content relationship of intermediate moisture foods. Models were based on a cellulose-lipid and protein-lipid system with glycerol added as the humectant. Experiments with both systems indicate that lipid oxidation is promoted significantly in the intermediate moisture range. The effect appeared to be related to increased mobility of either reactants or catalysts, since when the amount of water in the system reached a level where capillary condensation occurred and thus free water was present, the rates of oxidation increased. With added glycerol, which is water soluble and thus increases the amount of mobile phase, the increase in oxidation rate occurs at a lower relative humidity. The rates of oxidation were maximized at 61% RH and decreased again at 75% RH probably due to dilution. No significant non-enzymatic browning occurred in the protein-lipid systems. Prevention of oxidation by the use of metal chelating agents was enhanced in the cellulose system, whereas, with protein present, the lipid soluble chain terminating antioxidants (such as BHA) worked equally as well. Preliminary studies of foods adjusted to the intermediate moisture range bear out the results of oxidation in model systems. It can be concluded that for most fat containing intermediate moisture foods, rancidity will be the reaction most limiting stability.

  6. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  7. Photonuclear reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The dominant feature of photonuclear reactions at intermediate energies is the excitation of the δ resonance and one can therefore use such reactions to study the dynamics of δ propagation in a nucleus. Following an introductory section the author comments on photoabsorption on a single nucleon in Section II. A review of the δ-n Greens function and of the photonuclear amplitude is given in Section III. Results for photoabsorption on 4 He are shown in Section IV and compared with the data. Coherent π 0 photoproduction is discussed in Section V and calculations for 12 C are compared to recent measurements. (Auth.)

  8. Pelamis WEC - intermediate scale demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yemm, R.

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the successful building and commissioning of an intermediate 1/7th scale model of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and its testing in the wave climate of the Firth of Forth. Details are given of the design of the semi-submerged articulated structure of cylindrical elements linked by hinged joints. The specific programme objectives and conclusions, development issues addressed, and key remaining risks are discussed along with development milestones to be passed before the Pelamis WEC is ready for full-scale prototype testing.

  9. Intermediality: Bridge to Critical Media Literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailliotet, Ann Watts; Semali, Ladislaus; Rodenberg, Rita K.; Giles, Jackie K.; Macaul, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Defines "intermediality" as the ability to critically read and write with and across varied symbol systems. Relates it to critical media literacy. Offers rationales for teaching critical media literacy in general, and intermedial instruction in particular. Identifies seven guiding intermedial elements: theory, texts, processes, contexts,…

  10. Post-crisis financial intermediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie MIHAI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis that begun in 2007 in the US, which then swept around the world, has left deep scars on the already wrinkled face of the global economy. Some national and regional economies, which had money for expensive makeup, or created money[1], managed to blur or hide the scars left by the crisis, others are still facing difficulties in overcoming the effects of this. The rapacity of banks, their greed and risk ignorance, were the origin of the outbreak of the last major economic and financial crisis but unfortunately those who were responsible or, rather, irresponsible, paid little or nothing at all for the burden of their bad loan portfolio. This cost has been supported by the population, either directly by paying high interest and fees [Mihai I., 2007], or indirectly, through the use of public budgets to cover the losses of banks, most of which had private capital. In this context, we intend to examine the state of financial intermediation in Romania in the post-crisis period, and to primarily follow: (i The structure and evolution of the banking system; (ii Non-government credit situation; (iii The level of savings; (iiii Loan-deposit ratio; (v The degree of financial intermediation and disintegration phenomenon etc., and to articulate some conclusions and suggestions on the matters that have been explored.

  11. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Coleman; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (M~3 20 M⊙), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (M~106 1010 M⊙), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with M~102 104 M⊙. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work that will help clarify numerous outstanding questions about these objects.

  12. Magnetic re-entrance in intermediate valence compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allub, R.; Machiavelli, O.; Balseiro, C.; Alascio, B.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility is explored of magnetic re-entrance in intermediate valence compounds. Using a simplified Anderson-Lattice model the pressure-temperature magnetic phase diagram is obtained. This diagram shows that for some value of the microscopic parameters the temperature induced two transitions (non-magnetic to magnetically ordered to paramagnetic). The magnetization and the average occupation number of the localized state are calculated. Estimations of the observability of the effect in systems like CeAl 2 are made. (author)

  13. Critical Intermediate Structure That Directs the Crystalline Texture and Surface Morphology of Organo-Lead Trihalide Perovskite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Hao-Chung; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hsiao, Yu-Yun; Li, Shao-Sian; Lan, Yi-Kang; Lin, Chung-Yao; Chang, Je-Wei; Kuo, Yen-Chien; Chen, Chia-Hao; Weng, Shih-Chang; Su, Chun-Jen; Su, An-Chung; Chen, Chun-Wei; Jeng, U-Ser

    2017-10-25

    We have identified an often observed yet unresolved intermediate structure in a popular processing with dimethylformamide solutions of lead chloride and methylammonium iodide for perovskite solar cells. With subsecond time-resolved grazing-incidence X-ray scattering and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, supplemental with ab initio calculation, the resolved intermediate structure (CH 3 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 2 Cl 2 ·CH 3 NH 3 I features two-dimensional (2D) perovskite bilayers of zigzagged lead-halide octahedra and sandwiched CH 3 NH 3 I layers. Such intermediate structure reveals a hidden correlation between the intermediate phase and the composition of the processing solution. Most importantly, the 2D perovskite lattice of the intermediate phase is largely crystallographically aligned with the [110] planes of the three-dimensional perovskite cubic phase; consequently, with sublimation of Cl ions from the organo-lead octahedral terminal corners in prolonged annealing, the zigzagged octahedral layers of the intermediate phase can merge with the intercalated methylammonium iodide layers for templated growth of perovskite crystals. Regulated by annealing temperature and the activation energies of the intermediate and perovskite, deduced from analysis of temperature-dependent structural kinetics, the intermediate phase is found to selectively mature first and then melt along the layering direction for epitaxial conversion into perovskite crystals. The unveiled epitaxial conversion under growth kinetics controls might be general for solution-processed and intermediate-templated perovskite formation.

  14. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  15. Determination of the vildagliptin intermediate enantiomer by chiralce-columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weina LI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish a NP-HPLC method for the determination of enantiomer in vildagliptin intermediate, the determination is carried out on the column of ChiralpakAD-H(250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm, with the mobile phase of n-hexane, ethanol and methanol(volume ratio of 65∶25∶10)at flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. The sample volume is 10 μL, the wavelength is 210 nm and the column temperature is 35 ℃. The result shows that the vildagliptin intermediate and its enantiomer could be well separated and detected effectively; blank solvent doesn't interfere with the enantiomer assaying; the detection limit is 27 ng/mL and the quantification limit is 81 ng/mL; in repetitive test, the RSD of enantiomer assaying of samples are no more than 2.0%; in stability test, the RSD are no more than 2.0% in 12 h; the vildagliptin intermediate and its enantiomer could be well separated in the test of durability with all RSDs below 2.0%. The method is simple, reliable, accurate and durable, and can be used for determination of enantiomer in vildagliptin intermediate.

  16. FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium model of financial intermediation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. In this model, the role of financial intermediation is to pool savings and to lend the pooled funds to an entrepreneur, who in turn invests the funds in a new production technology. The adoption of the new production technology improves individual real income. Thus financial intermediation promotes economic growth through affecting individuals’ saving behaviour and enabl...

  17. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  18. A class of P,T-invariant topological phases of interacting electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Michael; Nayak, Chetan; Shtengel, Kirill; Walker, Kevin; Wang Zhenghan

    2004-01-01

    We describe a class of parity- and time-reversal-invariant topological states of matter which can arise in correlated electron systems in 2+1-dimensions. These states are characterized by particle-like excitations exhibiting exotic braiding statistics. P and T invariance are maintained by a 'doubling' of the low-energy degrees of freedom which occurs naturally without doubling the underlying microscopic degrees of freedom. The simplest examples have been the subject of considerable interest as proposed mechanisms for high-T c superconductivity. One is the 'doubled' version of the chiral spin liquid. The chiral spin liquid gives rise to anyon superconductivity at finite doping and the corresponding field theory is U(1) Chern-Simons theory at coupling constant m=2. The 'doubled' theory is two copies of this theory, one with m=2 the other with m=-2. The second example corresponds to Z 2 gauge theory, which describes a scenario for spin-charge separation. Our main concern, with an eye towards applications to quantum computation, are richer models which support non-Abelian statistics. All of these models, richer or poorer, lie in a tightly organized discrete family indexed by the Baraha numbers, 2cos(π/(k+2)), for positive integer k. The physical inference is that a material manifesting the Z 2 gauge theory or a doubled chiral spin liquid might be easily altered to one capable of universal quantum computation. These phases of matter have a field-theoretic description in terms of gauge theories which, in their infrared limits, are topological field theories. We motivate these gauge theories using a parton model or slave-fermion construction and show how they can be solved exactly. The structure of the resulting Hilbert spaces can be understood in purely combinatorial terms. The highly constrained nature of this combinatorial construction, phrased in the language of the topology of curves on surfaces, lays the groundwork for a strategy for constructing microscopic

  19. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-01-01

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers

  20. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  1. Ultrasonic attenuation in the superconducting and intermediate states of pure and doped type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, K.D.; Singh, R.

    1982-01-01

    The attenuation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been measured in single crystals of indium (99.999%), indium doped with 0.003 at % of tin, and indium doped with 0.002 at % of bismuth in the intermediate and superconducting states over the frequency range 10--30 MHz. For the bismuth-doped indium specimen, measurements were taken for three different physical states, i.e., for three different dislocation densities, and for the indium and the tin-doped indium specimens, measurements were for one-physical state. For a particular measurement, the same physical state was maintained both in the intermediate and superconducting states. A temperature-dependent oscillatory behavior of the ultrasonic attenuation was observed in the intermediate state in all the three specimens, but in the superconducting state the oscillatory behavior was observed only in the bismuth-doped specimen. Two phases have been identified in the superconducting layers of the intermediate state and there is only one phase in the superconducting state of the bismuth-doped sample. The origin of the two phases in the intermediate state and that of the single phase in the superconducting state of the bismuth-doped sample are discussed. A qualitative explanation is presented for the occurrence of oscillatory attenuation in the intermediate state irrespective of the nature of the dopant and the selective occurrence of oscillatory attenuation in the superconducting state due to the nature of the dopant

  2. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  3. Using Peephole Optimization on Intermediate Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; van Staveren, H.; Stevenson, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many portable compilers generate an intermediate code that is subsequently translated into the target machine's assembly language. In this paper a stack-machine-based intermediate code suitable for algebraic languages (e.g., PASCAL, C, FORTRAN) and most byte-addressed mini- and microcomputers is

  4. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  5. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  6. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  7. Pair production of intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikaelian, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    The production of intermediate vector boson pairs W + W - , Z 0 Z 0 , W +- Z 0 and W +- γ in pp and p anti p collisions is discussed. The motivation is to detect the self-interactions among the four intermediate vector bosons

  8. Electron-atom scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1982-01-01

    The problems of intermediate energy scattering are approached from the low and high energy ends. At low intermediate energies difficulties associated with the use of pseudostates and correlation terms are discussed, special consideration being given to nonphysical pseudoresonances. Perturbation methods appropriate to high intermediate energies are described and attempts to extend these high energy approximations down to low intermediate energies are studied. It is shown how the importance of electron exchange effects develops with decreasing energy. The problem of assessing the 'effective completeness' of pseudostate sets at intermediate energies is mentioned and an instructive analysis of a 2p pseudostate approximation to elastic e - -H scattering is given. It is suggested that at low energies the Pauli Exclusion Principle can act to hide short range defects in pseudostate approximations. (author)

  9. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  10. Intermediate Syndrome Following Organophosphate Insecticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chang Yang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate insecticide poisoning can manifest 3 different phases of toxic effects, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS, and delayed neuropathy. Among them, IMS has been considered as a major contributing factor of organophosphate-related morbidity and mortality because of its frequent occurrence and probable consequence of respiratory failure. Despite a high incidence, the pathophysiology that underlies IMS remains unclear. Previously proposed mechanisms of IMS include different susceptibility of various cholinergic receptors, muscle necrosis, prolonged acetylcholinesterase inhibition, inadequate oxime therapy, downregulation or desensitization of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors, failure of postsynaptic acetylcholine release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy. The clinical manifestations of IMS typically occur within 24 to 96 hours, affecting conscious patients without cholinergic signs, and involve the muscles of respiration, proximal limb muscles, neck flexors, and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves. With appropriate therapy that commonly includes artificial respiration, complete recovery develops 5–18 days later. Patients with atypical manifestations of IMS, especially a relapse or a continuum of acute cholinergic crisis, however, were frequently reported in clinical studies of IMS. The treatment of IMS is mainly supportive. Nevertheless, because IMS generally concurs with severe organophosphate toxicity and persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, early aggressive decontamination, appropriate antidotal therapy, and prompt institution of ventilatory support should be helpful in ameliorating the magnitude and/or the incidence of IMS. Although IMS is well recognized as a disorder of neuromuscular junctions, its exact etiology, incidence, and risk factors are not clearly defined because existing studies are largely small-scale case series and do not employ a consistent and rigorous

  11. Intermediate filaments and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, P

    1995-01-01

    The biological role of intermediate filaments (IFs) of eukaryotic cells is still a matter of conjecture. On the basis of immunofluorescence and electron microscopic observations, they appear to play a cytoskeletal role in that they stabilize cellular structure and organize the distribution and interactions of intracellular organelles and components. The expression of a large number of cell type-specific and developmentally regulated subunit proteins is believed to provide multicellular organisms with different IF systems capable of differential interactions with the various substructures and components of their multiple, differentiated cells. However, the destruction of distinct IF systems by manipulation of cultured cells or by knock-out mutation of IF subunit proteins in transgenic mice exerts relatively little influence on cellular morphology and physiology and on development of mutant animals. In order to rationalize this dilemma, the cytoskeletal concept of IF function has been extended to purport that cytoplasmic (c) IFs and their subunit proteins also play fundamental roles in gene regulation. It is based on the in vitro capacity of cIF(protein)s to interact with guanine-rich, single-stranded DNA, supercoiled DNA and histones, as well as on their close structural relatedness to gene-regulatory DNA-binding and nuclear matrix proteins. Since cIF proteins do not possess classical nuclear localization signals, it is proposed that cIFs directly penetrate the double nuclear membrane, exploiting the amphiphilic, membrane-active character of their subunit proteins. Since they can establish metastable multisite contacts with nuclear matrix structures and/or chromatin areas containing highly repetitive DNA sequence elements at the nuclear periphery, they are supposed to participate in chromosome distribution and chromatin organization in interphase nuclei of differentiated cells. Owing to their different DNA-binding specificities, the various cIF systems may in this

  12. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  13. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  14. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  15. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  16. Simplifying biochemical models with intermediate species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    techniques, we study systematically the effects of intermediate, or transient, species in biochemical systems and provide a simple, yet rigorous mathematical classification of all models obtained from a core model by including intermediates. Main examples include enzymatic and post-translational modification...... systems, where intermediates often are considered insignificant and neglected in a model, or they are not included because we are unaware of their existence. All possible models obtained from the core model are classified into a finite number of classes. Each class is defined by a mathematically simple...... canonical model that characterizes crucial dynamical properties, such as mono- and multistationarity and stability of steady states, of all models in the class. We show that if the core model does not have conservation laws, then the introduction of intermediates does not change the steady...

  17. On intermediate structures in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, I.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptions of the nuclear reaction theory are reinvestigated on the basis of the continuum shell model. The correlation of the resonance states via the continuum can lead to intermediate structures in the cross section. (Auth.)

  18. Landau levels of Majorana fermions in a spin liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachel, Stephan; Fritz, Lars; Vojta, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Majorana fermions were originally proposed as elementary particles acting as their own antiparticles. In recent years, it has become clear that Majorana fermions can instead be realized in condensed-matter systems as emergent quasiparticles, a situation often accompanied by topological order. Here

  19. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  20. Has Banks’ Financial Intermediation Improved in Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Fungachova, Z.; Solanko, L.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the increasing importance of banks in the Russian economy over the period following the financial crisis of 1998. We use several measures to assess the role of banks in domestic financial intermediation in Russia. The traditional macro-level view is complemented by the analysis of sectoral financial flows as well as by insights from micro-level studies. All of these confirm that banks are becoming increasingly important in financial intermediation. We find ...

  1. Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.

  2. Associations of Systemic Diseases with Intermediate Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.

  3. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters

  4. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  5. Macroscopic/microscopic simulation of nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-01-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. The model simulates events for reactions close to the fusion barrier (5-10 MeV/A) up to higher energy (100 MeV/A) and it gives access to the phase-space explored during the collision. The development of HIPSE has been largely influenced by experimental observations. We have separated the reaction into 4 steps: contact, fragment formation, chemical freeze-out, and in-flight deexcitation. HIPSE will be useful for a study of various mechanisms such as neck fragmentation or multi-fragmentation

  6. Electron spin resonance modes in a strong-leg ladder in the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerov, M.; Maksymenko, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Honecker, A.; Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M. M.; Furuya, S. C.; Giamarchi, T.; Zvyagin, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic excitations in the strong-leg quantum spin ladder compound (C7H10N) 2CuBr4 (known as DIMPY) in the field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger spin-liquid phase are studied by means of high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The presence of a gapped ESR mode with unusual nonlinear frequency-field dependence is revealed experimentally. Using a combination of analytic and exact-diagonalization methods, we compute the dynamical structure factor and identify this mode with longitudinal excitations in the antisymmetric channel. We argue that these excitations constitute a fingerprint of the spin dynamics in a strong-leg spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder and owe their ESR observability to the uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction.

  7. Effects of intermediate load on performance limitations in excitation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichai Aree

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability of excitation control systems is of great concern in power system operations. In this paper, the effects of intermediate load on performance limitation in excitation control are studied. The results reveal that the open-loop characteristic of synchronous machine’s flux linkage can be changed from minimum to non-minimum phase at a high level of intermediate load. This change leads to instability of synchronous machines under manual excitation control. A particular emphasis is also given to investigate the fundamental limitations in excitation control, imposed by non-minimum phases with regard to the open-loop right-half-plane (ORHP pole. The study demonstrates the difficulties of excitation control tuning to achieve the desired performance and robustness under the ORHP pole occurrence. Moreover, this paper shows the conditional stability in excitation control loop, where either an increase or decrease of the exciter gain causes a destabilization of the system’s stability. Frequency response techniques are used for these investigations.

  8. Criegee Intermediates: What Direct Production and Detection Can Teach Us About Reactions of Carbonyl Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taatjes, Craig A.

    2017-05-01

    The carbonyl oxide intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, often known as Criegee intermediates, are potentially important reactants in Earth's atmosphere. For decades, careful analysis of ozonolysis systems was employed to derive an understanding of the formation and reactions of these species. Recently it has proved possible to synthesize at least some of these intermediates separately from ozonolysis, and hence to measure their reaction kinetics directly. Direct measurements have allowed new or more detailed understanding of each type of gas-phase reaction that carbonyl oxides undergo, often acting as a complement to highly detailed ozonolysis experiments. Moreover, the use of direct characterization methods to validate increasingly accurate theoretical investigations can enhance their impact well beyond the set of specific reactions that have been measured. Reactions that initiate particles or fuel their growth could be a new frontier for direct measurements of Criegee intermediate chemistry.

  9. Effect of Intermediate Annealing on Microstructure and Property of 5182 Aluminum Alloy Sheet for Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Yu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of intermediate annealing on the microstructure and properties of 5182 aluminum alloy sheet with full annealed state (5182-O was investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope and universal testing machine. The results indicate that compared with 5182-O sheet without intermediate annealing, 5182-O sheet with intermediate annealing possesses too fine grain size, intermetallic compounds not broken enough, larger size intermetallic particles, less dispersed phase. Yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, work hardening exponent and normal anisotropy of plastic strain ratio decrease but planner anisotropy of plastic strain ratio increases. The mechanical properties and forming ability of 5182-O aluminum alloy sheet and its microstructure are not improved significantly after intermediate annealing.

  10. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  11. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  12. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  13. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  14. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...... and on the heterogeneous information that is generated through dissimilar markets within the region. Our study opens up for an interesting discussion of the independence of these mechanisms. In sum, we contribute to the understanding of the entrepreneurial role of intermediate units in general and RHQs in particular....

  15. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium correspond......This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...

  16. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  17. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  18. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  19. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  20. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of

  1. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharge...

  2. Financial intermediation with credit constrained agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2007), s. 741-759 ISSN 0164-0704 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial intermediation * occupational choice * general equilibrium Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2007

  3. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  4. Essays in financial intermediation and political economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Mancy

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in financial intermediation and political economy. The first chapter studies how investors’ preference for local stocks affects global mutual funds’ investment behaviors, and shows that mutual funds overweight stocks from their client countries (i.e., where

  5. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  6. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    networks without breaking known necessary or sufficient conditions for persistence, by iteratively removing socalled intermediates and catalysts from the network. The procedures are easy to apply and, in many cases, lead to highly simplified network structures, such as monomolecular networks. For specific...

  7. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical conditions...

  8. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  9. C and C* among intermediate rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, J.; Watson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Given a completely regular Hausdorff space X, an intermediate ring A(X) is a ring of real valued continuous functions between C*(X) and C(X). We discuss two correspondences between ideals in A(X) and z-filters on X, both reviewing old results and introducing new results. One correspondence, ZA,

  10. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    This paper attempts to answer how external environmental factors affect intermediating firms within the maritime industry - the middlemen that plays a very important role in the sector. The category encompasses firms such as liner and port agencies, freight forwarders and shipbrokers, who link sh...

  11. The use of intermediate endpoints in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krischer, Jeffrey P

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a rationale for the selection of intermediate endpoints to be used in the design of type 1 diabetes prevention clinical trials. Relatives of individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes were enrolled on the TrialNet Natural History Study and screened for diabetes-related autoantibodies. Those with two or more such autoantibodies were analysed with respect to increased HbA1c, decreased C-peptide following an OGTT, or abnormal OGTT values as intermediate markers of disease progression. Over 2 years, a 10% increase in HbA1c, and a 20% or 30% decrease in C-peptide from baseline, or progression to abnormal OGTT, occurred with a frequency between 20% and 41%. The 3- to 5-year risk of type 1 diabetes following each intermediate endpoint was high, namely 47% to 84%. The lower the incidence of the endpoint being reached, the higher the risk of diabetes. A diabetes prevention trial using these intermediate endpoints would require a 30% to 50% smaller sample size than one using type 1 diabetes as the endpoint. The use of an intermediate endpoint in diabetes prevention is based on the generally held view of disease progression from initial occurrence of autoantibodies through successive immunological and metabolic changes to manifest type 1 diabetes. Thus, these markers are suitable for randomised phase 2 trials, which can more rapidly screen promising new therapies, allowing them to be subsequently confirmed in definitive phase 3 trials.

  12. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy of intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin: The bK(590) intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terner, J; Hsieh, C L; Burns, A R; El-Sayed, M A

    1979-07-01

    We have combined microbeam and flow techniques with computer subtraction methods to obtain the resonance Raman spectrum of the short lived batho-intermediate (bK(590)) of bacteriorhodopsin. Comparison of the spectra obtained in (1)H(2)O and (2)H(2)O, as well as the fact that the bK(590) intermediate shows large optical red shifts, suggests that the Schiff base linkage of this intermediate is protonated. The fingerprint region of the spectrum of bK(590), sensitive to the isomeric configuration of the retinal chromophore, does not resemble the corresponding region of the parent bR(570) form. The resonance Raman spectrum of bK(590) as well as the spectra of all of the other main intermediates in the photoreaction cycle of bacteriorhodopsin are discussed and compared with resonance Raman spectra of published model compounds.

  13. Exotic spin phases in the one-dimensional spin-1/2 quantum magnet LiCuSbO{sub 4} as seen by high-field NMR and ESR spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iakovleva, Margarita [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Zavoisky Physical Technical Institute, Kazan (Russian Federation); Grafe, Hans-Joachim; Kataev, Vladislav; Alfonsov, Alexey; Sturza, Mihai I.; Wurmehl, Sabine [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Vavilova, Evgeniia [Zavoisky Physical Technical Institute, Kazan (Russian Federation); Nojiri, Hiroyuki [Institute of Materials Research, Sendai (Japan); Buechner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We will present our recent results of high-field NMR and sub-THz ESR studies of the quantum magnet LiCuSbO{sub 4} (LCSO) that presents an excellent model system of a one-dimensional spin-1/2 quantum magnet with frustrated exchange interactions. Such networks are predicted to exhibit a plethora of novel ground states beyond classical ferro- or antiferromagnetic phases. In LCSO the absence of a long-range magnetic order down to sub-Kelvin temperatures is suggestive of the realization of a quantum spin liquid state. Our NMR and ESR measurements in strong magnetic fields up to 16 Tesla reveal clear indications for the occurrence of an exotic field-induced hidden phase which we will discuss in terms of multipolar physics.

  14. Metal Phosphates as Intermediate Temperature Proton Conducting Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Li, Q.F.; Pan, Chao

    2012-01-01

    A series of metal phosphates were synthesized and screened as potential proton conductor electrolytes for fuel cells and electrolysers operational at intermediate temperatures. Among the selected, niobium and bismuth phosphates exhibited a proton conductivity of 10-2 and 10-7 S cm-1, respectively......, under the anhydrous atmosphere at 250 °C, showing close correlation with the presence of hydroxyl groups in the phosphate phases. At the water partial pressure of above 0.6 atm, both phosphates possessed a proton conductivity to a level of above 3 x 10-2 S cm-1. Reasonable stability of the proton...... conductivity was observed under either a constant low water partial pressure or under a humidity cycling test within a period of more than 80 hours....

  15. Hipse: an event generator for nuclear collisions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Van Lauwe, A.; Durand, D.

    2003-11-01

    An event generator, HIPSE (Heavy-Ion Phase-Space Exploration), dedicated to the description of nuclear collisions in the intermediate energy range is presented. Based on the sudden approximation and on geometrical hypothesis, it can conveniently simulate heavy-ion interactions at all impact parameters and thus can constitute a valuable tool for the understanding of processes such as neck emission or multifragmentation in peripheral or/and central collisions. After a detailed description of the ingredients of the model, first comparisons with experimental data collected by the INDRA collaboration are shown. Special emphasis is put on the kinematical characteristics of fragments and light particles observed at all impact parameters for Xe+Sn reactions at 25 and 50 MeV/u and Ni + Ni at 82 MeV/u. (authors)

  16. Effect of intermediate soil cover on municipal solid waste decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Benavides, L; Watson-Craik, I

    2003-01-01

    A complex series of chemical and microbiological reactions is initiated with the burial of refuse in a sanitary landfill. At the end of each labour day, the municipal solid wastes (MSW) are covered with native soil (or an alternative material). To investigate interaction between the intermediate cover and the MSW, five sets of columns were set up, one packed with refuse only, and four with a soil-refuse mixture (a clay loam, an organic-rich peaty soil, a well limed sandy soil and a chalky soil). The anaerobic degradation over 6 months was followed in terms of leachate volatile fatty acids, chemical oxygen demand, pH and ammoniacal-N performance. Results suggest that the organic-rich peaty soil may accelerate the end of the acidogenic phase. Clay appeared not to have a significant effect on the anaerobic degradation process.

  17. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs

  18. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  19. Proton nucleus elastic scattering at 800 MeV: the role of intermediate isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, J.P.; Maillet, J.P.; Lazard, C.; Lombard, R.J.

    1984-10-01

    Proton nucleus elastic scattering at 800 MeV has been calculated in the Glauber model for 16 O, 40 Ca, 48 Ca and 208 Pb. Nuclear densities are taken from Hartree-Fock-BCS calculations. For the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes, use is made of two recent phase shift analysis. The effects of intermediate isobars are included by means of a simple model. The results show that the experimental data are qualitatively understood. The polarization turns out to be quite sensitive to the intermediate isobar effects, which consequently need to be calculated more carefully

  20. Bioorthogonal Cycloadditions with Sub-Millisecond Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yujia; Pulcu, Gökçe Su; Bell, Nicholas A W; Bayley, Hagan

    2018-01-26

    Tetrazine- and sydnone-based click reactions have emerged as important bioconjugation strategies with fast kinetics and N 2 or CO 2 as the only byproduct. Mechanistic studies of these reactions have focused on the initial rate-determining cycloaddition steps. The subsequent N 2 or CO 2 release from the bicyclic intermediates has been approached mainly through computational studies, which have predicted lifetimes of femtoseconds. In the present study, bioorthogonal cycloadditions involving N 2 or CO 2 extrusion have been examined experimentally at the single-molecule level by using a protein nanoreactor. At the resolution of this approach, the reactions appeared to occur in a single step, which places an upper limit on the lifetimes of the intermediates of about 80 μs, which is consistent with the computational work. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.

  2. Carbon monosulfide: a useful synthetic intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The physical properties of carbon monosulfide, CS, are well documented. The molecule has been observed in interstellar space and is found to be a common intermediate in the thermal decomposition of carbon disulfide and other sulfur compounds. Interestingly enough, the chemistry of carbon monosulfide, a molecule that is isovalent with carbon monoxide, has received little attention. The explosive nature of the carbon monosulfide monomer, which hindered previous workers, was overcome by the development of special handling techniques. The ability to produce carbon monosulfide in gram quantities had lead to synthesis of novel compounds and to a more direct synthetic route for certain known compounds. Specifically, the following general reaction demonstrates the capabilities of carbon monosulfide on the synthetic scale. CS + RXY → RXC(S)Y;(X = N,S), (Y = H, Cl). Note: The initial product formed in the reaction can be an unstable intermediate

  3. Quantum computational capability of a 2D valence bond solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, Akimasa

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Our model is the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet. → Universal quantum computation is processed by measurements of quantum correlations. → An intrinsic complexity of strongly-correlated quantum systems could be a resource. - Abstract: Quantum phases of naturally-occurring systems exhibit distinctive collective phenomena as manifestation of their many-body correlations, in contrast to our persistent technological challenge to engineer at will such strong correlations artificially. Here we show theoretically that quantum correlations exhibited in the 2D valence bond solid phase of a quantum antiferromagnet, modeled by Affleck, Kennedy, Lieb, and Tasaki (AKLT) as a precursor of spin liquids and topological orders, are sufficiently complex yet structured enough to simulate universal quantum computation when every single spin can be measured individually. This unveils that an intrinsic complexity of naturally-occurring 2D quantum systems-which has been a long-standing challenge for traditional computers-could be tamed as a computationally valuable resource, even if we are limited not to create newly entanglement during computation. Our constructive protocol leverages a novel way to herald the correlations suitable for deterministic quantum computation through a random sampling, and may be extensible to other ground states of various 2D valence bond phases beyond the AKLT state.

  4. The adolescent and his experience during the intermediate stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophía González Zúñiga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Adolescence is considered a vulnerable stage on all people’s life. Within the health system, this population is characterized by a low coverage exclusively aimed at finding the problems, which requires more specialization. This article aims to present the situational diagnosis of a group of teenagers in the intermediate stage in order to further develop a program of Pediatric Nursing care for the adolescent in the intermediate stage, in an institution of secondary education for the years 2013-2014.Method. The implemented methodology is qualitative with a constructivist epistemological approach; triangulating the information gathered performed data analysis.Results. Among the main findings of the diagnostic phase was obtained teenagers prioritized issues such as the phenomenon of drugs and situations related to sexuality; also describe their experience along this stage of life, the changes that occurred, and interaction with peers and family, information necessary for a pediatric nurse practitioner intervene appropriately. The main findings on the diagnose phase show that adolescents prioritized issues like drugs and situations related to sexuality. They also describe their experience through this life stage, all the changes occurred and the interaction with partners and family.Conclusion. The study reveals that it is essential to establish a first contact with the adolescent to identify all their needs in an integral form, and to give them the opportunity to propose possible solutions. Being continuously in contact stimulates the development of empathy in order to obtain a greater openness from the individual to the nurse-practitioner as an accompaniment figure throughout their adolescence.

  5. [Studies in intermediate energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes work carried out between October 1, 1992 and September 30, 1993 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder. The experimental program in intermediate-energy nuclear physics is very broadly based; it includes pion-nucleon and pion-nucleus studies at LAMPF and TRIUMF, kaon-nucleus scattering at the AGS, and equipment development for experiments at the next generation of accelerator facilities

  6. Far from the intermediate nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.; Wagner, G.J.; Gregoire, C.; Campi, X.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Platchkov, S.; Mayer, B.; Abgrall, Y.; Bohigas, O.; Grange, P.; Signarbieux, C.

    1988-01-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclear physics; the BCS state and quasi-particles; the layer model; collision effects on nuclear dynamics; the theory of cluster formation (application to nucleus fragmentation); short range correlations (few-particle systems); deuterium electron scattering; dibaryonic resonances; traditional and exotic hadron probes of nuclear structure; spectral fluctuations and chaotic motion; corrections to the intermediate nuclear field (nonrelativistic and other effects); and heavy nuclei splitting and nuclear superfluidity are introduced [fr

  7. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  8. UEP LT Codes with Intermediate Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Popovski, Petar; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a class of rateless codes, called Luby transform (LT) codes with unequal error protection (UEP). We show that while these codes successfully provide UEP, there is a significant price in terms of redundancy in the lower prioritized segments. We propose a modification with a single inter...... intermediate feedback message. Our analysis shows a dramatic improvement on the decoding performance of the lower prioritized segment....

  9. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  10. Reactivity of Criegee Intermediates toward Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hsiu; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim Jr-Min

    2018-01-04

    Recent theoretical work by Kumar and Francisco suggested that the high reactivity of Criegee intermediates (CIs) could be utilized for designing efficient carbon capture technologies. Because the anti-CH 3 CHOO + CO 2 reaction has the lowest barrier in their study, we chose to investigate it experimentally. We probed anti-CH 3 CHOO with its strong UV absorption at 365 nm and measured the rate coefficient to be ≤2 × 10 -17 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 at 298 K, which is consistent with our theoretical value of 2.1 × 10 -17 cm 3  molecule -1 s -1 at the QCISD(T)/CBS//B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p) level but inconsistent with their results obtained at the M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ level, which tends to underestimate the barrier heights. The experimental result indicates that the reaction of a Criegee intermediate with atmospheric CO 2 (400 ppmv) would be inefficient (k eff < 0.2 s -1 ) and cannot compete with other decay processes of Criegee intermediates like reactions with water vapor (∼10 3 s -1 ) or thermal decomposition (∼10 2 s -1 ).

  11. Mechanical behaviour of PWR fuel rods during intermediate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffioux, P.; Dalmas, R.; Bernaudat, C.

    2000-01-01

    EDF, which owns the irradiated fuel coming from its NPPs, has initiated studies regarding the mechanical behaviour of a fuel rod and the integrity of its cladding, in the case where the spent fuel is stored for a significant duration. During the phases following in-reactor irradiation (ageing in a water-pool, transport and intermediate storage), many phenomena, which are strongly coupled, may influence the cladding integrity: - residual power and temperature decay; - helium production and release in the free volume of the rod (especially for MOX fuel); - fuel column swelling; - cladding creep-out under the inner gas pressure of the fuel rod; - metallurgical changes due to high temperatures during transportation. In parallel, the quantification of the radiological risk is based on the definition of a cladding integrity criterion. Up to now, this criterion requires that the clad hoop strain due to creep-out does not exceed 1%. A more accurate criterion is being investigated. The study and modelling of all the phenomena mentioned above are included in a R and D programme. This programme also aims at redefining the cladding integrity criterion, which is assumed to be too conservative. The R and D programme will be presented. In order to predict the overall behaviour of the rod during the intermediate storage phases, the AVACYC code has been developed. It includes the models developed in the R and D programme. The input data of the AVACYC code are provided by the results of in-reactor rod behaviour simulations, using the thermal-mechanical CYRANO3 code. Its main results are the evolution vs. time of hoop stresses in the cladding, rod internal pressure and cladding hoop strains. Chained CYRANO-AVACYC calculations have been used to simulate the behaviour of MOX fuel rods irradiated up to 40 GWd/t and stored under air during 100 years, or under water during 50 years. For such fuels, where the residual power remains high, we show that a large part of the cladding strain

  12. A new intermediate for the production of flexible stable polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Method of incorporating ether linkages into perfluoroalkylene segment of a dianydride intermediate yields intermediate that may be used in synthesis of flexible, stable polyimides for use as high-temperature, solvent-resistant sealants.

  13. Turbulence, aeration and bubble features of air-water flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Pagliara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Free surface flows in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions have a high aeration potential causing the flow characteristics to vary with slopes and discharges. The underlying mechanism of two-phase flow characteristics in macro- and intermediate roughness conditions were analyzed in an experimental setup assembled at the Laboratory of Hydraulic Protection of the Territory (PITLAB of the University of Pisa, Italy. Crushed angular rocks and hemispherical boulders were used to intensify the roughness of the bed. Flow rates per unit width ranging between 0.03 m2/s and 0.09 m2/s and slopes between 0.26 and 0.46 were tested over different arrangements of a rough bed. Analyses were mainly carried out in the inner flow region, which consists of both bubbly and intermediate flow regions. The findings revealed that the two-phase flow properties over the rough bed were much affected by rough bed arrangements. Turbulence features of two-phase flows over the rough bed were compared with those of the stepped chute data under similar flow conditions. Overall, the results highlight the flow features in the inner layers of the two-phase flow, showing that the maximum turbulence intensity decreases with the relative submergence, while the bubble frequency distribution is affected by the rough bed elements.

  14. Exploring the chemical kinetics of partially oxidized intermediates by combining experiments, theory, and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Olzmann, Matthias; Welz, Oliver; Zeuch, Thomas

    2017-07-19

    Partially oxidized intermediates play a central role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this perspective, we focus on the chemical kinetics of alkoxy radicals, peroxy radicals, and Criegee intermediates, which are key species in both combustion and atmospheric environments. These reactive intermediates feature a broad spectrum of chemical diversity. Their reactivity is central to our understanding of how volatile organic compounds are degraded in the atmosphere and converted into secondary organic aerosol. Moreover, they sensitively determine ignition timing in internal combustion engines. The intention of this perspective article is to provide the reader with information about the general mechanisms of reactions initiated by addition of atomic and molecular oxygen to alkyl radicals and ozone to alkenes. We will focus on critical branching points in the subsequent reaction mechanisms and discuss them from a consistent point of view. As a first example of our integrated approach, we will show how experiment, theory, and kinetic modeling have been successfully combined in the first infrared detection of Criegee intermediates during the gas phase ozonolysis. As a second example, we will examine the ignition timing of n-heptane/air mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures. Here, we present a reduced, fuel size independent kinetic model of the complex chemistry initiated by peroxy radicals that has been successfully applied to simulate standard n-heptane combustion experiments.

  15. Neutrino-nucleus collision at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Oset, E.

    1999-01-01

    Neutrino-nucleus reactions at low and intermediate energy up to E ν = 500 MeV are studied for the most interesting nuclei from an experimental point of view. We focus on neutrino-nucleus cross-sections of semi-inclusive processes, for which recent measurements from radiochemical experiments at LAMPF and KARMEN laboratories are available. The method employed uses the modified Lindhard function for the description of the particle-hole excitations of the final nucleus via a local density approximation. (authors)

  16. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  17. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  18. LMFBR intermediate-heat-exchanger experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Beaver, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents developmental and operating experience of large Intermediate Heat Exchangers (IHX's) in US from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) to the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) to the Large Development Plant (LDP). Design commonalities and deviations among these IHX's are synopsized. Various developmental tests that were conducted in the areas of hydraulic, structural and mechanical design are also presented. The FFTF is currently operating. Performance data of the FFTF IHXs are reviewed, and comparisons between actual and predicted performances are made. The results are used to assess the adequacy of IHX designs

  19. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  20. The aftermath of the intermediate value theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Claudio H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvability of nonlinear equations has awakened great interest among mathematicians for a number of centuries, perhaps as early as the Babylonian culture (3000–300 B.C.E.. However, we intend to bring to our attention that some of the problems studied nowadays appear to be amazingly related to the time of Bolzano's era (1781–1848. Indeed, this Czech mathematician or perhaps philosopher has rigorously proven what is known today as the intermediate value theorem, a result that is intimately related to various classical theorems that will be discussed throughout this work.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of particles with intermediate statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, G.S.; Sarkar, S.; Spal/ek, J.; Byczuk, K.

    1996-01-01

    Analytic expressions for the distribution function of an ideal gas of particles (exclusons) which have statistics intermediate between Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein are obtained for all values of the Haldane statistics parameter α element-of[0,1]. The analytic structure of the distribution function is investigated and found to have no singularities in the physical region when the parameter α lies in the range 0 V of the D-dimensional excluson gas. The low-temperature series for the thermodynamic properties illustrate the pseudofermion nature of exclusons. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  2. Geophysical Tests for Intermediate-Range Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    34Feeble intermediate-range Gravitation, 1989, 154. Topics: AG,T, A forces from higher dimensions", Physical Review 60. Bell J. S., Perring J. K., ൝r...M., 134 Bell J. S., 60, 61 Coleman R., 389 Beltran-Lopez V., 359 Cabibbo N., 64 Coleman R. A ., 135 Bender P. L., 540 Calafiura P., 106 Cook A . H...of Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz., Selen M. A ., Shoemaker F. C., Smith A . J. S., 1985,88, 1946-1949.] Topics: SD,E,+ Blackmore E. W., Bryman D. A ., Felawka L

  3. A complete quasar sample at intermediate redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiani, S.; La Franca, F.; Barbieri, C.; Iovino, A.

    1991-01-01

    A search for intermediate-redshift quasars has been carried out with slitless spectroscopy in the central 21.07 deg 2 of the SA 94, where the existence of a large database of objects for which slit spectroscopy was already available provided a valuable opportunity of testing the properties of our selection technique. Fifty candidates have been observed with slit spectroscopy, confirming 34 quasars and two H II galaxies. The completeness of this survey as a function of magnitude and redshift has been analysed, and an effective area of 16.9 deg 2 has been evaluated. (author)

  4. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  5. Photofissility of heavy nuclei at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deppman, A.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Likhachev, V.P.; Goncalves, M.

    2002-10-01

    We use the recently developed MCMC/MCEF (Multi Collisional Monte Carlo plus Monte Carlo for Evaporation-Fission calculations) model to calculate the photo fissility and the photofission cross section at intermediate energies for the 243 Am and for 209 Bi, and compare them to results obtained for other actinides and to available experimental data. As expected, the results for 243 Am are close to those for 237 Np. The fissility for pre actinide nuclei is nearly one order of magnitude lower than that for the actinides. Both fissility and photofission cross section for 209 Bi are in good agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  6. Parity violation experiments at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1996-06-01

    The status of the TRIUMF 221 MeV proton-proton violation experiment is reviewed. Several other proton-proton parity violation experiments in the in the intermediate energy range, currently in various stages of preparation, are discussed. A new experiment at an energy of 5.13 GeV (and if confirmed also at an energy of tens of GeV) is needed to follow on the earlier unexpected large result obtained at 5.13 GeV. (author)

  7. PALOMA: A Magnetic CV between Polars and Intermediate Polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Arti; Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Agrawal, P. C.

    2016-10-01

    We present analyses of archival X-ray data obtained from the XMM-Newton satellite and optical photometric data obtained from 1 m class telescopes of ARIES, Nainital of a magnetic cataclysmic variable (MCV) Paloma. Two persistent periods at 156 ± 1 minutes and 130 ± 1 minutes are present in the X-ray data, which we interpret as the orbital and spin periods, respectively. These periods are similar to those obtained from the previous as well as new optical photometric observations. The soft-X-ray excess seen in the X-ray spectrum of Paloma and the averaged X-ray spectra are well fitted by two-temperature plasma models with temperatures of {0.10}-0.01+0.02 and {13.0}-0.5+0.5 keV with an Fe Kα line and an absorbing column density of 4.6 × 1022 cm-2. This material partially covers 60 ± 2% of the X-ray source. We also present the orbital and spin-phase-resolved spectroscopy of Paloma in the 0.3{--}10.0 {keV} energy band and find that the X-ray spectral parameters show orbital and spin-phase dependencies. New results obtained from optical and X-ray studies of Paloma indicate that it belongs to a class of a few magnetic CVs that seem to have the characteristics of both the polars and the intermediate polars.

  8. 42 CFR 54.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54.12... intermediate organizations. If a nongovernmental organization (referred to here as an “intermediate organization”), acting under a contract or other agreement with the Federal Government or a State or local...

  9. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Grunow, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates are

  10. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  11. Interpretation and code generation based on intermediate languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Peter; Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of supporting high level languages through intermediate languages to be used for direct interpretation and as intermediate forms in compilers is investigated. An accomplished project in the construction of an interpreter and a code generator using one common intermediate form...

  12. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically and...

  13. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Hornby, J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. Headings are: general introduction (origin of waste; current stocks and future arisings); characteristics of the waste stream; alternative matrices (for solidification of waste in form suitable for disposal); waste simulation; relevance of other Phase II studies. (U.K.)

  14. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.; Boissevain, J.; Fowler, M.M.; Gavron, A.; Jacak, B.V.; Lysaght, P.S.; Britt, H.C.; Fields, D.J.; Hansen, L.F.; Lanier, R.G.; Massoletti, D.J.; Namboodiri, M.M.; Remington, B.A.; Sangster, T.C.; Struble, G.L.; Webb, M.L.; Chan, Y.D.; Dacai, A.; Harmon, A.; Leyba, J.; Pouliot, J.; Stokstad, R.G.; Hansen, O.; Levine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Trautmann, W.; Dichter, B.; Kaufman, S.; Videbaek, F.; Fraenkel, Z.; Mamane, G.; Cebra, D.; Westfall, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50-100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: The reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicty of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. (orig.)

  15. Treatment of rod shaped intermediate active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Blase, F.; Dirks, F.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operation Department (HDB) of the Research Center Karlsruhe operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to reduce the volume of the radioactive waste and to obtain waste products suitable for repository storage. One of the central facilities of the HDB is the intermediate level waste (ILW) scrapping facility which processes intermediate level waste. Since the ILW scrapping facility was not large enough to handle radioactive waste coming from the dismantling and operating of nuclear facilities, HDB expanded and built a larger hot cell. It contains a hydraulically driven metal cutter with a guiding channel and a high pressure compactor. A major task in the hot cell of the ILW scrapping facility is disposing of fuel boxes. These are cut in pieces and scrapped, which is a unique technique in Germany for fuel box disposal. HDB's experiences in disposing of radioactive waste in the ILW scrapping facility will described in detail, with special emphasis on the handling of rod shaped components. (author)

  16. Physics of intermediate shocks: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intermediate shocks (ISs) lead to a transition from super-Alfvenic to sub-Alfvenic flow and are different from slow and fast shocks in that an IS rotates the component of the magnetic field tangent to the shock plane by 180 deg. Another peculiarity of ISs is that for the same upstream conditions an IS can have two different downstream states. There also exist a second class of ISs which rotate the magnetic field by an angle other than 180 deg. Due to their noncoplanar nature they cannot be time-stationary and are referred to as time-dependent intermediate shocks (TDIS). The existence of ISs has been the subject of much controversy over the years. Early studies questioned the physical reality of ISs. However, the studies of ISs found a new impetus when C.C. Wu showed that ISs do exist and are stable within the resistive MHD framework. In this paper, after a brief historical overview of the subject, we will review the latest developments in the study of ISs. In particular, we will address the questions of stability and structure of ISs and the relationship between ISs and other discontinuities. One of the recent developments has been the finding that ISs can be unsteady, reforming in time. Details of this process will be discussed. Finally, we examine the effect of anisotropy on the resolutions and discuss the relevance of ISs to the observed field rotations at the Earth's magnetopause.

  17. Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

  18. BANKING INTERMEDIATION AND CONSEQUENCES OF FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medar Lucian-Ion

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The financial intermediation of bank institutions, has an essential role in mobilising of the available funds and their distribution in various products and services, for economic growth. The extent that banking system is in distress or passing through a period of crisis, then, everything turns into a general crisis, especially that, in some states, natural and legal persons have been learned ,,to live’’ on the credits.The effectiveness of banking intermediation activity in Romania depends on how fast the market is enabled under the influence of the new European regulations. The Romanian market in all its forms is the second largest in the EU, and the banking system is almost entirely made up of banks with foreign capital. The romanian banking market has not suffered so much because of the financial crisis. To the extent that banking institutions provide the necessary funds, Romania has important resources for the transition to a new economic cycle based on sustainable development.

  19. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  20. Intermediate-field transport of contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.; Kim, C.L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-06-01

    This report is about ''intermediate-field'' transport or the migration of contaminants from arrays of discrete waste packages or sources. In constructing nuclear waste repositories in rock, it may be necessary to place a waste package across a rock fracture, or a rock fracture may develop some time after waste packages have been emplaced. To predict the spatial and temporal distribution of contaminant species from a line of waste packages facing a rock fracture may be important, because such fractures may now be considered a preferential pathway for released radionuclides to re-enter the biosphere. In land disposal of hazardous wastes, individual barrels may contain especially toxic material whose dispersion special attention. We have published analytic solutions for the multidimensional advective transport of contaminants from arrays of waste packages and multiple areal sources into a planar fracture. The results show a near region in which the concentrations vary greatly in the direction transverse to ground-water flow, an intermediate region in which the array can be treated as an infinite plane source of dissolving species, and a far-field region in which the array can be treated as a plane source of finite extent. The array equations have been developed for both porous and fractured media. In this paper we summarize and compare the work with multiple areal sources facing a planar fracture and an array of point sources in porous media. 5 refs., 5 figs

  1. Can Morphing Methods Predict Intermediate Structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dahlia R.; Levitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Movement is crucial to the biological function of many proteins, yet crystallographic structures of proteins can give us only a static snapshot. The protein dynamics that are important to biological function often happen on a timescale that is unattainable through detailed simulation methods such as molecular dynamics as they often involve crossing high-energy barriers. To address this coarse-grained motion, several methods have been implemented as web servers in which a set of coordinates is usually linearly interpolated from an initial crystallographic structure to a final crystallographic structure. We present a new morphing method that does not extrapolate linearly and can therefore go around high-energy barriers and which can produce different trajectories between the same two starting points. In this work, we evaluate our method and other established coarse-grained methods according to an objective measure: how close a coarse-grained dynamics method comes to a crystallographically determined intermediate structure when calculating a trajectory between the initial and final crystal protein structure. We test this with a set of five proteins with at least three crystallographically determined on-pathway high-resolution intermediate structures from the Protein Data Bank. For simple hinging motions involving a small conformational change, segmentation of the protein into two rigid sections outperforms other more computationally involved methods. However, large-scale conformational change is best addressed using a nonlinear approach and we suggest that there is merit in further developing such methods. PMID:18996395

  2. Fission in intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmy, J.B.; Begemann-Blaich, M.; Blaich, T.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of reaction mechanisms at intermediate energies (50--100 MeV/A) has been performed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's BeValac using medium weight projectiles on medium and heavy element targets. A gas and plastic phoswich detector system was employed which gave large geometric coverage and a wide dynamic response. The particles identified with the gas detectors could be characterized into three components - intermediate mass fragments (IMF), fission fragments (FF) and heavy residues (HR). Major observed features are: the reaction yields are similar in the 50 to 100 MeV/A range, central collisions have high multiplicity of IMF's with broad angular correlations consistent with a large participant region, effects of final state Coulomb interactions are observed and give information on the size and temporal behavior of the source, true fission yields are dependent on target fissility and correlated with relatively peripheral collisions. Analysis of fission and evaporation yields implies limiting conditions for which fission decay remains a viable deexcitation channel. 7 figs

  3. The intermediate endpoint effect in logistic and probit regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, DP; Lockwood, CM; Brown, CH; Wang, W; Hoffman, JM

    2010-01-01

    Background An intermediate endpoint is hypothesized to be in the middle of the causal sequence relating an independent variable to a dependent variable. The intermediate variable is also called a surrogate or mediating variable and the corresponding effect is called the mediated, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint effect. Clinical studies are often designed to change an intermediate or surrogate endpoint and through this intermediate change influence the ultimate endpoint. In many intermediate endpoint clinical studies the dependent variable is binary, and logistic or probit regression is used. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe a limitation of a widely used approach to assessing intermediate endpoint effects and to propose an alternative method, based on products of coefficients, that yields more accurate results. Methods The intermediate endpoint model for a binary outcome is described for a true binary outcome and for a dichotomization of a latent continuous outcome. Plots of true values and a simulation study are used to evaluate the different methods. Results Distorted estimates of the intermediate endpoint effect and incorrect conclusions can result from the application of widely used methods to assess the intermediate endpoint effect. The same problem occurs for the proportion of an effect explained by an intermediate endpoint, which has been suggested as a useful measure for identifying intermediate endpoints. A solution to this problem is given based on the relationship between latent variable modeling and logistic or probit regression. Limitations More complicated intermediate variable models are not addressed in the study, although the methods described in the article can be extended to these more complicated models. Conclusions Researchers are encouraged to use an intermediate endpoint method based on the product of regression coefficients. A common method based on difference in coefficient methods can lead to distorted

  4. Greigite: a true intermediate on the polysulfide pathway to pyrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning Liane G

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The formation of pyrite (FeS2 from iron monosulfide precursors in anoxic sediments has been suggested to proceed via mackinawite (FeS and greigite (Fe3S4. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms of pyrite formation are not sufficiently understood because solid and dissolved intermediates are oxygen-sensitive and poorly crystalline and therefore notoriously difficult to characterize and quantify. In this study, hydrothermal synchrotron-based energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (ED-XRD methods were used to investigate in situ and in real-time the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite via the polysulfide pathway. The rate of formation and disappearance of specific Bragg peaks during the reaction and the changes in morphology of the solid phases as observed with high resolution microscopy were used to derive kinetic parameters and to determine the mechanisms of the reaction from mackinawite to greigite and pyrite. The results clearly show that greigite is formed as an intermediate on the pathway from mackinawite to pyrite. The kinetics of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite and pyrite follow a zero-order rate law indicating a solid-state mechanism. The morphology of greigite and pyrite crystals formed under hydrothermal conditions supports this conclusion and furthermore implies growth of greigite and pyrite by oriented aggregation of nanoparticulate mackinawite and greigite, respectively. The activation enthalpies and entropies of the transformation of mackinawite to greigite, and of greigite to pyrite were determined from the temperature dependence of the rate constants according to the Eyring equation. Although the activation enthalpies are uncharacteristic of a solid-state mechanism, the activation entropies indicate a large increase of order in the transition state, commensurate with a solid-state mechanism.

  5. What controls intermediate depth seismicity in subduction zones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, M. A.; Prieto, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Intermediate depth earthquakes seem to cluster in two distinct planes of seismicity along the subducting slab, known as Double Seismic Zones (DSZ). Precise double difference relocations in Tohoku, Japan and northern Chile confirm this pattern with striking accuracy. Furthermore, past studies have used statistical tests on the EHB global seismicity catalog to suggest that DSZs might be a dominant global feature. However, typical uncertainties associated with hypocentral depth prevent us from drawing meaningful conclusions about the detailed structure of intermediate depth seismicity and its relationship to the physical and chemical environment of most subduction zones. We have recently proposed a relative earthquake relocation algorithm based on the precise picking of the P and pP phase arrivals using array processing techniques [Florez and Prieto, 2017]. We use it to relocate seismicity in 24 carefully constructed slab segments that sample every subduction zone in the world. In all of the segments we are able to precisely delineate the structure of the double seismic zone. Our results indicate that whenever the lower plane of seismicity is active enough the width of the DSZ decreases in the down dip direction; the two planes merge at depths between 140 km and 300 km. We develop a method to unambiguously pick the depth of this merging point, the end of the DSZ, which appears to be correlated with the slab thermal parameter. We also confirm that the width of the DSZ increases with plate age. Finally, we estimate b-values for the upper and lower planes of seismicity and explore their relationships to the physical parameters that control slab subduction.

  6. Project study for the final disposal of intermediate toxicity radioactive wastes (low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes) in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The present report aimed to show variations in the construction- and operation-technical feasibility of a final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This report represents the summary of a project study given under contract by Nagra with a view to informing a broader public of the technical conception of a final repository. Particular stress was laid on the treatment of the individual system elements of a repository concept during the construction, operation and sealing phases. The essential basis for the project study is the origin, composition and quantity of the wastes to be disposed. The final repository described in this report is foreseen for the reception of the following low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes: wastes from the nuclear power plant operation; secondary wastes from the reprocessing of nuclear fuels; wastes from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants; wastes from research, medicine and industry

  7. Protein phosphatase dependent circadian regulation of intermediate-term associative memory

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Maximilian; Gardner, Jacob S.; Green, Charity L.; Organ, Chelsea L.; Lyons, Lisa C.

    2013-01-01

    The endogenous circadian clock is a principal factor modulating memory across species. Determining the processes through which the circadian clock modulates memory formation is a key issue in understanding and identifying mechanisms to improve memory. We used the marine mollusk Aplysia californica to investigate circadian modulation of intermediate-term memory (ITM) and the mechanisms through which the circadian clock phase specifically suppresses memory using the operant learning paradigm, l...

  8. Engineering design study for storage and disposal of intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, J R; Hackney, S; Richardson, J A; Heafield, W

    1982-11-01

    A conceptual design study is presented which covers both the storage and disposal of intermediate level waste; repositories in several rock formations are considered at a 300m depth. A total system is proposed including an engineered trench for ..beta gamma.. waste, emplacement systems and off site transportation. Safety during the emplacement phase and the radiological effects of human intrusion and geological catastrophies are considered.

  9. Electronic monitoring and voice prompts improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infections in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Sandra M; Earsing, Karen; Strauss, Kevin; Lane, Stephen; Lipsett, Pamela A

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether electronic monitoring of hand hygiene and voice prompts can improve hand hygiene and decrease nosocomial infection rates in a surgical intermediate care unit. Three-phase quasi-experimental design. Phase I was electronic monitoring and direct observation; phase II was electronic monitoring and computerized voice prompts for failure to perform hand hygiene on room exit; and phase III was electronic monitoring only. Nine-room, 14-bed intermediate care unit in a university, tertiary-care institution. All patient rooms, utility room, and staff lavatory were monitored electronically. All healthcare personnel including physicians, nurses, nursing support personnel, ancillary staff, all visitors and family members, and any other personnel interacting with patients on the intermediate care unit. All patients with an intermediate care unit length of stay >48 hrs were followed for nosocomial infection. Electronic monitoring during all phases, computerized voice prompts during phase II only. We evaluated a total of 283,488 electronically monitored entries into a patient room with 251,526 exits for 420 days (10,080 hrs and 3,549 patient days). Compared with phase I, hand hygiene compliance in patient rooms improved 37% during phase II (odds ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.83) and 41% in phase III (odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.84). When adjusting for patient admissions during each phase, point estimates of nosocomial infections decreased by 22% during phase II and 48% during phase III; when adjusting for patient days, the number of infections decreased by 10% during phase II and 40% during phase III. Although the overall rate of nosocomial infections significantly decreased when combining phases II and III, the association between nosocomial infection and individual phase was not significant. Electronic monitoring provided effective ongoing feedback about hand hygiene compliance. During both the voice prompt phase and post

  10. Phase coexistence in multifragmentation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Ghetti, R.; Tso, K.; Colonna, N.; Skulski, W.; Wozniak, G.J.; Bowman, D.R.; Carlin, N.; Chartier, M.; Gelbke, C.K.; Gong, W.G.; Hsi, W.C.; Kim, Y.D.; Lisa, M.A.; Lynch, W.G.; Peaslee, G.F.; Schwarz, C.; de Souza, R.T.; Tsang, M.B.; Zhu, F.

    1996-01-01

    The charge (Z) distributions from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions depend upon the multiplicity n of intermediate mass fragments through a factor of the form e -cnZ . Experimentally c starts from zero at low values of the transverse energy E t and reaches a saturation value at high E t . In a liquid-gas phase diagram c=0 for the saturated vapor, while c approx-gt 0 for the unsaturated vapor. It is suggested that in the c≅0 regime the source evaporates down to a sizable remnant, while for c approx-gt 0 the source vaporizes completely. Percolation of finite systems and nuclear evaporation portray a behavior similar to that observed experimentally. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Pion deuteron scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.

    1978-09-01

    A comparison is made of results of calculations of πd elastic scattering cross section using multiple scattering and three-body equations, in relation to their ability to reproduce the experimental data at intermediate energies. It is shown that the two methods of theoretical calculation give quite similar curves for the elastic differential cross sections, and that both fail in reproducing backward scattering data above 200MeV. The new accurate experimental data on πd total cross section as a function of the energy are confronted with the theoretical values obtained from the multiple scattering calculation through the optical theorem. Comparison is made between the values of the real part of the forward amplitude evaluated using dispersion relations and using the multiple scattering method [pt

  12. Intermediate length scale dynamics of polyisobutylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farago, B.; Arbe, A.; Colmenero, J.; Faust, R.; Buchenau, U.; Richter, D.

    2002-01-01

    We report on a neutron spin echo investigation of the intermediate scale dynamics of polyisobutylene studying both the self-motion and the collective motion. The momentum transfer (Q) dependences of the self-correlation times are found to follow a Q -2/β law in agreement with the picture of Gaussian dynamics. In the full Q range of observation, their temperature dependence is weaker than the rheological shift factor. The same is true for the stress relaxation time as seen in sound wave absorption. The collective times show both temperature dependences; at the structure factor peak, they follow the temperature dependence of the viscosity, but below the peak, one finds the stress relaxation behavior

  13. Meteorological perspective on intermediate range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoven, I.

    1981-01-01

    The intermediate range of atmospheric transport and diffusion is defined as those dispersion processes which take place at downwind distances of 10 to 100 kilometers from pollutant sources. Meteorologists often define this range as the mesoscale. It is the range of distances where certain environmental assessments are of concern such as the determination of significant deterioration of visibility, the effect of effluent releases from tall stacks, and the effect of pollutant sources in rural settings upon the more distant urban centers. Atmospheric diffusion theory is based on steady state conditions and spatial homogeniety. Techniques must be developed to measure the inhomogenieties, models must be devised to account for the complexities, and a data base consisting of appropriate measured meteorological parameters concurrent with tracer gas concentrations should be collected

  14. Modernisation of the intermediate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Inkeri; Heino, Olga; Hendolin, Ilkka; Galambosi, Szabolcs

    2018-03-01

    The intermediate laboratory courses at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, were reformed using desired learning outcomes as the basis for design. The reformed laboratory courses consist of weekly workshops and small-group laboratory sessions. Many of the laboratory exercises are open-ended and have several possible ways of execution. They were designed around affordable devices, to allow for the purchase of multiple sets of laboratory equipment. This allowed students to work on the same problems simultaneously. Thus, it was possible to set learning goals which build on each other. Workshop sessions supported the course by letting the students solve problems related to conceptual and technical aspects of each laboratory exercise. The laboratory exercises progressed biweekly to allow for iterative problem solving. Students reached the learning goals well and the reform improved student experiences. Neither positive or negative changes in expert-like attitudes towards experimental physics (measured by E-CLASS questionnaire) were observed.

  15. Environmental issues of an intermediate city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Our urban centers present a unique dimension of environmental problems. They are at one and the same time, enormous consumers of natural resources and produces of waste and pollution. In this respect intermediate cities and small towns appear to be more vulnerable to natural catastrophes and ecological accidents caused by human factors. While in large cities there exist pressure groups which attain government attention for the solution of their problems and have well equipped municipalities. However, a vast majority of the population lives in rural areas and depends upon medium sized cities and towns for access to services. These cities and towns form the pivot of economic, social, cultural and political life for a large part of the population. Therefore, it deserves more attention than bigger ones. This paper explores local people perception about urban environmental problems exist in the city. Attempts are also made to shape and guide municipality efforts to overcome such problems with available resources. (author)

  16. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  17. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  18. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  19. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  20. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  1. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  2. Transfer and breakup reactions at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1986-04-01

    The origin of the quasi-elastic peak in peripheral heavy-ion reactions is discussed in terms of inelastic scattering and transfer reactions to unbound states of the primary projectile-like fragment. The situation is analogous to the use of reverse kinematics in fusion reactions, a technique in which the object of study is moving with nearly the beam velocity. It appears that several important features of the quasi-elastic peak may be explained by this approach. Projectile-breakup reactions have attractive features for the study of nuclear structure. They may also be used to determine the partition of excitation energy in peripheral reactions. At intermediate energies, neutron-pickup reactions leading to four-body final states become important. Examples of experiments are presented that illustrate these points. 15 refs., 14 figs

  3. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  4. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety

  5. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  6. Intermediate Leg SBLOCA - Long Lasting Pressure Transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konjarek, D.; Bajs, T.; Vukovic, J.

    2010-01-01

    The basic phenomenology of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) for PWR plant is described with focus on analysis of scenario in which reactor coolant pressure decreases below secondary system pressure. Best estimate light water reactor transient analysis code RELAP5/mod3.3 was used in calculation. Rather detailed model of the plant was used. The break occurs in intermediate leg on lowest elevation near pump suction. The size of the break is chosen to be small enough to cause cycling of safety valves (SVs) on steam generators (SGs) for some time, but, afterwards, it is large enough to remove decay heat through the break, causing cooling the secondary side. In this case of SBLOCA, when primary pressure decreases below secondary pressure, long lasting pressure transients with significant amplitude occur. Reasons for such behavior are explained.(author).

  7. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  8. Covalent functionalization of graphene with reactive intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyeung; Yan, Mingdi

    2013-01-15

    Graphene, a material made exclusively of sp(2) carbon atoms with its π electrons delocalized over the entire 2D network, is somewhat chemically inert. Covalent functionalization can enhance graphene's properties including opening its band gap, tuning conductivity, and improving solubility and stability. Covalent functionalization of pristine graphene typically requires reactive species that can form covalent adducts with the sp(2) carbon structures in graphene. In this Account, we describe graphene functionalization reactions using reactive intermediates of radicals, nitrenes, carbenes, and arynes. These reactive species covalently modify graphene through free radical addition, CH insertion, or cycloaddition reactions. Free radical additions are among the most common reaction, and these radicals can be generated from diazonium salts and benzoyl peroxide. Electron transfer from graphene to aryl diazonium ion or photoactivation of benzoyl peroxide yields aryl radicals that subsequently add to graphene to form covalent adducts. Nitrenes, electron-deficient species generated by thermal or photochemical activation of organic azides, can functionalize graphene very efficiently. Because perfluorophenyl nitrenes show enhanced bimolecular reactions compared with alkyl or phenyl nitrenes, perfluorophenyl azides are especially effective. Carbenes are used less frequently than nitrenes, but they undergo CH insertion and C═C cycloaddition reactions with graphene. In addition, arynes can serve as a dienophile in a Diels-Alder type reaction with graphene. Further study is needed to understand and exploit the chemistry of graphene. The generation of highly reactive intermediates in these reactions leads to side products that complicate the product composition and analysis. Fundamental questions remain about the reactivity and regioselectivity of graphene. The differences in the basal plane and the undercoordinated edges of graphene and the zigzag versus arm-chair configurations

  9. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  10. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  11. Slow and fast pyrolysis of Douglas-fir lignin: Importance of liquid-intermediate formation on the distribution of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shuai; Pecha, Brennan; Kuppevelt, Michiel van; McDonald, Armando G.; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The formation of liquid intermediates and the distribution of products were studied under slow and fast pyrolysis conditions. Results indicate that monomers are formed from lignin oligomeric products during secondary reactions, rather than directly from the native lignin. Lignin from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) wood was extracted using the milled wood enzyme lignin isolation method. Slow pyrolysis using a microscope with hot-stage captured the liquid formation (>150 °C), shrinking, swelling (foaming), and evaporation behavior of lignin intermediates. The activation energy (E a ) for 5–80% conversions was 213 kJ mol −1 , and the pre-exponential factor (log A) was 24.34. Fast pyrolysis tests in a wire mesh reactor were conducted (300–650 °C). The formation of the liquid intermediate was visualized with a fast speed camera (250 Hz), showing the existence of three well defined steps: formation of lignin liquid intermediates, foaming and liquid intermediate swelling, and evaporation and droplet shrinking. GC/MS and UV-Fluorescence of the mesh reactor condensate revealed lignin oligomer formation but no mono-phenols were seen. An increase in pyrolytic lignin yield was observed as temperature increased. The molar mass determined by ESI-MS was not affected by pyrolysis temperature. SEM of the char showed a smooth surface with holes, evidence of a liquid intermediate with foaming; bursting from these foams could be responsible for the removal of lignin oligomers. Py-GC/MS studies showed the highest yield of guaiacol compounds at 450–550 °C. - Highlights: • The formation of a liquid intermediate phase is a critical step during lignin pyrolysis. • The lignin oligomers are thermally ejected from the liquid intermediate phase. • The mono-phenols are formed mainly from the secondary reactions of lignin oligomers

  12. The origin of nuclear spin and its effect durning intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao; Ma Yugang; Cai Xiangzhou; Wang Hongwei; Fang Deqing; Tian Wendong; Chen Jingen; Guo Wei; Liu Guihua

    2010-01-01

    We use the heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin and its effect in Intermediate energy nuclear reaction. It is found that the spin of projectile depends on the impact parameter of the reaction system heavily, while on the violence lightly by contrast. Some interesting multifragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown, especially those of phase transition. At the same time, the role of excited energy for multifragmentation is also invested. We find the later plays a more robust role durning the nuclear disintegration. (authors)

  13. On light cluster production in nucleon induced reactions at intermediate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Blideanu, V.; Durand, D.

    2004-09-01

    A dynamical model dedicated to nucleon induced reaction between 30-150 MeV is presented. It considers different stages of the reaction: the approaching phase, the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collisions, the cluster formation and the secondary de-excitation process. The notions of influence area and phase-space exploration during the reaction are introduced. The importance of the geometry of the reaction and of the conservation laws are underlined. The model is able to globally reproduce the absolute cross sections for the emission of neutron and light charged particles for proton and neutron induced reactions on heavy and intermediate mass targets ( 56 Fe and 208 Pb). (authors)

  14. Radiotherapy and hormone therapy in intermediate risk prostate cancer: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Rejane Carolina; Souhami, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The standard treatment for patients with high risk prostate cancer is the combined use of radiation therapy (RT ) and hormone therapy (HT). In regards to patients stratified as intermediate risk, the use of HT associated with RT remains controversial, and its use should be carefully planned and based on available evidence. Objective: To critically assess results of randomized studies published in the literature that associated the use of HT of short duration with an average period of 6 months with RT in the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer classified as intermediate risk. Method: Only randomized studies comparing these treatments were eligible for this review. A structured search through 'PubMed' was carried out using the terms 'androgen suppression therapy', 'radiotherapy', 'randomized trials', 'phase 3 trials', 'prostate cancer' and 'intermediate risk'. Results: Four randomized studies comparing RT alone to RT plus short course HT were found and selected. The majority of the trials had a mixed population of intermediate and high risk disease and did not include patients with only intermediate risk. Despite that, there appears to be a significant benefit for the combined approach regarding disease-free survival, biochemical free survival and overall survival. Conclusion: The randomized studies published so far suggest improved outcomes for the group of patients receiving RT and short course HT. Data from randomized trials comparing RT alone to RT and short course HT in patients with intermediate risk only are forthcoming. (author)

  15. Abnormal screening in the quantum disordered phases of nonlinear σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, X.G.; Zee, A.

    1989-01-01

    We study some properties of the quantum disordered phase of nonlinear σ-models, focussing on the quantum numbers of the quasi-particles and possible experimental implications. We find that the quasi-particles in the quantum disordered phase may, in many cases, carry new quantum numbers which do not appear in any finite combination of the fundamental fields. We call this phenomenon abnormal screening. Abnormal screening is shown to appear in (1+1)-dimensional systems. Using a large N mean field approach to the quantum disordered state, we show that abnormal screening may also appear in (1+2)-dimensional nonlinear σ-models. In 1+2 dimensions abnormal screening is closely related to spin-charge separation, which was proposed to occur in the spin liquid state relevant in some theories of high T c superconductivity. We compare the mean field approach with bosonization and other exact results for (1+1)-dimensional systems and find exact agreement for the quantum numbers of the quasi-particles. This suggests that mean field analysis of high T c superconductivity may yield a qualitatively reliable picture. Our result also gives an alternative way of understanding some novel properties of the antiferromagnetic spin chain. We estimate the density and temperature at which deconfinement and abnormal screening occur. Finally, we suggest some experimental signatures for this phenomenon. (orig.)

  16. Direct detection of metal-insulator phase transitions using the modified Backus-Gilbert method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybyshev Maksim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of the (semimetal-insulator phase transition can be extremely difficult if the local order parameter which characterizes the ordered phase is unknown. In some cases, it is even impossible to define a local order parameter: the most prominent example of such system is the spin liquid state. This state was proposed to exist in the Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice in a region between the semimetal phase and the antiferromagnetic insulator phase. The existence of this phase has been the subject of a long debate. In order to detect these exotic phases we must use alternative methods to those used for more familiar examples of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We have modified the Backus-Gilbert method of analytic continuation which was previously used in the calculation of the pion quasiparticle mass in lattice QCD. The modification of the method consists of the introduction of the Tikhonov regularization scheme which was used to treat the ill-conditioned kernel. This modified Backus-Gilbert method is applied to the Euclidean propagators in momentum space calculated using the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. In this way, it is possible to reconstruct the full dispersion relation and to estimate the mass gap, which is a direct signal of the transition to the insulating state. We demonstrate the utility of this method in our calculations for the Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice. We also apply the method to the metal-insulator phase transition in the Hubbard-Coulomb model on the square lattice.

  17. Action taken by ENRESA and the NPPs with a view to reducing the production of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, A.; Rojo, F.

    1996-01-01

    In those countries in which the responsibilities of the different organizations involved in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (Regulatory Body, Agency, Facility Operators and Producers) are perfectly defined and a definitive Waste Disposal Facility is in operation, the next phase in order of importance consists of addressing a waste volume reduction policy aimed at optimizing storage capacity

  18. Intergalactic stellar populations in intermediate redshift clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, J.; Giraud, E.; Toledo, I.; Selman, F.; Quintana, H.

    2012-11-01

    A substantial fraction of the total stellar mass in rich clusters of galaxies resides in a diffuse intergalactic component usually referred to as the intracluster light (ICL). Theoretical models indicate that these intergalactic stars originate mostly from the tidal interaction of the cluster galaxies during the assembly history of the cluster, and that a significant fraction of these stars could have formed in situ from the late infall of cold metal-poor gas clouds on to the cluster. However, these models also overpredict the fraction of stellar mass in the ICL by a substantial margin, something that is still not well understood. The models also make predictions about the age distribution of the ICL stars, which may provide additional observational constraints. Here we present population synthesis models for the ICL of an intermediate redshift (z = 0.29) X-ray cluster that we have extensively studied in previous papers. The advantage of observing intermediate redshift clusters rather than nearby ones is that the former fit the field of view of multi-object spectrographs in 8-m telescopes and therefore permit us to encompass most of the ICL with only a few well-placed slits. In this paper we show that by stacking spectra at different locations within the ICL it is possible to reach sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratios to fit population synthesis models and derive meaningful results. The models provide ages and metallicities for the dominant populations at several different locations within the ICL and the brightest cluster galaxies (BCG) halo, as well as measures of the kinematics of the stars as a function of distance from the BCG. We thus find that the ICL in our cluster is dominated by old metal-rich stars, at odds with what has been found in nearby clusters where the stars that dominate the ICL are old and metal poor. While we see weak evidence of a young, metal-poor component, if real, these young stars would amount to less than 1 per cent of the total ICL

  19. Formation, structure, and stability of MHD intermediate shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the author has recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear wave steepening from continuous waves. In this paper, the formation, structure and stability of intermediate shocks in dissipative MHD are considered in detail. The differences between the conventional theory and his are pointed out and clarified. He shows that all four types of intermediate shocks can be formed from smooth waves. He also shows that there are free parameters in the structure of the intermediate shocks, and that these parameters are related to the shock stability. In addition, he shows that a rotational discontinuity can not exist with finite width, indicate how this is related to the existence of time-dependent intermediate shocks, and show why the conventional theory is not a good approximation to dissipative MHD solutions whenever there is rotation in magnetic field

  20. Accuracy of intermediate dose of furosemide injection to improve multidetector row CT urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Catherine; Jeantroux, Jeremy; Irani, Farah G.; Sauer, Benoit; Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate the usefulness of intermediate dose furosemide to improve visualization of the intrarenal collecting system and ureter using MDCTU. Materials and methods: Two groups of 100 patients without urinary tract disease or major abdominal pathology underwent MDCTU. Group I (various abdominal indications) was performed without any additional preparation and Group II (suspicion of urinary tract disease) 10 min after injection of furosemide (20 mg). MIP images of the excretory phase were post-processed. Maximal short-axis diameter of the pelvis and ureter were measured on axial images for all phases. Visualization of the collecting system wall and the identification of the whole ureter were assessed. Results: Mean pelvic diameter before contrast was (7.4 mm, S.D. ± 2.7; 13.4 mm, S.D. ± 4.1), on cortico-medullary phase (8.4 mm, S.D. ± 4.2; 14.3 mm, S.D. ± 4), on nephrographic phase (8.1 mm, S.D. ± 2.5; 14.8 mm, S.D. ± 4) and on excretory phase (9.7 mm, S.D. ± 3.4; 14.9 mm, S.D. ± 4.5), respectively, for Groups I and II. Intrarenal collecting system wall was clearly identified on both corticomedullary and nephrographic phases in 91% of Group II against 20% of Group I. Opacification of the entire ureter was excellent on excretory phase in 96% of Group II against 13% of Group I. The difference between the mean values for the two groups was statistically significant for all phases (p -9 ). Conclusion: Intermediate-dose furosemide (20 mg) before MDCTU is a very simple add-on for accurate depiction of pelvicalyceal details and collecting system wall without artefacts. The procedure is associated with a constant and complete visualisation of the entire urete

  1. Accuracy of intermediate dose of furosemide injection to improve multidetector row CT urography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Catherine [Department of Radiology B, Universitary Hospital of Strasbourg-Civil Hospital, 1, Place de l' hopital BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg Cedex (France)], E-mail: catherine.roy@chru-strasbourg.fr; Jeantroux, Jeremy; Irani, Farah G.; Sauer, Benoit [Department of Radiology B, Universitary Hospital of Strasbourg-Civil Hospital, 1, Place de l' hopital BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Lang, Herve; Saussine, Christian [Department of Urology, Universitary Hospital of Strasbourg-Civil Hospital, 1, Place de l' hopital BP 426, 67091 Strasbourg Cedex (France)

    2008-05-15

    Objective: Evaluate the usefulness of intermediate dose furosemide to improve visualization of the intrarenal collecting system and ureter using MDCTU. Materials and methods: Two groups of 100 patients without urinary tract disease or major abdominal pathology underwent MDCTU. Group I (various abdominal indications) was performed without any additional preparation and Group II (suspicion of urinary tract disease) 10 min after injection of furosemide (20 mg). MIP images of the excretory phase were post-processed. Maximal short-axis diameter of the pelvis and ureter were measured on axial images for all phases. Visualization of the collecting system wall and the identification of the whole ureter were assessed. Results: Mean pelvic diameter before contrast was (7.4 mm, S.D. {+-} 2.7; 13.4 mm, S.D. {+-} 4.1), on cortico-medullary phase (8.4 mm, S.D. {+-} 4.2; 14.3 mm, S.D. {+-} 4), on nephrographic phase (8.1 mm, S.D. {+-} 2.5; 14.8 mm, S.D. {+-} 4) and on excretory phase (9.7 mm, S.D. {+-} 3.4; 14.9 mm, S.D. {+-} 4.5), respectively, for Groups I and II. Intrarenal collecting system wall was clearly identified on both corticomedullary and nephrographic phases in 91% of Group II against 20% of Group I. Opacification of the entire ureter was excellent on excretory phase in 96% of Group II against 13% of Group I. The difference between the mean values for the two groups was statistically significant for all phases (p < 10{sup -9}). Conclusion: Intermediate-dose furosemide (20 mg) before MDCTU is a very simple add-on for accurate depiction of pelvicalyceal details and collecting system wall without artefacts. The procedure is associated with a constant and complete visualisation of the entire urete.

  2. Intermediate-break LOCA analyses for the AP600 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Lime, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    A postulated double-ended guillotine break of a direct-vessel-injection line in an AP600 plant has been analyzed. This event is characterized as an intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident (IBLOCA). Most of the insights regarding the response of the AP600 safety systems to the postulated accident are derived from calculations performed with the TRAC-PFl/MOD2 code. However, complementary insights derived from a scaled experiment conducted in the ROSA facility, as well as insights based upon calculations by other codes, are also presented. The key processes occurring in an AP600 during a IBLOCA are primary coolant system depressurization, inventory depletion, inventory replacement via emergency core coolant injection, continuous core cooling, and long-term decay heat rejection to the atmosphere. Based upon the calculated and experimental results, the AP600 will not experience a core heat up and will reach a safe shutdown state using only safety-class equipment. Only the early part of the long-term cooling period initiated by In-containment Refueling Water Storage Tank injection was evaluated Thus, the observation that the core is continuously cooled should be verified for the latter phase of the long-term cooling period, the interval when sump injection and containment cooling processes are important

  3. Compas project stress analysis of HLW containers intermediate testwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ove Arup and Partners London

    1990-01-01

    The Compas project is concerned with the structural performance of metal overpacks which may be used to encapsulate vitrified high-level waste forms before disposal in deep geological repositories. This document describes the series of experiments and associated calculations performed in the Intermediate testwork phase of this project. Seven mild steel, one-third scale simplified models of HLW containers were manufactured in a variety of configurations of geometry and weld type. The effects of reducing the wall thickness, corroding the external surface of the container, and using different welding methods were all investigated. The containers were tested under the action of a uniform external pressure up to their respective failure points. All containers failed by buckling at pressures of between 42 and 87 MPa dependent upon the particular geometric and weld configuration. The outer surface of each container was comprehensively strain-gauged in order to provide strain histories at positions of interest. The Compas project partners, from five different European countries, independently modelled the behaviour of three of the five different containers. Test results and computer predictions were compared and an assessment of the overall performance of the codes demonstrated good agreement in the initial loading of each container. However once stresses exceeded the material yield point there was a considerable spread in the predicted container behaviour

  4. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-03-01

    A comprehensive investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low and intermediate level waste immobilised in cement. Several topics have been investigated using a wide range of advanced physico-chemical and analytical techniques. These include: (a) the study of formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates, (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments, (c) colloid sorption behaviour, (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates, and (e) preliminary assessment of colloid migration behaviour. It has been shown that the generation of colloids in cement leachates can arise from a process of nucleation and growth leading to an amorphous phase which is predominantly calcium silicate hydrate. Such colloidal material has a capacity for association with polyvalent rare earths and actinides and these may be significant in the source term and processes involving radionuclide retention in the near field. It has also been shown that the near-field aqueous chemistry (pH, Ca 2+ concentration) has a marked effect on colloid behaviour (deposition and stability). A mechanistic approach to predict colloid sorption affinity has been developed which highlights the importance of colloid characteristics and the nature of the ionic species. (author)

  5. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Mianyang 621900 (China); Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H. [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Tang, C. X. [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-07-15

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  6. Study of nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and intermediate cavities in a relativistic klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.

    2012-07-01

    In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.

  7. Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth of Jordan 1964-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Magableh, Ali H.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, the economics and financial literature placed little attention on the role that financial intermediation can play in accelerating the rate of economic development in less Developed Countries (LDCs). This has been changed now, however, where some instrumental role has been emphasised for financial intermediation in the process of economic development and growth. It is argued that an expansion of the financial system, size and intermediation in LDCs tends to increase the level o...

  8. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  9. The phase diagram of the Shastry-Sutherland antiferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, W.; Oitmaa, J.; Hamer, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The material SrCu 2 (BO 3 ) 2 , synthesised only a few years ago, appears to be an excellent realization of the Shastry-Sutherland model. The main physics of this model is a competition between Neel order and dimerization. Early studies suggested a single quantum phase transition separating these two phases, but recent studies suggest the presence of an intermediate phase. Various candidates for this intermediate phase have been proposed, including long-range helical order, and a plaquette-singlet phase. We use series expansion methods to argue against each of these, although our new extended results do support the existence of an intermediate phase of some kind. We propose a columnar dimer phase, as a possible candidate, and explore some of its properties

  10. Selected problems in experimental intermediate energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, B.W.; Hungerford, E.V.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: investigate forefront problems in experimental intermediate energy physics; educate students in this field of research; and, develop the instrumentation necessary to undertake this experimental program. Generally, the research is designed to search for physical processes which cannot be explained by conventional models of elementary interactions. This includes the use of nuclear targets where the nucleus provides a many body environment of strongly perturbation of a known interaction by this environment. Unfortunately, such effects may be masked by the complexity of the many body problem and may be difficult to observe. Therefore, experiments must be carefully chosen and analyzed for deviations from the more conventional models. There were three major thrusts of the program; strange particle physics, where a strange quark is embedded in the nuclear medium; muon electro-weak decay, which involves a search for a violation of the standard model of the electro-weak interaction; and measurement of the spin dependent structure function of the neutron

  11. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Tek P.; Różańska, Agata; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, Bozena [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: tek@camk.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR) by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 10{sup 11.5} cm{sup −3}, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  12. Uranium concentration monitor manual, secondary intermediate evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Slice, R.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and measurement control procedures for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the secondary intermediate evaporator at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration in the return loop of time recirculating evaporator for purposes of process monitoring and control. A detector installed near the bottom of the return loop is used to acquire spectra of gamma rays from the evaporator solutions during operation. Pulse height analysis of each spectrum gives the information required to deduce the concentration of uranium in the evaporator solution in near-real time. The visual readout of concentration is updated at the end of every assay cycle. The readout includes an alphanumeric display of uranium concentration and an illuminated, colored LED (in an array of colored LEDs) indicating whether the measured concentration is within (or above or below) the desired range. An alphanumeric display of evaporator solution acid molarity is also available to the operator. 9 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  14. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  15. Superphenix 1 intermediate heat exchanger fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, H.; Granito, F.; Pouderoux, P.

    1985-01-01

    The eight Superphenix 375-MW (thermal) intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs) are similar in overall design to the Phenix components. Detailed design changes had to be made during fabrication on the following grounds: Due to seismic resistance, the support area was raised as high as possible to situate the component natural frequencies well out of the resonance peak range and remove thick plate-to-shell connections from heavy thermal load areas. Integration of lessons drawn from the Phenix incidents, due mainly to secondary sodium radial temperature disparities, resulted in the design of a more adaptable outlet header, together with a sodium mixing device, and in the reduction of temperature differences by heat insulation. To avoid circumferential temperature disparities, the iron shot biological shielding plug was replaced by stacked stainless steel plates within an outer shell, which in the new design, is not a supporting structure. The thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design of the component necessitated the elaboration of sophisticated computer codes, with validation of results on mock-ups. The detailed design studies and the actual manufacturing work had to adapt to both design developments and to inherent fabrication difficulties, mainly related to the very tight tolerances imposed for these exceptionally large components and to the welding of steel with an excessive boron content. The construction of the Creys-Malville IHXs afforded valuable industrial experience, which should provide a basis for the design of simpler and less costly IHX units for the forthcoming 1500-MW (electric) breeder

  16. Validation of intermediate end points in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A; Freedman, L S; Schiffman, M H; Dawsey, S M

    1990-11-21

    Investigations using intermediate end points as cancer surrogates are quicker, smaller, and less expensive than studies that use malignancy as the end point. We present a strategy for determining whether a given biomarker is a valid intermediate end point between an exposure and incidence of cancer. Candidate intermediate end points may be selected from case series, ecologic studies, and animal experiments. Prospective cohort and sometimes case-control studies may be used to quantify the intermediate end point-cancer association. The most appropriate measure of this association is the attributable proportion. The intermediate end point is a valid cancer surrogate if the attributable proportion is close to 1.0, but not if it is close to 0. Usually, the attributable proportion is close to neither 1.0 nor 0; in this case, valid surrogacy requires that the intermediate end point mediate an established exposure-cancer relation. This would in turn imply that the exposure effect would vanish if adjusted for the intermediate end point. We discuss the relative advantages of intervention and observational studies for the validation of intermediate end points. This validation strategy also may be applied to intermediate end points for adverse reproductive outcomes and chronic diseases other than cancer.

  17. Preliminary thermal sizing of intermediate heat exchanger for NHDD system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Hong, Sung Deok; Kim, Yong Wan; Chang, Jongh Wa

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) system is a Very High Temperature gascooled Reactor (VHTR) coupled with hydrogen production systems. Intermediate heat exchanger transfers heat from the nuclear reactor to the hydrogen production system. This study presented the sensitivity analysis on a preliminary thermal sizing of the intermediate heat exchanger. Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) was selected for the thermal sizing because the printed circuit heat exchanger has the largest compactness among the heat exchanger types. The analysis was performed to estimate the effect of key parameters including the operating condition of the intermediate system, the geometrical factors of the PCHE, and the working fluid of the intermediate system.

  18. Membrane fusion and inverted phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellens, H.; Siegel, D.P.; Alford, D.; Yeagle, P.L.; Boni, L.; Lis, L.J.; Quinn, P.J.; Bentz, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have found a correlation between liposome fusion kinetics and lipid phase behavior for several inverted phase forming lipids. N-Methylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE-Me), or mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), will form an inverted hexagonal phase (HII) at high temperatures (above TH), a lamellar phase (L alpha) at low temperatures, and an isotropic/inverted cubic phase at intermediate temperatures, which is defined by the appearance of narrow isotropic 31 P NMR resonances. The phase behavior has been verified by using high-sensitivity DSC, 31 P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature range over which the narrow isotropic resonances occur is defined as delta TI, and the range ends at TH. Extruded liposomes (approximately 0.2 microns in diameter) composed of these lipids show fusion and leakage kinetics which are strongly correlated with the temperatures of these phase transitions. At temperatures below delta TI, where the lipid phase is L alpha, there is little or no fusion, i.e., mixing of aqueous contents, or leakage. However, as the temperature reaches delta TI, there is a rapid increase in both fusion and leakage rates. At temperatures above TH, the liposomes show aggregation-dependent lysis, as the rapid formation of HII phase precursors disrupts the membranes. We show that the correspondence between the fusion and leakage kinetics and the observed phase behavior is easily rationalized in terms of a recent kinetic theory of L alpha/inverted phase transitions. In particular, it is likely that membrane fusion and the L alpha/inverted cubic phase transition proceed via a common set of intermembrane intermediates

  19. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  20. Physics of the intermediate vector bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altavelli, G.; DiLella, L.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of the CERN 450 GeV proton synchrotron (SPS) into a proton-antiproton collider was originally proposed in 1976 as a fast and relatively cheap way to produce and detect the weak intermediate Vector Bosons (IVB), W* and Z, by achieving hadronic collisions at an energy large enough to provide observable rates. The properties of such particles had been predicted already in the 60's in the framework of the so-called Standard Model of the unified electroweak theory developed; however, the interest in this theory arose only some years later, following the proof of renormalizability and the first experimental observation of neutrino interactions mediated by Z-exchange. In particular, the experiment obtained a measurement of the weak mixing angle, which allowed a quantitative prediction of the IVB mass values. The CERN Collider project was approved in 1978 and the first bar pp collisions at a total center-of-mass energy (√s) of 546 GeV were observed in 1981. The decay W → e ν was first observed among data collected at the end of 1982, and the decay Z → e + e - and Z → μ + μ - were observed a few months later. At present, following two more data-taking runs in 1984 and 1985 at a slightly increased center-of-mass energy (√s = 630 GeV), samples of ∼250 W → e ν and ∼30 Z → e + e - events are available from each of the two major experiments (UA1 and UA2), making possible a quantitative comparison of IVB properties with the predictions of the Standard Model. In this article the authors first describe the Standard Model of the unified electroweak theory, and the authors use the theoretical framework to derive the IVB mass values and their decay properties

  1. Intermediate filament protein evolution and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisner, Harald; Habicht, Jörn; Garg, Sriram G; Gould, Sven B

    2018-03-23

    Metazoans evolved from a single protist lineage. While all eukaryotes share a conserved actin and tubulin-based cytoskeleton, it is commonly perceived that intermediate filaments (IFs), including lamin, vimentin or keratin among many others, are restricted to metazoans. Actin and tubulin proteins are conserved enough to be detectable across all eukaryotic genomes using standard phylogenetic methods, but IF proteins, in contrast, are notoriously difficult to identify by such means. Since the 1950s, dozens of cytoskeletal proteins in protists have been identified that seemingly do not belong to any of the IF families described for metazoans, yet, from a structural and functional perspective fit criteria that define metazoan IF proteins. Here, we briefly review IF protein discovery in metazoans and the implications this had for the definition of this protein family. We argue that the many cytoskeletal and filament-forming proteins of protists should be incorporated into a more comprehensive picture of IF evolution by aligning it with the recent identification of lamins across the phylogenetic diversity of eukaryotic supergroups. This then brings forth the question of how the diversity of IF proteins has unfolded. The evolution of IF proteins likely represents an example of convergent evolution, which, in combination with the speed with which these cytoskeletal proteins are evolving, generated their current diversity. IF proteins did not first emerge in metazoa, but in protists. Only the emergence of cytosolic IF proteins that appear to stem from a nuclear lamin is unique to animals and coincided with the emergence of true animal multicellularity. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Unification of favourable intermediate-, unfavourable intermediate-, and very high-risk stratification criteria for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Zelefsky, Michael J; Woo, Kaitlin M; Spratt, Daniel E; Kollmeier, Marisa A; McBride, Sean; Pei, Xin; Sandler, Howard M; Zhang, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    To improve on the existing risk-stratification systems for prostate cancer. This was a retrospective investigation including 2 248 patients undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single institution. We separated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk prostate cancer into 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Similarly, NCCN high-risk prostate cancer was stratified into 'standard' and 'very high-risk' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Patients with unfavourable-intermediate-risk (UIR) prostate cancer had significantly inferior prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P prostate cancer. Similarly, patients with very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA-RFS (P prostate cancer. Moreover, patients with FIR and low-risk prostate cancer had similar outcomes, as did patients with UIR and SHR prostate cancer. Consequently, we propose the following risk-stratification system: Group 1, low risk and FIR; Group 2, UIR and SHR; and Group 3, VHR. These groups have markedly different outcomes, with 8-year distant metastasis rates of 3%, 9%, and 29% (P < 0.001) for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 8-year PCSM of 1%, 4%, and 13% (P < 0.001) after EBRT. This modified stratification system was significantly more accurate than the three-tiered NCCN system currently in clinical use for all outcomes. Modifying the NCCN risk-stratification system to group FIR with low-risk patients and UIR with SHR patients, results in modestly improved prediction of outcomes, potentially allowing better personalisation of therapeutic recommendations. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Intermediate mass distribution of the dual resonance pomeron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Matsuda, S.

    1978-01-01

    The intermediate mass distribution of the dual resonance pomeron is determined at the one-loop level and it is shown that the mass distribution obtained is remarkably similar to a suitably defined mass distribution in the dual multiperipheral model. Thus it is suggestive to identify the intermediate states of the dual resonance pomeron with multiperipheral processes. (Auth.)

  4. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  5. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  6. 42 CFR 54a.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54a.12... CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS RECEIVING... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.12 Treatment of intermediate organizations. If a...

  7. Financial Intermediation and the Nigerian Economy: A Time Series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and cointegration analysis based on Engle Granger cointegration theory and error correction methodology, we tested both short and long run relationships between financial intermediation and economic growth in Nigeria. The result revealed that a long–run relationship exists between financial intermediation and growth ...

  8. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  9. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...

  10. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  11. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS bar p experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance

  12. Top3 processes recombination intermediates and modulates checkpoint activity after DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Hickson, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Mutation of TOP3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes poor growth, hyperrecombination, and a failure to fully activate DNA damage checkpoints in S phase. Here, we report that overexpression of a dominant-negative allele of TOP3, TOP3(Y356F), which lacks the catalytic (decatenation) activity of Top3......, the catalytic activity of Top3 is not required for DNA damage checkpoint activation, but it is required for normal S-phase progression after DNA damage. We also present evidence that the checkpoint-mediated cell cycle delay and persistence of X-shaped DNA molecules resulting from overexpression of TOP3(Y356F......) are downstream of Rad51 function. We propose that Top3 functions in S phase to both process homologous recombination intermediates and modulate checkpoint activity....

  13. Phase diagram and quantum order by disorder in the Kitaev K1-K2 honeycomb magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousochatzakis, Ioannis; Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny; Rachel, Stephan; Perkins, Natalia

    We show that the topological Kitaev spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice is extremely fragile against the second neighbor Kitaev coupling K2, which has been recently identified as the dominant perturbation away from the nearest neighbor model in iridate Na2IrO3, and may also play a role in α-RuCl3. This coupling explains naturally the zig-zag ordering and the special entanglement between real and spin space observed recently in Na2IrO3. The minimal K1-K2 model that we present here holds in addition the unique property that the classical and quantum phase diagrams and their respective order-by-disorder mechanisms are qualitatively different due to their fundamentally different symmetry structure. Nsf DMR-1511768; Freie Univ. Berlin Excellence Initiative of German Research Foundation; European Research Council, ERC-StG-336012; DFG-SFB 1170; DFG-SFB 1143, DFG-SPP 1666, and Helmholtz association VI-521.

  14. ESR modes in a Strong-Leg Ladder in the Tomonaga-Luttinger Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvyagin, S.; Ozerov, M.; Maksymenko, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Honecker, A.; Landee, C. P.; Turnbull, M.; Furuya, S. C.; Giamarchi, T.

    Magnetic excitations in the strong-leg quantum spin ladder compound (C7H10N)2CuBr4 (known as DIMPY) in the field-induced Tomonaga-Luttinger spin liquid phase are studied by means of high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The presence of a gapped ESR mode with unusual non-linear frequency-field dependence is revealed experimentally. Using a combination of analytic and exact diagonalization methods, we compute the dynamical structure factor and identify this mode with longitudinal excitations in the antisymmetric channel. We argue that these excitations constitute a fingerprint of the spin dynamics in a strong-leg spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnetic ladder and owe its ESR observability to the uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. This work was partially supported by the DFG and Helmholtz Gemeinschaft (Germany), Swiss SNF under Division II, and ERC synergy UQUAM project. We acknowledge the support of the HLD at HZDR, member of the European Magnetic Field Laboratory (EMFL).

  15. Magnetic monopole plasma phase in (2+1)d compact quantum electrodynamics with fermionic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, Wesley; Hands, Simon; Lucini, Biagio; Kogut, John B.; Strouthos, Costas; Vranas, Pavlos

    2011-01-01

    We present the first evidence from lattice simulations that the magnetic monopoles in three-dimensional compact quantum electrodynamics (cQED 3 ) with N f =2 and N f =4 four-component fermion flavors are in a plasma phase. The evidence is based mainly on the divergence of the monopole susceptibility (polarizability) with the lattice size at weak gauge couplings. A weak four-Fermi term added to the cQED 3 action enabled simulations with massless fermions. The exact chiral symmetry of the interaction terms forbids symmetry breaking lattice discretization counterterms to appear in the theory's effective action. It is also shown that the scenario of a monopole plasma does not depend on the strength of the four-Fermi coupling. Other observables such as the densities of isolated dipoles and monopoles and the so-called specific heat show that a crossover from a dense monopole plasma to a dilute monopole gas occurs at strong couplings. The implications of our results on the stability of U(1) spin liquids in two spatial dimensions are also discussed.

  16. Product evaluation phase 1 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearsey, H.A.; Page, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report concerns the intermediate-level radioactive waste arisings from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at BNFL Sellafield. The graphite waste arises from the reprocessing of CAGR fuel assemblies. Headings are: introduction (origin of waste; future arisings); waste characterisation; initial evaluation of encapsulation options - evaluation of potential matrices for encapsulation of waste in form suitable for disposal; waste simulation; relevance to other phase II studies. (UK)

  17. Safe dry storage of intermediate-level waste at CRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, A.; Sanderson, T.; Lian, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing operations at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) generate High-, Intermediate- and Low-Level Waste (HLW, ILW and LLW) that will require safe storage for several decades until a long-term management facility is available. This waste is stored in below grade concrete structures (i.e. tile holes or bunkers) or the above-ground Shielded Modular Above Ground Storage (SMAGS) facility depending on the thermal and shielding requirements of the particular waste package. Existing facilities are reaching their capacity and alternate storage is required for the future storage of this radioactive material. To this end, work has been undertaken at CRL to design, license, construct and commission the next generation of waste management facilities. This paper provides a brief overview of the existing radioactive-waste management facilities used at CRL and focuses on the essential requirements and issues to be considered in designing a new waste storage facility. Fundamentally, there are four general requirements for a new storage facility to dry store dry non-fissile ILW. They are the need to provide: (1) containment, (2) shielding, (3) decay heat removal, and (4) ability to retrieve the waste for eventual placement in an appropriate long-term management facility. Additionally, consideration must be given to interfacing existing waste generating facilities with the new storage facility. The new facilities will be designed to accept waste for 40 years followed by 60 years of passive storage for a facility lifespan of 100 years. The design should be modular and constructed in phases, each designed to accept ten years of waste. This strategy will allow for modifications to subsequent modules to account for changes in waste characteristics and generation rates. Two design concepts currently under consideration are discussed. (author)

  18. Kinetics and mechanisms of reactions involving small aromatic reactive intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, M.C. [Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Small aromatic radicals such as C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 6}H{sub 4} are key prototype species of their homologs. C{sub 6}H{sub 5} and its oxidation product, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O are believed to be important intermediates which play a pivotal role in hydrocarbon combustion, particularly with regard to soot formation. Despite their fundamental importance, experimental data on the reaction mechanisms and reactivities of these species are very limited. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}, most kinetic data except its reactions with NO and NO{sub 2}, were obtained by relative rate measurements. For C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O, the authors have earlier measured its fragmentation reaction producing C{sub 5}H{sub 5} + CO in shock waves. For C{sub 6}H{sub 4}, the only rate constant measured in the gas phase is its recombination rate at room temperature. The authors have proposed to investigate systematically the kinetics and mechanisms of this important class of molecules using two parallel laser diagnostic techniques--laser resonance absorption (LRA) and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry (REMPI/MS). In the past two years, study has been focused on the development of a new multipass adsorption technique--the {open_quotes}cavity-ring-down{close_quotes} technique for kinetic applications. The preliminary results of this study appear to be quite good and the sensitivity of the technique is at least comparable to that of the laser-induced fluorescence method.

  19. Perspective: Spectroscopy and kinetics of small gaseous Criegee intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2015-01-01

    The Criegee intermediates, carbonyl oxides proposed by Criegee in 1949 as key intermediates in the ozonolysis of alkenes, play important roles in many aspects of atmospheric chemistry. Because direct detection of these gaseous intermediates was unavailable until recently, previous understanding of their reactions, derived from indirect experimental evidence, had great uncertainties. Recent laboratory detection of the simplest Criegee intermediate CH 2 OO and some larger members, produced from ultraviolet irradiation of corresponding diiodoalkanes in O 2 , with various methods such as photoionization, ultraviolet absorption, infrared absorption, and microwave spectroscopy opens a new door to improved understanding of the roles of these Criegee intermediates. Their structures and spectral parameters have been characterized; their significant zwitterionic nature is hence confirmed. CH 2 OO, along with other products, has also been detected directly with microwave spectroscopy in gaseous ozonolysis reactions of ethene. The detailed kinetics of the source reaction, CH 2 I + O 2 , which is critical to laboratory studies of CH 2 OO, are now understood satisfactorily. The kinetic investigations using direct detection identified some important atmospheric reactions, including reactions with NO 2 , SO 2 , water dimer, carboxylic acids, and carbonyl compounds. Efforts toward the characterization of larger Criegee intermediates and the investigation of related reactions are in progress. Some reactions of CH 3 CHOO are found to depend on conformation. This perspective examines progress toward the direct spectral characterization of Criegee intermediates and investigations of the associated reaction kinetics, and indicates some unresolved problems and prospective challenges for this exciting field of research

  20. Language in use intermediate : self-study workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  1. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  2. Structure of replicating intermediates of human herpesvirus type 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Alberto; Sevenhuysen, Claire; Garbutt, Michael; Tipples, Graham A.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the structure of the replicative intermediates of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, partial digestion, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and sedimentation centrifugation. The results show that DNA replication of HHV-6 produces head-to-tail concatemeric intermediates as well as approximately equal amounts of circular monomers or oligomers. Unlike the situation in herpes simplex virus, the intermediates of human herpesvirus 6 replication are not highly branched, suggesting a difference in the mechanism of replication or a lower frequency of homologous recombination in human herpesvirus 6 compared to herpes simplex virus

  3. Enhancement of intermediate-field two-photon absorption by rationally shaped femtosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuntonov, Lev; Rybak, Leonid; Gandman, Andrey; Amitay, Zohar

    2008-01-01

    We extend the powerful frequency-domain analysis of femtosecond two-photon absorption to the intermediate-field regime of considerable absorption yields, where additionally to the weak-field nonresonant two-photon transitions also four-photon transitions play a role. Consequently, we rationally find that the absorption is enhanced over the transform-limited pulse by any shaped pulse having a spectral phase that is antisymmetric around one-half of the transition frequency and a spectrum that is asymmetric around it (red or blue detuned according to the system). The enhancement increases as the field strength increases. The theoretical results for Na are verified experimentally

  4. Digital low level rf control system with four different intermediate frequencies for the International Linear Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Sigit Basuki; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; Miura, Takako; Qiu, Feng; Liu, Na

    2017-09-01

    A field programmable gate array-based digital low level rf (LLRF) control system will be used in the International Linear Collider (ILC) in order to satisfy the rf stability requirements. The digital LLRF control system with four different intermediate frequencies has been developed to decrease the required number of analog-to-digital converters in this system. The proof of concept of this technique was demonstrated at the Superconducting RF Test Facility in the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Japan. The amplitude and phase stability has fulfilled the ILC requirements.

  5. Origin of the finite nuclear spin and its effect in intermediate energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoqiang; Cao Xiguang; Fu Yao

    2012-01-01

    The heavy-ion phase-space exploration (HIPSE) model is used to discuss the origin of the nuclear spin in intermediate energy heavy-ion collision (HIC). The spin of maximal projectile-like fragment is found to depend strongly on impact parameter of a reaction system,while it relates weakly to the collision violence. Some interesting multi-fragmentation phenomena related to the spin are shown. We also found that the excitation energy in the de-excitation stage plays a robust role at the de-excitation stage in HIC. (authors)

  6. Analysis of Preference Data Using Intermediate Test Statistic Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research Vol.7 No. 1 June ... Keywords:-Preference data, Friedman statistic, multinomial test statistic, intermediate test statistic. ... new method and consequently a new statistic ...

  7. Proceedings of the 6. National Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Several works on nuclear, hadron and quark physics are presented covering both aspects; theoretical and experimental, are presented. Emphasis is given in the intermediate energy region, several MeV centil few GeV. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Packaging and transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.S.; Streatfield, R.E.

    1987-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of Nirex proposals for the packaging and transport of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste, as well as the regulatory requirements which must be met in such operations. (author)

  9. Supersymmetry and intermediate symmetry breaking in SO(10) superunification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatryan, H.M.; Ioannisyan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    A scheme of simultaneous breakdown of intermediate symmetry SO(10) → SU(3)sub(c) x U(1) x SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) and supersymmetry by means of a single scale parameter is suggested. This intermediate symmetry, which is preferable physically, owing to the broken supersymmetry has a minimum lying lower than SU(4) x SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R). The intermediate symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs superfields. Owing to the quantum corrections the potential minimum turns out to correspond to breakdown of the intermediate symmetry up to the standard group SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(y). The value of the Weinberg angle is less than that in the supersymmetric SU(5) model and agrees with the experiment

  10. On the stability of rotational discontinuities and intermediate shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.C.; Huang, L.; Chao, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The stability of rotational discontinuities and intermediate shocks is studied based on a hybrid simulation code. The simulation results show that rotational discontinuities are stable and intermediate shocks are not stationary. Intermediate shocks tend to evolve to rotational discontinuities and waves. The authors employ several different initial profiles for the magnetic field in the transition region and find that the final structure of the discontinuities or shocks is not sensitive to the initial magnetic field profile. The present results are different from those obtained from the resistive MHD simulations. Furthermore, their study indicates that the kinetic effect of particles plays an important role in the structure and stability of rotational discontinuities and intermediate shocks

  11. Singlet channel coupling in deuteron elastic scattering at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalili, J.S.; Tostevin, J.A.; Johnson, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Intermediate energy deuteron elastic scattering is investigated in a three-body model incorporating relativistic kinematics. The effects of deuteron breakup to singlet spin intermediate states, on the elastic scattering observables for the 58 Ni(d vector, d) 58 Ni reaction at 400 and 700 MeV, are studied quantitatively. The singlet-breakup contributions to the elastic amplitude are estimated within an approximate two-step calculation. The calculation makes an adiabatic approximation in the intermediate states propagator which allows the use of closure over the np intermediate states continuum. The singlet channel coupling is found to produce large effects on the calculated reaction tensor analysing power A yy , characteristic of a dynamically induced second-rank tensor interaction. By inspection of the calculated breakup amplitudes we show this induced interaction to be of the T L tensor type. (orig.)

  12. Assessing the need for intermediate diaphragms in prestressed concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Reinforced concrete intermediate diaphragms (IDs) are currently being used in prestressed concrete (PC) girder bridges in Louisiana. Some of the advantages of providing IDs are disputed in the bridge community; the use of IDs increases the cost and t...

  13. Thermogravimetric control of intermediate compounds in uranium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1959-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of some intermediate compounds in the metallurgy of the uranium as uranium peroxide, ammonium uranate, uranium and ammonium penta-fluoride, uranium tetrafluoride and uranous oxide has been study by means of the Chevenard's thermo balance. Some data on pyrolysis of synthetic mixtures of intermediate compounds which may occasionally appear during the industrial process, are given. Thermogravimetric methods of control are suggested, usable in interesting products in the uranium metallurgy. (Author) 20 refs

  14. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  15. A hybrid intermediate language between SSA and CPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrens, Paulo; Vasconcellos, Cristiano; Gonçalves, Ju

    2017-01-01

    passing style (CPS) lambda calculus has been used as intermediate language for functional language compilers, they are (almost) equivalent and it is possible to draw syntactic translations between them. This short paper aims to present an untyped intermediate language which may be interpreted as both SSA...... and CPS, in order to provide a common language for both imperative and functional compilers, as well to take advantage of optimizations designed for either one of the approaches. Finally, potential variants and research opportunities are discussed....

  16. Nuclear spin-orbit splitting from an intermediate Δ excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, K.; Terasawa, T.; Tohyama, M.

    1980-01-01

    The strength of the single particle spin-orbit potential is calculated from the two pion exchange box diagrams involving an intermediate Δ(1232) resonance excitation by taking account of the exclusion principle for the intermediate nucleon states. The effect of the rho meson is also considered. The predicted strength is found to account for a substantial part of the empirical spin-orbit splittings

  17. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc......This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl...

  18. Intermediate-energy neutron beams from reactors for NCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses ways that a beam of intermediate-energy neutrons might be extracted from a nuclear reactor. The challenge is to suppress the fast-neutron component and the gamma-ray component of the flux while leaving enough of the intermediate-energy neutrons in the beam to be able to perform neutron capture therapy in less than an hour exposure time. Moderators, filters, and reflectors are considered. 11 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  19. Intermediate heat exchanger for HTR process heat application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crambes, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the French study on the nuclear gasification of coal, the following options were recommended: Coal hydrogenation, the hydrogen being derived from CH 4 reforming under the effects of HTR heat; the use of an intermediate helium circuit between the nuclear plant and the reforming plant. The purpose of the present paper is to describe the heat exchanger designed to transfer heat from the primary to the intermediate circuit

  20. Deep and intermediate mediterranean water in the western Alboran Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilla, Gregorio; Kinder, Thomas H.; Preller, Ruth H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydrographic and current meter data, obtained during June to October 1982, and numerical model experiments are used to study the distribution and flow of Mediterranean waters in the western Alboran Sea. The Intermediate Water is more pronounced in the northern three-fourths of the sea, but its distribution is patchy as manifested by variability of the temperature and salinity maxima at scales ≤10 km. Current meters in the lower Intermediate Water showed mean flow toward the Strait at 2 cm s -1. A reversal of this flow lasted about 2 weeks. A rough estimate of the mean westward Intermediate Water transport was 0.4 × 10 6 m 3 s -1, about one-third of the total outflow, so that the best estimates of the contributions of traditionally defined Intermediate Water and Deep Water account for only about one-half of the total outflow. The Deep Water was uplifted against the southern continental slope from Alboran Island (3°W) to the Strait. There was also a similar but much weaker banking against the Spanish slope, but a deep current record showed that the eastward recirculation implied by this banking is probably intermittent. Two-layer numerical model experiments simulated the Intermediate Water flow with a flat bottom and the Deep Water with realistic bottom topography. Both experiments replicated the major circulation features, and the Intermediate Water flow was concentrated in the north because of rotation and the Deep Water flow in the south because of topographic control.

  1. Present status of intermediate band solar cell research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadra, L.; Marti, A.; Luque, A.

    2004-01-01

    The intermediate band solar cell is a theoretical concept with the potential for exceeding the performance of conventional single-gap solar cells. This novel photovoltaic converter bases its superior theoretical efficiency over single-gap solar cells by enhancing its photogenerated current, via the two-step absorption of sub-band gap photons, without reducing its output voltage. This is achieved through a material with an electrically isolated and partially filled intermediate band located within a higher forbidden gap. This material is commonly named intermediate band material. This paper centres on summarising the present status of intermediate band solar cell research. A number of attempts, which aim to implement the intermediate band concept, are being followed: the direct engineering of the intermediate band material, its implementation by means of quantum dots and the highly porous material approach. Among other sub-band gap absorbing proposals, there is a renewed interest on the impurity photovoltaic effect, the quantum well solar cells and the particularly promising proposal for the use of up- and down-converters

  2. Processing and validation of intermediate energy evaluated data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Current accelerator-driven and other intermediate energy technologies require accurate nuclear data to model the performance of the target/blanket assembly, neutron production, activation, heating and damage. In a previous WPEC subgroup, SG13 on intermediate energy nuclear data, various aspects of intermediate energy data, such as nuclear data needs, experiments, model calculations and file formatting issues were investigated and categorized to come to a joint evaluation effort. The successor of SG13, SG14 on the processing and validation of intermediate energy evaluated data files, goes one step further. The nuclear data files that have been created with the aforementioned information need to be processed and validated in order to be applicable in realistic intermediate energy simulations. We emphasize that the work of SG14 excludes the 0-20 MeV data part of the neutron evaluations, which is supposed to be covered elsewhere. This final report contains the following sections: section 2: a survey of the data files above 20 MeV that have been considered for validation in SG14; section 3: a summary of the review of the 150 MeV intermediate energy data files for ENDF/B-VI and, more briefly, the other libraries; section 4: validation of the data library against an integral experiment with MCNPX; section 5: conclusions. (author)

  3. Isoporphyrin intermediate in heme oxygenase catalysis. Oxidation of alpha-meso-phenylheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John P; Niemevz, Fernando; Buldain, Graciela; de Montellano, Paul Ortiz

    2008-07-11

    Human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) catalyzes the O2- and NADPH-dependent oxidation of heme to biliverdin, CO, and free iron. The first step involves regiospecific insertion of an oxygen atom at the alpha-meso carbon by a ferric hydroperoxide and is predicted to proceed via an isoporphyrin pi-cation intermediate. Here we report spectroscopic detection of a transient intermediate during oxidation by hHO-1 of alpha-meso-phenylheme-IX, alpha-meso-(p-methylphenyl)-mesoheme-III, and alpha-meso-(p-trifluoromethylphenyl)-mesoheme-III. In agreement with previous experiments (Wang, J., Niemevz, F., Lad, L., Huang, L., Alvarez, D. E., Buldain, G., Poulos, T. L., and Ortiz de Montellano, P. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 42593-42604), only the alpha-biliverdin isomer is produced with concomitant formation of the corresponding benzoic acid. The transient intermediate observed in the NADPH-P450 reductase-catalyzed reaction accumulated when the reaction was supported by H2O2 and exhibited the absorption maxima at 435 and 930 nm characteristic of an isoporphyrin. Product analysis by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the product generated with H2O2 identified it as an isoporphyrin that, on quenching, decayed to benzoylbiliverdin. In the presence of H218O2, one labeled oxygen atom was incorporated into these products. The hHO-1-isoporphyrin complexes were found to have half-lives of 1.7 and 2.4 h for the p-trifluoromethyl- and p-methyl-substituted phenylhemes, respectively. The addition of NADPH-P450 reductase to the H2O2-generated hHO-1-isoporphyrin complex produced alpha-biliverdin, confirming its role as a reaction intermediate. Identification of an isoporphyrin intermediate in the catalytic sequence of hHO-1, the first such intermediate observed in hemoprotein catalysis, completes our understanding of the critical first step of heme oxidation.

  4. Effect of hyperons on nuclear phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.; Mallik, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2016-01-01

    Phase transition of nuclear system in heavy ion-collisions at intermediate energy has been studied well for many years and it has also been extended to strange nuclear matter. Recently, using the Canonical Thermodynamical Model (CTM), detailed work on multiplicity distribution of fragments produced from fragmentation of hypernuclear system shows the existence of phase transition or phase coexistence in strange system with Λ-hyperons. In present work we want to continue the investigation on phase transition with respect to some other thermodynamic observables like free energy, specific heat etc. in order to be confirmed about the nature of the transition

  5. PHASE CHAOS IN THE DISCRETE KURAMOTO MODEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maistrenko, V.; Vasylenko, A.; Maistrenko, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the appearance of a novel, high-dimensional chaotic regime, called phase chaos, in a time-discrete Kuramoto model of globally coupled phase oscillators. This type of chaos is observed at small and intermediate values of the coupling strength. It arises from the nonlinear...... interaction among the oscillators, while the individual oscillators behave periodically when left uncoupled. For the four-dimensional time-discrete Kuramoto model, we outline the region of phase chaos in the parameter plane and determine the regions where phase chaos coexists with different periodic...

  6. The eikonal phase of supersymmetric Coulomb partners

    CERN Document Server

    Lassaut, M; Lombard, R J

    1998-01-01

    We investigate the eikonal phase and its systematic corrections for the two supersymmetric Coulomb partners V sub 1 and V sub 2 derived by Amado. Apart from a constant shift of -pi for V sub 1 and -2 pi for V sub 2 , the eikonal phase decay to the eikonal phase of the Coulomb potential as 1/kb. For the potential V sub 2 , which is phase equivalent to the Coulomb potential, this result is only valid at b approx =0 and asymptotically; in the intermediate range, it constitutes a lower limit. (author)

  7. On light cluster production in nucleon induced reactions at intermediate energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Blideanu, V.; Durand, D

    2004-09-01

    A dynamical model dedicated to nucleon induced reaction between 30-150 MeV is presented. It considers different stages of the reaction: the approaching phase, the in-medium nucleon-nucleon collisions, the cluster formation and the secondary de-excitation process. The notions of influence area and phase-space exploration during the reaction are introduced. The importance of the geometry of the reaction and of the conservation laws are underlined. The model is able to globally reproduce the absolute cross sections for the emission of neutron and light charged particles for proton and neutron induced reactions on heavy and intermediate mass targets ({sup 56}Fe and {sup 208}Pb). (authors)

  8. Phase formation in contact of dissimilar metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvin, V S; Kazachkova, Yu A; Povzner, A A [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Mira st., 19, A-203, Yekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: savvin-vs@yandex.ru

    2008-02-15

    Formation and growth of intermediate phases in contact of the crystalline samples forming a two-component eutectic system is considered. It is shown that during the competition to a growing liquid phase the intermediate solid phases cannot grow by diffusion. The alternative is formation of metastable areas of a liquid phase. Measurements of liquid layers extent in Pb-Bi and In-Bi systems have allowed to define the composition of liquid on interface where formation of metastable liquid is possible. The results show that the concentration interval of a liquid layer corresponds to a stable constitution diagram. In order to explain the experimental results the hypothesis according to which the intermediate solid phases are formed as a result of precipitation from metastable melt is considered. The experimental confirmation of formation and crystallization of a metastable liquid is the fact that intergrowth of the samples forming system with an intermetallic phase at temperatures below the temperature of fusion of the most low-melting eutectic is observed. The possibility of the processes concerned with the occurrence of metastable areas of a liquid is showed by means of computer imitation.

  9. Possibility of the use of intermediate carbidsiliconoxide nanolayers on polydiamond substrates for gallium nitride layers epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Averichkin, P. A., E-mail: P-Yugov@mail.ru; Donskov, A. A. [State Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry Giredmet AO (Russian Federation); Dukhnovsky, M. P. [R & D Enterprise Istok (Russian Federation); Knyazev, S. N. [State Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry Giredmet AO (Russian Federation); Kozlova, Yu. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Yugova, T. G.; Belogorokhov, I. A. [State Research and Design Institute of Rare-Metal Industry Giredmet AO (Russian Federation)

    2016-04-15

    The results of using carbidsiliconoxide (a-C:SiO1{sub .5}) films with a thickness of 30–60 nm, produced by the pyrolysis annealing of oligomethylsilseskvioksana (CH{sub 3}–SiO{sub 1.5}){sub n} with cyclolinear (staircased) molecular structure, as intermediate films in the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of gallium nitride on polycrystalline CVD-diamond substrates are presented. In the pyrolysis annealing of (CH{sub 3}–SiO{sub 1.5}){sub n} films in an atmosphere of nitrogen at a temperature of 1060°C, methyl radicals are carbonized to yield carbon atoms chemically bound to silicon. In turn, these atoms form a SiC monolayer on the surface of a-C:SiO{sub 1.5} films via covalent bonding with silicon. It is shown that GaN islands grow on such an intermediate layer on CVD-polydiamond substrates in the process of hydride vapor phase epitaxy in a vertical reactor from the GaCl–NH{sub 3}–N{sub 2} gas mixture.

  10. Effects of intermediate wettability on entry capillary pressure in angular pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Harris Sajjad; Joekar-Niasar, Vahid; Shokri, Nima

    2016-07-01

    Entry capillary pressure is one of the most important factors controlling drainage and remobilization of the capillary-trapped phases as it is the limiting factor against the two-phase displacement. It is known that the entry capillary pressure is rate dependent such that the inertia forces would enhance entry of the non-wetting phase into the pores. More importantly the entry capillary pressure is wettability dependent. However, while the movement of a meniscus into a strongly water-wet pore is well-defined, the invasion of a meniscus into a weak or intermediate water-wet pore especially in the case of angular pores is ambiguous. In this study using OpenFOAM software, high-resolution direct two-phase flow simulations of movement of a meniscus in a single capillary channel are performed. Interface dynamics in angular pores under drainage conditions have been simulated under constant flow rate boundary condition at different wettability conditions. Our results shows that the relation between the half corner angle of pores and contact angle controls the temporal evolution of capillary pressure during the invasion of a pore. By deviating from pure water-wet conditions, a dip in the temporal evolution of capillary pressure can be observed which will be pronounced in irregular angular cross sections. That enhances the pore invasion with a smaller differential pressure. The interplay between the contact angle and pore geometry can have significant implications for enhanced remobilization of ganglia in intermediate contact angles in real porous media morphologies, where pores are very heterogeneous with small shape factors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Top predators induce the evolutionary diversification of intermediate predator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Jian; Yuan, Bo; Du, Jianqiang

    2015-12-21

    We analyze the evolutionary branching phenomenon of intermediate predator species in a tritrophic food chain model by using adaptive dynamics theory. Specifically, we consider the adaptive diversification of an intermediate predator species that feeds on a prey species and is fed upon by a top predator species. We assume that the intermediate predator׳s ability to forage on the prey can adaptively improve, but this comes at the cost of decreased defense ability against the top predator. First, we identify the general properties of trade-off relationships that lead to a continuously stable strategy or to evolutionary branching in the intermediate predator species. We find that if there is an accelerating cost near the singular strategy, then that strategy is continuously stable. In contrast, if there is a mildly decelerating cost near the singular strategy, then that strategy may be an evolutionary branching point. Second, we find that after branching has occurred, depending on the specific shape and strength of the trade-off relationship, the intermediate predator species may reach an evolutionarily stable dimorphism or one of the two resultant predator lineages goes extinct. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intermediate Filaments at the Junction of Mechanotransduction, Migration, and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Sanghvi-Shah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically induced signal transduction has an essential role in development. Cells actively transduce and respond to mechanical signals and their internal architecture must manage the associated forces while also being dynamically responsive. With unique assembly-disassembly dynamics and physical properties, cytoplasmic intermediate filaments play an important role in regulating cell shape and mechanical integrity. While this function has been recognized and appreciated for more than 30 years, continually emerging data also demonstrate important roles of intermediate filaments in cell signal transduction. In this review, with a particular focus on keratins and vimentin, the relationship between the physical state of intermediate filaments and their role in mechanotransduction signaling is illustrated through a survey of current literature. Association with adhesion receptors such as cadherins and integrins provides a critical interface through which intermediate filaments are exposed to forces from a cell's environment. As a consequence, these cytoskeletal networks are posttranslationally modified, remodeled and reorganized with direct impacts on local signal transduction events and cell migratory behaviors important to development. We propose that intermediate filaments provide an opportune platform for cells to both cope with mechanical forces and modulate signal transduction.

  13. Insignificant disease among men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kyu; Vertosick, Emily; Sjoberg, Daniel D; Scardino, Peter T; Eastham, James A

    2014-12-01

    A paucity of data exists on the insignificant disease potentially suitable for active surveillance (AS) among men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa). We tried to identify pathologically insignificant disease and its preoperative predictors in men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) for intermediate-risk PCa. We analyzed data of 1,630 men who underwent RP for intermediate-risk disease. Total tumor volume (TTV) data were available in 332 men. We examined factors associated with classically defined pathologically insignificant cancer (organ-confined disease with TTV ≤0.5 ml with no Gleason pattern 4 or 5) and pathologically favorable cancer (organ-confined disease with no Gleason pattern 4 or 5) potentially suitable for AS. Decision curve analysis was used to assess clinical utility of a multivariable model including preoperative variables for predicting pathologically unfavorable cancer. In the entire cohort, 221 of 1,630 (13.6 %) total patients had pathologically favorable cancer. Among 332 patients with TTV data available, 26 (7.8 %) had classically defined pathologically insignificant cancer. Between threshold probabilities of 20 and 40 %, decision curve analysis demonstrated that using multivariable model to identify AS candidates would not provide any benefit over simply treating all men who have intermediate-risk disease with RP. Although a minority of patients with intermediate-risk disease may harbor pathologically favorable or insignificant cancer, currently available conventional tools are not sufficiently able to identify those patients.

  14. CONDITIONING OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL WASTE AT FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JUELICH GMBH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbach, H.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution to the group of low-level, intermediate, mixed and hazardous waste describes the conditioning of intermediate-level mixed waste (dose rate above 10 mSv/h at the surface) from Research Centre Juelich (FZJ). Conditioning of the waste by supercompaction is performed at Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK). The waste described is radioactive waste arising from research at Juelich. This waste includes specimens and objects from irradiation experiments in the research reactors Merlin (FRJ-1) and Dido (FRJ-2) at FZJ. In principle, radioactive waste at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is differentiated by the surface dose rate at the waste package. Up to a surface dose rate of 10 mSv/h, the waste is regarded as low-level. The radioactive waste described here has a surface dose rate above 10 mSv/h. Waste up to 10 mSv/h is conditioned at the Juelich site according to different conditioning methods. The intermediate-level waste can only be conditioned by supercompaction in the processing facility for intermediate-level waste from plant operation at Research Centre Karlsruhe. Research Centre Juelich also uses this waste cell to condition its intermediate-level waste from plant operation

  15. An improved intermediate resonance method for heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiovato, O.; Corno, S.; Pasquantonio, F.Di.

    1977-01-01

    A new formulation is described of the Intermediate Resonance method which incorporates the previous developments suitably modified and improved, together with some new contributions. The 'intermediate' character is directly introduced in the integral operator K, allowing a more rigorous deduction of the equations for evaluating the intermediate parameters related to the nuclides involved in the system. There is no limit to the number of internal (admixed in the fuel) and external moderators. The capability to take into account the interference scattering has been extended to heterogeneous systems. The Doppler broadening is described by means of new accurate rational approximations to the broadened line shape psi. Finally the use of energy mean values suitably defined refines the values of the resonance integrals and resonance absorption cross sections. The Intermediate Resonance method so extended and improved, has been coded in a group of FORTRAN routines, which have been inserted as a calculation option in the fast section of the GGC code for the evaluation of multigroup cross sections. A series of calculations has been carried out, using these routines, and comparisons have been made with Monte Carlo and Nordheim's methods. The results obtained show that the Intermediate Resonance method developed in the present work offers considerable advantages over Nordheim's method: better accuracy in evaluating resonance absorption cross sections, and much smaller computing times. (author)

  16. Low temperature intermediate band metallic behavior in Ti implanted Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olea, Javier, E-mail: oleaariza@fis.ucm.es; Pastor, David; Garcia-Hemme, Eric; Garcia-Hernansanz, Rodrigo; Prado, Alvaro del; Martil, Ignacio; Gonzalez-Diaz, German

    2012-08-31

    Si samples implanted with very high Ti doses and subjected to Pulsed-Laser Melting (PLM) have been electrically analyzed in the scope of a two-layer model previously reported based on the Intermediate Band (IB) theory. Conductivity and Hall effect measurements using the van der Pauw technique suggest that the insulator-metal transition takes place for implantation doses in the 10{sup 14}-10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} range. Results of the sample implanted with the 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} dose show a metallic behavior at low temperature that is explained by the formation of a p-type IB out of the Ti deep levels. This suggests that the IB would be semi-filled, which is essential for IB photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We fabricated high dose Ti implanted Si samples for intermediate band research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured the electronic transport properties in the 7-300 K range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show an insulator to metallic transition when the intermediate band is formed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The intermediate band is semi-filled and populated by holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We satisfactorily explain the electrical behavior by an intermediate band model.

  17. Collision local time of transient random walks and intermediate phases in interacting stochastic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkner, M.; Greven, A.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.

    2011-01-01

    In a companion paper (M. Birkner, A. Greven, F. den Hollander, Quenched LDP for words in a letter sequence, Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 148, no. 3/4 (2010), 403-456), a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) has been established for the empirical process of words obtained by cutting an i.i.d.

  18. Collision local time of transient random walks and intermediate phases in interacting stochastic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkner, M.; Greven, A.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.

    2008-01-01

    In a companion paper, a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) has been established for the empirical process of words obtained by cutting an i.i.d. sequence of letters into words according to a renewal process. We apply this LDP to prove that the radius of convergence of the moment generating

  19. Collision local time of transient random walks and intermediate phases in interacting stochastic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkner, M.; Greven, A.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.

    2010-01-01

    In a companion paper, a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) has been established for the empirical process of words obtained by cutting an i.i.d. sequence of letters into words according to a renewal process. We apply this LDP to prove that the radius of convergence of the moment generating

  20. Tetracycline degradation by ozonation in the aqueous phase: Proposed degradation intermediates and pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. Hammad; Bae, Hyokwan; Jung, Jin-Young

    2010-01-01

    During the ozonation of tetracycline (TC) in aqueous media at pHs 2.2 and 7.0, the effects of pH variations, protonation and dissociation of functional groups and variation in free radical exposure were investigated to elucidate the transformation pathway. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detected around 15 ozonation products, and uncovered their production and subsequent degradation patterns. During ozonation at pH 2.2, the TC degradation pathway was proposed on the basis of the structure, ozonation chemistry and mass spectrometry data of TC. Ozonation of TC at the C11a-C12 and C2-C3 double bonds, aromatic ring and amino group generated products of m/z 461, 477, 509 and 416, respectively. Further ozonation at the above mentioned sites gave products of m/z 432, 480, 448, 525 and 496. The removal of TOC reached a maximum of ∼40% after 2 h of ozonation, while TC was completely removed within 4-6 min at both pHs. The low TOC removal efficiency might be due to the generation of recalcitrant products and the low ozone supply for high TC concentration. Ozonation decreased the acute toxicity of TC faster at pH 7.0 than pH 2.2, but the maximum decrease was only about 40% at both pHs after 2 h of ozonation. In this study, attempts were made to understand the correlation between the transformation products, pathway, acute toxicity and quantity of residual organics in solution. Overall, ozonation was found to be a promising process for removing TC and the products initially generated.

  1. Kinetics of disorder-to-fcc phase transition via an intermediate bcc state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Liu, Y.; Nie, H.; Bansil, R.; Steinhart, Miloš; Bang, J.; Lodge, T. P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 6 (2006), 061803-1-061803-6 ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : x-ray scattering * polymer blends * polymer solutions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.438, year: 2006

  2. Linguistic Gender Sensitivity Strategies in Current South African Intermediate Phase English Workbooks: Feminisation or Degenderisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Jabulani; Sibanda, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    This study extends research on manifestations of gender insensitivity in learners' reading materials by shifting attention to the linguistic strategies that authors of current texts employ for the realisation of gender sensitivity. We analysed the content of 12 current (2014) English workbooks (Grade 4-6) used in South African government and…

  3. Aqueous phase reforming of ethylene glycol - Role of intermediates in catalyst performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vlieger, Dennis; Mojet, Barbara; Lefferts, Leonardus; Seshan, Kulathuiyer

    2012-01-01

    Liquid product formation during the aqueous catalytic reforming of ethylene glycol (EG) was studied up to 450 °C and 250 bar pressure. Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid were the main liquid by-products during EG reforming in the presence of alumina-supported Pt and Pt–Ni catalysts. The effect of

  4. Catching the intermediate phase in PZT 99/1 single crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buixaderas, Elena; Ostapchuk, Tetyana; Kroupa, Jan; Savinov, Maxim; Gregora, Ivan; Hlinka, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 1105-1113 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15110S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * phonons * PZT * antiferroelectrics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  5. Crystallographic study of the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb3Zn4 and Sb2Zn3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjadj, Fouzia; Belbacha, El-djemai; Bouharkat, Malek; Kerboub, Abdellah

    2006-01-01

    The processes of development of semiconductor ceramics made up of bismuth, antimony and zinc often require during their preparation to know the nature of the involved phases. For that, it is always essential to refer to the diagrams of balance between phases of the binary systems or ternary. We presented in this work the study by X-rays diffraction relating to the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb 3 Zn 4 and Sb 2 Zn 3 . The analysis by X-rays is often useful to give supplement the results of the other experimental methods

  6. Influence of intermediate annealing on abnormal Goss grain growth in the rolled columnar-grained Fe-Ga-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Texture of primary IA sample was dominated by γ-fiber with a peak at {1 1 1}<1 1 0>. • Texture of primary CR sample was dominated by {1 1 3}<1 1 4> texture. • Inhomogeneous microstructure was significantly improved in primary IA sample. • Strong Goss texture was obtained in final IA sample without surface energy control. - Abstract: Magnetostrictive Fe 82 Ga 4.5 Al 13.5 sheets with 0.1 at% NbC were prepared from directional solidified alloys with <0 0 1> preferred orientation. The slabs were hot rolled at 650 °C and warm rolled at 500 °C. Then some warm-rolled sheets were annealed intermediately at 850 °C for 5 min but the others not. After that, all the sheets were cold rolled to a final thickness of ∼0.3 mm. The microstructures, the textures and the distributions of second phase particles in the primary recrystallized samples were investigated. With intermediate annealing, the inhomogeneous microstructure was improved remarkably and strong Goss ({1 1 0}<0 0 1>) and γ-fiber (<1 1 1>//normal direction [ND]) textures were produced in the primary recrystallized samples. But, an evident disadvantage in size and quantity was observed for Goss grains in the primary recrystallized sample without intermediate annealing. After a final annealing, the final textures and magnetostrictions of samples with and without intermediate annealing were characterized. For samples without intermediate annealing, abnormal growth of {1 1 3} grains occurred and deteriorated the magnetostriction. In contrast, abnormal Goss grain growth occurred completely in samples with intermediate annealing and led to saturation magnetostriction as high as 156 ppm.

  7. Influence of intermediate annealing on abnormal Goss grain growth in the rolled columnar-grained Fe-Ga-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yangyang; Li, Jiheng; Gao, Xuexu, E-mail: gaox@skl.ustb.edu.cn

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • Texture of primary IA sample was dominated by γ-fiber with a peak at {1 1 1}<1 1 0>. • Texture of primary CR sample was dominated by {1 1 3}<1 1 4> texture. • Inhomogeneous microstructure was significantly improved in primary IA sample. • Strong Goss texture was obtained in final IA sample without surface energy control. - Abstract: Magnetostrictive Fe{sub 82}Ga{sub 4.5}Al{sub 13.5} sheets with 0.1 at% NbC were prepared from directional solidified alloys with <0 0 1> preferred orientation. The slabs were hot rolled at 650 °C and warm rolled at 500 °C. Then some warm-rolled sheets were annealed intermediately at 850 °C for 5 min but the others not. After that, all the sheets were cold rolled to a final thickness of ∼0.3 mm. The microstructures, the textures and the distributions of second phase particles in the primary recrystallized samples were investigated. With intermediate annealing, the inhomogeneous microstructure was improved remarkably and strong Goss ({1 1 0}<0 0 1>) and γ-fiber (<1 1 1>//normal direction [ND]) textures were produced in the primary recrystallized samples. But, an evident disadvantage in size and quantity was observed for Goss grains in the primary recrystallized sample without intermediate annealing. After a final annealing, the final textures and magnetostrictions of samples with and without intermediate annealing were characterized. For samples without intermediate annealing, abnormal growth of {1 1 3} grains occurred and deteriorated the magnetostriction. In contrast, abnormal Goss grain growth occurred completely in samples with intermediate annealing and led to saturation magnetostriction as high as 156 ppm.

  8. Intermediate-energy neutron beam for NCT at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) is one of the high-flux reactors in the USA and it can be used to produce an intense beam of intermediate-energy neutrons for neutron capture therapy. Two methods are being evaluated at MURR to produce such a beam. The first uses a moderator of Al 2 O 3 replacing part of the graphite and water on one side of the core of the reactor to produce a source of predominantly intermediate-energy neutrons. The second method is a filter of 238 U between the core and the patient position to pass only intermediate-energy neutrons. The results of these evaluations are presented in this paper along with an outline of the other resources at the University of Missouri-Columbia that are available to support an NCT program. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  9. Intermediate Collaborative Adaptive Management Strategies Build Stakeholder Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Monroe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to implement collaborative adaptive management (CAM often suffer from challenges, such as an unwillingness of managers to share power, unresolved conflicts between stakeholders, and lack of capacity among stakeholders. Some aspects considered essential to CAM, e.g., trust and stakeholder capacity, may be more usefully viewed as goals for intermediate strategies rather than a set of initial conditions. From this perspective, intermediate steps that focus on social learning and building experience could overcome commonly cited barriers to CAM. An exploration of Springs Basin Working Groups, organized around major clusters of freshwater springs in north Florida, provides a case study of how these intermediate steps enable participants to become more reasonable and engaged. This strategy may be easily implemented by agencies beginning a CAM process.

  10. Microdosimetry of intermediate energy neutrons in fast neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saion, E.B.; Watt, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A coaxial double cylindrical proportional counter has been constructed for microdosimetry of intermediate energy neutrons in mixed fields. Details are given of the measured gas gain and resolution characteristics of the counter for a wide range of anode voltages. Event spectra due to intermediate neutrons in any desired energy band is achieved by an appropriate choice of thickness of the common dividing wall in the counter and by appropriate use of the coincidence, anticoincidence pulse counting arrangements. Calculated estimates indicate that the dose contribution by fast neutrons to the energy deposition events in the intermediate neutron range may be as large as 25%. Empirical procedures being investigated aim to determine the necessary corrections to be applied to the microdose distributions, with a precision of 10%. (author)

  11. Intermediate Temperature Fuel Cell Using Gypsum Based Electrolyte And Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Nagai, Masayuki; Katagiri, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    The proton conductive electrolyte membrane and the electrodes for intermediate temperature fuel cell were made from the phosphoric acid treated gypsum as a proton conductor. The membrane and the electrodes were built into single cell and tested at intermediate temperature region. The power density of the fuel cell was 0.56 mW/cm -2 at 150 deg. C without any humidification and 1.38 mW/cm -2 at 150 deg. C, 5% relative humidity. The open circuit voltage of the cell was increased higher than 0.7 V when the electrodes were annealed at 150 deg. C, 5%R.H., however the reasons for this are still to be further investigated. The results show that the potential of the phosphoric acid treated gypsum for the intermediate temperature proton conductor.

  12. Future possibilities with intermediate-energy neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.

    1987-01-01

    Future possibilities for using neutrons of intermediate energies (50 - 200 MeV) as a probe of the nucleus are discussed. Some of the recent thinking concerning a systematic approach for studying elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons and hadrons and the important role of medium- and intermediate-energy neutrons in such a programme is reviewed. The advantages of neutrons in this energy range over neutrons with lower energies and over intermediate-energy pions for determining nuclear-transition and ground state densities, and for distinguishing proton from neutron density (isovector sensitivity), are noted. The important role of (n,p) charge exchange reactions in nuclear excitation studies is also reviewed. Experimental methods for utilizing neutrons as probes in elastic, inelastic, and charge exchange studies at these energies are discussed

  13. About the structure of quantum intermediate state of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, O.P.

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of spatial structure of a quantum intermediate state in Type I superconductors is completed. Theoretical model of thermodynamics of considered state was proposed by Andreev. It is shown, that in a quantum case, the period of structure appears significantly smaller and has different dependence on both the magnetic field and temperature than in the classical intermediate Landau state. The decrease of thickness of normal layers results in increase of characteristic distance between the quantum Andreev levels of electronic excitations, and the transition to the quantum intermediate from classical state is realized at higher temperatures ∼1 K, than it was supposed in previous works. The comparison of calculation data with experimental results, for example using the sample of mono-crystal gallium, is conducted

  14. New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan J. Jacobson

    2006-09-30

    Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500-800 C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode-electrolyte interfaces and efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction and fuel oxidation reactions. This project concentrates on materials and issues associated with cathode performance that are known to become limiting factors as the operating temperature is reduced. The specific objectives of the proposed research are to develop cathode materials that meet the electrode performance targets of 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 0.7 V in combination with YSZ at 700 C and with GDC, LSGM or bismuth oxide based electrolytes at 600 C. The performance targets imply an area specific resistance of {approx}0.5 {Omega}cm{sup 2} for the total cell. The research strategy is to investigate both established classes of materials and new candidates as cathodes, to determine fundamental performance parameters such as bulk diffusion, surface reactivity and interfacial transfer, and to couple these parameters to performance in single cell tests. The initial choices for study were perovskite oxides based on substituted LaFeO{sub 3} (P1 compositions), where significant data in single cell tests exist at PNNL for example, for La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}FeO{sub 3} cathodes on both YSZ and CSO/YSZ. The materials selection was then extended to La{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} compositions (K1 compositions), and then in a longer range task we evaluated the possibility of completely unexplored group of materials that are also perovskite related, the ABM{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}. A key component of the research strategy was to evaluate for each cathode material composition, the key performance parameters, including ionic and electronic conductivity, surface exchange rates, stability with respect to the specific electrolyte choice, and thermal expansion coefficients. In the initial phase, we did this in parallel with

  15. Negotiating comfort in low energy housing: The politics of intermediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandclément, Catherine; Karvonen, Andrew; Guy, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Optimising the energy performance of buildings is technically and economically challenging but it also has significant social implications. Maintaining comfortable indoor conditions while reducing energy consumption involves careful design, construction, and management of the built environment and its inhabitants. In this paper, we present findings from the study of a new low energy building for older people in Grenoble, France where conflicts emerged over the simultaneous pursuit of energy efficiency and comfort. The findings contribute to the contemporary literature on the sociotechnical study of buildings and energy use by focusing on intermediation, those activities that associate a technology to end users. Intermediation activities take many forms, and in some cases, can result in the harmonisation or alignment of energy efficiency goals and comfort goals. In other cases, intermediation is unsuccessful, leading to the conventional dichotomy between optimising technical performance and meeting occupant preferences. By highlighting the multiple ways that comfort and energy efficiency is negotiated, we conclude that buildings are provisional achievements that are constantly being intermediated. This suggests that building energy efficiency policies and programmes need to provide opportunities for intermediaries to negotiate the desires and preferences of the multiple stakeholders that are implicated in low energy buildings. -- Highlights: •Energy efficiency and comfort are two possibly contradictory aims of buildings. •We study the pursuit of these aims at the occupation stage of a new building. •Aligning these aims involve negotiating them with occupants. •Intermediation processes are key to such negotiations. •Intermediation processes involve both actors and technical devices

  16. Spin-orbit excitation energies, anisotropic exchange, and magnetic phases of honeycomb RuCl3

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Ravi; Bogdanov, Nikolay A.; Katukuri, Vamshi M.; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Brink, Jeroen van den; Hozoi, Liviu

    2016-01-01

    Large anisotropic exchange in 5d and 4d oxides and halides open the door to new types of magnetic ground states and excitations, inconceivable a decade ago. A prominent case is the Kitaev spin liquid, host of remarkable properties such as protection of quantum information and the emergence of Majorana fermions. Here we discuss the promise for spin-liquid behavior in the 4d 5 honeycomb halide ?-RuCl3. From advanced electronic-structure calculations, we find that the Kitaev interaction is ferro...

  17. PNGMDR - Characterisation of intermediate-level long-lived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents the status of the characterization of intermediate-level long-lived wastes which are warehoused on exploited EDF sites or which will be produced during the deconstruction of first-generation reactors. It addresses aspects related to characterisation and packaging of wastes produced before 2015. More specifically, it addresses aspects related to contamination and to activation. Contamination is assessed by measurements whereas activation assessment is based on numerical simulations associated with measurements performed during parcel production. After having mentioned the concerned reactors, the document presents the methodology adopted for these assessments, and reports the progress status of the characterization process for these intermediate-level long-lived wastes

  18. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions

  19. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  20. Intermediate-range order in lead metasilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuya, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ako, Hyogo (Japan)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.; Price, D.L.; Saboungi, M.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.; Ohno, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ako, Hyogo (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    The complementarity of anomalous X-ray scattering (AXS) and neutron diffraction (ND) techniques is used here to investigate the nature and origin of intermediate-range order in lead metasilicate glass. Both X-ray and neutron source factors reveal small peaks at low wave vector which are shown to be associated with intermediate-range order of the Pb-O network. The combination of AXS and ND is shown to be a powerful tool to correlate contributions from the different atom pairs to such a peak. The information thus derived is compared with results from alkali germanate glasses and with structural data on corresponding crystalline compounds.

  1. Thin-film intermediate band chalcopyrite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes Marron, D.; Marti, A.; Luque, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chalcopyrite-based solar cells currently lead the efficiency tables of thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Further improvements are foreseen upon implementation of an intermediate band in the absorber layers. We present a theoretical analysis of the efficiency limit for this type of device as a function of factors such as the gap of the host, the relative position of the intermediate band with respect to the band edge and the level of light concentration used as illumination. We have also considered the impact of non-idealities on the performance of the device, particularly the effect of electronic losses related to non-radiative recombination

  2. Spectral signatures for swash on reflective, intermediate and dissipative beaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Michael G; Aagaard, Troels; Baldock, Tom E

    2014-01-01

    (reflective, intermediate and dissipative), with beach gradients ranging from approximately 1:6 to 1:60 exposed to offshore significant wave heights of 0.5–3.0 m. The ratio of swash energy in the short-wave (f > 0.05 Hz) to long-wave (f ... the three beach types. Swash energy at short-wave frequencies is dominant on reflective and intermediate beaches and swash at long-wave frequencies is dominant on dissipative beaches; consistent with previously reported spectral signatures for the surf zone on these beach types. The available swash spectra...

  3. Spacing Sensitivity Analysis of HLW Intermediate Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Bum Soo; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    Currently, South Korea's spent fuels are stored in its temporary storage within the plant. But the temporary storage is expected to be reaching saturation soon. For the effective management of spent fuel wastes, the need for intermediate storage facility is a desperate position. However, the research for the intermediate storage facility for waste has not made active so far. In addition, in case of foreign countries it is mostly treated confidentially and the information isn't easy to collect. Therefore, the purpose of this study is creating the basic thermal analysis data for the waste storage facility that will be valuable in the future

  4. Positron scattering by atomic hydrogen at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, K.; Burke, P.G.; Walters, H.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Results of an accurate calculation based upon the intermediate energy R-matrix theory are reported for elastic scattering of positrons by atomic hydrogen. T-matrix elements for both low and intermediate energy scattering are evaluated for the S e , P o , D e and F o partial wave symmetries. The low-energy elastic phaseshifts are found to be in good agreement with previous accurate variational calculations. Using an optical potential approach to include the effect of the higher partial waves, elastic and total cross sections are presented for energies ranging from near threshold to 3.7 Rydbergs. (author)

  5. Intermediate states in quantum cryptography and Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.; Gisin, N.

    2003-01-01

    Intermediate states are known from intercept/resend eavesdropping in the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum cryptographic protocol. But they also play fundamental roles in the optimal eavesdropping strategy on the BB84 protocol and in the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) inequality. We generalize the intermediate states to an arbitrary dimension and consider intercept/resend eavesdropping, optimal eavesdropping on the generalized BB84 protocol and present a generalized Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two entangled qudits based on these states

  6. A possible relation between leptogenesis and PMNS phases

    CERN Document Server

    Covi, Laura; Kyae, Bumseok; Nam, Soonkeon

    2016-01-01

    The CP phase relevant in the leptogenesis is related to the PMNS phase in case only one CP phase appears in the full theory. Thus, the CP phase is introduced by spontaneous CP violation at a high energy scale toward realizing the successful Kobayashi-Maskawa electroweak CP violation. This phase is in a complex vacuum expectation value of a standard model singlet field. We find new $W$ boson exchange diagrams for leptogenesis. Assuming that the lightest (intermediate scale) Majorana lepton $N_0$ dominates the lepton asymmetry, the lepton asymmetry and the PMNS phase are related.

  7. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  8. Optimal design of the cable metro with unified intermediate supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article was formulated and solved the problem of conditional nonlinear technical and economic optimization of the distance between intermediate supports, uniform in height, during the design of the cable metro lines in highly urban-ized city environment. The optimization problem involves a single-criterion objective function that expresses the cost of construction of the cable metro line (total cost of intermediate supports and their foundations, traction and carrying steel cables and technical equipment. The specified objective function subject to minimization by finding the optimal combination of the distance between intermediate supports and tension carrying ropes with accounting constructive, modal, structural and planning constraints in the form of nonlinear inequalities. The optimization algorithm was based on the direct method of optimization type, Hooke-Jeeves, which was modified taking into account the need of varying the height of intermediate supports with a constant step equal to the step of unification. When constructing the objective function were considered three possible forms sagging of carrying ropes, which can be implemented for various values of the efforts of their tension. Analysis was done of the influence of the step unification and minimum size of interme-diate supports on their optimum step, the cost of intermediate supports, the cost of 1 km cable metro line for different values of the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief along the cable metro line. The graph of height of uni-fied supports from the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief has discrete-step type. With the increase of the step unify the discreteness increases: the width of the range of angles of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief within which the height of the supports remains constant, increases. The graph of step installation of unified supports along the cable metro line from the angle of the longitudinal

  9. Bimodality emerges from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, S.; Das Gupta, S.; Chaudhuri, G.

    2016-04-01

    This work is a continuation of our effort [S. Mallik, S. Das Gupta, and G. Chaudhuri, Phys. Rev. C 91, 034616 (2015)], 10.1103/PhysRevC.91.034616 to examine if signatures of a phase transition can be extracted from transport model calculations of heavy ion collisions at intermediate energy. A signature of first-order phase transition is the appearance of a bimodal distribution in Pm(k ) in finite systems. Here Pm(k ) is the probability that the maximum of the multiplicity distribution occurs at mass number k . Using a well-known model for event generation [Botzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) plus fluctuation], we study two cases of central collision: mass 40 on mass 40 and mass 120 on mass 120. Bimodality is seen in both the cases. The results are quite similar to those obtained in statistical model calculations. An intriguing feature is seen. We observe that at the energy where bimodality occurs, other phase-transition-like signatures appear. There are breaks in certain first-order derivatives. We then examine if such breaks appear in standard BUU calculations without fluctuations. They do. The implication is interesting. If first-order phase transition occurs, it may be possible to recognize that from ordinary BUU calculations. Probably the reason this has not been seen already is because this aspect was not investigated before.

  10. Combination of pegylated IFN-α2b with imatinib increases molecular response rates in patients with low- or intermediate-risk chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Markevärn, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Biologic and clinical observations suggest that combining imatinib with IFN-α may improve treatment outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We randomized newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML patients with a low or intermediate Sokal risk score and in imatinib-induced complete hematologic remissio...

  11. Three-phase flow analysis of dense nonaqueous phase liquid infiltration in horizontally layered porous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wipfler, E.L.; Dijke, van M.I.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We considered dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) infiltration into a water-unsaturated porous medium that consists of two horizontal layers, of which the top layer has a lower intrinsic permeability than the bottom layer. DNAPL is the intermediate-wetting fluid with respect to the wetting water

  12. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  13. Intermediate inflation from a non-canonical scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezazadeh, K.; Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, P., E-mail: rezazadeh86@gmail.com, E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: parvin.karimi67@yahoo.com [Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    We study the intermediate inflation in a non-canonical scalar field framework with a power-like Lagrangian. We show that in contrast with the standard canonical intermediate inflation, our non-canonical model is compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015. Also, we estimate the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter which is in well agreement with the prediction of Planck 2015. Then, we obtain an approximation for the energy scale at the initial time of inflation and show that it can be of order of the Planck energy scale, i.e. M{sub P} ∼ 10{sup 18}GeV. We will see that after a short period of time, inflation enters in the slow-roll regime that its energy scale is of order M{sub P}/100 ∼ 10{sup 16}GeV and the horizon exit takes place in this energy scale. We also examine an idea in our non-canonical model to overcome the central drawback of intermediate inflation which is the fact that inflation never ends. We solve this problem without disturbing significantly the nature of the intermediate inflation until the time of horizon exit.

  14. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  15. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  16. Application Regarding the Butt-Welding Through Intermediate Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorel Ene

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available It consists in presenting butt welding procedure through intermediate melting and its usage for manufacturing cutting tools type drill, tap screw, reamer by welding the active part (made of high-speed steel to the tool tail (made of unalloyed steel wit low carbon.

  17. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL INTERMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial intermediation is a complex juridical operation which includes a different number of juridical relationships that takes place between contractual partners either on a national or international level. These partners bare different naming due to their different set of rights and obligations set forth by the law or by the parties, and it is from this that the classification of the intermediation can be set forth. The commercial intermediation represents the activity that one person executes either in the name and on behalf of another person, or using its own name but on behalf of another person, or, finally, using its own name but on behalf of acting towards a common goal with the person who mandated her (the principal, in relation with who it is either a proxy or an independent intermediary, only negotiating or both negotiating and binding the principal. The purpose of the paper is to strictly define and set in order the various variations of the juridical operation that is the commercial intermediation, presented both in the light of the actual legal framework and also by reference to the New Civil Code. Also, the purpose is to highlight and systematize the contractual relationships from which the parties involved in a commercial intermediary operation may choose and the rights and obligations specific to each contract.

  18. Theoretical research in intermediate energy nuclear physics: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress that has been made on the following problems: a numerical calculation of Skyrmiron scattering; (e,e'p) at high momentum transfer; spin-orbit nucleon-nucleon potential from Skyrme model; pionic atom anomaly; and field theory problems. The problems deal with various topics in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

  19. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  20. Deriving the Dividend Discount Model in the Intermediate Microeconomics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Schlaudraff, Jonathan; White, Karianne; Wills, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors show that the dividend discount model can be derived using the basic intertemporal consumption model that is introduced in a typical intermediate microeconomics course. This result will be of use to instructors who teach microeconomics to finance students in that it demonstrates the value of utility maximization in…

  1. Joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Simonsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    , by analyzing the failure of inte-grating groupware into two global virtual teams within industry. We present an empirically driven interpretive case study conducted in a large distributed global or-ganization. Based on the empirical observations, we reveal two organizational factors challenging the inte......-gration process: The importance of joint enterprise and the role of the intermediator....

  2. Methods for providing intermediates in the synthesis of atorvastatin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dömling, Alexander Stephan Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of medicinal chemistry, In particular, it relates to methods for providing intermediates in the synthesis of Atorvastatin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG-Co A reductase. Provided is a process for providing a compound having a Formula (I) or a pharmaceutically

  3. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  4. Intermediate coupling vibrational descriptions of odd mass gold isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Paar, V

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of /sup 193-195/Au levels is semi qualitatively performed in the frame of the intermediate coupling vibrational models of Kisslinger-Sorensen and Alaga. From the comparison between the experimental data and the corresponding predictions of the two models, conclusions are drawn on the influence of the clusters and broken pairs.

  5. The Advantages of a Course in Intermediate Typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Joseph A.

    1980-01-01

    Suggests a one-semester intermediate typewriting course for students who have not attained a speed of 30-35 words per minute. It would emphasize remedial exercises as well as exercises on letters, memos, reports, invoices, and other business forms. The student would then enter advanced typewriting, business machines, and communications. (JOW)

  6. Corrosion behavior of construction materials for intermediate temperature steam electrolysers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikiforov, Aleksey; Petrushina, Irina; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2013-01-01

    Different corrosion resistant stainless steels, nickel-based alloys, pure nickel, Ta-coated stainless steel (AISI 316L), niobium, platinum and gold rods were evaluated as possible materials for use in the intermediate temperature (200-400 °C) acidic water electrolysers. The corrosion resistance w...

  7. Proceedings of the 5. National Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Several papers concerning the physics at intermediate energies (∼ 100-1000MeV) are presented in this proceedings. Almost all the works show overlapping between Nuclear and Particles Physics. There is a predominance in theoretical papers. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Heat exchanger with intermediate evaporating and condensing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    A shell and tube-type heat exchanger, such as a liquid sodium-operated steam generator for use in nuclear reactors, comprises a shell containing a primary fluid tube bundle, a secondary fluid tube bundle at higher elevation, and an intermediate fluid vaporizing at the surface of the primary fluid tubes and condensing at the surface of the secondary fluid tubes

  9. Sedimentation of dilute fine-grained suspension in intermediate region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Chára, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2013), s. 109-117 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP105/10/1574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : Concentration * Intermediate region * Particle size * Sedimentation * Vessel inclination Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  10. A critique on the theory of financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wensveen, D.M.N.; Scholtens, Bert

    This comment discusses the review by Franklin Alien and Anthony Santomero of the theory of financial intermediation in the 20th anniversary special issue of the Journal of Banking and Finance. We do not fully agree with their view that risk management is only of recent importance to the financial

  11. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Various features related to the dynamics of competing decay modes of nuclear systems are explored by addressing the experimental data of a number of reactions in light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy mass regions. The DCM, being a non-statistical description for the decay of a com- pound nucleus ...

  12. Yield and organoleptic characteristics of Suya (an intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High cost of choice meat used in suya production makes the product an exclusive meat for the rich. In order to make suya (an intermediate moisture meat) available and affordable to the common man thereby increasing their animal protein intake, this experiment therefore become imperative. Meat from the ...

  13. OER Use in Intermediate Language Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study in the experimental use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) in intermediate level language instruction. The resources come from three sources: the instructor, the students, and open content repositories. The objective of this action research project was to provide student-centered learning materials, enhance…

  14. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  15. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  16. Raman optical activity study on insulin amyloid- and prefibril intermediate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Watarai, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 97-103 ISSN 0899-0042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : raman optical activity * amyloid * fibril * intermediate * insulin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2012

  17. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...

  18. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  19. Vertical Integration at Junior and Intermediate Levels. School Research Newsletter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Hanse, Mona-Britt, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of interest in Sweden in vertically integrated classes in compulsory schools, especially at junior high school and intermediate grade levels. This development is supported in various ways by the curriculum, partly because it puts more emphasis than previous curricula on the occurrence of teaching…

  20. Estimation of intermediate grade uranium resources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Kendall, G.R.; Klahn, L.J.; Davis, J.C.; Harbaugh, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the technique currently used by DOE to estimate intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) and, if possible, suggest alternatives to improve the accuracy and precision of the estimate. There are three principal conclusions resulting from this study. They relate to the quantity, distribution and sampling of intermediate grade uranium. While the results of this study must be validated further, they indicate that DOE may be underestimating intermediate level reserves by 20 to 30%. Plots of grade of U 3 O 8 versus tonnage of ore and tonnage U 3 O 8 indicate grade-tonnage relationships that are essentially log-linear, at least down to 0.01% U 3 O 8 . Though this is not an unexpected finding, it may provide a technique for reducing the uncertainty of intermediate grade endowment. The results of this study indicate that a much lower drill hole density is necessary for DOE to estimate uranium resources than for a mining company to calculate ore resources. Though errors in local estimates will occur, they will tend to cancel over the entire deposit