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Sample records for intermediate reduces molecular

  1. Molecular evolution of type VI intermediate filament proteins

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    Vincent Michel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanabin, transitin and nestin are type VI intermediate filament (IF proteins that are developmentally regulated in frogs, birds and mammals, respectively. Tanabin is expressed in the growth cones of embryonic vertebrate neurons, whereas transitin and nestin are found in myogenic and neurogenic cells. Another type VI IF protein, synemin, is expressed in undifferentiated and mature muscle cells of birds and mammals. In addition to an IF-typical α-helical core domain, type VI IF proteins are characterized by a long C-terminal tail often containing distinct repeated motifs. The molecular evolution of type VI IF proteins remains poorly studied. Results To examine the evolutionary history of type VI IF proteins, sequence comparisons, BLAST searches, synteny studies and phylogenic analyses were performed. This study provides new evidence that tanabin, transitin and nestin are indeed orthologous type VI IF proteins. It demonstrates that tanabin, transitin and nestin genes share intron positions and sequence identities, have a similar chromosomal context and display closely related positions in phylogenic analyses. Despite this homology, fast evolution rates of their C-terminal extremity have caused the appearance of repeated motifs with distinct biological activities. In particular, our in silico and in vitro analyses of their tail domain have shown that (avian transitin, but not (mammalian nestin, contains a repeat domain displaying nucleotide hydrolysis activity. Conclusion These analyses of the evolutionary history of the IF proteins fit with a model in which type VI IFs form a branch distinct from NF proteins and are composed of two major proteins: synemin and nestin orthologs. Rapid evolution of the C-terminal extremity of nestin orthologs could be responsible for their divergent functions.

  2. Molecular assessment of trematode co-infection and intraspecific competition in molluscan intermediate hosts.

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    Thiele, Elizabeth A; Minchella, Dennis J

    2013-01-01

    In natural populations of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni, parasite distribution among snail intermediate hosts is generally overdispersed, such that a small proportion of hosts harbor the majority of parasite genotypes. Within these few infected snails, researchers have found that it can be common for hosts to harbor multiple parasite genotypes, creating circumstances in which co-infecting parasites are faced with potential competition over limited host resources. Much theoretical modeling has focused on parasite competition, especially regarding the influence of co-infection on parasite exploitation strategy evolution. However, particularly in the case of intra-molluscan intermediate stages, empirical investigations of parasite-parasite competition have often hinged on the untested assumption that co-exposure produces co-infection. That is, infected hosts exposed to multiple strains have been assumed to harbor multiple strains, regardless of the true nature of the infection outcome. Here we describe a real-time quantitative PCR method to distinguish the conditions of multiple- versus single-strain infection, as well as quantify the relative larval output of co-infecting strains. We applied the method to an empirical investigation of intraspecific parasite competition between S. mansoni strains within the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria glabrata, assessing co-exposure's effects on parasite infectivity and productivity and the concomitant effects on host fitness. Overall, there was no effect of parasite co-infection on snail life history traits relative to single-strain infection. Parasite infectivity significantly increased as a result of increasing overall miracidial dose, rather than co-exposure, though strain-specific productivity was significantly reduced in co-infections in manner consistent with resource competition. Moreover, we show that less than half of infected, co-exposed hosts had patent co-infections and demonstrate the utility of this

  3. Molecular Events for Promotion of Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

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    Hu, Qiwen; Peng, Huagang; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used as the last resort in the clinical treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was discovered almost two decades ago. Aside from the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, VISA strains from the clinic or laboratory exhibited common characteristics, such as thickened cell walls, reduced autolysis, and attenuated virulence. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA are va...

  4. Offsetting the difficulties of the molecular model of atomic collisions in the intermediate velocity range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L.F.; Mendez, L.; Riera, A.

    1991-01-01

    To offset the defective behavior of the molecular method of atomic collisions at intermediate energies, we propose a method to approximate the probability flux towards continuum and discrete states not included in the molecular basis. We check the degree of accuracy and limitations of the method for a model case where transition probabilities can be calculated exactly. An application to the benchmark case of He + +H + collisions is also presented, and yields complementary information on the properties of this approach

  5. ApoE4-specific Misfolded Intermediate Identified by Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

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    Benfeard Williams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD is associated with the APOE gene, which encodes for three variants of Apolipoprotein E, namely E2, E3, E4, differing only by two amino acids at positions 112 and 158. ApoE4 is known to be the strongest risk factor for AD onset, while ApoE3 and ApoE2 are considered to be the AD-neutral and AD-protective isoforms, respectively. It has been hypothesized that the ApoE isoforms may contribute to the development of AD by modifying the homeostasis of ApoE physiological partners and AD-related proteins in an isoform-specific fashion. Here we find that, despite the high sequence similarity among the three ApoE variants, only ApoE4 exhibits a misfolded intermediate state characterized by isoform-specific domain-domain interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. The existence of an ApoE4-specific intermediate state can contribute to the onset of AD by altering multiple cellular pathways involved in ApoE-dependent lipid transport efficiency or in AD-related protein aggregation and clearance. We present what we believe to be the first structural model of an ApoE4 misfolded intermediate state, which may serve to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the role of ApoE4 in AD pathogenesis. The knowledge of the structure for the ApoE4 folding intermediate provides a new platform for the rational design of alternative therapeutic strategies to fight AD.

  6. Use of flexible intermediate and intensive care to reduce multiple transfers of patients.

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    Besserman, E; Teres, D; Logan, A; Brennan, M; Cleaves, S; Bayly, R; Brochis, D; Nemeth, B; Grare, J; Ngo, D

    1999-05-01

    To test an alternative flexible approach to traditional fixed intermediate and intensive care to minimize transfers of patients. Patients admitted to a 28-bed nursing unit with intermediate care potential and a 12-bed intensive care unit at a 300-bed teaching community hospital were studied. The group included 524 patients with a discharge diagnosis code for mechanical ventilation. During eight 3-week cycles, 1073 transfers of patients were tabulated. A plan-do-study-act method was used to improve weaning from mechanical ventilation and reduce the number of inappropriate days in intensive care. Admissions and transfers to the 2 units for all patients during the eight 3-week cycles were compared over time. Length of stay and mortality were noted for all patients treated with conventional and noninvasive ventilation. Direct admissions to the flexible intermediate unit increased with no overall change in admissions to the intensive care unit. Fewer patients needed conventional ventilation, and more in both units were treated with noninvasive ventilation. The median number of transfers per patient treated with mechanical ventilation decreased from 1.94 to 1.20. Length of stay and mortality also decreased among such patients. Some cost savings were attributable to the decrease in the number of transfers. Transfers out of the hospital directly from the intensive care unit increased from 2.24% to 4.43%. In a community teaching hospital, flexible care policies decreased the number of in-hospital transfers of patients treated with mechanical ventilation.

  7. Formation of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes from molecular precursors and curved nanoscale intermediates.

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    Yucelen, G Ipek; Choudhury, Rudra Prosad; Vyalikh, Anastasia; Scheler, Ulrich; Beckham, Haskell W; Nair, Sankar

    2011-04-13

    We report the identification and elucidation of the mechanistic role of molecular precursors and nanoscale (1-3 nm) intermediates with intrinsic curvature in the formation of single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes. We characterize the structural and compositional evolution of molecular and nanoscale species over a length scale of 0.1-100 nm by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((27)Al liquid-state, (27)Al and (29)Si solid-state MAS), and dynamic light scattering. Together with structural optimization of key experimentally identified species by solvated density functional theory calculations, this study reveals the existence of intermediates with bonding environments, as well as intrinsic curvature, similar to the structure of the final nanotube product. We show that "proto-nanotube-like" intermediates with inherent curvature form in aqueous synthesis solutions immediately after initial hydrolysis of reactants, disappear from the solution upon heating to 95 °C due to condensation accompanied by an abrupt pH decrease, and finally form ordered single-walled aluminosilicate nanotubes. Detailed quantitative analysis of NMR and ESI-MS spectra from the relevant aluminosilicate, aluminate, and silicate solutions reveals the presence of a variety of monomeric and polymeric aluminate and aluminosilicate species (Al(1)Si(x)-Al(13)Si(x)), such as Keggin ions [AlO(4)Al(12)(OH)(24)(H(2)O)(12)](7+) and polynuclear species with a six-membered Al oxide ring unit. Our study also directly reveals the complexation of aluminate and aluminosilicate species with perchlorate species that most likely inhibit the formation of larger condensates or nontubular structures. Integration of all of our results leads to the construction of the first molecular-level mechanism of single-walled metal oxide nanotube formation, incorporating the role of monomeric and polymeric aluminosilicate species as well as larger nanoparticles. © 2011 American

  8. Experimental Methods to Observe Asymmetric Instability of Intermediate-Reduced-Volume Vesicles in Extensional Flow

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    Dahl, Joanna; Narsimhan, Vivek; Gouveia, Bernardo; Kumar, Sanjay; Shaqfeh, Eric; Muller, Susan

    2014-11-01

    Vesicles provide an attractive model system to understand the deformation of living cells in response to mechanical forces. These enclosed lipid bilayer membranes are suitable for complementary theoretical and experimental analysis. A recent study (Narsimhan et al., J. Fluid Mech. 750, 144 (2014)) predicted that intermediate-aspect-ratio vesicles break up asymmetrically in extensional flow. Upon infinitesimal perturbation to its shape, the vesicle stretches into an asymmetric dumbbell. In this work, we present preliminary results from cross-slot microfluidic experiments observing this instability. The onset of breakup depends on two non-dimensional parameters: reduced volume (vesicle asphericity) and capillary number (ratio of viscous to bending forces). We will present strategies for accurately measuring these quantities in order to plot a stability diagram. Specifically, we will describe our synthesis of floppy, intermediate-reduced-volume vesicles and our measurement of their bending moduli by analyzing membrane thermal fluctuations. We will discuss coupling particle-image velocimetry (PIV) with cross-slot trapping of vesicles to ensure that breakup occurs at the stagnation point. A preliminary phase diagram for asymmetric breakup will be reported.

  9. Effect of the thickness of flowable composite as intermediate layer to reduce microleakage on gingival wall

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    Natasha, V.; Suprastiwi, E.

    2017-08-01

    Microleakage of composite restoration in proximal composite restoration often occurs on the gingival wall. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the influence of flowable composite as an intermediate layer to reduce microleakage on the gingival wall. Thirty whole,extracted, upper premolars were divided into three groups. Within box-like cavities, the first group was restored with packable composite only. Group 2 was restored with flowable composite of a1mm thickness and then was restored with incrementally packable composite. Group 3 was restored similarly to group 2, however with a flowable composite thickness of 2mm. After thermocycling, the penetration of 1% methylene blue was investigated along the gingival wall. There were significant differences between group 1 and groups 2 and 3. No significant differences were found between groups 2 and 3. Flowable composite, as an intermediate layer, reduces microleakage of the gingival wall of proximal composite restorations. Nonetheless, the thickness of the flowable composite has no influence on the amount of microleakage observed.

  10. Targeted Molecular Dynamics to determine Focal Adhesion Targeting Domain Folding Intermediates

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    Pallavi Mohanty

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Focal adhesion kinase (FAT domain of Focal Adhesion Kinase is a four helical bundle known for conformational plasticity. FAT adopts two distinctly different conformations i.e., close (cFAT and arm-exchanged (aeFAT states under native conditions [1]. The slow transition from cFAT to aeFAT is likely to proceed through an open intermediate state that allows YENV motif to attain β-turn conformation and phosphorylation of Y925 by Src kinases [2]. The two end states of FAT are known to interact with Paxillin and are responsible for maintaining steady state in Heart while intermediate conformation interacts with Grb2-SH2 leading to Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy (PAH [2]. 10ns Targeted Molecular Dynamics (TMD was done between c- and aeFAT in order to explore the conformational transition and to capture pathologically relevant oFAT. Cluster and dynamic cross correlation analysis (DCCA of TMD generated trajectory was done and the selected FAT intermediate was docked with Grb2-SH2 using HADDOCK v2.2 docking followed by molecular dynamics. Conservation analysis of FAT-Grb2 binding site was done using CONSURF [3]. A Pharmacophore FAT-Grb2 complex was generated using SPARKv1.2 and submitted for Virtual screening using BLAZE v4. Drug likeliness and ADMET properties were calculated using MOLINSPIRATION tool. TMD reveals six clusters and DCCA showed positively and negatively correlated region along the transition pathway. Intermediates with competence for Grb2 interaction were docked with Grb2 and best binding complex was further refined. MMPBSA binding energy calculations revealed the best binding pose where the phosphorylated YENV motif of Human FAT interacted with a charged and hydrophobic pocket of Grb2. The conservation analysis showed that the charged pocket was more conserved in comparison with the hydrophobic pocket, hence providing useful insights on binding and specificity determining residues in Grb2. Virtual screening using the pharmacophore

  11. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico); Celis, Lourdes B. [Division de Ciencias Ambientales, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Lomas 4a. Seccion, 78216 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Poggi, Hector [Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, CINVESTAV, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Meraz, Monica, E-mail: meraz@xanum.uam.mx [Department of Biotechnology, Environmental Science and Technology, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Ave. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Vicentina, 09340 D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC{sub 50} values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC{sub 50} values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  12. Inhibitory concentrations of 2,4D and its possible intermediates in sulfate reducing biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cruz, Ulises; Celis, Lourdes B.; Poggi, Hector; Meraz, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Different concentrations of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4D) and its possible intermediates such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP), 4-chlorophenol (4CP), 2-chlorophenol (2CP) and phenol, were assayed to evaluate the inhibitory effect on sulfate and ethanol utilization in a sulfate reducing biofilm. Increasing concentrations of the chlorophenolic compounds showed an adverse effect on sulfate reduction rate and ethanol conversion to acetate, being the intermediate 2,4DCP most toxic than the herbicide. The monochlorophenol 4CP (600 ppm) caused the complete cessation of sulfate reduction and ethanol conversion. The ratio of the electron acceptor to the electron donor utilized as well as the sulfate utilization volumetric rates, diminished when chlorophenols and phenol concentrations were increased, pointing out to the inhibition of the respiratory process and electrons transfer. The difference found in the IC 50 values obtained was due to the chemical structure complexity of the phenolic compounds, the number of chlorine atoms as much as the chlorine atom position in the phenol ring. The IC 50 values (ppm) indicated that the acute inhibition on the biofilm was caused by 2,4DCP (17.4) followed by 2,4D (29.0), 2CP (99.8), 4CP (108.0) and phenol (143.8).

  13. Enediyne polyketide synthases stereoselectively reduce the β-ketoacyl intermediates to β-D-hydroxyacyl intermediates in enediyne core biosynthesis.

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    Ge, Hui-Ming; Huang, Tingting; Rudolf, Jeffrey D; Lohman, Jeremy R; Huang, Sheng-Xiong; Guo, Xun; Shen, Ben

    2014-08-01

    PKSE biosynthesizes an enediyne core precursor from decarboxylative condensation of eight malonyl-CoAs. The KR domain of PKSE is responsible for iterative β-ketoreduction in each round of polyketide chain elongation. KRs from selected PKSEs were investigated in vitro with β-ketoacyl-SNACs as substrate mimics. Each of the KRs reduced the β-ketoacyl-SNACs stereoselectively, all affording the corresponding β-D-hydroxyacyl-SNACs, and the catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(M)) of the KRs increased significantly as the chain length of the β-ketoacyl-SNAC substrate increases.

  14. Molecular Events for Promotion of Vancomycin Resistance in Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Hu, Qiwen; Peng, Huagang; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-01-01

    Vancomycin has been used as the last resort in the clinical treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) was discovered almost two decades ago. Aside from the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, VISA strains from the clinic or laboratory exhibited common characteristics, such as thickened cell walls, reduced autolysis, and attenuated virulence. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA are varied. The comparative genomics of vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA)/VISA pairs showed diverse genetic mutations in VISA; only a small number of these mutations have been experimentally verified. To connect the diversified genotypes and common phenotypes in VISA, we reviewed the genetic alterations in the relative determinants, including mutations in the vraTSR, graSR, walKR, stk1/stp1, rpoB, clpP , and cmk genes. Especially, we analyzed the mechanism through which diverse mutations mediate vancomycin resistance. We propose a unified model that integrates diverse gene functions and complex biochemical processes in VISA upon the action of vancomycin.

  15. Molecular events for promotion of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus

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    Qiwen Hu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin has been used as the last resort in the clinical treatment of serious Staphylococcus aureus infections. Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA was discovered almost two decades ago. Aside from the vancomycin-intermediate phenotype, VISA strains from the clinic or laboratory exhibited common characteristics, such as thickened cell walls, reduced autolysis, and attenuated virulence. However, the genetic mechanisms responsible for the reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA are varied. The comparative genomics of vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA/VISA pairs showed diverse genetic mutations in VISA; only a small number of these mutations have been experimentally verified. To connect the diversified genotypes and common phenotypes in VISA, we reviewed the genetic alterations in the relative determinants, including mutation in the vraSRT, graSR, walKR, stk1/stp1, rpoB, clpP, and cmk genes. Especially, we analyzed the mechanism through which diverse mutations mediate vancomycin resistance. We propose a unified model that integrates diverse gene functions and complex biochemical processes in VISA upon the action of vancomycin.

  16. Molecular confirmation of trematodes in the snail intermediate hosts from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

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    Sothorn Anucherngchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the

  17. Molecular characterisation of intermediate snail hosts and the search for resistance genes

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    David Rollinson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between schistosomes and their intermediate hosts is an extremely intricate one with strains and species of the parasite depending on particular species of snail, which in turn may vary in their susceptibility to the parasites. In order to gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease we have been investigating the use of molecular markers for snail identification and for studying host-parasite relationships. In this paper we will draw on examples concerning schistosomiasis in West and East Africa to illustrate how a molecular analysis can be used as part of a "total evidence" approach to characterisation of Bulinus species and provide insights into parasite transmission. Particular emphasis is given to ribosomal RNA genes (rRNA, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI. Snails resistant to infection occur naturally and there is a genetic basis for this resistance. In Biomphalaria glabrata resistance to Schistosoma mansoni is known to be a polygenic trait and we have initiated a preliminary search for snail genomic regions linked to, or involved in, resistance by using a RAPD based approach in conjunction with progeny pooling methods. We are currently characterising a variety of STSs (sequence tagged sites associated with resistance. These can be used for local linkage and interval mapping to define genomic regions associated with the resistance trait. The development of such markers into simple dot-blot or specific PCR-based assays may have a direct and practical application for the identification of resistant snails in natural populations.

  18. η1-Arene Complexes as Intermediates in the Preparation of Molecular Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes.

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    Esteruelas, Miguel A; Gómez-Bautista, Daniel; López, Ana M; Oñate, Enrique; Tsai, Jui-Yi; Xia, Chuanjun

    2017-11-07

    Molecular phosphorescent heteroleptic bis-tridentate iridium(III) emitters have been prepared via η 1 -arene intermediates. In the presence of 4.0 mol of AgOTf, the complex [(IrCl{κ 3 -N,C,N-(pyC 6 HMe 2 py)})(μ-Cl)] 2 (1; pyC 6 H 2 Me 2 py=1,3-di(2-pyridyl)-4,6-dimethylbenzene) reacted with 9-(6-phenylpyridin-2-yl)-9H-carbazole (PhpyCzH) and 2-phenoxy-6-phenylpyridine (PhpyOPh) to give [Ir{κ 3 -N,C,N-(pyC 6 HMe 2 py)}{κ 3 -C,N,C'-(C 6 H 4 pyCzH)}]OTf (2) and [Ir{κ 3 -N,C,N-(pyC 6 HMe 2 py)}{κ 3 -C,N,C'-(C 6 H 4 pyOPh)}]OTf (3). The X-ray diffraction structures of 2 and 3 reveal that the carbazolyl and phenoxy substituents of the C,N,C' ligand coordinate to the metal center to form an η 1 -arene π bond. Treatment of 2 and 3 with KOtBu led to the deprotonation of the coordinated carbon atom of the η 1 -arene group to afford the molecular phosphorescent [5t+4t'] heteroleptic iridium(III) complexes [Ir{κ 3 -N,C,N-(pyC 6 HMe 2 py)}{κ 3 -C,N,C'-(C 6 H 4 pyCz)}] (4) and [Ir{κ 3 -N,C,N-(pyC 6 HMe 2 py)}{κ 3 -C,N,C'-(C 6 H 4 pyOC 6 H 4 )}] (5). These complexes are green emitters that display short lifetimes and high quantum yields of 0.73 (4) and 0.87 (5) in the solid state. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Liquid microchromatographic analysis of intermediate and final products during the production process of highly molecular Mannich base additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakupra, V.A.; Petrenko, L.M.; Popovich, T.D.

    1982-01-01

    It was shown that a single separation provides data on the content: highly molecular Mannich base parts (for one of the intermediate products and the resultant additive -- with added boric acid), polyisobutylene in a mix with diluting oil and polyisobutylphenol (separately or together) low molecular Mannich base parts (in the latter also concentrated are traces of fatty acids, boric acid and polyethylenepolyamins that did not enter the reaction). To identify structures of extracted Mannich bases and other substances infra-red spectroscopy and ebullioscopy, microanalytic determination of boron and nitrogen were utilized. A more rapid technique of liquid microchromatorgraphy is offered, to be used to monitor additive production.

  20. THE DISCOVERY OF THE YOUNGEST MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTERMEDIATE-MASS PROTOSTELLAR CORE, MMS-6/OMC-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution HCN (4-3) and CO (3-2) observations made with the Submillimeter Array, toward an extremely young intermediate-mass protostellar core, MMS 6-main, located in the Orion Molecular Cloud 3 region (OMC-3). We have successfully imaged a compact molecular outflow lobe (≈1000 AU) associated with MMS 6-main, which is also the smallest molecular outflow ever found in the intermediate-mass protostellar cores. The dynamical timescale of this outflow is estimated to be ≤100 yr. The line width dramatically increases downstream at the end of the molecular outflow (Δv ∼ 25 km s –1 ) and clearly shows the bow-shock-type velocity structure. The estimated outflow mass (≈10 –4 M ☉ ) and outflow size are approximately two to four orders and one to three orders of magnitude smaller, respectively, while the outflow force (≈10 –4 M ☉ km s –1 yr –1 ) is similar, compared to the other molecular outflows studied in OMC-2/3. These results show that MMS 6-main is a protostellar core at the earliest evolutionary stage, most likely shortly after the second core formation.

  1. Improved Method for In Vitro Secondary Amastigogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi: Morphometrical and Molecular Analysis of Intermediate Developmental Forms

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    L. A. Hernández-Osorio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes a biphasic life cycle that consists of four alternate developmental stages. In vitro conditions to obtain a synchronic transformation and efficient rates of pure intermediate forms (IFs, which are indispensable for further biochemical, biological, and molecular studies, have not been reported. In the present study, we established an improved method to obtain IFs from secondary amastigogenesis. During the transformation kinetics, we observed progressive decreases in the size of the parasite body, undulating membrane and flagellum that were concomitant with nucleus remodeling and kinetoplast displacement. In addition, a gradual reduction in parasite movement and acquisition of the amastigote-specific Ssp4 antigen were observed. Therefore, our results showed that the in vitro conditions used obtained large quantities of highly synchronous and pure IFs that were clearly distinguished by morphometrical and molecular analyses. Obtaining these IFs represents the first step towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in amastigogenesis.

  2. An experimental investigation on reduced radiological penumbra for intermediate energy x-rays: Implications for small field radiosurgery

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    Keller, Brian Michael

    Current day external beam radiation therapy typically uses x-ray energies in the megavoltage (6--18 MV) or in the superficial/orthovoltage (80--350 kVp) energy ranges. It has been found that intermediate energy x-rays (those greater than orthovoltage but sub-megavoltage) may offer an advantage in the field of high precision radiation therapy such as in radiosurgery. This advantage is a reduction in the radiological penumbra associated with small (less than about 3 cm) radiation dose fields. A consequence of reduced radiological penumbra is a more homogenous, conformal dose distribution in the patient with dose escalation and organ sparing made more feasible. The objectives of this thesis were as follows: to produce and to characterize an intermediate energy x-ray beam, to establish a method of accurate penumbra measurement at the micron level for millimeter size fields, to measure the radiological penumbra of single small intermediate energy x-ray fields, and to show the clinical consequences of a multiple beam irradiation in a stereotactic head phantom. A maximum photon energy of 1.2 +/- 0.1 MeV was determined for the intermediate energy x-ray spectrum at the expense of a low dose rate. A digital microscope with a computer controlled translation stage was investigated for its ability to resolve steep dose gradients in Gafchromic EBT film for field sizes as small as 1 mm and for photon energies as low as 100 kVp. The microscope-film system resolved gradients to within about 30 mum, limited by the inherent spatial resolution of the film, the noise of the system, and the uncertainties of measurement. Penumbra widths were compared for 1.2 MV versus 6 MV for identical irradiation conditions. In some instances, there was a five-fold reduction in the radiological penumbra of single 1.2 MV x-ray beams. A multiple beam arc irradiation demonstrated that the advantages seen with single beams carry over to multiple beams. The benefits of reduced radiological penumbra for

  3. Determining Intermediate Hosts for Opecoelidae and Microphallidae Species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) in the Southeastern Pacific Coast, Using Molecular Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Natalia Verónica; López, Zambra; González, María Teresa; Muñoz, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Metacercarial stages of digeneans were collected from decapod crustaceans inhabiting intertidal rocky zones in central Chile. The digeneans were identified through a molecular analysis based on the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. We analyzed 356 crustaceans belonging to 10 species, 115 intertidal fish belonging to 6 species, and 4 specimens of 1 coastal bird species. In total, 74.1% of crustaceans were parasitized with metacercariae. We found 1 species of Opecoelidae. This species showed low genetic divergence (0% and 0.1%) with adult digeneans found in intertidal fish and with the species Helicometrina labrisomi infesting a subtidal fish from northern Chile (Labrisomus philippii). Additionally, we found 2 species of Microphallidae, 1 closely related to Maritrema (1.3% genetic distance) and the other related to Microphallus (5% genetic distance). Therefore, our findings showed that the decapod crustaceans are relevant hosts in food webs from the southeastern Pacific coast. Furthermore, we found 5 species of crustaceans as second intermediate hosts for H. labrisomi and 2 species as secondary intermediate hosts for 2 Microphallidae, which contribute to elucidate parts of their life cycles through molecular markers and extended the host distribution of H. labrisomi in the southeastern Pacific coast.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of the cercariae of Lecithodendrium linstowi (Dollfus, 1931), a trematode of bats, and incrimination of the first intermediate snail host, Radix balthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enabulele, Egie E; Lawton, Scott P; Walker, Anthony J; Kirk, Ruth S

    2018-03-01

    Lecithodendrium linstowi is one of the most prevalent and abundant trematodes of bats, but the larval stages and intermediate hosts have not been identified. We present the first molecular and morphological characterization of the cercariae of L. linstowi based on a phylogenetic analysis of partial fragments of LSU and ITS2 rDNA. The first intermediate host was incriminated as Radix balthica by DNA barcoding using cox1 and ITS2 sequences, although the snail morphologically resembled Radix peregra, emphasizing the requirement for molecular identification of lymnaeids as important intermediate hosts of medical and veterinary impact. The application of molecular data in this study has enabled linkage of life cycle stages and accurate incrimination of the first intermediate host.

  5. Crystal structure of a blue laccase from Lentinus tigrinus: evidences for intermediates in the molecular oxygen reductive splitting by multicopper oxidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovleva Ludmila A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in pathogenesis, immunogenesis and morphogenesis of organisms and in the metabolic turnover of complex organic substances. They catalyze the coupling between the four one-electron oxidations of a broad range of substrates with the four-electron reduction of dioxygen to water. These catalytic processes are made possible by the contemporaneous presence of at least four copper ion sites, classified according to their spectroscopic properties: one type 1 (T1 site where the electrons from the reducing substrates are accepted, one type 2 (T2, and a coupled binuclear type 3 pair (T3 which are assembled in a T2/T3 trinuclear cluster where the electrons are transferred to perform the O2 reduction to H2O. Results The structure of a laccase from the white-rot fungus Lentinus (Panus tigrinus, a glycoenzyme involved in lignin biodegradation, was solved at 1.5 Å. It reveals a asymmetric unit containing two laccase molecules (A and B. The progressive reduction of the copper ions centers obtained by the long-term exposure of the crystals to the high-intensity X-ray synchrotron beam radiation under aerobic conditions and high pH allowed us to detect two sequential intermediates in the molecular oxygen reduction pathway: the "peroxide" and the "native" intermediates, previously hypothesized through spectroscopic, kinetic and molecular mechanics studies. Specifically the electron-density maps revealed the presence of an end-on bridging, μ-η1:η1 peroxide ion between the two T3 coppers in molecule B, result of a two-electrons reduction, whereas in molecule A an oxo ion bridging the three coppers of the T2/T3 cluster (μ3-oxo bridge together with an hydroxide ion externally bridging the two T3 copper ions, products of the four-electrons reduction of molecular oxygen, were best modelled. Conclusion This is the first structure of a

  6. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A

    2015-08-04

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite's intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village's river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.

  7. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; D'Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Eliminating human parasitic disease often requires interrupting complex transmission pathways. Even when drugs to treat people are available, disease control can be difficult if the parasite can persist in nonhuman hosts. Here, we show that restoration of a natural predator of a parasite’s intermediate hosts may enhance drug-based schistosomiasis control. Our study site was the Senegal River Basin, where villagers suffered a massive outbreak and persistent epidemic after the 1986 completion of the Diama Dam. The dam blocked the annual migration of native river prawns (Macrobrachium vollenhoveni) that are voracious predators of the snail intermediate hosts for schistosomiasis. We tested schistosomiasis control by reintroduced river prawns in a before-after-control-impact field experiment that tracked parasitism in snails and people at two matched villages after prawns were stocked at one village’s river access point. The abundance of infected snails was 80% lower at that village, presumably because prawn predation reduced the abundance and average life span of latently infected snails. As expected from a reduction in infected snails, human schistosomiasis prevalence was 18 ± 5% lower and egg burden was 50 ± 8% lower at the prawn-stocking village compared with the control village. In a mathematical model of the system, stocking prawns, coupled with infrequent mass drug treatment, eliminates schistosomiasis from high-transmission sites. We conclude that restoring river prawns could be a novel contribution to controlling, or eliminating, schistosomiasis.                            

  8. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmanek, Daniel; Miller, Melissa A; Grigg, Michael E; Crosbie, Paul R; Conrad, Patricia A

    2010-05-28

    Sarcocystis neurona is a significant cause of neurological disease in horses and other animals, including the threatened Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the only known definitive hosts for S. neurona in North America, are an introduced species in California. S. neurona DNA isolated from sporocysts and/or infected tissues of 10 opossums, 6 horses, 1 cat, 23 Southern sea otters, and 1 harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) with natural infections was analyzed based on 15 genetic markers, including the first internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) region; the 25/396 marker; S. neurona surface antigen genes (snSAGs) 2, 3, and 4; and 10 different microsatellites. Based on phylogenetic analysis, most of the S. neurona strains segregated into three genetically distinct groups. Additionally, fifteen S. neurona samples from opossums and several intermediate hosts, including sea otters and horses, were found to be genetically identical across all 15 genetic markers, indicating that fatal encephalitis in Southern sea otters and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in horses is strongly linked to S. neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of biosynthetic intermediates of teaghrelins and teaghrelin-like compounds in oolong teas, and their molecular docking to the ghrelin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Kuo Hsieh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaghrelins are unique acylated flavonoid tetraglycosides found in Chin-shin oolong tea, and have been demonstrated to be promising oral ghrelin analogues. The biosynthetic pathway of teaghrelins from quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin or kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorin was proposed to comprise three enzymatic steps according to the identification of putative intermediates in Chin-shin oolong tea. In addition to the two known teaghrelins in Chin-shin oolong tea, four teaghrelin-like compounds with different attachments of glycosides were identified in various oolong teas. Molecular modeling and docking were used to evaluate theoretically whether the putative biosynthetic intermediates of teaghrelins and the four teaghrelin-like compounds could be potential candidates of ghrelin analogues. The results showed that the attachment of a coumaroyl group was crucial for these tea compounds to bind to the ghrelin receptor. However, the additional attachment of a rhamnosyl glycoside to the flavonoid backbone of teaghrelin-like compounds at C-7 significantly reduced their binding affinity with the ghrelin receptor.

  10. Deciphering structural intermediates and genotoxic fibrillar aggregates of albumins: a molecular mechanism underlying for degenerative diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aabgeena Naeem

    Full Text Available The misfolding and aggregation of proteins is involved in some of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders. The importance of human serum albumin (HSA stems from the fact that it is involved in bio-regulatory and transport phenomena. Here the effect of acetonitrile (ACN on the conformational stability of HSA and by comparison, ovalbumin (OVA has been evaluated in the presence and absence of NaCl. The results show the presence of significant amount of secondary structure in HSA at 70% ACN and in OVA at 50% ACN, as evident from far-UV Circular Dichroism (CD and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier transformed infra red spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR. Tryptophan and 8-Anilino-1-Naphthalene-Sulphonic acid (ANS fluorescence indicate altered tryptophan environment and high ANS binding suggesting a compact "molten globule"-like conformation with enhanced exposure of hydrophobic surface area. However, in presence of NaCl no intermediate state was observed. Detection of aggregates in HSA and OVA was possible at 90% ACN. Aggregates possess extensive β-sheet structure as revealed by far-UV CD and ATR-FTIR. These aggregates exhibit increase Thioflavin T (Th T fluorescence with a red shift of Congo red (CR absorption spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM analysis confirmed the presence of fibrillar aggregates. Single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE assay of these fibrillar aggregates showed the DNA damage resulting in cell necrosis confirming their genotoxic nature. Some proteins not related to any human disease form fibrils in vitro. In the present study ACN gives access to a model system to study the process of aggregation.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Conrado de Oliveira Silveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To determine the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of 12 Staphylococcus aureus isolates presenting heteroresistance to vancomycin in laboratories of two cities in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Epidemiological data, including the city of isolation, health institution, and date of isolation were considered, as well as the associated clinical specimen. For molecular characterization, we analyzed the staphylococcal cassette chromosome types, the erm gene presence, and the genomic diversity of isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The 12 isolates of S. aureus were previously confirmed as heteroresistance to vancomycin using the population analysis profile–area under curve. Regarding genetic variability, two clones were detected: the main one (clone A composed of four isolates and the clones B, with two isolates. For clone A, two isolates presented identical band patterns and were related to the same hospital, with an interval of 57 days between their isolation. The other isolates of this clone showed no epidemiological link between them because they were isolated in different hospitals and had no temporal relationship. The other clone showed no detectable epidemiological relationship. The heteroresistance to vancomycin recovered in Santa Catarina State from 2009 to 2012 had, in general, heterogeneous genomic patterns based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis results, which is in accordance with the fact that these isolates had little or no epidemiological relationship among them. Due to the characteristic phenotypic instability and often prolonged vancomycin therapy for selection, clonal spread is not as common as for other resistance mechanisms disseminated through horizontal gene transfer.

  12. Investigation of the intermediate LK molecular orbital radiation in heavy ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, W.; Kaun, K.-H.; Manfrass, P.

    1981-01-01

    The continuum consisting of an intensive low-energy and a high-energy components in heavy-ion atom collision systems with atomic numbers Z 1 , Z 2 > 28 is studied. The aim of the study is to prove that the C1 continuum cannot be caused by ridiative electron capture (REC) being molecular orbital (MO) radiation to the 2ptau level. It is shown that the comparison of the C1 yields obtained in Kr+Nb asymmetric collisions in gas and solid targets is associated with the formation of vacancies in the lower-Z collision partner and can be interpreted as quasimolecular radiation to the 2ptau orbital level. The strong suppression of the C2 component in the gas target experimets indicates that the MO radiation to the 1stau orbit is emitted preferentially in the two-collision process in symmetric and near-symmetric systems with Z 1 , Z 2 [ru

  13. Molecular Switch for Sub-Diffraction Laser Lithography by Photoenol Intermediate-State Cis-Trans Isomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Patrick; Zieger, Markus M; Richter, Benjamin; Quick, Alexander S; Fischer, Joachim; Mueller, Jonathan B; Zhou, Lu; Nienhaus, Gerd Ulrich; Bastmeyer, Martin; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Wegener, Martin

    2017-06-27

    Recent developments in stimulated-emission depletion (STED) microscopy have led to a step change in the achievable resolution and allowed breaking the diffraction limit by large factors. The core principle is based on a reversible molecular switch, allowing for light-triggered activation and deactivation in combination with a laser focus that incorporates a point or line of zero intensity. In the past years, the concept has been transferred from microscopy to maskless laser lithography, namely direct laser writing (DLW), in order to overcome the diffraction limit for optical lithography. Herein, we propose and experimentally introduce a system that realizes such a molecular switch for lithography. Specifically, the population of intermediate-state photoenol isomers of α-methyl benzaldehydes generated by two-photon absorption at 700 nm fundamental wavelength can be reversibly depleted by simultaneous irradiation at 440 nm, suppressing the subsequent Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction which constitutes the chemical core of the writing process. We demonstrate the potential of the proposed mechanism for STED-inspired DLW by covalently functionalizing the surface of glass substrates via the photoenol-driven STED-inspired process exploiting reversible photoenol activation with a polymerization initiator. Subsequently, macromolecules are grown from the functionalized areas and the spatially coded glass slides are characterized by atomic-force microscopy. Our approach allows lines with a full-width-at-half-maximum of down to 60 nm and line gratings with a lateral resolution of 100 nm to be written, both surpassing the diffraction limit.

  14. Usefulness of the early molecular diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsial diseases in patients with fever of intermediate duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-Rivero, Margarita; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Hernández-Cabrera, Michele; Pisos-Álamo, Elena; Jaén-Sánchez, Nieves; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2017-12-01

    Most cases of fever of intermediate duration (FDI) in Spain are associated with infectious diseases (mainly Q fever and rickettsia infections). In clinical practice, the causal diagnosis of these entities is based on immunodiagnostic techniques, which are of little help in the early stages. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of molecular techniques for the early diagnosis of Q fever and rickettsia diseases in patients with FDI. A PCR method was used to detect the presence of genetic material of Coxiella burnetii and Rickettsia spp. in blood specimens from 271 patients with FDI. The specificity of both techniques is high, allowing diagnosis in cases undiagnosed by specific antibodies detection. These data suggest that the use of molecular techniques, with proper selection of the study specimen, and using appropriate primers is a useful tool in the early diagnosis of the main causes of FDI, especially if serology is negative or inconclusive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial biotransformation of DON: molecular basis for reduced toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierron, Alix; Mimoun, Sabria; Murate, Leticia S.; Loiseau, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Bracarense, Ana-Paula F. L.; Schatzmayr, Gerd; He, Jian Wei; Zhou, Ting; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2016-07-01

    Bacteria are able to de-epoxidize or epimerize deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin, to deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (deepoxy-DON or DOM-1) or 3-epi-deoxynivalenol (3-epi-DON), respectively. Using different approaches, the intestinal toxicity of 3 molecules was compared and the molecular basis for the reduced toxicity investigated. In human intestinal epithelial cells, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON were not cytotoxic, did not change the oxygen consumption or impair the barrier function. In intestinal explants, exposure for 4 hours to 10 μM DON induced intestinal lesions not seen in explants treated with deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON. A pan-genomic transcriptomic analysis was performed on intestinal explants. 747 probes, representing 323 genes, were differentially expressed, between DON-treated and control explants. By contrast, no differentially expressed genes were observed between control, deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON treated explants. Both DON and its biotransformation products were able to fit into the pockets of the A-site of the ribosome peptidyl transferase center. DON forms three hydrogen bonds with the A site and activates MAPKinases (mitogen-activated protein kinases). By contrast deepoxy-DON and 3-epi-DON only form two hydrogen bonds and do not activate MAPKinases. Our data demonstrate that bacterial de-epoxidation or epimerization of DON altered their interaction with the ribosome, leading to an absence of MAPKinase activation and a reduced toxicity.

  16. ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulations of intermediate species in dicyanamide anion and nitric acid hypergolic combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weismiller, Michael R; Junkermeier, Chad E; Russo, Michael F Jr; Van Duin, Adri C T; Salazar, Michael R; Bedrov, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Ionic liquids based on the dicyanamide anion (DCA) are of interest as replacements for current hypergolic fuels, which are highly toxic. To better understand the reaction dynamics of these ionic liquid fuels, this study reports the results of molecular dynamics simulations performed for two predicted intermediate compounds in DCA-based ionic liquids/nitric acid (HNO 3 ) combustion, i.e. protonated DCA (DCAH) and nitro-dicyanamide-carbonyl (NDC). Calculations were performed using a ReaxFF reactive force field. Single component simulations show that neat NDC undergo exothermic decomposition and ignition. Simulations with HNO 3 were performed at both a low (0.25 g ml −1 ) and high (1.00 g ml −1 ) densities, to investigate the reaction in a dense vapor and liquid phase, respectively. Both DCAH and NDC react hypergolically with HNO 3 , and increased density led to shorter times for the onset of thermal runaway. Contrary to a proposed mechanism for DCA combustion, neither DCAH nor NDC are converted to 1,5-Dinitrobiuret (DNB) before thermal runaway. Details of reaction pathways for these processes are discussed. (paper)

  17. Insertion of molecular oxygen into a palladium(II) methyl bond: a radical chain mechanism involving palladium(III) intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, Luc; Denney, Melanie C; Hanson, Susan Kloek; Goldberg, Karen I

    2009-11-04

    The reaction of (bipy)PdMe(2) (1) (bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) with molecular oxygen results in the formation of the palladium(II) methylperoxide complex (bipy)PdMe(OOMe) (2). The identity of the product 2 has been confirmed by independent synthesis. Results of kinetic studies of this unprecedented oxygen insertion reaction into a palladium alkyl bond support the involvement of a radical chain mechanism. Reproducible rates, attained in the presence of the radical initiator 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN), reveal that the reaction is overall first-order (one-half-order in both [1] and [AIBN], and zero-order in [O(2)]). The unusual rate law (half-order in [1]) implies that the reaction proceeds by a mechanism that differs significantly from those for organic autoxidations and for the recently reported examples of insertion of O(2) into Pd(II) hydride bonds. The mechanism for the autoxidation of 1 is more closely related to that found for the autoxidation of main group and early transition metal alkyl complexes. Notably, the chain propagation is proposed to proceed via a stepwise associative homolytic substitution at the Pd center of 1 with formation of a pentacoordinate Pd(III) intermediate.

  18. The taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and the red brocket deer (Mazama americana) as intermediate hosts of Taenia hydatigena in Peru, morphological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Pacheco, Joel; Gonzales-Viera, Omar; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2015-09-15

    In the present report metacestodes were collected from the mesentery of a taruca (Hippocamelus antisensis) and from the omentum of a red brocket deer (Mazama americana) in Peru. Various metacestodes parameters, including rostellar hook characteristics, were measured. Molecular analysis was performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene from metacestode isolates. Metacestodes were identified as T. hydatigena by morphology and molecular methods. This constitutes the first molecular detection of T. hydatigena metacestodes in the taruca and the red brocket deer and demonstrates that these animal species are natural intermediate hosts for this parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Super-reduced polyoxometalates: excellent molecular cluster battery components and semipermeable molecular capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yoshio; Yokogawa, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Awaga, Kunio; Irle, Stephan

    2014-06-25

    Theoretical investigations are presented on the molecular and electronic structure changes that occur as α-Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM(3-)) clusters [PM12O40](3-) (M = Mo, W) are converted toward their super-reduced POM(27-) state during the discharging process in lithium-based molecular cluster batteries. Density functional theory was employed in geometry optimization, and first-principles molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore local minima on the potential energy surface of neutral POM clusters adorned with randomly placed Li atoms as electron donors around the cluster surface. On the basis of structural, electron density, and molecular orbital studies, we present evidence that the super-reduction is accompanied by metal-metal bond formation, beginning from the 12th to 14th excess electron transferred to the cluster. Afterward, the number of metal-metal bonds increases nearly linearly with the number of additionally transferred excess electrons. In α-Keggin-type POMs, metal triangles are a prominently emerging structural feature. The origin of the metal triangle formation during super-reduction stems from the formation of characteristic three-center two-electron bonds in triangular metal atom sites, created under preservation of the POM skeleton via "squeezing out" of oxygen atoms bridging two metal atoms when the underlying metal atoms form covalent bonds. The driving force for this unusual geometrical and electronic structure change is a local Jahn-Teller distortion at individual transition-metal octahedral sites, where the triply degenerate t2 d orbitals become partially filled during reduction and gain energy by distortion of the octahedron in such a way that metal-metal bonds are formed. The bonding orbitals show strong contributions from mixing with metal-oxygen antibonding orbitals, thereby "shuffling away" excess electrons from the cluster center to the outside of the cage. The high density of negatively charged yet largely separated

  20. Reduced transmission of human schistosomiasis after restoration of a native river prawn that preys on the snail intermediate host

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolow, Susanne H.; Huttinger, Elizabeth; Jouanard, Nicolas; Hsieh, Michael H.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.; Riveau, Gilles; Senghor, Simon; Thiam, Cheikh; N’Diaye, Alassane; Faye, Djibril Sarr; De Leo, Giulio A.

    2015-01-01

    Reinfection after treatment is a problem that plagues efforts to control parasites with complex transmission pathways, such as schistosomiasis, which affects at least 220 million people worldwide and requires an obligate snail intermediate host. Our study highlights a potential ecological solution to this global health problem: We show that a species of river prawn indigenous to the west coast of Africa, Macrobrachium vollenhovenii, could offer a low-cost, sustainable form of snail control th...

  1. A eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin is associated with a high molecular weight intermediate in the assembly of hepatitis B virus capsid, a multimeric particle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingappa, J R; Martin, R L; Wong, M L; Ganem, D; Welch, W J; Lingappa, V R

    1994-04-01

    We have established a system for assembly of hepatitis B virus capsid, a homomultimer of the viral core polypeptide, using cell-free transcription-linked translation. The mature particles that are produced are indistinguishable from authentic viral capsids by four criteria: velocity sedimentation, buoyant density, protease resistance, and electron microscopic appearance. Production of unassembled core polypeptides can be uncoupled from production of capsid particles by decreasing core mRNA concentration. Addition of excess unlabeled core polypeptides allows the chase of the unassembled polypeptides into mature capsids. Using this cell-free system, we demonstrate that assembly of capsids proceeds by way of a novel high molecular weight intermediate. Upon isolation, the high molecular weight intermediate is productive of mature capsids when energy substrates are manipulated. A 60-kD protein related to the chaperonin t-complex polypeptide 1 (TCP-1) is found in association with core polypeptides in two different assembly intermediates, but is not associated with either the initial unassembled polypeptides or with the final mature capsid product. These findings implicate TCP-1 or a related chaperonin in viral assembly and raise the possibility that eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonins may play a distinctive role in multimer assembly apart from their involvement in assisting monomer folding.

  2. Planck intermediate results XXXV. Probing the role of the magnetic field in the formation of structure in molecular clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Within ten nearby (d molecular clouds we evaluate statistically the relative orientation between the magnetic field projected on the plane of sky, inferred from the polarized thermal emission of Galactic dust observed by Planck at 353 GHz, and the gas column density structures...... with increasing N-H, from mostly parallel or having no preferred orientation to mostly perpendicular. In simulations of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in molecular clouds this trend in relative orientation is a signature of Alfvenic or sub-Alfvenic turbulence, implying that the magnetic field is significant...... for the gas dynamics at the scales probed by Planck. We compare the deduced magnetic field strength with estimates we obtain from other methods and discuss the implications of the Planck observations for the general picture of molecular cloud formation and evolution....

  3. EU Think Tank Fora as Transaction Cost Reducers: A Study of Informal Interest Intermediation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marybel Perez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By examining the organisational structure of EU think tank fora (seminars, workshops and conferences, this article proposes that fora can play the role of transaction cost reducers in EU policymaking. I argue that certain aspects of EU policymaking, including i controlled processes of consultation, ii diminishing costs of management, and iii the risk of state capture, incentivise EU institutions to outsource part of the consultation activity to policy actors that can help EU institutions fulfil their informational and legitimacy needs. I argue that think tanks are able to play this role because they i reduce information asymmetries by connecting a wide variety of policy actors and ii act as intermediaries that mitigate opportunistic behaviour. The empirical assessment reveals that the dimensions characterising transactions are present in EU think tank fora. It shows that policy actors that do not usually participate in formal consultation processes frequently attend fora where they meet representatives of EU institutions, particularly Parliament and Commission representatives.

  4. Molecular structure determination for photogenerated intermediates in photoinduced electron transfer reactions using steady-state and transient XAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.X.; Wasielewski, M.R.; Rajh, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

    1996-10-01

    Many photoinduced electron transfer reactions are accompanied by nuclear rearrangements of the molecules involved. In order to understand the reactivities of the molecules and the reaction mechanisms, precise information on the molecular structural changes accompanying the electron transfer is often required. We present here conventional XAFS and transient energy dispersive XAFS studies on structures of excited and photoinduced charge separated state of porphyrin and porphyrin based supermolecules, and structures of TiO{sub 2} colloid and the heavymetal ions that bind to the colloid surfaces during photocatalytic reductions.

  5. Combination of pegylated IFN-α2b with imatinib increases molecular response rates in patients with low- or intermediate-risk chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Markevärn, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Biologic and clinical observations suggest that combining imatinib with IFN-a may improve treatment outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We randomized newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML patients with a low or intermediate Sokal risk score and in imatinib-induced complete hematologic remission...... either to receive a combination of pegylated IFN-a2b (Peg-IFN-a2b) 50 µg weekly and imatinib 400 mg daily (n = 56) or to receive imatinib 400 mg daily monotherapy (n = 56). The primary endpoint was the major molecular response (MMR) rate at 12 months after randomization. In both arms, 4 patients (7......%) discontinued imatinib treatment (1 because of blastic transformation in imatinib arm). In addition, in the combination arm, 34 patients (61%) discontinued Peg-IFN-a2b, most because of toxicity. The MMR rate at 12 months was significantly higher in the imatinib plus Peg-IFN-a2b arm (82%) compared...

  6. Predicting unfolding thermodynamics and stable intermediates for alanine-rich helical peptides with the aid of coarse-grained molecular simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Rubio, Cesar; Paik, Bradford; Jia, Xinqiao; Kiick, Kristi L; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    This report focuses on the molecular-level processes and thermodynamics of unfolding of a series of helical peptides using a coarse-grained (CG) molecular model. The CG model was refined to capture thermodynamics and structural changes as a function of temperature for a set of published peptide sequences. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was used to experimentally monitor the temperature-dependent conformational changes and stability of published peptides and new sequences introduced here. The model predictions were quantitatively or semi-quantitatively accurate in all cases. The simulations and CD results showed that, as expected, in most cases the unfolding of helical peptides is well described by a simply 2-state model, and conformational stability increased with increased length of the helices. A notable exception in a 19-residue helix was when two Ala residues were each replaced with Phe. This stabilized a partly unfolded intermediate state via hydrophobic contacts, and also promoted aggregates at higher peptide concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Trapped Covalent Intermediate of a Glycoside Hydrolase on the Pathway to Transglycosylation. Insights from Experiments and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Lluís; Borodkin, Vladimir; Fang, Wenxia; Castro-López, Jorge; van Aalten, Daan M F; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Rovira, Carme

    2016-03-16

    The conversion of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) into transglycosylases (TGs), i.e., from enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates to enzymes that synthesize them, represents a promising solution for the large-scale synthesis of complex carbohydrates for biotechnological purposes. However, the lack of knowledge about the molecular details of transglycosylation hampers the rational design of TGs. Here we present the first crystallographic structure of a natural glycosyl-enzyme intermediate (GEI) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gas2 in complex with an acceptor substrate and demonstrate, by means of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics metadynamics simulations, that it is tuned for transglycosylation (ΔG(⧧) = 12 kcal/mol). The 2-OH···nucleophile interaction is found to be essential for catalysis: its removal raises the free energy barrier significantly (11 and 16 kcal/mol for glycosylation and transglycosylation, respectively) and alters the conformational itinerary of the substrate (from (4)C1 → [(4)E](⧧) → (1,4)B/(4)E to (4)C1 → [(4)H3](⧧) → (4)C1). Our results suggest that changes in the interactions involving the 2-position could have an impact on the transglycosylation activity of several GHs.

  8. Urinary Loss of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Intermediates As Revealed by Metabolomics Studies: An Underlying Mechanism to Reduce Lipid Accretion by Whey Protein Ingestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein intake is associated with the modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms are not yet elucidated. We fed obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF casein) or whey (HF whey) for 6 weeks. At equal energy intake and apparent fat and nitrogen digestibility, mice fed HF whey stored less energy as lipids, evident both as lower white adipose tissue mass and as reduced liver lipids, compared with HF-casein-fed mice. Explorative analyses of 48 h urine, both by 1H NMR and LC–MS metabolomic platforms, demonstrated higher urinary excretion of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates citric acid and succinic acid (identified by both platforms), and cis-aconitic acid and isocitric acid (identified by LC–MS platform) in the HF whey, relative to in the HF-casein-fed mice. Targeted LC–MS analyses revealed higher citric acid and cis-aconitic acid concentrations in fed state plasma, but not in liver of HF-whey-fed mice. We propose that enhanced urinary loss of TCA cycle metabolites drain available substrates for anabolic processes, such as lipogenesis, thereby leading to reduced lipid accretion in HF-whey-fed compared to HF-casein-fed mice. PMID:24702026

  9. Molecular and morphological variation of Paragonimus westermani in Vietnam with records of new second intermediate crab hosts and a new locality in a northern province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, N Pham; Tu, A Luu; Bui, T Dung; Loan, T Ho; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Blair, David; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2016-10-01

    Paragonimus westermani is one of the most medically important lung flukes and is widely distributed in Asia. It exhibits considerable variation in morphological, genetic and biological features. In central provinces of Vietnam, a high prevalence of metacercariae of this species has been reported from the crab intermediate host, Vietopotamon aluoiense. In this study, we detected P. westermani metacercariae in two additional crab hosts, Donopotamon haii in Quang Tri Province, central Vietnam and Indochinamon tannanti in Yen Bai Province in the north. The latter is a new locality for P. westermani in a northern region of Vietnam where P. heterotremus is the only species currently known to cause human paragonimiasis. Paragonimus westermani metacercariae found in Vietnam showed considerable morphological variation but slight genetic variation based on DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal ITS2 region and the mitochondrial 16S gene. Co-infection of the same individual crabs with P. westermani and P. heterotremus and/or some other Paragonimus species was found frequently, suggesting potential for co-infection in humans. The findings of the present study emphasize the need for highly specific molecular and immunodiagnostic methods to differentially diagnose between P. westermani and P. heterotremus infections.

  10. The Molecular Architecture for the Intermediate Filaments of Hard [alpha]-Keratin Based on the Superlattice Data Obtained from a Study ofMammals Using Synchrotron Fibre Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Veronica (ANU)

    2014-09-24

    High- and low-angle X-ray diffraction studies of hard {alpha}-keratin have been studied, and various models have been proposed over the last 70 years. Most of these studies have been confined to one or two forms of alpha keratin. This high- and low-angle synchrotron fibre diffraction study extends the study to cover all available data for all known forms of hard {alpha}-keratin including hairs, fingernails, hooves, horn, and quills from mammals, marsupials, and a monotreme, and it confirms that the model proposed is universally acceptable for all mammals. A complete Bragg analysis of the meridional diffraction patterns, including multiple-time exposures to verify any weak reflections, verified the existence of a superlattice consisting of two infinite lattices and three finite lattices. An analysis of the equatorial patterns establishes the radii of the oligomeric levels of dimers, tetramers, and intermediate filaments (IFs) together with the centre to centre distance for the IFs, thus confirming the proposed helices within helices molecular architecture for hard {alpha}-keratin. The results verify that the structure proposed by Feughelman and James meets the criteria for a valid {alpha}-keratin structure.

  11. Molecular characteristics and virulence factors in methicillin-susceptible, resistant, and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus from central-southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cailin; Chen, Zhong-ju; Sun, Ziyong; Feng, Xianju; Zou, Mingxiang; Cao, Wei; Wang, Shanmei; Zeng, Ji; Wang, Yue; Sun, Mingyue

    2015-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of nosocomial infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (hVISA), and compare the antimicrobial susceptibility, molecular characteristic, and virulence factors in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), MRSA, and hVISA from central-southern China. A total of 184 S. aureus were isolated from sterile body fluids. All isolates were subjected to population analysis profiling for the identification of hVISA phenotype and polymerase chain reaction analysis for genotyping and 31 virulence genes. The prevalence of MRSA isolates was 41.8% in central-southern China. Of 77 MRSA isolates, 17 (22.1%) were identified as hVISA. The most common MRSA and MSSA clones were ST239-MRSA-SCCmecIII-t030-agr-I (55.8%) and ST188-MSSA-t189-agr-I (20.6%), respectively. The frequency of carriage of pvl, hemolysins, tst, and staphylococcal enterotoxin genes among MSSA isolates was significantly higher than that for MRSA isolates (p aureus isolates; the virulence genes were more diverse and frequent among MSSA isolates than among MRSA isolates. Furthermore, the distribution of some virulence genes was correlated with the different S. aureus CCs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Reduced and Compressed Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Children and Adolescents With Intermediate-Risk Extracranial Malignant Germ Cell Tumors: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Furqan; Cullen, John W; Olson, Thomas A; Pashankar, Farzana; Malogolowkin, Marcio H; Amatruda, James F; Villaluna, Doojduen; Krailo, Mark; Billmire, Deborah F; Rescorla, Frederick J; Egler, Rachel A; Dicken, Bryan J; Ross, Jonathan H; Schlatter, Marc; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Frazier, A Lindsay

    2017-04-10

    Purpose To investigate whether event-free survival (EFS) can be maintained among children and adolescents with intermediate-risk (IR) malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) if the administration of cisplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin (PEb) is reduced from four to three cycles and compressed from 5 to 3 days per cycle. Patients and Methods In a phase 3, single-arm trial, patients with IR MGCT (stage II-IV testicular, II-III ovarian, I-II extragonadal, or stage I gonadal tumors with subsequent recurrence) received three cycles of PEb. A parametric comparator model specified that the observed EFS rate should not be significantly < 92%. As recommended for trials that test a reduction of therapy, a one-sided P value ≤ .10 was used to indicate statistical significance. In a post hoc analysis, we also compared results to the EFS rate of comparable patients treated with four cycles of PEb in two prior studies. Results Among 210 eligible patients enrolled from 2003 to 2011, 4-year EFS (EFS 4 ) rate was 89% (95% confidence interval, 83% to 92%), which was significantly lower than the 92% threshold of the comparison model ( P = .08). Among 181 newly diagnosed patients, the EFS 4 rate was 87%, compared with 92% for 92 comparable children in the historical cohort ( P = .15). The EFS 4 rate was significantly associated with stage (stage I, 100%; stage II, 92%; stage III, 85%; and stage IV, 54%; P < .001). Conclusion The EFS rate for children with IR MGCT observed after three cycles of PEb was less than that of a prespecified parametric model, particularly for patients with higher-stage tumors. These data do not support a reduction in the number of cycles of PEb from four to three. However, further investigation of a reduction in the number of cycles for patients with lower-stage tumors is warranted.

  13. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  14. Learning reduced kinetic Monte Carlo models of complex chemistry from molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Sing-Long, Carlos A; Reed, Evan J

    2017-08-01

    We propose a novel statistical learning framework for automatically and efficiently building reduced kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models of large-scale elementary reaction networks from data generated by a single or few molecular dynamics simulations (MD). Existing approaches for identifying species and reactions from molecular dynamics typically use bond length and duration criteria, where bond duration is a fixed parameter motivated by an understanding of bond vibrational frequencies. In contrast, we show that for highly reactive systems, bond duration should be a model parameter that is chosen to maximize the predictive power of the resulting statistical model. We demonstrate our method on a high temperature, high pressure system of reacting liquid methane, and show that the learned KMC model is able to extrapolate more than an order of magnitude in time for key molecules. Additionally, our KMC model of elementary reactions enables us to isolate the most important set of reactions governing the behavior of key molecules found in the MD simulation. We develop a new data-driven algorithm to reduce the chemical reaction network which can be solved either as an integer program or efficiently using L1 regularization, and compare our results with simple count-based reduction. For our liquid methane system, we discover that rare reactions do not play a significant role in the system, and find that less than 7% of the approximately 2000 reactions observed from molecular dynamics are necessary to reproduce the molecular concentration over time of methane. The framework described in this work paves the way towards a genomic approach to studying complex chemical systems, where expensive MD simulation data can be reused to contribute to an increasingly large and accurate genome of elementary reactions and rates.

  15. Reducing aquatic hazards of industrial chemicals: probabilistic assessment of sustainable molecular design guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Kristin A; Voutchkova-Kostal, Adelina M; Kostal, Jakub; Anastas, Paul; Zimmerman, Julie B; Brooks, Bryan W

    2014-08-01

    Basic toxicological information is lacking for the majority of industrial chemicals. In addition to increasing empirical toxicity data through additional testing, prospective computational approaches to drug development aim to serve as a rational basis for the design of chemicals with reduced toxicity. Recent work has resulted in the derivation of a "rule of 2," wherein chemicals with an octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) less than 2 and a difference between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital (ΔE) greater than 9 (log P9 eV) are predicted to be 4 to 5 times less likely to elicit acute or chronic toxicity to model aquatic organisms. The present study examines potential reduction of aquatic toxicity hazards from industrial chemicals if these 2 molecular design guidelines were employed. Probabilistic hazard assessment approaches were used to model the likelihood of encountering industrial chemicals exceeding toxicological categories of concern both with and without the rule of 2. Modeling predicted that utilization of these molecular design guidelines for log P and ΔE would appreciably decrease the number of chemicals that would be designated to be of "high" and "very high" concern for acute and chronic toxicity to standard model aquatic organisms and end points as defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For example, 14.5% of chemicals were categorized as having high and very high acute toxicity to the fathead minnow model, whereas only 3.3% of chemicals conforming to the design guidelines were predicted to be in these categories. Considerations of specific chemical classes (e.g., aldehydes), chemical attributes (e.g., ionization), and adverse outcome pathways in representative species (e.g., receptor-mediated responses) could be used to derive future property guidelines for broader classes of contaminants. © 2014 SETAC.

  16. Ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films as transparent top-contacts for light switchable solid-state molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Jevric, Martyn; Hauptmann, Jonas Rahlf

    2013-01-01

    A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules. The electr....... The electrical switching behavior of a less-studied molecular switch, dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene, is described, which is used as a test case....

  17. Molecular evidence for lignin degradation in sulfate-reducing mangrove sediments (Amazônia, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Thorsten; Lara, Rubén José

    2001-05-01

    - Molecular lignin analyses have become a powerful quantitative approach for estimating flux and fate of vascular plant organic matter in coastal and marine environments. The use of a specific molecular biomarker requires detailed knowledge of its decomposition rates relative to the associated organic matter and its structural diagenetic changes. To gain insight into the poorly known processes of anaerobic lignin diagenesis, molecular analyses were performed in the sulfate-reducing sediment of a north Brazilian mangrove. Organic matter in samples representing different diagenetic stages (i.e., fresh litter, a sediment core, and percolating water) was characterized by alkaline CuO oxidation for lignin composition, element (C, N), and stable carbon isotope analyses. On the basis of these results and on a balance model, long-term in situ decomposition rates of lignin in sulfate-reducing sediments were estimated for the first time. The half-life ( T1/2) of lignin derived from mangrove leaf litter (mainly Rhizophora mangle) was ˜150 yr in the upper 1.5 m of the sediment. Associated organic carbon from leaf tissue was depleted to ˜75% within weeks, followed by a slow mineralization in the sediment ( T1/2 ≈ 300 yr). Unlike the known pathways of lignin diagenesis, even highly degraded lignin did not show any alterations of the propyl or methoxyl side chains, as evident from stable acid to aldehyde ratios and the proportion of methoxylated phenols (vanillyl and syringyl phenols). Aromatic ring cleavage is probably the principal mechanism for lignin decay in the studied environment. Cinnamyl phenols were highly abundant in mangrove leaves and were rapidly depleted during early diagenesis. Thus, the cinnamyl to vanillyl ratio could be used as a tracer for early diagenesis even under the sulfate-reducing conditions. Syringyl phenols were removed from dissolved organic matter in interstitial water, probably by sorption onto the sediment. Suspended organic matter in a

  18. Higher Desolvation Energy Reduces Molecular Recognition in Multi-Drug Resistant HIV-1 Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislau C. Kovari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Designing HIV-1 protease inhibitors that overcome drug-resistance is still a challenging task. In this study, four clinical isolates of multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases that exhibit resistance to all the US FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitors and also reduce the substrate recognition ability were examined. A multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease isolate, MDR 769, was co-crystallized with the p2/NC substrate and the mutated CA/p2 substrate, CA/p2 P1’F. Both substrates display different levels of molecular recognition by the wild-type and multi-drug resistant HIV-1 protease. From the crystal structures, only limited differences can be identified between the wild-type and multi-drug resistant protease. Therefore, a wild-type HIV-1 protease and four multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases in complex with the two peptides were modeled based on the crystal structures and examined during a 10 ns-molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results reveal that the multi-drug resistant HIV-1 proteases require higher desolvation energy to form complexes with the peptides. This result suggests that the desolvation of the HIV-1 protease active site is an important step of protease-ligand complex formation as well as drug resistance. Therefore, desolvation energy could be considered as a parameter in the evaluation of future HIV-1 protease inhibitor candidates.

  19. Combination of pegylated IFN-α2b with imatinib increases molecular response rates in patients with low- or intermediate-risk chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Markevärn, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Biologic and clinical observations suggest that combining imatinib with IFN-α may improve treatment outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We randomized newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML patients with a low or intermediate Sokal risk score and in imatinib-induced complete hematologic remissio...

  20. Combination of pegylated IFN-α2b with imatinib increases molecular response rates in patients with low- or intermediate-risk chronic myeloid leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Bengt; Gedde-Dahl, Tobias; Markevärn, Berit

    2011-01-01

    Biologic and clinical observations suggest that combining imatinib with IFN-a may improve treatment outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We randomized newly diagnosed chronic-phase CML patients with a low or intermediate Sokal risk score and in imatinib-induced complete hematologic remission...

  1. Molecular hydrogen ameliorates several characteristics of preeclampsia in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Takafumi; Kotani, Tomomi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Imai, Kenji; Nakano, Tomoko; Hirako, Shima; Ito, Yumiko; Li, Hua; Mano, Yukio; Wang, Jingwen; Miki, Rika; Yamamoto, Eiko; Iwase, Akira; Bando, Yasuko K; Hirayama, Masaaki; Ohno, Kinji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been shown to have therapeutic potential in various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of H 2 on preeclampsia. We used the reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model, which has been widely used as a model of preeclampsia. H 2 water (HW) was administered orally ad libitum in RUPP rats from gestational day (GD) 12-19, starting 2 days before RUPP procedure. On GD19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured, and samples were collected. Maternal administration of HW significantly decreased MAP, and increased fetal and placental weight in RUPP rats. The increased levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and diacron reactive oxygen metabolites as a biomarker of reactive oxygen species in maternal blood were decreased by HW administration. However, vascular endothelial growth factor level in maternal blood was increased by HW administration. Proteinuria, and histological findings in kidney were improved by HW administration. In addition, the effects of H 2 on placental villi were examined by using a trophoblast cell line (BeWo) and villous explants from the placental tissue of women with or without preeclampsia. H 2 significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced sFlt-1 expression, but could not reduce the expression induced by hypoxia in BeWo cells. H 2 significantly attenuated sFlt-1 expression in villous explants from women with preeclampsia, but not affected them from normotensive pregnancy. The prophylactic administration of H 2 attenuated placental ischemia-induced hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and oxidative stress. These results support the theory that H 2 has a potential benefit in the prevention of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sulforaphane reduces molecular response to hypoxia in ovarian tumor cells independently of their resistance to chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorek, Michal; Simko, Veronika; Takacova, Martina; Barathova, Monika; Bartosova, Maria; Hunakova, Luba; Sedlakova, Olga; Hudecova, Sona; Krizanova, Olga; Dequiedt, Franck; Pastorekova, Silvia; Sedlak, Jan

    2015-07-01

    One of the recently emerging anticancer strategies is the use of natural dietary compounds, such as sulforaphane, a cancer-chemopreventive isothiocyanate found in broccoli. Based on the growing evidence, sulforaphane acts through molecular mechanisms that interfere with multiple oncogenic pathways in diverse tumor cell types. Herein, we investigated the anticancer effects of bioavailable concentrations of sulforaphane in ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its two derivatives, adriamycin-resistant A2780/ADR and cisplatin-resistant A2780/CP cell lines. Since tumor microenvironment is characterized by reduced oxygenation that induces aggressive tumor phenotype (such as increased invasiveness and resistance to chemotherapy), we evaluated the effects of sulforaphane in ovarian cancer cells exposed to hypoxia (2% O2). Using the cell-based reporter assay, we identified several oncogenic pathways modulated by sulforaphane in hypoxia by activating anticancer responses (p53, ARE, IRF-1, Pax-6 and XRE) and suppressing responses supporting tumor progression (AP-1 and HIF-1). We further showed that sulforaphane decreases the level of HIF-1α protein without affecting its transcription and stability. It can also diminish transcription and protein level of the HIF-1 target, CA IX, which protects tumor cells from hypoxia-induced pH imbalance and facilitates their migration/invasion. Accordingly, sulforaphane treatment leads to diminished pH regulation and reduced migration of ovarian carcinoma cells. These effects occur in all three ovarian cell lines suggesting that sulforaphane can overcome the chemoresistance of cancer cells. This offers a path potentially exploitable in sensitizing resistant cancer cells to therapy, and opens a window for the combined treatments of sulforaphane either with conventional chemotherapy, natural compounds, or with other small molecules.

  3. Mapping of Drug-like Chemical Universe with Reduced Complexity Molecular Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontijevskis, Aleksejs

    2017-04-24

    The emergence of the DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DEL) field in the past decade has attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry as a powerful mechanism for the discovery of novel drug-like hits for various biological targets. Nuevolution Chemetics technology enables DNA-encoded synthesis of billions of chemically diverse drug-like small molecule compounds, and the efficient screening and optimization of these, facilitating effective identification of drug candidates at an unprecedented speed and scale. Although many approaches have been developed by the cheminformatics community for the analysis and visualization of drug-like chemical space, most of them are restricted to the analysis of a maximum of a few millions of compounds and cannot handle collections of 10 8 -10 12 compounds typical for DELs. To address this big chemical data challenge, we developed the Reduced Complexity Molecular Frameworks (RCMF) methodology as an abstract and very general way of representing chemical structures. By further introducing RCMF descriptors, we constructed a global framework map of drug-like chemical space and demonstrated how chemical space occupied by multi-million-member drug-like Chemetics DNA-encoded libraries and virtual combinatorial libraries with >10 12 members could be analyzed and mapped without a need for library enumeration. We further validate the approach by performing RCMF-based searches in a drug-like chemical universe and mapping Chemetics library selection outputs for LSD1 targets on a global framework chemical space map.

  4. Elimination of intermediate species in multiscale stochastic reaction networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelletti, Daniele; Wiuf, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    We study networks of biochemical reactions modelled by continuoustime Markov processes. Such networks typically contain many molecular species and reactions and are hard to study analytically as well as by simulation. Particularly, we are interested in reaction networks with intermediate species...... such as the substrate-enzyme complex in the Michaelis-Menten mechanism. Such species are virtually in all real-world networks, they are typically short-lived, degraded at a fast rate and hard to observe experimentally. We provide conditions under which the Markov process of a multiscale reaction network...... with intermediate species is approximated by the Markov process of a simpler reduced reaction network without intermediate species. We do so by embedding the Markov processes into a one-parameter family of processes, where reaction rates and species abundances are scaled in the parameter. Further, we show...

  5. Photo-driven electron transfer from the highly reducing excited state of naphthalene diimide radical anion to a CO 2 reduction catalyst within a molecular triad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jose F. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; La Porte, Nathan T. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Mauck, Catherine M. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA; Wasielewski, Michael R. [Department of Chemistry and Argonne-Northwestern Solar Energy Research (ANSER) Center; Northwestern University; Evanston; USA

    2017-01-01

    The naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide) radical anion (NDI-˙), which is easily produced by mild chemical or electrochemical reduction (-0.5 Vvs.SCE), can be photoexcited at wavelengths as long as 785 nm, and has an excited state (NDI-˙*) oxidation potential of -2.1 Vvs.SCE, making it a very attractive choice for artificial photosynthetic systems that require powerful photoreductants, such as CO2 reduction catalysts. However, once an electron is transferred from NDI-˙* to an acceptor directly bound to it, a combination of strong electronic coupling and favorable free energy change frequently make the back electron transfer rapid. To mitigate this effect, we have designed a molecular triad system comprising an NDI-˙ chromophoric donor, a 9,10-diphenylanthracene (DPA) intermediate acceptor, and a Re(dmb)(CO)3carbon dioxide reduction catalyst, where dmb is 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine, as the terminal acceptor. Photoexcitation of NDI-˙ to NDI-˙* is followed by ultrafast reduction of DPA to DPA-˙, which then rapidly reduces the metal complex. The overall time constant for the forward electron transfer to reduce the metal complex is τ = 20.8 ps, while the time constant for back-electron transfer is six orders of magnitude longer, τ = 43.4 μs. Achieving long-lived, highly reduced states of these metal complexes is a necessary condition for their use as catalysts. The extremely long lifetime of the reduced metal complex is attributed to careful tuning of the redox potentials of the chromophore and intermediate acceptor. The NDI-˙–DPA fragment presents many attractive features for incorporation into other photoinduced electron transfer assemblies directed at the long-lived photosensitization of difficult-to-reduce catalytic centers.

  6. Correlation and agreement between eplet mismatches calculated using serological, low-intermediate and high resolution molecular human leukocyte antigen typing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Samantha; D'Orsogna, Lloyd; Irish, Ashley B; Lewis, Joshua R; Wong, Germaine; Lim, Wai H

    2018-03-02

    Structural human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching at the eplet level can be identified by HLAMatchmaker, which requires the entry of four-digit alleles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the agreement between eplet mismatches calculated by serological and two-digit typing methods compared to high-resolution four-digit typing. In a cohort of 264 donor/recipient pairs, the evaluation of measurement error was assessed using intra-class correlation to confirm the absolute agreement between the number of eplet mismatches at class I (HLA-A, -B, C) and II loci (HLA-DQ and -DR) calculated using serological or two-digit molecular typing compared to four-digit molecular typing methods. The proportion of donor/recipient pairs with a difference of >5 eplet mismatches between the HLA typing methods was also determined. Intra-class correlation coefficients between serological and four-digit molecular typing methods were 0.969 (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.960-0.975) and 0.926 (95% CI 0.899-0.944), respectively; and 0.995 (95% CI 0.994-0.996) and 0.993 (95% CI 0.991-0.995), respectively between two-digit and four-digit molecular typing methods. The proportion of donor/recipient pairs with a difference of >5 eplet mismatches at class I and II loci was 4% and 16% for serological versus four-digit molecular typing methods, and 0% and 2% for two-digit versus four-digit molecular typing methods, respectively. In this small predominantly Caucasian population, compared with serology, there is a high level of agreement in the number of eplet mismatches calculated using two-compared to four-digit molecular HLA-typing methods, suggesting that two-digit typing may be sufficient in determining eplet mismatch load in kidney transplantation.

  7. Peritoneal cavity lavage reduces the presence of mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns in open abdomen patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Quinones, Patricia A; McCarthy, Cameron G; Mentzer, Caleb J; Wenceslau, Camilla F; Holsten, Steven B; Webb, R Clinton; O'Malley, Keith

    2017-12-01

    Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (mtDAMPs), such as mitochondrial DNA and N-formylated peptides, are endogenous molecules released from tissue after traumatic injury. mtDAMPs are potent activators of the innate immune system. They have similarities with bacteria, which allow mtDAMPs to interact with the same pattern recognition receptors and mediate the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Current recommendations for management of an open abdomen include returning to the operating room every 48 hours for peritoneal cavity lavage until definitive procedure. These patients are often critically ill and develop SIRS. We hypothesized that mitochondrial DAMPs are present in the peritoneal cavity fluid in this setting, and that they accumulate in the interval between washouts. We conducted a prospective pilot study of critically ill adult patients undergoing open abdomen management in the surgical and trauma intensive care units. Peritoneal fluid was collected daily from 10 open abdomen patients. Specimens were analyzed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), via enzyme immunoassay for DNAse activity and via Western blot analysis for the ND6 subunit of the NADH: ubiquinone oxidoreductase, an N-formylated peptide. We observed a reduction in the expression of ND6 the day after lavage of the peritoneal cavity, that was statistically different from the days with no lavage (% change in ND6 expression, postoperative from washout: -50 ± 11 vs. no washout day, 42 ± 9; p abdomen. It is possible that increased frequency of peritoneal cavity lavage may lead to decreased systemic absorption of mtDAMPs, thereby reducing the risk of SIRS. Prospective study, Case Series, Level V.

  8. Plasmid DNA is released from nanosized acicular material surface by low molecular weight oligonucleotides: exogenous plasmid acquisition mechanism for penetration intermediates based on the Yoshida effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, N; Ide, K

    2008-10-01

    When a colloidal solution consisting of nanosized acicular material and bacterial cells is stimulated with sliding friction at the interface between the hydrogel and interface-forming material where the frictional coefficient increases rapidly, the nanosized acicular material accompanying the bacterial cells forms a penetration intermediate. This effect is known as the Yoshida effect in honor of its discoverer. Through the Yoshida effect, a novel property in which penetration intermediates incorporate exogenous plasmid DNA has been identified. This report proposes a possible mechanism for exogenous plasmid acquisition by penetration intermediates in the Yoshida effect. Escherichia coli cells, pUC18, and chrysotile were used as recipient cells, plasmid DNA, and nanosized acicular material, respectively. Even when repeatedly washing the mixture consisting of pUC18 and chrysotile, transformation efficiency by pUC18 was stable. Accordingly, pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile was introduced into recipient E. coli cells. At saturation, the amount of pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile was 0.8-1.2 microg/mg. To investigate whether pUC18 adsorbed on chrysotile is replicated by polymerase, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out with the chrysotile. Amplification of the beta-lactamase gene coded in pUC18, which was adsorbed onto chrysotile, was strongly inhibited. This suggests that DNA adsorbed onto chrysotile is not replicated in vivo. When we searched for substances to release pUC18 adsorbed onto chrysotile, we found that a 300-bp single- or double-stranded segment of DNA releases pUC18 from chrysotile. Competitive adsorption onto chrysotile between double-stranded DNA and pUC18 was then examined through the Yoshida effect. The 310- and 603-bp double-stranded nucleotides caused 50% competitive inhibition at the same molar ratio with pUC18. Hence, the adsorbed region of pUC18 is about 300 bp in length. As the culture period for recipient cells increases, transformation

  9. Molecular phylogenetic and biogeochemical studies of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, M.E. [Univ. of Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Evans, R.S.; Willis, S.G.; Rooney-Varga, J.N. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Inst. for the Study of Earth, Oceans and Space; Genthner, B.R.S. [Univ. of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States). Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation; Friedman, S.; Devereux, R. [Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL (United States). National Health and Environmental Effects Research Lab.

    1999-05-01

    The population composition and biogeochemistry of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the rhizosphere of the marsh grass Spartina alterniflora was investigated over two growing seasons by molecular probing, enumerations of culturable SRB, and measurements of SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction rates and geochemical parameters. So{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction was rapid in marsh sediments with rates up to 3.5 {micro}mol ml{sup {minus}1} day{sup {minus}1}. Rates increased greatly when plant growth began in April and decreased again when plants flowered in late July. Results with nucleic acid probes revealed that SRB rRNA accounted for up to 43% of the rRNA from members of the domain Bacteria in marsh sediments, with the highest percentages occurring in bacteria physically associated with root surfaces. The relative abundance (RA) of SRB rRNA in whole-sediment samples compared to that of Bacteria rRNA did not vary greatly throughout the year, despite large temporal changes in SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} reduction activity. However, the RA of root-associated SRB did increase from < 10 to > 30% when plants were actively growing. rRNA from members of the family Desulfobacteriaceae comprised the majority of the SRB rRNA at 3 to 34% of Bacteria rRNA, with Desulfobulbus spp. accounting for 1 to 16%. The RA of Desulfovibrio rRNA generally comprised from < 1 to 3% of the Bacteria rRNA. The highest Desulfobacteriaceae RA in whole sediments was 26% and was found in the deepest sediment samples (6 to 8 cm). Culturable SRB abundance, determined by most-probable-number analyses, was high at > 10{sup 7} ml{sup {minus}1}. Ethanol utilizers were most abundant, followed by acetate utilizers. The high numbers of culturable SRB and the high RA of SRB rRNA compared to that of Bacteria rRNA may be due to the release of SRB substrates in plant root exudates, creating a microbial food web that circumvents fermentation.

  10. Functional Molecular Diversity of Marine Dissolved Organic Matter Is Reduced during Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mentges

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic matter (DOM is a highly diverse mixture of compounds, accounting for one of the world's largest active carbon pools. The surprising recalcitrance of some DOM compounds to bacterial degradation has recently been associated with its diversity. However, little is known about large-scale patterns of marine DOM diversity and its change through degradation, in particular considering the functional diversity of DOM. Here, we analyze the development of marine DOM diversity during degradation in two data sets comprising DOM of very different ages: a three-year mesocosm experiment and highly-resolved field samples from the Atlantic and Southern Ocean. The DOM molecular composition was determined using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. We quantify DOM diversity using three conceptually different diversity measures, namely richness of molecular formulas, abundance-based diversity, and functional molecular diversity. Using these measures we find stable molecular richness of DOM with age >1 year, systematic changes in the molecules' abundance distribution with degradation state, and increasing homogeneity with respect to chemical properties for more degraded DOM. Coinciding with differences in sea water density, the spatial field data separated clearly into regions of high and low diversity. The joint application of different diversity measures yields a comprehensive overview on temporal and spatial patterns of molecular diversity, valuable for general conclusions on drivers and consequences of marine DOM diversity.

  11. Exploring molecular and spin interactions of Tellurium adatom in reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegaonkar, Ashwini [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune), Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411 007, MS (India); Alegaonkar, Prashant [Department of Applied Physics, Defence Institute of Advance Technology, Girinagar, Pune, 411 025, MS (India); Pardeshi, Satish, E-mail: skpar@chem.unipune.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University (Formerly University of Pune), Ganeshkhind, Pune, 411 007, MS (India)

    2017-07-01

    The transport of spin information fundamentally requires favourable molecular architecture and tunable spin moments to make the medium pertinent for spintronic. We report on achieving coherent molecular-spin parameters for rGO due to Tellurium (Te) adatom. Initially, GO prepared using graphite, was modified into rGO by in situ incorporation of 1 (w/w)% of Te. Both the systems were subjected to ESCA, FTIR, Raman dispersion, ESR spectroscopy, and electron microscopy. Analysis revealed that, Te substantially reacted with epoxides, carbonyl, and carboxylate groups that improved C-to-O ratio by twice. However, the spin splitting character, between Te and C, seems to be quenched. Moreover, Te altered the dynamical force constant between C-C and C=C that generated the mechanical stress within rGO network. The layer conjugation, nature of folding, symmetry, and electronic states of the edges were also affected by precipitation and entrapment of Te. The calculated dynamic molecular Raman and ESR spin parameters indicated that, Te acted as a bridging element for long range spin transport. This is particularly due to, the p-orbital moments of Te contributing, vectorially, to spin relaxation process operative at broken inversion symmetry sites. Our study suggests that, facile addition of Te in rGO is useful to achieve favourable spintronic properties. - Highlights: • Spin interactions and molecular dynamics modification due to Tellurium adatom in rGO. • Molecular level manipulation of Tellurium adatom for favourable spintronic properties. • Bychocov-Rashaba coupling are the operative channels in rGO. • Extrinsic coupling component get added vectorially by Tellurium. • Te-rGO is a viable medium for molecular spintronics.

  12. Topical high molecular weight hyaluronan reduces radicular pain post laminectomy in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Jennifer B; Schimizzi, Aimee L; Huang, Bill; Kim, Choll W; Garfin, Steven R; Akeson, Wayne H

    2005-01-01

    A controversy exists about the mechanism of causation of the post-laminectomy pain syndrome. Some believe that epidural scarring, and attendant spinal nerve and nerve root scarring and tethering to the disc or pedicle at the site of surgery contributes to post-laminectomy pain in such patients. However, clinical outcome studies on this question are inconclusive and the assertion remains controversial. Definitive studies to help resolve the question are needed. Previously our laboratory has reported on a preclinical post-laminectomy model that mimics the postoperative proliferative fibrotic response grossly, as well as by biochemical assessment of the collagen content within the spinal canal. The post-laminectomy fibrotic response was attenuated in that study by application of a topical antifibrotic (high molecular weight hyaluronan gel) or by insertion of an absorbable roofing barrier (0.2-mm-thick Macropore sheet material) over the laminectomy defect before wound closure. The question remains of relevance of the attenuation of the fibrotic response to post-laminectomy chronic pain syndromes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of therapeutic attenuation of proliferative scar within the spinal canal post laminectomy on the pain-related behavioral response in a preclinical rat model. An established L5-L6 rat laminectomy model with a unilateral L5-6 disc injury was employed to assess postoperative proliferative fibrosis of the L5 spinal nerves using quantitative biochemical hydroxyproline assessment of the collagen content in four experimental groups. These observations were correlated with gross descriptions of spinal nerve scarring or tethering. Associated manifestations of a sensory pain-related response in the L5 spinal nerve receptor area of the hind paws was studied using standard tactile allodynia assessment with the von Frey hair technique. The tactile allodynia findings were supplemented by weekly descriptors of behavioral pain manifestations

  13. Reducing the false positive rate in the non-parametric analysis of molecular coevolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Dea Shirley

    2008-04-01

    analysis of the physico-chemical properties of amino acid sites in the context of the protein structure reveals striking dependencies among amino acid sites. Results indicate a covariation trend in the hydrophobicities and molecular weight characteristics of amino acid sites when analysing a non-redundant set of 8000 protein structures. Using this biological information as filter in coevolutionary analyses minimises the false positive rate of these methods. Application of these filters to three different proteins with known functional domains supports the importance of using biological filters to detect coevolution. Conclusion Coevolutionary analyses using non-parametric methods have proved difficult and highly prone to provide spurious results depending on the properties of MSAs and on the strength of coevolution between amino acid sites. The application of statistical filters to the number of pairs detected as coevolving reduces significantly the number of artifactual results. Analysis of the physico-chemical properties of amino acid sites in the protein structure context reveals their structure-dependent covariation. The application of this known biological information to the analysis of covariation greatly enhances the functional coevolutionary signal and removes historical covariation. Simultaneous use of statistical and biological data is instrumental in the detection of functional amino acid sites dependencies and compensatory changes at the protein level.

  14. Molecular analysis of echinostome metacercariae from their second intermediate host found in a localised geographic region reveals genetic heterogeneity and possible cryptic speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Noikong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Echinostome metacercariae are the infective stage for humans and animals. The identification of echinostomes has been based until recently on morphology but molecular techniques using sequences of ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial DNA have indicated major clades within the group. In this study we have used the ITS2 region of ribosomal RNA and the ND1 region of mitochondrial DNA to identify metacercariae from snails collected from eight well-separated sites from an area of 4000 km2 in Lamphun Province, Thailand. The derived sequences have been compared to those collected from elsewhere and have been deposited in the nucleotide databases. There were two aims of this study; firstly, to determine the species of echinostome present in an endemic area, and secondly, to assess the intra-specific genetic diversity, as this may be informative with regard to the potential for the development of anthelmintic resistance and with regard to the spread of infection by the definitive hosts. Our results indicate that the most prevalent species are most closely related to E. revolutum, E. trivolvis, E. robustum, E. malayanum and Euparyphium albuferensis. Some sites harbour several species and within a site there could be considerable intra-species genetic diversity. There is no significant geographical structuring within this area. Although the molecular techniques used in this study allowed the assignment of the samples to clades within defined species, however, within these groupings there were significant differences indicating that cryptic speciation may have occurred. The degree of genetic diversity present would suggest the use of targeted regimes designed to minimise the selection of anthelmintic resistance. The apparent lack of geographic structuring is consistent with the transmission of the parasites by the avian hosts.

  15. Larval helminths in intermediate hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Poulin, R

    2005-01-01

    Density-dependent effects on parasite fitness have been documented from adult helminths in their definitive hosts. There have, however, been no studies on the cost of sharing an intermediate host with other parasites in terms of reduced adult parasite fecundity. Even if larval parasites suffer...... transmission to their bird definitive host by predation. In experimental infections, we found an intensity-dependent establishment success, with a decrease in the success rate of cercariae developing into infective metacercariae with an increasing dose of cercariae applied to each amphipod. In natural...... the two species. Our results thus indicate that the infracommunity of larval helminths in their intermediate host is interactive and that any density-dependent effect in the intermediate host may have lasting effects on individual parasite fitness....

  16. Molecular analysis of the metabolic rates of discrete subsurface populations of sulfate reducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletto, M.; Williams, K.H.; N' Guessan, A.L.; Lovley, D.R.

    2011-04-01

    Elucidating the in situ metabolic activity of phylogenetically diverse populations of sulfate-reducing microorganisms that populate anoxic sedimentary environments is key to understanding subsurface ecology. Previous pure culture studies have demonstrated that transcript abundance of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes is correlated with the sulfate reducing activity of individual cells. To evaluate whether expression of these genes was diagnostic for subsurface communities, dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase gene transcript abundance in phylogenetically distinct sulfate-reducing populations was quantified during a field experiment in which acetate was added to uranium-contaminated groundwater. Analysis of dsrAB sequences prior to the addition of acetate indicated that Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and Syntrophaceae-related sulfate reducers were the most abundant. Quantifying dsrB transcripts of the individual populations suggested that Desulfobacteraceae initially had higher dsrB transcripts per cell than Desulfobulbaceae or Syntrophaceae populations, and that the activity of Desulfobacteraceae increased further when the metabolism of dissimilatory metal reducers competing for the added acetate declined. In contrast, dsrB transcript abundance in Desulfobulbaceae and Syntrophaceae remained relatively constant, suggesting a lack of stimulation by added acetate. The indication of higher sulfate-reducing activity in the Desulfobacteraceae was consistent with the finding that Desulfobacteraceae became the predominant component of the sulfate-reducing community. Discontinuing acetate additions resulted in a decline in dsrB transcript abundance in the Desulfobacteraceae. These results suggest that monitoring transcripts of dissimilatory (bi)sulfite reductase genes in distinct populations of sulfate reducers can provide insight into the relative rates of metabolism of different components of the sulfate-reducing community and their ability to respond to

  17. First molecular identification of Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) from an intermediate host Radix labiata (Rossmaessler) (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E

    2016-07-01

    The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae).

  18. Fluorescence of reduced charge montmorillonite complexes with methylene blue: Experiments and molecular modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klika, Z.; Pustková, P.; Praus, P.; Kovář, P.; Pospíšil, M.; Malý, P.; Grygar, Tomáš; Kulhánková, L.; Čapková, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 339, č. 2 (2009), s. 416-423 ISSN 0021-9797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : methylene blue * reduced charge montmorillonites * fluorescence Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.019, year: 2009

  19. Molecular Characterization of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in the Guaymas Basin†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2003-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. PMID:12732547

  20. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the Guaymas Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Ashita; Teske, Andreas; Dillon, Jesse; Stahl, David A.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2003-01-01

    The Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) is a hydrothermal vent site where thermal alteration of deposited planktonic and terrestrial organic matter forms petroliferous material which supports diverse sulfate-reducing bacteria. We explored the phylogenetic and functional diversity of the sulfate-reducing bacteria by characterizing PCR-amplified dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) and 16S rRNA genes from the upper 4 cm of the Guaymas sediment. The dsrAB sequences revealed that there was a major clade closely related to the acetate-oxidizing delta-proteobacterial genus Desulfobacter and a clade of novel, deeply branching dsr sequences related to environmental dsr sequences from marine sediments in Aarhus Bay and Kysing Fjord (Denmark). Other dsr clones were affiliated with gram-positive thermophilic sulfate reducers (genus Desulfotomaculum) and the delta-proteobacterial species Desulforhabdus amnigena and Thermodesulforhabdus norvegica. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNAs from the same environmental samples resulted in identification of four clones affiliated with Desulfobacterium niacini, a member of the acetate-oxidizing, nutritionally versatile genus Desulfobacterium, and one clone related to Desulfobacula toluolica and Desulfotignum balticum. Other bacterial 16S rRNA bacterial phylotypes were represented by non-sulfate reducers and uncultured lineages with unknown physiology, like OP9, OP8, as well as a group with no clear affiliation. In summary, analyses of both 16S rRNA and dsrAB clone libraries resulted in identification of members of the Desulfobacteriales in the Guaymas sediments. In addition, the dsrAB sequencing approach revealed a novel group of sulfate-reducing prokaryotes that could not be identified by 16S rRNA sequencing.

  1. High molecular weight barley β-glucan alters gut microbiota toward reduced cardiovascular disease risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological cholesterol-lowering benefits of β-glucan have been well documented, however, whether modulation of gut microbiota by β-glucan is associated with these physiological effects remains unknown. The objectives of this study were therefore to determine the impact of β-glucan on the composition of gut microbiota in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals and to identify if the altered microbiota are associated with bioactivity of β-glucan in improving risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Using a randomized, controlled crossover study design, individuals received for 5-week either a treatment breakfast containing 3g high molecular weight (HMW, 3g low molecular weight (LMW, 5g LMW barley β-glucan or wheat and rice (WR. The American Heart Association (AHA diet served as the background diet for all treatment groups. Phases were separated by 4-week washout periods. Fecal samples were collected at the end of each intervention phase and subjected to Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results revealed that at the phylum level, supplementation of 3g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroidetes and decreased Firmicutes abundances compared to control (P < 0.001. At the genus level, consumption of 3g/d HMW β-glucan increased Bacteroides (P < 0.003, tended to increase Prevotella (P < 0.1 but decreased Dorea (P < 0.1, whereas diets containing 5g LMW β-glucan and 3g LMW β-glucan failed to alter the gut microbiota composition. Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Dorea composition correlated (P < 0.05 with shifts of CVD risk factors, including body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, as well as triglyceride levels. Our data suggest that consumption of HMW β-glucan favourably alters the composition of the gut microbiota and this altered microbiota profile associates with a reduction of CVD risk markers. Together, our study suggests that β-glucan induced shifts in gut microbiota in a MW-dependent manner and that might be one of

  2. Evolution of reduced post-copulatory molecular interactions in Drosophila populations lacking sperm competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, B; Houle, D; Kawecki, T J

    2016-01-01

    In many species with internal fertilization, molecules transferred in the male ejaculate trigger and interact with physiological changes in females. It is controversial to what extent these interactions between the sexes act synergistically to mediate the female switch to a reproductive state or instead reflect sexual antagonism evolved as a by product of sexual selection on males. To address this question, we eliminated sexual selection by enforcing monogamy in populations of Drosophila melanogaster for 65 generations and then measured the expression of male seminal fluid protein genes and genes involved in the female response to mating. In the absence of sperm competition, male and female reproductive interests are perfectly aligned and any antagonism should be reduced by natural selection. Consistent with this idea, males from monogamous populations showed reduced expression of seminal fluid protein genes, 16% less on average than in polygamous males. Further, we identified 428 genes that responded to mating in females. After mating, females with an evolutionary history of monogamy exhibited lower relative expression of genes that were up regulated in response to mating and higher expression of genes that were down-regulated--in other words, their post-mating transcriptome appeared more virgin-like. Surprisingly, these genes showed a similar pattern even before mating, suggesting that monogamous females evolved to be less poised for mating and the accompanying receipt of male seminal fluid proteins. This reduced investment by both monogamous males and females in molecules involved in post-copulatory interactions points to a pervasive role of sexual conflict in shaping these interactions. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Society for Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Development and application of a 2-electron reduced density matrix approach to electron transport via molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Erik P.; Mazziotti, David A.; Seideman, Tamar

    2017-11-01

    Can an electronic device be constructed using only a single molecule? Since this question was first asked by Aviram and Ratner in the 1970s [Chem. Phys. Lett. 29, 277 (1974)], the field of molecular electronics has exploded with significant experimental advancements in the understanding of the charge transport properties of single molecule devices. Efforts to explain the results of these experiments and identify promising new candidate molecules for molecular devices have led to the development of numerous new theoretical methods including the current standard theoretical approach for studying single molecule charge transport, i.e., the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism (NEGF). By pairing this formalism with density functional theory (DFT), a wide variety of transport problems in molecular junctions have been successfully treated. For some systems though, the conductance and current-voltage curves predicted by common DFT functionals can be several orders of magnitude above experimental results. In addition, since density functional theory relies on approximations to the exact exchange-correlation functional, the predicted transport properties can show significant variation depending on the functional chosen. As a first step to addressing this issue, the authors have replaced density functional theory in the NEGF formalism with a 2-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) method, creating a new approach known as the NEGF-RDM method. 2-RDM methods provide a more accurate description of electron correlation compared to density functional theory, and they have lower computational scaling compared to wavefunction based methods of similar accuracy. Additionally, 2-RDM methods are capable of capturing static electron correlation which is untreatable by existing NEGF-DFT methods. When studying dithiol alkane chains and dithiol benzene in model junctions, the authors found that the NEGF-RDM predicts conductances and currents that are 1-2 orders of magnitude below

  4. Molecular Characterization of Reduced Susceptibility to Biocides in Clinical Isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Active efflux is regarded as a common mechanism for antibiotic and biocide resistance. However, the role of many drug efflux pumps in biocide resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii remains unknown. Using biocide-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates, we investigated the incidence of 11 known/putative antimicrobial resistance efflux pump genes (adeB, adeG, adeJ, adeT1, adeT2, amvA, abeD, abeM, qacE, qacEΔ1, and aceI and triclosan target gene fabI through PCR and DNA sequencing. Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR was conducted to assess the correlation between the efflux pump gene expression and the reduced susceptibility to triclosan or chlorhexidine. The A. baumannii isolates displayed high levels of reduced susceptibility to triclosan, chlorhexidine, benzalkonium, hydrogen peroxide, and ethanol. Most tested isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Efflux resistance genes were widely distributed and generally expressed in A. baumannii. Although no clear relation was established between efflux pump gene expression and antibiotic resistance or reduced biocide susceptibility, triclosan non-susceptible isolates displayed relatively increased expression of adeB and adeJ whereas chlorhexidine non-susceptible isolates had increased abeM and fabI gene expression. Increased expression of adeJ and abeM was also demonstrated in multiple antibiotic resistant isolates. Exposure of isolates to subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan or chlorhexidine induced gene expression of adeB, adeG, adeJ and fabI, and adeB, respectively. A point mutation in FabI, Gly95Ser, was observed in only one triclosan-resistant isolate. Multiple sequence types with the major clone complex, CC92, were identified in high level triclosan-resistant isolates. Overall, this study showed the high prevalence of antibiotic and biocide resistance as well as the complexity of intertwined resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of A. baumannii, which highlights the

  5. Molecular mechanisms explaining the possible effects of phenolic compounds on reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aubets-Fusté

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to evaluate the possible association between phenolic compounds and cardiovascular disease, proposing that their regular consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease. An extensive research of scientific literature was performed in the following electronic specialized databases (PubMed central (PMC-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, Web of Science, including studies in animals, cells, and humans, to establish the effect of polyphenols in the prevention and development of cardiovascular disease was conducted. The in vitro, animal and human studies show the potential ability of polyphenols to act against cardiovascular disease as a result of their antioxidant effect and vasodilatation and their capacity to improve lipid profile while reducing the concentration of low-density lipoproteins. Polyphenols consumption in Western diets could be beneficial for protecting patients against cardiovascular disease.

  6. Molecular Mapping of Reduced Plant Height Gene Rht24 in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Height is an important trait related to plant architecture and yield potential in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus QPH.caas-6A flanked by simple sequence repeat markers Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 that reduced height by 8.0–10.4%. Here QPH.caas-6A, designated as Rht24, was confirmed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a Jingdong 8/Aikang 58 cross. The target sequences of Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 were used as queries to BLAST against International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium database and hit a super scaffold of approximately 208 Mb. Based on gene annotation of the scaffold, three gene-specific markers were developed to genotype the RILs, and Rht24 was narrowed to a 1.85 cM interval between TaAP2 and TaFAR. In addition, three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers linked to Rht24 were identified from SNP chip-based screening in combination with bulked segregant analysis. The allelic efficacy of Rht24 was validated in 242 elite wheat varieties using TaAP2 and TaFAR markers. These showed a significant association between genotypes and plant height. Rht24 reduced plant height by an average of 6.0–7.9 cm across environments and were significantly associated with an increased TGW of 2.0–3.4 g. The findings indicate that Rht24 is a common dwarfing gene in wheat breeding, and TaAP2 and TaFAR can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  7. Molecular Technique to Reduce PCR Bias for Deeper Understanding of Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2012-01-01

    Current planetary protection policies require that spacecraft targeted to sensitive solar system bodies be assembled and readied for launch in controlled cleanroom environments. A better understanding of the distribution and frequency at which high-risk contaminant microbes are encountered on spacecraft surfaces would significantly aid in assessing the threat of forward contamination. However, despite a growing understanding of the diverse microbial populations present in cleanrooms, less abundant microbial populations are probably not adequately taken into account due to technological limitations. This novel approach encompasses a wide spectrum of microbial species and will represent the true picture of spacecraft cleanroom-associated microbial diversity. All of the current microbial diversity assessment techniques are based on an initial PCR amplification step. However, a number of factors are known to bias PCR amplification and jeopardize the true representation of bacterial diversity. PCR amplification of a minor template appears to be suppressed by the amplification of a more abundant template. It is widely acknowledged among environmental molecular microbiologists that genetic biosignatures identified from an environment only represent the most dominant populations. The technological bottleneck overlooks the presence of the less abundant minority population and may underestimate their role in the ecosystem maintenance. DNA intercalating agents such as propidium monoazide (PMA) covalently bind with DNA molecules upon photolysis using visible light, and make it unavailable for DNA polymerase enzyme during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Environmental DNA samples will be treated with suboptimum PMA concentration, enough to intercalate with 90 99% of the total DNA. The probability of PMA binding with DNA from abundant bacterial species will be much higher than binding with DNA from less abundant species. This will increase the relative DNA concentration of

  8. The role of reducing agents in the nucleation and growth of Al metalloid clusters: Ab initio molecular dynamic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnemrat, Sufian

    2017-06-01

    Ab initio simulations are used to study the growth of metalloid aluminum clusters from their monohalide (AlCl) precursors. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is used to study the role of reducing agents in the growth process of Al metalloid clusters. Car-Parrinello MD simulations of AlCl liquid and Lithium-Aluminum Hydride reducing agent (LiAlH4) show spontaneous metalloid cluster growth. The growth process is initiated by transferring a proton to a nearby Al atom that helps forming trivalent impurities (AlCl3) in the solution. Growth towards larger metalloid clusters then proceeds via repeated insertion of AlCl into Al-Cl bonds as well as elimination of AlCl3 species. The transferred proton plays a significant role in reducing additional monohalide species from the solution. The energy barrier associated with the Al-Cl bond is dropped from 7.8 eV to 4 eV via proton-hopping between Al centers. However, this process is completely prohibited in the case of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) reducing agent due to strong Coulomb interactions between Na and B centers. Repeated insertion of additional AlCl monomers towards larger clusters was not observed within the same time scale of the previous simulations.

  9. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Hydrogen Metabolism in Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2014-12-23

    The degradation of our environment and the depletion of fossil fuels make the exploration of alternative fuels evermore imperative. Among the alternatives is biohydrogen which has high energy content by weight and produces only water when combusted. Considerable effort is being expended to develop photosynthetic systems -- algae, cyanobacteria, and anaerobic phototrophs -- for sustainable H2 production. While promising, this approach also has hurdles such as the harvesting of light in densely pigmented cultures that requires costly constant mixing and large areas for exposure to sunlight. Little attention is given to fermentative H2 generation. Thus understanding the microbial pathways to H2 evolution and metabolic processes competing for electrons is an essential foundation that may expand the variety of fuels that can be generated or provide alternative substrates for fine chemical production. We studied a widely found soil anaerobe of the class Deltaproteobacteria, a sulfate-reducing bacterium to determine the electron pathways used during the oxidation of substrates and the potential for hydrogen production.

  10. Continuous Flushing of the Bladder in Rodents Reduces Artifacts and Improves Quantification in Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Deleye

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the partial volume effect (PVE of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG tracer accumulation in the bladder on the positron emission tomographic (PET image quantification in mice and rats suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To improve the accuracy, we implemented continuous bladder flushing procedures. Female mice and rats were scanned using microPET/computed tomography (CT at baseline and after induction of acute colitis by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS intrarectally. During the scans, the bladder was continuously flushed in one group, whereas in the other group, no bladder flushing was performed. As a means of in vivo and ex vivo validation of the inflammation, animals also underwent colonoscopy and were sacrificed for gamma counting (subpopulation and to score the colonic damage both micro- and macroscopically as well as biochemically. At baseline, the microPET signal in the colon of both mice and rats was significantly higher in the nonflushed group compared to the flushed group, caused by the PVE of tracer activity in the bladder. Hence, the colonoscopy and postmortem analyses showed no significant differences at baseline between the flushed and nonflushed animals. TNBS induced significant colonic inflammation, as revealed by colonoscopic and postmortem scores, which was not detected by microPET in the mice without bladder flushing, again because of spillover of bladder activity in the colonic area. MicroPET in bladder-flushed animals did reveal a significant increase in 18F-FDG uptake. Correlations between microPET and colonoscopy, macroscopy, microscopy, and myeloperoxidase yielded higher Spearman rho values in mice with continuously flushed bladders during imaging. Comparable, although somewhat less pronounced, results were shown in the rat. Continuous bladder flushing reduced image artifacts and is mandatory for accurate image quantification in the pelvic region for both mice

  11. Intermediate algebra a textworkbook

    CERN Document Server

    McKeague, Charles P

    1985-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra: A Text/Workbook, Second Edition focuses on the principles, operations, and approaches involved in intermediate algebra. The publication first takes a look at basic properties and definitions, first-degree equations and inequalities, and exponents and polynomials. Discussions focus on properties of exponents, polynomials, sums, and differences, multiplication of polynomials, inequalities involving absolute value, word problems, first-degree inequalities, real numbers, opposites, reciprocals, and absolute value, and addition and subtraction of real numbers. The text then ex

  12. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  13. Rational design of viscosity reducing mutants of a monoclonal antibody: hydrophobic versus electrostatic inter-molecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Pilarin; Li, Li; Kumar, Sandeep; Buck, Patrick M; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Balthazor, Bryan; Conley, Tami R; Sek, David; Allen, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    High viscosity of monoclonal antibody formulations at concentrations ≥100 mg/mL can impede their development as products suitable for subcutaneous delivery. The effects of hydrophobic and electrostatic intermolecular interactions on the solution behavior of MAB 1, which becomes unacceptably viscous at high concentrations, was studied by testing 5 single point mutants. The mutations were designed to reduce viscosity by disrupting either an aggregation prone region (APR), which also participates in 2 hydrophobic surface patches, or a negatively charged surface patch in the variable region. The disruption of an APR that lies at the interface of light and heavy chain variable domains, VH and VL, via L45K mutation destabilized MAB 1 and abolished antigen binding. However, mutation at the preceding residue (V44K), which also lies in the same APR, increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1 without sacrificing antigen binding or thermal stability. Neutralizing the negatively charged surface patch (E59Y) also increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1, but charge reversal at the same position (E59K/R) caused destabilization, decreased solubility and led to difficulties in sample manipulation that precluded their viscosity measurements at high concentrations. Both V44K and E59Y mutations showed similar increase in apparent solubility. However, the viscosity profile of E59Y was considerably better than that of the V44K, providing evidence that inter-molecular interactions in MAB 1 are electrostatically driven. In conclusion, neutralizing negatively charged surface patches may be more beneficial toward reducing viscosity of highly concentrated antibody solutions than charge reversal or aggregation prone motif disruption.

  14. Proteomics characterization of intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinopyrum intermedium, commonly known as intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), is a perennial crop with favorable agronomic characteristics and nutritional benefits. IWG lines are deficient in high molecular weight glutenins (HMWG), responsible for dough strength. A detailed characterization of IWG flou...

  15. Mobile communication and intermediality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helles, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    The article argues the importance of intermediality as a concept for research in mobile communication and media. The constant availability of several, partially overlapping channels for communication (texting, calls, email, Facebook, etc.) requires that we adopt an integrated view of the various...

  16. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    Matured leaves of Ocimum gratissimum were harvested and the extracts used to cure. Suya (an intermediate moisture meat). O. gratissimum leaves were collected from. Oyo state south west region of Nigeria, rinsed in distilled water and squeezed to extract the fluid. The meat used was Semi membranosus muscle from beef ...

  17. Reduced sensory stimulation alters the molecular make-up of glutamatergic hair cell synapses in the developing cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, M; Constable, R; James, N R; Thorne, P R; Montgomery, J M

    2016-06-14

    Neural activity during early development is known to alter innervation pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We sought to examine how reduced sound-induced sensory activity in the cochlea affected the consolidation of glutamatergic synapses between inner hair cells (IHC) and the primary auditory neurons as these synapses play a primary role in transmitting sound information to the brain. A unilateral conductive hearing loss was induced prior to the onset of sound-mediated stimulation of the sensory hair cells, by rupturing the tympanic membrane and dislocating the auditory ossicles in the left ear of P11 mice. Auditory brainstem responses at P15 and P21 showed a 40-50-dB increase in thresholds for frequencies 8-32kHz in the dislocated ear relative to the control ear. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were subsequently used to examine the effect of this attenuation of sound stimulation on the expression of RIBEYE, which comprises the presynaptic ribbons, Shank-1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the GluA2/3 and 4 subunits of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Our results show that dislocation did not alter the number of pre- or postsynaptic protein puncta. However, dislocation did increase the size of RIBEYE, GluA4, GluA2/3 and Shank-1 puncta, with postsynaptic changes preceding presynaptic changes. Our data suggest that a reduction in sound stimulation during auditory development induces plasticity in the molecular make-up of IHC glutamatergic synapses, but does not affect the number of these synapses. Up-regulation of synaptic proteins with sound attenuation may facilitate a compensatory increase in synaptic transmission due to the reduced sensory stimulation of the IHC. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ag/N-doped reduced graphene oxide incorporated with molecularly imprinted polymer: An advanced electrochemical sensing platform for salbutamol determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Xu, Zhifeng; Liu, Mengqin; Deng, Peihong; Tang, Siping; Jiang, Jianbo; Feng, Haibo; Qian, Dong; He, Lingzhi

    2017-04-15

    In this work, the metallic silver and non-metallic nitrogen co-doped reduced graphene oxide (Ag-N-RGO) was first synthesized by a simple and cost-effective strategy, and then a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was formed in situ at the surface of the prepared composite via electropolymerization of o-phenylenediamine in the presence of salbutamol as the template molecule. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the bifunctional graphene-based composite shows improved catalytic performance than that of pristine graphene doped with one-component or none. The MIP sensor based on Ag-N-RGO owns high porous surface structure, resulting in the increased current response and enhanced recognition capacity than that of non-imprinted sensor. The outstanding performance of the developed sensor derives from the combined advantages of Ag-N-RGO with effective catalytic property and MIP with excellent selectivity. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical response of the developed sensor is linearly proportional to the concentration of salbutamol in the range of 0.03-20.00µmolL -1 with a low detection limit of 7 nmol L -1 . The designed sensor has exhibited the multiple advantages such as low cost, simple manufacture, convenient use, excellent selectivity and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed method has been extended for the determinations of salbutamol in human urine and pork samples, and the satisfactory recoveries between 98.9-105.3% are achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Gotchy, R.L. (Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs.

  20. Cellular and molecular research to reduce uncertainties in estimates of health effects from low-level radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkind, M.M.; Bedford, J.; Benjamin, S.A.; Waldren, C.A.; Gotchy, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    A study was undertaken by five radiation scientists to examine the feasibility of reducing the uncertainties in the estimation of risk due to protracted low doses of ionizing radiation. In addressing the question of feasibility, a review was made by the study group: of the cellular, molecular, and mammalian radiation data that are available; of the way in which altered oncogene properties could be involved in the loss of growth control that culminates in tumorigenesis; and of the progress that had been made in the genetic characterizations of several human and animal neoplasms. On the basis of this analysis, the study group concluded that, at the present time, it is feasible to mount a program of radiation research directed at the mechanism(s) of radiation-induced cancer with special reference to risk of neoplasia due to protracted, low doses of sparsely ionizing radiation. To implement a program of research, a review was made of the methods, techniques, and instruments that would be needed. This review was followed by a survey of the laboratories and institutions where scientific personnel and facilities are known to be available. A research agenda of the principal and broad objectives of the program is also discussed. 489 refs., 21 figs., 14 tabs

  1. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C.; et al.

    2015-03-23

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  2. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, C.; Ankowski, A.M.; Asaadi, J.A.; Ashenfelter, J.; Axani, S.N.; Babu, K.; Backhouse, C.; Band, H.R.; Barbeau, P.S.; Barros, N.; Bernstein, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bishai, M.; Blucher, E.; Bouffard, J.; Bowden, N.; Brice, S.; Bryan, C.; Camilleri, L.; Cao, J.; Carlson, J.; Carr, R.E.; Chatterjee, A.; Chen, M.; Chen, S.; Chiu, M.; Church, E.D.; Collar, J.I.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Convery, M.R.; Cooper, R.L.; Cowen, D.; Davoudiasl, H.; de Gouvea, A.; Dean, D.J.; Deichert, G.; Descamps, F.; DeYoung, T.; Diwan, M.V.; Djurcic, Z.; Dolinski, M.J.; Dolph, J.; Donnelly, B.; Dwyer, D.A.; Dytman, S.; Efremenko, Y.; Everett, L.L.; Fava, A.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Fleming, B.; Friedland, A.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Gaisser, T.K.; Galeazzi, M.; Galehouse, D.C.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Garvey, G.T.; Gautam, S.; Gilje, K.E.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Goodman, M.C.; Gordon, H.; Gramellini, E.; Green, M.P.; Guglielmi, A.; Hackenburg, R.W.; Hackenburg, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hans, S.; Harris, D.; Heeger, K.M.; Herman, M.; Hill, R.; Holin, A.; Huber, P.; Jaffe, D.E.; Johnson, R.A.; Joshi, J.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kaufman, L.J.; Kayser, B.; Kettell, S.H.; Kirby, B.J.; Klein, J.R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kriske, R.M.; Lane, C.E.; Langford, T.J.; Lankford, A.; Lau, K.; Learned, J.G.; Ling, J.; Link, J.M.; Lissauer, D.; Littenberg, L.; Littlejohn, B.R.; Lockwitz, S.; Lokajicek, M.; Louis, W.C.; Luk, K.; Lykken, J.; Marciano, W.J.; Maricic, J.; Markoff, D.M.; Martinez Caicedo, D.A.; Mauger, C.; Mavrokoridis, K.; McCluskey, E.; McKeen, D.; McKeown, R.; Mills, G.; Mocioiu, I.; Monreal, B.; Mooney, M.R.; Morfin, J.G.; Mumm, P.; Napolitano, J.; Neilson, R.; Nelson, J.K.; Nessi, M.; Norcini, D.; Nova, F.; Nygren, D.R.; Orebi Gann, G.D.; Palamara, O.; Parsa, Z.; Patterson, R.; Paul, P.; Pocar, A.; Qian, X.; Raaf, J.L.; Rameika, R.; Ranucci, G.; Ray, H.; Reyna, D.; Rich, G.C.; Rodrigues, P.; Romero, E.Romero; Rosero, R.; Rountree, S.D.; Rybolt, B.; Sanchez, M.C.; Santucci, G.; Schmitz, D.; Scholberg, K.; Seckel, D.; Shaevitz, M.; Shrock, R.; Smy, M.B.; Soderberg, M.; Sonzogni, A.; Sousa, A.B.; Spitz, J.; St. John, J.M.; Stewart, J.; Strait, J.B.; Sullivan, G.; Svoboda, R.; Szelc, A.M.; Tayloe, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Toups, M.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Van de Water, R.G.; Vogelaar, R.B.; Weber, M.; Weng, W.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; White, B.R.; Whitehead, L.; Whittington, D.W.; Wilking, M.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Wilson, P.; Winklehner, D.; Winn, D.R.; Worcester, E.; Yang, L.; Yeh, M.; Yokley, Z.W.; Yoo, J.; Yu, B.; Yu, J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summ...

  3. The Intermediate Neutrino Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Alonso, J. R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ankowski, A. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Asaadi, J. A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Ashenfelter, J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Axani, S. N. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Babu, K [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Backhouse, C. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Band, H. R. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Barbeau, P. S. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Barros, N. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Betancourt, M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bishai, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blucher, E. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Bouffard, J. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Albany, NY (United States); Bowden, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brice, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bryan, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Camilleri, L. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Cao, J. [Inst. of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Carlson, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carr, R. E. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Chatterjee, A. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Chen, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Chen, S. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Chiu, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Church, E. D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Collar, J. I. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Collin, G. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Conrad, J. M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Convery, M. R. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cooper, R. L. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Cowen, D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Davoudiasl, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gouvea, A. D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deichert, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Descamps, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DeYoung, T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Diwan, M. V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Djurcic, Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dolinski, M. J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Dolph, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Donnelly, B. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dwyer, D. A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dytman, S. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Efremenko, Y. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Everett, L. L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Fava, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Fleming, B. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Friedland, A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fujikawa, B. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gaisser, T. K. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Galeazzi, M. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Galehouse, DC [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States); Galindo-Uribarri, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Garvey, G. T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gautam, S. [Tribhuvan Univ., Kirtipur (Nepal); Gilje, K. E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gonzalez-Garcia, M. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Goodman, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gordon, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gramellini, E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Green, M. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Guglielmi, A. [University of Padua, Padova (Italy); Hackenburg, R. W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hackenburg, A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Halzen, F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Han, K. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hans, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Harris, D. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Heeger, K. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Herman, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hill, R. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Holin, A. [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom); Huber, P. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jaffe, D. E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Johnson, R. A. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Joshi, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karagiorgi, G. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Kaufman, L. J. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Kayser, B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kettell, S. H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kirby, B. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Klein, J. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Kolomensky, Y. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kriske, R. M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Lane, C. E. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Langford, T. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Lankford, A. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Lau, K. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ling, J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Link, J. M. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Lissauer, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littenberg, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Littlejohn, B. R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lockwitz, S. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Lokajicek, M. [Inst. of Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic); Louis, W. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luk, K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lykken, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Marciano, W. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Maricic, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Markoff, D. M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Caicedo, D. A. M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mavrokoridis, K. [Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom); McCluskey, E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); McKeen, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); McKeown, R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Mills, G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocioiu, I. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Monreal, B. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Mooney, M. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Morfin, J. G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Mumm, P. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States); Napolitano, J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neilson, R. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nelson, J. K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Nessi, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Norcini, D. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Nova, F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Nygren, D. R. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Gann, GDO [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Palamara, O. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Patterson, R. [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Paul, P. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Pocar, A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Qian, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Raaf, J. L. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rameika, R. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Ranucci, G. [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Milano (Italy); Ray, H. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Reyna, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rich, G. C. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Lab., Durham, NC (United States); Rodrigues, P. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Romero, E. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rosero, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rountree, S. D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Rybolt, B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Sanchez, M. C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Santucci, G. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Schmitz, D. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Scholberg, K. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Seckel, D. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Shaevitz, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); Shrock, R. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Smy, M. B. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Soderberg, M. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Sonzogni, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sousa, A. B. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); John, J. M. S. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Stewart, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Strait, J. B. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Sullivan, G. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Svoboda, R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Szelc, A. M. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Tayloe, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Thomson, M. A. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Toups, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Vacheret, A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Vagins, M. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Water, R. G. V. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vogelaar, R. B. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Weber, M. [Bern (Switzerland); Weng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wetstein, M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); White, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); White, B. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Whitehead, L. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Whittington, D. W. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Wilking, M. J. [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Wilson, R. J. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Wilson, P. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Winklehner, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Winn, D. R. [Fairfield Univ., CT (United States); Worcester, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yang, L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Yeh, M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yokley, Z. W. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yoo, J. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yu, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Yu, J. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Zhang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-04-03

    The US neutrino community gathered at the Workshop on the Intermediate Neutrino Program (WINP) at Brookhaven National Laboratory February 4-6, 2015 to explore opportunities in neutrino physics over the next five to ten years. Scientists from particle, astroparticle and nuclear physics participated in the workshop. The workshop examined promising opportunities for neutrino physics in the intermediate term, including possible new small to mid-scale experiments, US contributions to large experiments, upgrades to existing experiments, R&D plans and theory. The workshop was organized into two sets of parallel working group sessions, divided by physics topics and technology. Physics working groups covered topics on Sterile Neutrinos, Neutrino Mixing, Neutrino Interactions, Neutrino Properties and Astrophysical Neutrinos. Technology sessions were organized into Theory, Short-Baseline Accelerator Neutrinos, Reactor Neutrinos, Detector R&D and Source, Cyclotron and Meson Decay at Rest sessions.This report summarizes discussion and conclusions from the workshop.

  4. Intermediate energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.; Fukahori, T.; Hasegawa, A.

    1998-01-01

    Subgroup 13 (SG13) on Intermediate Energy Nuclear data was formed by NEA Nuclear Science Committee to solve common problems of these types of data for nuclear applications. An overview is presented in this final report of the present activities of SG13, including data needs, high-priority nuclear data request list (nuclides), compilation of experimental data, specialists meetings and benchmarks, data formats and data libraries. Some important accomplishments are summarized, and recommendations are presented. (R.P.)

  5. Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaoka Teruyasu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular hydrogen (H2 functions as an extensive protector against oxidative stress, inflammation and allergic reaction in various biological models and clinical tests; however, its essential mechanisms remain unknown. H2 directly reacts with the strong reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite (ONOO- as well as hydroxyl radicals (•OH, but not with nitric oxide radical (NO•. We hypothesized that one of the H2 functions is caused by reducing cellular ONOO-, which is generated by the rapid reaction of NO• with superoxides (•O2-. To verify this hypothesis, we examined whether H2 could restore cytotoxicity and transcriptional alterations induced by ONOO- derived from NO• in chondrocytes. Methods We treated cultured chondrocytes from porcine hindlimb cartilage or from rat meniscus fibrecartilage with a donor of NO•, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP in the presence or absence of H2. Chondrocyte viability was determined using a LIVE/DEAD Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit. Gene expressions of the matrix proteins of cartilage and the matrix metalloproteinases were analyzed by reverse transcriptase-coupled real-time PCR method. Results SNAP treatment increased the levels of nitrated proteins. H2 decreased the levels of the nitrated proteins, and suppressed chondrocyte death. It is known that the matrix proteins of cartilage (including aggrecan and type II collagen and matrix metalloproteinases (such as MMP3 and MMP13 are down- and up-regulated by ONOO-, respectively. H2 restoratively increased the gene expressions of aggrecan and type II collagen in the presence of H2. Conversely, the gene expressions of MMP3 and MMP13 were restoratively down-regulated with H2. Thus, H2 acted to restore transcriptional alterations induced by ONOO-. Conclusions These results imply that one of the functions of H2 exhibits cytoprotective effects and transcriptional alterations through reducing ONOO-. Moreover, novel pharmacological strategies

  6. Exploring the chemical kinetics of partially oxidized intermediates by combining experiments, theory, and kinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyermann, Karlheinz; Mauß, Fabian; Olzmann, Matthias; Welz, Oliver; Zeuch, Thomas

    2017-07-19

    Partially oxidized intermediates play a central role in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. In this perspective, we focus on the chemical kinetics of alkoxy radicals, peroxy radicals, and Criegee intermediates, which are key species in both combustion and atmospheric environments. These reactive intermediates feature a broad spectrum of chemical diversity. Their reactivity is central to our understanding of how volatile organic compounds are degraded in the atmosphere and converted into secondary organic aerosol. Moreover, they sensitively determine ignition timing in internal combustion engines. The intention of this perspective article is to provide the reader with information about the general mechanisms of reactions initiated by addition of atomic and molecular oxygen to alkyl radicals and ozone to alkenes. We will focus on critical branching points in the subsequent reaction mechanisms and discuss them from a consistent point of view. As a first example of our integrated approach, we will show how experiment, theory, and kinetic modeling have been successfully combined in the first infrared detection of Criegee intermediates during the gas phase ozonolysis. As a second example, we will examine the ignition timing of n-heptane/air mixtures at low and intermediate temperatures. Here, we present a reduced, fuel size independent kinetic model of the complex chemistry initiated by peroxy radicals that has been successfully applied to simulate standard n-heptane combustion experiments.

  7. Intermediate storage for the Start accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, N.I.; Tkach, Yu.V.; Stepanenko, I.A.; Kozachek, A.S.; Komarov, A.D.; Gadetskij, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    Usage of the chain of series-connected capacitors, placed near the voltage pulse generator (VPG) cascades, as an intermediate storage (IS) has allowed to reduce the inductance of the PG-IS charging circuit and to reduce storage charging time up to 30 ns. In such cases the electrical strength of the IS capacitor insulation is essentially higher, than at dc voltage, it has allowed to reduce the number of capacitors in the chain and to reduce IS self-inductance. Additional ways to reduce the inductance of the VPG-IS charging circuit are considered. Reduction of storage charging time has allowed to stabilize the operation of the commutator, which connects the intermediate storage with the accelerator shaping line

  8. Molecular characterization of mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate reducing microbial communities in expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freeman, S.A.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Altinbas, M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Smidt, H.

    2008-01-01

    The microbial communities established in mesophilic and thermophilic expanded granular sludge bed reactors operated with sulfate as the electron acceptor were analyzed using 16S rRNA targeted molecular methods, including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and phylogenetic analysis.

  9. Enhanced H2/CH4 and H2/CO2 Separation by Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane Coated on Titania Modified Alumina Support: Effects of TiO2 Intermediate Layer Preparation Variables on Interfacial Adhesion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tseng, H.-H.; Wang, Ch.-T.; Zhuang, G.-L.; Uchytil, Petr; Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Setničková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 510, JUL 15 (2016), s. 391-404 ISSN 0376-7388 Grant - others:NSC(TW) NSC100-2221-E- 040-004-MY3 Institutional support : RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon membrane * intermediate layer * adhesion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  10. Enhanced H2/CH4 and H2/CO2 Separation by Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane Coated on Titania Modified Alumina Support: Effects of TiO2 Intermediate Layer Preparation Variables on Interfacial Adhesion.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tseng, H.-H.; Wang, Ch.-T.; Zhuang, G.-L.; Uchytil, Petr; Řezníčková Čermáková, Jiřina; Setničková, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 510, JUL 15 (2016), s. 391-404 ISSN 0376-7388 Grant - others:NSC(TW) NSC100-2221-E- 040-004-MY3 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : carbon membrane * intermediate layer * adhesion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 6.035, year: 2016

  11. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...... also shares in vivo properties of assembly and dynamics with IF proteins by forming stable filamentous structures that continuously incorporate subunits along their length and that grow in a nonpolar fashion. De novo assembly of crescentin is biphasic and involves a cell size-dependent mechanism...... a new function for MreB and providing a parallel to the role of actin in IF assembly and organization in metazoan cells. Additionally, analysis of an MreB localization mutant suggests that cell wall insertion during cell elongation normally occurs along two helices of opposite handedness, each...

  12. Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System Can Reduce Short-Term Mortality Among Patients With Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure-A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Hans U; Pohlen, Michele; Thölking, Gerold; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Brand, Marcus; Hüsing-Kabar, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Maschmeier, Miriam; Kabar, Iyad; Torner, Josep; Pavesi, Marco; Arroyo, Vicente; Banares, Rafael; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2017-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is associated with numerous consecutive organ failures and a high short-term mortality rate. Molecular adsorbent recirculating system therapy has demonstrated beneficial effects on the distinct symptoms, but the associated mortality data remain controversial. Retrospective analysis of acute-on-chronic liver failure patients receiving either standard medical treatment or standard medical treatment and molecular adsorbent recirculating system. Secondary analysis of data from the prospective randomized Recompensation of Exacerbated Liver Insufficiency with Hyperbilirubinemia and/or Encephalopathy and/or Renal Failure trial by applying the recently introduced Chronic Liver Failure-criteria. Medical Departments of University Hospital Muenster (Germany). This analysis was conducted in two parts. First, 101 patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure grades 1-3 and Chronic Liver Failure-C-Organ Failure liver subscore equals to 3 but stable pulmonary function were identified and received either standard medical treatment (standard medical treatment, n = 54) or standard medical treatment and molecular adsorbent recirculating system (n = 47) at the University Hospital Muenster. Second, the results of this retrospective analysis were tested against the Recompensation of Exacerbated Liver Insufficiency with Hyperbilirubinemia and/or Encephalopathy and/or Renal Failure trial. Standard medical treatment and molecular adsorbent recirculating system. Additionally to improved laboratory variables (bilirubin and creatinine), the short-term mortality (up to day 14) of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system group was significantly reduced compared with standard medical treatment. A reduced 14-day mortality rate was observed in the molecular adsorbent recirculating system group (9.5% vs 50.0% with standard medical treatment; p = 0.004), especially in patients with multiple organ failure (acute-on-chronic liver failure grade 2-3). Concerning the

  13. Surface Intermediates on Metal Electrodes at High Temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms widely suggested for the O2-reduc-tion or H2-oxidation SOFC reactions involve inter-mediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In airat moderate temperatures (500øC) Pt in contact with YSZ...

  14. Preparation of chitosan oligomers COS and their effect on the retrogradation of intermediate amylose rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Lin, Qin Lu; Chen, Zheng Xing; Wu, Wei; Xiao, Hua Xi

    2012-12-01

    Chitosan oligomers (COS) were obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis and H2O2 oxidative treatment, and then separated into different fractions using ultra-filtration membranes. Each COSM fraction prepared using enzymatic hydrolysis retained its structure, especially the reduced end residue (-NH2 group), and had a peak for molecular weight. On the other hand, each COSH fraction prepared by oxidative treatment had partly damaged -NH2 groups and two peaks for molecular weight. These results indicate that the same COS fractions prepared by the two methods differ in their amino groups and in their molecular weights, though they can both pass through the same size ultra-filtration membrane. The effect of COS on the retrogradation of intermediate amylose rice starch (IA-RS) was also investigated. The 5 k COS determined its anti-retrogradation capability. All COSH fractions from oxidative treatment had no effect on the retrogradation.

  15. Information acquisition and financial intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarchenko, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of information acquisition in an intermediated market, where the specialists have access to superior technology for acquiring information. These informational advantages of specialists relative to households lead to disagreement between the two groups, changing the shape of the intermediation-constrained region of the economy and increasing the frequency of periods when the intermediation constraint binds. Acquiring the additional information is, however, cost...

  16. Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-03-13

    Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.

  17. Water Oxidation Mechanisms of Metal Oxide Catalysts by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Miao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Frei, Heinz [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-22

    Water oxidation is an essential reaction of an artificial photosystem for solar fuel generation because it provides electrons needed to reduce carbon dioxide or protons to a fuel. Earth-abundant metal oxides are among the most attractive catalytic materials for this reaction because of their robustness and scalability, but their efficiency poses a challenge. Knowledge of catalytic surface intermediates gained by vibrational spectroscopy under reaction conditions plays a key role in uncovering kinetic bottlenecks and provides a basis for catalyst design improvements. Recent dynamic infrared and Raman studies reveal the molecular identity of transient surface intermediates of water oxidation on metal oxides. In conclusion, combined with ultrafast infrared observations of how charges are delivered to active sites of the metal oxide catalyst and drive the multielectron reaction, spectroscopic advances are poised to play a key role in accelerating progress toward improved catalysts for artificial photosynthesis.

  18. Early molecular events involved in Pinus pinaster Ait. somatic embryo development under reduced water availability: transcriptomic and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Alexandre; Teyssier, Caroline; Trontin, Jean-François; Eliášová, Kateřina; Pešek, Bedřich; Beaufour, Martine; Morabito, Domenico; Boizot, Nathalie; Le Metté, Claire; Belal-Bessai, Leila; Reymond, Isabelle; Harvengt, Luc; Cadene, Martine; Corbineau, Françoise; Vágner, Martin; Label, Philippe; Lelu-Walter, Marie-Anne

    2014-09-01

    Maritime pine somatic embryos (SEs) require a reduction in water availability (high gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium) to reach the cotyledonary stage. This key switch, reported specifically for pine species, is not yet well understood. To facilitate the use of somatic embryogenesis for mass propagation of conifers, we need a better understanding of embryo development. Comparison of both transcriptome (Illumina RNA sequencing) and proteome [two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with mass spectrometry (MS) identification] of immature SEs, cultured on either high (9G) or low (4G) gellan gum concentration, was performed, together with analysis of water content, fresh and dry mass, endogenous abscisic acid (ABA; gas chromatography-MS), soluble sugars (high-pressure liquid chromatography), starch and confocal laser microscope observations. This multiscale, integrated analysis was used to unravel early molecular and physiological events involved in SE development. Under unfavorable conditions (4G), the glycolytic pathway was enhanced, possibly in relation to cell proliferation that may be antagonistic to SE development. Under favorable conditions (9G), SEs adapted to culture constraint by activating specific protective pathways, and ABA-mediated molecular and physiological responses promoting embryo development. Our results suggest that on 9G, germin-like protein and ubiquitin-protein ligase could be used as predictive markers of SE development, whereas protein phosphatase 2C could be a biomarker for culture adaptive responses. This is the first characterization of early molecular mechanisms involved in the development of pine SEs following an increase in gellan gum concentration in the maturation medium, and it is also the first report on somatic embryogenesis in conifers combining transcriptomic and proteomic datasets. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kenneth

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…

  20. Rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate in membrane fission under tension: Reaction coordinates, kinetic pathways, and free-energy barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guojie; Müller, Marcus

    2017-08-01

    Membrane fission is a fundamental process in cells, involved inter alia in endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, and virus infection. Its underlying molecular mechanism, however, is only incompletely understood. Recently, experiments and computer simulation studies have revealed that dynamin-mediated membrane fission is a two-step process that proceeds via a metastable hemi-fission intermediate (or wormlike micelle) formed by dynamin's constriction. Importantly, this hemi-fission intermediate is remarkably metastable, i.e., its subsequent rupture that completes the fission process does not occur spontaneously but requires additional, external effects, e.g., dynamin's (unknown) conformational changes or membrane tension. Using simulations of a coarse-grained, implicit-solvent model of lipid membranes, we investigate the molecular mechanism of rupturing the hemi-fission intermediate, such as its pathway, the concomitant transition states, and barriers, as well as the role of membrane tension. The membrane tension is controlled by the chemical potential of the lipids, and the free-energy landscape as a function of two reaction coordinates is obtained by grand canonical Wang-Landau sampling. Our results show that, in the course of rupturing, the hemi-fission intermediate undergoes a "thinning → local pinching → rupture/fission" pathway, with a bottle-neck-shaped cylindrical micelle as a transition state. Although an increase of membrane tension facilitates the fission process by reducing the corresponding free-energy barrier, for biologically relevant tensions, the free-energy barriers still significantly exceed the thermal energy scale kBT.

  1. Reducing the Flexibility of Type II Dehydroquinase for Inhibition: A Fragment-Based Approach and Molecular Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peón, Antonio; Robles, Adrián; Blanco, Beatriz; Convertino, Marino; Thompson, Paul; Hawkins, Alastair R; Caflisch, Amedeo; González-Bello, Concepción

    2017-09-21

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to identify and optimize a quinazolinedione-based ligand that would decrease the flexibility of the substrate-covering loop (catalytic loop) of the type II dehydroquinase from Helicobacter pylori. This enzyme, which is essential for the survival of this bacterium, is involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. A computer-aided fragment-based protocol (ALTA) was first used to identify the aromatic fragments able to block the interface pocket that separates two neighboring enzyme subunits and is located at the active site entrance. Chemical modification of its non-aromatic moiety through an olefin cross-metathesis and Seebach's self-reproduction of chirality synthetic principle allowed the development of a quinazolinedione derivative that disables the catalytic loop plasticity, which is essential for the enzyme's catalytic cycle. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ligand would force the catalytic loop into an inappropriate arrangement for catalysis by strong interactions with the catalytic tyrosine and by expelling the essential arginine out of the active site. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Low Molecular Weight Fucoidan Alleviates Cardiac Dysfunction in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats by Reducing Oxidative Stress and Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM is characterized by cardiac dysfunction and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Oxidative stress is suggested to be the major contributor to the development of DCM. This study was intended to evaluate the protective effect of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF against cardiac dysfunction in diabetic rats. Type 2 diabetic goto-kakizaki rats were untreated or treated with LMWF (50 and 100 mg/kg/day for three months. The establishment of DCM model and the effects of LMWF on cardiac function were evaluated by echocardiography and isolated heart perfusion. Ventricle staining with H-E or Sirius Red was performed to investigate the structural changes in myocardium. Functional evaluation demonstrated that LMWF has a beneficial effect on DCM by enhancing myocardial contractility and mitigating cardiac fibrosis. Additionally, LMWF exerted significant inhibitory effects on the reactive oxygen species production and myocyte apoptosis in diabetic hearts. The depressed activity of superoxide dismutase in diabetic heart was also improved by intervention with LMWF. Moreover, LMWF robustly inhibited the enhanced expression of protein kinase C β, an important contributor to oxidative stress, in diabetic heart and high glucose-treated cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, LMWF possesses a protective effect against DCM through ameliorations of PKCβ-mediated oxidative stress and subsequent cardiomyocyte apoptosis in diabetes.

  3. Assembly of intermediates for rapid membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harner, Max; Wickner, William

    2018-01-26

    Membrane fusion is essential for intracellular protein sorting, cell growth, hormone secretion, and neurotransmission. Rapid membrane fusion requires tethering and Sec1-Munc18 (SM) function to catalyze R-, Qa-, Qb-, and Qc-SNARE complex assembly in trans , as well as SNARE engagement by the SNARE-binding chaperone Sec17/αSNAP. The hexameric vacuolar HOPS ( ho motypic fusion and vacuole p rotein s orting) complex in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae tethers membranes through its affinities for the membrane Rab GTPase Ypt7. HOPS also has specific affinities for the vacuolar SNAREs and catalyzes SNARE complex assembly, but the order of their assembly into a 4-SNARE complex is unclear. We now report defined assembly intermediates on the path to membrane fusion. We found that a prefusion intermediate will assemble with HOPS and the R, Qa, and Qc SNAREs, and that this assembly undergoes rapid fusion upon addition of Qb and Sec17. HOPS-tethered membranes and all four vacuolar SNAREs formed a complex that underwent an even more dramatic burst of fusion upon Sec17p addition. These findings provide initial insights into an ordered fusion pathway consisting of the following intermediates and events: 1) Rab- and HOPS-tethered membranes, 2) a HOPS:R:Qa:Qc trans -complex, 3) a HOPS:4-SNARE trans -complex, 4) an engagement with Sec17, and 5) the rapid lipid rearrangements during fusion. In conclusion, our results indicate that the R:Qa:Qc complex forms in the context of membrane, Ypt7, HOPS, and trans -SNARE assembly and serves as a functional intermediate for rapid fusion after addition of the Qb-SNARE and Sec17 proteins. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Reduced and high molecular weight barley beta-glucans decrease plasma total and non-HDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic Syrian golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Delaney, Bryan; Chadwell, Kim; Moolchandani, Vikas; Kotyla, Timothy; Ponduru, Sridevi; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Hess, Richard; Knutson, Nathan; Curry, Leslie; Kolberg, Lore; Goulson, Melanie; Ostergren, Karen

    2004-10-01

    Consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan lowers plasma cholesterol because of its soluble dietary fiber nature. The role of molecular weight (MW) in lowering serum cholesterol is not well established. Prior studies showed that enzymatic degradation of beta-glucan eliminates the cholesterol-lowering activity; however, these studies did not evaluate the MW of the beta-glucan. The current study was conducted to evaluate whether barley beta-glucan concentrates, partially hydrolyzed to reduce MW, possess cholesterol-lowering and antiatherogenic activities. The reduced MW fraction was compared with a high MW beta-glucan concentrate from the same barley flour. Concentrated beta-glucan preparations were evaluated in Syrian Golden F(1)B hamsters fed a hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) with cholesterol, hydrogenated coconut oil, and cellulose. After 2 wk, hamsters were fed HCD or diets that contained high or reduced MW beta-glucan at a concentration of 8 g/100 g at the expense of cellulose. Decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) concentrations occurred in the hamsters fed reduced MW and high MW beta-glucan diets. Plasma HDL-C concentrations did not differ. HCD-fed hamsters had higher plasma triglyceride concentrations. Liver TC, free cholesterol, and cholesterol ester concentrations did not differ. Aortic cholesterol ester concentrations were lower in the reduced MW beta-glucan-fed hamsters. Consumption of either high or reduced MW beta-glucan increased concentrations of fecal total neutral sterols and coprostanol, a cholesterol derivative. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was greater than in HCD-fed hamsters only in those fed the reduced MW beta-glucan. Study results demonstrate that the cholesterol-lowering activity of barley beta-glucan may occur at both lower and higher MW.

  5. Reducing leakage currents in n-channel organic field-effect transistors using molecular dipole monolayers on nanoscale oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Hardigree, Josué F; Dawidczyk, Thomas J; Ireland, Robert M; Johns, Gary L; Jung, Byung-Jun; Nyman, Mathias; Osterbacka, Ronald; Marković, Nina; Katz, Howard E

    2013-08-14

    Leakage currents through the gate dielectric of thin film transistors remain a roadblock to the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) on ultrathin dielectrics. We report the first investigation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) dipole as an electrostatic barrier to reduce leakage currents in n-channel OFETs fabricated on a minimal, leaky ∼10 nm SiO2 dielectric on highly doped Si. The electric field associated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-octyltriethoxysilane (FOTS) and octyltriethoxysilane (OTS) dipolar chains affixed to the oxide surface of n-Si gave an order of magnitude decrease in gate leakage current and subthreshold leakage and a two order-of-magnitude increase in ON/OFF ratio for a naphthalenetetracarboxylic diimide (NTCDI) transistor. Identically fabricated devices on p-Si showed similarly reduced leakage and improved performance for oxides treated with the larger dipole FOTS monolayer, while OTS devices showed poorer transfer characteristics than those on bare oxide. Comparison of OFETs on both substrates revealed that relative device performance from OTS and FOTS treatments was dictated primarily by the organosilane chain and not the underlying siloxane-substrate bond. This conclusion is supported by the similar threshold voltages (VT) extrapolated for SAM-treated devices, which display positive relative VT shifts for FOTS on either substrate but opposite VT shifts for OTS treatment on n-Si and p-Si. Our results highlight the potential of dipolar SAMs as performance-enhancing layers for marginal quality dielectrics, broadening the material spectrum for low power, ultrathin organic electronics.

  6. Dimerization interface of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase tunes the formation of its catalytic intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Xu

    Full Text Available 3-Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD, EC 1.1.1.35 is a homodimeric enzyme localized in the mitochondrial matrix, which catalyzes the third step in fatty acid β-oxidation. The crystal structures of human HAD and subsequent complexes with cofactor/substrate enabled better understanding of HAD catalytic mechanism. However, numerous human diseases were found related to mutations at HAD dimerization interface that is away from the catalytic pocket. The role of HAD dimerization in its catalytic activity needs to be elucidated. Here, we solved the crystal structure of Caenorhabditis elegans HAD (cHAD that is highly conserved to human HAD. Even though the cHAD mutants (R204A, Y209A and R204A/Y209A with attenuated interactions on the dimerization interface still maintain a dimerization form, their enzymatic activities significantly decrease compared to that of the wild type. Such reduced activities are in consistency with the reduced ratios of the catalytic intermediate formation. Further molecular dynamics simulations results reveal that the alteration of the dimerization interface will increase the fluctuation of a distal region (a.a. 60-80 that plays an important role in the substrate binding. The increased fluctuation decreases the stability of the catalytic intermediate formation, and therefore the enzymatic activity is attenuated. Our study reveals the molecular mechanism about the essential role of the HAD dimerization interface in its catalytic activity via allosteric effects.

  7. High molecular weight PEGylation of human pancreatic polypeptide at position 22 improves stability and reduces food intake in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, V; Jolly, N; Madsen, A N

    2016-01-01

    fasting-induced food intake and bioavailability. KEY RESULTS: In human epithelia and colonic mucosal preparations, activity of the modified hPP peptides depended on the core sequence and latency of the peptides was related to PEG size. Peptides modified with a 22 kDa PEG (PEG22) remained intact in blood......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Human pancreatic polypeptide (hPP) is known to suppress appetite and food intake, thereby representing a potential therapeutic approach against obesity and associated metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to improve hPP stability by covalent PEGylation with diverse...... plasma and on incubation with liver homogenates for more than 96 h. Finally, hPP2-36 , [K(22) (PEG22)]hPP2-36 and [K(22) (PEG22),Q(34) ]hPP significantly reduced cumulative food intake in mice over 16 h after s.c. administration. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Modification with PEG22 at position 22...

  8. Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Daniel J L; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P; Skinner, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    High temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), typified by developers such as Siemens Westinghouse and Rolls-Royce, operate in the temperature region of 850-1000 degrees C. For such systems, very high efficiencies can be achieved from integration with gas turbines for large-scale stationary applications. However, high temperature operation means that the components of the stack need to be predominantly ceramic and high temperature metal alloys are needed for many balance-of-plant components. For smaller scale applications, where integration with a heat engine is not appropriate, there is a trend to move to lower temperatures of operation, into the so-called intermediate temperature (IT) range of 500-750 degrees C. This expands the choice of materials and stack geometries that can be used, offering reduced system cost and, in principle, reducing the corrosion rate of stack and system components. This review introduces the IT-SOFC and explains the advantages of operation in this temperature regime. The main advances made in materials chemistry that have made IT operation possible are described and some of the engineering issues and the new opportunities that reduced temperature operation affords are discussed. This tutorial review examines the advances being made in materials and engineering that are allowing solid oxide fuel cells to operate at lower temperature. The challenges and advantages of operating in the so-called 'intermediate temperature' range of 500-750 degrees C are discussed and the opportunities for applications not traditionally associated with solid oxide fuel cells are highlighted. This article serves as an introduction for scientists and engineers interested in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells and the challenges and opportunities of reduced temperature operation.

  9. Molecular Analysis of the Diversity of Sulfate-Reducing and Sulfur-Oxidizing Prokaryotes in the Environment, Using aprA as Functional Marker Gene▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The dissimilatory adenosine-5′-phosposulfate reductase is a key enzyme of the microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation processes. Because the alpha- and beta-subunit-encoding genes, aprBA, are highly conserved among sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes, they are most suitable for molecular profiling of the microbial community structure of the sulfur cycle in environment. In this study, a new aprA gene-targeting assay using a combination of PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis is presented. The screening of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing reference strains as well as the analyses of environmental DNA from diverse habitats (e.g., microbial mats, invertebrate tissue, marine and estuarine sediments, and filtered hydrothermal water) by the new primer pair revealed an improved microbial diversity coverage and less-pronounced template-to-PCR product bias in direct comparison to those of the previously published primer set (B. Deplancke, K. R. Hristova, H. A. Oakley, V. J. McCracken, R. Aminov, R. I. Mackie, and H. R. Gaskins, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2166-2174, 2000). The concomitant molecular detection of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes was confirmed. The new assay was applied in comparison with the 16S rRNA gene-based analysis to investigate the microbial diversity of the sulfur cycle in sediment, seawater, and manganese crust samples from four study sites in the area of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, Caribbean Sea (Caribflux project). The aprA gene-based approach revealed putative sulfur-oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria of chemolithoheterotrophic lifestyle to have been abundant in the nonhydrothermal sediment and water column. In contrast, the sulfur-based microbial community that inhabited the surface of the volcanic manganese crust was more complex, consisting predominantly of putative chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers of the Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. PMID:17921272

  10. Molecular analysis of the diversity of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes in the environment, using aprA as functional marker gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Birte; Kuever, Jan

    2007-12-01

    The dissimilatory adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase is a key enzyme of the microbial sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation processes. Because the alpha- and beta-subunit-encoding genes, aprBA, are highly conserved among sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes, they are most suitable for molecular profiling of the microbial community structure of the sulfur cycle in environment. In this study, a new aprA gene-targeting assay using a combination of PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis is presented. The screening of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing reference strains as well as the analyses of environmental DNA from diverse habitats (e.g., microbial mats, invertebrate tissue, marine and estuarine sediments, and filtered hydrothermal water) by the new primer pair revealed an improved microbial diversity coverage and less-pronounced template-to-PCR product bias in direct comparison to those of the previously published primer set (B. Deplancke, K. R. Hristova, H. A. Oakley, V. J. McCracken, R. Aminov, R. I. Mackie, and H. R. Gaskins, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2166-2174, 2000). The concomitant molecular detection of sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes was confirmed. The new assay was applied in comparison with the 16S rRNA gene-based analysis to investigate the microbial diversity of the sulfur cycle in sediment, seawater, and manganese crust samples from four study sites in the area of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, Caribbean Sea (Caribflux project). The aprA gene-based approach revealed putative sulfur-oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria of chemolithoheterotrophic lifestyle to have been abundant in the nonhydrothermal sediment and water column. In contrast, the sulfur-based microbial community that inhabited the surface of the volcanic manganese crust was more complex, consisting predominantly of putative chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers of the Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria.

  11. Molecular Scale Dissolved Organic Matter Interactions Impact Mercury Bioavailability for Uptake and Methylation by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.

    2008-12-01

    Biogeochemical factors such as dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) type and abundance may play a major role in governing the bioavailability of aqueous Hg(II) for uptake and methylation by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). MeHg production correlates in some cases with predicted dominance of hydrophobic, neutrally-charged, aqueous HgS. This species is thought to interact strongly with DOM via hydrophobic attractions. Field and laboratory observations suggest that DOM promotes methylation. We therefore hypothesized that DOM isolates of differing (well-characterized) functional compositions (e.g., hydrophobic versus hydrophilic) could variably enhance bacterial methylation. Methylation assays using Desulfobulbus propionicus 1pr3 in fermentative growth were performed using a mercury isotope tracer applied at concentrations of roughly 100 ng/L. The tracer was pre-equilibrated with 5-10 uM aqueous sulfide and approximately 40 mg/L of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic DOM prior to inoculation. Results showed roughly 1-3% tracer methylation in both hydrophobic DOM+ and DOM- cultures. However, a similar amount of non- tracer (background) mercury associated with the hydrophobic DOM fraction was also methylated. Preliminary results suggested that pre-equilibration of the isotope tracer for up to one month with hydrophobic-fraction humic acids resulted in a roughly 2-3X increase in the quantity and rate of methylation, indicating an important role for aging on DOM in Hg bioavailability. Mercury-sulfide-DOM equilibration products were investigated with synchrotron-based x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EXAFS) at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Hg L(III)-edge spectra from resin-concentrated Hg-S-DOM equilibration products exhibited high similarity to a metacinnabar-like conformation. Culturing and EXAFS results, taken together, suggest that nanophase metacinnabar, "packaged" in DOM, could have been the bioavailable form of Hg(II) in culturing experiments. Further experiments

  12. Molecular assessment of inoculated and indigenous bacteria in biofilms from a pilot-scale perchlorate-reducing bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Logan, B E; Regan, J M; Achenbach, L A; Bruns, M A

    2005-04-01

    Bioremediation of perchlorate-contaminated groundwater can occur via bacterial reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Although perchlorate reduction has been demonstrated in bacterial pure cultures, little is known about the efficacy of using perchlorate-reducing bacteria as inoculants for bioremediation in the field. A pilot-scale, fixed-bed bioreactor containing plastic support medium was used to treat perchlorate-contaminated groundwater at a site in Southern California. The bioreactor was inoculated with a field-grown suspension of the perchlorate-respiring bacterium Dechlorosoma sp. strain KJ and fed groundwater containing indigenous bacteria and a carbon source amendment. Because the reactor was flushed weekly to remove accumulated biomass, only bacteria capable of growing in biofilms in the reactor were expected to survive. After 26 days of operation, perchlorate was not detected in bioreactor effluent. Perchlorate remained undetected by ion chromatography (detection limit 4 mug L(-1)) during 6 months of operation, after which the reactor was drained. Plastic medium was subsampled from top, middle, and bottom locations of the reactor for shipment on blue ice and storage at -80 degrees C prior to analysis. Microbial community DNA was extracted from successive washes of thawed biofilm material for PCR-based community profiling by 16S-23S ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA). No DNA sequences characteristic of strain KJ were recovered from any RISA bands. The most intense bands yielded DNA sequences with high similarities to Dechloromonas spp., a closely related but different genus of perchlorate-respiring bacteria. Additional sequences from RISA profiles indicated presence of representatives of the low G+C gram-positive bacteria and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were also used to examine biofilms using genus-specific 16S ribosomal RNA probes. FISH was more

  13. Gravity with Intermediate Goods Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Jang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives the gravity equation with intermediate goods trade. We extend a standard monopolistic competition model to incorporate intermediate goods trade, and show that the gravity equation with intermediates trade is identical to the one without it except in that gross output should be used as the output measure instead of value added. We also show that the output elasticity of trade is significantly underestimated when value added is used as the output measure. This implies that with the conventional gravity equation, the contribution of output growth can be substantially underestimated and the role of trade costs reduction can be exaggerated in explaining trade expansion, as we demonstrate for the case of Korea's trade growth between 1995 and 2007.

  14. Intermediate storage device of start accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaponenko, N.I.; Tkach, Yu.V.; Stepanenko, I.A.; Kozachek, A.S.; Komarov, A.D.; Gadetskii, N.P.

    1989-01-01

    The use as an intermediate storage device (ISD) of a chain of series-connected capacitors near the stages of a voltage-pulse generator (VPG) reduces the inductance of the VPG-ISD charging circuit and reduces the charging time to 330 nsec. For such times, the electric strength of the capacitor insulation is considerably higher than for dc voltage, which makes it possible to reduce the number of capacitors in the chain and the inductance of the ISD. Additional methods for reduction of the inductance of the VPG-ISD charging circuit are examined. Reduction of the charging time of the storage device makes the operation of the switch connecting the ISD to the shaping line more stable

  15. Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE IN PERIDOMICILIARY AREA DURING ASYMPTOMATIC MALARIA TRANSMISSION IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BLOOD-MEAL SOURCES INDICATES HUMANS AS PRIMARY INTERMEDIATE HOSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kirchgatter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker. cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen.

  16. Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii (Diptera: Culicidae) in peridomiciliary area during asymptomatic malaria transmission in the Atlantic Forest: molecular identification of blood-meal sources indicates humans as primary intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgatter, Karin; Tubaki, Rosa Maria; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; Alves, Isabel Cristina; Lima, Giselle Fernandes Maciel de Castro; Guimarães, Lilian de Oliveira; Zampaulo, Robson de Almeida; Wunderlich, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles (Kerteszia) cruzii has been implicated as the primary vector of human and simian malarias out of the Brazilian Amazon and specifically in the Atlantic Forest regions. The presence of asymptomatic human cases, parasite-positive wild monkeys and the similarity between the parasites infecting them support the discussion whether these infections can be considered as a zoonosis. Although many aspects of the biology of An. cruzii have already been addressed, studies conducted during outbreaks of malaria transmission, aiming at the analysis of blood feeding and infectivity, are missing in the Atlantic Forest. This study was conducted in the location of Palestina, Juquitiba, where annually the majority of autochthonous human cases are notified in the Atlantic Forest of the state of São Paulo. Peridomiciliary sites were selected for collection of mosquitoes in a perimeter of up to 100 m around the residences of human malaria cases. The mosquitoes were analyzed with the purpose of molecular identification of blood-meal sources and to examine the prevalence of Plasmodium. A total of 13,441 females of An. (Ker.) cruzii were collected. The minimum infection rate was calculated at 0.03% and 0.01%, respectively, for P. vivax and P. malariae and only human blood was detected in the blood-fed mosquitoes analyzed. This data reinforce the hypothesis that asymptomatic human carriers are the main source of anopheline infection in the peridomiciliary area, making the probability of zoonotic transmission less likely to happen.

  17. Can Morphing Methods Predict Intermediate Structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dahlia R.; Levitt, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Movement is crucial to the biological function of many proteins, yet crystallographic structures of proteins can give us only a static snapshot. The protein dynamics that are important to biological function often happen on a timescale that is unattainable through detailed simulation methods such as molecular dynamics as they often involve crossing high-energy barriers. To address this coarse-grained motion, several methods have been implemented as web servers in which a set of coordinates is usually linearly interpolated from an initial crystallographic structure to a final crystallographic structure. We present a new morphing method that does not extrapolate linearly and can therefore go around high-energy barriers and which can produce different trajectories between the same two starting points. In this work, we evaluate our method and other established coarse-grained methods according to an objective measure: how close a coarse-grained dynamics method comes to a crystallographically determined intermediate structure when calculating a trajectory between the initial and final crystal protein structure. We test this with a set of five proteins with at least three crystallographically determined on-pathway high-resolution intermediate structures from the Protein Data Bank. For simple hinging motions involving a small conformational change, segmentation of the protein into two rigid sections outperforms other more computationally involved methods. However, large-scale conformational change is best addressed using a nonlinear approach and we suggest that there is merit in further developing such methods. PMID:18996395

  18. Methods and intermediates for the synthesis of dipyrrin-substituted porphyrinic macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lianhe; Muthukumaran, Kannan; Sreedharan, Prathapan; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2010-05-25

    The present invention provides dipyrrin substituted porphyrinic macrocycles, intermediates useful for making the same, and methods of making the same. Such compounds may be used for purposes including the making of molecular memory devices, solar cells and light harvesting arrays.

  19. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Koester, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record

  20. Intermediate Infrastructure Analyst | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent conducts research on technologies and tools that might enhance service delivery and where appropriate, makes recommendations to management. The Intermediate Infrastructure System Analyst provides leadership and direction to junior team members and functional direction to consultants and ...

  1. Electrochemical immunoassay for the prostate specific antigen using a reduced graphene oxide functionalized with a high molecular-weight silk peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yanying; Qu, Ying; Li, Chunya; Wu, Kangbing; Liu, Guishen; Hou, Xiaodong; Huang, Yina; Wu, Wangze

    2015-01-01

    High molecular-weight silk peptide (SP) was used to functionalize the surface of nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The SP-rGO nanocomposite was then mixed with mouse anti-human prostate specific antigen monoclonal antibody (anti-PSA) and coated onto a glassy carbon electrode to fabricate an immunosensor. By using the hexacyanoferrate redox system as electroactive probe, the immunosensor was characterized by voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The peak current, measured at the potential of 0.24 V (vs. SCE), is distinctly reduced after binding prostate specific antigen (PSA). Response (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) is linearly related to PSA concentration in the range from 0.1 to 5.0 ng · mL −1 and from 5.0 to 80.0 ng∙mL −1 , and the detection limit is 53 pg∙mL −1 (at an SNR of 3). The immunosensor was successfully applied to the determination of PSA in clinical serum samples, and the results were found to agree well with those obtained with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (author)

  2. Molecular evolution of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae: Is there evidence of rapid evolution or reduced selective constraint in Domestic cattle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Alan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If mutation within the coding region of the genome is largely not adaptive, the ratio of nonsynonymous (dN to synonymous substitutions (dS per site (dN/dS should be approximately equal among closely related species. Furthermore, dN/dS in divergence between species should be equivalent to dN/dS in polymorphisms. This hypothesis is of particular interest in closely related members of the Bovini tribe, because domestication has promoted rapid phenotypic divergence through strong artificial selection of some species while others remain undomesticated. We examined a number of genes that may be involved in milk production in Domestic cattle and a number of their wild relatives for evidence that domestication had affected molecular evolution. Elevated rates of dN/dS were further queried to determine if they were the result of positive selection, low effective population size (Ne or reduced selective constraint. Results We have found that the domestication process has contributed to higher dN/dS ratios in cattle, especially in the lineages leading to the Domestic cow (Bos taurus and Mithan (Bos frontalis and within some breeds of Domestic cow. However, the high rates of dN/dS polymorphism within B. taurus when compared to species divergence suggest that positive selection has not elevated evolutionary rates in these genes. Likewise, the low rate of dN/dS in Bison, which has undergone a recent population bottleneck, indicates a reduction in population size alone is not responsible for these observations. Conclusion The effect of selection depends on effective population size and the selection coefficient (Nes. Typically under domestication both selection pressure for traits important in fitness in the wild and Ne are reduced. Therefore, reduced selective constraint could be responsible for the observed elevated evolutionary ratios in domesticated species, especially in B. taurus and B. frontalis, which have the highest dN/dS in the

  3. Vancomycin intermediate-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) isolated from a patient who never received vancomycin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuhui; Liu, Cailin; Gao, Sui; Lu, Yanfang; Chen, Zhongju; Sun, Ziyong

    2015-04-01

    With the abuse of antibiotics, the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain became prevalent. Furthermore, Staphylococcus aureus with a character of vancomycin intermediate-resistance (VISA) has been found globally since the first report in Japan. The main objectives of this study were to report a case of VISA isolated from a Chinese patient who had never undergone Vancomycin treatment, and to determine its molecular character. A total of 9 strains were recovered from a patient during the therapeutic process. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed to determine their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. To detect the VISA strain's molecular epidemiological features, growth and morphological characters, we used multilocus sequence typing, autolysis assay and transmission electric microscope tests. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to characterize the heterogeneities of all isolates. One isolate was found to exhibit vancomycin intermediated-resistant with MIC of 8 μg/ml. It was ST239-T030-agr-1, had thickened cell wall, and displayed a slower growth rate and reduced susceptibility to Triton X-100-induced autolysis than other strains. All 9 strains exhibited the same PFGE pattern. This is the first report of VISA found in central China from a patient who had never received vancomycin treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. High-molecular-weight adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with polycystic ovary syndrome independent of body mass index and severity of insulin resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2010-03-01

    Context: High-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin contributes to insulin resistance (IR), which is closely associated with the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Abnormalities in adipocyte function have been identified in PCOS and potentially contribute to lower adiponectin concentrations. Objective: Our objective was to determine which variables in plasma and adipose tissue influence HMW adiponectin in a well characterized cohort of women with PCOS. Design: This was a cross-sectional study. Settings and Participants: A teaching hospital. Women with PCOS (n = 98) and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 103) (including 68 age-, BMI-, and IR-matched pairs). Interventions: A standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test was performed for each participant. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were taken by needle biopsy for a subset of PCOS women (n = 9) and controls (n = 8). Main Outcome Measures: Serum levels of HMW adiponectin and their relation to indices of insulin sensitivity, body composition, and circulating androgens as well as adipose tissue expression levels of ADIPOQ, TNFalpha, PPARgamma, and AR were assessed. Results: HMW adiponectin was significantly lower in women with PCOS compared with both BMI- and BMI- and IR-matched controls (P = 0.009 and P = 0.027, respectively). Although BMI and IR were the main predictors of HMW adiponectin, an interaction between waist to hip ratio and plasma testosterone contributed to its variance (P = 0.026). Adipose tissue gene expression analysis demonstrated that AR and TNFalpha (P = 0.008 and P = 0.035, respectively) but not ADIPOQ mRNA levels were increased in PCOS compared with controls. Conclusions: HMW adiponectin is selectively reduced in women with PCOS, independent of BMI and IR. Gene expression analysis suggests that posttranscriptional\\/translational modification contributes to reduced HMW adiponectin in PCOS.

  5. Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

    2008-06-30

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600

  6. Use of a molecular diagnostic test in AFB smear positive tuberculosis suspects greatly reduces time to detection of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestani Tukvadze

    Full Text Available The WHO has recommended the implementation of rapid diagnostic tests to detect and help combat M/XDR tuberculosis (TB. There are limited data on the performance and impact of these tests in field settings.The performance of the commercially available Genotype MTBDRplus molecular assay was compared to conventional methods including AFB smear, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST using both an absolute concentration method on Löwenstein-Jensen media and broth-based method using the MGIT 960 system. Sputum specimens were obtained from TB suspects in the country of Georgia who received care through the National TB Program.Among 500 AFB smear-positive sputum specimens, 458 (91.6% had both a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a valid MTBDRplus assay result. The MTBDRplus assay detected isoniazid (INH resistance directly from the sputum specimen in 159 (89.8% of 177 specimens and MDR-TB in 109 (95.6% of 114 specimens compared to conventional methods. There was high agreement between the MTBDRplus assay and conventional DST results in detecting MDR-TB (kappa = 0.95, p<0.01. The most prevalent INH resistance mutation was S315T (78% in the katG codon and the most common rifampicin resistance mutation was S531L (68% in the rpoB codon. Among 13 specimens from TB suspects with negative sputum cultures, 7 had a positive MTBDRplus assay (3 with MDR-TB. The time to detection of MDR-TB was significantly less using the MTBDRplus assay (4.2 days compared to the use of standard phenotypic tests (67.3 days with solid media and 21.6 days with broth-based media.Compared to conventional methods, the MTBDRplus assay had high accuracy and significantly reduced time to detection of MDR-TB in an area with high MDR-TB prevalence. The use of rapid molecular diagnostic tests for TB and drug resistance should increase the proportion of patients promptly placed on appropriate therapy.

  7. Structure-dependent reactivity of Criegee intermediates studied with spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jr-Min Lin, Jim; Chao, Wen

    2017-12-11

    Criegee intermediates are very reactive carbonyl oxides that are formed in reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons with ozone (ozonolysis). Recently, Criegee intermediates have gained significant attention since a new preparation method has been reported in 2012, which employs the reaction of iodoalkyl radical with molecular oxygen: for instance, CH 2 I + O 2 → CH 2 OO + I. This new synthesis route can produce Criegee intermediates with a high number density, which allows direct detection of the Criegee intermediate via various spectroscopic tools, including vacuum UV photoionization mass spectrometry, absorption and action spectroscopy in the UV and IR regions, and microwave spectroscopy. Criegee intermediates have been thought to play important roles in atmospheric chemistry, such as in OH radical formation as well as oxidation of atmospheric gases such as SO 2 , NO 2 , volatile organic compounds, organic and inorganic acids, and even water. These reactions are relevant to acid rain and aerosol formation. Kinetics data including rate coefficients, product yields and their temperature and pressure dependences are important for understanding and modeling relevant atmospheric chemistry. In fundamental physical chemistry, Criegee intermediates have unique and interesting features, which have been partially revealed through spectroscopic, kinetic, and dynamic investigations. Although previous review articles have discussed Criegee intermediates, new data and knowledge on Criegee intermediates are still being accumulated. In this tutorial review, we have focused on structure-dependent reactivity of Criegee intermediates and various spectroscopic tools that have been utilized to probe the kinetics of Criegee intermediates.

  8. ESL intermediate/advanced writing

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz Page, Mary Ellen; Jaskiewicz, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Master ESL (English as a Second Language) Writing with the study guide designed for non-native speakers of English. Skill-building lessons relevant to today's topics help ESL students write complete sentences, paragraphs, and even multi-paragraph essays. It's perfect for classroom use or self-guided writing preparation.DETAILS- Intermediate drills for improving skills with parallel structure, mood, correct shifting errors & dangling participles- Advanced essay drills focusing on narrative, descriptive, process, reaction, comparison and contrast- Superb preparation for students taking the TOEFL

  9. Intermediate neutron detection by thermoluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, E.N. dos; Muccillo, R.

    1979-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) studies were carried out in cold-pressed CaSO 4 :Dy + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl and CaF 2 + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl polycrystalline samples exposed to mixed neutron-gamma fields, for the detection of intermediate neutrons which is based on the evaluation of the TL signal of the specimens stored for 24 hours after being exposed to a mixed neutron-gamma field and thermally annealed to erase the total radiation-induced TL. The addition of Dy 2 O 3 to CaSO 4 :Dy in the proportion 1:2 increased the neutron response by a factor of 160 relative to that of CaSO 4 :Dy. 180 mg of CaSO 4 :Dy + Dy 2 O 3 + KCl in the proportion 2:1:3 showed to be an appropriate detector of intermediate neutrons; the minimum detectable fluence was estimated to be 3.5 x 10 5 neutrons/cm 2 . (Author) [pt

  10. Intermediate processes in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, M.

    1983-01-01

    The main results presented here cannot be interpreted in terms of the direct reaction model or the statistical models and one can more or less explicitely use some nuclear configurations for their interpretation. The first chapter deals with the so-called second order intermediate structures observed in the elastic and inelastic proton scattering on 66 Zn and 70 Ge targets in the energetic regions of some isobaric analog resonances. A formal theory for their interpretation is developed and the comparison with the experimental data is presented. New experimental results on the resonant structures observed in the elastic and inelastic scattering of 12 C on 24 Mg are presented in the second chapter. Detailed statistical analysis and their interpretation is presented too. Charge equilibration in deep inelastic collisions is the main subject of the third chapter. The experimental results obtained by the 98 Mo + 154 Sm collision at 12 MeV/n, a quantum treatment of a damped harmonic oscillator and the comparison with the experimental data are given. In the last chapter, some results on the existence of two other processes which could candidate to be involved in the main topic are presented. Those processes are: the fast fragmentation and preequilibrium charged particles emission. All these processes originate in the excitation of some simple configurations which can be seen on ''doorway'' states (''Hallway'' in the case of the second intermediate structures). The coupling of these states to other more complicated excitation modes of the nuclei and to outgoing channel=gives the possibility to study the nuclear dynamics. This justifies the interest for their detailed theoretical and experimental investigations. (author)

  11. A Network of AOPs for reduced thyroid hormone synthesis derived from inhibition of Thyroperoxidase - A common Molecular Initiating Event Leading to Species-Specific Indices of Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collection of 3 AOPs describe varying outcomes of adversity dependent upon species in response to inhibition of thyroperoxidase (TPO) during development. Chemical inhibition of TPO, the molecular-initiating event (MIE), results in decreased thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis, a...

  12. Application of citrate as a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, prevents diabetic-induced heart damages in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Liang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results indicate that application of citrate, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle intermediate, might alleviate cardiac dysfunction by reducing cardiac inflammation, apoptosis, and increasing cardiac EC.

  13. High Prevalence of Intermediate Leptospira spp. DNA in Febrile Humans from Urban and Rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Trueba, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA-positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador.

  14. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  15. On financial equilibrium with intermediation costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markeprand, Tobias Ejnar

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the set of competitive equilibria in financial economies with intermediation costs. We consider an arbitrary dividend structure, which includes options and equity with limited liabilities.We show a general existence result and upper-hemi continuity of the equilibrium...... correspondence. Finally, we prove that when intermediation costs approach zero, unbounded volume of asset trades is a necessary and sufficient condition, provided that, there is no financial equilibrium without intermediation costs....

  16. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Chiral Pharmaceutical Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh N. Patel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of single enantiomers of drug intermediates has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Chiral intermediates and fine chemicals are in high demand from both the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries for the preparation of bulk drug substances and agricultural products. The enormous potential of microorganisms and enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high chemo-, regio- and enantioselectivities has been demonstrated. In this article, biocatalytic processes are described for the synthesis of chiral pharmaceutical intermediates.

  17. Experiments in intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehnhard, D.

    2003-02-28

    Research in experimental nuclear physics was done from 1979 to 2002 primarily at intermediate energy facilities that provide pion, proton, and kaon beams. Particularly successful has been the work at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) on unraveling the neutron and proton contributions to nuclear ground state and transition densities. This work was done on a wide variety of nuclei and with great detail on the carbon, oxygen, and helium isotopes. Some of the investigations involved the use of polarized targets which allowed the extraction of information on the spin-dependent part of the triangle-nucleon interaction. At the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) we studied proton-induced charge exchange reactions with results of importance to astrophysics and the nuclear few-body problem. During the first few years, the analysis of heavy-ion nucleus scattering data that had been taken prior to 1979 was completed. During the last few years we created hypernuclei by use of a kaon beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and an electron beam at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The data taken at BNL for a study of the non-mesonic weak decay of the A particle in a nucleus are still under analysis by our collaborators. The work at JLab resulted in the best resolution hypernuclear spectra measured thus far with magnetic spectrometers.

  18. Compact Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Yipeng

    2003-01-01

    In Phase I, we demonstrate the feasibility of making supported electronically insulating, proton conducting inorganic thin films on metal hydride foils for intermediate temperature fuel cell electrolytes...

  19. Massive, Absorption-selected Galaxies at Intermediate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, N.; Prochaska, J. X.; Christensen, L.; Rhodin, N. H. P.; Neeleman, M.; Zwaan, M. A.; Møller, P.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Zafar, T.

    2018-04-01

    The nature of absorption-selected galaxies and their connection to the general galaxy population have been open issues for more than three decades, with little information available on their gas properties. Here we show, using detections of carbon monoxide emission with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, that five of seven high-metallicity, absorption-selected galaxies at intermediate redshifts, z ≈ 0.5–0.8, have large molecular gas masses, M Mol ≈ (0.6–8.2) × 1010 M ⊙ and high molecular gas fractions (f Mol ≡ M Mol/(M * + M Mol) ≈ 0.29–0.87). Their modest star formation rates (SFRs), ≈(0.3–9.5) M ⊙ yr‑1, then imply long gas depletion timescales, ≈(3–120) Gyr. The high-metallicity absorption-selected galaxies at z ≈ 0.5–0.8 appear distinct from populations of star-forming galaxies at both z ≈ 1.3–2.5, during the peak of star formation activity in the Universe, and lower redshifts, z ≲ 0.05. Their relatively low SFRs, despite the large molecular gas reservoirs, may indicate a transition in the nature of star formation at intermediate redshifts, z ≈ 0.7.

  20. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do

  1. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1991-09-30

    The theme that unites the sometimes seemingly disparate experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in their radiative decays in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of our BNL experiments E810, E854, as well as our approved experiment at RHIC), -- all these projects share this common goal. Our other experiments represent different approaches to the same broad undertaking. LAMPF E1097 will provide definitive answers to the question of the spin dependence of the inelastic channel of pion production in the n-p interaction. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: that of just how quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they transverse nuclei of different sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are unavailable to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do.

  2. 19 CFR 122.84 - Intermediate airport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate airport. 122.84 Section 122.84... Intermediate airport. (a) Application. The provisions of this section apply at any U.S. airport to which an... aircraft arrives at the next airport, the aircraft commander or agent shall make entry by filing the: (1...

  3. Gasoline Engine Mechanics. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marion

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of six terminal objectives presented in this curriculum guide for an intermediate gasoline engine mechanics course at the secondary level. (For the beginning course guide see CE 010 947.) The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hour…

  4. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  5. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  6. 39 CFR 3001.39 - Intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate decisions. 3001.39 Section 3001.39 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules of General Applicability § 3001.39 Intermediate decisions. (a) Initial decision by presiding officer. In any proceedings in...

  7. Brazil : Interest Rates and Intermediation Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This study sheds light on the analytical and policy issues regarding the high intermediation spread in Brazil, focusing on its determinants, the reasons for its persistence, and its impact on the real economy, especially on access to finance for Brazilian firms. The key contention of the analysis is that high intermediation spreads are a symptom of underlying problems; as such, spreads constitute ...

  8. Production of intermediate energy beams by high speed rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, C.W.; Bale, T.J.; Cosgrove, P.; Kirby, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A rotor apparatus intended for the study of gas/surface interaction processes is presently nearing completion. The carbon fiber rotors under consideration are constructed with shapes derived from long thin cylindrical rods oriented with the longest axis in a horizontal plane, and spun in a horizontal plane about an axis which is perpendicular to the long axis and passes through the mid-point of the cylinder. The beam formation processes are discussed and rotor diagrams presented. Performance of these types of high speed rotor show them to have a very important future as sources of intermediate energy molecular beams

  9. Epithelial Intermediate Filaments: Guardians against Microbial Infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Geisler

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are abundant cytoskeletal components of epithelial tissues. They have been implicated in overall stress protection. A hitherto poorly investigated area of research is the function of intermediate filaments as a barrier to microbial infection. This review summarizes the accumulating knowledge about this interaction. It first emphasizes the unique spatial organization of the keratin intermediate filament cytoskeleton in different epithelial tissues to protect the organism against microbial insults. We then present examples of direct interaction between viral, bacterial, and parasitic proteins and the intermediate filament system and describe how this affects the microbe-host interaction by modulating the epithelial cytoskeleton, the progression of infection, and host response. These observations not only provide novel insights into the dynamics and function of intermediate filaments but also indicate future avenues to combat microbial infection.

  10. Effect of Intermediate Hosts on Emerging Zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jing-An; Chen, Fangyuan; Fan, Shengjie

    2017-08-01

    Most emerging zoonotic pathogens originate from animals. They can directly infect humans through natural reservoirs or indirectly through intermediate hosts. As a bridge, an intermediate host plays different roles in the transmission of zoonotic pathogens. In this study, we present three types of pathogen transmission to evaluate the effect of intermediate hosts on emerging zoonotic diseases in human epidemics. These types are identified as follows: TYPE 1, pathogen transmission without an intermediate host for comparison; TYPE 2, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as an amplifier; and TYPE 3, pathogen transmission with an intermediate host as a vessel for genetic variation. In addition, we established three mathematical models to elucidate the mechanisms underlying zoonotic disease transmission according to these three types. Stability analysis indicated that the existence of intermediate hosts increased the difficulty of controlling zoonotic diseases because of more difficult conditions to satisfy for the disease to die out. The human epidemic would die out under the following conditions: TYPE 1: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]; TYPE 2: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]; and TYPE 3: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] Simulation with similar parameters demonstrated that intermediate hosts could change the peak time and number of infected humans during a human epidemic; intermediate hosts also exerted different effects on controlling the prevalence of a human epidemic with natural reservoirs in different periods, which is important in addressing problems in public health. Monitoring and controlling the number of natural reservoirs and intermediate hosts at the right time would successfully manage and prevent the prevalence of emerging zoonoses in humans.

  11. Electron scattering from sodium at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitroy, J.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1986-10-01

    A comprehensive comparison is made between theoretical calculations and experimental data for intermediate energy (≥ 10 eV) electron scattering from sodium vapour. The theoretical predictions of coupled-channels calculations (including one, two or four channels) do not agree with experimental values of the differential cross sections for elastic scattering or the resonant 3s to 3p excitation. Increasingly-more-sophisticated calculations, incorporating electron correlations in the target states, and also including core-excited states in the close-coupling expansion, are done at a few selected energies in an attempt to isolate the cause of the discrepancies between theory and experiment. It is found that these more-sophisticated calculations give essentially the same results as the two- and four-channel calculations using Hartree-Fock wavefunctions. Comparison of the sodium high-energy elastic differential cross sections with those of neon suggests that the sodium differential cross section experiments may suffer from systematic errors. There is also disagreement, at the higher energies, between theoretical values for the scattering parameters and those that are derived from laser-excited superelastic scattering and electron photon coincidence experiments. When allowance is made for the finite acceptance angle of the electron spectrometers used in the experiments by convoluting the theory with a function representing the distribution of electrons entering the electron spectrometer it is found that the magnitudes of the differences between theory and experiment are reduced

  12. Estimation of intermediate grade uranium resources. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambie, F.W.; Kendall, G.R.; Klahn, L.J.; Davis, J.C.; Harbaugh, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the technique currently used by DOE to estimate intermediate grade uranium (0.01 to 0.05% U 3 O 8 ) and, if possible, suggest alternatives to improve the accuracy and precision of the estimate. There are three principal conclusions resulting from this study. They relate to the quantity, distribution and sampling of intermediate grade uranium. While the results of this study must be validated further, they indicate that DOE may be underestimating intermediate level reserves by 20 to 30%. Plots of grade of U 3 O 8 versus tonnage of ore and tonnage U 3 O 8 indicate grade-tonnage relationships that are essentially log-linear, at least down to 0.01% U 3 O 8 . Though this is not an unexpected finding, it may provide a technique for reducing the uncertainty of intermediate grade endowment. The results of this study indicate that a much lower drill hole density is necessary for DOE to estimate uranium resources than for a mining company to calculate ore resources. Though errors in local estimates will occur, they will tend to cancel over the entire deposit

  13. CO and IRAS detection of an intermediate-velocity cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desert, F.X.; Bazell, D.; Blitz, L.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of a radio survey of high-Galactic-latitude clouds, CO emission was detected at the position l = 210.8 deg and b = 63.1 deg with an LSR velocity of -39 km/sec. This molecular cloud constitutes the third one with an unusually large absolute velocity at these latitudes, as compared with the 5.4-km/sec cloud-to-cloud velocity dispersion of the high-latitude molecular clouds. The position is coincident with an H I intermediate-velocity cloud (GHL 11, Verschuur H, OLM 268) and the IR-excess cloud 306 in the list by Desert et al. (1988). This cloud is clearly detected at all four IRAS wavelengths and has warmer colors than the local ISM. 27 refs

  14. Language in use intermediate : classroom book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1995-01-01

    ach of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  15. Language in use intermediate : teacher's book

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1998-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  16. Intermedial Strategies of Memory in Contemporary Novels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Sara

    2014-01-01

    , and Judd Morrissey and drawing on the theoretical perspectives of N. Katherine Hayles (media studies) and Andreas Huyssen (cultural memory studies), Tanderup argues that recent intermedial novels reflect a certain nostalgia celebrating and remembering the book as a visual and material object in the age......In her article "Intermedial Strategies and Memory in Contemporary Novels" Sara Tanderup discusses a tendency in contemporary literature towards combining intermedial experiments with a thematic preoccupation with memory and trauma. Analyzing selected works by Steven Hall, Jonathan Safran Foer...... of digital media while also highlighting the influence of new media on our cultural understanding and representation of memory and the past....

  17. Early photolysis intermediates of gecko and bovine artificial visual pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Livnah, N; Kuwata, O; Jäger, S; Kliger, D S

    1997-11-25

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on digitonin extracts of artificial pigments prepared from the cone-type visual pigment, P521, of the Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina. Artificial pigments were prepared by regeneration of bleached gecko photoreceptor membranes with 9-cis-retinal, 9-cis-14-methylretinal, or 9-cis-alpha-retinal. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic data for all three artificial gecko pigments to be best fit by two-exponential processes. These two-exponential decays correspond to similar decays observed after photolysis of P521 itself, with the first process being the decay of the equilibrated P521 BathoP521 BSI mixture to P521 Lumi and the second process being the decay of P521 Lumi to P521 Meta I. In spite of its large blue shift relative to P521, iso-P521 displays a normal chloride depletion induced blue shift. Iso-P521's early intermediates up to Lumi were also blue-shifted, with the P521 BathoP521 BSI equilibrated mixture being 15 nm blue-shifted and P521 Lumi being 8 nm blue-shifted relative to the intermediates formed after P521 photolysis. The blue shift associated with the iso-pigment is reduced or disappears entirely by P521 Meta I. Similar blue shifts were observed for the early intermediates observed after photolysis of bovine isorhodopsin, with the Lumi intermediate blue-shifted 5 nm compared to the Lumi intermediate formed after photolysis of bovine rhodopsin. These shifts indicate that a difference exists between the binding sites of 9- and 11-cis pigments which persists for microseconds at 20 degrees C.

  18. Radiolysis studies on reactive intermediates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, L.

    1977-11-01

    A more quantitative characterization of the structure and reaction mechanism of solvated electrons produced by high energy chemistry was developed. Neutral atoms may undergo solvation in polar media to cause significant geometrical rearrangement. The geometrical arrangement of six OH bond oriented water molecules around a localized electron is the preferred geometry in frozen aqueous systems even at low solute ion concentration. The energy level structure of electrons in polar aqueous and alcoholic glasses was systematized from a comparison of photoconductivity and optical spectra. Experimental and theoretical evidence on electron solvation was evaluated to suggest the dominance of first solvation shell orientation in the solvation process. A laser photolysis study as a function of temperature suggests that electron solvation in ethanol glass occurs by a hindered molecular reorientation mechanism. In mixed polar and nonpolar glassy matrices it was shown that the electron is first solvated in the nonpolar matrix and is later transformed to a more stable species surrounded by the polar molecules. It was found that the spin lattice relaxation of solvated electrons is dominated by a new mechanism characteristic of disordered matrices which involves relaxation by tunneling modes in the matrix. The noninteracting spin packet model of electron spin resonance lines was shown to apply to solvated electrons in deuterated matrices but not in protiated matrices. A new type of recombination fluorescence experiment was devised which allows easy distinction between tunnelling and diffusive recombination mechanisms between solvate electrons and cations. Several theoretical studies have helped to delimit the applicability of an electron tunneling mechanism to solvated electron reactions. Electron spin echospectrometry was used to demonstrate that silver atoms undergo dramatic solvation and desolvation changes in frozen aqueous systems

  19. Intermediate/Advanced Research Design and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this module is To provide Institutional Researchers (IRs) with an understanding of the principles of advanced research design and the intermediate/advanced statistical procedures consistent with such designs

  20. The deterioration of intermediate moisture foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruza, T. P.

    1971-01-01

    Deteriorative reactions are low and food quality high if intermediate moisture content of a food is held at a water activity of 0.6 to 0.75. Information is of interest to food processing and packaging industry.

  1. Proposed changes in intermediate pipe break criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    Bechtel Power Corporation proposed to the US NRC in 1983 that the NRC eliminate from their criteria all intermediate breaks. Bechtel's rationale for the proposal and support for their position are presented

  2. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...

  3. Directional spread parameter at intermediate water depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.

    The characteristics of directional spread parameters at intermediate water depth are investigated based on a cosine power '2s' directional spreading model. This is based on wave measurements carried out using a Datawell directional waverider buoy...

  4. Structure of a low-population intermediate state in the release of an enzyme product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Alfonso; Aprile, Francesco A; Dhulesia, Anne; Dobson, Christopher M; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2015-01-09

    Enzymes can increase the rate of biomolecular reactions by several orders of magnitude. Although the steps of substrate capture and product release are essential in the enzymatic process, complete atomic-level descriptions of these steps are difficult to obtain because of the transient nature of the intermediate conformations, which makes them largely inaccessible to standard structure determination methods. We describe here the determination of the structure of a low-population intermediate in the product release process by human lysozyme through a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. We validate this structure by rationally designing two mutations, the first engineered to destabilise the intermediate and the second to stabilise it, thus slowing down or speeding up, respectively, product release. These results illustrate how product release by an enzyme can be facilitated by the presence of a metastable intermediate with transient weak interactions between the enzyme and product.

  5. Intermediality, Architecture, and the Politics of Urbanity

    OpenAIRE

    Tortosa Garrigós, Virgilio

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Intermediality, Architecture, and the Politics of Urbanity" Virgilio Tortosa Garrigós discusses aspects of the exponential development of large cities, the neoliberal economy, and the "spectacle" of architecture in the context of intermediality. With the connivance between land speculators and politicians — which has led not only to the loss of spatial identity but to irreversible pollution and geographic degradation — urbanity is epitomized on the Mediterranean coast line. In...

  6. Intermediate Inflation or Late Time Acceleration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    The expansion rate of intermediate inflation lies between the exponential and power law expansion but corresponding accelerated expansion does not start at the onset of cosmological evolution. Present study of intermediate inflation reveals that it admits scaling solution and has got a natural exit form it at a later epoch of cosmic evolution, leading to late time acceleration. The corresponding scalar field responsible for such feature is also found to behave as a tracker field for gravity with canonical kinetic term.

  7. Prevalence of Cigarette smoking among Intermediate Qatari School Male Students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Samir Y.; Khan, Zulfaquar A.; Malik, Mariyam A.; Al-Sayed, H.

    2006-01-01

    Attempt was made to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices of Qatari male students and attending four intermediate schools in Doha, about cigarette smoking. 475 boys aged between 12-18 years were the subject of our study. A survey using self-administered questionnaire was carried out into habits, attitudes and knowledge about cigarette smoking. The importance of peer group pressure, parental smoking and early experimentation was confirmed, as was the general awareness of the health hazards of smoking. In contrast, the importance of religion and financial cost of smoking differed markedly. The prevalence of smoking amongst Qatari intermediate schools appears to be considerably less than their counterparts. The results of this research might be used by health planners and policy makers to establish a strategy to prevent smoking as early as possible to reduce morbidity and early mortality and health related economic burden. (author)

  8. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  9. Higher order antibunching in intermediate states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Amit; Sharma, Navneet K.; Pathak, Anirban

    2008-01-01

    Since the introduction of binomial state as an intermediate state, different intermediate states have been proposed. Different nonclassical effects have also been reported in these intermediate states. But till now higher order antibunching is predicted in only one type of intermediate state, which is known as shadowed negative binomial state. Recently we have shown that the higher order antibunching is not a rare phenomenon [P. Gupta, P. Pandey, A. Pathak, J. Phys. B 39 (2006) 1137]. To establish our earlier claim further, here we have shown that the higher order antibunching can be seen in different intermediate states, such as binomial state, reciprocal binomial state, hypergeometric state, generalized binomial state, negative binomial state and photon added coherent state. We have studied the possibility of observing the higher order subpoissonian photon statistics in different limits of intermediate states. The effects of different control parameters on the depth of non classicality have also been studied in this connection and it has been shown that the depth of nonclassicality can be tuned by controlling various physical parameters

  10. Associations of Systemic Diseases with Intermediate Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoughy, Samir S; Kozak, Igor; Tabbara, Khalid F

    2016-01-01

    To determine the associations of systemic diseases with intermediate uveitis. The medical records of 50 consecutive cases with intermediate uveitis referred to The Eye Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed. Age- and sex-matched patients without uveitis served as controls. Patients had complete ophthalmic and medical examinations. There were 27 male and 23 female patients. Mean age was 29 years with a range of 5-62 years. Overall, 21 cases (42%) had systemic disorders associated with intermediate uveitis and 29 cases (58%) had no associated systemic disease. A total of 11 patients (22%) had asthma, 4 (8%) had multiple sclerosis, 3 (6%) had presumed ocular tuberculosis, 1 (2%) had inflammatory bowel disease, 1 (2%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1 (2%) had sarcoidosis. Evidence of systemic disease was found in 50 (5%) of the 1,000 control subjects. Bronchial asthma was found in 37 patients (3.7 %), multiple sclerosis in 9 patients (0.9%), inflammatory bowel disease in 3 patients (0.3%), and tuberculosis in 1 patient (0.1%). None of the control patients had sarcoidosis or lymphoma. There were statistically significant associations between intermediate uveitis and bronchial asthma (p = 0.0001), multiple sclerosis (p = 0.003) and tuberculosis (p = 0.0005). Bronchial asthma and multiple sclerosis were the most frequently encountered systemic diseases associated with intermediate uveitis in our patient population. Patients with intermediate uveitis should undergo careful history-taking and investigations to rule out associated systemic illness.

  11. Carbon emission, energy consumption and intermediate goods trade: A regional study of East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Using country level panel data from East Asia over the period 1998–2011, this paper examines the implications of international production fragmentation-induced intermediate goods trade on the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution. The paper focuses on the interaction effect between energy consumption and trade in intermediate goods on carbon emission. The empirical results presented suggest that international trade in intermediate goods decreases the positive impact on carbon emission of energy consumption. When compared with the trade in final goods, intermediate goods trade contributes to a greater decrease in carbon pollution resulting from energy consumption. These results confirm that the link between energy consumption and carbon pollution in East Asia is significantly affected by international production fragmentation-induced trade in intermediate goods. The results presented in this paper have some important policy implications. - Highlights: • This paper tests the role of intermediates trade in energy-development nexus. • Empirical study is based on data of East Asia. • International trade can reduce the carbon pollution caused by energy use. • Intermediates trade has higher moderating effect than non-intermediate trade.

  12. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nieves-Morión

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N2-fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the “septal junctions” (formerly known as “microplasmodesmata” linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans.

  13. Sugar-Terminated Nanoparticle Chaperones Are 102-105Times Better Than Molecular Sugars in Inhibiting Protein Aggregation and Reducing Amyloidogenic Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nibedita; Shekhar, Shashi; Jana, Nihar R; Jana, Nikhil R

    2017-03-29

    Sugar-based osmolyte molecules are known to stabilize proteins under stress, but usually they have poor chaperone performance in inhibiting protein aggregation. Here, we show that the nanoparticle form of sugars molecule can enhance their chaperone performance typically by 10 2 -10 5 times, compared to molecular sugar. Sugar-based plate-like nanoparticles of 20-40 nm hydrodynamic size have been synthesized by simple heating of acidic aqueous solution of glucose/sucrose/maltose/trehalose. These nanoparticles have excitation-dependent green/yellow/orange emission and surface chemistry identical to the respective sugar molecule. Fibrillation of lysozyme/insulin/amyloid beta in extracellular space, aggregation of mutant huntingtin protein inside model neuronal cell, and cytotoxic effect of fibrils are investigated in the presence of these sugar nanoparticles. We found that sugar nanoparticles are 10 2 -10 5 times efficient than respective sugar molecules in inhibiting protein fibrillation and preventing cytotoxicity arising of fibrils. We propose that better performance of the nanoparticle form is linked to its stronger binding with fibril structure and enhanced cell uptake. This result suggests that nanoparticle form of osmolyte can be an attractive option in prevention and curing of protein aggregation-derived diseases.

  14. Reduced heterozygosity at intragenic and flanking microsatellites of pfcrt gene establishes natural selection based molecular evolution of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Prashant K; Singh, Ruchi; Singh, Om P; Singh, Ashok K; Bhasin, Virendra K; Valecha, Neena

    2013-12-01

    The positive selection of a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) gene (mutation responsible for chloroquine resistance) causes a reduction in variation of neutral loci close to the gene. This reduction in allelic diversity around flanking regions of pfcrt gene was reported in worldwide chloroquine resistant isolates and referred as selective sweep. In Plasmodium falciparum isolates of India, the selective sweep in flanking loci of pfcrt gene is well established, however, high allelic diversity observed in intragenic microsatellites of pfcrt gene implied an ongoing genetic recombination. To understand, if molecular evolution of chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum isolates in India follow a selective sweep model, we analyzed genetic diversity at both seven intragenic and seven flanking microsatellites of pfcrt (-24 to +106kb) gene in chloroquine sensitive and resistant parasites originating from high and low transmission areas. We observed low expected heterozygosity at all loci of resistant pfcrt-haplotypes (He=0-0.77) compared to the wild-type (He=0.38-0.96). Resistant SVMNT from high transmission areas showed significantly higher mean He (P=0.03, t-test) at both intragenic and pfcrt-flanking loci (-24 to +22 kb) in comparison to low transmission areas. Our observation of reduction in variation at both intragenic and flanking loci of mutant pfcrt gene confirmed the selective sweep model of natural selection in chloroquine resistant P. falciparum isolates in India. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis and characteristics of the [99mTc≡N] intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiang; Fang Ping; Wu Chunying; Chen Zhengping

    1998-01-01

    Two methods for the synthesis of the [ 99m Tc≡N] intermediates were reported. In the presence of reducer (TPPS or SnCl 2 ) and the donor of N, the mixture of [ 99m Tc≡N] intermediate could be conveniently synthesized but with different composition. On reaction with ligands complexes containing [ 99m Tc≡N] 2+ core can be obtained. The change of composition of intermediates was detected by HPLC at different pH values and the stability was also evaluated

  16. Impact of Molecular Epidemiology and Reduced Susceptibility to Glycopeptides and Daptomycin on Outcomes of Patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Yuan; Chen, Chyi-Liang; Liu, Shu-Ying; Yan, Yu-Shan; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia was associated with high mortality, but the risk factors associated with mortality remain controversial. Methods A retrospective cohort study was designed. All patients with MRSA bacteremia admitted were screened and collected for their clinical presentations and laboratory characteristics. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type of bacterial isolates were determined. Risk factors for mortality were analyzed. Results Most MRSA isolates from the 189 enrolled patients showed reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, including MIC of vancomycin ≥ 1.5 mg/L (79.9%), teicoplanin ≥ 2 mg/L (86.2%), daptomycin ≥ 0.38 mg/L (73.0%) and linezolid ≥ 1.5 mg/L (64.0%). MRSA with vancomycin MIC ≥ 1.5 mg/L and inappropriate initial therapy were the two most important risk factors for mortality (both P MRSA (HA-MRSA), carrying SCCmec type I, II, or III, was associated with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, teicoplanin or daptomycin and also with higher attributable mortality (all P linezolid (P = 0.759). Conclusions Giving empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics for at least 5 days to treat catheter-related infections, pneumonia, soft tissue infection and other infections was the most important risk factor for acquiring subsequent HA-MRSA infection. Choice of effective anti-MRSA agents for treating MRSA bacteremia should be based on MIC of vancomycin, teicoplanin and daptomycin. Initiation of an effective anti-MRSA agent without elevated MIC in 2 days is crucial for reducing mortality. PMID:26295150

  17. Partially folded intermediates during trypsinogen denaturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins N.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium unfolding of bovine trypsinogen was studied by circular dichroism, differential spectra and size exclusion HPLC. The change in free energy of denaturation was = 6.99 ± 1.40 kcal/mol for guanidine hydrochloride and = 6.37 ± 0.57 kcal/mol for urea. Satisfactory fits of equilibrium unfolding transitions required a three-state model involving an intermediate in addition to the native and unfolded forms. Size exclusion HPLC allowed the detection of an intermediate population of trypsinogen whose Stokes radii varied from 24.1 ± 0.4 Å to 26.0 ± 0.3 Å for 1.5 M and 2.5 M guanidine hydrochloride, respectively. During urea denaturation, the range of Stokes radii varied from 23.9 ± 0.3 Å to 25.7 ± 0.6 Å for 4.0 M and 6.0 M urea, respectively. Maximal intrinsic fluorescence was observed at about 3.8 M urea with 8-aniline-1-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS binding. These experimental data indicate that the unfolding of bovine trypsinogen is not a simple transition and suggest that the equilibrium intermediate population comprises one intermediate that may be characterized as a molten globule. To obtain further insight by studying intermediates representing different stages of unfolding, we hope to gain a better understanding of the complex interrelations between protein conformation and energetics.

  18. The small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) is a molecular target for Edelfosine to reduce the invasive potential of urothelial carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinestel, Konrad; Eder, Stefan; Ehinger, Konstantin; Schneider, Juliane; Genze, Felicitas; Winkler, Eva; Wardelmann, Eva; Schrader, Andres J; Steinestel, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Metastasis is the survival-determining factor in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the urinary bladder. The small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 3 (SK3) enhances tumor cell invasion in breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Since Edelfosine, a glycerophospholipid with antitumoral properties, effectively inhibits SK3 channel activity, our goal was to evaluate SK3 as a potential molecular target to inhibit the gain of an invasive phenotype in UC. SK3 protein expression was analyzed in 208 tissue samples and UC cell lines. Effects of Edelfosine on SK3 expression and intracellular calcium levels as well as on cell morphology, cell survival and proliferation were assessed using immunoblotting, potentiometric fluorescence microscopy, and clonogenic/cell survival assay; furthermore, we analyzed the effect of Edelfosine and SK3 RNAi knockdown on tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. We found that SK3 is strongly expressed in muscle-invasive UC and in the RT112 cellular tumor model. Higher concentrations of Edelfosine have a strong antitumoral effect on UC cells, while 1 μM effectively inhibits migration/invasion of UC cells in vitro and in vivo comparable to the SK3 knockdown phenotype. Taken together, our results show strong expression of SK3 in muscle-invasive UC, consistent with the postulated role of the protein in tumor cell invasion. Edelfosine is able to effectively inhibit migration and invasion of UC cells in vitro and in vivo in an SK3-dependent way, pointing towards a possible role for Edelfosine as an antiinvasive drug to effectively inhibit UC cell invasion and metastasis.

  19. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 7: Systems toxicological assessment of a mentholated version revealed reduced cellular and molecular exposure effects compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, Ulrike; Titz, Bjoern; Schlage, Walter K; Nury, Catherine; Martin, Florian; Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-11-30

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed with the aim of reducing smoking-related health risks. The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) is a candidate MRTP that uses the heat-not-burn principle. Here, systems toxicology approaches were engaged to assess the respiratory effects of mentholated THS2.2 (THS2.2M) in a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413). The standard endpoints were complemented by transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses of respiratory nasal epithelium and lung tissue and by lipidomics analysis of lung tissue. The adaptive response of the respiratory nasal epithelium to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) included squamous cell metaplasia and an inflammatory response, with high correspondence between the molecular and histopathological results. In contrast to CS exposure, the adaptive tissue and molecular changes to THS2.2M aerosol exposure were much weaker and were limited mostly to the highest THS2.2M concentration in female rats. In the lung, CS exposure induced an inflammatory response, triggered cellular stress responses, and affected sphingolipid metabolism. These responses were not observed or were much lower after THS2.2M aerosol exposure. Overall, this system toxicology analysis complements and reconfirms the results from classical toxicological endpoints and further suggests potentially reduced health risks of THS2.2M. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Toward molecular catalysts by computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugei, Simone; DuBois, Daniel L; Rousseau, Roger; Chen, Shentan; Ho, Ming-Hsun; Bullock, R Morris; Dupuis, Michel

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Rational design of molecular catalysts requires a systematic approach to designing ligands with specific functionality and precisely tailored electronic and steric properties. It then becomes possible to devise computer protocols to design catalysts by computer. In this Account, we first review how thermodynamic properties such as redox potentials (E°), acidity constants (pKa), and hydride donor abilities (ΔGH(-)) form the basis for a framework for the systematic design of molecular catalysts for reactions that are critical for a secure energy future. We illustrate this for hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen reduction, and CO conversion, and we give references to other instances where it has been successfully applied. The framework is amenable to quantum-chemical calculations and conducive to predictions by computer. We review how density functional theory allows the determination and prediction of these thermodynamic properties within an accuracy relevant to experimentalists (∼0.06 eV for redox potentials, ∼1 pKa unit for pKa values, and 1-2 kcal/mol for hydricities). Computation yielded correlations among thermodynamic properties as they reflect the electron population in the d shell of the metal center, thus substantiating empirical correlations used by experimentalists. These correlations point to the key role of redox potentials and other properties (pKa of the parent aminium for the proton-relay-based catalysts designed in our laboratory) that are easily accessible experimentally or computationally in reducing the parameter space for design. These properties suffice to fully determine free energies maps and profiles associated with catalytic cycles, i.e., the relative energies of intermediates. Their prediction puts us in a position to distinguish a priori between desirable and undesirable pathways and mechanisms. Efficient catalysts have flat free energy profiles that avoid high activation barriers due to low- and high

  1. PLEKHG5 deficiency leads to an intermediate form of autosomal-recessive Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzedine, Hamid; Zavadakova, Petra; Planté-Bordeneuve, Violaine; Vaz Pato, Maria; Pinto, Nuno; Bartesaghi, Luca; Zenker, Jennifer; Poirot, Olivier; Bernard-Marissal, Nathalie; Arnaud Gouttenoire, Estelle; Cartoni, Romain; Title, Alexandra; Venturini, Giulia; Médard, Jean-Jacques; Makowski, Edward; Schöls, Ludger; Claeys, Kristl G.; Stendel, Claudia; Roos, Andreas; Weis, Joachim; Dubourg, Odile; Leal Loureiro, José; Stevanin, Giovanni; Said, Gérard; Amato, Anthony; Baraban, Jay; LeGuern, Eric; Senderek, Jan; Rivolta, Carlo; Chrast, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) comprises a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral neuropathies characterized by progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities and distal sensory loss. Following the analysis of two consanguineous families affected by a medium to late-onset recessive form of intermediate CMT, we identified overlapping regions of homozygosity on chromosome 1p36 with a combined maximum LOD score of 5.4. Molecular investigation of the genes from this region allowed identification of two homozygous mutations in PLEKHG5 that produce premature stop codons and are predicted to result in functional null alleles. Analysis of Plekhg5 in the mouse revealed that this gene is expressed in neurons and glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, and that knockout mice display reduced nerve conduction velocities that are comparable with those of affected individuals from both families. Interestingly, a homozygous PLEKHG5 missense mutation was previously reported in a recessive form of severe childhood onset lower motor neuron disease (LMND) leading to loss of the ability to walk and need for respiratory assistance. Together, these observations indicate that different mutations in PLEKHG5 lead to clinically diverse outcomes (intermediate CMT or LMND) affecting the function of neurons and glial cells. PMID:23777631

  2. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  3. Influence of an Intermediate Option on the Description-Experience Gap and Information Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Debnath, Shoubhik; Dutt, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that people tend to overweight small probabilities in description and underweight them in experience, thereby leading to a different pattern of choices between description and experience; a phenomenon known as the Description-Experience (DE) gap. However, little is known on how the addition of an intermediate option and contextual framing influences the DE gap and people's search strategies. This paper tests the effects of an intermediate option and contextual framing on the DE gap and people's search strategies, where problems require search for information before a consequential choice. In the first experiment, 120 participants made choice decisions across investment problems that differed in the absence or presence of an intermediate option. Results showed that adding an intermediate option did not reduce the DE gap on the maximizing option across a majority of problems. There were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Furthermore, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. In the second experiment, 160 participants made choice decisions in problems like those presented in experiment 1; however, problems lacked the investment framing. Results replicated findings from the first experiment and showed a similar DE gap on the maximizing option in a majority of problems in both the absence and presence of the intermediate option. Again, there were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Also, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. Meta-analyses revealed that the absence or presence of the intermediate option created certain differences in the strength of frequency and recency processes. Also, a single natural-mean heuristic model was able to account for the experimental results across both experiments. We discuss implications of our findings to consequential decisions made after information search.

  4. Influence of an Intermediate Option on the Description-Experience Gap and Information Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Sharma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that people tend to overweight small probabilities in description and underweight them in experience, thereby leading to a different pattern of choices between description and experience; a phenomenon known as the Description-Experience (DE gap. However, little is known on how the addition of an intermediate option and contextual framing influences the DE gap and people’s search strategies. This paper tests the effects of an intermediate option and contextual framing on the DE gap and people’s search strategies, where problems require search for information before a consequential choice. In the first experiment, 120 participants made choice decisions across investment problems that differed in the absence or presence of an intermediate option. Results showed that adding an intermediate option did not reduce the DE gap on the maximizing option across a majority of problems. There were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Furthermore, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. In the second experiment, 160 participants made choice decisions in problems like those presented in experiment 1; however, problems lacked the investment framing. Results replicated findings from the first experiment and showed a similar DE gap on the maximizing option in a majority of problems in both the absence and presence of the intermediate option. Again, there were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Also, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. Meta-analyses revealed that the absence or presence of the intermediate option created certain differences in the strength of frequency and recency processes. Also, a single natural-mean heuristic model was able to account for the experimental results across both experiments. We discuss implications of our findings to consequential decisions made after

  5. Influence of an Intermediate Option on the Description-Experience Gap and Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Debnath, Shoubhik; Dutt, Varun

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that people tend to overweight small probabilities in description and underweight them in experience, thereby leading to a different pattern of choices between description and experience; a phenomenon known as the Description-Experience (DE) gap. However, little is known on how the addition of an intermediate option and contextual framing influences the DE gap and people’s search strategies. This paper tests the effects of an intermediate option and contextual framing on the DE gap and people’s search strategies, where problems require search for information before a consequential choice. In the first experiment, 120 participants made choice decisions across investment problems that differed in the absence or presence of an intermediate option. Results showed that adding an intermediate option did not reduce the DE gap on the maximizing option across a majority of problems. There were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Furthermore, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. In the second experiment, 160 participants made choice decisions in problems like those presented in experiment 1; however, problems lacked the investment framing. Results replicated findings from the first experiment and showed a similar DE gap on the maximizing option in a majority of problems in both the absence and presence of the intermediate option. Again, there were a large majority of choices for the intermediate option. Also, there was an increase in switching between options due to the presence of the intermediate option. Meta-analyses revealed that the absence or presence of the intermediate option created certain differences in the strength of frequency and recency processes. Also, a single natural-mean heuristic model was able to account for the experimental results across both experiments. We discuss implications of our findings to consequential decisions made after information search

  6. The impact of intermediate care services on job satisfaction, skills and career development opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, in depth, the impact of intermediate care services on staff job satisfaction, skills development and career development opportunities. Recruitment and retention difficulties present a major barrier to the effective delivery of intermediate care services in the UK. The limited existing literature is contradictory, but points to the possibility of staff deskilling and suggests that intermediate care is poorly understood and may be seen by other practitioners as being of lower status than hospital work. These factors have the potential to reduce staff morale and limit the possibilities of recruiting staff. The research is based on interviews with 26 staff from case studies of two intermediate care services in South Yorkshire. Participants reported high levels of job satisfaction, which was because of the enabling philosophy of care, increased autonomy, the setting of care and the actual teams within which the workers were employed. For most disciplines, intermediate care facilitated the application of existing skills in a different way; enhancing some skills, while restricting the use of others. Barriers to career development opportunities were attributed to the relative recency of intermediate care services, small size of the services and lack of clear career structures. Career development opportunities in intermediate care could be improved through staff rotations through acute, community and intermediate care to increase their awareness of the roles of intermediate care staff. The non-hierarchical management structures limits management career development opportunities, instead, there is a need to enhance professional growth opportunities through the use of consultant posts and specialization within intermediate care. This study provides insight into the impact of an increasingly popular model of care on the roles and job satisfaction of workers and highlights the importance of this learning for recruitment and retention of

  7. Virus Infection Triggers MAVS Polymers of Distinct Molecular Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Zamorano Cuervo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS adaptor protein is a central signaling hub required for cells to mount an antiviral response following virus sensing by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I-like receptors. MAVS localizes in the membrane of mitochondria and peroxisomes and in mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Structural and functional studies have revealed that MAVS activity relies on the formation of functional high molecular weight prion-like aggregates. The formation of protein aggregates typically relies on a dynamic transition between oligomerization and aggregation states. The existence of intermediate state(s of MAVS polymers, other than aggregates, has not yet been documented. Here, we used a combination of non-reducing SDS-PAGE and semi-denaturing detergent agarose gel electrophoresis (SDD-AGE to resolve whole cell extract preparations to distinguish MAVS polymerization states. While SDD-AGE analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the formation of previously described high molecular weight prion-like aggregates upon constitutively active RIG-I ectopic expression and virus infection, non-reducing SDS-PAGE allowed us to demonstrate the induction of lower molecular weight oligomers. Cleavage of MAVS using the NS3/4A protease revealed that anchoring to intracellular membranes is required for the appropriate polymerization into active high molecular weight aggregates. Altogether, our data suggest that RIG-I-dependent MAVS activation involves the coexistence of MAVS polymers with distinct molecular weights.

  8. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities.

  9. Intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.W.; Giesler, G.C.; Liu, L.C.; Dropesky, B.J.; Knight, J.D.; Lucero, F.; Orth, C.J.

    1981-05-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the LAMPF Intermediate-Energy Nuclear Chemistry Workshop held in Los Alamos, New Mexico, June 23-27, 1980. The first two days of the Workshop were devoted to invited review talks highlighting current experimental and theoretical research activities in intermediate-energy nuclear chemistry and physics. Working panels representing major topic areas carried out indepth appraisals of present research and formulated recommendations for future research directions. The major topic areas were Pion-Nucleus Reactions, Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions and Nuclei Far from Stability, Mesonic Atoms, Exotic Interactions, New Theoretical Approaches, and New Experimental Techniques and New Nuclear Chemistry Facilities

  10. Digital intermediate frequency QAM modulator using parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Hsueh-Yuan [Livermore, CA; Tran, Binh-Nien [San Ramon, CA

    2008-05-27

    The digital Intermediate Frequency (IF) modulator applies to various modulation types and offers a simple and low cost method to implement a high-speed digital IF modulator using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The architecture eliminates multipliers and sequential processing by storing the pre-computed modulated cosine and sine carriers in ROM look-up-tables (LUTs). The high-speed input data stream is parallel processed using the corresponding LUTs, which reduces the main processing speed, allowing the use of low cost FPGAs.

  11. Wearable electronics formed on intermediate layer on textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-07-27

    One manner of producing more desirable clothing with electronic capabilities is to manufacture electronics, such as the charging wires or devices themselves, directly onto the textile materials. Textile materials generally do not support the manufacturing of electronic devices, in part because the surface of the textile is too rough for electronic devices or the processes used to manufacturing electronic devices. An intermediate layer (204) may be placed on the textile material (202) to reduce the roughness of the surface of the textile material and provide other beneficial characteristics for the placement of electronic devices (206) directly on the textile material.

  12. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  13. Detection of late intermediates in virus capsid assembly by charge detection mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Elizabeth E; Keifer, David Z; Selzer, Lisa; Lee, Lye Siang; Contino, Nathan C; Wang, Joseph C-Y; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2014-03-05

    The assembly of hundreds of identical proteins into an icosahedral virus capsid is a remarkable feat of molecular engineering. How this occurs is poorly understood. Key intermediates have been anticipated at the end of the assembly reaction, but it has not been possible to detect them. In this work we have used charge detection mass spectrometry to identify trapped intermediates from late in the assembly of the hepatitis B virus T = 4 capsid, a complex of 120 protein dimers. Prominent intermediates are found with 104/105, 110/111, and 117/118 dimers. Cryo-EM observations indicate the intermediates are incomplete capsids and, hence, on the assembly pathway. On the basis of their stability and kinetic accessibility we have proposed plausible structures. The prominent trapped intermediate with 104 dimers is attributed to an icosahedron missing two neighboring facets, the 111-dimer species is assigned to an icosahedron missing a single facet, and the intermediate with 117 dimers is assigned to a capsid missing a ring of three dimers in the center of a facet.

  14. Unraveling the structure and chemical mechanisms of highly oxygenated intermediates in oxidation of organic compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhandong

    2017-11-28

    Decades of research on the autooxidation of organic compounds have provided fundamental and practical insights into these processes; however, the structure of many key autooxidation intermediates and the reactions leading to their formation still remain unclear. This work provides additional experimental evidence that highly oxygenated intermediates with one or more hydroperoxy groups are prevalent in the autooxidation of various oxygenated (e.g., alcohol, aldehyde, keto compounds, ether, and ester) and nonoxygenated (e.g., normal alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) organic compounds. These findings improve our understanding of autooxidation reaction mechanisms that are routinely used to predict fuel ignition and oxidative stability of liquid hydrocarbons, while also providing insights relevant to the formation mechanisms of tropospheric aerosol building blocks. The direct observation of highly oxygenated intermediates for the autooxidation of alkanes at 500–600 K builds upon prior observations made in atmospheric conditions for the autooxidation of terpenes and other unsaturated hydrocarbons; it shows that highly oxygenated intermediates are stable at conditions above room temperature. These results further reveal that highly oxygenated intermediates are not only accessible by chemical activation but also by thermal activation. Theoretical calculations on H-atom migration reactions are presented to rationalize the relationship between the organic compound’s molecular structure (n-alkane, branched alkane, and cycloalkane) and its propensity to produce highly oxygenated intermediates via extensive autooxidation of hydroperoxyalkylperoxy radicals. Finally, detailed chemical kinetic simulations demonstrate the influence of these additional reaction pathways on the ignition of practical fuels.

  15. Crystal structure of CobK reveals strand-swapping between Rossmann-fold domains and molecular basis of the reduced precorrin product trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuang; Sushko, Oleksandr; Deery, Evelyne; Warren, Martin J; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2015-11-30

    CobK catalyzes the essential reduction of the precorrin ring in the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. The crystal structure of CobK reveals that the enzyme, despite not having the signature sequence, comprises two Rossmann fold domains which bind coenzyme and substrate respectively. The two parallel β-sheets have swapped their last β-strands giving a novel sheet topology which is an interesting variation on the Rossmann-fold. The trapped ternary complex with coenzyme and product reveals five conserved basic residues that bind the carboxylates of the tetrapyrrole tightly anchoring the product. A loop, disordered in both the apoenzyme and holoenzyme structures, closes around the product further tightening binding. The structure is consistent with a mechanism involving protonation of C18 and pro-R hydride transfer from NADPH to C19 of precorrin-6A and reveals the interactions responsible for the specificity of CobK. The almost complete burial of the reduced precorrin product suggests a remarkable form of metabolite channeling where the next enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway triggers product release.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of reduced glutathione transport: role of the MRP/CFTR/ABCC and OATP/SLC21A families of membrane proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballatori, Nazzareno; Hammond, Christine L.; Cunningham, Jennifer B.; Krance, Suzanne M.; Marchan, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    The initial step in reduced glutathione (GSH) turnover in all mammalian cells is its transport across the plasma membrane into the extracellular space; however, the mechanisms of GSH transport are not clearly defined. GSH export is required for the delivery of its constituent amino acids to other tissues, detoxification of drugs, metals, and other reactive compounds of both endogenous and exogenous origin, protection against oxidant stress, and secretion of hepatic bile. Recent studies indicate that some members of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP/CFTR or ABCC) family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, as well as some members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP or SLC21A) family of transporters contribute to this process. In particular, five of the 12 members of the MRP/CFTR family appear to mediate GSH export from cells namely, MRP1, MRP2, MRP4, MRP5, and CFTR. Additionally, two members of the OATP family, rat Oatp1 and Oatp2, have been identified as GSH transporters. For the Oatp1 transporter, efflux of GSH may provide the driving force for the uptake of extracellular substrates. In humans, OATP-B and OATP8 do not appear to transport GSH; however, other members of this family have yet to be characterized in regards to GSH transport. In yeast, the ABC proteins Ycf1p and Bpt1p transport GSH from the cytosol into the vacuole, whereas Hgt1p mediates GSH uptake across the plasma membrane. Because transport is a key step in GSH homeostasis and is intimately linked to its biological functions, GSH export proteins are likely to modulate essential cellular functions

  17. Fostering teamwork in an intermediate care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Heather; Cappleman, Julia

    2011-06-01

    The government has emphasised that, to deliver high quality, integrated care, staff must work across organisational boundaries using a team approach so that everyone works towards the same goals. This article describes how one NHS-managed intermediate care unit has integrated care staff employed by the independent sector.

  18. Essays in corporate finance and financial intermediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempf, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters in corporate finance and financial intermediation. The first two chapters explore sources of incentives and learning for finance professionals. Specifically, the first chapter studies how the option to go work for an investment bank affects the incentives of

  19. 34 CFR 200.17 - Intermediate goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TITLE I-IMPROVING THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF THE DISADVANTAGED Improving Basic.... Each State must establish intermediate goals that increase in equal increments over the period covered by the timeline under § 200.15 as follows: (a) The first incremental increase must take effect not...

  20. Trusted intermediating agents in electronic trade networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); F. Alkemade (Floortje)

    2005-01-01

    htmlabstract Electronic commerce and trading of information goods significantly impact the role of intermediaries: consumers can bypass intermediating agents by forming direct links to producers. One reason that traditional intermediaries can still make a profit, is that they have more knowledge of

  1. Intermediates and Generic Convergence to Equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Wiuf, Carsten; Feliu, Elisenda

    2017-01-01

    Known graphical conditions for the generic and global convergence to equilibria of the dynamical system arising from a reaction network are shown to be invariant under the so-called successive removal of intermediates, a systematic procedure to simplify the network, making the graphical condition...

  2. Financial intermediation with credit constrained agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Boháček, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2007), s. 741-759 ISSN 0164-0704 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700850602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : financial intermediation * occupational choice * general equilibrium Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.360, year: 2007

  3. What Should be Taught in Intermediate Macroeconomics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Pedro; O'Sullivan, Roisin; Simpson, Nicole B.

    2013-01-01

    A lack of consensus remains on what should form the theoretical core of the undergraduate intermediate macroeconomic course. In determining how to deal with the Keynesian/classical divide, instructors must decide whether to follow the modern approach of building macroeconomic relationships from micro foundations, or to use the traditional approach…

  4. Interaction between Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the snail intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological control of snail intermediate host of human schistosome parasites has been suggested. In this study, the effect of Indoplanobis exustus a planorbid snail and possible competitor snail of Biomphalaria pfeifferi on the fecundity and growth rate of the later was evaluated. The results showed a significant difference in ...

  5. Bridge: Intelligent Tutoring with Intermediate Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Research and Development Center and Psychology Department University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA. 15260 The Artificial Intelligence and Psychology...problem never introduces more than one unfamiliar plan. Inteligent Tutoring With Intermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunniigbam 4 You must have a... Inteligent Tutoring With ntermediate Representations - Bonar and Cunningham 7 The requirements are specified at four differcnt levels, corresponding to

  6. Intermediality and politics in theatre and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapp, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation applies the concepts of intermediality and politics to five performances by Rimini Protokoll, Christoph Schlingensief, and Igneous, and analyzes the implications that emerge on both a significational and a theoretical level. Based on the specific mediality involved, it argues that

  7. Changes to the Intermediate Accounting Course Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lesley H.; Francisco, William H.

    2009-01-01

    There is an ever-growing amount of information that must be covered in Intermediate Accounting courses. Due to recent accounting standards and the implementation of IFRS this trend is likely to continue. This report incorporates the results of a recent survey to examine the trend of spending more course time to cover this additional material.…

  8. Unraveling Intermediate Filaments : The super resolution solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahidiazar, L.

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate Filaments (IFs) carry out major functions in cells. Several diseases have been associated with malfunctioning IFs in the cells and among them are certain sub types of cancer. To determine the structure and organization of IFs, we have used Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (SMLM)

  9. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    transition pathway determined using the string method. The experimental results and computational analysis suggest that the phenotype of I241W may originate in the formation of a hydrogen bond between the indole nitrogen atom and the backbone carbonyl of R2. This work provides new information on intermediate...... states in voltage-gated ion channels with an approach that produces minimum chemical perturbation....

  10. Intuitionistic Rules : Admissible Rules of Intermediate Logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, we investigate the admissible rules of intermediate logics. On the one hand, one can characterize the admissibility of rules in certain logic, and on the other hand, one can characterize logics through their admissible rules. We take both approaches, and reach new results in both

  11. Intermediate Systems Analyst | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The intermediate Systems Analyst will bring to the System Development Group the necessary skills to understand in depth the architecture of Oracle to allow better design and implementation of new and enhanced information systems and applications. The incumbent will take full responsibility for the ITM division's ...

  12. Software Testing An ISEB Intermediate Certificate

    CERN Document Server

    Hambling, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Covering testing fundamentals, reviews, testing and risk, test management and test analysis, this book helps newly qualified software testers to learn the skills and techniques to take them to the next level. Written by leading authors in the field, this is the only official textbook of the ISEB Intermediate Certificate in Software Testing.

  13. Bismuth phosphates as intermediate temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yunjie; Christensen, Erik; Shuai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Proton conducting electrolyte materials operational in the intermediate temperature range of 200-400 °C are of special interest for applications in fuel cells and water electrolysers. Bismuth phosphates in forms of polycrystalline powders and amorphous glasses are synthesized and investigated...

  14. Polyacrylamide polymers derived from acrylonitrile without intermediate isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.

    1977-04-05

    Hydrolyzed and neutralized acrylonitrile is polymerized in solution without isolation to produce a high molecular weight polyacrylamide useful for mobility control in secondary recovery of petroleum. The polyacrylamide optionally may be hydrolyzed, methylolated, and sulfomethylated to further enhance its water-thickening properties. This procedure reduces the cost of making polyacrylamide. (5 claims)

  15. The msaABCR Operon Regulates Resistance in Vancomycin-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Dhritiman

    2014-01-01

    Vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains present an increasingly difficult problem in terms of public health. However, the molecular mechanism for this resistance is not yet understood. In this study, we define the role of the msaABCR operon in vancomycin resistance in three clinical VISA strains, i.e., Mu50, HIP6297, and LIM2. Deletion of the msaABCR operon resulted in significant decreases in the vancomycin MIC (from 6.25 to 1.56 μg/ml) and significant reductions of cell wall thickness in strains Mu50 and HIP6297. Growth of the mutants in medium containing vancomycin at concentrations greater than 2 μg/ml resulted in decreases in the growth rate, compared with the wild-type strains. Mutation of the msaABCR operon also reduced the binding capacity for vancomycin. We conclude that the msaABCR operon contributes to resistance to vancomycin and cell wall synthesis in S. aureus. PMID:25155591

  16. Structural Characterization of a Human-Type Corrinoid Adenosyltransferase Confirms That Coenzyme B[subscript 12] Is Synthesized through a Four-Coordinate Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Maurice, Martin; Mera, Paola; Park, Kiyoung; Brunold, Thomas C.; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.; Rayment, Ivan (UW)

    2008-11-18

    ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferases (ACAs) catalyze the transfer of the 5{prime}-deoxyadenosyl moiety from ATP to the upper axial ligand position of cobalamin in the synthesis of coenzyme B{sub 12}. For the ACA-catalyzed reaction to proceed, cob(II)alamin must be reduced to cob(I)alamin in the enzyme active site. This reduction is facilitated through the generation of a four-coordinate cob(II)alamin intermediate on the enzyme. We have determined the high-resolution crystal structure of a human-type ACA from Lactobacillus reuteri with a four-coordinate cob(II)alamin bound in the enzyme active site and with the product, adenosylcobalamin, partially occupied in the active site. The assembled structures represent snapshots of the steps in the ACA-catalyzed formation of the cobalt-carbon bond of coenzyme B{sub 12}. The structures define the corrinoid binding site and provide visual evidence for a base-off, four-coordinate cob(II)alamin intermediate. The complete structural description of ACA-mediated catalysis reveals the molecular features of four-coordinate cob(II)alamin stabilization and provides additional insights into the molecular basis for dysfunction in human patients suffering from methylmalonic aciduria.

  17. Method of recovering adsorbed liquid compounds from molecular sieve columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Harvey R.; Fanslow, Glenn E.

    1983-01-01

    Molecularly adsorbed volatile liquid compounds are recovered from molecular sieve adsorbent columns by directionally applying microwave energy to the bed of the adsorbent to produce a mixed liquid-gas effluent. The gas portion of the effluent generates pressure within the bed to promote the discharge of the effluent from the column bottoms. Preferably the discharged liquid-gas effluent is collected in two to three separate fractions, the second or intermediate fraction having a substantially higher concentration of the desorbed compound than the first or third fractions. The desorption does not need to be assisted by passing a carrier gas through the bed or by applying reduced pressure to the outlet from the bed.

  18. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-06-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes.

  19. Understanding the mechanism of catalytic fast pyrolysis by unveiling reactive intermediates in heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemberger, Patrick; Custodis, Victoria B. F.; Bodi, Andras; Gerber, Thomas; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A.

    2017-01-01

    Catalytic fast pyrolysis is a promising way to convert lignin into fine chemicals and fuels, but current approaches lack selectivity and yield unsatisfactory conversion. Understanding the pyrolysis reaction mechanism at the molecular level may help to make this sustainable process more economic. Reactive intermediates are responsible for product branching and hold the key to unveiling these mechanisms, but are notoriously difficult to detect isomer-selectively. Here, we investigate the catalytic pyrolysis of guaiacol, a lignin model compound, using photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy with synchrotron radiation, which allows for isomer-selective detection of reactive intermediates. In combination with ambient pressure pyrolysis, we identify fulvenone as the central reactive intermediate, generated by catalytic demethylation to catechol and subsequent dehydration. The fulvenone ketene is responsible for the phenol formation. This technique may open unique opportunities for isomer-resolved probing in catalysis, and holds the potential for achieving a mechanistic understanding of complex, real-life catalytic processes. PMID:28660882

  20. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Intermediate Filaments under Extreme Conditions and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhao

    Intermediate filaments are one of the three major components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. It was discovered during the recent decades that intermediate filament proteins play key roles to reinforce cells subjected to large-deformation as well as participate in signal transduction. However, it is still poorly understood how the nanoscopic structure, as well as the biochemical properties of these protein molecules contribute to their biomechanical functions. In this research we investigate the material function of intermediate filaments under various extreme mechanical conditions as well as disease states. We use a full atomistic model and study its response to mechanical stresses. Learning from the mechanical response obtained from atomistic simulations, we build mesoscopic models following the finer-trains-coarser principles. By using this multiple-scale model, we present a detailed analysis of the mechanical properties and associated deformation mechanisms of intermediate filament network. We reveal the mechanism of a transition from alpha-helices to beta-sheets with subsequent intermolecular sliding under mechanical force, which has been inferred previously from experimental results. This nanoscale mechanism results in a characteristic nonlinear force-extension curve, which leads to a delocalization of mechanical energy and prevents catastrophic fracture. This explains how intermediate filament can withstand extreme mechanical deformation of > 1 00% strain despite the presence of structural defects. We combine computational and experimental techniques to investigate the molecular mechanism of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome, a premature aging disease. We find that the mutated lamin tail .domain is more compact and stable than the normal one. This altered structure and stability may enhance the association of intermediate filaments with the nuclear membrane, providing a molecular mechanism of the disease. We study the nuclear membrane association

  1. Degradation of thiamethoxam and metoprolol by UV, O3 and UV/O3 hybrid processes: Kinetics, degradation intermediates and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šojić, D.; Despotović, V.; Orčić, D.; Szabó, E.; Arany, E.; Armaković, S.; Illés, E.; Gajda-Schrantz, K.; Dombi, A.; Alapi, T.; Sajben-Nagy, E.; Palágyi, A.; Vágvölgyi, Cs.; Manczinger, L.; Bjelica, L.; Abramović, B.

    2012-11-01

    SummaryA comprehensive study of the degradation of thiamethoxam (THIA) and metoprolol (MET) was conducted by using UV-induced photolysis (λ = 254 nm), ozonation, and a combination of these methods. In order to investigate how molecular structure of the substrate influences the rate of its degradation, we compared these three processes for the insecticide THIA and the drug MET (a β1-blocker). Of the three treatments applied, the UV photolysis and the combination of UV/O3 were found to be most effective in the degradation of THIA, while the UV/O3 process appeared to be the most efficient in terms of MET decay. The degradation kinetics was monitored by LC-DAD, and spectrophotometry, while the mineralization of the substrates was studied by TOC analysis. Reaction intermediates were studied in detail and a number of them were identified using LC-MS (ESI+/ESI-). Both parent compounds showed slight toxic effects towards algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. However, the toxicity of the solutions containing also the degradation intermediates appeared to be much higher for all the test organisms. The inhibition/mortality rates were reduced most efficiently by the UV/O3 procedure. Ames test and Comet assay were used to follow the genotoxicity during the degradation of the studied compounds. Genotoxic intermediates were frequently detected in the case of MET in the UV treatment alone or in the presence of ozone. Treatments of THIA samples resulted less frequently in genotoxic intermediates. To our best knowledge, this work is the first genotoxicological investigation dealing with the photolytic degradation process of the studied compounds.

  2. Maximum host survival at intermediate parasite infection intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stjernman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although parasitism has been acknowledged as an important selective force in the evolution of host life histories, studies of fitness effects of parasites in wild populations have yielded mixed results. One reason for this may be that most studies only test for a linear relationship between infection intensity and host fitness. If resistance to parasites is costly, however, fitness may be reduced both for hosts with low infection intensities (cost of resistance and high infection intensities (cost of parasitism, such that individuals with intermediate infection intensities have highest fitness. Under this scenario one would expect a non-linear relationship between infection intensity and fitness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus in southern Sweden, we investigated the relationship between the intensity of infection of its blood parasite (Haemoproteus majoris and host survival to the following winter. Presence and intensity of parasite infections were determined by microscopy and confirmed using PCR of a 480 bp section of the cytochrome-b-gene. While a linear model suggested no relationship between parasite intensity and survival (F = 0.01, p = 0.94, a non-linear model showed a significant negative quadratic effect (quadratic parasite intensity: F = 4.65, p = 0.032; linear parasite intensity F = 4.47, p = 0.035. Visualization using the cubic spline technique showed maximum survival at intermediate parasite intensities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that failing to recognize the potential for a non-linear relationship between parasite infection intensity and host fitness may lead to the potentially erroneous conclusion that the parasite is harmless to its host. Here we show that high parasite intensities indeed reduced survival, but this effect was masked by reduced survival for birds heavily suppressing their parasite intensities. Reduced survival among hosts with low

  3. Opening the Black Box of Intermediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowinska, Agnieszka

    ) and at the interfirm level (between partners and within alliances and associations).The tentative results show that both of these levels are important in defining the intermediating firms' business models and in answering their environmental threats and in building up competitive advantage. The paper ends with a short......This paper attempts to answer how external environmental factors affect intermediating firms within the maritime industry - the middlemen that plays a very important role in the sector. The category encompasses firms such as liner and port agencies, freight forwarders and shipbrokers, who link......, by its global character and by volatility. As such, the industry offers an interesting and generalizable environment for research. Moreover, the choice of the middleman, an intermediary in the value chain, as the object of study, offers additional insights into the complex industry and value chain...

  4. Hγ Line Spectrum of Intermediate Polars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggi Kim

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Kim & Beuermann (1995, 1996 have developed a model for the propagation of X-rays from the accreting white dwarf through the infalling material and the re-emission of the energy deposited by photo-absorption in the optical (and UV spectral range. By using this model, we calculate the profiles of the Hγ emission-line spectrum of intermediate polars. Photoabsorption of X-rays by the infalling material is the dominant process in forming the observed energy-dependent rotational modulation of the X-ray flux. X-ray and optical modulations are sensitive to model parameters in different ways. In principle, these dependencies allow us to obtain improved insight into the accretion geometry of the intermediate polars. We present results of our calculations and compare them with the Hβ line spectrum (Kim & Beuermann 1996.

  5. Far from the intermediate nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, K.; Wagner, G.J.; Gregoire, C.; Campi, X.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Platchkov, S.; Mayer, B.; Abgrall, Y.; Bohigas, O.; Grange, P.; Signarbieux, C.

    1988-01-01

    Pairing correlations in nuclear physics; the BCS state and quasi-particles; the layer model; collision effects on nuclear dynamics; the theory of cluster formation (application to nucleus fragmentation); short range correlations (few-particle systems); deuterium electron scattering; dibaryonic resonances; traditional and exotic hadron probes of nuclear structure; spectral fluctuations and chaotic motion; corrections to the intermediate nuclear field (nonrelativistic and other effects); and heavy nuclei splitting and nuclear superfluidity are introduced [fr

  6. International express student's book : pre-intermediate

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Liz

    1996-01-01

    The New Edition of International Express Pre-Intermediate retains all the keys features of this popular and successel four-level course. It combines engaging, up-to-date topics with a time-efficient and student-centred approach to language work, and clearly focused activities that reflect learner's real communicative needs - the ideal course for professional adults who use English for work, travel, and socializing.

  7. STUTTERING THERAPY FOR A CHILD AT INTERMEDIATE STUTTERING LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering therapy very often demands combination of various approaches or its modification. The main purpose of this study was to present an integrated approach to stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy for an intermediate school-age male stutterer (11 years old.The therapy for the child lasted for 12 months, sessions have been carried out twice a week, each session lasted for 45 minutes. The child still attends the therapy. The therapy uses integration of stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. For the purpose of the fluency shaping therapy, delayed auditory feedback program is applied. During the stuttering modification therapy the child has been taught how to stutter more easily which implies prolongation of all sounds in words on which child stutters, with easy and soft transition from one sound to another. It is continuously being worked with the child on reducing negative feelings and attitudes as well as elimination of avoidance of words and speaking situations. We explained to the parents the treatment program and their role in the program realization. We also explained the possible causes of stuttering, and tried to identify and reduce fluency distractors, and engage the child in as many situations as possible which improved speech fluency.After the application of this program the child has improved fluency during the conversation in clinical and nonclinical conditions (environment. This fluency consists of spontaneous and controlled fluency. Furthermore, fear of speaking and avoidance of speech situations are significantly reduced. On the basis of the applied therapy on the child at intermediate stuttering level it can be concluded that it is possible to integrate successfully both approaches: stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy.

  8. Photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate Moricandia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Urte; Bräutigam, Andrea; Gowik, Udo; Melzer, Michael; Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Kurz, Samantha; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Weber, Andreas Pm

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of C 4 photosynthesis is not distributed evenly in the plant kingdom. Particularly interesting is the situation in the Brassicaceae, because the family contains no C 4 species, but several C 3 -C 4 intermediates, mainly in the genus Moricandia Investigation of leaf anatomy, gas exchange parameters, the metabolome, and the transcriptome of two C 3 -C 4 intermediate Moricandia species, M. arvensis and M. suffruticosa, and their close C 3 relative M. moricandioides enabled us to unravel the specific C 3 -C 4 characteristics in these Moricandia lines. Reduced CO 2 compensation points in these lines were accompanied by anatomical adjustments, such as centripetal concentration of organelles in the bundle sheath, and metabolic adjustments, such as the balancing of C and N metabolism between mesophyll and bundle sheath cells by multiple pathways. Evolution from C 3 to C 3 -C 4 intermediacy was probably facilitated first by loss of one copy of the glycine decarboxylase P-protein, followed by dominant activity of a bundle sheath-specific element in its promoter. In contrast to recent models, installation of the C 3 -C 4 pathway was not accompanied by enhanced activity of the C 4 cycle. Our results indicate that metabolic limitations connected to N metabolism or anatomical limitations connected to vein density could have constrained evolution of C 4 in Moricandia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Efficient multi-atlas registration using an intermediate template image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Blake E.; Carass, Aaron; Blitz, Ari M.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2017-03-01

    Multi-atlas label fusion is an accurate but time-consuming method of labeling the human brain. Using an intermediate image as a registration target can allow researchers to reduce time constraints by storing the deformations required of the atlas images. In this paper, we investigate the effect of registration through an intermediate template image on multi-atlas label fusion and propose a novel registration technique to counteract the negative effects of through-template registration. We show that overall computation time can be decreased dramatically with minimal impact on final label accuracy and time can be exchanged for improved results in a predictable manner. We see almost complete recovery of Dice similarity over a simple through-template registration using the corrected method and still maintain a 3-4 times speed increase. Further, we evaluate the effectiveness of this method on brains of patients with normal-pressure hydrocephalus, where abnormal brain shape presents labeling difficulties, specifically the ventricular labels. Our correction method creates substantially better ventricular labeling than traditional methods and maintains the speed increase seen in healthy subjects.

  10. Improving routing efficiency through intermediate target based geographic routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongming Fei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The greedy strategy of geographical routing may cause the local minimum problem when there is a hole in the routing area. It depends on other strategies such as perimeter routing to find a detour path, which can be long and result in inefficiency of the routing protocol. In this paper, we propose a new approach called Intermediate Target based Geographic Routing (ITGR to solve the long detour path problem. The basic idea is to use previous experience to determine the destination areas that are shaded by the holes. The novelty of the approach is that a single forwarding path can be used to determine a shaded area that may cover many destination nodes. We design an efficient method for the source to find out whether a destination node belongs to a shaded area. The source then selects an intermediate node as the tentative target and greedily forwards packets to it, which in turn forwards the packet to the final destination by greedy routing. ITGR can combine multiple shaded areas to improve the efficiency of representation and routing. We perform simulations and demonstrate that ITGR significantly reduces the routing path length, compared with existing geographic routing protocols.

  11. Catalytic Ozonation of Phenolic Wastewater: Identification and Toxicity of Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy in catalytic ozonation removal method for degradation and detoxification of phenol from industrial wastewater was investigated. Magnetic carbon nanocomposite, as a novel catalyst, was synthesized and then used in the catalytic ozonation process (COP and the effects of operational conditions such as initial pH, reaction time, and initial concentration of phenol on the degradation efficiency and the toxicity assay have been investigated. The results showed that the highest catalytic potential was achieved at optimal neutral pH and the removal efficiency of phenol and COD is 98.5% and 69.8%, respectively. First-order modeling demonstrated that the reactions were dependent on the initial concentration of phenol, with kinetic constants varying from 0.038 min−1  ([phenol]o = 1500 mg/L to 1.273 min−1 ([phenol]o = 50 mg/L. Bioassay analysis showed that phenol was highly toxic to Daphnia magna (LC50 96 h=5.6 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity units (TU of row wastewater (36.01 and the treated effluent showed that TU value, after slightly increasing in the first steps of ozonation for construction of more toxic intermediates, severely reduced at the end of reaction (2.23. Thus, COP was able to effectively remove the toxicity of intermediates which were formed during the chemical oxidation of phenolic wastewaters.

  12. One-stage correction of intermediate imperforate anus in males ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This prospective study was designed to assess the safety, cost effectiveness, and advantages of performing posterior sagittal anorectoplasty without colostomy on males with intermediate imperforate anus. Method: Five consecutive males with intermediate imperforate anus were entered into the study.

  13. Intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: an electrophysiological reappraisal and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berciano, José; García, Antonio; Gallardo, Elena; Peeters, Kristien; Pelayo-Negro, Ana L; Álvarez-Paradelo, Silvia; Gazulla, José; Martínez-Tames, Miriam; Infante, Jon; Jordanova, Albena

    2017-08-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most frequent form of inherited neuropathy with great variety of phenotypes, inheritance patterns, and causative genes. According to median motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), CMT is divided into demyelinating (CMT1) with MNCV below 38 m/s, axonal (CMT2) with MNCV above 38 m/s, and intermediate CMT with MNCV between 25 and 45 m/s. In each category, transmission may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X-linked. The nosology of intermediate CMT is controversial because of concerns about electrophysiological delimitation. A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted on PubMed, using the following MeSH: (1) intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth; (2) X-linked intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth; and (3) X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth and electrophysiology. We retrieved 225 articles reporting X-linked CMT or intermediate CMT with electrophysiological information. After eligibility, 156 papers were used for this review. In assessing median MNCV, compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were taken into account. In cases with attenuated CMAP and wherever possible, proximal median MNCV was used for accurate definition of conduction slowing in the intermediate range. In the vast majority of males with X-linked CMT associated with GJB1 mutation (CMTX1), median MNCV was intermediate. CMT associated with DRP2 mutation is another well-documented X-linked intermediate disorder. Autosomal dominant intermediate CMT (DI-CMT) encompasses 11 different types; six of them with assigned phenotype MIM number and the remaining five being unnumbered. Based on available electrophysiological information, we wonder if DI-CMTA should be reclassified within CMT2. Autosomal recessive intermediate CMT (RI-CMT) covers four numbered MIM phenotypes though, in accordance with reported electrophysiology, two of them (RI-CMTB and RI-CMTD) should probably be reclassified within AR-CMT2. We conclude that intermediate CMT is a complex

  14. Alk3 controls nephron number and androgen production via lineage-specific effects in intermediate mesoderm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovanni, Valeria; Alday, Adrian; Chi, Lijun; Mishina, Yuji; Rosenblum, Norman D

    2011-07-01

    The mammalian kidney and male reproductive system are both derived from the intermediate mesoderm. The spatial and temporal expression of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and BMP4 and their cognate receptor, activin like kinase 3 (ALK3), suggests a functional role for BMP-ALK3 signaling during formation of intermediate mesoderm-derivative organs. Here, we define cell autonomous functions for Alk3 in the kidney and male gonad in mice with CRE-mediated Alk3 inactivation targeted to intermediate mesoderm progenitors (Alk3(IMP null)). Alk3-deficient mice exhibit simple renal hypoplasia characterized by decreases in both kidney size and nephron number but normal tissue architecture. These defects are preceded by a decreased contribution of Alk3-deleted cells to the metanephric blastema and reduced expression of Osr1 and SIX2, which mark nephron progenitor cells. Mutant mice are also characterized by defects in intermediate mesoderm-derived genital tissues with fewer mesonephric tubules and testicular Leydig cells, epithelial vacuolization in the postnatal corpus epididymis, and decreased serum testosterone levels and reduced fertility. Analysis of ALK3-dependent signaling effectors revealed lineage-specific reduction of phospho-p38 MAPK in metanephric mesenchyme and phospho-SMAD1/5/8 in the testis. Together, these results demonstrate a requirement for Alk3 in distinct progenitor cell populations derived from the intermediate mesoderm.

  15. Intermediate Energy Activation File (IEAF-99)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, Yu.; Konobeev, A.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Stankovskij, A.; Fischer, U.; Moellendorff, U. von

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear data library IEAF-99, elaborated to study processes of interactions of intermediate energy neutrons with materials in accelerator driven systems, is described. The library is intended for activation and transmutation studies for materials irradiated by neutrons. IEAF-99 contains evaluated neutron induced reaction cross sections at the energies 0-150 MeV for 665 stable and unstable nuclei from C to Po. Approximately 50,000 excitation functions are included in the library. The IEAF-99 data are written in the ENDF-6 format combining MF = 3,6 MT = 5 data recording. (author)

  16. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  17. MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, A. W.; Chait, I. L.; Saari, D. P.; Marksberry, C. L.

    1981-09-01

    The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater; (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

  18. Intermediate Bandgap Solar Cells From Nanostructured Silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Marcie [Bandgap Engineering, Lincoln, MA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    This project aimed to demonstrate increased electronic coupling in silicon nanostructures relative to bulk silicon for the purpose of making high efficiency intermediate bandgap solar cells using silicon. To this end, we formed nanowires with controlled crystallographic orientation, small diameter, <111> sidewall faceting, and passivated surfaces to modify the electronic band structure in silicon by breaking down the symmetry of the crystal lattice. We grew and tested these silicon nanowires with <110>-growth axes, which is an orientation that should produce the coupling enhancement.

  19. Development of molecular monitoring methods for the evaluation of the activity of sulfate- and metal reducing bacteria (SMRBS) as an indication of the in situ immobilisation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geets, J; Vangronsveld, J; Borremans, B; Diels, L; van der Lelie, D

    2001-01-01

    Sulfate- and metal reducing bacteria (SMRBs) are known for their capacity to reduce and precipitate heavy metals and metalloids (HMM) as metalsulfides (Luptáková A et al, 1998), which have the characteristic of forming stable precipitates due to their very low solubility product. Therefore, we examined the potential of using the activity of SMRBs to create a bioreactive zone or barrier for the in situ precepitation of heavy metals as a remediation strategy for heavy metal contaminated groundwater. In order to obtain insight in the ongoing biological processes for using this information to direct or optimize the in situ HMM- precipitation process, a monitoring strategy for sulfate- reduction activity of SMRBs must be designed using molecular methods. Here, we report the results of batch and column experiments which demonstrate the feasibility to stimulate the endogenous SRB- population, resulting in the in situ precipitation of HMM as sulfide complexes. Moreover, the sustainability of the in situ HMM precipitation wa s shown. For the development of molecular monitoring methods, the community structures of different bacterial consortia, obtained from bioreactors, was analysed by shotgun cloning of total community DNA followed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA- gene. The SRB- specific 16S rRNA- primerset SRB385R- 907F was used but this specificity to specifically amplify the 16S rRNA- gene of SRBs was low. Also, the dsr (dissimilatory sulfite reductase)- gene specific DSR1F- DSR4R primerset showed sometimes after amplification of the dsr- genes as part of the community structure analysis satellite bands on agarose gel. Present work is concentrating on the isolation and identification of SRB- strains in the different bacterial cultures. Shotgun cloning of the 16S rRNA- and dsr- gene of the strains and total community DNA will give the information that is necessary for the optimization of existing SRB- specific primers and design of new primers. These primers will be used

  20. A Simple Treatment of the Liquidity Trap for Intermediate Macroeconomics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Sebastien; Roy, Udayan

    2014-01-01

    Several leading undergraduate intermediate macroeconomics textbooks now include a simple reduced-form New Keynesian model of short-run dynamics (alongside the IS-LM model). Unfortunately, there is no accompanying description of how the zero lower bound on nominal interest rates affects the model. In this article, the authors show how the…

  1. 40 CFR 721.983 - Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic... Substances § 721.983 Sulfonyl azide intermediate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as sulfonyl azide intermediate...

  2. Surface Intermediate Zone of Submerged Turbulent Buoyant Jet in Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, H. B.; Larsen, Torben

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the intermediate zone between the jet and plume stages of a submerged buoyant discharge from sea outfall in current. The stability criteria, plume width and height after the intermediate zone and the dilution within the intermediate region have been studied theoretically...

  3. Intermediate product selection and blending in the food processing industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur A.; Akkerman, Renzo; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a capacitated intermediate product selection and blending problem typical for two-stage production systems in the food processing industry. The problem involves the selection of a set of intermediates and end-product recipes characterising how those selected intermediates...

  4. 42 CFR 54.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54.12... intermediate organizations. If a nongovernmental organization (referred to here as an “intermediate organization”), acting under a contract or other agreement with the Federal Government or a State or local...

  5. 40 CFR 86.246-94 - Intermediate temperature testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intermediate temperature testing. 86... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.246-94 Intermediate temperature testing. (a) This section is applicable to tests which are conducted at an intermediate...

  6. Type Ia supernovae as speed sensors at intermediate redshifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengjie; Chen Xuelei

    2008-01-01

    Large scale peculiar velocity (LSPV) is a crucial probe of dark matter, dark energy, and gravity at cosmological scales. However, its application is severely limited by measurement obstacles. We show that fluctuations in type Ia supernovae fluxes induced by LSPV offer a promising approach to measure LSPV at intermediate redshifts. In the 3D Fourier space, gravitational lensing, the dominant systematical error, is well suppressed, localized, and can be further corrected effectively. Advances in supernova observations can further significantly reduce shot noise induced by supernova intrinsic fluctuations, which is the dominant statistical error. Robust mapping on the motion of the dark universe through type Ia supernovae is thus feasible to z∼0.5.

  7. Simplification of Process Integration Studies in Intermediate Size Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Henrik; Petersen, P. M.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    separately or in series ahead of or simultaneously with the conventional process integration procedures (for example, the pinch point method) are described and are applied to an industrial case study. It might be feared that the use of preselections and groupings would limit the "freedom of movement...... are that the required engineering effort is too great and therefore too expensive, and that the resulting systems designs often become inordinately complex and therefore not attractive in operation. The present study describes steps that aim at reducing the magnitude of the theoretical work and engineering effort...... associated with a given process integration study in an intermediate size industry. This is based on the observation that the systems that eventually result from a process integration project and that are economically and operationally most interesting are also quite simple. Four steps that may be used...

  8. Intermediate heat exchanger project for Super Phenix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumailhac, J.; Desir, D.

    1975-01-01

    The Super Phenix (1200 MWe) intermediate heat exchangers are derived directly from those of Phenix (250 MWe). The intermediate exchangers are housed in the reactor vessel annulus: as this annulus must be of the smallest volume possible, these IHX are required to work at a high specific rating. The exchange surface is calculated for nominal conditions. A range is then defined, consistent with the above requirements and throughout which the ratio between bundle thickness and bundle length remains acceptable. Experimental technics and calculations were used to determine the number of tube constraint systems required to keep the vibration amplitude within permissible limits. From a knowledge of this number, the pressure drop produced by the primary flow can be calculated. The bundle geometry is determined together with the design of the corresponding tube plates and the way in which these plates should be joined to the body of the IHX. The experience (technical and financial) acquired in the construction of Phenix is then used to optimize the design of the Super Phenix project. An approximate definition of the structure of the IHX is obtained by assuming a simplified load distribution in the calculations. More sophisticated calculations (e.g. finite element method) are then used to determine the behaviour of the different points of the IHX, under nominal and transient conditions

  9. Interactive molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Daniel V.

    2015-03-01

    Physics students now have access to interactive molecular dynamics simulations that can model and animate the motions of hundreds of particles, such as noble gas atoms, that attract each other weakly at short distances but repel strongly when pressed together. Using these simulations, students can develop an understanding of forces and motions at the molecular scale, nonideal fluids, phases of matter, thermal equilibrium, nonequilibrium states, the Boltzmann distribution, the arrow of time, and much more. This article summarizes the basic features and capabilities of such a simulation, presents a variety of student exercises using it at the introductory and intermediate levels, and describes some enhancements that can further extend its uses. A working simulation code, in html5 and javascript for running within any modern Web browser, is provided as an online supplement.

  10. The intermediate endpoint effect in logistic and probit regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, DP; Lockwood, CM; Brown, CH; Wang, W; Hoffman, JM

    2010-01-01

    Background An intermediate endpoint is hypothesized to be in the middle of the causal sequence relating an independent variable to a dependent variable. The intermediate variable is also called a surrogate or mediating variable and the corresponding effect is called the mediated, surrogate endpoint, or intermediate endpoint effect. Clinical studies are often designed to change an intermediate or surrogate endpoint and through this intermediate change influence the ultimate endpoint. In many intermediate endpoint clinical studies the dependent variable is binary, and logistic or probit regression is used. Purpose The purpose of this study is to describe a limitation of a widely used approach to assessing intermediate endpoint effects and to propose an alternative method, based on products of coefficients, that yields more accurate results. Methods The intermediate endpoint model for a binary outcome is described for a true binary outcome and for a dichotomization of a latent continuous outcome. Plots of true values and a simulation study are used to evaluate the different methods. Results Distorted estimates of the intermediate endpoint effect and incorrect conclusions can result from the application of widely used methods to assess the intermediate endpoint effect. The same problem occurs for the proportion of an effect explained by an intermediate endpoint, which has been suggested as a useful measure for identifying intermediate endpoints. A solution to this problem is given based on the relationship between latent variable modeling and logistic or probit regression. Limitations More complicated intermediate variable models are not addressed in the study, although the methods described in the article can be extended to these more complicated models. Conclusions Researchers are encouraged to use an intermediate endpoint method based on the product of regression coefficients. A common method based on difference in coefficient methods can lead to distorted

  11. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs

  12. Statistical and dynamical aspects of intermediate energy nuclear collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghetti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions have revealed that the probability of emitting n-fragments is reducible to the probability of emitting a single fragment through the binomial distribution. The resulting one-fragment probability shows a dependence on the thermal energy that is characteristic of statistical decay. Similarly, the charge distributions associated with n-fragment emission are reducible to the one-fragment charge distribution, and thermal scaling is observed. The reducibility equation for the n-fragment charge distribution contains a quantity with a value that starts from zero, at low transverse energies, and saturates at high transverse energies. This evolution may signal a transition from a coexistence phase to a vapour phase. In the search for a signal of liquid-gas phase transition, the appearance of intermittency is reconsidered. Percolation calculations, as well as data analysis, indicate that an intermittent-like signal appears from classes of events that do not coincide with the critical one. 232 refs.

  13. Magnetismo Molecular (Molecular Magentism)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Mario S [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brasil; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The new synthesis processes in chemistry open a new world of research, new and surprising materials never before found in nature can now be synthesized and, as a wonderful result, observed a series of physical phenomena never before imagined. Among these are many new materials the molecular magnets, the subject of this book and magnetic properties that are often reflections of the quantum behavior of these materials. Aside from the wonderful experience of exploring something new, the theoretical models that describe the behavior these magnetic materials are, in most cases, soluble analytically, which allows us to know in detail the physical mechanisms governing these materials. Still, the academic interest in parallel this subject, these materials have a number of properties that are promising to be used in technological devices, such as in computers quantum magnetic recording, magnetocaloric effect, spintronics and many other devices. This volume will journey through the world of molecular magnets, from the structural description of these materials to state of the art research.

  14. Dust Evolution in Intermediate Velocity Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Martin, P. G.; Blagrave, K.; Miville-Deschenes, M. A.

    We search for evidence of dust evolution in high Galactic latitude regions by looking at variations in the emissivities of dust associated with different velocity clouds. In order to do so, we spatially correlate infrared IRAS/IRIS dust maps with HI column density maps derived from 21-cm radio observations with the GBT. Our findings show that intermediate velocity clouds (IVCs or halo clouds) have a higher 60µm/100µm and lower 12µm/100µm color ratio when compared to dust in local low-velocity gas. This suggests that large thermal dust grains are shattered into smaller ones (VSGs) and that there is a low relative abundance of PAHs in IVCs.

  15. Slab tears and intermediate-depth seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighan, Hallie E.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Pulliam, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Active tectonic regions where plate boundaries transition from subduction to strike slip can take several forms, such as triple junctions, acute, and obtuse corners. Well-documented slab tears that are associated with high rates of intermediate-depth seismicity are considered here: Gibraltar arc, the southern and northern ends of the Lesser Antilles arc, and the northern end of Tonga trench. Seismicity at each of these locations occurs, at times, in the form of swarms or clusters, and various authors have proposed that each marks an active locus of tear propagation. The swarms and clusters start at the top of the slab below the asthenospheric wedge and extend 30–60 km vertically downward within the slab. We propose that these swarms and clusters are generated by fluid-related embrittlement of mantle rocks. Focal mechanisms of these swarms generally fit the shear motion that is thought to be associated with the tearing process.

  16. Intermediate normal metal layers in superconducting circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, M.F.; Gershenson, M.; Fleming, D.L.; Barta, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting device comprising a first superconducting layer, a junction layer on the first superconducting layer, an insulating layer on the first superconducting layer, at least one superconducting area on the junction layer surrounded by the insulator layer, superconducting connector pad means disposed over the superconducting area, and superconducting wire means electrically connected to the superconducting connector pad means. The improvement comprising a first metal layer is disposed over the insulator layer and intermediate the superconducting area. The connector pad means and a second metal layer are disposed between the connector pad means and the superconductor wire means. The first metal layer covers the superconducting area and the first and second metal layers are sufficiently thin to allow quantum mechanical tunneling between the connector pad means and the superconducting area and the connector pad means and the superconducting wire means, respectively

  17. Modernisation of the intermediate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontro, Inkeri; Heino, Olga; Hendolin, Ilkka; Galambosi, Szabolcs

    2018-03-01

    The intermediate laboratory courses at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, were reformed using desired learning outcomes as the basis for design. The reformed laboratory courses consist of weekly workshops and small-group laboratory sessions. Many of the laboratory exercises are open-ended and have several possible ways of execution. They were designed around affordable devices, to allow for the purchase of multiple sets of laboratory equipment. This allowed students to work on the same problems simultaneously. Thus, it was possible to set learning goals which build on each other. Workshop sessions supported the course by letting the students solve problems related to conceptual and technical aspects of each laboratory exercise. The laboratory exercises progressed biweekly to allow for iterative problem solving. Students reached the learning goals well and the reform improved student experiences. Neither positive or negative changes in expert-like attitudes towards experimental physics (measured by E-CLASS questionnaire) were observed.

  18. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety

  19. Environmental issues of an intermediate city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2005-01-01

    Our urban centers present a unique dimension of environmental problems. They are at one and the same time, enormous consumers of natural resources and produces of waste and pollution. In this respect intermediate cities and small towns appear to be more vulnerable to natural catastrophes and ecological accidents caused by human factors. While in large cities there exist pressure groups which attain government attention for the solution of their problems and have well equipped municipalities. However, a vast majority of the population lives in rural areas and depends upon medium sized cities and towns for access to services. These cities and towns form the pivot of economic, social, cultural and political life for a large part of the population. Therefore, it deserves more attention than bigger ones. This paper explores local people perception about urban environmental problems exist in the city. Attempts are also made to shape and guide municipality efforts to overcome such problems with available resources. (author)

  20. q-Gamow states for intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plastino, A. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Rocca, M.C., E-mail: mariocarlosrocca@gmail.com [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ferri, G.L. [Fac. de C. Exactas, National University La Pampa, Peru y Uruguay, Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Zamora, D.J. [La Plata National University and Argentina' s National Research Council, (IFLP-CCT-CONICET)-C. C. 727, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2016-11-15

    In a recent paper Plastino and Rocca (2016) [18] we have demonstrated the possible existence of Tsallis' q-Gamow states. Now, accelerators' experimental evidence for Tsallis' distributions has been ascertained only at very high energies. Here, instead, we develop a different set of q-Gamow states for which the associated q-Breit–Wigner distribution could easily be found at intermediate energies, for which accelerators are available at many locations. In this context, it should be strongly emphasized Vignat and Plastino (2009) [2] that, empirically, one never exactly and unambiguously “detects” pure Gaussians, but rather q-Gaussians. A prediction is made via Eq. (3.4).

  1. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged...... to their home before they have sufficiently recovered, but knowledge within this area is sparse. In particular the experience of older people is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experiences of being back home after a stay in an IC unit. Data were drawn from 12 interviews....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...

  2. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  3. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  4. Fission cross section measurements at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laptev, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The activity in intermediate energy particle induced fission cross-section measurements of Pu, U isotopes, minor actinides and sub-actinides in PNPI of Russia is reviewed. The neutron-induced fission cross-section measurements are under way in the wide energy range of incident neutrons from 0.5 MeV to 200 MeV at the GNEIS facility. In number of experiments at the GNEIS facility, the neutron-induced fission cross sections were obtained for many nuclei. In another group of experiments the proton-induced fission cross-section have been measured for proton energies ranging from 200 to 1000 MeV at 100 MeV intervals using the proton beam of PNPI synchrocyclotron. (author)

  5. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  6. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tek P. Adhikari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 1011.5 cm−3, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  7. Intermediate Ethanol Blends Catalyst Durability Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H; Sluder, Scott; Knoll, Keith; Orban, John; Feng, Jingyu

    2012-02-01

    In the summer of 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a test program to evaluate the potential impacts of intermediate ethanol blends (also known as mid-level blends) on legacy vehicles and other engines. The purpose of the test program was to develop information important to assessing the viability of using intermediate blends as a contributor to meeting national goals for the use of renewable fuels. Through a wide range of experimental activities, DOE is evaluating the effects of E15 and E20 - gasoline blended with 15% and 20% ethanol - on tailpipe and evaporative emissions, catalyst and engine durability, vehicle driveability, engine operability, and vehicle and engine materials. This report provides the results of the catalyst durability study, a substantial part of the overall test program. Results from additional projects will be reported separately. The principal purpose of the catalyst durability study was to investigate the effects of adding up to 20% ethanol to gasoline on the durability of catalysts and other aspects of the emissions control systems of vehicles. Section 1 provides further information about the purpose and context of the study. Section 2 describes the experimental approach for the test program, including vehicle selection, aging and emissions test cycle, fuel selection, and data handling and analysis. Section 3 summarizes the effects of the ethanol blends on emissions and fuel economy of the test vehicles. Section 4 summarizes notable unscheduled maintenance and testing issues experienced during the program. The appendixes provide additional detail about the statistical models used in the analysis, detailed statistical analyses, and detailed vehicle specifications.

  8. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  9. Melanoides tuberculata as intermediate host of Centrocestus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... 2Human Molecular Genetics Laboratory (LGMH) - Faculty of Medicine of Sfax, Tunisia. 3Parasitology-Mycology Laboratory- Faculty of Medicine of Sfax, Tunisia. .... Anales del instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional. Autonoma de Mexico, Serie Zoologia. 63: 1-11. Bayssade-Dufour C, Albaret, JL, ...

  10. Experimental demonstration of the effect of field damping layers in quantum-dot intermediate band solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro Gonzalez, Iñigo; Antolín Fernández, Elisa; Martí Vega, Antonio; Farmer, C.D.; Stanley, Colin; Luque López, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate band solar cells must demonstrate the principle of voltage preservation in order to achieve high conversion efficiencies. Tunnel escape of carriers has proved deleterious for this purpose in quantum dot intermediate band solar cells. In previous works, thick spacers between quantum dot layers were demonstrated as a means of reducing tunnel escape, but this approach is unrealistic if a large number of quantum dot layers have to be grown. In this work we report experimental proof t...

  11. Modelling interaction cross sections for intermediate and low energy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.

    2002-01-01

    When charged particles slow in tissue they undergo electron capture and loss processes than can have profound effects on subsequent interaction cross sections. Although a large amount of data exists for the interaction of bare charged particles with atoms and molecules, few experiments have been reported for these 'dressed' particles. Projectile electrons contribute to an impact-parameter-dependent screening of the projectile charge that precludes straightforward scaling of energy loss cross sections from those of bare charged particles. The objective of this work is to develop an analytical model for the energy-loss-dependent effects of screening on differential ionisation cross sections that can be used in track structure calculations for high LET ions. As a first step a model of differential ionisation cross sections for bare ions has been combined with a simple screening model to explore cross sections for intermediate and low energy dressed ions in collisions with atomic and molecular gas targets. The model is described briefly and preliminary results compared to measured electron energy spectra. (author)

  12. Intermediate Nucleation State of GaN Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, L. X.; Xie, M. H.; Tong, S. Y.

    2001-03-01

    Homoexpitaxial nucleation of GaN during molecular-beam epitaxy is followed by scanning tunneling microcopy (STM). We observe a metastable nucleation state, which manifests as “ghost” islands in STM images. These “ghost” islands can be irreversibly driven into normal islands by continuous STM imaging. It is further established that the “ghost” island formation is related to the presence of excess Ga atoms on the surface: Normal islands are only seen under the N-rich or stoichiometric flux condition, whereas “ghost” islands are observed under Ga-rich conditions. For intermediate excess-Ga coverages, both normal and “ghost” islands are present, however, they show distinctly different sizes, suggesting different nucleation states for the two. A growth model is proposed to account for the formation of metastable, “ghost” islands. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out and main features of the surface are reproduced. We acknowledge financial support from HK RGC under grant Nos. 7396/00P, 7142/99P, and 7121/00P.

  13. Comparative cytogenetic studies of Bufo ictericus, B. paracnemis (Amphibia, Anura and an intermediate form in sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo MFC

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and a third type, considered an intermediate subgroup between these species, were cytogenetically studied by conventional Giemsa staining, C-banding and staining of the nucleolus organizer region (NOR. The nuclear DNA content and seroproteins were also analyzed to characterize these species, and verify the possibility of hybridization between them. Karyotypes and cytogenetic markers were essentially equal on the basis of the methods used. The DNA nuclear content found was 6.25 ± 0.30 pg/DNA in Bufo ictericus; 7.57 ± 0.40 pg/DNA in Bufo paracnemis and 7.04 ± 0.29 pg/DNA in the intermediate subgroup. Eletrophoresis of total blood serum in Bufo ictericus, Bufo paracnemis and the intermediate specimens revealed a remarkable difference in the patterns of the protein bands whose molecular weight corresponded to that of albumin. While the parental species presented two different bands, the intermediate form presented 4. However, only three of these bands were seen in each specimen. The results obtained pointed to a high probability for natural hybridization between Bufo ictericus and Bufo paracnemis in the site and specimens studied.

  14. The intermediate layers and associated tidal motions observed by a digisonde in the equatorial anomaly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-C. Lee

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This investigation presents an initial attempt to analyze a full year of daily ionosonde observations relevant to the determination of plasma densities, tidal structures, and ion transports in the equatorial anomaly region of the lower ionosphere. Particular focus is on the intermediate layers, their seasonal and diurnal variations, and cause-effect relationships. The ionogram database was recorded using a digisonde portable sounder (DPS at National Central University (NCU, 24 °58' N, 121°11' E during 1996. Statistical results indicate that the intermediate layers appear primarily during the daytime of the spring/winter months. The monthly median height characteristics reveal that the layers descend from high to low altitudes and different tidal motions control the layers in different months. Generally, the semi-diurnal and quarter-diurnal tides, which cause ionization convergence, are mainly in the spring/winter and summer/autumn months, respectively. Variations in the electron densities of the layers also indicate that the density increases could result from a great number of molecular and metallic ions. Furthermore, a novel approach to ionogram presentation is introduced to investigate the intermediate layers. This approach allows the DPS to characterize the detailed daily information of the intermediate layers.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric irregularities

  15. giant is a bona fide gap gene in the intermediate germband insect, Oncopeltus fasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul Z; Patel, Nipam H

    2010-03-01

    Drosophila undergoes a form of development termed long germ segmentation, where all segments are specified nearly simultaneously so that by the blastoderm stage, the entire body plan has been determined. This mode of segmentation is evolutionarily derived. Most insects undergo short or intermediate germ segmentation, where only anterior segments are specified early, and posterior segments are sequentially specified during germband elongation. These embryological differences imply that anterior and posterior segments might rely upon different molecular mechanisms. In Drosophila, embryos mutant for giant show a gap in the anterior as well fusions of several abdominal segments. In Tribolium, a short germ beetle, giant is required for segmental identity, but not formation, in gnathal segments and also for segmentation of the entire abdomen. This raises the possibility that giant might not act as a gap gene in short and intermediate germ insects. Oncopeltus fasciatus is an intermediate germ insect that is an outgroup to the clade containing Drosophila and Tribolium. We cloned the Oncopeltus homolog of giant and determined its expression and function during segmentation. We find that Oncopeltus giant is a canonical gap gene in the maxillary and labial segments and also plays a gap-like role in the first four abdominal segments. Our results suggest that giant was a bona fide gap gene in the ancestor of these insects with this role being lost in the lineage leading towards Tribolium. This highlights the conservation of anterior patterning and evolutionary plasticity of the genetic regulation controlling posterior segmentation, even in short and intermediate germ insects.

  16. Gastric intestinal metaplasia: an intermediate precancerous lesion in the cascade of gastric carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.; Sayahan, M.Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia, an intermediate lesion in the development of intestinal-type gastric cancer, is observed in the milieu of long standing non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis. Most patients with intestinal metaplasia remain asymptomatic unless cobalamin deficiency occurs secondary to loss of glands (that produce intrinsic factor and acid). Genetic events that predispose to development of gastric intestinal metaplasia remains an enigma. Mechanisms leading to the progression of atrophy to metaplasia still needs to be comprehensively explored. Many studies in the literature describe a positive effect of typing intestinal metaplasia and concluded that intestinal metaplasia type III carries the highest risk for developing gastric cancer while others refute it. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Countries with a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer also have a high tendency of being prevalent for intestinal metaplasia. However, it remains elusive whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection tends to regress gastric intestinal metaplasia or reduce the subsequent risk of cancer development. Putting together, more prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify factors (antioxidants; anti-inflammatory drugs; food therapy) that may contribute in the regression of intestinal metaplasia, when used simultaneously with eradication therapy. Furthermore, molecular markers for evaluation of intestinal metaplasia, and the potential point-of-no-return should be further investigated. Consensus is also required to advocate a timeframe for surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia. (author)

  17. Structural intermediates and directionality of the swiveling motion of Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Alexander; Ciupka, Daniel; Winkler, Christian; Höppner, Astrid; Gohlke, Holger; Groth, Georg

    2017-03-01

    Pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) is a vital enzyme in cellular energy metabolism catalyzing the ATP- and Pi-dependent formation of phosphoenolpyruvate from pyruvate in C4 -plants, but the reverse reaction forming ATP in bacteria and protozoa. The multi-domain enzyme is considered an efficient molecular machine that performs one of the largest single domain movements in proteins. However, a comprehensive understanding of the proposed swiveling domain motion has been limited by not knowing structural intermediates or molecular dynamics of the catalytic process. Here, we present crystal structures of PPDKs from Flaveria, a model genus for studying the evolution of C4 -enzymes from phylogenetic ancestors. These structures resolve yet unknown conformational intermediates and provide the first detailed view on the large conformational transitions of the protein in the catalytic cycle. Independently performed unrestrained MD simulations and configurational free energy calculations also identified these intermediates. In all, our experimental and computational data reveal strict coupling of the CD swiveling motion to the conformational state of the NBD. Moreover, structural asymmetries and nucleotide binding states in the PPDK dimer support an alternate binding change mechanism for this intriguing bioenergetic enzyme.

  18. Intermediate Radical Termination Theory in Elucidation of RAFT Kinetics and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baqeri-Jagharq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In current work a comprehensive mechanism based on intermediate radical termination theory is assumed for RAFT polymerization of styrene over cumyl dithiobenzoate as RAFT agent. Rate constants for addition (ka and fragmentation reactions (kf are set to 6×106 and 5×104 respectively, which lead to an equilibrium constant value of K = ka/kf = 1.2 x 102. Moment equations method was used to model this mechanism and the results were compared to experimental data to verify modeling. The effects of changing RAFT agent concentration on conversion, molecular weight and polydispersity index of the final product were investigated through the modeling. According to the results, the likelihood of living polymerization increases with raising RAFT agent concentration which leads to linearity of conversion and molecular weight curves and therefore lowering the polydispersity index and narrowing the molecular weight distribution.

  19. Molecular hematology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Provan, Drew; Gribben, John

    2010-01-01

    ... The molecular basis of hemophilia, 219 Paul LF Giangrande 4 The genetics of acute myeloid leukemias, 42 Carolyn J Owen & Jude Fitzgibbon 19 The molecular basis of von Willebrand disease, 233 Luciano Baronc...

  20. Molecular semiconductors photoelectrical properties and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Rees, Ch

    1985-01-01

    During the past thirty years considerable efforts have been made to design the synthesis and the study of molecular semiconductors. Molecular semiconductors - and more generally molecular materials - involve interactions between individual subunits which can be separately synthesized. Organic and metallo-organic derivatives are the basis of most of the molecular materials. A survey of the literature on molecular semiconductors leaves one rather confused. It does seem to be very difficult to correlate the molecular structure of these semiconductors with their experimental electrical properties. For inorganic materials a simple definition delimits a fairly homogeneous family. If an inorganic material has a conductivity intermediate between that of an 12 1 1 3 1 1 insulator « 10- n- cm- ) and that of a metal (> 10 n- cm- ), then it is a semiconductor and will exhibit the characteristic properties of this family, such as junction formation, photoconductivity, and the photovoltaic effect. For molecular compounds,...

  1. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  2. Fetal intermediate lobe is stimulated by parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, F; Lanzani, A; Genazzani, A R

    1989-11-01

    The fetal pituitary gland secretes beta-endorphin in blood in response to delivery. However, other forms of endorphin have recently been observed in the fetal pituitary, such as N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, which is devoid of opiate activity, and a desacetylated form of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Both endorphins originate in the pituitary intermediate lobe. The sensitivity of this lobe to labor stress was assessed by the evaluation of beta-endorphin, N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in maternal plasma and cord blood in 11 cases of vaginal delivery and 10 cases of elective cesarean section without labor. Plasma peptide levels were determined by specific radioimmunoassays after extraction on Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation. Cord blood samples of infants delivered vaginally showed higher beta-endorphin (8.5 +/- 1.6 pmol/L, mean +/- SE) and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) levels than those delivered by elective cesarean section (3.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.2 +/- 1.1 pmol/L, for beta-endorphin and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, respectively). N-acetyl-beta-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone levels do not differ in relation to the mode of delivery. In maternal circulation beta-endorphin levels were higher in those delivered vaginally (5.2 pm 1) than in women who had cesarean sections (2.5 +/- 0.5 pmol/L), whereas no changes were found for the other peptides. In vaginal deliveries, the level of desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was higher in cord blood (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) than in maternal plasma (6.5 +/- 3 pmol/L); there were no significant differences with regard to the other peptides. Fetal and maternal levels of all the peptides were similar in cases of cesarean section. We conclude that parturition activates proopiomelanocortin peptide release from

  3. Unfolding Simulations of Holomyoglobin from Four Mammals: Identification of Intermediates and β-Sheet Formation from Partially Unfolded States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasmeh, Pouria; Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2013-01-01

    simulations of holoMb and the first comparative study of unfolding of protein orthologs from different species (sperm whale, pig, horse, and harbor seal). We also provide new interpretations of experimental mean molecular ellipticities of myoglobin intermediates, notably correcting for random coil and number...... of helices in intermediates. The simulated holoproteins at 310 K displayed structures and dynamics in agreement with crystal structures (Rg ,1.48–1.51 nm, helicity ,75%). At 400 K, heme was not lost, but some helix loss was observed in pig and horse, suggesting that these helices are less stable...

  4. Broadband Microwave Study of Reaction Intermediates and Products Through the Pyrolysis of Oxygenated Biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, Chamara; Hernandez-Castillo, Alicia O.; Fritz, Sean; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2017-06-01

    The rapidly growing list of potential plant-derived biofuels creates a challenge for the scientific community to provide a molecular-scale understanding of their combustion. Development of accurate combustion models rests on a foundation of experimental data on the kinetics and product branching ratios of their individual reaction steps. Therefore, new spectroscopic tools are necessary to selectively detect and characterize fuel components and reactive intermediates generated by pyrolysis and combustion. Substituted furans, including furanic ethers, are considered second-generation biofuel candidates. Following the work of the Ellison group, an 8-18 GHz microwave study was carried out on the unimolecular and bimolecular decomposition of the smallest furanic ether, 2-methoxy furan, and it`s pyrolysis intermediate, the 2-furanyloxy radical, formed in a high-temperature pyrolysis source coupled to a supersonic expansion. Details of the experimental setup and analysis of the spectrum of the radical will be discussed.

  5. Taxation of Financial Intermediation Activities in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Jack M. Mintz; Stephen R. Richardson

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses issues related to the taxation of financial intermediation in Hong Kong in the context of Hong Kong's position as a major regional financial centre. It first provides some background analysis as to the definition of financial intermediation and identification of the providers of financial services. This is then followed by a discussion of the principles of taxation applicable to financial intermediation, including a comparison of income taxes to consumption taxes. Some sp...

  6. Intermediate mass fragments emission in binary fragmentation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1991-01-01

    Intermediate mass fragments emission in intermediate-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions has been studied in the framework of a generalized model where the fragments are assumed to be emitted from binary fissionlike decay of the fully equilibrated compound nucleus. The present formulation, with a schematic exit channel shape configuration and simple rotating liquid-drop nuclear potential, has been found to explain most of the intermediate mass fragments emission cross sections reasonably well without incorporating any free parameters in the calculation

  7. La escritura intermedial en la escena actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Thenon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Las escrituras artísticas actuales integran, en el marco determinado por las realidades intermediales de la escena tecnológica, el concepto de diseño como manipulación perceptiva del espacio, lo que constituye uno de los instrumentos determinantes en la puesta en marcha de un cuadro compositivo de resonancias transformacionales. Podríamos en este sentido hablar de una nueva ecología artística y en especial, teatral. En la renovación del pensamiento teatral actualizado, fuertemente influenciado por la estructura discursiva cinematográfica y por los universos sensoriales de la cultura tecnológica de la imagen y del sonido, está la base de la multiplicación diegética, de la superposición, de la fragmentación de los discursos y de la praxis inter-relacional en la que radica, en gran medida, la potencia intermedial de la escena actual.

  8. On the Intermediate Line Region in AGNs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikari, Tek P.; Różańska, Agata; Hryniewicz, Krzysztof [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Czerny, Bozena [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Ferland, Gary J., E-mail: tek@camk.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2017-09-29

    In this paper we explore the intermediate line region (ILR) by using the photoionisation simulations of the gas clouds present at different radial distances from the center, corresponding to the locations from BLR out to NLR in four types of AGNs. We let for the presence of dust whenever conditions allow for dust existence. All spectral shapes are taken from the recent multi-wavelength campaigns. The cloud density decreases with distance as a power law. We found that the slope of the power law density profile does not affect the line emissivity radial profiles of major emission lines: Hβ, He II, Mg II, C III, and O III. When the density of the cloud at the sublimation radius is as high as 10{sup 11.5} cm{sup −3}, the ILR should clearly be seen in the observations independently of the shape of the illuminating radiation. Moreover, our result is valid for low ionization nuclear emission regions of active galaxies.

  9. Substrate radical intermediates in soluble methane monooxygenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aimin; Jin Yi; Zhang Jingyan; Brazeau, Brian J.; Lipscomb, John D.

    2005-01-01

    EPR spin-trapping experiments were carried out using the three-component soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO). Spin-traps 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), α-4-pyridyl-1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (POBN), and nitrosobenzene (NOB) were used to investigate the possible formation of substrate radical intermediates during catalysis. In contrast to a previous report, the NADH-coupled oxidations of various substrates did not produce any trapped radical species when DMPO or POBN was present. However, radicals were detected by these traps when only the MMO reductase component and NADH were present. DMPO and POBN were found to be weak inhibitors of the MMO reaction. In contrast, NOB is a strong inhibitor for the MMO-catalyzed nitrobenzene oxidation reaction. When NOB was used as a spin-trap in the complete MMO system with or without substrate, EPR signals from an NOB radical were detected. We propose that a molecule of NOB acts simultaneously as a substrate and a spin-trap for MMO, yielding the long-lived radical and supporting a stepwise mechanism for MMO

  10. Uranium concentration monitor manual, secondary intermediate evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Slice, R.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and measurement control procedures for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the secondary intermediate evaporator at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration in the return loop of time recirculating evaporator for purposes of process monitoring and control. A detector installed near the bottom of the return loop is used to acquire spectra of gamma rays from the evaporator solutions during operation. Pulse height analysis of each spectrum gives the information required to deduce the concentration of uranium in the evaporator solution in near-real time. The visual readout of concentration is updated at the end of every assay cycle. The readout includes an alphanumeric display of uranium concentration and an illuminated, colored LED (in an array of colored LEDs) indicating whether the measured concentration is within (or above or below) the desired range. An alphanumeric display of evaporator solution acid molarity is also available to the operator. 9 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests — Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and CP-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results from previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  12. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  13. Optimal separable bases and molecular collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, L.W.

    1997-12-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the efficient determination of Green's functions and eigenstates for quantum systems of two or more dimensions. For a given Hamiltonian, the best possible separable approximation is obtained from the set of all Hilbert space operators. It is shown that this determination itself, as well as the solution of the resultant approximation, are problems of reduced dimensionality for most systems of physical interest. Moreover, the approximate eigenstates constitute the optimal separable basis, in the sense of self-consistent field theory. These distorted waves give rise to a Born series with optimized convergence properties. Analytical results are presented for an application of the method to the two-dimensional shifted harmonic oscillator system. The primary interest however, is quantum reactive scattering in molecular systems. For numerical calculations, the use of distorted waves corresponds to numerical preconditioning. The new methodology therefore gives rise to an optimized preconditioning scheme for the efficient calculation of reactive and inelastic scattering amplitudes, especially at intermediate energies. This scheme is particularly suited to discrete variable representations (DVR's) and iterative sparse matrix methods commonly employed in such calculations. State to state and cumulative reactive scattering results obtained via the optimized preconditioner are presented for the two-dimensional collinear H + H 2 → H 2 + H system. Computational time and memory requirements for this system are drastically reduced in comparison with other methods, and results are obtained for previously prohibitive energy regimes

  14. Connecting the Elementary Reaction Pathways of Criegee Intermediates to the Chemical Erosion of Squalene Interfaces during Ozonolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Nadja; Houle, Frances A; Wilson, Kevin R

    2017-12-05

    Criegee intermediates (CI), formed in alkene ozonolysis, are central for controlling the multiphase chemistry of organic molecules in both indoor and outdoor environments. Here, we examine the heterogeneous ozonolysis of squalene, a key species in indoor air chemistry. Aerosol mass spectrometry is used to investigate how the ozone (O 3 ) concentration, relative humidity (RH), and particle size control reaction rates and mechanisms. Although the reaction rate is found to be independent of RH, the reaction products and particle size depend upon H 2 O. Under dry conditions (RH = 3%) the reaction produces high-molecular-weight secondary ozonides (SOZ), which are known skin irritants, and a modest change in particle size. Increasing the RH reduces the aerosol size by 30%, while producing mainly volatile aldehyde products, increases potential respiratory exposure. Chemical kinetics simulations link the elementary reactions steps of CI to the observed kinetics, product distributions, and changes in particle size. The simulations reveal that ozonolysis occurs near the surface and is O 3 -transport limited. The observed secondary ozonides are consistent with the formation of mainly secondary CI, in contrast to gas-phase ozonolysis mechanisms.

  15. Final Technical Report: Vibrational Spectroscopy of Transient Combustion Intermediates Trapped in Helium Nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douberly, Gary Elliott [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2017-11-16

    The objective of our experimental research program is to isolate and stabilize transient intermediates and products of prototype combustion reactions. This will be accomplished by Helium Nanodroplet Isolation, a novel technique where liquid helium droplets freeze out high energy metastable configurations of a reacting system, permitting infrared spectroscopic characterizations of products and intermediates that result from hydrocarbon radical reactions with molecular oxygen and other small molecules relevant to combustion environments. The low temperature (0.4 K) and rapid cooling associated with He droplets provides a perfectly suited medium to isolate and probe a broad range of molecular radical and carbene systems important to combustion chemistry. The sequential addition of molecular species to He droplets often leads to the stabilization of high-energy, metastable cluster configurations that represent regions of the potential energy surface far from the global minimum. Single and double resonance IR laser spectroscopy techniques, along with Stark and Zeeman capabilities, are being used to probe the structural and dynamical properties of these systems.

  16. Providing effective and preferred care closer to home: a realist review of intermediate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Mark; Hunt, Harriet; Cooper, Chris; Shepperd, Sasha; Pawson, Ray; Anderson, Rob

    2015-11-01

    Intermediate care is one of the number of service delivery models intended to integrate care and provide enhanced health and social care services closer to home, especially to reduce reliance on acute care hospital beds. In order for health and social care practitioners, service managers and commissioners to make informed decisions, it is vital to understand how to implement the admission avoidance and early supported discharge components of intermediate care within the context of local care systems. This paper reports the findings of a theory-driven (realist) review conducted in 2011-2012. A broad range of evidence contained in 193 sources was used to construct a conceptual framework for intermediate care. This framework forms the basis for exploring factors at service user, professional and organisational levels that should be considered when designing and delivering intermediate care services within a particular local context. Our synthesis found that involving service users and their carers in collaborative decision-making about the objectives of care and the place of care is central to achieving the aims of intermediate care. This pivotal involvement of the service user relies on practitioners, service managers and commissioners being aware of the impact that organisational structures at the local level can have on enabling or inhibiting collaborative decision-making and care co-ordination. Through all interactions with service users and their care networks, health and social care professionals should establish the meaning which alternative care environments have for different service users. Doing so means decisions about the best place of care will be better informed and gives service users choice. This in turn is likely to support psychological and social stability, and the attainment of functional goals. At an organisational level, integrated working can facilitate the delivery of intermediate care, but there is not a straightforward relationship between

  17. [Intermediate/high energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    We have continued to develop a theoretical framework for the quark and gluon structure of nuclei. Our approach features a successful phenomenological model, the quark cluster model (QCM), and an ambitious program in the non-perturbative solution of quantum field theories. The effort in quantum field theory provides theoretical results to test or replace assumed ingredients of the QCM. By the explicit example of a scalar field theory in 2D we have solved the long-standing problem of how to treat the dynamics of the vacuum in light-front quantization. We now propose to solve the same problem for simple Fermion field theories in 2D such as the Gross-Neveu model. We propose in subsequent years to address QCD in low dimensionality with the purpose of extracting non-perturbative predictions for quark and gluon amplitudes in few baryon systems. Simultaneously with this new effort we will continue to develop extensions and applications of the QCM. We propose to continue predicting phenomena to be observed in high energy particle-nucleus collisions that reflect the rearrangement of quarks and gluons in nuclei. We have completed our analysis of the SLAC E101 and E133 experiments on Deuterium to elucidate the degree to which a six-quark cluster contribution is admissable in the Bjorken x > 1 data. We have completed our development of a parameterized thermal liquid drop model for light nuclei. In addition we have completed a set of predictions for the formation of a ''nuclear stratosphere'' in nuclei created by intermediate energy heavy ion interactions. These results motivate a new investigation of the temperature dependence of the ion-ion potential with particular emphasis on the thermal dependence of the barrier height and radius. We have also shown that a consistent treatment of relativistic effects is important for a theoretical description of the elastic magnetic form factor of 17 O. 85 refs

  18. Intermediate Syndrome Following Organophosphate Insecticide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chang Yang

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute organophosphate insecticide poisoning can manifest 3 different phases of toxic effects, namely, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome (IMS, and delayed neuropathy. Among them, IMS has been considered as a major contributing factor of organophosphate-related morbidity and mortality because of its frequent occurrence and probable consequence of respiratory failure. Despite a high incidence, the pathophysiology that underlies IMS remains unclear. Previously proposed mechanisms of IMS include different susceptibility of various cholinergic receptors, muscle necrosis, prolonged acetylcholinesterase inhibition, inadequate oxime therapy, downregulation or desensitization of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors, failure of postsynaptic acetylcholine release, and oxidative stress-related myopathy. The clinical manifestations of IMS typically occur within 24 to 96 hours, affecting conscious patients without cholinergic signs, and involve the muscles of respiration, proximal limb muscles, neck flexors, and muscles innervated by motor cranial nerves. With appropriate therapy that commonly includes artificial respiration, complete recovery develops 5–18 days later. Patients with atypical manifestations of IMS, especially a relapse or a continuum of acute cholinergic crisis, however, were frequently reported in clinical studies of IMS. The treatment of IMS is mainly supportive. Nevertheless, because IMS generally concurs with severe organophosphate toxicity and persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, early aggressive decontamination, appropriate antidotal therapy, and prompt institution of ventilatory support should be helpful in ameliorating the magnitude and/or the incidence of IMS. Although IMS is well recognized as a disorder of neuromuscular junctions, its exact etiology, incidence, and risk factors are not clearly defined because existing studies are largely small-scale case series and do not employ a consistent and rigorous

  19. Intermediate frequency magnetic field and chick embryotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Izumi; Tanaka, Keiko; Negishi, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MFs) have widely been used in industrial machines and home appliances, such as induction heating cookers, although toxicity studies to evaluate the potential health risks of such fields are insufficient. In induction heating cookers, the MF source (i.e. hobs), is located near the abdominal position of a person cooking. Hence, developmental effects on the fetus may be a concern in case the person is a pregnant woman. Fertile White Leghorn eggs (60/group) were either exposed to 20 kHz, 1.1 mT(rms) or 60 kHz, 0.11 mT(rms) sinusoidal MFs for 19 days during embryogenesis. The same number of eggs served as a control group. In addition, a sham-sham experiment was conducted to validate the equality between exposure and control facilities. After exposure, embryos were examined for mortality rate and stage. Live embryos were evaluated for developmental stage and gross and skeletal anomalies. Length of upper beak and leg digits was also measured. Examinations were conducted in a blinded fashion to ensure quality assurance; experiments were triplicated for each frequency to confirm the outcome reproducibility. Mortality rate and stage, incidence of malformed embryos, and developmental variables in live embryos were found to be similar between the MF-exposed and corresponding control group. Incidence of gross anomalies such as mandibular edema and skeletal anomalies such as coccyx defects were low across the experiments, and no significant group differences were noted. In conclusion, exposure to 20 kHz or 60 kHz MF did not produce any significant teratogenic developmental effects in chick embryos. © 2013 The Authors. Congenital Anomalies © 2013 Japanese Teratology Society.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulation of gas-phase ozone reactions with sabinene and benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, H F; Mohan, B; Cui, X; Chua, K J; Islam, M R

    2017-06-01

    Gas-phase reactions of ozone (O 3 ) with volatile organic compounds were investigated both by experiment and molecular simulations. From our experiments, it was found ozone readily reacts with VOC pure components and reduces it effectively. By introducing ozone intermittently, the reaction between VOC and ozone is markedly enhanced. In order to understand the relationship between intermediate reactions and end products, ozone reaction with benzene and alicyclic monoterpene sabinene were simulated via a novel hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) algorithm that forced repeated bimolecular collisions. Molecular orbital (MO) rearrangements (manifested as bond dissociation or formation), resulting from the collisions, were computed by semi-empirical unrestricted Hartree-Fock methods (e.g., RM1). A minimum of 975 collisions between ozone and targeted organic species were performed to generate a distribution of reaction products. Results indicated that benzene and sabinene reacted with ozone to produce a range of stable products and intermediates, including carbocations, ring-scission products, as well as peroxy (HO 2 and HO 3 ) and hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Among the stable sabinene products observed included formaldehyde and sabina-ketone, which have been experimentally demonstrated in gas-phase ozonation reactions. Among the benzene ozonation products detected composed of oxygen mono-substituted aromatic C 6 H 5 O, which may undergo further transformation or rearrangement to phenol, benzene oxide or 2,4-cyclohexadienone; a phenomenon which has been experimentally observed in vapor-phase photocatalytic ozonation reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. (67/68)Ga-labeling agent that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-methionine by lysosomal proteolysis of parental low molecular weight polypeptides to reduce renal radioactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Tomoya; Rokugawa, Takemi; Kinoshita, Mai; Nemoto, Souki; Fransisco Lazaro, Guerra Gomez; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Arano, Yasushi

    2014-11-19

    The renal localization of gallium-67 or gallium-68 ((67/68)Ga)-labeled low molecular weight (LMW) probes such as peptides and antibody fragments constitutes a problem in targeted imaging. Wu et al. previously showed that (67)Ga-labeled S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (SCN-Bz-NOTA)-conjugated methionine ((67)Ga-NOTA-Met) was rapidly excreted from the kidney in urine following lysosomal proteolysis of the parental (67)Ga-NOTA-Bz-SCN-disulfide-stabilized Fv fragment (Bioconjugate Chem., (1997) 8, 365-369). In the present study, a new (67/68)Ga-labeling reagent for LMW probes that liberates (67/68)Ga-NOTA-Met was designed, synthesized, and evaluated using longer-lived (67)Ga in order to reduce renal radioactivity levels. We employed a methionine-isoleucine (MI) dipeptide bond as the cleavable linkage. The amine residue of MI was coupled with SCN-Bz-NOTA for (67)Ga-labeling, while the carboxylic acid residue of MI was derivatized to maleimide for antibody conjugation in order to synthesize NOTA-MI-Mal. A Fab fragment of the anti-Her2 antibody was thiolated with iminothiolane, and NOTA-MI-Mal was conjugated with the antibody fragment by maleimide-thiol chemistry. The Fab fragment was also conjugated with SCN-Bz-NOTA (NOTA-Fab) for comparison. (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab was obtained at radiochemical yields of over 95% and was stable in murine serum for 24 h. In the biodistribution study using normal mice, (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab registered significantly lower renal radioactivity levels from 1 to 6 h postinjection than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. An analysis of urine samples obtained 6 h after the injection of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab showed that the majority of radioactivity was excreted as (67)Ga-NOTA-Met. In the biodistribution study using tumor-bearing mice, the tumor to kidney ratios of (67)Ga-NOTA-MI-Fab were 4 times higher (6 h postinjection) than those of (67)Ga-NOTA-Fab. Although further studies including the structure of radiometabolites and

  2. Unification of favourable intermediate-, unfavourable intermediate-, and very high-risk stratification criteria for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S; Zelefsky, Michael J; Woo, Kaitlin M; Spratt, Daniel E; Kollmeier, Marisa A; McBride, Sean; Pei, Xin; Sandler, Howard M; Zhang, Zhigang

    2017-11-01

    To improve on the existing risk-stratification systems for prostate cancer. This was a retrospective investigation including 2 248 patients undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) at a single institution. We separated National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk prostate cancer into 'favourable' and 'unfavourable' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC), and number of NCCN intermediate-risk factors. Similarly, NCCN high-risk prostate cancer was stratified into 'standard' and 'very high-risk' groups based on primary Gleason pattern, PPBC, number of NCCN high-risk factors, and stage T3b-T4 disease. Patients with unfavourable-intermediate-risk (UIR) prostate cancer had significantly inferior prostate-specific antigen relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS, P prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM, P prostate cancer. Similarly, patients with very high-risk (VHR) prostate cancer had significantly worse PSA-RFS (P prostate cancer. Moreover, patients with FIR and low-risk prostate cancer had similar outcomes, as did patients with UIR and SHR prostate cancer. Consequently, we propose the following risk-stratification system: Group 1, low risk and FIR; Group 2, UIR and SHR; and Group 3, VHR. These groups have markedly different outcomes, with 8-year distant metastasis rates of 3%, 9%, and 29% (P < 0.001) for Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, and 8-year PCSM of 1%, 4%, and 13% (P < 0.001) after EBRT. This modified stratification system was significantly more accurate than the three-tiered NCCN system currently in clinical use for all outcomes. Modifying the NCCN risk-stratification system to group FIR with low-risk patients and UIR with SHR patients, results in modestly improved prediction of outcomes, potentially allowing better personalisation of therapeutic recommendations. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Borderline Personality Disorder in an Intermediate Psychological Therapies Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Seamus; Danquah, Adam N.; Berry, Katherine; Hopper, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The intermediate psychological therapies service is provided for individuals referred with common mental health problems within the primary care psychological therapies service, but whose difficulties are longstanding and/or complex. The prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in intermediate psychological therapy services has not been…

  4. Unfolding intermediates of the mutant His-107-Tyr of human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    When projected along a reaction coordinate these trajectories yield four distinguishable sets of structures that map qualitatively to folding intermediates of this mutant postulated earlier from experiments.We present in this article a detailed analysis of representative structures and proton transfer activity of these intermediates.

  5. "Affective Encounters": Live Intermedial Spaces in Sites of Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses live intermediality as a tool for creative learning in the context of workshops carried out with young people in the town of Terezin, in the Czech Republic, site of the Nazi concentration camp, Theresienstadt. Live intermediality, as a mode of live media practice, involves the real time mixing and merging of sound, image,…

  6. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  7. 42 CFR 54a.12 - Treatment of intermediate organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment of intermediate organizations. 54a.12... CHARITABLE CHOICE REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS RECEIVING... ABUSE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES § 54a.12 Treatment of intermediate organizations. If a...

  8. Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-09

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0048 TR-2015-0048 SUPERLATTICE INTERMEDIATE BAND SOLAR CELL ON GALLIUM ARSENIDE Alexandre Freundlich...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-13-1-0232 Superlattice Intermediate Band Solar Cell on Gallium Arsenide 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  9. 21 CFR 312.315 - Intermediate-size patient populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intermediate-size patient populations. 312.315... for Treatment Use § 312.315 Intermediate-size patient populations. Under this section, FDA may permit an investigational drug to be used for the treatment of a patient population smaller than that...

  10. Alternating-current electrophoretic adhesion of biodegradable hydrogel utilizing intermediate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoh, Taka-Aki; Kawai, Wataru; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    The adhesion of anionic charged biodegradable hydrogels each other utilizing oppositely charged water-soluble polymers as a binder has been achieved by applying alternating-current (AC) electric fields. The two gelatin based dextran sulfate gels (DS gels) were molecularly sutured together by AC electrophoretic adhesion when cationic charged quaternary ammonium chitosan (TMC) was applied between and held in contact with the two DS gels. The adhesive strength of the gels increased with increasing periodicity when a square wave was applied. Hydrogel constructs composed of DS microgels were prepared simply by AC electrophoretic adhesion utilizing intermediate TMC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Nonlinear Loading-Rate-Dependent Force Response of Individual Vimentin Intermediate Filaments to Applied Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Johanna; Witt, Hannes; Candelli, Andrea; Peterman, Erwin J. G.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Janshoff, Andreas; Köster, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical properties of eukaryotic cells are to a great extent determined by the cytoskeleton, a composite network of different filamentous proteins. Among these, intermediate filaments (IFs) are exceptional in their molecular architecture and mechanical properties. Here we directly record stress-strain curves of individual vimentin IFs using optical traps and atomic force microscopy. We find a strong loading rate dependence of the mechanical response, supporting the hypothesis that IFs could serve to protect eukaryotic cells from fast, large deformations. Our experimental results show different unfolding regimes, which we can quantitatively reproduce by an elastically coupled system of multiple two-state elements.

  12. Finding and recognition of the snail intermediate hosts by 3 species of echinostome cercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, W; Körner, M; Hutterer, E; Wegner, M; Haberl, B

    1995-02-01

    Finding and recognition of snail second intermediate hosts was studied in cercariae of 3 echinostome species. The cercariae of the 3 species accumulated in snail-conditioned water (SCW) with 2 types of orientation mechanisms and responded to different small molecular weight ( snails and to disperse. Attachments occurred specifically to snail hosts in the 3 species and were stimulated by macromolecular mucus compounds, probably mainly by viscoelastic properties of the mucus. The results of this study show, that host-finding mechanisms and the stimulating host cues of snail invading echinostome cercariae differ considerably from those of schistosome miracidia.

  13. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a timeless and rather complete theoretical and experimental treatment of electric and magnetic resonance molecular-beam experiments for studying the radio frequency spectra of atoms and molecules. The theory of interactions of the nucleus with atomic and molecular fields is extensively presented. Measurements of atomic and nuclear magnetic moments, electric multipole moments, and atomic fine and hyperfine structure are detailed. Useful but somewhat outdated chapters on gas kinetics, molecular beam design, and experimental techniques are also included

  14. Molecular pharmacognosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, LuQi; Xiao, PeiGen; Guo, LanPing; Gao, WenYuan

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the background and significance of molecular pharmacognosy, including the molecular identification of medicinal raw materials, phylogenetic evolution of medicinal plants and animals, evaluation and preservation of germplasm resources for medicinal plants and animals, etiology of endangerment and protection of endangered medicinal plants and animals, biosynthesis and bioregulation of active components in medicinal plants, and characteristics and the molecular bases of top-geoherbs.

  15. Laser ionization of molecular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.; Feigerle, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization coupled with mass spectrometry was used to investigate molecular cluster distributions. Three examples will be discussed in this presentation. First, in studies of neat nitric oxide clusters, (NO) m , an interesting odd-even intensity alternation was observed and will be discussed in terms of electron-pairing considerations. In a separate study, the binary clusters comprising nitric oxide and methane preferentially form a stoichiometric cluster made up of repeating units of (NO) 2 CH 4 . These presumably represent a particularly strongly bound open-quotes van der Waalsclose quotes subunit. Finally, in similar studies of neat carbon disulfide clusters, (CS 2 ) m , additional photon absorption after the two-photon ionization step stimulates a series of intracluster ion-molecular reactions leading to formation of S m + and (CS) m + polymers, as well as intermediate species such as S m + (CS 2 ). This molecular cluster analogue of open-quotes laser snowclose quotes will be described in detail

  16. Ionization of neon by intermediate energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLawhorn, S.L.; Toburen, L.H.; Shinpaugh, J.L.; Justiniano, E.L.B.; Dingfelder, M.; Toekesi, K.; Sulik, B.; Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.; Reinhold, C.; Schultz, D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. During the past few years there has been increasing interest in ionization of atomic and molecular targets by intermediate-energy dressed and partially dressed ions. These systems are particularly challenging to describe theoretically owing to screening of the projectile nuclear charge by bound electrons, interactions of projectile electrons with target electrons, and the large number of possible exit channels. At ECU we have initiated measurements of the doubly-differential ionization cross sections, differential in ejected electron energy and emission energy, for carbon ions of different initial charge states with atomic and molecular targets. In this presentation we compare those results with calculations being conducted at several institutions. For this presentation we will focus on electron emission from neon following interactions with carbon ions with energies from 0.067 MeV/u to 0.35 MeV/u and incident charge states from C + to C 3+ . Electron energies from 10 to 1500 eV are observed at emission angles from 20 to 120 degrees. The calculations separate the process into ionization of the target by the screened incident nucleus and the ionization of the target by the screened target nucleus. By summing these components in the rest frame of the target we can compare to the measured electron spectra. Figure 1 shows the single differential cross sections for ejection of electrons in C + -Ne collisions. Note the small contribution from ionization of the projectile. As the energy increases the contribution from projectile ionization increases; likewise as the ion energy decreases that contribution decreases. The excellent agreement shown in Figure 1 provides confidence to our use of Bohr theory for this energy range for this target. Doubly-differential cross sections based on the Classical Trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) techniques are compared with measurements in Fig. 2 for electron emission at 30 degrees. Again, excellent

  17. Synthesis of racemic 2-deutero-3-fluoro-alanine and its salts, and intermediates therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The racemates of 2-deutero-3-fluoro-alanine and its salts are prepared by reductive amination of 3-fluoro-pyruvic acid, its hydrate or salts thereof, via the intermediate 2-imino-3-fluoro propionic acid salt, using alkali metal borodeuterides as reducing agents. The racemates thus obtained are valuable in the production of the corresponding 2-deutero-3-fluoro-D-alanine, and its pharmacologically acceptable salts, and derivatives thereof, which are potent antibacterial agents

  18. Nuclear structure at intermediate energies. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, B.E.; Mutchler, G.S.

    1992-01-01

    We report here oil the progress that we made for the nine months beginning October 1, 1991 for DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-87ER40309. The report covers the third year of a three year grant. Since we are submitting an accompanying Grant Renewal Proposal, we provide in this report more background information than usual for the different projects. The theme that unites the experiments undertaken by the Bonner Lab Medium Energy Group is a determination to understand in detail the many facets and manifestations of the strong interaction, that which is now referred to as nonperturbative QCD. Whether we are investigating the question of just what does carry the spin of baryons, or the extent of the validity of the SU(6) wavefunctions for the excited hyperons (as will be measured in our CEBAF experiment), or questions associated with the formation of a new state of matter predicted by QCD (the subject of AGS bar p experiment E854, AGS heavy ion experiment E810, as-well as the approved STAR experiment at RHIC), - all these projects share this common goal. FNAL E683 may well open a new field of investigation in nuclear physics: That of just how colored quarks and gluons interact with nuclear matter as they traverse nuclei of different-sizes. In most all of the experiments mentioned, above, the Bonner Lab Group is playing major leadership roles as well as doing a big fraction of the hard work that such experiments require. We use many of the facilities that are available to the intermediate energy physics community and we use our expertise to design and fabricate the detectors and instrumentation that are required to perform the measurements which we decide to do. The format we follow in the Progress Report is,to provide a concise, but fairly complete write-up on each project. The publications listed in Section In give much greater detail on many of the projects. The aim in this report is to focus on the physics goals, the results, and their significance

  19. Use of segregation techniques to reduce stored low level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento Viana, R.; Vianna Mariano, N.; Antonio do Amaral, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the use of segregation techniques in reducing the stored Low Level Waste on Intermediate Waste Repository 1, at Angra Nuclear Power Plant Site, from 1701 to 425 drums of compacted waste. (author)

  20. A novel association rule mining approach using TID intermediate itemset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqra, Iyad; Herawan, Tutut; Abdul Ghani, Norjihan; Akhunzada, Adnan; Ali, Akhtar; Bin Razali, Ramdan; Ilahi, Manzoor; Raymond Choo, Kim-Kwang

    2018-01-01

    Designing an efficient association rule mining (ARM) algorithm for multilevel knowledge-based transactional databases that is appropriate for real-world deployments is of paramount concern. However, dynamic decision making that needs to modify the threshold either to minimize or maximize the output knowledge certainly necessitates the extant state-of-the-art algorithms to rescan the entire database. Subsequently, the process incurs heavy computation cost and is not feasible for real-time applications. The paper addresses efficiently the problem of threshold dynamic updation for a given purpose. The paper contributes by presenting a novel ARM approach that creates an intermediate itemset and applies a threshold to extract categorical frequent itemsets with diverse threshold values. Thus, improving the overall efficiency as we no longer needs to scan the whole database. After the entire itemset is built, we are able to obtain real support without the need of rebuilding the itemset (e.g. Itemset list is intersected to obtain the actual support). Moreover, the algorithm supports to extract many frequent itemsets according to a pre-determined minimum support with an independent purpose. Additionally, the experimental results of our proposed approach demonstrate the capability to be deployed in any mining system in a fully parallel mode; consequently, increasing the efficiency of the real-time association rules discovery process. The proposed approach outperforms the extant state-of-the-art and shows promising results that reduce computation cost, increase accuracy, and produce all possible itemsets.

  1. Pollination benefits are maximized at intermediate nutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; Lami, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2017-08-16

    Yield production in flowering crops depends on both nutrient availability and pollination, but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We measured pollination benefits to yield in sunflower, combining a gradient in insect pollination (0, 25, 50, 100%) with a continuous gradient in nitrogen (N) fertilization (from 0 to 150 kg N ha -1 ) in an experiment under realistic soil field conditions. We found that pollination benefits to yield were maximized at intermediate levels of N availability, bolstering yield by approximately 25% compared with complete pollinator exclusion. Interestingly, we found little decrease in yield when insect visits were reduced by 50%, indicating that the incremental contribution of pollination by insects to yield is greater when the baseline pollination service provision is very low. Our findings provide strong evidence for interactive, nonlinear effects of pollination and resource availability on seed production. Our results support ecological intensification as a promising strategy for sustainable management of agroecosystems. In particular, we found optimal level of pollination to potentially compensate for lower N applications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. High heat flux testing of TiC coated molybdenum with a tungsten intermediate layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitsuka, Masakazu; Fukutomi, Masao; Okada, Masatoshi

    1988-01-01

    The use of low atomic number (Z) material coatings for fusion reactor first-wall components has proved to be a valuable technique to reduce the plasma radiation losses. Molybdenum coated with titanium carbide is considered very promising since it has a good capability of receiving heat from the plasma. An interfacial reaction between the TiC film and the molybdenum substrate, however, causes a severe deterioration of the film at elevated temperatures. In order to solve this problem a TiC coated molybdenum with an intermediate tungsten layer was developed. High temperature properties of this material was evaluated by a newly devised electron beam heating apparatus. TiC coatings prepared on a vacuum-heat-treated molybdenum with a tungsten intermediate layer showed good high temperature stability and survived 2.0 s pulses of heating at a power density as high as 53 MW/m 2 . The melt area of the TiC coatings in high heat flux testings also markedly decreased when a tungsten intermediate layer was applied. The melting mechanism of the TiC coatings with and without a tungsten intermediate layer was discussed by EPMA measurements. (author)

  3. Researchers Resolve Intermediate Mass Black Hole Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    New research, funded by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Advanced Physical and Chemical Research, NASA and the University of Tokyo, solved the mystery of how a black hole, with the mass more than several hundreds times larger than that of our Sun, could be formed in the nearby starburst galaxy, M82. Recent observations of the Chandra X-ray observatory (Matsumoto et al., 2001 ApJ 547, L25) indicate the presence of an unusually bright source in the star cluster MGG11 in the starburst galaxy M82. The properties of the X-ray source are best explained by a black hole with a mass of about a thousand times the mass of the Sun, placing it intermediate between the relatively small (stellar mass) black holes in the Milky way Galaxy and the supermassive black holes found in the nuclei of galaxies. For comparison, stellar-mass black holes are only a few times more massive than the Sun, whereas the black hole in the center of the Milky-way Galaxy is more than a few million times more massive than the Sun. An international team of researchers, using the world's fastest computer, the GRAPE-6 system in Japan, were engaged in a series of simulations of star clusters that resembled MGG11. They used the GRAPE-6 to perform simulations with two independently developed computer programs (Starlab and NBODY4 developed by Sverre Aarseth in Cambridge), both of which give the same qualitative result. The simulations ware initiated by high resolution observations of the star cluster MGG11 by McCrady et al (2003, ApJ 596, 240) using the Hubble Space Telescope and Keck, and by Harashima et al (2001) using the giant Subaru telescope. M82 Chandra X-ray image of the central region of the starburst galaxy M82. The GRAPE's detailed, star-by-star simulations represent the state of the art in cluster modeling. For the first time using the GRAPE, researchers perform simulations of the evolution of young and dense star clusters with up to 600000 stars; they calculate the

  4. Molecular dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Bethke, I.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dynamics is a model for the structure and meaning of object based programming systems. In molecular dynamics the memory state of a system is modeled as a fluid consisting of a collection of molecules. Each molecule is a collection of atoms with bindings between them. A computation is

  5. Molecular Modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 5. Molecular Modeling: A Powerful Tool for Drug Design and Molecular Docking. Rama Rao Nadendla. General Article Volume 9 Issue 5 May 2004 pp 51-60. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Molecular motors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schliwa, M

    2003-01-01

    ... and entitled Primitive Motile Systems in Cell Biology, the field has moved from the phenomenological to the mechanistic and from the largely structural to the primarily molecular. We have come to appreciate that at every level of complexity the cell operates through molecular machines. Some of these machines are single molecules that car...

  7. Dynamical aspects of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, James Francis

    1997-10-01

    The production of neutrons, light charged particles (LCPs), and intermediate-mass fragments (IMFs), from the four reactions 55 MeV/A [124,136Xe] + [112,124Sn], is studied with an experimental apparatus which is highly efficient for the detection of both charged particles and neutrons. The IMFs are found more localized in the mid-velocity region (parallel velocity close to center of mass) than are the LPCs, and the detected multiplicity of IMFs depends linearly on the charge lost from the projectile. IMF multiplicity is found to be largely independent of the neutron excess of the system, aside from a slight increase with increasing neutron excess that is expected from statistical-model simulations. Remnants of the projectile, with very little velocity reduction, are found for most of the reaction cross section. Isotopic and isobaric fragment yields in the projectile-velocity region indicate that charge-to- mass ratio neutralization is generally not achieved but is approached when little remains of the projectile. For all systems, the fragments found in the mid-velocity region are substantially more neutron rich than those found in the velocity region dominated by the emission from the projectile. This observation can be qualitatively accounted for if the mid-velocity source (or sources) is either more neutron rich or smaller, with the same neutron-to-proton ratio, than the source with the velocity of the projectile. The observations of this work suggest that the intermediate mass fragments are, to a large extent, formed dynamically by a multiple neck rupture or a proximity-fission type mechanism. Though it remains unexplained, this process enhances the neutron- to-proton ratio of the emitted fragments. This scenario is reminiscent of low-energy ternary fission and one predicted by Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) calculations. However, these calculations predict too much velocity damping of the projectile remnant and do not produce a mid-velocity neutron

  8. Location of an intermediate hub for port activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Ş.; Ştefănică, C.; Roşca, E.; Dragu, V.; Ruscă, F.

    2015-11-01

    An intermediate hub might increase the accessibility level of ports but also hinterland and so it can be considered more than a facility with a transhipment role. These hubs might lead to the development of other transport services and enhance their role in gathering and covering economic centres within hinterlands and also getting the part of logistic facility for the ports, with effects on port utilization and its connectivity to global economy. A new location for a hub terminal leads to reduced transport distances within hinterland, with decreased transport costs and external effects, so with gains in people's life quality. Because the production and distribution systems are relatively fixed on short and medium term and the location decisions are strategic and on long term, the logistic chains activities location models have to consider the uncertainties regarding the possible future situations. In most models, production costs are considered equal, the location problem reducing itself to a problem that aims to minimize the total transport costs, meaning the transport problem. The main objective of the paper is to locate a hub terminal that links the producers of cereals that are going to be exported by naval transportation with the Romanian fluvial-maritime ports (Galaţi, Brăila). GIS environment can be used to integrate and analyse a great amount of data and has the ability of using functions as location - allocation models necessary both to private and public sector, being able to determine the optimal location for services like factories, warehouses, logistic platforms and other public services.

  9. Radiolysis studies on reactive intermediates. Technical progress report, November 1, 1975--November 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevan, L.

    1976-11-01

    During the past year we have focused on the development of new experimental electron magnetic resonance methods and new theoretical models to study reactive reaction intermediates and on the application of these and other methods to study radical and ionic intermediates produced by high energy radiation. We have continued development of electron spin echo spectrometry for studying molecular orientation around trapped radicals, have suggested a new electron spin-lattice relaxation mechanism applicable to glasses, have shown a correlation between electron spin-lattice relaxation times and trapped radical decay and have shown how electron-electron double resonance measurements of cross relaxation can be analyzed to give radical-radical correlation distances. A new model of electron localization in alkanes has been developed, electron solvation in alcohol-alkane mixtures has been studied theoretically and an improved model of electron solvation times has been formulated. Radical reaction intermediates have been detected and identified by spin trapping in methanol, cyanoalkyl and fluoroalcohol liquids, and by X and Q band ESR in methyltetrahydrofuran glass. In aqueous glasses the electronic structure of O - and the first solvation shell geometry of e - /sub t/ have been deduced by 17 O substitution. Electron tunneling as a function of the e - /sub t/ energy state and the photoionization mechanism of indole in solution have been investigated

  10. Intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations in molten RbCl-AgCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kawakita, Y. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shimakura, H. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Ohara, K. [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI, SPring-8), Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Fukami, T. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Takeda, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2015-07-28

    A first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is observed in the X-ray total structure factor of a molten mixture of RbCl-AgCl, while both pure melts of RbCl and AgCl do not exhibit FSDP individually. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the origin of the FSDP with the polarizable ion model (PIM). Coexistence of covalent Ag–Cl and ionic Rb–Cl bonds leads the system to evolve intermediate range ordering, which is simulated by introducing the induced polarization in different ways between Ag–Cl with fully polarizable treatment based on Vashishta-Raman potential and Rb–Cl with suppression over-polarization in the nearest neighbor contribution based on Born-Meyer potential. The partial structure factors for both the Ag–Ag and Rb–Rb correlations, S{sub AgAg}(Q) and S{sub RbRb}(Q), show a positive contribution to the FSDP, while S{sub AgRb}(Q) for the Ag–Rb correlation exhibits a negative contribution, indicating that Ag and Rb ions are distributed in an alternating manner within the intermediate-range length scale. The origin of the intermediate-range chemical ordering of cations can be ascribed to the preferred direction of the dipole moments of anions in the PIM.

  11. Intermediate-band photosensitive device with quantum dots having tunneling barrier embedded in organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.

    2008-08-19

    A plurality of quantum dots each have a shell. The quantum dots are embedded in an organic matrix. At least the quantum dots and the organic matrix are photoconductive semiconductors. The shell of each quantum dot is arranged as a tunneling barrier to require a charge carrier (an electron or a hole) at a base of the tunneling barrier in the organic matrix to perform quantum mechanical tunneling to reach the respective quantum dot. A first quantum state in each quantum dot is between a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and a highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the organic matrix. Wave functions of the first quantum state of the plurality of quantum dots may overlap to form an intermediate band.

  12. Evidence for a Commensurate-Incommensurate Phase Transition with an Intermediate Fluid Phase: N2 Adsorbed on Ni(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, M.; Kleban, P. H.; Unertl, W. N.; Rys, Franz S.

    1983-08-01

    Low-energy electron diffraction and thermodynamic measurements are reported for molecular nitrogen weakly chemisorbed on a Ni(110) surface in the temperature region between 87 and 150 K. A commensurate (2×1) phase transforms with increasing coverage into a sequence of smoothly varying incommensurate solid structures via a liquid-like intermediate phase. This is apparently the first experimental example of the commensurate-fluid-incommensurate phase sequence in uniaxial systems predicted by several recent theories.

  13. Language in use intermediate : self-study workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Doff, Adrian

    1994-01-01

    Each of the four levels comprises about 80 hours of class work, with additional time for the self-study work. The Teacher's Book contains all the pages from the Classroom Book, with interleaved teaching notes including optional activities to cater for different abilities. There is a video to accompany the Beginner, Pre-intermediate and Intermediate levels. Each video contains eight stimulating and entertaining short programmes, as well as a booklet of photocopiable activities. Free test material is available in booklet and web format for Beginner and Pre-intermediate levels. Visit www.cambridge.org/elt/liu or contact your local Cambridge University Press representative.

  14. Electron capture in low- and intermediate-energy collisions between completely stripped light ions and metastable H(2s) targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, S.A.; Falcon, C.A.; Reinhold, C.O.; Casaubon, J.I.; Piacentini, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Total cross sections for electron capture from H(2s) targets by He 2+ ions have been computed in the impact velocity range 0.05-0.5 au. Calculations were performed using a molecular close-coupling approach with inclusion of electron translation factors. A ten-state molecular basis set was considered. A comparison is made with Landau-Zener results for the same system. Intermediate projectile energy classical Monte Carlo capture cross sections are also presented for H + , He 2+ , Li 3+ and C 6+ projectiles. (author)

  15. Molecular Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Viviana; Todeschini, Roberto

    In the last decades, several scientific researches have been focused on studying how to encompass and convert - by a theoretical pathway - the information encoded in the molecular structure into one or more numbers used to establish quantitative relationships between structures and properties, biological activities, or other experimental properties. Molecular descriptors are formally mathematical representations of a molecule obtained by a well-specified algorithm applied to a defined molecular representation or a well-specified experimental procedure. They play a fundamental role in chemistry, pharmaceutical sciences, environmental protection policy, toxicology, ecotoxicology, health research, and quality control. Evidence of the interest of the scientific community in the molecular descriptors is provided by the huge number of descriptors proposed up today: more than 5000 descriptors derived from different theories and approaches are defined in the literature and most of them can be calculated by means of dedicated software applications. Molecular descriptors are of outstanding importance in the research fields of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) and quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs), where they are the independent chemical information used to predict the properties of interest. Along with the definition of appropriate molecular descriptors, the molecular structure representation and the mathematical tools for deriving and assessing models are other fundamental components of the QSAR/QSPR approach. The remarkable progress during the last few years in chemometrics and chemoinformatics has led to new strategies for finding mathematical meaningful relationships between the molecular structure and biological activities, physico-chemical, toxicological, and environmental properties of chemicals. Different approaches for deriving molecular descriptors here reviewed and some of the most relevant descriptors are presented in

  16. Drosophila Dynein intermediate chain gene, Dic61B, is required for spermatogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Fatima

    Full Text Available This study reports the identification and characterization of a novel gene, Dic61B, required for male fertility in Drosophila. Complementation mapping of a novel male sterile mutation, ms21, isolated in our lab revealed it to be allelic to CG7051 at 61B1 cytogenetic region, since two piggyBac insertion alleles, CG7051(c05439 and CG7051(f07138 failed to complement. CG7051 putatively encodes a Dynein intermediate chain. All three mutants, ms21, CG7051(c05439 and CG7051(f07138, exhibited absolute recessive male sterility with abnormally coiled sperm axonemes causing faulty sperm individualization as revealed by Phalloidin staining in Don Juan-GFP background. Sequencing of PCR amplicons uncovered two point mutations in ms21 allele and confirmed the piggyBac insertions in CG7051(c05439 and CG7051(f07138 alleles to be in 5'UTR and 4(th exon of CG7051 respectively, excision of which reverted the male sterility. In situ hybridization to polytene chromosomes demonstrated CG7051 to be a single copy gene. RT-PCR of testis RNA revealed defective splicing of the CG7051 transcripts in mutants. Interestingly, expression of cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain, α, β, γ tubulins and α-spectrin was normal in mutants while ultra structural studies revealed defects in the assembly of sperm axonemes. Bioinformatics further highlighted the homology of CG7051 to axonemal dynein intermediate chain of various organisms, including DNAI1 of humans, mutations in which lead to male sterility due to immotile sperms. Based on these observations we conclude that CG7051 encodes a novel axonemal dynein intermediate chain essential for male fertility in Drosophila and rename it as Dic61B. This is the first axonemal Dic gene of Drosophila to be characterized at molecular level and shown to be required for spermatogenesis.

  17. Fate of oxygenated intermediates in solar irradiated diluted bitumen mixed with saltwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zeyu; Zhang, Gong; Hollebone, Bruce P; Brown, Carl E; Yang, Chun; Lambert, Patrick; Wang, Zhendi; Landriault, Mike; Shah, Keval

    2017-12-01

    Two types of diluted bitumen (dilbit) and a light crude oil spiked onto the surface of saltwater were irradiated with natural solar light in Ottawa to assess the impact of sunlight to the fate of oxygenated intermediates. Oxygenated components, including carbonyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acidic polar fractions (naphthenic acid fraction compounds, NAFCs), were identified after periods of solar exposure under both winter and summer conditions. Carbonyl PAHs and NAFCs were formed in both seasons; however, light crude and summer irradiation produced higher abundance of them than dilbits and winter exposure. The formed NAFCs were abundant with the congeners containing a heteroatom of oxygen only (O o species), accompanied by the minor amounts of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing acids. The produced O o species were predominant with the congeners with light molecular weight, high degree of saturation and heavy oxygen numbers. For both carbonyl PAHs and NAFCs, their abundance continually increased throughout the period of winter exposure. In the summer, some carbonyl PAHs and all O o species increased during the early exposure period; then they decreased with continued exposure for most oils, illustrating their transitional nature. Oxygenated intermediates thus appear to have been created through the photo-oxidation of non-to medium-polar petroleum hydrocarbons or the intermediates of aldehydes or ketones (O 1 ). Oil properties, the duration of exposure, exposure season and the chemical structure of these intermediates are critical factors controlling their fate through photo-oxidation. The observed chemical changes highlight the effects of sunlight on the potential behavior, fate and impact of spilled oil, with the creation of new resin group compounds and the reduction of aromatics and saturates. These results also imply that the ecological effects of spilled oil, after ageing in sunlight, depend on the specific oil involved and the environmental

  18. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  19. Probabilistic assessment of steel moment frames incremental collapse (ordinary, intermediate and special under earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Mehdizadeh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Building collapse is a level of the structure performance in which the amount of financial and life loss is maximized, so this event could be the worst incident in the construction. Regarding to the possibility of destructive earthquakes in different parts of the world, detailed assessment of the structure's collapse has been one of the major challenges of the structural engineering. In this regard, offering models based on laboratory studies, considering the effective parameters and appropriate earthquakes could be a step towards achieving this goal. In this research, a five-story steel structure with a system of ordinary, intermediate and special moment frame (low, intermediate and high ductility has been designed based on the local regulations. In this study, the effect of resistance and stiffness deterioration of the structural elements based on the results of the laboratory models have been considered and the ductility role in the collapse capacity of steel moment frames has been investigated as probabilistic matter. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis has been done under 50 pairs of earthquake records proposing FEMA P695 instruction and fragility curves of various performance levels are developed. Results showed higher collapse capacity of special moment steel frame than the intermediate and ordinary moment frames. In the 50 percent probability level, the collapse capacity of special moment frame increased 34 % compared to the intermediate moment frame and 66 % to the ordinary moment frame. Also, the results showed that for different collapse spectral accelerations, the use of special moment frame instead of intermediate and ordinary moment frames reduces the collapse probability to 30 and 50 % respectively.

  20. Chloride effect on the early photolysis intermediates of a gecko cone-type visual pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Kliger, D S

    1995-05-02

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on the cone-type visual pigment P521 in digitonin extracts of Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina containing physiological chloride ion levels and also on samples which had been chloride depleted or which contained high levels (4 M) of chloride. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of either 532- or 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic decay data for gecko pigment P521 to be best fit by two exponential processes under all chloride conditions. The initial photoproduct detected had a broad spectrum characteristic of an equilibrated mixture of a Batho P521 intermediate with its blue-shifted intermediate (BSI P521) decay product. The first exponential process was assigned to the decay of this mixture to the Lumi P521 intermediate. The second exponential process was identified as the decay of Lumi P521 to Meta I P521. The initial photoproduct's spectrum exhibited a strong dependence on chloride concentration, indicating that chloride affects the composition of the equilibrated mixture of Batho P521 and BSI P521. These results suggest that the affinity for chloride is reduced approximately 5-fold in the Batho P521 intermediate and approximately 50-fold in the BSI P521 intermediate. Chloride concentration also affects the apparent decay rate of the equilibrated mixture. When the apparent decay rate is corrected for the composition of the equilibrated mixture, a relatively invariant microscopic rate constant is obtained for BSI decay (k = 1/55 ns-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Propagation of an Aβ Dodecamer Strain Involves a Three-Step Mechanism and a Key Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dexter N; Rana, Pratip; Campbell, Ryan P; Ghosh, Preetam; Rangachari, Vijayaraghavan

    2018-02-06

    Proteinaceous deposits composed of fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) are the primary neuropathological hallmarks in Alzheimer disease (AD) brains. The nucleation-dependent aggregation of Aβ is a stochastic process with frequently observed heterogeneity in aggregate size, structure, and conformation that manifests in fibril polymorphism. Emerging evidence indicates that polymorphic variations in Aβ fibrils contribute to phenotypic diversity and the rate of disease progression in AD. We recently demonstrated that a dodecamer strain derived from synthetic Aβ42 propagates to morphologically distinct fibrils and selectively induces cerebral amyloid angiopathy phenotype in transgenic mice. This report supports the growing contention that stable oligomer strains can influence phenotypic outcomes by faithful propagation of their structures. Although we determined the mechanism of dodecamer propagation on a mesoscopic scale, the molecular details of the microscopic reactions remained unknown. Here, we have dissected and evaluated individually the kinetics of macroscopic phases in aggregation to gain insight into the process of strain propagation. The bulk rates determined experimentally in each phase were used to build an ensemble kinetic simulation model, which confirmed our observation that dodecamer seeds initially grow by monomer addition toward the formation of a key intermediate. This is followed by conversion of the intermediate to fibrils by oligomer elongation and association mechanisms. Overall, this report reveals important insights into the molecular details of oligomer strain propagation involved in AD pathology. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Complete Structure of an Epithelial Keratin Dimer: Implications for Intermediate Filament Assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Bray

    Full Text Available Keratins are cytoskeletal proteins that hierarchically arrange into filaments, starting with the dimer sub-unit. They are integral to the structural support of cells, in skin, hair and nails. In skin, keratin is thought to play a critical role in conferring the barrier properties and elasticity of skin. In general, the keratin dimer is broadly described by a tri-domain structure: a head, a central rod and a tail. As yet, no atomistic-scale picture of the entire dimer structure exists; this information is pivotal for establishing molecular-level connections between structure and function in intermediate filament proteins. The roles of the head and tail domains in facilitating keratin filament assembly and function remain as open questions. To address these, we report results of molecular dynamics simulations of the entire epithelial human K1/K10 keratin dimer. Our findings comprise: (1 the first three-dimensional structural models of the complete dimer unit, comprising of the head, rod and tail domains; (2 new insights into the chirality of the rod-domain twist gained from analysis of the full domain structure; (3 evidence for tri-subdomain partitioning in the head and tail domains; and, (4 identification of the residue characteristics that mediate non-covalent contact between the chains in the dimer. Our findings are immediately applicable to other epithelial keratins, such as K8/K18 and K5/K14, and to intermediate filament proteins in general.

  3. Metal–metal multiple bonded intermediates in catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type structure are exceptional catalysts for a broad range of organic transformations. I review here the recent efforts towards the observation and characterization of intermediates in these reactions that have previously eluded detection.

  4. Supersymmetry and intermediate symmetry breaking in SO(10) superunification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asatryan, H.M.; Ioannisyan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    A scheme of simultaneous breakdown of intermediate symmetry SO(10) → SU(3)sub(c) x U(1) x SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) and supersymmetry by means of a single scale parameter is suggested. This intermediate symmetry, which is preferable physically, owing to the broken supersymmetry has a minimum lying lower than SU(4) x SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R). The intermediate symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs superfields. Owing to the quantum corrections the potential minimum turns out to correspond to breakdown of the intermediate symmetry up to the standard group SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2)sub(L) x U(1)sub(y). The value of the Weinberg angle is less than that in the supersymmetric SU(5) model and agrees with the experiment

  5. Noncovalent Intermediate of Thymidylate Synthase: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodar, Svetlana A; Kohen, Amnon

    2016-07-06

    Thymidylate synthase is an attractive target for antibiotic and anticancer drugs due to its essential role in the de novo biosynthesis of the DNA nucleotide thymine. The enzymatic reaction is initiated by a nucleophilic activation of the substrate via formation of a covalent bond to an active site cysteine. The traditionally accepted mechanism is then followed by a series of covalently bound intermediates, where that bond is only cleaved upon product release. Recent computational and experimental studies suggest that the covalent bond between the protein and substrate is actually quite labile. Importantly, these findings predict the existence of a noncovalently bound bisubstrate intermediate, not previously anticipated, which could be the target of a novel class of drugs inhibiting DNA biosynthesis. Here we report the synthesis of the proposed intermediate and findings supporting its chemical and kinetic competence. These findings substantiate the predicted nontraditional mechanism and the potential of this intermediate as a new drug lead.

  6. Improved enzymatic production of phenolated glycerides through alkyl phenolate intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Feddern, Vivian; Glasius, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This work reported a novel approach for synthesis of dihydrocaffoylated glycerides, consisting of 2 steps: enzymatic synthesis of octyl dihydrocaffeate (as a synthetic intermediate) from octanol and dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), and enzymatic interesterification of triglycerides with octyl dihydroc...

  7. Mechanism of intermediate mass fragment emission at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhara, A.K.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Krishan, K.

    1993-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of intermediate mass fragment emission in fusion-fission processes has been carried out. The average kinetic energies and relative yield ratio of different fragments are calculated and compared with experimental values

  8. Functionalization of the corrole ring: the role of isocorrole intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortora, Luca; Nardis, Sara; Fronczek, Frank R; Smith, Kevin M; Paolesse, Roberto

    2011-04-14

    Bromination of 3-nitro-5,10,15-triarylcorrole selectively provides two regioisomers, depending on the reaction pathway. An isocorrole species is the key intermediate to drive the reaction towards the 2-Br-17-nitro regioisomer.

  9. The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karloff, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)

  10. 39 CFR 3001.38 - Omission of intermediate decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermediate decision upon a finding on the record that due and timely execution of its functions imperatively... opportunity for filing briefs or presenting oral argument to the Commission is desired or waived. Failure of...

  11. Nonshorthand Impediments to Trascription at the Intermediate and Advanced Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Mary Jane

    1975-01-01

    The basic purpose of the study was to determine the types and frequency of nonshorthand errors on typewritten transcripts of shorthand dictation of 40 intermediate and 34 advanced stenography students at the University of Missouri in 1970-71. (Author)

  12. Wave directional spreading at shallow and intermediate depth

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C.; Anand, N.M.

    Based on wave measurements carried out at shallow and intermediate water depths variation of directional spread parameter 's' is studied. A comparison of the mean wave directional and principal wave direction shows that the two are the same...

  13. Semiannually alternating exchange of intermediate waters east of the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Intermediate water exchange in the northwest tropical Pacific is explored with the temperature, salinity, and current measurements of a mooring system deployed at 8°N, 127.05°E during 2010-2014. For the first time, prominent semiannual variability (SAV; with the maximum power at 187 days) of subthermocline meridional flow along the Mindanao coast is revealed. A significant correlation between meridional flow and salinity is found at intermediate depths. This provides direct evidence for the alternating transports of South Pacific and North Pacific Intermediate Waters by northward and southward undercurrents, respectively. Further analysis with an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model demonstrates that the SAV is generated locally near the western boundary, manifesting as large-scale subthermocline recirculation and leading to alternating northward and southward flows near the Mindanao coast, which plays an efficient role in the intermediate water exchange of the northwest tropical Pacific. Mechanisms underlying the observed SAV are discussed

  14. Assessing the need for intermediate diaphragms in prestressed concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Reinforced concrete intermediate diaphragms (IDs) are currently being used in prestressed concrete (PC) girder bridges in Louisiana. Some of the advantages of providing IDs are disputed in the bridge community; the use of IDs increases the cost and t...

  15. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron...... transistors (Part 2). The synthetic protocols rely on stepwise Sonogashira coupling reactions. Conductivity studies on various OPE-based molecular wires reveal that mere OPE compounds have a higher electrical resistance compared to the cruciform based wires (up to 9 times higher). The most spectacular result...

  16. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  17. Intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    A review is presented of recent (1979-81) developments in the field of intermediate-energy proton and light-ion scattering from nuclei. New theoretical and calculational techniques of particular interest to experimentalists are discussed. Emphasis is placed on topics in nuclear structure physics - giant resonances, pion-condensation precursor phenomena, and polarization transfer (spin-flip) experiments - where intermediate energy proton and light-ion scattering has made new and unique contributions

  18. Intermediate-energy neutron beams from reactors for NCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses ways that a beam of intermediate-energy neutrons might be extracted from a nuclear reactor. The challenge is to suppress the fast-neutron component and the gamma-ray component of the flux while leaving enough of the intermediate-energy neutrons in the beam to be able to perform neutron capture therapy in less than an hour exposure time. Moderators, filters, and reflectors are considered. 11 references, 7 figures, 3 tables

  19. Thermogravimetric control of intermediate compounds in uranium metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1959-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of some intermediate compounds in the metallurgy of the uranium as uranium peroxide, ammonium uranate, uranium and ammonium penta-fluoride, uranium tetrafluoride and uranous oxide has been study by means of the Chevenard's thermo balance. Some data on pyrolysis of synthetic mixtures of intermediate compounds which may occasionally appear during the industrial process, are given. Thermogravimetric methods of control are suggested, usable in interesting products in the uranium metallurgy. (Author) 20 refs

  20. Ultrafast molecular dynamics illuminated with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, John D.; Miron, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrafast molecular dynamics probed with synchrotron radiation. • Core-excitation as probe of ultrafast dynamics through core-hole lifetime. • Review of experimental and theoretical methods in ultrafast dynamics using core-level excitation. - Abstract: Synchrotron radiation is a powerful tool for studying molecular dynamics in small molecules in spite of the absence of natural matching between the X-ray pulse duration and the time scale of nuclear motion. Promoting core level electrons to unoccupied molecular orbitals simultaneously initiates two ultrafast processes, nuclear dynamics on the potential energy surfaces of the highly excited neutral intermediate state of the molecule on the one hand and an ultrafast electronic decay of the intermediate excited state to a cationic final state, characterized by a core hole lifetime. The similar time scales of these processes enable core excited pump-probe-type experiments to be performed with long duration X-ray pulses from a synchrotron source. Recent results obtained at the PLIEADES beamline concerning ultrafast dissociation of core excited states and molecular potential energy curve mapping facilitated by changes in the geometry of the short-lived intermediate core excited state are reviewed. High brightness X-ray beams combined with state-of-the art electron and ion-electron coincidence spectrometers and highly sophisticated theoretical methods are required to conduct these experiments and to achieve a full understanding of the experimental results.

  1. Development of Intermediate Cooling Technology and Its Control for Two-Stand Plate Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a plate rolling production line, thermomechanically controlled processing is critical for plate quality. In this paper, a set of intermediate cooling equipment of a two-stand plate mill with super density nozzles, medium pressure, and small flow is developed. Based on a simplified dynamic model, a cooling control scheme with combined feedforward, feedback, and adaptive algorithms is put forward. The new controlled rolling process and the highly efficient control system improve the controlled rolling efficiency by an average of 17.66%. The proposed intermediate cooling system can also effectively inhibit the growth of austenite grain, improve the impact toughness and yield strength of Q345B steel plate, reduce the formation of secondary oxide scale on the plate surface and the chromatic aberration of the plate surface, and greatly improve the surface quality of the steel plate.

  2. Measuring the Impact of Financial Intermediation: Linking Contract Theory to Econometric Policy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Robert M; Urzua, Sergio S

    2009-09-01

    We study the impact that financial intermediation can have on productivity through the alleviation of credit constraints in occupation choice and/or an improved allocation of risk, using both static and dynamic structural models as well as reduced form OLS and IV regressions. Our goal in this paper is to bring these two strands of the literature together. Even though, under certain assumptions, IV regressions can recover accurately the true model-generated local average treatment effect, these are quantitatively different, in order of magnitude and even sign, from other policy impact parameters (e.g., ATE and TT). We also show that laying out clearly alternative models can guide the search for instruments. On the other hand adding more margins of decision, i.e., occupation choice and intermediation jointly, or adding more periods with promised utilities as key state variables, as in optimal multi-period contracts, can cause the misinterpretation of IV as the causal effect of interest.

  3. The impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis on the degradation kinetics of carbohydrates in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shana, A; Ouki, S; Asaadi, M; Pearce, P; Mancini, G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results, from laboratory-scale investigations, on the impact of intermediate thermal hydrolysis process (ITHP) on already digested sludge in general, and sludge carbohydrate content degradation process efficiency in particular. The ITHP performance data were compared with the performance of established conventional thermal hydrolysis process (THP). The degradation of sludge carbohydrates as a result of thermal pre-treatment and anaerobic digestion followed the first order kinetics. The overall sludge organic matter degradation kinetics rate constants indicated that the use of THP as an intermediate digestion step can enhance the already digested sludge organic matter degradation; further reducing the sludge mass and increasing its conversion to biogas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J

    2013-01-01

    using two cut-off levels, dividing renal function into normal or reduced, with an intermediate "gray zone" of indeterminable results.Methods Glomerular filtration rate was measured by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (13.7–147.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 119 children (age range 2.3–14.9 years).Reduced renal...... function was defined as a GFR ofzone...

  5. Production and Characterization of Polymeric Lignin Degradation Intermediates from Two Different Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmeyer, J R; Crawford, D L

    1985-02-01

    Previous investigations have identified a quantitatively major intermediate of lignin degradation by Streptomyces viridosporus. The intermediate, a modified lignin polymer, acid-precipitable polymeric lignin (APPL), is released as a water-soluble catabolite and has been recovered in amounts equivalent to 30% of the lignin originally present in a corn stover lignocellulose substrate after degradation by this actinomycete. In the present work, APPLs were collected at various time intervals from cultures of two highly ligninolytic Streptomyces sp. strains, S. viridosporus T7A and S. badius 252, growing on corn stover lignocellulose. APPL production was measured over time, and the chemistry of APPLs produced by each organism after different time intervals was compared. Chemical characterizations included assays for lignin, carbohydrate, and ash contents, molecular weight distributions by gel permeation chromatography, and chemical degradation analyses by permanganate oxidation, acidolysis, and alkaline ester hydrolysis. Differences between the organisms were observed in the cultural conditions required for APPL production and in the time courses of APPL accumulation. S. viridosporus produced APPL in solid-state fermentation over a 6- to 8-week incubation period, whereas S. badius produced as much or more APPL, but only in liquid culture and over a 7- to 8-day incubation period. The chemistry of the APPLs produced also differed. S. viridosporus APPL was more lignin-like than that of S. badius and was slowly modified further over time, although no change in molecular weight distribution over time was observed. In contrast, S. badius APPL was less lignin-like and increased substantially in average molecular weight over time. Results indicated that differing mechanisms of lignin metabolism may exist in these two Streptomyces sp. strains. S. viridosporus APPL probably originates from the heart of the lignin and is released largely as the result of beta-ether cleavage and

  6. Triplex intermediates in folding of human telomeric quadruplexes probed by microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stadlbauer, Petr; Trantírek, L.; Cheatham III, T. E.; Koča, J.; Šponer, Jiří

    105C, OCT2014 (2014), s. 22-35 ISSN 0300-9084 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1822; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-28310S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : G- DNA folding * Quadruplex * Triplex Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.963, year: 2014

  7. Spectroscopical analysis and molecular mechanics calculation of 8,9-Seco-lanostane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehder, Vera G.; Fujiwara, Fred Y.; Marsaioli, Anita J.

    1991-01-01

    8.9-Seco-lanostane derivatives have been synthesized visualizing their application as intermediates in chiral building block syntheses and we are here presenting their spectroscopy analyses and MM2 molecular mechanic calculations. (author)

  8. Complementarities of two existing intermediate conservation approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Volis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for integration of ex situ and in situ approaches in conservation of plants has long been recognized. However, ex situ collections have numerous limitations that reduce their utility for conservation, necessitating the introduction of new, more appropriate, flexible and less costly approaches. Two new approaches that can be called “intermediate” between in situ and ex situ, and bridging them in some way have been proposed over the last two decades. In these approaches material collected in natural populations is planted and maintained outside the original location, but with a different purpose. While the purpose of the inter situs approach is reintroduction, the concern of the quasi in situ approach is long-term storage of species genetic diversity. I view these two approaches as complementary and necessary components of conservation-oriented restoration. In restoration of a degraded habitat using threatened species (i.e. inter situs, quasi in situ collections can serve an important role in providing long-term preservation of these species’ genetic diversity and production of seeds needed for restoration.

  9. Light fragment formation at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boal, D.H.

    1982-03-01

    This paper concerns itself mainly with the production of energetic protons and light fragments at wide angles. The experiments point to nucleon emission in proton-induced reactions as involving a mechanism in which the observed nucleon is directly knocked out of the nucleus. A similar feature seems to be required to explain (p,F) and (e,F) reactions: an energetic nucleon is produced in one scattering of the projectile, and the struck nucleon subsequently loses some of its energy as it traverses the remaining part of the nucleus, gathering up other nucleons as it goes, to become a fragment. This is what one might call the extreme snowball model, and a more accurate description probably involves multiple scattering of the projectile in addition to the extreme snowball contribution. This will be particularly true for fragments in the mass 6 to 9 region. This scenario also appears to apply to deuteron-induced fragment production. However, for alpha-induced reactions it would appear that the nucleons forming a fragment can originate from collisions involving different incident nucleons in the projectile. For heavy ions, this effect is even stronger, and the snowball contribution is greatly reduced compared to that of the traditional coalescence model

  10. Intermediate care: for better or worse? Process evaluation of an intermediate care model between a university hospital and a residential home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmaat Tonnie ACM

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermediate care was developed in order to bridge acute, primary and social care, primarily for elderly persons with complex care needs. Such bridging initiatives are intended to reduce hospital stays and improve continuity of care. Although many models assume positive effects, it is often ambiguous what the benefits are and whether they can be transferred to other settings. This is due to the heterogeneity of intermediate care models and the variety of collaborating partners that set up such models. Quantitative evaluation captures only a limited series of generic structure, process and outcome parameters. More detailed information is needed to assess the dynamics of intermediate care delivery, and to find ways to improve the quality of care. Against this background, the functioning of a low intensity early discharge model of intermediate care set up in a residential home for patients released from an Amsterdam university hospital has been evaluated. The aim of this study was to produce knowledge for management to improve quality of care, and to provide more generalisable insights into the accumulated impact of such a model. Methods A process evaluation was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methods. Registration forms and patient questionnaires were used to quantify the patient population in the model. Statistical analysis encompassed T-tests and chi-squared test to assess significance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 staff members representing all disciplines working with the model. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using both 'open' and 'framework' approaches. Results Despite high expectations, there were significant problems. A heterogeneous patient population, a relatively unqualified staff and cultural differences between both collaborating partners impeded implementation and had an impact on the functioning of the model. Conclusion We concluded that setting up a low intensity

  11. Molecular fountain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-09-01

    A molecular fountain directs slowly moving molecules against gravity to further slow them to translational energies that they can be trapped and studied. If the molecules are initially slow enough they will return some time later to the position from which they were launched. Because this round trip time can be on the order of a second a single molecule can be observed for times sufficient to perform Hz level spectroscopy. The goal of this LDRD proposal was to construct a novel Molecular Fountain apparatus capable of producing dilute samples of molecules at near zero temperatures in well-defined user-selectable, quantum states. The slowly moving molecules used in this research are produced by the previously developed Kinematic Cooling technique, which uses a crossed atomic and molecular beam apparatus to generate single rotational level molecular samples moving slowly in the laboratory reference frame. The Kinematic Cooling technique produces cold molecules from a supersonic molecular beam via single collisions with a supersonic atomic beam. A single collision of an atom with a molecule occurring at the correct energy and relative velocity can cause a small fraction of the molecules to move very slowly vertically against gravity in the laboratory. These slowly moving molecules are captured by an electrostatic hexapole guiding field that both orients and focuses the molecules. The molecules are focused into the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and are ionized by laser radiation. The new molecular fountain apparatus was built utilizing a new design for molecular beam apparatus that has allowed us to miniaturize the apparatus. This new design minimizes the volumes and surface area of the machine allowing smaller pumps to maintain the necessary background pressures needed for these experiments.

  12. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  13. Reducing sedentarism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Wendy; Andersen, Lars Bo; Sigmund, Anderssen

    being a health risk will be briefly considered. Second, a review of the evidence on the health effects of sitting will be presented. This will include results from observational cohort studies on the relationships between sitting and diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, depression, obesity...... include sitting during leisure time, at work, and during commuting. Sedentary behaviors such as TV viewing, using a computer or driving a car typically demands low levels of energy expenditure. Youth and adults spend most of their waking time sitting or doing light activities, and most of them do little......, type 2 diabetes, musculoskeletal diseases, and psychological disorders. In addition, low level of energy expenditure is one of the key determinants of the current epidemic of overweight and obesity in Europe. In order to both reduce sitting time and to increase the level of physical activity...

  14. Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comparison of intermediate and cold lime clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Gillian; Monge, Adrian; Pepperman, Armand

    2002-01-30

    In the U.S., cold lime clarification remains the clarification process of choice in raw sugar manufacturing. A comparative study of cold vs intermediate lime clarification was undertaken at a factory that operated intermediate liming (approximately 30% mixed juice (MJ) of pH 5.2 +/- 0.3 was preheated to 87-93 degrees C to help maintain clean limed juice heaters, incubated at approximately 54 degrees C, and then limed) but still had the pipes to revert to cold liming (MJ incubated and limed at approximately 40 degrees C) for this study. Hourly samples were collected over a 6 h sampling period across cold and intermediate clarification processes on two consecutive days, respectively, and this was repeated three times across the 1999 grinding season. A total of 1.57% less sucrose was lost to inversion reactions across intermediate rather than cold liming. In intermediate liming, which required approximately 4.6% less lime, preheating of only 30% of the MJ markedly removed color (-29%), dextran (-10%), and starch (-24%) and caused large flocs to form that settled faster in the clarifiers. Faster settling led to an impressive 4.6% (season average) more turbidity removal across the clarifiers in intermediate rather than cold liming. Intermediate clarified juice (CJ) turbidity (season average 2028 ICU +/- 675) was approximately half of cold CJ turbidity (average 3952 ICU +/- 1450) with over 2-fold more CJ turbidity control. Subsequent turbidity values and control were significantly improved in the final evaporator syrup samples too. For both processes, juice incubation caused approximately 10% color removal, but this was offset by color formation on liming, because of the alkaline degradation of invert; however, overall, more color was removed than formed in intermediate liming. Starch was reduced in the incubator tank, for both processes, because added filtrate reduced the acidity enabling natural diastase from the cane to degrade starch. Some dextran occasionally formed

  15. Molecular modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to be tailored to decrease the harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modeling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported by the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  16. Molecular physics

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The richly illustrated book comprehensively explains the important principles of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and their spectra in two separate, distinct parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical aspects of molecular physics, such as the vibration, rotation, electronic states, potential curves, and spectra of molecules. The different methods of approximation for the calculation of electronic wave functions and their energy are also covered. The introduction of basics terms used in group theory and their meaning in molecular physics enables an elegant description of polyatomic

  17. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    that 45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection...... of fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  18. Mechanisms of deterioration of intermediate moisture food systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuza, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    A study of shelf stability in intermediate moisture foods was made. Major efforts were made to control lipid oxidation and nonenzymatic browning. In order to determine means of preventing these reactions, model systems were developed having the same water activity content relationship of intermediate moisture foods. Models were based on a cellulose-lipid and protein-lipid system with glycerol added as the humectant. Experiments with both systems indicate that lipid oxidation is promoted significantly in the intermediate moisture range. The effect appeared to be related to increased mobility of either reactants or catalysts, since when the amount of water in the system reached a level where capillary condensation occurred and thus free water was present, the rates of oxidation increased. With added glycerol, which is water soluble and thus increases the amount of mobile phase, the increase in oxidation rate occurs at a lower relative humidity. The rates of oxidation were maximized at 61% RH and decreased again at 75% RH probably due to dilution. No significant non-enzymatic browning occurred in the protein-lipid systems. Prevention of oxidation by the use of metal chelating agents was enhanced in the cellulose system, whereas, with protein present, the lipid soluble chain terminating antioxidants (such as BHA) worked equally as well. Preliminary studies of foods adjusted to the intermediate moisture range bear out the results of oxidation in model systems. It can be concluded that for most fat containing intermediate moisture foods, rancidity will be the reaction most limiting stability.

  19. Structural and kinetic studies on native intermediates and an intermediate analogue in benzoylformate decarboxylase reveal a least motion mechanism with an unprecedented short-lived predecarboxylation intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, Marc; Berheide, Marco; Meyer, Danilo; Golbik, Ralph; Bartunik, Hans; Liese, Andreas; Tittmann, Kai

    2009-04-21

    The thiamin diphosphate- (ThDP-) dependent enzyme benzoylformate decarboxylase (BFDC) catalyzes the nonoxidative decarboxylation of benzoylformic acid to benzaldehyde and carbon dioxide. To date, no structural information for a cofactor-bound reaction intermediate in BFDC is available. For kinetic analysis, a chromophoric substrate analogue was employed that produces various absorbing intermediates during turnover but is a poor substrate with a 10(4)-fold compromised kcat. Here, we have analyzed the steady-state distribution of native intermediates by a combined chemical quench/1H NMR spectroscopic approach and estimated the net rate constants of elementary catalytic steps. At substrate saturation, carbonyl addition of the substrate to the cofactor (k' approximately 500 s-1 at 30 degrees C) and elimination of benzaldehyde (k' approximately 2.400 s-1) were found to be partially rate-determining for catalysis, whereas decarboxylation of the transient 2-mandelyl-ThDP intermediate is 1 order of magnitude faster with k' approximately 16.000 s-1, the largest rate constant of decarboxylation in any thiamin enzyme characterized so far. The X-ray structure of a predecarboxylation intermediate analogue was determined to 1.6 A after cocrystallization of BFDC from Pseudomonas putida with benzoylphosphonic acid methyl ester. In contrast to the free acid, for which irreversible phosphorylation of active center Ser26 was reported, the methyl ester forms a covalent adduct with ThDP with a similar configuration at C2alpha as observed for other thiamin enzymes. The C2-C2alpha bond of the intermediate analogue is out of plane by 7degrees, indicating strain. The phosphonate part of the adduct forms hydrogen bonds with Ser26 and His281, and the 1-OH group is held in place by interactions with His70 and the 4'-amino group of ThDP. The phenyl ring accommodates in a hydrophobic pocket formed by Phe464, Phe397, Leu109, and Leu403. A comparison with the previously determined structure of

  20. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.; Shepherd, J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  1. Homogeneous photochemical water oxidation by biuret-modified Fe-TAML: evidence of Fe(V)(O) intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Chakadola; Debgupta, Joyashish; Díaz Díaz, David; Singh, Kundan K; Sen Gupta, Sayam; Dhar, Basab B

    2014-09-03

    Water splitting, leading to hydrogen and oxygen in a process that mimics natural photosynthesis, is extremely important for devising a sustainable solar energy conversion system. Development of earth-abundant, transition metal-based catalysts that mimic the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II, which is involved in oxidation of water to O2 during natural photosynthesis, represents a major challenge. Further, understanding the exact mechanism, including elucidation of the role of active metal-oxo intermediates during water oxidation (WO), is critical to the development of more efficient catalysts. Herein, we report Fe(III) complexes of biuret-modified tetra-amidomacrocyclic ligands (Fe-TAML; 1a and 1b) that catalyze fast, homogeneous, photochemical WO to give O2, with moderate efficiency (maximum TON = 220, TOF = 0.76 s(-1)). Previous studies on photochemical WO using iron complexes resulted in demetalation of the iron complexes with concomitant formation of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) that were responsible for WO. Herein, we show for the first time that a high valent Fe(V)(O) intermediate species is photochemically generated as the active intermediate for the oxidation of water to O2. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first example of a molecular iron complex catalyzing photochemical WO through a Fe(V)(O) intermediate.

  2. IL-1β production by intermediate monocytes is associated with immunopathology in cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Daniela; Campos, Taís M; Saldanha, Maíra; Oliveira, Sergio C; Nascimento, Mauricio; Zamboni, Dario S; Machado, Paulo R; Arruda, Sérgio; Scott, Phillip; Carvalho, Edgar M; Carvalho, Lucas P

    2017-12-12

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis infection is an inflammatory disease which skin ulcer development is associated with mononuclear cells infiltrate and high levels of inflammatory cytokines production. Recently, NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation and IL-1β production has been associated with increased pathology in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. We hypothesized that cutaneous leishmaniasis patients have increased expression of NLRP3 leading to high levels of IL-1β production. In this work we show high production of IL-1β in biopsies and Leishmania antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients infected with L. braziliensis, and reduced IL-1β levels after cure. IL-1β production positively correlated with the area of necrosis in lesions and duration of the lesions. The main source of IL-1β was intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+). Furthermore, our murine experiments show that IL-1β production in response to L. braziliensis was dependent on NLRP3, Caspase-1 and caspase-recruiting domain (ASC). Additionally, we observed an increased expression of NLRP3 gene in macrophages and NLRP3 protein in intermediate monocytes from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. These results identify an important role for human intermediate monocytes for the production of IL-1β which contributes to the immunopathology observed in cutaneous leishmanisis patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Intermediate tree cover can maximize groundwater recharge in the seasonally dry tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilstedt, U.; Bargués Tobella, A.; Bazié, H. R.; Bayala, J.; Verbeeten, E.; Nyberg, G.; Sanou, J.; Benegas, L.; Murdiyarso, D.; Laudon, H.; Sheil, D.; Malmer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity contributes to the poverty of around one-third of the world’s people. Despite many benefits, tree planting in dry regions is often discouraged by concerns that trees reduce water availability. Yet relevant studies from the tropics are scarce, and the impacts of intermediate tree cover remain unexplored. We developed and tested an optimum tree cover theory in which groundwater recharge is maximized at an intermediate tree density. Below this optimal tree density the benefits from any additional trees on water percolation exceed their extra water use, leading to increased groundwater recharge, while above the optimum the opposite occurs. Our results, based on groundwater budgets calibrated with measurements of drainage and transpiration in a cultivated woodland in West Africa, demonstrate that groundwater recharge was maximised at intermediate tree densities. In contrast to the prevailing view, we therefore find that moderate tree cover can increase groundwater recharge, and that tree planting and various tree management options can improve groundwater resources. We evaluate the necessary conditions for these results to hold and suggest that they are likely to be common in the seasonally dry tropics, offering potential for widespread tree establishment and increased benefits for hundreds of millions of people. PMID:26908158

  4. Optimality principles reveal a complex interplay of intermediate toxicity and kinetic efficiency in the regulation of prokaryotic metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ewald

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A precise and rapid adjustment of fluxes through metabolic pathways is crucial for organisms to prevail in changing environmental conditions. Based on this reasoning, many guiding principles that govern the evolution of metabolic networks and their regulation have been uncovered. To this end, methods from dynamic optimization are ideally suited since they allow to uncover optimality principles behind the regulation of metabolic networks. We used dynamic optimization to investigate the influence of toxic intermediates in connection with the efficiency of enzymes on the regulation of a linear metabolic pathway. Our results predict that transcriptional regulation favors the control of highly efficient enzymes with less toxic upstream intermediates to reduce accumulation of toxic downstream intermediates. We show that the derived optimality principles hold by the analysis of the interplay between intermediate toxicity and pathway regulation in the metabolic pathways of over 5000 sequenced prokaryotes. Moreover, using the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in Escherichia coli as an example, we show how knowledge about the relation of regulation, kinetic efficiency and intermediate toxicity can be used to identify drug targets, which control endogenous toxic metabolites and prevent microbial growth. Beyond prokaryotes, we discuss the potential of our findings for the development of antifungal drugs.

  5. Binding of molecular oxygen by an artificial heme analogue: investigation on the formation of an Fe–tetracarbene superoxo complex

    KAUST Repository

    Anneser, Markus R.

    2016-02-26

    The dioxygen reactivity of a cyclic iron(II) tetra–NHC-complex (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbene) is investigated. Divergent oxidation behavior is observed depending on the choice of the solvent (acetonitrile or acetone). In the first case, exposure to molecular oxygen leads to an oxygen free Fe(III) whereas in the latter case an oxide bridged Fe(III) dimer is formed. In acetone, an Fe(III)-superoxide can be trapped, isolated and characterized as intermediate at low temperatures. An Fe(III)–O–Fe(III) dimer is formed from the Fe(III) superoxide in acetone upon warming and the molecular structure has been revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the oxidation of the Fe(II) complex in both solvents is a reversible process. For the regeneration of the initial Fe(II) complex both organic and inorganic reducing agents can be used.

  6. Molecular ferromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    This past year has been one of substantial advancement in both the physics and chemistry of molecular and polymeric ferromagnets. The specific heat studies of (DMeFc)(TCNE) have revealed a cusp at the three-dimensional ferromagnetic transition temperature with a crossover to primarily 1-D behavior at higher temperatures. This paper discusses these studies

  7. Molecular Origami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Origami. Modular Construction of Platonic Solids as Models for Reversible ... by Nature using a modular protocol wherein each of the mod- ules holds latent ... The Design Principle. All the designs can be made from thick square sheets of the size. 20 cm x 20 cm (readily available A4 size photocopy paper, from.

  8. Molecular gastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, Hervé

    2005-01-01

    For centuries, cooks have been applying recipes without looking for the mechanisms of the culinary transformations. A scientific discipline that explores these changes from raw ingredients to eating the final dish, is developing into its own field, termed molecular gastronomy. Here, one of the founders of the discipline discusses its aims and importance.

  9. Molecular farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merck, K.B.; Vereijken, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Molecular Farming is a new and emerging technology that promises relatively cheap and flexible production of large quantities of pharmaceuticals in genetically modified plants. Many stakeholders are involved in the production of pharmaceuticals in plants, which complicates the discussion on the

  10. Molecular Star

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This report describes the making of a self-assembled coordination architecture that is named as a 'molecular star' since it resembles the shape of a star; more specifically a five-pointed star. This work has been already published in Chemistry- A European Jour- nal in the September 2017 issue and was featured in the cover.

  11. Intermediate scattering function of an anisotropic Brownian circle swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzthaler, Christina; Franosch, Thomas

    2017-09-27

    Microswimmers exhibit noisy circular motion due to asymmetric propulsion mechanisms, their chiral body shape, or by hydrodynamic couplings in the vicinity of surfaces. Here, we employ the Brownian circle swimmer model and characterize theoretically the dynamics in terms of the directly measurable intermediate scattering function. We derive the associated Fokker-Planck equation for the conditional probabilities and provide an exact solution in terms of generalizations of the Mathieu functions. Different spatiotemporal regimes are identified reflecting the bare translational diffusion at large wavenumbers, the persistent circular motion at intermediate wavenumbers and an enhanced effective diffusion at small wavenumbers. In particular, the circular motion of the particle manifests itself in characteristic oscillations at a plateau of the intermediate scattering function for wavenumbers probing the radius.

  12. Intermediate-energy neutron beam for NCT at MURR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, R.M.; Less, T.J.; Passmore, G.G.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) is one of the high-flux reactors in the USA and it can be used to produce an intense beam of intermediate-energy neutrons for neutron capture therapy. Two methods are being evaluated at MURR to produce such a beam. The first uses a moderator of Al 2 O 3 replacing part of the graphite and water on one side of the core of the reactor to produce a source of predominantly intermediate-energy neutrons. The second method is a filter of 238 U between the core and the patient position to pass only intermediate-energy neutrons. The results of these evaluations are presented in this paper along with an outline of the other resources at the University of Missouri-Columbia that are available to support an NCT program. 4 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  13. Intermediate Collaborative Adaptive Management Strategies Build Stakeholder Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha C. Monroe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to implement collaborative adaptive management (CAM often suffer from challenges, such as an unwillingness of managers to share power, unresolved conflicts between stakeholders, and lack of capacity among stakeholders. Some aspects considered essential to CAM, e.g., trust and stakeholder capacity, may be more usefully viewed as goals for intermediate strategies rather than a set of initial conditions. From this perspective, intermediate steps that focus on social learning and building experience could overcome commonly cited barriers to CAM. An exploration of Springs Basin Working Groups, organized around major clusters of freshwater springs in north Florida, provides a case study of how these intermediate steps enable participants to become more reasonable and engaged. This strategy may be easily implemented by agencies beginning a CAM process.

  14. Intermediation in Open Development: A Knowledge Stewardship Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M. A. Reilly

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Open Development (OD is a subset of ICT4D that studies the potential of IT-enabled openness to support social change among poor or marginalized populations. Early OD work examined the potential of IT-enabled openness to decentralize power and enable public engagement by disintermediating knowledge production and dissemination. However, in practice, intermediaries have emerged to facilitate open data and related knowledge production activities in development processes. We identify five models of intermediation in OD work: decentralized, arterial, ecosystem, bridging, and communities of practice and examine the implications of each for stewardship of open processes. We conclude that studying OD through these five forms of intermediation is a productive way of understanding whether and how different patterns of knowledge stewardship influence development outcomes. We also offer suggestions for future research that can improve our understanding of how to sustain openness, facilitate public engagement, and ensure that intermediation contributes to open development.

  15. IVSPlat 1.0: an integrated virtual screening platform with a molecular graphical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yin Xue; Huang, Yan Xin; Li, Feng Li; Wang, Hong Yan; Fan, Cong; Bao, Yong Li; Sun, Lu Guo; Ma, Zhi Qiang; Kong, Jun; Li, Yu Xin

    2012-01-05

    The virtual screening (VS) of lead compounds using molecular docking and pharmacophore detection is now an important tool in drug discovery. VS tasks typically require a combination of several software tools and a molecular graphics system. Thus, the integration of all the requisite tools in a single operating environment could reduce the complexity of running VS experiments. However, only a few freely available integrated software platforms have been developed. A free open-source platform, IVSPlat 1.0, was developed in this study for the management and automation of VS tasks. We integrated several VS-related programs into a molecular graphics system to provide a comprehensive platform for the solution of VS tasks based on molecular docking, pharmacophore detection, and a combination of both methods. This tool can be used to visualize intermediate and final results of the VS execution, while also providing a clustering tool for the analysis of VS results. A case study was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of this platform. IVSPlat 1.0 provides a plug-in-based solution for the management, automation, and visualization of VS tasks. IVSPlat 1.0 is an open framework that allows the integration of extra software to extend its functionality and modified versions can be freely distributed. The open source code and documentation are available at http://kyc.nenu.edu.cn/IVSPlat/.

  16. Krebs cycle intermediates modulate thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) production in rat brain in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntel, Robson L; Nogueira, Cristina W; Rocha, João B T

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Krebs cycle intermediates on basal and quinolinic acid (QA)- or iron-induced TBARS production in brain membranes. Oxaloacetate, citrate, succinate and malate reduced significantly the basal and QA-induced TBARS production. The potency for basal TBARS inhibition was in the order (IC50 is given in parenthesis as mM) citrate (0.37) > oxaloacetate (1.33) = succinate (1.91) > > malate (12.74). alpha-Ketoglutarate caused an increase in TBARS production without modifying the QA-induced TBARS production. Cyanide (CN-) did not modify the basal or QA-induced TBARS production; however, CN- abolished the antioxidant effects of succinate. QA-induced TBARS production was enhanced by iron ions, and abolished by desferrioxamine (DFO). The intermediates used in this study, except for alpha-ketoglutarate, prevented iron-induced TBARS production. Oxaloacetate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate and malate, but no succinate and QA, exhibited significantly iron-chelating properties. Only alpha-ketoglutarate and oxaloacetate protected against hydrogen peroxide-induced deoxyribose degradation, while succinate and malate showed a modest effect against Fe2+/H2O2-induced deoxyribose degradation. Using heat-treated preparations citrate, malate and oxaloacetate protected against basal or QA-induced TBARS production, whereas alpha-ketoglutarate induced TBARS production. Succinate did not offer protection against basal or QA-induced TBARS production. These results suggest that oxaloacetate, malate, succinate, and citrate are effective antioxidants against basal and iron or QA-induced TBARS production, while alpha-ketoglutarate stimulates TBARS production. The mechanism through which Krebs cycle intermediates offer protection against TBARS production is distinct depending on the intermediate used. Thus, under pathological conditions such as ischemia, where citrate concentrations vary it can assume an important role as a modulator of oxidative

  17. Analysis of heat recovery of diesel engine using intermediate working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Zhang, Jiang; Tan, Gangfeng; Liu, Huaming

    2017-07-01

    The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is an effective way to recovery the engine exhaust heat. The thermal stability of the evaporation system is significant for the stable operation of the ORC system. In this paper, the performance of the designed evaporation system which combines with the intermediate fluid for recovering the exhaust waste heat from a diesel engine is evaluated. The thermal characteristics of the target diesel engine exhaust gas are evaluated based on the experimental data firstly. Then, the mathematical model of the evaporation system is built based on the geometrical parameters and the specific working conditions of ORC. Finally, the heat transfer characteristics of the evaporation system are estimated corresponding to three typical operating conditions of the diesel engine. The result shows that the exhaust temperature at the evaporator outlet increases slightly with the engine speed and load. In the evaporator, the heat transfer coefficient of the Rankine working fluid is slightly larger than the intermediate fluid. However, the heat transfer coefficient of the intermediate fluid in the heat exchanger is larger than the exhaust side. The heat transfer areas of the evaporator in both the two-phase zone and the preheated zone change slightly along with the engine working condition while the heat transfer areas of the overheated zone has changed obviously. The maximum heat transfer rate occurs in the preheating zone while the minimum value occurs in the overheating zone. In addition, the Rankine working fluid temperature at the evaporator outlet is not sensitively affected by the torque and speed of the engine and the organic fluid flow is relatively stable. It is concluded that the intermediate fluid could effectively reduce the physical changes of Rankine working fluid in the evaporator outlet due to changes in engine operating conditions.

  18. Nitrous oxide production from reactive nitrification intermediates: a concerted action of biological and chemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Nicolas; Heil, Jannis; Liu, Shurong; Wei, Jing; Vereecken, Harry

    2017-04-01

    This contribution tries to open up a new perspective on biogeochemical N2O production processes, taking the term bio-geo-chemistry literally. What if a major part of N2O is produced from reactive intermediates of microbiological N turnover processes ("bio…") leaking out of the involved microorganisms into the soil ("…geo…") and then reacting chemically ("…chemistry") with the surrounding matrix? There are at least two major reactive N intermediates that might play a significant role in these coupled biological-chemical reactions, i.e. hydroxylamine (NH2OH) and nitrite (NO2-), both of which are produced during nitrification under oxic conditions, while NO2- is also produced during denitrification under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, NH2OH is assumed to be also a potential intermediate of DNRA and/or anammox. First, this contribution will summarize information about several chemical reactions involving NH2OH and NO2- leading to the formation of N2O. These abiotic reactions are: reactions of NO2- with reduced metal cations, nitrosation reactions of NO2- and soil organic matter (SOM), the reaction between NO2- and NH2OH, and the oxidation of NH2OH by oxidized metal ions. While these reactions can occur over a broad range of soil characteristics, they are ignored in most current N trace gas studies in favor of biological processes only. Disentangling microbiological from purely chemical N2O production is further complicated by the fact that the chemically formed N2O is either undiscernible from N2O produced during nitrification, or shows an intermediate 15N site preference between that of N2O from nitrification and denitrification, respectively. Results from experiments with live and sterilized soil samples, with artificial soil mixtures and with phenolic lignin decomposition model compounds will be presented that demonstrate the potential contribution of these abiotic processes to soil N trace gas emissions, given a substantial leakage rate of these reactive

  19. Isomerization Intermediates In Solution Phase Photochemistry Of Stilbenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doany, F. E.; Hochstrasser, R. M.; Greene, B. I.

    1985-04-01

    Picosecond and subpicosecond spectroscopic studies have revealed evidence for an isomerization intermediate between cis and trans in the photoinduced isomerism of both stilbene and biindanyledene ("stiff" stilbene). In stiff stilbene, a transient absorption at 351 nm displays time evolution and viscosity dependence consistent with absorption by a twisted intermediate ("phantom" state) with a lOps lifetime. An analagous bottleneck state with a life-time of 4ps is also consistent with the ground state recovery dynamics of t-stilbene following excitation of c-stilbene when monitored with 0.1ps resolution.

  20. A multistep evaporation model for intermediate mass fragment emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, A.J.; Grotowski, K.; Kozik, T.; Rebel, H.

    1988-11-01

    A multistep evaporation model for intermediate mass fragment emission in heavy ion reactions is described. It applies the canonical transition-state method for the determination of the probability for disintegration of a fused system. The energy and angular momentum relations at the saddle and scission points are calculated on the basis of the finite range liquid drop model. The derivation of the total kinetic energy release uses the concept of amplifying modes which is equivalent to that of shape fluctuations at the ridge point. The model reproduces fairly well the mass and angular distributions and the energy spectra of intermediate mass fragments yields from inclusive and coincidence experiments. (orig.) [de

  1. Assay of covalent intermediate of 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blytt, H.J.; Brotherton, J.E.; Butler, L.

    1985-01-01

    A new procedure is reported for isolating a covalent phosphoryl enzyme (diester) intermediate of bovine intestinal 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The convenience of the procedure makes it possible to determine effects of reaction conditions on the yield of covalent intermediate. Under optimum conditions, using [methyl- 3 H]deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate as substrate, more than 50% of the enzyme is recovered as thymidylyl enzyme, a 10-fold increase in yield over the previous procedure. Yields of thymidylyl enzyme were maximal at pH 4, whereas optimum catalytic activity is observed at pH greater than 9

  2. On the polarization of fermion in an intermediate state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshin, A. E.; Lomov, V. P.

    2017-06-01

    We show that calculation of a final fermion polarization (for a pure initial state) is equivalent to the problem of looking for complete polarization axis of bispinor. This gives the method for calculation of polarization applicable both for final and intermediate state fermions. We suggest to use fermion propagator (bare or dressed) in form of spectral representation, which gives the orthogonal off-shell energy projectors. This representation leads to covariant separation of particle and antiparticle contributions and gives a natural definition for polarization of intermediate state fermion. The most evident application is related with consistent description of t-quark polarization.

  3. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J.; Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for 235 U and 238 U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions

  4. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. (National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (USA)); Hill, N.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  5. PNGMDR - Characterisation of intermediate-level long-lived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents the status of the characterization of intermediate-level long-lived wastes which are warehoused on exploited EDF sites or which will be produced during the deconstruction of first-generation reactors. It addresses aspects related to characterisation and packaging of wastes produced before 2015. More specifically, it addresses aspects related to contamination and to activation. Contamination is assessed by measurements whereas activation assessment is based on numerical simulations associated with measurements performed during parcel production. After having mentioned the concerned reactors, the document presents the methodology adopted for these assessments, and reports the progress status of the characterization process for these intermediate-level long-lived wastes

  6. Surface intermediates on metal electrodes at high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Bay, Lasse

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms widely conceived for the O(2)-reduction or H(2)-oxidation reactions in SOFC's involve intermediate O/H species adsorbed on the electrode surface. The presence of these intermediates is investigated by linear sweep voltammetry. In air at moderate temperatures (500 degrees C) Pt...... in contact with YSZ is covered with adsorbed oxygen which vanishes at high temperature (1000 degrees C). On Ni (YSZ) a specific layer of NiO is observed above the equilibrium potential while no surface species involving hydrogen can be identified at SOFC anode conditions. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier...... Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Reactive intermediates in the gas phase generation and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Setser, D W

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Intermediates in the Gas Phase: Generation and Monitoring covers methods for reactive intermediates in the gas phase. The book discusses the generation and measurement of atom and radical concentrations in flow systems; the high temperature flow tubes, generation and measurement of refractory species; and the electronically excited long-lived states of atoms and diatomic molecules in flow systems. The text also describes the production and detection of reactive species with lasers in static systems; the production of small positive ions in a mass spectrometer; and the discharge-excite

  8. Rapid quantification of alpha emitters in low- and intermediate-level dry radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae-Hong Park; Eul-Hye Jeon; Yong Sul Choi; Jong-Ho Park; Hong Joo Ahn; Yong Jun Park

    2016-01-01

    We developed a rapid quantification method of Pu, Am, and Cm in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste using TRU resin, alpha spectrometry, and thermal ionization mass spectrometry for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, we focused on the optimization of sample preparation methods for alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry to reduce the analysis time. The optimized method used Am and Pu stripping solutions for micro-coprecipitation and showed good recovery and alpha spectrum resolution for alpha counting. In addition, appropriate selection of Pu elution solution decreased the sample preparation time for thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurements. (author)

  9. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELsourougy, M.R.; Zaki, A.A.; Aly, H.F.; Khalil, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Analyzing import intermediates of mitochondrial proteins by blue native gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waizenegger, Thomas; Rapaport, Doron

    2007-01-01

    Blue native gel electrophoresis (BNGE) is a powerful tool for analyzing native protein complexes from biological membranes as well as water-soluble proteins. It can be used for determining relative molecular masses of protein complexes and their subunit composition and for the detection of subcomplexes. We describe the analysis by BNGE of in vitro import reactions composed of radiolabeled precursor proteins and isolated mitochondria. Such an analysis is a powerful tool to follow import intermediates and to study assembly of protein complexes. Analysis of import reactions by BNGE provides information on the molecular mass of the complex with which the imported precursor is associated. In addition, components of such a complex can be identified by incubating the mitochondrial lysate with either soluble antibodies or antibodies coupled to protein A matrix. The binding of soluble antibodies to specific complexes results in an observed shift in their apparent molecular mass (antibody shift). Alternatively, addition of matrix-bound antibodies followed by removal of the matrix from the mixture will result in depletion of the specific complex from the mitochondrial lysate (antibody depletion). The experimental details of these techniques are described.

  11. The ribosome can prevent aggregation of partially folded protein intermediates: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular chaperones that support de novo folding of proteins under non stress condition are classified as chaperone 'foldases' that are distinct from chaperone' holdases' that provide high affinity binding platform for unfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation specifically under stress conditions. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine can act as a foldase chaperone that can bind unfolded proteins and release them in folding competent state. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC located in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosome (bDV RNA is the chaperoning center of the ribosome. It has been proposed that via specific interactions between the RNA and refolding proteins, the chaperone provides information for the correct folding of unfolded polypeptide chains. RESULTS: We demonstrate using Escherichia coli ribosome and variants of its domain V RNA that the ribosome can bind to partially folded intermediates of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII and lysozyme and suppress aggregation during their refolding. Using mutants of domain V RNA we demonstrate that the time for which the chaperone retains the bound protein is an important factor in determining its ability to suppress aggregation and/or support reactivation of protein. CONCLUSION: The ribosome can behave like a 'holdase' chaperone and has the ability to bind and hold back partially folded intermediate states of proteins from participating in the aggregation process. Since the ribosome is an essential organelle that is present in large numbers in all living cells, this ability of the ribosome provides an energetically inexpensive way to suppress cellular aggregation. Further, this ability of the ribosome might also be crucial in the context that the ribosome is one of the first chaperones to be encountered by a large nascent polypeptide chains that have a tendency to form partially folded intermediates immediately following their synthesis.

  12. Optimal design of the cable metro with unified intermediate supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In article was formulated and solved the problem of conditional nonlinear technical and economic optimization of the distance between intermediate supports, uniform in height, during the design of the cable metro lines in highly urban-ized city environment. The optimization problem involves a single-criterion objective function that expresses the cost of construction of the cable metro line (total cost of intermediate supports and their foundations, traction and carrying steel cables and technical equipment. The specified objective function subject to minimization by finding the optimal combination of the distance between intermediate supports and tension carrying ropes with accounting constructive, modal, structural and planning constraints in the form of nonlinear inequalities. The optimization algorithm was based on the direct method of optimization type, Hooke-Jeeves, which was modified taking into account the need of varying the height of intermediate supports with a constant step equal to the step of unification. When constructing the objective function were considered three possible forms sagging of carrying ropes, which can be implemented for various values of the efforts of their tension. Analysis was done of the influence of the step unification and minimum size of interme-diate supports on their optimum step, the cost of intermediate supports, the cost of 1 km cable metro line for different values of the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief along the cable metro line. The graph of height of uni-fied supports from the angle of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief has discrete-step type. With the increase of the step unify the discreteness increases: the width of the range of angles of the longitudinal slope of the surface relief within which the height of the supports remains constant, increases. The graph of step installation of unified supports along the cable metro line from the angle of the longitudinal

  13. Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Intermediate Variant Alleles DYS392.2, DYS449.2, and DYS385.2 Delineate New Phylogenetic Substructure in Human Y-chromosome Haplogroup Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Myres, Natalie M.; Ritchie, Kathleen H.; Lin, Alice A.; Hughes, Robert H.; Woodward, Scott R.; Underhill, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of intermediate-sized variant alleles displayed by short tandem repeat (STR) loci DYS392, DYS449, and DYS385, and to valuate the potential of each intermediate variant to elucidate new phylogenetic substructure within the human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree. Methods Molecular characterization of lineages was achieved using a combination of Y-chromosome haplogroup defining binary polymorphisms and up to 37 ...

  14. Molecular Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Sharma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The use of computational chemistry in the development of novel pharmaceuticals is becoming an increasingly important
    tool. In the past, drugs were simply screened for effectiveness. The recent advances in computing power and
    the exponential growth of the knowledge of protein structures have made it possible for organic compounds to tailored to
    decrease harmful side effects and increase the potency. This article provides a detailed description of the techniques
    employed in molecular modeling. Molecular modelling is a rapidly developing discipline, and has been supported from
    the dramatic improvements in computer hardware and software in recent years.

  15. Probing force-induced unfolding intermediates of a single staphylococcal nuclease molecule and the effect of ligand binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Murayama, Yoshihiro; Katano, Atsuto; Maki, Kosuke; Kuwajima, Kunihiro; Sano, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Single-molecule manipulation techniques have given experimental access to unfolding intermediates of proteins that are inaccessible in conventional experiments. A detailed characterization of the intermediates is a challenging problem that provides new possibilities for directly probing the energy landscape of proteins. We investigated single-molecule mechanical unfolding of a small globular protein, staphylococcal nuclease (SNase), using atomic force microscopy. The unfolding trajectories of the protein displayed sub-molecular and stochastic behavior with typical lengths corresponding to the size of the unfolded substructures. Our results support the view that the single protein unfolds along multiple pathways as suggested in recent theoretical studies. Moreover, we found the drastic change, caused by the ligand and inhibitor bindings, in the mechanical unfolding dynamics

  16. Efficient synthesis and physicochemical characterization of natural danshensu, its S isomer and intermediates thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoryk, Katarzyna; Filip, Katarzyna; Cmoch, Piotr; Łaszcz, Marta; Cybulski, Marcin

    2018-02-01

    The synthesis and molecular structure details of R- 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid (danshensu) and related compounds, i.e. S isomer and the key intermediates have been described. Danshensu is an important water soluble phenolic acid of Salvia miltiorrhiza herb (danshen or red sag) with numerous applications in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Our synthetic approach was based on the Knoevenagel condensation of the protected 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyd and Meldrum acid derivative, followed by asymmetric Sharples dihydroxylation, reductive mono dehydroxylation and final deprotection. All compounds were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques: 1H-, 13C- magnetic resonance (NMR); Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR); Raman, HR mass spectroscopy. For the determination of compound optical purities original HPLC methods were developed which allowed for the efficient resolution of danshensu R and S enantiomers as well as its intermediate enantiomers, using commercially available chiral stationary phases. Furthermore, in order to better understand danshensu specificity as a potential API in drug formulation, the physicochemical properties of the compounds were studied by thermal analysis, including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  17. Photodegradation of clopyralid in TiO{sub 2} suspensions: Identification of intermediates and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojic, Daniela V., E-mail: daniela@ih.ns.ac.yu [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Anderluh, Vesna B. [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Orcic, Dejan Z., E-mail: orcicdejan@gmail.com [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Abramovic, Biljana F., E-mail: abramovic@ih.ns.ac.yu [Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2009-08-30

    The work is concerned with the kinetics, identification of intermediates and reaction pathways of the photocatalytic degradation of the herbicide clopyralid (3,6-dichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid) in UV illuminated aqueous suspensions of TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25). In the investigated concentration range (0.5-3.0 mM) the photocatalytic degradation kinetics of clopyralid in the first stage of the reaction follows approximately a pseudo-first kinetic order. The highest reaction rate was observed at 4 mg mL{sup -1}of catalyst concentration, the apparent activation energy of the reaction being 7.74 kJ mol{sup -1}. The effect of the presence of hydrogen peroxide, potassium bromate, and ammonium persulfate, acting as electron acceptors along with molecular oxygen, were also studied. By studying the effect of ethanol as a hydroxyl radical scavenger it was shown that the heterogeneous catalysis takes place mainly via hydroxyl radicals. The reaction intermediates (3,6-dichloropyridin-2-ol, 3,6-dichloro hydroxypyridine-2-carboxylic acid, and 3,3',6,6'-tetrachloro-2,4'-bipyridine-2'-carboxylic acid) were identified and the kinetics of their appearance/disappearance was followed by LC-MS/MS (ESI+). Tentative photodegradation pathways were proposed and discussed.

  18. Determination of Protein Folding Intermediate Structures Consistent with Data from Oxidative Footprinting Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkel, Florian; Gsponer, Jörg

    2016-01-29

    The mapping of folding landscapes remains an important challenge in protein chemistry. Pulsed oxidative labeling of exposed residues and their detection via mass spectrometry provide new means of taking time-resolved "snapshots" of the structural changes that occur during protein folding. However, such experiments have been so far only interpreted qualitatively. Here, we report the detailed structural interpretation of mass spectrometry data from fast photochemical oxidation of proteins (FPOP) experiments at atomic resolution in a biased molecular dynamics approach. We are able to calculate structures of the early folding intermediate of the model system barstar that are fully consistent with FPOP data and Φ values. Furthermore, structures calculated with both FPOP data and Φ values are significantly less compact and have fewer helical residues than intermediate structures calculated with Φ values only. This improves the agreement with the experimental β-Tanford value and CD measurements. The restraints that we introduce facilitate the structural interpretation of FPOP data and provide new means for refined structure calculations of transiently sampled states on protein folding landscapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unexpected Formation of Naphtyl 1,3-Diaminopropane-2-ol Derivative through Azetidinium Ion Intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Minsoo; Hahn, Hohgyu [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The cause of depression is commonly associated with a deficiency of monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. Inhibition of monoamine reuptake has been an effective pharmacological treatment of various CNS disorders.1 As a part of our continuing efforts to develop novel antidepressants for multiple therapeutic utilities, we designed diaminopropan-2-ol 1 through structure analysis and molecular modification and of currently marketed reuptake transporter based antidepressants. 3-amino-1,2-diol derivatives 7 were converted to the corresponding diaminopropan-2-ol derivatives 9 by the reaction with MsCl in the presence of triethylamine followed by the treatment of either amine or thiol. We proposed azetdinium ion 11 or azetidinium ylide 12 as an intermediate in the reaction, and prepared 7 analogues by similar manner.

  20. Unexpected Formation of Naphtyl 1,3-Diaminopropane-2-ol Derivative through Azetidinium Ion Intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Minsoo; Hahn, Hohgyu

    2012-01-01

    The cause of depression is commonly associated with a deficiency of monoamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. Inhibition of monoamine reuptake has been an effective pharmacological treatment of various CNS disorders.1 As a part of our continuing efforts to develop novel antidepressants for multiple therapeutic utilities, we designed diaminopropan-2-ol 1 through structure analysis and molecular modification and of currently marketed reuptake transporter based antidepressants. 3-amino-1,2-diol derivatives 7 were converted to the corresponding diaminopropan-2-ol derivatives 9 by the reaction with MsCl in the presence of triethylamine followed by the treatment of either amine or thiol. We proposed azetdinium ion 11 or azetidinium ylide 12 as an intermediate in the reaction, and prepared 7 analogues by similar manner

  1. Influence of RANEY Nickel on the Formation of Intermediates in the Degradation of Lignin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Forchheim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignin forms an important part of lignocellulosic biomass and is an abundantly available residue. It is a potential renewable source of phenol. Liquefaction of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin as well as catalytical hydrodeoxygenation of the main intermediates in the degradation of lignin, that is, catechol and guaiacol, was studied. The cleavage of the ether bonds, which are abundant in the molecular structure of lignin, can be realised in near-critical water (573 to 673 K, 20 to 30 MPa. Hydrothermal treatment in this context provides high selectivity in respect to hydroxybenzenes, especially catechol. RANEY Nickel was found to be an adequate catalyst for hydrodeoxygenation. Although it does not influence the cleavage of ether bonds, RANEY Nickel favours the production of phenol from both lignin and catechol. The main product from hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol with RANEY Nickel was cyclohexanol. Reaction mechanism and kinetics of the degradation of guaiacol were explored.

  2. Nature of Intermediates in Organo-SOMO Catalysis of α-Arylation of Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Joann M.; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    The intramolecular α-arylation of aldehydes via organo-SOMO catalysis was investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X functionals). The geometries, spin densities, Mulliken charges, and molecular orbitals of the reacting enamine radical cations were analyzed, and the nature of the resulting cyclized radical cation intermediates were characterized. In agreement with experimental observations, the calculated 1,3-disubstituted aromatic system shows ortho selectivity, while the 1,3,4-trisubstituted systems show para, meta (instead of ortho, meta) selectivity. The selectivity change for the trisubstituted rings is attributed to a distortion of the ortho substituents in the ortho, meta cyclization transition structures, causing a destabilization of these isomers and therefore selectivity for the para, meta product. PMID:20387888

  3. Circular DNA Intermediate in the Duplication of Nile Tilapia vasa Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Koji; Conte, Matthew A.; Kocher, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    vasa is a highly conserved RNA helicase involved in animal germ cell development. Among vertebrate species, it is typically present as a single copy per genome. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of BAC clones for Nile tilapia vasa genes. Contrary to a previous report that Nile tilapia have a single copy of the vasa gene, we find evidence for at least three vasa gene loci. The vasa gene locus was duplicated from the original site and integrated into two distant novel sites. For one of these insertions we find evidence that the duplication was mediated by a circular DNA intermediate. This mechanism of gene duplication may explain the origin of isolated gene duplicates during the evolution of fish genomes. These data provide a foundation for studying the role of multiple vasa genes in the development of tilapia gonads, and will contribute to investigations of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution in cichlid fishes. PMID:22216289

  4. Circular DNA intermediate in the duplication of Nile tilapia vasa genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Fujimura

    Full Text Available vasa is a highly conserved RNA helicase involved in animal germ cell development. Among vertebrate species, it is typically present as a single copy per genome. Here we report the isolation and sequencing of BAC clones for Nile tilapia vasa genes. Contrary to a previous report that Nile tilapia have a single copy of the vasa gene, we find evidence for at least three vasa gene loci. The vasa gene locus was duplicated from the original site and integrated into two distant novel sites. For one of these insertions we find evidence that the duplication was mediated by a circular DNA intermediate. This mechanism of gene duplication may explain the origin of isolated gene duplicates during the evolution of fish genomes. These data provide a foundation for studying the role of multiple vasa genes in the development of tilapia gonads, and will contribute to investigations of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and evolution in cichlid fishes.

  5. Abstracts of Workshop on Reactive Intermediates in Sulfur Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There is a review of the studies on sulfur containing inorganic and organic compounds with special emphasis on biologically important compounds as amino acids and proteins. Photochemically and radiation induced reactive intermediates such as solvated electrons, ions, radicals and radical-ions have been broadly investigated. Their reaction mechanisms and kinetics have been studied and discussed as well

  6. Prerequisite Change and Its Effect on Intermediate Accounting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiunn; O'Shaughnessy, John; Wagner, Robin

    2005-01-01

    As of Fall 1996, San Francisco State University changed its introductory financial accounting course to focus on a "user's" perspective, de-emphasizing the accounting cycle. Anticipating that these changes could impair subsequent performance, the Department of Accounting instituted a new prerequisite for intermediate accounting: Students would…

  7. Intermediate Jacobians and Hodge structures of moduli spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    space of vector bundles on a curve is studied. Analysis of the third cohomology yields a new proof of a Torelli theorem. Keywords. Vector bundle; mixed Hodge structure; intermediate Jacobian. 1. Introduction. We work throughout over the complex numbers C, i.e. all schemes are over C and all maps of schemes are maps of ...

  8. Intermediate-Level Knowledge in Child-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Torgersson, Olof; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of all papers at IDC from 2003 to 2016 this paper urges the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) field to start formulating intermediate-level knowledge, in the form of e.g. strong concepts. Our analysis showed that 40% of all papers at the Interaction Design and Children confere...

  9. Heat exchanger with intermediate evaporating and condensing fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1978-01-01

    A shell and tube-type heat exchanger, such as a liquid sodium-operated steam generator for use in nuclear reactors, comprises a shell containing a primary fluid tube bundle, a secondary fluid tube bundle at higher elevation, and an intermediate fluid vaporizing at the surface of the primary fluid tubes and condensing at the surface of the secondary fluid tubes

  10. Resource Unit on Egypt for the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husbands, Kenneth; Taylor, Bob

    Resources for teaching about modern and ancient Egypt are provided in this guide for intermediate grade social studies teachers. Material includes: a detailed outline for a unit on Egypt which contains a geographic overview followed by sections on the Nile River Valley, agriculture, the pharaohs, religion, architecture, science, hieroglyphics,…

  11. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 5 ... The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster ... School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar University, Patiala 147 004, India ...

  12. Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...

  13. Theoretical research in intermediate energy nuclear physics: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress that has been made on the following problems: a numerical calculation of Skyrmiron scattering; (e,e'p) at high momentum transfer; spin-orbit nucleon-nucleon potential from Skyrme model; pionic atom anomaly; and field theory problems. The problems deal with various topics in intermediate-energy nuclear physics

  14. Electrical equivalent model of intermediate band solar cell using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems for motivating experimental efforts to realize these promising photovoltaic devices. 2. Intermediate band solar cell ... response according to the target system (Rahman et al 2011; Kouda et al 2011a, b; Phani &. Mummadi 2005). .... 4th International conference on computer integrated manufacturing IEEE 58–61.

  15. Chemistry of New Silicon Containing Polymers Triply Bonded Silicon Intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Nazran, and D. Griller , J. Organometal. Chem., 272, C10 (1984). 10. Dimethylsilylene: Its Optical Absorption Spectrum and Reaction Kinetics, I.S...Alnaimi, W.P. Weber, A.S. Nazran, J.A. Hawaii and D. Griller , J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 7267 (1984). 11. Unsaturated Reactive Intermediates in

  16. Project Earth, A Curriculum Guide, Kindergarten-Primary-Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Arnold R., Ed.

    This conservation curriculum guide contains units on the air, water, soil, plants, and animals. The guide is organized by grade levels--kindergarten, primary, intermediate. Objectives and concepts are listed and suggested activities are complete with a statement of procedure and necessary materials. A resource appendix includes books, films, and…

  17. The utility of Earth system Models of Intermediate Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, S.L.

    2010-01-01

    Intermediate-complexity models are models which describe the dynamics of the atmosphere and/or ocean in less detail than conventional General Circulation Models (GCMs). At the same time, they go beyond the approach taken by atmospheric Energy Balance Models (EBMs) or ocean box models by

  18. Intermediate obtained from photoionization, serving as precursor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we have introduced an intermediate benzyl carbocation (formed as a result of photoionization) which serves as precursor for the synthesis of Schiff's base. Lifetimes of many carbocations were determined from our laboratory. During the determination of the lifetimes, our endeavor was to obtain a carbocation ...

  19. The burrowing behaviour of Bulinus nyassanus , intermediate host ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence that transmission of Schistosoma haematobium has increased in some areas in the southern part of Lake Malaŵi, where transmission occurs both along open shorelines and at inland sites. Transmission along open shores in the lake is via Bulinus nyassanus as intermediate host. Although the snail is ...

  20. Complications Following One-Stage Repair of Intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To assess complications associated with one-stage repair of intermediate anorectal anomalies in boys and rectovestibular fistula in girls. Patients and Methods: All patients seen between 2000 and 2005 at the University Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria, with anorectal anomalies who had posterior sagittal ...

  1. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Abstract. The dynamical description of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclei formed in heavy-ion collisions is worked out using the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), with refer- ence to various effects such as deformation and orientation, temperature, angular momentum etc. Based on the ...

  2. The intermediate state in Paul | Fryer | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intermediate state in Paul. The point of view taken in this paper is that the apostle Paul envisions, between death and the resurrection of the body at the Parousia, an interim period during which the disembodied soul is in the immediate presence of Christ, though in a state of 'nakedness'. The background of Paul's view ...

  3. Gut content studies of aquatic snail intermediate hosts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural diets of Bulinus (P) globosus, Bulinus rohlfsi and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, gastropod intermediate hosts of the Schistosoma parasite were investigated by examining their gut content. It was found that the diet of B. globosus consisted of rotifers, various forms of algae, diatoms, macrophytic tissue and spore-like materials ...

  4. Identification of intermediate species in protein-folding by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -states, namely the native (N) and unfolded (U) forms of the protein present at any condition of the solvent, from a situation wherein intermediate state(s) could also be present. This differentiation of a two-state from a multi-state structural ...

  5. The Potential Role Played by Various Livestock Intermediate Hosts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the potential role played by cattle, sheep, goats and pigs in the transmission of hydatidosis in Kenya. The fertility and viability status of the hydatid cysts collected from these livestock intermediate hosts, at slaughter, were used in this evaluation. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in ...

  6. N-Acyliminium Intermediates in Solid-Phase Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quement, Sebastian Thordal le; Petersen, Rico; Meldal, M.

    2010-01-01

    N-Acyliminium ions are powerful intermediates in synthetic organic chemistry. Examples of their use are numerous in solution-phase synthesis, but there are unmerited few reports on these highly reactive electrophiles in solid-phase synthesis. The present review covers the literature to date...

  7. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rust, RT; Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    W e provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to compare the

  8. Intermediate inflation from a non-canonical scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezazadeh, K.; Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimi, P., E-mail: rezazadeh86@gmail.com, E-mail: KKarami@uok.ac.ir, E-mail: parvin.karimi67@yahoo.com [Center for Excellence in Astronomy and Astrophysics (CEAA-RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    We study the intermediate inflation in a non-canonical scalar field framework with a power-like Lagrangian. We show that in contrast with the standard canonical intermediate inflation, our non-canonical model is compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015. Also, we estimate the equilateral non-Gaussianity parameter which is in well agreement with the prediction of Planck 2015. Then, we obtain an approximation for the energy scale at the initial time of inflation and show that it can be of order of the Planck energy scale, i.e. M{sub P} ∼ 10{sup 18}GeV. We will see that after a short period of time, inflation enters in the slow-roll regime that its energy scale is of order M{sub P}/100 ∼ 10{sup 16}GeV and the horizon exit takes place in this energy scale. We also examine an idea in our non-canonical model to overcome the central drawback of intermediate inflation which is the fact that inflation never ends. We solve this problem without disturbing significantly the nature of the intermediate inflation until the time of horizon exit.

  9. Yield and organoleptic characteristics of Suya (an intermediate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High cost of choice meat used in suya production makes the product an exclusive meat for the rich. In order to make suya (an intermediate moisture meat) available and affordable to the common man thereby increasing their animal protein intake, this experiment therefore become imperative. Meat from the ...

  10. Diet, intermediate risk markers and risk of type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314072454

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aimed to study the relation of diet with risk of type 2 diabetes and intermediate risk markers of diabetes. We investigated the effect of cis9, trans11 conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11 CLA) supplementation on pulse wave velocity and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized, controlled

  11. Parameter regimes for slow, intermediate and fast MHD shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delmont, P.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate under which parameter regimes the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, which describe discontinuous solutions to the MHD equations, allow for slow, intermediate and fast shocks. We derive limiting values for the upstream and downstream shock parameters for which

  12. Intermediate coupling vibrational descriptions of odd mass gold isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Vieu, C; Paar, V

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of /sup 193-195/Au levels is semi qualitatively performed in the frame of the intermediate coupling vibrational models of Kisslinger-Sorensen and Alaga. From the comparison between the experimental data and the corresponding predictions of the two models, conclusions are drawn on the influence of the clusters and broken pairs.

  13. Proceedings of the 5. National Meeting on Intermediate Energy Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    Several papers concerning the physics at intermediate energies (∼ 100-1000MeV) are presented in this proceedings. Almost all the works show overlapping between Nuclear and Particles Physics. There is a predominance in theoretical papers. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Bibliografia Especializada: Educacion Media (Specialized Bibliography: Intermediate Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boletin del Centro Nacional de Documentacion e Informacion Educativa, 1969

    1969-01-01

    This specialized international bibliography on various issues in intermediate education lists almost 70 articles and books, written between 1957 and 1969, in Argentina, Brazil, Belgium, Chile, Spain, France, Mexico, and the United States. Articles appear in Spanish, French, Portuguese, and English. Several articles were sponsored by international…

  15. Role of near threshold resonances in intermediate energy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-04

    Nov 4, 2014 ... Abstract. The presence of a resonance close to the threshold strongly effects the dynamics of the interacting particles at low energies. Production of 12C, the element for life, in 4He burning in. Sun is a classic example of such a situation. In intermediate energy nuclear physics, this situation arises in the ...

  16. Financial Intermediation and the Nigerian Economy: A Time Series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the level of development of financial intermediation and how it impacts on economic growth of Nigeria. Using a time series data covering a period of 40 years (1970 –2009) and employing the econometric tool of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and cointegration analysis based on Engle Granger ...

  17. EQA Manual for Interpreting Intermediate School Reports. Educational Quality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, James F.; And Others

    This manual is designed to accompany Pennsylvania's Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) intermediate school reports to assist in their interpretation and understanding. The normative sample is described as stratified on two dimensions: district enrollment and wealth. Administration procedures are summarized. The cognitive and non-cognitive areas…

  18. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  19. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... wheelchair, shall be permitted to leave and return to the bus on the same basis as other passengers. The... passenger to get on and off the bus at the stop (e.g., operate the lift and provide assistance with... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes...

  20. Optimizing the marketing interventions mix in intermediate-term CRM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Rust (Roland); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe provide a fully personalized model for optimizing multiple marketing interventions in intermediate-term customer relationship management (CRM). We derive theoretically based propositions on the moderating effects of past customer behavior and conduct a longitudinal validation test to

  1. Dynamics of light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy nuclear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... Various features related to the dynamics of competing decay modes of nuclear systems are explored by addressing the experimental data of a number of reactions in light, intermediate, heavy and superheavy mass regions. The DCM, being a non-statistical description for the decay of a com- pound nucleus ...

  2. Hard photon as probes of intermediate energy heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemssen, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Some recent results on the production of hard photons in intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions are reported. The topics covered are the use of hard photons as a means to study the energy dissipation mechanism in peripheral heavy ion reactions and the observation of second chance or thermal hard photons

  3. Toxicity of peroxisomal C27-bile acid intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Denis, Simone; Dacremont, Georges; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisomes play an important role in bile acid biosynthesis because the last steps of the synthesis pathway are performed by the beta-oxidation system located inside peroxisomes. As a consequence, C(27)-bile acid intermediates accumulate in several peroxisomal disorders. It has been suggested that

  4. Heat exchanger with intermediate evaporating and condensing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Arthur P.

    1978-01-01

    A shell and tube-type heat exchanger, such as a liquid sodium-operated steam generator for use in nuclear reactors, comprises a shell containing a primary fluid tube bundle, a secondary fluid tube bundle at higher elevation, and an intermediate fluid vaporizing at the surface of the primary fluid tubes and condensing at the surface of the secondary fluid tubes.

  5. Metal—metal multiple bonded intermediates in catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metal–metal bonded Rh2 and Ru2 complexes having a paddlewheel-type structure are exceptional catalysts for a broad range of organic transformations. I review here the recent efforts towards the observation and characterization of intermediates in these reactions that have previously eluded detection. Specifically ...

  6. application of chemometric methods to resolve intermediates formed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    APPLICATION OF CHEMOMETRIC METHODS TO RESOLVE INTERMEDIATES. FORMED DURING ... Chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry has been proved to be a powerful technique to ..... HPLC/UV-VIS diode array and atmospheric pressure ionization quadrupole ion trap massspectrometry. Int. J. Mass ...

  7. The Intermediate Piano Stage: Exploring Teacher Perspectives and Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ryan; Bowden, Julia

    2013-01-01

    While many piano students successfully progress beyond beginner status to reach what is commonly referred to as the intermediate stage, there is minimal research specific to this area of practice. This is despite the fact that there is a high drop-out rate at this stage. This research study therefore set out to develop an in-depth understanding of…

  8. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  9. Deriving the Dividend Discount Model in the Intermediate Microeconomics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Stephen; Schlaudraff, Jonathan; White, Karianne; Wills, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors show that the dividend discount model can be derived using the basic intertemporal consumption model that is introduced in a typical intermediate microeconomics course. This result will be of use to instructors who teach microeconomics to finance students in that it demonstrates the value of utility maximization in…

  10. Study of glycolytic intermediates in hereditary elliptocytosis with thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavri Roshan

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycolytic intermediates like ATP, DPG and GSH have been studied in a family with. hereditary elliptocytosis and thalassemia. Results indicate a fall in ATP with a concomitant rise in DPG in the Patient. Findings are discussed in relation to other data.

  11. OER Use in Intermediate Language Instruction: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study in the experimental use of Open Educational Resources (OERs) in intermediate level language instruction. The resources come from three sources: the instructor, the students, and open content repositories. The objective of this action research project was to provide student-centered learning materials, enhance…

  12. Divide and conquer? Size adjustment with allometry and intermediate outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Shinichi; Kar, Fonti; O'Dea, Rose E; Pick, Joel L; Lagisz, Malgorzata

    2017-11-09

    Many trait measurements are size-dependent, and while we often divide these traits by size before fitting statistical models to control for the effect of size, this approach does not account for allometry and the intermediate outcome problem. We describe these problems and outline potential solutions.

  13. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  14. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  15. Intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma: current treatments and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, J-F; Bargellini, I; De Maria, N; De Simone, P; Goulis, I; Marinho, R T

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines recommend transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) as the standard treatment of Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC)-B patients. However, the long-term survival outcomes of patients managed with this technique do not appear fully satisfactory; in addition, intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) includes a heterogeneous population of patients with varying tumour burdens, liver function and disease aetiology. Therefore, not all patients with intermediate-stage HCC may derive similar benefit from TACE, and some patients may benefit from other treatment options, which are currently approved or being explored. These include different TACE modalities, such as selective TACE or drug-eluting beads TACE and radioembolization. The introduction of sorafenib in the therapeutic armamentarium for HCC has provided a new therapeutic option for the treatment of BCLC-B patients who are unsuitable to TACE or in whom TACE resulted in unacceptable toxicity. In addition, clinical trials aimed at investigating the potential role of this molecule in the treatment of patients with intermediate-stage HCC within combination therapeutic regimens are ongoing. This narrative review will present and discuss the most recent evidence on the locoregional or medical treatment with sorafenib in patients with intermediate-stage HCC.

  16. Modified Methods for the Synthesis of Triazinyl Fluorescent Brightener Intermediates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Parach

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of triazinyl fluorescent brightener intermediates in high yields is described. The method involves a simplified work-up for the preparation of 4-nitro-toluene-2-sulfonic acid and the use of diethylene glycol instead of water in the preparation of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid.

  17. Intermediate Term (3-6 Years Post Surgery) Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operatively, the 5 eyes had VA ranging from 6/60 to NLP, after a variable follow-up period of 3-6 years. Complications included development of tough vascularized retroprosthetic membrane (4 eyes) and infective endophthalmitis in one eye. Conclusion: The intermediate-term outcome of keratoprosthesis surgery in ...

  18. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL INTERMEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAN-ALEXANDRU SITARU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The commercial intermediation is a complex juridical operation which includes a different number of juridical relationships that takes place between contractual partners either on a national or international level. These partners bare different naming due to their different set of rights and obligations set forth by the law or by the parties, and it is from this that the classification of the intermediation can be set forth. The commercial intermediation represents the activity that one person executes either in the name and on behalf of another person, or using its own name but on behalf of another person, or, finally, using its own name but on behalf of acting towards a common goal with the person who mandated her (the principal, in relation with who it is either a proxy or an independent intermediary, only negotiating or both negotiating and binding the principal. The purpose of the paper is to strictly define and set in order the various variations of the juridical operation that is the commercial intermediation, presented both in the light of the actual legal framework and also by reference to the New Civil Code. Also, the purpose is to highlight and systematize the contractual relationships from which the parties involved in a commercial intermediary operation may choose and the rights and obligations specific to each contract.

  19. Raman optical activity study on insulin amyloid- and prefibril intermediate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Watarai, H.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 97-103 ISSN 0899-0042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : raman optical activity * amyloid * fibril * intermediate * insulin Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.718, year: 2012

  20. Gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]: molecular design, synthetic organic chemistry reactions, and antineoplastic cytotoxic potency in populations of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (A549).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    2017-03-01

    One molecular-based approach that increases potency and reduces dose-limited sequela is the implementation of selective 'targeted' delivery strategies for conventional small molecular weight chemotherapeutic agents. Descriptions of the molecular design and organic chemistry reactions that are applicable for synthesis of covalent gemcitabine-monophosphate immunochemotherapeutics have to date not been reported. The covalent immunopharmaceutical, gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] was synthesized by reacting gemcitabine with a carbodiimide reagent to form a gemcitabine carbodiimide phosphate ester intermediate which was subsequently reacted with imidazole to create amine-reactive gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) intermediate. Monoclonal anti-IGF-1R immunoglobulin was combined with gemcitabine-(5'-phosphorylimidazolide) resulting in the synthetic formation of gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R]. The gemcitabine molar incorporation index for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-R1] was 2.67:1. Cytotoxicity Analysis - dramatic increases in antineoplastic cytotoxicity were observed at and between the gemcitabine-equivalent concentrations of 10 -9  M and 10 -7  M where lethal cancer cell death increased from 0.0% to a 93.1% maximum (100.% to 6.93% residual survival), respectively. Advantages of the organic chemistry reactions in the multistage synthesis scheme for gemcitabine-(5'-phosphoramidate)-[anti-IGF-1R] include their capacity to achieve high chemotherapeutic molar incorporation ratios; option of producing an amine-reactive chemotherapeutic intermediate that can be preserved for future synthesis applications; and non-dedicated organic chemistry reaction scheme that allows substitutions of either or both therapeutic moieties, and molecular delivery platforms. © 2016 The Authors Chemical Biology & Drug Design Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.