WorldWideScience

Sample records for intermediate radioactive wastes

  1. Packaging and transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.J.S.; Streatfield, R.E.

    1987-02-01

    The paper presents an overview of Nirex proposals for the packaging and transport of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste, as well as the regulatory requirements which must be met in such operations. (author)

  2. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  3. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.C.; Ortiz, J.R.; Sanchez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, it is necessary to establish, in a few years, a definitive repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in order to satisfy the necessities of Mexico for the next 50 years. Consequently, it is required to estimate the volumes of the radioactive waste generated annually, the stored volumes to-date and their projection to medium-term. On this subject, the annual average production of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the electricity production by means of nuclear power reactors is 250 m 3 /y which consist of humid and dry solid waste from the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant having a re-use efficiency of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, the applications in medicine, industry and research generate 20 m 3 /y of solid waste, 280 m 3 /y of liquid waste and approximately 10 m 3 /y from 300 spent sealed radioactive sources. The estimation of the total volume of these waste to the year 2035 is 17500 m 3 corresponding to the 46% of the volume generated by the operation and maintenance of the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, 34% to the decommissioning of these 2 units at the end of their useful life and 20% to the waste generated by applications in medicine, industry and research. (author)

  4. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  5. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report aims at giving the reader details of the experience gained in the treatment of both low- and intermediate-level radioactive liquid wastes. The treatment comprises those operations to remove radioactivity from the wastes and those that change only its chemical composition, so as to permit its discharge. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the satisfactory treatment of such wastes. Although there are no universally accepted definitions for low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, the IAEA classification (see section 3.2) is used in this report. The two categories differ from one another in the fact that for low-level liquids the actual radiation does not require shielding during normal handling of the wastes. Liquid wastes which are not considered in this report are those from mining and milling operations and the high-level liquid wastes resulting from fuel reprocessing. These are referred to in separate IAEA reports. Likewise, wastes from decommissioning operations are not within the scope of this report. Apart from the description of existing methods and facilities, this report is intended to provide advice to the reader for the selection of appropriate solutions to waste management problems. In addition, new and promising techniques which are either being investigated or being considered for the future are discussed

  6. Spanish experience in managing low and intermediate activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Spanish experience in management of low and intermediated level radioactive wastes is presented. The radioactive wastes stored come from research reactors, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle, scientific research, radiodiagnostic and medical applications. The commonest method is incorporation in cement inside special drums, even though some facilities use processes based on urea formal dehyde and on asphalt. Transport of the wastes is carried out by private undertakings and the Nuclear Energy Board. The sites used for storing are temporary in nature. The wastes produced by nuclear power plants are stored on site, with those processed by the Nuclear Energy Board are taken to a province of Cordoba. The National Company ENRESA for managing of all kinds of wastes was created. The Spanish legislation on this subject and the research being carried out by Spain itself and in cooperation with other States, are described. (Author) [pt

  7. Experimental study on intermediate level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagakura, Tadashi; Abe, Hirotoshi; Okazawa, Takao; Hattori, Seiichi; Maki, Yasuro

    1977-01-01

    In the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes, multilayer package will be adopted. The multilayer package consists of cement-solidified waste and a container such as a drum - can with concrete liner or a concrete container. So, on the waste to be cement-solidified in such container, experimental study was carried out as follows. (1) Cement-solidification method. (2) Mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste. The mechanical behaviour of the containers was studied by the finite element method and experiment, and the function of pressure-balancing valves was also studied. The following data on processing intermediate level radioactive wastes were obtained. (1) In the case of cement-solidified waste, the data to select the suitable solidifying material and the standard mixing proportion were determined. (2) The basic data concerning the uniaxial compressive strength of cement-solidified waste, the mechanical behaviour of cement-solidified waste packed in a drum under high hydrostatic pressure, the shock response of cement-solidified waste at the time of falling and so on were obtained. (3) The pressure-balancing valves worked at about 0.5 Kg/cm 2 pressure difference inside and outside a container, and the deformation of a drum cover was 10 to 13 mm. In case of the pressure difference less than 0,5 Kg/cm 2 , the valves shut, and water flow did occur. (auth.)

  8. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for the low-and intermediated-level radioactive waste disposal facility the radioactive waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kang Il; Jeong, Noh Gyeom; Moon, Young Pyo; Jeong, Mi Seon; Park, Jin Beak

    2016-01-01

    To meet nuclear regulatory requirements, more than 95% individual radionuclides in the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste inventory have to be identified. In this study, the radionuclide inventory has been estimated by taking the long-term radioactive waste generation, the development plan of disposal facility, and the new radioactive waste classification into account. The state of radioactive waste cumulated from 2014 was analyzed for various radioactive sources and future prospects for predicting the long-term radioactive waste generation. The predicted radionuclide inventory results are expected to contribute to secure the development of waste disposal facility and to deploy the safety case for its long-term safety assessment

  9. Disposal of high level and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    The waste products from the nuclear industry are relatively small in volume. Apart from a few minor gaseous and liquid waste streams, containing readily dispersible elements of low radiotoxicity, all these products are processed into stable solid packages for disposal in underground repositories. Because the volumes are small, and because radioactive wastes are latecomers on the industrial scene, a whole new industry with a world-wide technological infrastructure has grown up alongside the nuclear power industry to carry out the waste processing and disposal to very high standards. Some of the technical approaches used, and the Regulatory controls which have been developed, will undoubtedly find application in the future to the management of non-radioactive toxic wastes. The repository site outlined would contain even high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuels being contained without significant radiation dose rates to the public. Water pathway dose rates are likely to be lowest for vitrified high-level wastes with spent PWR fuel and intermediate level wastes being somewhat higher. (author)

  10. Low and intermediate radioactive waste characterization using MICROSHIELD 5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, Silvia; Pantazi, Doina; Stanciu, Marcela

    2002-01-01

    Low and intermediate radioactive gaseous, liquid and solid waste produced at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant must be known from the point of view of contained radionuclide activity, during all steps of their processing, storage and transport, to ensure the nuclear safety of radioactive waste management. As the waste activity changes by radioactive decay and nuclear transmutation, the evolution in time of these sources is necessary to be assess, for the purpose of biological shielding determination at any time. On the other hand, during the transport of waste package at the repository, the external dose rates must meet the national and international requirements concerning radioactive materials transportation on public roads. In this paper, a calculation methodology for waste characterization based on external exposure rate measurement and on sample analysis results is presented. The time evolution of waste activity, as well as the corresponding shielding at different moments of management process, has been performed using MICROSHIELD-5 code. The spent resins proceeded from systems for clean-up and purification of cooling water and moderator, water from spent fuel storage bays, etc. have been analyzed. In this paper an example of spent ionic resins characterization, using the MICROSHIELD 5 code, is presented. (authors)

  11. Acceptability of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository, even for the waste of low and intermediate level (LILW) radioactivity, presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. In general, people are opposed to any such kind of facility in their vicinity (NIMBY). In this study we try to establish the factors that influence people's behavior regarding the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their local community, with the use of Ajzen's model of planned behavior. Two different scenarios about the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their community, together with a set of questions were presented to participants from different schools. Data from the survey were analysed by multivariate methods, and a model of relevant behaviour was proposed. From the results it can be seen that different approaches to local community participation in site selection process slightly influence people's attitudes towards the LILW repository, while significant differences in answers were found in the responses which depend on participants' knowledge. Therefore the RAO Agency will further intensify preparation of the relevant communication plan and start with its implementation to support LILW repository site selection process, which will also include educational programme. (author)

  12. Conditioning of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle, together with the use of separated radioisotopes, in many endeavours generates a variety of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. These waste materials contain quantities of radionuclides sufficient to present potential health risks to people if the wastes are not adequately managed, but usually insufficient quantities to require heat removal. Adequate management involves a series of steps which lead from the arising of the wastes to their safe disposal, steps which may include collection, segregation, treatment, volume reduction, conditioning, transport, interim storage and disposal. Each step is defined by the need to accommodate to the preceding one and to facilitate the ones that follow. This technical report describes primarily the technologies available for the conditioning steps (i.e., immobilization and packaging) and relates them to the other steps. In broad terms, the purpose of conditioning is to convert the wastes into packages that are suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  13. Design of a store for encapsulated intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, A.I.; Robinson, G.; Price, M.S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a new store for cemented intermediate level radioactive waste produced in unshielded 500 litre drums from the Winfrith Radwaste Treatment Plant is described. The store design has had to take account of local site constraints and disposal uncertainties. As a result, an innovative above ground storage tube design using interlocking, commercially available, concrete pipe rings has been selected. Other special features are that the store is easily capable of being extended whilst in service and is simple and cheap to decommission. A quality assessment facility for the drummed waste is an integral part of the store complex. (author)

  14. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing in plasma reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauchyn, V.; Khvedchyn, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2013-01-01

    Methods of low and intermediate level radioactive waste processing comprise: cementation, bituminization, curing in polymer matrices, combustion and pyrolysis. All these methods are limited in their application in the field of chemical, morphological, and aggregate composition of material to be processed. The thermal plasma method is one of the universal methods of RAW processing. The use of electric-arc plasma with mean temperatures 2000 - 8000 K can effectively carry out the destruction of organic compounds into atoms and ions with very high speeds and high degree of conversion. Destruction of complex substances without oxygen leads to a decrease of the volume of exhaust gases and dimension of gas cleaning system. This paper presents the plasma reactor for thermal processing of low and intermediate level radioactive waste of mixed morphology. The equipment realizes plasma-pyrolytic conversion of wastes and results in a conditioned product in a single stage. As a result, the volume of conditioned waste is significantly reduced (more than 10 times). Waste is converted into an environmentally friendly form that suits long-term storage. The leaching rate of macro-components from the vitrified compound is less than 1.10 -7 g/(cm 2 .day). (authors)

  15. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new program underway at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate-level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. ILW are defined as those liquid and solid radioactive wastes, other than high-level wastes and fuel cladding hulls, that in packaged form have radiation dose readings greater than 200 millirem/hr at the packaged surface and 10 millirem/hr at three feet from the surface. The IAEA value of 10 4 Ci/m 3 for ILW defines the upper limit. For comparative purposes, reference is also made to certain aspects of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Because of the wide differences in composition (e.g., acids, salt solutions, resins and zeolites, HEPA filters, etc.) the wastes may require different treatments, particularly those wastes containing volatile contaminants. The various types of ILW have been grouped into categories amenable to similar treatment. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contain volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW

  16. Improved cement solidification of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Cementation was the first and is still the most widely applied technique for the conditioning of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Compared with other solidification techniques, cementation is relatively simple and inexpensive. However, the quality of the final cemented waste forms depends very much on the composition of the waste and the type of cement used. Different kinds of cement are used for different kinds of waste and the compatibility of a specific waste with a specific cement type should always be carefully evaluated. Cementation technology is continuously being developed in order to improve the characteristics of cemented waste in accordance with the increasing requirements for quality of the final solidified waste. Various kinds of additives and chemicals are used to improve the cemented waste forms in order to meet all safety requirements. This report is meant mainly for engineers and designers, to provide an explanation of the chemistry of cementation systems and to facilitate the choice of solidification agents and processing equipment. It reviews recent developments in cementation technology for improving the quality of cemented waste forms and provides a brief description of the various cement solidification processes in use. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Disposal approach for long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak; Park, Joo Wan; Kim, Chang Lak

    2005-01-01

    There certainly exists the radioactive inventory that exceeds the waste acceptance criteria for final disposal of the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. In this paper, current disposal status of the long-lived radioactive waste in several nations are summarized and the basic procedures for disposal approach are suggested. With this suggestion, intensive discussion and research activities can hopefully be launched to set down the possible resolutions to dispose of the long-lived radioactive waste

  18. Disposal of low and intermediate level solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanwar Raj

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal facility is a very important link in the nuclear fuel cycle chain. Being at the end of the back-end of the fuel cycle, it forms an interface between nuclear industry and the environment. Therefore, the effectiveness of the disposal facility for safe isolation of radioactive waste is vital. This is achieved by following a systematic approach to the disposal system as a whole. Conditioned waste, engineered barriers, back-fill and surrounding geosphere are main components of the disposal system. All of them play complementary role in isolating the radioactivity contained in the waste for extended period of time

  19. Low and intermediate radioactive waste management at OPG's western waste management facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellsworth, M.

    2006-01-01

    'Full text:' This paper will discuss low and intermediate level radioactive waste operations at Ontario Power Generation's Western Waste Management Facility. The facility has been in operation since 1974 and receives about 5000 - 7000 m 3 of low and intermediate level radioactive waste per year from Ontario's nuclear power plants. Low-level radioactive waste is received at the Waste Volume Reduction Building for possible volume reduction before it is placed into storage. Waste may be volume reduced by one of two methods at the WWMF, through either compaction or incineration. The Compactor is capable of reducing the volume of waste by a factor up to 5:1 for most waste. The Radioactive Incinerator is capable of volume reducing incinerable material by a factor up to 70:1. After processing, low-level waste is stored in above ground concrete warehouse-like structures called Low Level Storage Buildings. Low-level waste that cannot be volume reduced is placed into steel containers and stored in the Low Level Storage Buildings. Intermediate level waste is stored mainly in steel lined concrete storage structures. WWMF has both above ground and in-ground storage structures for intermediate level waste. Intermediate level waste consists primarily of resin and filters used to keep reactor water systems clean, and some used reactor core components. All low and intermediate level waste storage at the WWMF is considered interim storage and the material can be retrieved for future disposal or permanent storage. Current improvement initiatives include the installation of a new radioactive incinerator and a shredder/bagger. The new incinerator is a continuous feed system that is expected to achieve volume reduction rates up to 70:1, while incinerating higher volumes of waste than its predecessor. The shredder will break down large/bulky items into a form, which can be processed for further volume reduction. A Refurbishment Waste Storage Project is underway in anticipation of the

  20. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  1. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  2. Feasibility of large volume casting cementation process for intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhuying; Chen Baisong; Zeng Jishu; Yu Chengze

    1988-01-01

    The recent tendency of radioactive waste treatment and disposal both in China and abroad is reviewed. The feasibility of the large volume casting cementation process for treating and disposing the intermediate level radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing plant in shallow land is assessed on the basis of the analyses of the experimental results (such as formulation study, solidified radioactive waste properties measurement ect.). It can be concluded large volume casting cementation process is a promising, safe and economic process. It is feasible to dispose the intermediate level radioactive waste from reprocessing plant it the disposal site chosen has resonable geological and geographical conditions and some additional effective protection means are taken

  3. Project study for the final disposal of intermediate toxicity radioactive wastes (low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes) in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The present report aimed to show variations in the construction- and operation-technical feasibility of a final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. This report represents the summary of a project study given under contract by Nagra with a view to informing a broader public of the technical conception of a final repository. Particular stress was laid on the treatment of the individual system elements of a repository concept during the construction, operation and sealing phases. The essential basis for the project study is the origin, composition and quantity of the wastes to be disposed. The final repository described in this report is foreseen for the reception of the following low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes: wastes from the nuclear power plant operation; secondary wastes from the reprocessing of nuclear fuels; wastes from the decommissioning of nuclear power plants; wastes from research, medicine and industry

  4. Conceptual designs for waste quality checking facilities for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, S.; Griffiths, M.; Leonard, C.D.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises work carried out on the design of facilities for the quality checking of Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste and Hazardous Waste. The procedures used for the quality checking of these categories of waste are summarised. Three building options are considered: a separate LLW facility, a combined facility for LLW and HW and a Waste Quality Checking Facility for the three categories of waste. Budget Cost Estimates for the three facilities are given based on 1991 prices. (author)

  5. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2001-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant progress has been made towards siting national, purpose-built facilities for Australian radioactive waste. In 2001, after an eight year search, a preferred site and two alternatives were identified in central-north South Australia for a near-surface repository for Australian low level (low level and short-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste. Site 52a at Everts Field West on the Woomera Prohibited Area was selected as the preferred site as it performs best against the selection criteria, particularly with respect to geology, ground water, transport and security. Two alternative sites, Site 45a and Site 40a, east of the Woomera-Roxby Downs Road, were also found to be highly suitable for the siting of the national repository. A project has commenced to site a national store for intermediate (long-lived intermediate level) radioactive waste on Commonwealth land for waste produced by Commonwealth agencies. Public input has been sought on relevant selection criteria

  6. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  7. Approach to defining de minimis, intermediate, and other classes of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This study has developed a framework within which the complete spectrum of radioactive wastes can be defined. An approach has been developed that reflects both concerns in the framework of a radioactive waste classification system. In this approach, the class of any radioactive waste stream is dependent on its degree of radioactivity and its persistence. To be consistent with conventional systems, four waste classes are defined. In increasing order of concern due to radioactivity and/or duration, these are: 1. De Minimis Wastes: This waste has such a low content of radioactive material that it can be considered essentially nonradioactive and managed according to its nonradiological characteristics. 2. Low-Level Waste (LLW): Maximum concentrations for wastes considered to be in this class are prescribed in 10CFR61 as wastes that can be disposed of by shallow land burial methods. 3. Intermediate Level Waste (ILW): This category defines a class of waste whose content exceeds class C (10CFR61) levels, yet does not pose a sufficient hazard to justify management as a high-level waste (i.e., permanent isolation by deep geologic disposal). 4. High-Level Waste: HLW poses the most serious management problem and requires the most restrictive disposal methods. It is defined in NWPA as waste derived from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel and/or as highly radioactive wastes that require permanent isolation

  8. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K.; Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P.; Walderhaug, T.; Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S.; Backe, S.

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au)

  9. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB, (El Salvador); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe, (Denmark); Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P. [VVT, (Finland); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au).

  10. The packaging of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Solid radioactive wastes will generally require some kind of packaging to prepare them for a period of storage followed probably by a land burial. In this Paper the specification of the package is discussed in relation to the properties which will facilitate those two phases of the management of the waste. It is concluded that, by adopting the philosophy of redundant barriers for the disposal phase, a suitable package can be specified for any particular waste product even before the repository site has been selected. Low water flow and an appropriate depth to reduce the risk of accidental re-exposure are the technical site parameters for which particular values will have to be assured at that stage. (author)

  11. Practices and developments in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.

    1983-06-01

    In the Swedish nuclear power program ten reactors are in operation and two more under construction. About 100000 m 3 of low and intermediate level radioactive waste will be produced from the operation of these reactors until the year 2010 and about 150000 m 3 from their decommissioning. All burnable radioactive wastes are sent to the Studsvik incineration plant for incineration. Spent resins are incorporated into cement or bitumen. The volume of non-combustible solid waste is reduced by compaction where possible. At the Studsvik research centre a substantial program for improved management of accumulated and future radioactive waste is at the beginning of its implementation. This includes advanced treatment and intermediate storage in a rock cavity. An R and D program on volume reduction of spent resins has reached the point of process verification and equipment design. All low and intermediate radioactive waste will be disposed in a rock cavity planned for commissioning by 1988. The paper reviews actual management experience and development efforts for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Sweden. Contribution to the Seminar on the Management of Radioactive Waste, Taipei, Taiwan, 25-26 June, 1983. (Author)

  12. Design of drystore for intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myall, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The safe handling and storage of radioactive wastes present important engineering, financial and political considerations to the nuclear industry. The significant experience and expertise of Costain Engineering and Design Group Partnership in the design of nuclear plant has lead to the development of a new concept in dry radwaste store design. Novel concepts based on proven engineering and technology have been used to meet current stringent regulations. Savings in both costs and construction times are achieved in the product support structure and remotely operated emplacement machinery whilst satisfying seismic and structural restraints. The paper describes the main structural features of the store design, together with handling and inspection techniques. (author)

  13. Design of drystore for intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myall, M.G.; Duncan, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In the fields of handling and processing nuclear material, the problem of storage of radioactive waste is an important engineering, financial and political factor. A radical new concept in dry rad-waste store design has been developed which achieves significant reductions in cost and construction build timescales when compared to existing facilities designed to meet current stringent regulations. Savings are obtained in the product support structure, the engineered shield floor and the remotely operated product emplacement machinery. The use of novel structural features eliminates problems of seismic enhancement in the store. The paper describes the main features of the store design, techniques for monitoring and inspection of store contents, and the remote handling equipment. (author)

  14. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses a new program underway to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle. Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contains volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW. 20 figures, 10 tables

  15. Disposal Options for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste: Comparative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the status of current disposal options for Low and Intermediate- Level Radioactive Waste (LILRW) generated in different countries and outlines the potential for future disposal option/s of these wastes in Egypt. Since approaches used in other countries may provide useful lessons for managing Egyptian radioactive wastes. This study was based on data for19 countries repositories and we focused on 6 countries, which considered as leaders in the field of disposal of rad waste. Several countries have plans for repositories which are sufficiently advanced that it was based on their own of their extensive experience with nuclear power generation and with constructing and operating LLRW disposal facilities. On the other hand, our programme for site selection and host rock characterization for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal is under study. We are preparing our criteria for selecting a national repository for LIL rad waste.

  16. Comparison of bitumen and cement immobilization of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses a systems comparison of two available immobilization processes for intermediate- and low-level radioactive wastes -- bitumen and cement. This study examines a conceptual coprocessed UO 2 - PuO 2 fuel cycle. Radioactive wastes are generated at each stage of this fuel cycle. This study focuses on these transuranic (TRU) wastes generated at a conceptual Fuel Coprocessing Facility. In this report, these wastes are quantified, the immobilization systems conceptualized to process these wastes are presented, and a comparison of the systems is made

  17. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section has addressed issues, topics, and considerations related to low-level and intermediate-level wastes that are basic to developing and establishing environmental radiation protection criteria for radioactive wastes. Applicability of criteria, criteria considerations for sites, control of radiological impact to the population, and long-term considerations are discussed

  18. A strategy for the improvement of the intermediate and low level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Jova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The work describes the surrent situation with regard to the management of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes that are generated in the country. Updated information is reffered on the quantities of stored wastes that are to be treated and conditioned at the facilities of the CPHR

  19. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of organic materials which are present in some intermediate level wastes on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  20. Design of drystore for intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myall, M.G.; Duncan, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the fields of handling and processing nuclear material, the problem of storage of radioactive waste is an important engineering, financial and political factor. A radical new concept in dry radwaste store design has been developed which achieves significant reductions in cost and construction build timescales when compared to existing facilities designed to meet current stringent regulations. Savings are obtained in the product support structure, the engineered shield floor and the remotely operated product emplacement machinery. The use of novel structural features eliminates problems of seismic enhancement in the store. The paper describes the main features of the store design, techniques for monitoring and inspection of store contents, and the remote handling equipment. (author)

  1. Time depending assessment of low and intermediate radioactive waste characteristics from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, S.; Pantazi, D.; Stanciu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Low and intermediate radioactive gaseous, liquid and solid waste produced at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant must be well known from the point of view of contained radionuclide activity, during all steps of their processing, storage and transport, to ensure the nuclear safety of radioactive waste management. As in intermediate storage stage, the waste activity changes by radioactive decay and nuclear transmutation, the evolution in time of these sources is necessary to be assessed, for the purpose of biological shielding determination at any time. On the other hand, during the transport of waste package at the repository, the external dose rates must meet the national and international requirements concerning radioactive materials transportation on public roads. In this paper, a calculation methodology for waste characterization based on external exposure rate measurement and on sample analysis results is presented. The time evolution of waste activity, as well as the corresponding shielding at different moments of management process, have been performed using MICROSHIELD-5 code. The spent resins proceeded from clean-up and purification systems and solutions from decontamination have been analyzed. The proposed methodology helps us to assess radiation protection during the handling of low and intermediate - level radioactive waste drums, ensuring safety conditions for the public and environment.(author)

  2. Application of remote sensing technique to site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru; Jin Yuanxin; Liu Yuemiao; Hou Dewen

    2001-01-01

    Based on the relative criteria of selection of disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the social-economic conditions, landform, morphologic properties, regional geological stability, hydrogeological and engineering geological characters of adjacent area of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces were investigated. The geological interpretation of thematic mapper images, field reconnaissance and data analysis were conducted during the research work. The results show that three areas in the west part of Zhejiang Province were recommended as potential site for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. They are Bajiaotang area, Tiebanchong area and Changxing-Guangde-Anji nabes

  3. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  5. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level waste radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    The influence of organic materials, which are present in some intermediate level wastes, on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents formed as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  6. Intermediate storage of radioactive wastes - bridge between production and final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1997-01-01

    On the 7th of January 1997, the foundation stone laying ceremony of the intermediate storage (ZWILAG) for radioactive wastes took place. In this document there is reproduced the text of the speech held by the President of the Council on this occasion

  7. Criteria for the siting, construction, management and evaluation of low and intermediate activity radioactive waste stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired by Spain for the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, is presented. General considerations related to the technology, financing, administrative measures and risk determination are done. The criteria of site selection for construction and management of the waste storage facility are described, evaluating the specific criteria for the licensing procedure, and taking in account the safety and the radiation protection during periods of the system operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J.

    2005-01-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  9. Natural analogue study for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cunli; Fan Zhiwen; Huang Yawen; Cui Anxi; Liu Xiuzheng; Zhang Jinshen

    1995-01-01

    The paper makes a comparison of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design principle and construction procedures. Results showed that Chinese ancient tombs are very good analogue for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal. Long-term preservation of ancient tombs and buried objects demonstrated that low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal would be safe if suitable sites were selected, reasonable engineering structures and good backfill materials were adopted, and scientific construction procedures were followed. The paper reports for the first time the testing results of certain ancient tomb backfill materials. The results indicated that the materials have so low a permeability as 1.5 x 10 -8 cm/s , and strong adsorption to radionuclides Co and Cs with the distribution coefficients of 1.4 x 10 4 mL/g and 2.1 x 10 4 mL/g, and the retardation factors of 4.4 x 10 4 and 7.7 x 10 4 respectively. Good performance of these materials is important assurance of long-term preservation of the ancient tombs. These materials may be considered to be used as backfill materials in low-and-intermediate level radioactive shallow burial disposal. (4 figs., 10 tabs.)

  10. Decision basis for a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report was prepared by a working group and it presents the final proposal for such a decision basis. The report describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for site selection, storage construction, and safety analysis. In an appendix, the amount, types, and activity level of the Danish radioactive wastes are presented. (ln)

  11. Brazilian low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal and environmental conservation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Cuccia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. These facilities must include unoccupied areas as protection barriers, also called buffer zone. Besides that, Brazilian environmental laws require that certain enterprises must preserve part of their area for environmental conservation. The future Brazilian low and intermediate level waste repository (RBMN) might be classified as such enterprise. This paper presents and discusses the main Brazilian legal framework concerning different types of conservation areas that are allowed and which of them could be applied to the buffer zones of RBMN. The possibility of creating a plant repository in the buffer zone is also discussed. (author)

  12. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  13. Measurement methodology for fulfilling of waste acceptance criteria for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in storages - 59016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokcic-Kostic, M.; Langer, F.; Schultheis, R.

    2012-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste must be sorted and treated before it can be sent to radioactive waste storage. The waste must fulfil an extensive amount of acceptance criteria (WAC) to guarantee a safe storage period. NUKEM Technologies has a broad experience with the building and management of radioactive waste treatment facilities and has developed methods and equipment to produce the waste packages and to gather all the required information. In this article we consider low and intermediate level radioactive waste excluding nuclear fuel material, even fresh fuel with low radiation. Only solid radioactive waste (RAW) will be considered. (Liquid RAW is usually processed and solidified before storage. Exception is the reprocessing of nuclear fuel.) Low and intermediate level radioactive waste has to be kept in storage facilities until isotopes are decayed sufficiently and the waste can be released. The storage has to fulfil certain conditions regarding the possible radiological impact and the possible chemical impact on the environment. With the inventory of nuclear waste characterised, the radiological impact can be estimated. RAW mainly originates from the operation of nuclear power plants. A small amount comes from reprocessing installations or from research entities. Chemical safety aspects are of qualitative nature, excluding substances in whole but not compared to limit values. Therefore they have minor influence on the storage conditions. Hereby corrosion and immobilisation of the waste play important roles. The storage concept assumes that the waste will be released if the radioactivity has decreased to an acceptable level. NUKEM Technologies has been specialised on collecting all data needed for the fulfilling of waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The classification as low or intermediate level waste is made on base of surface dose rate of the waste package as well as on the mass specific beta activity. Low level waste must not include isotopes

  14. Policy, regulatory and international spects of the disposal of low - and intermediate radioactive waste and other hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. It recalls briefly the technical background and the main features of the regulatory systems adopted by most countries for their radioactive wastes, the respective role of technical and institutional measures contributing to safety, and the influence of international cooperation. A very preliminary attempt is made to draw a parallel with the situation existing for other hazardous wastes, underlying in particular those aspects which seem important in the discussion of management and regulatory policies

  15. Hot dewatering and resin encapsulation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickman, J.; Birch, D.

    1985-01-01

    The chemistry of the processes involved in the hot dewatering and encapsulation of alumino-ferric hydroxide floc in epoxide resin have been studied. Pretreatment of the floc to reduce resin attack and hydrolysis and to increase the dimensional stability of the solidified wasteform has been evaluated. It has been demonstrated that removal of ammonium nitrate from the floc and control of the residual water in the resin are important factors in ensuring dimensional stability of the solidified resin. Resin systems have been identified which, together with the appropriate waste pretreatment have successfully encapsulated a simulated magnox sludge producing a stable wasteform having mechanical and physical properties comparable with the basic resin. (author)

  16. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio T.; Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Taveira, Gerson L.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  17. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  18. Storage and final disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste materials in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.

    1997-01-01

    As of the end of 1995, 18 countries in Europe had electricity-generating nuclear power reactors in operation or under construction. There are currently 217 operating units, with a total capacity of about 165 GW e. In addition, there are 26 units under construction, which would bring the total electrical generating capacity to about 190 GW e.The management of radioactive waste is not a new concept. It has been safely practised for low and intermediate level wastes for almost 40 years. Today, after decades of research, development and industrial applications, it can be stated confidently that safe technological solutions for radioactive waste management exist. However, waste disposal as a whole waste management system is no longer a matter for scientists but requires co-operation with politicians, licensing authorities, industry and ultimately general public. The goal is unique: the protection of human health and the global environment against possible short term and (very) long term effects of radioactive materials. Disposal of waste materials in a repository without the intention of retrieval, whereas storage, as previously discussed, is done with the intention that the waste will be retrieved at a later time. If disposed waste is abandoned, the repository site is not abandoned, but surveillance should not be necessary beyond some expected period of institutional control. (author)

  19. The management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes arising from reprocessing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsden, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel results in the generation of radioactive wastes in the form of liquids, gases and solids. This paper outlines the principles and major elements of the waste management systems currently in use or under development for the category of waste known as intermediate-level wastes. To enable implementation of an optimized waste management system, engineering process evaluations, development and design in the following areas are required: The definition of cost effective options taking account of constraints which may arise from other operations in the overall system, e.g. from transport requirements or from criteria derived from environmental impact assessments of alternative disposal routes; Plant and equipment development to enable acceptable system and active plant operations on an industrial scale; Safety and reliability studies to ensure adequate protection of both the general public and plant operators during all stages of the waste management system including disposal

  20. Projection to 2035 for the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.; Sanchez U, S.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to establish in few years a definitive warehouse for the radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, generated in the country and to satisfy the necessities of their confinement in the next ones 50 to 80 years. Therefore, it is required to be considered those volumes produced annually, those stored at the present and those estimated to medium and long term. The results of the simulation of 4 cases are presented, considering the operation from the 2 nuclear power reactors to 40 and 60 years, the use of the technology of current treatment and the use of super compaction of solids, as well as the importance in the taking of decision of the methodology for the dismantlement of each reactor to the finish of their useful life. At the moment the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, produces an average of 250 m 3 /year of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, constituted by solid dry wastes, humid solids and liquids. In the last 3 years, the power plant has reached an effectiveness of re utilization of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, in Mexico the non energetic applications of the radioisotopes, produce annually of the order of 20 m 3 /year of solid wastes, 280 m 3 /year of liquid wastes and 300 worn out radioactive sources. (Author)

  1. Storage for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this report was to assess whether three nominated sites in Norway for underground storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes would comply with safety standards and applicable laws and regulations. The site selection criteria are described and the report evaluates the technical, environmental and socio-economic suitability of the different sites. The site selection process eliminated two of the nominated sites, whereas one site was singled out. 28 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  3. Removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solution : a laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were investigated in the laboratory for the removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plant origin. The methods included batch equilibration with different ion exchangers and sorbents, column testing and chemical precipitation. A column method using zinc-activated carbon mixture and a chemical precipitation method using ferrous salt along with sodium sulphite were found to be promising for plant scale application. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Estimation of the conditioning and storage costs of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Moro, A.; Panciatici, G.

    1977-01-01

    The conditioning and storage costs of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes are analyzed. The cost of direct labour is assumed as the reference cost for their computation and the storage cost is considered as resulting from the contract cost ''una tantum'' and from the leasing cost. As an example, the cost trends are reported, relevant to the solution adopted at CAMEN (conditioning in concrete containers and storage on concrete open-air bed)

  5. Immobilization of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes using some industrial by-product materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.M.; EI-Dessouky, M.I.; Abou EI-Nour, F.H.; Abdel-Khalik, M.

    2006-01-01

    Immobilization of low and intermediate level.radioactive liquid wastes in different matrices: ordinary Portland cement and cement mixed with some industrial byproduct: by-pass kiln cement dust, blast furnace slag and ceramic sludge was studied. The effect of these industrial by-product materials on the compressive strength, water immersion, radiation effect and teachability were investigated. The obtained results showed that, these industrial by-product improve the cement pastes where they increase the compressive strength, decrease the leaching rate for radioactive cesium-137 and cobalt-60 ions through the solidified waste forms and increase resistance for y-radiation. It is found that, solidified waste forms of intermediate level liquid waste (ILLW) had high compressive strength values more than those obtained from low level liquid waste (LLLW). The compressive strength increased after immersion in different leachant for one and three months for samples with LLLW higher than those obtained for ILLW. The cumulative fractions released of cesium-137 and cobalt-60 of solidified waste forms of LLLW was lower than those obtained for ILLW

  6. Current construction status of Korea Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center (low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Through the RANDEC delegation tour to Korea in Nov. 2009, we have earned new information on recent development of the radioactive waste management in Korea. In this report, we will introduce such development in Korea, focusing on the current construction status of Korean LILW (low and intermediate level radioactive waste) disposal site, now called, Wolsong Nuclear Environment Management Center. (author)

  7. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  8. Feasibility study for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chales Suarez, G.; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriquez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The perspective of completing and operating the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and the development of nuclear applications justifies the need to establish an appropriate low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system in Cuba. The design of one option which is consonant with the characteristics of this country is presented in the form of a feasibility study. The study discusses the characteristics of the wastes, the design of the repository, the packaging of the radioactive wastes as well as the siting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage. International practice and experience have been considered, as well as the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency [1-4] in the preparation of this study. (author)

  9. Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive solidified waste forms and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste forms and packages with respect to compliance with quality and safety requirements for transport, interim storage and disposal has become a very important part of the radioactive waste management strategy in many countries. The evaluation of waste forms and packages provides precise basic data for regulatory bodies to establish safety requirements, and implement quality control and quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste management programmes. The requirements depend very much upon the disposal option selected, treatment technology used, waste form characteristics, package quality and other factors. The regulatory requirements can also influence the methodology of waste form/package evaluation together with selection and analysis of data for quality control and safety assurance. A coordinated research programme started at the end of 1985 and brought together 12 participants from 11 countries. The results of the programme and each particular project were discussed at three Research Coordination Meetings held in Cairo, Egypt, in May, 1986; in Beijing, China, in April, 1998; and at Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, in November, 1989. This document summarises the salient features and results achieved during the four year investigation and a recommendation for future work in this area. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  11. The principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the principles of design of a shallow disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The objective of the author is to review the need for shallow land disposal facilities in the UK and to propose design principles which will protect the public and operatives from excessive risk. It is not the intent of the author to present a detailed design of facility which will meet the design standards proposed although such a design is feasible and within the scope of currently available technology. The principles and standards proposed in this paper are not necessarily those of PPC Consultant Services Ltd. or NEI Waste Technologies Ltd. (author)

  12. Corrosion of steel drums containing simulated radioactive waste of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, S.B.; Schulz Rodríguez, F.; Duffó, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins are frequently used during the operation of nuclear power plants and constitute radioactive waste of low and intermediate level. For the final disposal inside the repository the resins are immobilized by cementation and placed inside steel drums. The eventful contamination of the resins with aggressive species may cause corrosion problems to the drums. In order to assess the incidence of this phenomenon and to estimate the lifespan of the steel drums, in the present work, the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different aggressive species was studied. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The corrosion rate of the steel was monitored over a time period of 900 days and a chemical and morphological analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition was performed. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it was found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (author)

  13. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Shinji, Yoshimasa; Maki, Yasuro; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Minegishi, Keiichi; Sudoh, Giichi.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer-impregnated concrete (SFPIC) has been investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The present study has been carried out by the following stages. A) Preliminary evaluation: 60 L size container for cold and hot tests. B) Evaluation of size effect: 200 L size container for cold tests. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure-container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 . Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer for stage-A and B were performed by 60 Co-γ ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization, respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 -outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about 1380 x 10 -6 and 3950 x 10 -6 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. An accelerated leaching test was performed by charging the concentrate of the liquid radioactive waste from JMTR in JAERI into the container. Although they were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. From results of various tests, it was evaluated that the SFPIC-container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. There was not any great difference between the two size containers for the physical and chemical properties except in their preparation process. (author)

  14. Surface-type repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Zarkovic, V.; Subasic, D.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level intermediate-level (LL/IL) radioactive waste repository siting and construction project is one of the activities related to establishing the rad waste management system in the Republic of Croatia. The repository project design is one in an array of project activities which also include the site selection procedure and public attitude issues. The prepared design documentation gives technical, safety and financial background relevant for making a final decision on the waste disposal type, and it includes the technological, mechanical, civil and financial documentation on the preliminary/basic design level. During the last few years, the preliminary design has been prepared and safety assessment conducted for the tunnel-type LL/IL rad waste repository. As the surface-type repository is one of alternatives for final disposal the design documentation for that repository type was prepared during 1994. (author)

  15. Experience from developed and licensing an underground repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebel, K.; Richter, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the German Democratic Republic an abandoned salt mine was selected and reconstructed to serve as a central repository for low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants and radioisotope production and application from all over the country. The decision to establish such a repository was based on safety and technical-economic studies performed in the 1960s. The repository is owned by the main waste producer, the nuclear plant utility. It was designed, constructed and commissioned during 1972-1978. The licensing steps included a site licence (1972), a construction licence (1974), a comissioning licence and a continuous operation licence (1979). The paper reviews the overall choice of the disposal option, the responsibilities in radioactive waste management, the licensing and surveillance activities, the methods for transport and disposal, and the waste acceptance criteria established for the repository. (author)

  16. A methodology for assessing social considerations in transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsop, R.E.; Banister, D.J.; Holden, D.J.; Bird, J.; Downe, H.E.

    1986-05-01

    A methodology is proposed for taking into account non-radiological social aspects of the transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste when considering the location of disposal facilities and the transport of waste to such facilities from the sites where it arises. As part of a data acquisition programme, an attitudinal survey of a sample of people unconnected with any suggested site or transport route is proposed in order to estimate levels of concern felt by people of different kinds about waste transport. Probabilities of accident occurrence during transport by road and rail are also discussed, and the limited extent of quantified information about consequences of accidents is reviewed. The scope for malicious interference with consignments of waste in transit is considered. (author)

  17. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, D.; Loose, A.; Urbanc, J.

    1998-01-01

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  18. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  19. The packaging and transport of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, J.R.; Price, M.S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Up to the present time, the majority of the radioactive waste which has been transported in the United Kingdom has been low level waste for disposal in the trenches of the shallow burial site operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc at Drigg and also the packaged waste destined for sea disposal in the annual operation. However, the main bulk of the low and intermediate level wastes which have been generated over the last quarter century remain in store at the various nuclear sites where it originated. Before significant packaging and transport of intermediate level wastes takes place it is desirable to examine the sources and types of wastes, the immobilisation and packaging processes and plants, the transport, and the problems of handling of packages at future land repositories. Optimisation of the packaging and transport must take account of both the upstream and downstream con=straints as well as the implications of complying with both the IAEA Transport Regulations and radiological protection guidelines. Packages for sea disposal must in addition comply with the requirements of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA guidelines. (author)

  20. Long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes: defining the context, stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French law from December 30, 1991 has defined an ambitious 15 years program of researches in order to explore the different possible paths for the long-term management of long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The law foresees also that at the end of the 15 years research program, a project of law will be prepared by the French government and transmitted to the European parliament in 2006. A public debate has been organized and emceed in 2005 in order dialogue with the general public and to gather its questions, remarks and fears. In the framework of their contribution to this debate, the ministries of industry and environment have prepared this document which answers some key questions about radioactive waste management: where do wastes come from, what are the risks, how are they managed today in France and in foreign countries, what are the results of the researches carried out during 15 years, what are the advantages and drawbacks of each waste management solution considered, what is the perspective of application of each solution, what is the position of experts, what will be the decision process. This synthetic document supplies some reference marks to better understand these different points. Some pedagogical files about radioactivity, fuel cycle, and nuclear industry activities are attached to the document. (J.S.)

  1. Current issues in the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.; Vaughan, B.R.; Williamson, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear generating stations (NGSs) in Canada are operated by utilities in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Ontario Hydro, with a committed nuclear program of 13,600 MW(electric) is the major producer of CANDU pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. All radioactive wastes with the exception of irradiated fuel are processed and retrievably stored at a centralized facility at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Solid-waste classifications and annual production levels are given. Solid-waste management practices at the site as well as the physical, chemical, and radiochemical characteristics of the wastes are well documented. The paper summarizes types, current inventory, and estimated annual production rate of liquid waste. Operation of the tritium recovery facility at Darlington NGS, which removes tritium from heavy water and produces tritium gas in the process, gives rise to secondary streams of tritiated solid and liquid wastes, which will receive special treatment and packaging. In addition to the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, there are a number of other important issues in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste management that Ontario Hydro will be addressing over the next few years. The most pressing of these is the reduction of radioactive wastes through in-station material control, employee awareness, and improved waste characterization and segregation programs. Since Ontario Hydro intends to store retrievable wastes for > 50 yr, it is necessary to determine the behavior of wastes under long-term storage conditions

  2. Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established for the predisposal management of low and intermediate level waste. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety considerations; 5. Safety features for the predisposal management of LILW; 6. Record keeping and reporting; 7. Safety assessment; 8. Quality assurance; Annex I: Nature and sources of LILW from nuclear facilities; Annex II: Development of specifications for waste packages; Annex III: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  3. Prediction of radionuclide invention for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste by considering concentration limit of waste package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Min Seong; Jeong, Noh Gyeon; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency(KORAD), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The result of a preliminary safety assessment that was completed by applying the radionuclide inventory calculated on the basis of available data from radioactive waste generation agencies suggested that many difficulties are to be expected with regard to disposal safety and operation. Based on the results of the preliminary safety assessment of the entire disposal system, in this paper, a unit package exceeding the safety goal is selected that occupies a large proportion of radionuclides in intermediate-level radioactive waste. We introduce restrictions on the amount of radioactivity in a way that excludes the high surface dose rate of the package. The radioactivity limit for disposal will be used as the baseline data for establishing the acceptance criteria and the disposal criteria for each disposal facility to meet the safety standards. It is necessary to draw up a comprehensive safety development plan for the Gyeongju waste disposal facility that will contribute to the construction of a Safety Case for the safety optimization of radioactive waste disposal facilities.

  4. Studies concerning the degradation of concrete vaults for intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Arva, Esteban A; Giordano, Celia M.; Lafont, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of this concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. All the information obtained from the sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (author) [es

  5. Influence of time dependent effects on the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Reviews are presented firstly of potential events and processes which may affect the evolution of the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Britain and secondly of previous studies carried out worldwide in the field of time dependent effects. From the latter review available methodologies for incorporating time dependence into radiological assessments are identified. Finally, proposals are presented for the design and development of a time dependent effects model, based on the existing far field state model (FFSM) developed for ONWI in USA. (author)

  6. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A constructional engineering project study aimed at clarification of the feasibility of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (type B repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set derived from the geological, rock mechanical and topographical characterictics of one of Nagra's planned exploration areas. Final storage is effected in subterranean rock caverns accessed by horizontal tunnel. The reception area also is sited below the surface. Storage is conceived in such a way that, after closure of the repository, maintenance and supervision can be dispensed with and a guarantee of high long-term safety can nevertheless be provided. The envisaged repository consists of an entry tunnel for road vehicles and a reception area with a series of caverns for receiving waste, for additional technical facilities and for the production of the concrete back-fill material. The connecting tunnel is serviced by a tunnel railway and the actual repository area consists of several storage caverns. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of 200'000 m3 of solidified low- and intermediate-level waste. Valanginian marl is assumed as the host rock, although it would also be basically possible to house the proposed installations in other host rocks. The excavated material will total around 1'000'000 m3. The construction time for the whole installation is estimated as about 7 years and a working team of around 30 people will be required for the estimated 60-year operational duration. The project described in the present report justifies the conclusion that construction of a repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste is feasible with present-day technology. This conclusion takes into consideration quantitative and operational constraints as well as geological and hydrogeological data relevant to constructional engineering. The latter are derived from a model data-set based on a specific locality

  7. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  8. Feasibility study on vitrification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste from pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.K.; Song, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to obtain annual generation volume and composition data for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW), characteristics and generation trends for each waste which was produced at nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea were investigated. Of the three different types of melters, the platinum crucible was found to be most suitable for the performance of vitrification experiments and hence, was used to help better understand the optimal waste contents in borosilicate glass waste forms with respect to waste types. After the performance of vitrification experiments, compressive strength tests showed that the final waste glass product, containing up to 40 vol% of ashy pyrolyzed/oxidized at 400--800 C, showed good mechanical stability and homogeneity in the glass matrix. Economical assessment was performed with some considerations given for equipment having already been adopted for LILW treatment in Korea for four treatment strategies with melters selected from a technical assessment. For each strategy, the capital and the operation cost were estimated, and the disposal volume was calculated with reasonably estimated volume reduction factors with regard to waste type and treatment concept

  9. Hydration products and mechanical properties of hydroceramics solidified waste for simulated Non-alpha low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Hong Ming; Wang Junxia; Li Yuxiang; Teng Yuancheng; Wu Xiuling

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, simulated non-alpha low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was handled as curing object and that of 'alkali-slag-coal fly ash-metakaolin' hydroceramics waste forms were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis method. The hydration products were analyzed by X ray diffraction. The composition of hydrates and the compressive strength of waste forms were determined and measured. The results indicate that the main crystalline phase of hydration products were analcite when the temperature was 150 to 180 degree C and the salt content ratio was 0.10 to 0.30. Analcite diffraction peaks in hydration products is increasing when the temperature was raised and the reaction time prolonged. Strength test results show that the solidified waste forms have superior compressive strength. The compressive strength gradually decreased with the increase in salt content ratio in waste forms. (authors)

  10. The project for national disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Boyanov, S.; Christoskova, M.; Ivanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The State Enterprise Radioactive Waste is the responsible organisation in Bulgaria for the radioactive waste management and, in particular, for the establishment of the national disposal facility (NDF) for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LIL RAW SL). According to the national strategy for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste the NDF should be commissioned in 2015. NDF will accept two main waste streams - for disposal and for storage if the waste is not disposable. The major part of disposable waste is generated by Kozloduy NPP. The disposal facility will be a near surface module type engineered facility. Consecutive erection of new modules will be available in order to increase the capacity of the facility. The corrective measures are previewed to be applied if needed - upgrading of engineered barriers and/or retrieval of the waste. The active control after the facility is closed should be not more than 300 years. The safety of the facility is supposed to be based on the passive measures based on defense in deep consisting of physical barriers and administrative measures. A multi barrier approach will be applied. Presently the NDF project is at the first stage of the facility life cycle - the site selection. The siting process itself consists of four stages - elaboration of a concept for waste disposal and site selection planning, data collection and region analyses, characterization of the preferred sites-candidates and site confirmation. Up till now the work on the first two stages of the siting process had been done by the SE RAW. Geological site investigations have been carried out for more than two decades all over the territory of the country. The results of the investigations have been summarized and analysed thoroughly. More than 40 potential sites have been considered, after the preselection 12 sites have been selected as favourable and among them 5 are pointed out as acceptable. The ultimate decision for a site

  11. Separation of cobalt from synthetic intermediate and decontamination radioactive wastes using polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, S.V.S.; Lal, K.B.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Ahmed, J.

    1997-01-01

    Studies have been carried out on the removal of radioactive cobalt ( 60 Co) from synthetic intermediate level waste (ILW) and decontamination waste using neat polyurethane (PU) foam as well as n-tributyl phosphate-polyurethane (TBP-PU) foam. The radioactive cobalt has been extracted on the PU foam as cobalt thiocyanate from the ILW. Maximum removal of cobalt has been observed when the concentration of thiocyanate in the solution is about 0.4 M. Cobalt can be separated from decontamination waste containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and iron(II). The extent of extraction of cobalt is slow and the separation of iron and cobalt is better with the neat PU foam compared to the TBP-PU foam. The presence of iron in the decontamination waste facilitates the extraction of cobalt thiocyanate on the PU foam. Column studies have been carried out in order to extend these studies to the plant scale. The capacities of the PU foams for cobalt have been determined. The effect of density and the surface area of PU foam have been investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral studies have been conducted to find out the interaction between PU foam and cobalt thiocyanate species

  12. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Elstow Storage Depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a new shallow repository at the CEGB's Elstow Storage Depot, Bedfordshire. The site is conveniently located and is situated on a suitable geologic formation, the Oxford Clay. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a shallow repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. The development would involve the construction of new buildings and a programme of trench excavation, waste positioning and trench closure. Existing tenants at the Depot will be accommodated as far as possible. The existing road and rail networks would be used for delivering the packaged wastes. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and workforce, both now and in the future, will be of paramount importance. (author)

  13. Canadian experiences in characterizing two low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1984-02-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level reactor waste (ILW) arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the generation of electricity and from the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development as well as for the production of separated radioisotopes. The majority of this waste is currently being safely managed at two sites in the Province of Ontario: (1) Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and (2) Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Power Development Radioactive Waste Operations Site 2. Although these storage facilities can safely manage the waste for a long period of time, there are advantages in disposal of the LLW and ILW. The design of the disposal facilities and the assessment of long-term performance will require that the hydrologic and geologic data be gathered for a potential disposal site. Past site characterization programs at the two aforementioned waste storage sites have produced information which will be useful to future disposal studies in similar geologic materials. The assessment of long-term performance will require that predictions be made regarding the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides. However there still remain many uncertainties regarding the chemical and physical processes which affect radionuclide mobility and concentrations, in particular hydrodynamic dispersion, geochemical reactions, and transport through fractured media. These uncertainties have to be borne in mind when conducting the performance assessments and adequate conservatism must be included to account for the uncertainties. (author)

  14. Summary report of a seminar on geosphere modelling requirements of deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, D.; Paige, R.W.; Broyd, T.W.

    1989-02-01

    A seminar on the geosphere modelling requirements of deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was organised by WS Atkins Engineering Sciences as part of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's Radioactive Waste Assessment Programme. The objectives of the seminar were to review geosphere modelling capabilities and prioritise, if possible, any requirements for model development. Summaries of the presentations and subsequent discussions are given in this report. (author)

  15. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianqin; Li Honghui; Sun Qinghong; Yang Zhongtian

    2012-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  16. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  17. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Billingham anhydrite mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a deep repository at ICI's disused anhydrite mine, Billingham. The site is conveniently located and the geology is well understood. The existing workings are known to have a long history of stability and of particular importance, very little water is present. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a deep repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. Converting the mine into a repository would involve construction of some new buildings at the surface although little or no new excavation work would be necessary. As far as possible existing road and rail networks would be used. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and the work-force will be of paramount importance. (author)

  18. Design perspectives for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ki; Koh, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Sang Sun; Lee, Byung Sik; Choi, Gi Won

    2007-01-01

    The underground waste repository is located at Gyeongju and is designed for the disposal of all the Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste(LILW). It is scheduled to commence operations in the beginning of 2009. The repository, with a disposal capacity of 800,000 drums, will be constructed in granite rock near the seashore at the Gyeongju site. The repository will be designed to be constructed in phases to reach its final capacity 800,000 drums. In the first phase of construction, the repository will have a capacity to store 100,000 drums. The repository will house all LILW generated in the Republic of Korea. The first phase of the repository design consists of an assess shaft, a construction tunnel, an operating tunnel, an unloading tunnel, and six(6) silos. The silos are located at 80 to 130 meters below Mean Sea level (MSL), in bedrock. Each silo is 24.8m in diameter and 52.4m in height. The silo will be reinforced with concrete lining for rock supports which will also act aas an engineered barrier in limiting radioactive nuclide release aft closure. After serving its intended function the repository will be filled and sealed. The primary objective of filling and sealing is to prevent ground water flow into the silo through the tunnel system and to prevent inadvertent intrusion into the repository after closure

  19. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  20. Cost Considerations and Financing Mechanisms for the Disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The overall objective of this publication is to provide Member States who are currently planning or preparing new near surface repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), guidance on cost considerations and funding mechanisms for the repositories' entire life cycle. The report focuses on both technical and non-technical factors affecting repository costs. It considers the major cost elements that comprise a cost evaluation for a disposal facility for LILW and identifies those factors which may result in major uncertainties in an overall cost estimate. In particular, the report lists the basic disposal options and summarizes the legal basis and infrastructure requirements for establishing an effective financing system. It further includes the cost estimation methodology, considers the major cost categories and discusses factors to be considered when planning the financing mechanism, and describes relevant financing schemes

  1. Large diameter boreholes (LDB) for low and intermediate radioactive waste storage/disposal in clay deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, A.V.; Litinsky, Y.V.; Guskov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The State Unitary Enterprise of Moscow MosSIA 'RADON' has been carrying out collecting, treatment, conditioning and storage/disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILW) produced by research, medical and industry enterprises in the Central Region of Russia since 1961. Typical near surface facilities were and still are widely used for long-term storage of conditioned low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILW). They are the vault type constructions made of monolithic reinforced concrete or from concrete blocks placed mostly below the ground level in previously excavated trenches in clayey rocks. The depth of trenches is usually from 3 to 6 m and the volume of such repositories varies from 200 up to 20 thousand m3. Operation practice and monitoring results has revealed their common disadvantage typical for 'RADON'-type facilities on the territory of the Russian Federation and some other countries. As a result of continental climate conditions with cyclic seasonal freezing and thawing of host rock and underground constructions, the permeability of grouting cement and engineering barriers is increasing in time more quickly then was supposed when designing and constructing such facilities due to cracks and cement destruction caused by these cycles. This leads to water infiltration and accumulation inside the vault, leaching of radionuclides and their migration out of the repository. In some cases radionuclide migration into the near field and radioactive contamination of the ground around the storage facility was detected. Decontamination of such ground results in generation of secondary wastes that requires additional space in existing repositories for its storage or disposal and corresponding growth of final costs of RAW isolation. Construction of new near surface repositories for the same purpose at the operating sites within the boundaries of lease area is problematic because of the

  2. Comparative estimates of risks arising from storage of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.

    1986-04-01

    Estimates are presented of risks arising from accidents occuring during storage of nine types of conditioned intermediate level waste. Additional data are introduced relating to the risks from accidents affecting raw waste, and to risks associated with the occupational doses received during normal operation of a waste store. Risks in all three categories are shown to be extremely small. (author)

  3. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  4. Ancient tombs in China and shallow land disposal of low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Gu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper summerises the experiences of ancient tombs in China on tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing (or airlight) techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques and so on based upon site investigation. Comparison between ancient tombs in China and shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes has been made. The authors point out that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects is a historical evidence for safety of shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences of ancient tombs can be used for reference to shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes

  5. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm 3 ), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  6. Advice concerning the advantages of a reference incinerator for low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, G.B.

    1985-05-01

    In this report, an inventory is presented of new incinerators and flue gas filters used in low and intermediate-level radioactive waste combustion. It is argued that a 'reference equipment' for the combustion of solid and liquid low- and intermediate-level wastes best meets existing Dutch radiation protection standards. A cost-benefit analysis of such an equipment is given including annual costs of investment, capital and exploration. A separate combustion process of organic liquids and carrions is considered finally. (G.J.P.)

  7. A product designed for final disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baboescu, E.; Popescu, I. V.

    2001-01-01

    The product 'metallic barrel - concrete - low level radioactive wastes - 1' (ABBD - 1) was certified according to the company's standard SF ICN/1994, updated 1. The product ABBD -1 is produced according to the following certified technologies: - technology for processing and conditioning of low level radioactive solid wastes; - technology for processing and conditioning of waste ion exchangers from the TRIGA reactor; - technology for conditioning the β - γ radioactive compacts. The product is constituted of a protection shield, the concrete block - radioactive waste, securing high mechanical strength and a high degree of radionuclides retaining, thus ensuring the necessary condition for long time disposal and, finally, the metallic container fulfilling the National Standards of Nuclear Safety for Radioactive Materials Transportation. The metallic container is made of pickled slab, with a 220 l capacity, according to STAS 7683/88 standards. The main characteristics of the product 'ABBD - 1' are: - size: height, 915 ± 10 mm, diameter, 600 ± 5 mm; - mass, 300 - 600 kg; - maximum permissible activity, 6 x 10 9 Bq/ barrel (0.164 Ci/barrel); - equivalent dose rate for gamma radiation at barrel's wall, max. 1 mSv/h (200 mrem/h); - unfixed external contamination, 2 ; - compression strength of concrete block alone, > 5 x 10 6 N/m 2 ; - lixiviation rate, -3 cm/day; - the compact concrete block-radioactive waste is leak-proof and crack-free. The final product is transferred from INR Pitesti to National Repository for Radioactive Waste by railway and road transportation according to the provisions of the National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control as stipulated in the National Standards of Nuclear Safety of Radioactive Materials Transportation

  8. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power reactors and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of LLW. This Safety Guide deals with the safety issues associated with the predisposal management of LLW from nuclear fuel cycle facilities, large research and development installations and radioisotope production facilities. This includes all steps and activities in the management of waste, from its initial generation to its final acceptance at a waste disposal facility or the removal of regulatory control. The predisposal management of radioactive waste includes decommissioning. The term 'decommissioning' encompasses both the process of decommissioning a facility and the management of the waste that results (prior to its disposal). Recommendations on the process of decommissioning are provided in Refs. Recommendations on the management of the waste resulting from decommissioning are included in this Safety Guide. Although the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores is part of the nuclear fuel cycle, the management of the operational waste (e.g. waste rock, tailings and effluent treatment waste) from these activities is not within the scope of this Safety Guide. The LLW that is

  9. Polymeric radioactive waste disposal containers: an investigation into the application of polymers vice metals to house low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.W.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research carried out in Canada in the design of containers for the disposal of radioactive waste has focussed on spent nuclear fuel, even though the quantities of other currently stored radioactive wastes are substantially greater. Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive waste disposal containers. The purpose of this research was to determine if thermoplastic polymers could be used as superior materials to replace metals in the application of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal containers. Polymers have the advantage that they do not corrode like metals. The experimental methods, used in this research, focused on the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials. Polypropylene, Nylon 66, Polycarbonate, and Polyurethane, with and without glass fibre reinforcement, were studied. The method involved irradiating injection moulded tensile test bars with the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. To determine the effects of the various doses on the materials, density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests were run. For each polymer, the test methods supported predominant crosslinking of polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of crosslinking. The mechanical changes included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included differences in chemical transition temperatures characteristic of radiation damage. The test methods also evidenced minor radiation degradation at the fibre/matrix interfaces in the glass fibre reinforced

  10. Polymeric radioactive waste disposal containers: an investigation into the application of polymers vice metals to house low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M.W.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The research carried out in Canada in the design of containers for the disposal of radioactive waste has focussed on spent nuclear fuel, even though the quantities of other currently stored radioactive wastes are substantially greater. Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive waste disposal containers. The purpose of this research was to determine if thermoplastic polymers could be used as superior materials to replace metals in the application of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal containers. Polymers have the advantage that they do not corrode like metals. The experimental methods, used in this research, focused on the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials. Polypropylene, Nylon 66, Polycarbonate, and Polyurethane, with and without glass fibre reinforcement, were studied. The method involved irradiating injection moulded tensile test bars with the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. To determine the effects of the various doses on the materials, density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests were run. For each polymer, the test methods supported predominant crosslinking of polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of crosslinking. The mechanical changes included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included differences in chemical transition temperatures characteristic of radiation damage. The test methods also evidenced minor radiation degradation at the fibre/matrix interfaces in the glass fibre

  11. Longterm performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chun, T. H.; Lee, J. M.; Yum, M. O.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1997-03-01

    Underground repository for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste is to be sealed and closed after operation. Structural components, which are generally made of cement concrete, are designed and accommodated in the repository for the purpose of operational convenience and stability after closure. To forecast the change of long-term integrity of the structural components, experimental verification, using in-situ or near in-situ conditions, is necessary. Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components in disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of various types of cement were studied. Materials and construction methods of structural components similar to those of disposal facility was investigated and test items and methods for integrity of cement concrete were included. Literature survey for domestic groundwater characteristics was performed together with Ca-type bentonite ore which is a potential backfill material. Causes or factors affecting the durability of the cement structures were summarized. Experiments to figure out the ions leaching out from and migrating into cement soaked in distilled water and synthetic groundwater, respectively, were carried out. And finally, diffusion of chloride ion through cement was experimentally measured

  12. Corrosion on reinforced concrete structures. An application for the intermediate level radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arva, Alejandro; Alvarez, Marta G.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of steel reinforcement bars (rebars) for a high performance reinforced concrete made of sulfate resistant portland cement was evaluated from the rebars corrosion point of view. The results from the present work will be used to evaluate the materials properties to be used in the construction of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal containers. The study is carried out evaluating the incidence of chloride and sulfate ions, as well as, concrete carbonation in the rebar corrosion process. The electrochemical parameters that characterize the corrosion process (corrosion potential [E corr ], polarisation resistance [Rp] and concrete electrical resistivity [ρ]) were monitored on specially designed reinforced concrete specimens. The results up to date (about 1000 days of exposure) reveal that the concrete under study provides to the steel reinforcement bars of a passive state against corrosion under the test conditions. An increasing tendency as a function of time of ρ is observed that corroborates the continuous curing process of concrete. The chloride and carbonation diffusion coefficients were also determined, and their values are comparable with those of high quality concrete. (author)

  13. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste must delay the return of radionuclides to the biosphere for a long period of time and must maintain the release rates at a sufficiently low level for all time. This is achieved with the aid of a series of safety barriers which consist, on the one hand, of technical barriers in the repository and, on the other hand , of natural geological barriers as they occur at the repository location. In order to assess the efficiency of the barriers, the working methods of the technical barriers and the host rock must be understood. This understanding is transferred into quantitative models in order to calculate the safety of the repository. The individual barriers and the methods used to modelling their functions were described in volume NGB 85-07 of the Project Guarantee 1985 report series and the data necessary for modelling were given. The models and data are used in the safety analysis, the results of which are contained in the present report. Safety considerations show that models are available in Switzerland which allow, in principle, an assessment of the long-term behaviour of a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. The evaluation of earlier studies and experimental work, suitable laboratory measurements and results from field research enable compilation of a representative data-set so that the requirements for quantitative statements on safety of final disposal are met from this side also. The safety calculations show that the radiation doses calculated for a base case scenario with realistic/conservative parameter values are negligibly low. Also, radiation doses which are clearly under the protection standard of 10 mrem per year result for conservative values and the cumulation of several conservative assumptions. Even assuming exposure of the repository by erosion, a radiotoxicity of the soil formed results which is under natural values

  14. Membrane methods for the treatment of low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Tyminski, B.

    2001-01-01

    Membrane processes have been investigated at Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (INCT) since eighties. Different polymeric membranes were tested with radioactive solutions in long time operations. Such membrane processes as ultrafiltration, 'seeded' ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis were studied in a laboratory scale and in pilot plant experiments. The experiments show the advantage of membrane methods over some other processes used for radioactive wastes treatment. The RO method is being implemented at Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk (Warsaw), where liquid radioactive wastes from all of Poland are collected and processed. Another method for liquid radioactive wastes treatment employing hydrophobic polymer membrane was developed at INCT. The process called membrane distillation was investigated for some years and the pilot plant for the processing 50 dm 3 /h of radioactive effluents was constructed. The pilot plant experiments show membrane distillation allows complete purification of liquid radioactive waste in one stage and does not need additional processes to ensure sufficient purity of water discharged to the environment. Comparison between two processes: membrane distillation and reverse osmosis showed that in some cases MD could be more beneficial. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to set out the Government's current strategy for the long term in the management of radioactive wastes. It takes account of the latest developments, and will be subject to review in the light of future developments and studies. The subject is discussed under the headings: what are radioactive wastes; who is responsible; what monitoring takes place; disposal as the objective; low-level wastes; intermediate-level wastes; discharges from Sellafield; heat generating wastes; how will waste management systems and procedures be assessed; how much more waste is there going to be in future; conclusion. (U.K.)

  16. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  18. Treatment of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The report of a panel convened by the IAEA in Vienna, 2-6 May 1966. Thirteen experts from eight countries and one international organization attended the meeting. This report is related to treatment and radioactive sludges or residues resulting from treatment and purification of radioactive wastes. It includes: (i) concentration by evaporation; (ii) filtration; (iii) insolubilization by means of bitumen; (iv) use of cement or cement-vermiculite. 31 refs, 34 figs, 14 tabs

  19. Technical economical study for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, G. Chales; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R. Gil; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R. [Centro de Tecnologia Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    1997-12-31

    The wastes characteristics, the design of the repository, package of the radioactive wastes, as well as, the studies for sitting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage are presented considering the perspectives to conclude and operate the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and development of nuclear application in Cuba. The practice and international experience, as well as, the recommendation from the IAEA[1-4] to perform these studies have been analysed 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  1. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  2. Cement-based processes for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Lee, D.J.; Price, M.S.T.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the use of cement-based materials for the immobilisation of intermediate level wastes. Various cementitious materials are surveyed and the use of blast furnace slag is shown to be advantageous. The properties of cemented wastes are surveyed both during processing and as solid products. The application of Winfrith Cementation Laboratory technology to plant and flowsheet development for Winfrith Reactor sludge immobilisation is described. (author)

  3. Utilization of the Pilot Scale Demonstration Facility for Vitrification of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Won, H. J.; Song, P. S.; Min, B. Y.; Park, H. S.; Jung, K. K.; Yun, K. S.

    2005-10-01

    A series of maintenance and repair work for normalization of the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility was completed successfully to develop the waste treatment in high temperature and melting technology. It was investigated that the treatment of combustible and non-combustible wastes produced at the KAERI site is technically feasible in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility which is designed to be able to treat various kinds of radioactive wastes such as combustible and non-combustible wastes including soil and concrete. The vitrification test facility can be used as the R and D and the technology demonstration facility for melt decontamination of the metallic wastes which have a fixed specification. The modification of the RI storage room in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility and the licensing according to the facility modification were completed for the R and D on melt decontamination of dismantled metallic wastes which is carrying out as one of the national long-term R and D projects on nuclear energy. The lab-scale melt decontamination apparatus was installed in modified RI storage room and the characteristics of melt decontamination will be examined using various metallic wastes. It is expected that the economical feasibility on the volume reduction and recycle of metallic wastes will be escalated in the present situation when the unit cost for waste disposal has the tendency to grow up gradually. Therefore, the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility can be used for the technology development for the volume reduction and recycle of the metallic wastes generated from on-going projects on the decommissioning of research reactors and the environmental restoration of uranium conversion plant, and for the treatment of radioactive solid wastes produced at the KAERI site

  4. Utilization of the Pilot Scale Demonstration Facility for Vitrification of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Choi, W. K.; Jung, C. H.; Won, H. J.; Song, P. S.; Min, B. Y.; Park, H. S.; Jung, K. K.; Yun, K. S

    2005-10-15

    A series of maintenance and repair work for normalization of the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility was completed successfully to develop the waste treatment in high temperature and melting technology. It was investigated that the treatment of combustible and non-combustible wastes produced at the KAERI site is technically feasible in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility which is designed to be able to treat various kinds of radioactive wastes such as combustible and non-combustible wastes including soil and concrete. The vitrification test facility can be used as the R and D and the technology demonstration facility for melt decontamination of the metallic wastes which have a fixed specification. The modification of the RI storage room in the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility and the licensing according to the facility modification were completed for the R and D on melt decontamination of dismantled metallic wastes which is carrying out as one of the national long-term R and D projects on nuclear energy. The lab-scale melt decontamination apparatus was installed in modified RI storage room and the characteristics of melt decontamination will be examined using various metallic wastes. It is expected that the economical feasibility on the volume reduction and recycle of metallic wastes will be escalated in the present situation when the unit cost for waste disposal has the tendency to grow up gradually. Therefore, the pilot scale vitrification demonstration facility can be used for the technology development for the volume reduction and recycle of the metallic wastes generated from on-going projects on the decommissioning of research reactors and the environmental restoration of uranium conversion plant, and for the treatment of radioactive solid wastes produced at the KAERI site.

  5. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Silva, Fabio; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  6. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Silva, Fabio, E-mail: jaalmeida@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  7. Immobilization of low and intermediate level of organic radioactive wastes in cement matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskander, S.B. [Radioisotopes Department, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Abdel Aziz, S.M. [Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); El-Didamony, H. [Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig, El-Sharkia (Egypt); Sayed, M.I., E-mail: mois_161272@yahoo.com [Middle Eastern Regional Radioisotope Centre for the Arab Countries, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} Solidification/stabilization of liquid scintillation waste. {yields} Resistance to frost attack. {yields} Retarding effect of scintillator waste was overcome by adding clay. {yields} Evaluation of the suitability of cement-clay composite to solidify and stabilize scintillation waste. - Abstract: The adequacy of cement-clay composite, for solidification/stabilization of organic radioactive spent liquid scintillator wastes and its resistance to frost attack were determined by a freezing/thawing (F/T) test. Frost resistance is assessed for the candidate cement-clay composite after 75 cycles of freezing and thawing by evaluating their mass durability index, compressive strength, apparent porosity, volume of open pores, water absorption, and bulk density. Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the final waste form (FWF) before and after the F/T treatment to follow the changes that may take place in its microstructure during the hydration regime. The results were obtained indicate that the candidate composite exhibits acceptable resistance to freeze/thaw treatment and has adequate suitability to solidify and stabilize organic radioactive spent liquid scintillator wastes even at very exaggerating conditions (-50{sup Degree-Sign }C and +60{sup Degree-Sign }C ).

  8. Immobilization of low and intermediate level of organic radioactive wastes in cement matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Abdel Aziz, S.M.; El-Didamony, H.; Sayed, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solidification/stabilization of liquid scintillation waste. → Resistance to frost attack. → Retarding effect of scintillator waste was overcome by adding clay. → Evaluation of the suitability of cement-clay composite to solidify and stabilize scintillation waste. - Abstract: The adequacy of cement-clay composite, for solidification/stabilization of organic radioactive spent liquid scintillator wastes and its resistance to frost attack were determined by a freezing/thawing (F/T) test. Frost resistance is assessed for the candidate cement-clay composite after 75 cycles of freezing and thawing by evaluating their mass durability index, compressive strength, apparent porosity, volume of open pores, water absorption, and bulk density. Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the final waste form (FWF) before and after the F/T treatment to follow the changes that may take place in its microstructure during the hydration regime. The results were obtained indicate that the candidate composite exhibits acceptable resistance to freeze/thaw treatment and has adequate suitability to solidify and stabilize organic radioactive spent liquid scintillator wastes even at very exaggerating conditions (-50 ° C and +60 ° C ).

  9. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  10. Adapting the notion of natural (geological) barrier for final disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durdun, I.; Marunteanu, C.; Andrei, V.

    2001-01-01

    According to the Minimum Disturbances Design (MDD) notion by Carl-Olof Morfeldt of Mineconsult, Sweden, any site selection, design and construction of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste repository should be based on a thorough knowledge of the geological environmental so that the implantation of the disposal facility induce no significant harmful consequences. This work presents the way in which the Romanian program of radioactive waste management was implemented for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Cernavoda NPP. Based on geological criteria of selection of lithologic, petrographic, tectonic, seismologic, hydrologic and geo-technic nature, 37 sites were analyzed from which 2 were retained and finally one, Saligny site, was chosen, as the most close to Cernavoda NPP. Also, public acceptance and transport connections were taken into consideration. SUTRA, SWMS-2D and CHAIN-2D codes were applied to analyze the safety and the geological barrier effects. The barrier consists in red clay, a smectitic mineralogic compound. The computation showed that in Saligny vault the maximal tritium extension is kept inside due to the red clay barrier. Geo-technical engineering works were conducted to improve the properties of the loess upper layer which resulted in lowering its sensitivity to moistening and erosion

  11. Comprehensive development plans for the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea and preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kang Il; Kim, Jin Hyeong; Kwon, Mi Jin; Jeong, Mi Seon; Hong, Sung Wook; Park, Jin Beak [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The disposal facility in Gyeongju is planning to dispose of 800,000 packages of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste. This facility will be developed as a complex disposal facility that has various types of disposal facilities and accompanying management. In this study, based on the comprehensive development plan of the disposal facility, a preliminary post-closure safety assessment is performed to predict the phase development of the total capacity for the 800,000 packages to be disposed of at the site. The results for each scenario meet the performance target of the disposal facility. The assessment revealed that there is a significant impact of the inventory of intermediate-level radionuclide waste on the safety evaluation. Due to this finding, we introduce a disposal limit value for intermediate-level radioactive waste. With stepwise development of safety case, this development plan will increase the safety of disposal facilities by reducing uncertainties within the future development of the underground silo disposal facilities.

  12. A preliminary assessment of polymer-modified cements for use in immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Dyson, J.R.

    1982-11-01

    A range of polymer-modified cements has been examined as candidate materials for the immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste. The waste streams studied were inactive simulates of real wastes and included ion-exchange resins, Magnox debris and dilute sludges. Preliminary experiments on the compatibility of the polymer-cement-waste combinations have been carried out and measurements of flexural strength before and after #betta#-irradiation to 10 9 rad and water immersion have been made. Soxhlet leach tests have been used to compare the leach rates of the different materials. From the results of these preliminary experiments, a limited number of polymer-modified cements have been suggested as suitable for more detailed study. (author)

  13. Final disposal of low and intermediate radioactive waste - aspects of diffusion through cement lattice modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present work performed in our department is related to development of safety assessment programme for the National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita, Bihor. The rate of radionuclide release in the proximity of National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita, Bihor was minimized by taking into account the multibarrier principle. This implies the uses of a complex system of natural and engineered barriers which should neutralize the main processes of radionuclide migration. In the first component of the system mentioned above, cement lattice, the migration of incorporated radionuclides takes place mainly by diffusion process. The diffusion equation is given for the particular case of cylindrical shape of the container, from which the ratio between the released fraction and the initial quantity of radionuclides is obtained. We studied the process of diffusion in three different materials (the radionuclides used were 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 82 Br). The results obtained allowed a pertinent selection of the material for improvement of retardation factors of cement lattice. (author)

  14. Alternative systems of covering the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste storage at Sallying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    The current concept of managing the low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes produced during the operation of Cernavoda NPP provides their final disposal underground in the Sallying repository located within the NPP exclusion area. The safety requirements of the disposal imposed adopting of efficient natural and engineered systems to prevent population and environment exposure for at least 300 years time. Preliminary studies on the Sallying site showed that geological formations can prevent release radioisotopes in Eocene and Baramine aquifers both by their composition and structures. On the other hand investigation of the potential factors which could affect the long term stability of the repository showed that soil erosion due to climatic factors and soil degradation produced by animals burrowing underground drifts could rise the probability of environment contamination. These factors could enhance the escape of 14 C and 3 H radionuclides in the environment and a rise of water infiltration rate into the repository. A technical solution aiming at diminishing these effects specific to superficial or low-depth repositories appear to be a system of covering technical barriers as well as minimizing the effects of biointrusion. The paper analyses several geo textile membranes (polyesters and rubber) as well as soils compositions (loess, clay, sand, gravel) as technical a natural covering solutions. The studies and the experiments carried out led to the following four conclusions. 1. Without a multilayer covering system the saturation degree of the loess above the repository keeps low values varying between 20% and 25%. Although, the humidity increases considerably at the interface with the repository's concrete, so that within 0.5 m it reaches a saturation degree of 96%. The concrete block having a compact and fine structure directs laterally the water flow what entails a slight increase of humidity. 2. The capillary barriers keep the humidity in the upper part

  15. A survey of possible microbiological effects within shallow land disposal sites designed to accept intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrook, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to assess the current knowledge on microbial activity that may occur within a shallow intermediate-level waste disposal trench. Relatively little published information exists that is directly based on intermediate radioactive wasteforms, but relevant work was identified from other scientific fields. The likely environmental conditions within a disposal trench and their influence on microbial activity are considered. Also discussed are specific microbiological effects on waste packagings, backfill materials and concrete structures. Overall, it is unlikely that there will be extensive activity within the trenches and little evidence exists to suggest microbiologically-enhanced radionuclide migration,. The quantitative effect of microbial action is not possible to ascertain from the literature, but the general impression is that it will be low. Physical or chemical degradation processes are likely to predominate over those of a microbiological nature. Areas where further research would be valuable are also recommended. (author)

  16. A study on the establishment of the regulatory guide to the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Paek, Min Hoon; Park, Jong Gil; Han, Byeong Seop; Cheong, Jae Hak; Lee, Hae Chan; Yang, Jin Yeong; Hong, Hei Kwan; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-01-15

    The objectives of this study are the development of regulatory guidance to the establishment of the necessary technology standard of the characteristics and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste for the safe operation of the waste repositories. In followings, the contents of our report will be presented in two parts. Survey of the characteristics of radioactive waste : investigate and analyze the source, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive waste as a basis for this study, radiochemical analysis of radioactive waste based on foreign and domestic data base, determination of the methodology for the application of the characteristic analysis of waste classification technology. Establishment of the classification criteria of the radioactive waste : collection and analysis of foreign and domestic data base on the classification methodology and criteria, development of low and intermediate level waste classification criteria and the set up of the classification methodology through the analysis of waste data, establishment of the systematic classification methodology of the low and intermediate radioactive waste through the careful survey of the current domestic regulation.

  17. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  5. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  6. Gamma-ray spectrometry method used for radioactive waste drums characterization for final disposal at National Repository for Low and Intermediate Radioactive Waste--Baita, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, L; Tugulan, L C; Dragolici, F; Alexandru, C

    2014-05-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Department from IFIN-HH, Bucharest, performs the conditioning of the institutional radioactive waste in concrete matrix, in 200 l drums with concrete shield, for final disposal at DNDR - Baita, Bihor county, in an old exhausted uranium mine. This paper presents a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the characterization of the radioactive waste drums' radionuclides content, for final disposal. In order to study the accuracy of the method, a similar concrete matrix with Portland cement in a 200 l drum was used. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  7. Radioactive Operations Committee Review of the Intermediate-Level Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 2531 February 17, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, B.; Brooksbank, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    A subcommittee of the Radioactive Operations Committee met with the Operators of the Intermediate Level Waste Evaporator Facility on February 17, 1972, to discuss the status of the facility and its operations since the review of October 7, 1970, and reported in ORNL-CF-70-11-12. This review was made to determine the status of the ILWEF since the last review, to discuss compliance with previously recommended changes, and to review any new items of safety significance. Several recommendations were made.

  8. A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting to determine 63Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautier, Celine; Colin, Christele; Garcia, Cecile

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study using liquid scintillation counting was performed to measure 63 Ni in low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Three dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-based radiochemical procedures (solvent extraction, precipitation, extraction chromatography) were investigated, the solvent extraction method being considered as the reference method. Theoretical speciation calculations enabled to better understand the chemical reactions involved in the three protocols and to optimize them. In comparison to the method based on DMG precipitation, the method based on extraction chromatography allowed to achieve the best results in one single step in term of recovery yield and accuracy for various samples. (author)

  9. Separation of cesium from intermediate level liquid radioactive waste by solvent extraction with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, G.

    1989-01-01

    Antioxidants AO 2246, AO 4, AO 4K, AO 301 (Czechoslovakia) and NOCRAC 2246 (Japan) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of cesiium by solvent extraction with substituted phenols. The following effects on extraction were studied: pH of water phase, influence of diluent and of antioxidant concentration, extraction time, influence of salt content. The extraction of cesium from liquid radioactive waste was tested. The best results were obtained by NOCRAC 2246 in nitrobenzene, the extraction efficiency was 92.3% with pH 13.23. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  11. Monitoring Programme of Radionuclide Migration Through Food Chains at Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Trgoska Gora Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Barisic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic objective of the paper is to prepare a comprehensive programme of monitoring at the preferred site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in the region of Trgovska Gora mountain. The programme is based on available information regarding hydrogeology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismotectonics, geomorphology, meteorology, bioecology, demography and other site relevant disciplines. It is supposed to ensure (1) identification of the zero state at the broader region of the Trgovska gora mountain, and (2) to underline activities needed for monitoring of concentrations of expected radionuclides throughout possible pathways (particularly through food chains) that would migrate to the biosphere in the period after start of radioactive waste repository operation. Inventory of radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste to be disposed of at the site is naturally an important element of the programme structure. There should be identified those radionuclides which concentrations require to be monitored. Concentration measuring methods are proposed in the article. In addition, relevant aquatic and terrestrial organisms, serving as bioindicators, are identified. Types, quantities, frequency and methodology of sampling present an important part of the monitoring programme. Determination of monitoring sites for undertaking particular types of sampling (e.g. stream waters, stream sediment, detritus, ichtiofauna, groundwater, terrestrial organisms, honey, etc.), presenting an important aspect of a well-organised monitoring programme, is also included into this presentation. (author)

  12. Intermediate storage of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel at the Kola Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohmer, N.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of nuclear waste and disused nuclear submarines are a product of the arms race and the Cold War. Russia still continues to build new nuclear submarines, but there are very few provisions being made to properly store old nuclear submarines, and develop sufficient storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive waste. A solution to this problem is proposed: to construct a new regional interim storage facilities at Kola for the spent nuclear fuel instead of transporting it to Mayak, the existing reprocessing plant. This storage should have the capacity to handle the fuel in the existing storage and the fuel still on board of retired nuclear submarines. Its lifetime should be 50 years. later it would be possible to make a decision on the future of this fuel

  13. Cement mortar-degraded spinney waste composite as a matrix for immobilizing some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Consistency under frost attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spinney fiber is one of the wastes generated from spinning of cotton raw materials. ► Cement mortar composite was hydrated by using the degraded slurry of spinney wastes. ► Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar-degraded spinney waste composite specimens. ► SEM image, FT-IR and XRD patterns were performed for samples subjected to frost attack. - Abstract: The increasing amounts of spinning waste fibers generated from cotton fabrication are problematic subject. Simultaneous shortage in the landfill disposal space is also the most problem associated with dumping of these wastes. Cement mortar composite was developed by hydrating mortar components using the waste slurry obtained from wet oxidative degradation of these spinney wastes. The consistency of obtained composite was determined under freeze–thaw events. Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar composite specimens by evaluating its compressive strength, apparent porosity and mass loss at the end of each period of freeze–thaw up to 45 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed for samples subjected to frost attack aiming at evaluating the cement mortar in the presence of degraded spinney waste. The cement mortar composite exhibits acceptable resistance and durability against the freeze–thaw treatment that could be chosen in radioactive waste management as immobilizing agent for some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  14. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices

  15. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices.

  16. The licensing procedure for an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste in Hanau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, P.; Graebener, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginnings of nuclear energy utilisation in Germany, Hanau has been well-known worldwide as the centre for processing nuclear fuels. Names like Nukem, Alkem, RBU and Siemens are synonymous with the production of fuel elements made of highly enriched uranium for material test reactors, low-enriched uranium and uranium-plutonium mixtures (MOX) for prototype reactors and power reactors. Since the Transnuklear controversy in the late eighties, and particularly during the time of the Socialist-Green coalition in Hesse, the firms in Hanau have increasingly downscaled their activities, and finally closed down their fuel element facilities. Decommissioning of the facilities has been approved under paragraph 7 Para. 3 of the German atomic energy act (AtG). Decommissioning at the Uranium Processing Division of Siemens AG, the former RBU, is already well advanced, while Siemens' MOX Processing Division, the former Alkem, is currently being emptied of remaining nuclear fuels; at Nukem, the first buildings have been demolished. The radioactive waste encountered during decommissioning contains enriched uranium and plutonium, and thus constitutes a special category of radioactive waste. (orig.)

  17. Applying multi-criteria analysis to radiation protection optimisation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Schneider, T.; Lombard, J.

    1991-01-01

    Introduction of ALARA principles in the field of radioactive waste management implies a definition of the main characteristics of the decisional framework. Specific aspects should be taken into account: long term effects, large uncertainties and/or probabilistic events, with particular attention to the public and the political authorities. Traditional cost-benefit analysis is not qualified to deal with these different dimensions of the risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the principles of multi-criteria analysis applied to low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. Three categories of barriers can be distinguished acting at different protection levels: site characteristics, waste package and disposal system. A set of possible solutions can be identified, but the selection of the 'optimum' is not easy because of the diversity of the factors to be allowed for. For example, the following problem needs to be addressed: is it preferable to limit public radiation exposure several hundred years ahead or to reduce occupational exposure during the monitoring period of the disposal facility? An optimisation study is currently being performed on the various components of the structure, assuming given site and waste package characteristics. Four steps are distinguished: identification and analysis of options for the structure; selection and estimation of the qualitative and quantitative criteria; determination of the 'most interesting' solutions using multi-criteria analysis; sensitivity analysis and discussion on uncertainties related to the various assumptions. Based on the preliminary findings, the paper focuses on practical solutions to address the methodological issues raised in applying the optimisation procedures to radioactive waste management. (au)

  18. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  19. Safety Assessment Context for Croatian Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Safety assessments in a small country are usually performed to support the national waste management strategy, demonstrating compliance with national regulation for a particular facility. However, this assessment should - quite generally - provide reasonable assurance both to the public and to decision makers than the Croatian share of LILW from NPP Krsko can be safely disposed in Croatia. More specifically, assessment should clearly present all realistic options and compare the associated long term repository performances, demonstrating that desirable safety goals can be archived by an appropriate choice of (a) location, (b) facility design, (c) institutional control period and (d) waste acceptance criteria. As relevant national legislation is presently under review, generally recognized international safety standards, criteria and recommendations (e.g. as presented in the recent IAEA publications) should provide guidance for the assessment evaluation, since it is expected that they will be incorporated in the new national regulations. Finally, since Croatian radioactive waste management strategy is yet to be developed, such an assessment may contribute to its formulation and facilitate some specific decisions. (author)

  20. Prediction and assessment of environmental impacts of Guangdong low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen

    1996-01-01

    Guangdong Low-and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site is located 5-7 km northeast to the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. It is in a hilly area with strongly weathered light metamorphic quartz siltstone. The groundwater is 2 m below the repository bottom. The disposal unit is a U-shape concrete structure with drainage and water collecting system at the bottom. The designed cover is a multi-layer structure with functions of preventing from water infiltration, animal and plant intrusion. It is assumed that the engineered barriers would be effective to avoid waste immersion by surface water and groundwater within the first 100 years after closure. After 100 years, the engineered barriers would fail gradually. Radionuclides may release from the disposal unite. Some will enter the nearby stream, some will flow into the Daya Bay, and some will transport to groundwater through geologic media

  1. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  2. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  3. Radiocarbon signal of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in nearby trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, R; Kelemen, D I; Kern, Z; Kapitány, S; Veres, M; Jull, A J T; Molnár, M

    2016-03-01

    Tree ring series were collected from the vicinity of a Hungarian radioactive waste treatment and disposal facility and from a distant control background site, which is not influenced by the radiocarbon discharge of the disposal facility but it represents the natural regional (14)C level. The (14)C concentration of the cellulose content of tree rings was measured by AMS. Data of the tree ring series from the disposal facility was compared to the control site for each year. The results were also compared to the (14)C data of the atmospheric (14)C monitoring stations at the disposal facility and to international background measurements. On the basis of the results, the excess radiocarbon of the disposal facility can unambiguously be detected in the tree from the repository site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Geomorphologic characteristic of low-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal land candidate at Lemahabang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphological aspect is a factor should be considered on land evaluation for radioactive wastes disposal purpose. The aspect is important because geomorphological factors contribute on hydrological and erosion condition of the land. The objective of the study is to characterize the geomorphological condition of the land, i.e. land form, geomorphological processes, rock type, soil, surface water, ground water, vegetation and land use. The study was conducted by descriptive analyses from literature study and field geomorphological method, with evaluation as well as developed for terrain analyses. The study area can be divided industry for land from units, I.e. tuff undulating unit (land use: plantation), coastal deposits plain unit, silty sand fluvial plain unit (land use: wet rice field) and unconsolidated sand beach deposits plain unit (opened land without vegetation). Hydrologically, the study area can be divided indus tri three small river stream area (RSA). Detailed description of geomorfological condition is showed by table and geomorphological map. (author)

  5. Public participation in the process of decision making related to site selection of low and intermediate radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the work with public related to the acceptance of low and intermediate radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia. Activities performing in the field of public relations in the Hazardous Waste Management Agency - APO have been described. The fact that all the important decisions on site selections and constructions of different facilities, frequently controversial, were made in the former system without involvement of the public, makes them more significant. Therefore, the public is afraid of being cheated and manipulated again. In order to represent APO not only as the expert ecologically interested actor in the decision-making process on site selection, the study on forming the ecological image of the agency, has been done. In accordance with the results of the study, the activities related to the permanent informing and educating of the public, are being performed. In the end, it has been concluded that it is not enough to inform the public properly, accurately and timely, but it is necessary to educate the public too, because only in the way the public can be thoroughly involved in the decision-making process on site selection of radioactive waste disposal

  6. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruilin, Chen; Hanchen, Zhou; Yuzhu, Gao; Wen, Qiao; Wentao, Wang [Beijing Inst. of Nuclear Engineering (China)

    1994-12-31

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980`s, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process.

  7. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruilin; Zhou Hanchen; Gao Yuzhu; Qiao Wen; Wang Wentao

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980's, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process

  8. Fully engineered shallow trench design concepts for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, J.

    1984-09-01

    In this report, the results of the reviews of design concepts, waste arisings and release mechanisms are described. The basic principles of radiological protection and the proposed strategy for land disposal in the UK are outlined. The essential features of engineered trenches are described with some discussion of the likely material choices and their influence on nuclide release. The radiological protection criteria adopted in this study is that the overall risk of serious health effects arising from any release of radioactivity from a shallow engineered trench should always be less than 10 -6 per annum, which corresponds to a received dose of 0.1 mSv/yr. This approach to radiological protection takes account of the two components of risk of health detriment to future generations; namely the probability that a release of radionuclides will occur and the probability that the subsequent radiation doses will give rise to deleterious effects. A compilation is presented of the waste streams and expected volumes and activities that may be designated for LAND 2 disposal and an initial estimate of the associated nuclide inventory is given. (author)

  9. A study on radiation shield design of storage facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, JJahirul Haque

    2005-02-01

    Bangladesh has no nuclear power reactor but has only one 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor. The Bangladesh Atomic Energy commission (BAEC) operates a 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor and maintains not only the nuclear facilities at its Atomic Energy Research Establishment (AERE) at Savar (near Dhaka) but also the related radiation facilities the whole country. The main sources of radioactive wastes result from the use of sealed and unsealed radiation sources in medicine industry, research, agriculture, etc as well as from operation and maintenance of the nuclear facilities the whole country. As a result radioactive wastes are increasing day by day and these wastes are classified as low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) following the radiation safety philosophy of IAEA recommendations in Bangladesh. Radioactive waste is very sensitive issue to public and environment from the hazardous standpoint of ionizing radiation. Therefore, storage facility of LILW is very essential for safe radioactive waste management in Bangladesh and in parallel: this study is of a great importance due to new installation of this storage facility in future. The basic objective of this study is to recommend the radiation shield design parameters of the installation of storage facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the points of view of radiation safety and sensitivity analysis. The shield design of this installation has been carried out with the Monte Carlo Code MCNP4C and the point Kernel Code Micro Shield 5.05 respectively considering the ICRP-60 (1990) recommendations for occupational exposure limit (10 μ Sv/hr). For more safety purpose every equivalent dose rate at different positions of this installation is considered below 9 μ Sv/hr in this study. The radiation shield design parameters are recommended based on MCNP4C calculated results than those of Micro Shield due to more credible results and these parameters are: (I) 51 cm thickness of

  10. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  12. Risk management in the project of implantation of the repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borssatto, Maria de Fatima B.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Uemura, George

    2011-01-01

    Project RBMN is part of the Brazilian solution for the storage of radioactive waste generated by the activities of nuclear energy in Brazil. The aim of RBMN is to implement the National Repository to dispose the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Risk is a characteristic of all projects, and it is originated from uncertainties, assumptions and the environment of execution of the project. Risk management is the way to monitor systematically these uncertainties and a guaranty that the goals of the project will be attained. A specific methodology for the risk management of the Project RBMN is under development, which integrates models and processes for identification and analysis of risks, reactions, monitoring, control and planning of risk management. This methodology is fundamental and will be of primordial importance for future generations who will be responsible for the operation at final stages, closure and institutional control during the post-closure of the repository. It will provide greater safety to executed processes and safeguarding risks and specific solutions for this enterprise, guaranteeing the safety of the repository in its life cycle, which has a foreseen duration of at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary analysis of the opportunities, threats, strong points and weak points identified up to now, that will provide support to implement risk management procedures. The methodology will be based on the PMBOK R - Project Management Board of Knowledge - and will take into consideration the best practices for project management.(author)

  13. Safety evaluation methodology of engineering barriers at repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnic, R.; Bokan Bosiljkov, V.; Giacomelli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the roles of cement-based barriers in radioactive waste isolation show that models used to estimate their characteristics during the lifetime of the repository must consider the alteration of material properties with time due to degradation processes. Reinforced concrete barriers at repositories shall be designed in such manner that they fulfil besides isolative capabilities also the required functions of mechanical resistance and stability. Key elements of safety evaluation are mainly the correct selection of materials for mineral composites with cement binder (cements, aggregates, mineral additives and chemical admixtures) and their design, execution of construction works and production of precast concrete containers (continuous casting of concrete - no cold joints, limited number of construction joints, proper placing and consolidation, finishing and curing), strict control of used materials and inspection of works, as well as investigation after the construction (visual inspection, non-destructive testing, monitoring, ageing assessment on test containers). According to the methodology presented in this paper the lifetime of the repository can be estimated and, if shorter than 300 years or shorter than the period resulting from safety analysis, appropriate corrective measures shall be taken. (author)

  14. Study of the impact behaviour of packages containing intermediate level radioactive waste coming from nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.; Lund, J.S.; Meredith, P.; Walker, P.; Wells, D.A.; Jowett, J.; Kinsella, K.

    1989-01-01

    The following describes primarily an experimental study into the benefits, for impact resistance, to be gained by incorporating a welded lid into the design of the cement filled drum type of intermediate level waste package. Tests on packages which were not provided with a lid showed that matrix material began to be expelled from drop heights of about 16m. This damage threshold was similar for packages composed of both high and low strength matrix. Above the damage threshold, however, the rate of increase of expelled mass with drop height was greater for the packages filled with a low strength matrix. Similar tests were conducted with specimens to which a lid had been attached by welding. Even from the greatest drop height available at the test facility (28m) only one package showed a significant amount of drum tearing but even then little matrix was lost. The benefits of incorporating a welded lid into package design were thus clearly established. Simple calculations were performed to predict the local deformations and deceleration/time histories of the packages. By optimisation of the impact resistive stress used in the computer model, final knockback areas were predicted to an accuracy of 30%. The average deceleration predicted for four of the six tests for which deceleration histories were available were also within 30% of measured values

  15. Policy considerations of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from a public interest perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, S.

    1977-01-01

    A critical, environmentalist view is taken of the problem of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Policy questions and needs for additional data are listed. The lack of a requirement for environmental impact statements prior to site licensing is pointed out. Some of New Mexico's experiences are briefly recounted. The need for definitions for radioactive wastes is pointed out

  16. Development of low-pH cements for immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste: achievements and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins de Freitas, Regeane; Al-Tabbaa, Abir [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Although cementation is a widely recognized solidification/ stabilization process for immobilisation of Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (ILRW), the low resistance to hyper-alkaline pore waters compromises the effectiveness of the process when Portland Cement (PC) is employed. Moreover the manufacture of PC is responsible for significant CO{sub 2} emissions. In this context, low pH cements are environmentally more suitable and have emerged as a potential alternative for obtaining secure waste forms. This paper summarises the achievements on development of low-pH cements and the challenges of using these new materials for the ILRW immobilisation. The performance of waste forms is also discussed in terms of radionuclides release. Reactive magnesium oxide and magnesium phosphate cements are emphasised as they feature important advantages such as consumption of available constituents for controlling acid-base reactions, reduced permeability and higher density. Additionally, in order to identify new opportunities for study, the long-term modelling approach is also briefly discussed. (authors)

  17. Development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate-Level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S. L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper describes the efforts made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. The past and current practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  18. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  19. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  20. Techniques and practices for pretreatment of low and intermediate level solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    An overall waste management strategy generally includes several components: pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal. Benefits of pretreatment are improved safety, lower radiation exposures and significantly lower costs in subsequent waste management operations. This publication reviews current practices in the pretreatment of wastes in different countries and may assist the specialist in selection of appropriate pretreatment techniques

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  2. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  3. Design and Performance Assessment of a Conceptual Cover Cap of Near Surface Repository for Short Lived Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaba, Ruth; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The safety of the overall waste disposal system is determined by the performance of its individual components: waste form, waste container, engineered barrier and the host environment. The design of the cover cap helps in preventing percolation of water, and in retarding radionuclide migration from the disposal facility to the biosphere. The cover of a disposal facility is usually a combination of materials such as sand, gravel, concrete, clay and soil conditioned for vegetation growth. The cover system will be designed using models such as EPA's Hydrological Evaluation of Land fill Performance (HELP) code. This paper describes a conceptual design for a cover cap for a land fill as a preferred disposal facility for low and short lived intermediate radioactive waste in Uganda. Majority of the waste is generated from disused sealed and unsealed radioactive sources arising from medical, industrial applications, and research. Radioactive waste management has raised a lot of concern in both developed and developing countries. Each country has a responsibility to come up with a solution to prevent contamination of the environment and humans from radioactive waste. It is important to have thicker soil layers in cap designs so as to support vegetation growth since some activities such as erosion and settlements are expected. Help simulations in this study will assist to demonstrate that it is possible to design a cover cap which can contain radioactive waste packages for hundreds of years provided the proper institutional and performance monitoring schemes are implemented.

  4. Conditions for the test emplacement of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in chamber 8a of the 511 m level of the Asse Salt Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF) emplaces intermediate-level radioactive wastes which accumulate in an activity involving the use of radioactive materials that is licensed or reported in the Federal Republic of Germany or which are stored on an interim basis by the appropriate licensing or inspection agencies in chamber 8a of the 511 m level of the Asse Salt Mine in Remlingen near Wolfenbuettel in conjunction with an engineering test program. The type and form of the intermediate-level wastes must conform to certain conditions so that there are no hazards to personnel and the repository during transfer and subsequent storage. It is therefore necessary for the radioactive wastes to be treated and packaged before delivery in such a way that they satisfy the conditions presented in this document. The GSF shall inform the companies and organizations delivering wastes about its experiences with emplacement operations. The Conditions for the Test Emplacement of Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes in Chamber 8a of the 511 m Level of the Asse Salt Mine must be adapted to conform to the latest state of science and the art. The GSF must therefore reserve the right to modify the conditions, allowing for an appropriate transition period

  5. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizawa, Hideo

    1982-01-01

    A system of combining a calciner for concentrated radioactive liquid waste and an incinerator for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste is being developed. Both the calciner and the incinerator are operated by fluidized bed method. The system features the following points: (1) Inflammable miscellaneous solids and concentrated liquid can be treated in combination to reduce the volume. (2) Used ion-exchange resin can be incinerated. (3) The system is applicable even if any final waste disposal method is adopted; calcinated and incinerated solids obtained as intermediate products are easy to handle and store. (4) The system is readily compatible with other waste treatment systems to form optimal total system. The following matters are described: the principle of fluidized-bed furnaces, the objects of treatment, system constitution, the features of the calciner and incinerator, and the current status of development. (J.P.N.)

  6. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Generacion, transporte y gestion de desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  7. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed Deep Geologic Repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, J.F.; Normani, S.D.; Yin, Y. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Sykes, E.A.; Jensen, M.R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has proposed the construction of a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste at the Bruce site on the shore of Lake Huron near Tiverton, Ontario. The DGR is to be excavated at a depth of about 680 m within argillaceous limestones of Ordovician age. A saturated regional-scale and site-scale numerical modelling study has been completed in order to evaluate the safety of storing radioactive waste at the site and to better understand the geochemistry and hydrogeology of the formations surrounding the proposed DGR. This paper reported on the regional-scale base-case modelling and analysis of the measured pressure profile in deep boreholes at the DGR site. The numerical modelling study provided a framework to investigate the groundwater flow system as it relates to, and potentially affects, the safety and long-term performance of the DGR. A saturated groundwater flow model was also developed using FRAC3DVS-OPG. The objective of regional-scale groundwater modelling of the Paleozoic sedimentary sequence underlying southwestern Ontario was to provide a basis for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data and to explain the influence of parameter and scenario uncertainty on predicted long-term geosphere barrier performance. The base-case analysis showed that solute transport in the Ordovician and lower Silurian is diffusion dominant. For the base-case parameters, the estimated mean life expectancy for the proposed DGR is more than 8 million years. The possible presence of a gas phase in the rock between the Cambrian and the Niagaran was not considered in the analyses of this paper. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz F.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  9. Experimental and modelling investigations of the biogeochemistry of gas production from low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Joe; Nykyri, Mikko; Helin, Mika; Hovi, Ulla; Sarlin, Tuija; Itaevaara, Merja

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of organic wastes and the corrosion of metallic wastes and steel containers in low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLW/ILW) repositories are important processes that affect repository geochemistry and the speciation and transport of radionuclides. Gas is generated in association with these degradation processes and this has the potential to overpressure the repository, which can promote transport of groundwater and gas, and consequently radionuclide transport. Microbial activity plays an important role in organic degradation, corrosion and gas generation through the mediation of reduction-oxidation reactions. A large-scale gas generation experiment has been established at the LLW/ILW repository, Olkiluoto, Finland to examine gas generation from LLW in waste drums disposed of in the operational VLJ Repository (VLJ is a Finnish acronym which translates to 'reactor operating waste'). The experiment has monitored, for a period of 9 a, the rate and composition of gas generated, and the aqueous geochemistry and microbe populations present at various locations within the experiment. There is considerable heterogeneity within the experiment, such that pH is observed to vary from pH 5.5 to pH 10 between organic-rich waste and water associated with concrete. The heterogeneity results in competing anaerobic processes occurring together in the experiment but within different niches. Microbial activity initially dominant in organic waste has after 7 a reduced the alkalinity of the concrete influenced regions. The experiment has been modelled using a biogeochemical reaction-transport code (GRM) using a blind testing approach. Using independent data, the model was able to reproduce, within a factor of two, the rate of gas production. In addition, the model represented the main anaerobic microbial processes leading to methanogenesis and the observed spatial and temporal variations in aqueous and gaseous species. In order to model the experiment, its

  10. Radioactive waste packages stored at the Aube facility for low-intermediate activity wastes. A selective and controlled storage; Les colis de dechets radioactifs stockes au centre de stockage FMA de l'Aube. Une stockage selectif et maitrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The waste package is the first barrier designed to protect the man and the environment from the radioactivity contained in wastes. Its design is thus particularly stringent and controlled. This brochure describes the different types of packages for low to intermediate activity wastes like those received and stored at the Aube facility, and also the system implemented by the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) and by waste producers to safely control each step of the design and fabrication of these packages. (J.S.)

  11. Expertise concerning the request by the ZWILAG Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG for granting of a licence for the building and operation of the Central Intermediate Storage Facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    On July 15, 1993, the Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) submitted a request to the Swiss Federal Council for granting of a license for the construction and operation of a central intermediate storage facility for radioactive wastes. The project foresees intermediate storage halls as well as conditioning and incineration installations. The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) has to examine the project from the point of view of nuclear safety. The present report presents the results of this examination. Different waste types have to be treated in ZWILAG: spent fuel assemblies from Swiss nuclear power plants (KKWs); vitrified, highly radioactive wastes from reprocessing; intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes from KKWs and from reprocessing; wastes from the dismantling of nuclear installations; wastes from medicine, industry and research. The wastes are partitioned into three categories: high-level (HAA) radioactive wastes containing, amongst others, α-active nuclides, intermediate-level (MAA) radioactive wastes and low-level (SAA) radioactive wastes. The projected installation consists of three repository halls for each waste category, a hot cell, a conditioning plant and an incineration and melting installation. The HAA repository can accept 200 transport and storage containers with vitrified high-level wastes or spent fuel assemblies. The expected radioactivity amounts to 10 20 Bq, including 10 18 Bq of α-active nuclides. The thermal power produced by decay is released to the environment by natural circulation of air. The ventilation system is designed for a maximum power of 5.8 MW. Severe conditions are imposed to the containers as far as tightness and shielding against radiation is concerned. In the repository for MAA wastes the maximum radioactivity is 10 18 Bq with 10 15 Bq of α-active nuclides. The maximum thermal power of 250 kW is removed by forced air cooling. Because of the high level of radiation the

  12. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  13. Process control of Low and Intermediate-level radioactive wastes solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Safety guidelines issued by the Spanish Council of Nuclear Safety (CSN) with basic criteria which must be adopted for the control of the Process for wastes solidification, establishing, in addition, a series of protocols and basic contents to assist the elaboration of Process Control Programs

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  15. Overview of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at the Institute for Nuclear Research for to save management of the waste from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The national policy of radioactive waste management fully complies with the international requirements established by 'Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and with the EURATOM treaty, directives, recommendations and policy of radioactive waste management promoted at the level of the European Union. The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR) has its own Radwaste Treatment Plant. The object of activity is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. According to the National Nuclear Program, the institute is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by Cernavoda NPP. For all these, in accordance with the Governmental order no. 11/2003, INR shall must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities. (authors)

  16. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  17. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  18. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taesinge and Fyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. Oestjylland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 10. Characterization and description of areas. Nordjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the area 22 in Northern Jutland. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. OEstjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taasinge and Fyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  9. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  10. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  11. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  12. Study of Validity Criteria for Radionuclide-Analysis of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Uk; Baek, Hyun Suk; Jeong, Sung Yeop [Sungwoo E and T Co., Hanam (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Seung Kyu [Korea Radioactive waste Management Corporation, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Literature survey on the deviation of the measuring equipment and statistical analysis on the measured data of domestic LILW were performed in order to set evaluation criteria quantitatively when comparing the result of each test and inspections. This study provided opportunity to increase credibility and re-assure validity of Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Through the statistical analysis for deviation of measurement by comparing repository inspection with generator self-test, the quantitative acceptance criteria were set depending on specific activity of Co-60 and Cs-137. The acceptance criteria is a relative bias of KRMC result to generator result and set from low 50 % to high 150 % for Co-60, from low 30 % to 250 % for Cs-137. In this study, because the statistical analysis results of the waste drum assay are not enough representing whole range specified at WAC, an additional research that include characteristic analysis of LILW generated other birthplace should be done.

  13. Siting history and current construction status of disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Akihiro; Kikuchi, Saburo; Maruyama, Masakatsu

    2008-01-01

    Korean government decided disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), which is located at coastal area near the Wolsong nuclear power plants in Gyeong-Ju city in December. 2005, based on the result of votes of residents in four candidate sites. Since then, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP), which is the management company of the LILW disposal facility, has carried out the preparation for construction of disposal facility and its licensing process. At the first phase, 100 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the rock cavern type disposal facility located at the depth from 80m to 130m below the sea level, and finally 800 thousand drums in 200 liter are planned to be disposed of in the site. This report shows the history of siting for the LILW disposal, the outline of design of disposal facility and current status of its construction, based on the information which was obtained mainly during our visit to the disposal site in Korea. (author)

  14. Development of a computer code for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.; Lee, E. Y.; Lee, Y. M.; Kang, C. H.; Zhou, W.; Kozak, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    A safety assessment code, called SAGE (Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation), has been developed to describe post-closure radionuclide releases and potential radiological doses for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal in an engineered vault facility in Korea. The conceptual model implemented in the code is focused on the release of radionuclide from a gradually degrading engineered barrier system to an underlying unsaturated zone, thence to a saturated groundwater zone. The radionuclide transport equations are solved by spatially discretizing the disposal system into a series of compartments. Mass transfer between compartments is by diffusion/dispersion and advection. In all compartments, radionuclides are decayed either as a single-member chain or as multi-member chains. The biosphere is represented as a set of steady-state, radionuclide-specific pathway dose conversion factors that are multiplied by the appropriate release rate from the far field for each pathway. The code has the capability to treat input parameters either deterministically or probabilistically. Parameter input is achieved through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface. An application is presented, which is compared against safety assessment results from the other computer codes, to benchmark the reliability of system-level conceptual modeling of the code

  15. The bituminization of intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes at Eurochemic. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demonie, M.; Hild, W.; Kokkelenberg, F.; Kretschmer, H.

    1980-10-01

    After 5.050 hours of operation, the screw elements of the extruder evaporator in the bituminization plant have been exchanged for elements with a higher abrasion resistance. The report describes the various working phases that have led, within ten weeks, to a successful accomplishment, and gives details on the required manpower, the total dose commitment, the wastes produced, and the wear of the extruder screw elements. (author)

  16. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  17. Use of the mixture of clay and crushed rock as a backfill material for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. Appendix 10: Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.J.; Lee, J.O.; Hahn, P.S.; Chun, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    At the time of the CRP, a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes arising from nuclear power plant operation and radioisotope application in the Republic of Korea was to be constructed in the bedrock below ground surface. As the intermediate level waste cavern would contain the major part of radionuclide inventory in the cavern, the radionuclide release from the intermediate level waste cavern was therefore important from the viewpoint of disposal facility performance. The then current design concept suggested that the intermediate level waste would be emplaced into the compartment made of reinforced concrete, and the space between the concrete wall and cavern surface would be backfilled with a clay-based material. As compacted clay-based materials have a low hydraulic conductivity and the hydraulic gradient in a disposal cavern was expected to be relatively low, molecular diffusion was considered to be the principal mechanism by which radionuclides would migrate through the backfill. The mixture of calcium bentonite and crushed rock was being suggested as a candidate backfill material. This appendix summarises the KAERI research activities on the evaluation of hydraulic conductivity, radionuclide diffusion coefficient, and mechanical properties of the candidate clay-based backfill material for the intermediate level waste cavern

  18. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  19. New technology for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive organic waste from nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt). Radioisotope Dept.

    1997-02-01

    A potentially attractive technique has been used for the oxidative degradation of combustible organic wastes using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. Oxidative degradation process is simple, reliable and operates under mild conditions of temperature and pressure. Infrared spectroscopy was used as a non-destructive tool to follow the degradation process. The results obtained show that the proposed process is highly efficient in transforming cation exchange resins from solid to liquid phase with a good reduction factor (up to 1250) and high conversion percentage (up to 98.46%). Oxidative degradation of a spent liquid scintillator was carried out before immobilization in cement matrix to avoid its negative retarding effect on the hydration of cement materials and to reduce the potential fire risk of the organic scintillator. (author) 30 refs, 9 figs, 11 tabs.

  20. Radioactive waste management - a safe solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This booklet sets out current United Kingdom government policy regarding radioactive waste management and is aimed at reassuring members of the public concerned about the safety of radioactive wastes. The various disposal or, processing or storage options for low, intermediate and high-level radioactive wastes are explained and sites described, and the work of the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) is outlined. (UK)

  1. Projection to 2035 for the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level in Mexico; Proyeccion al 2035 de los desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez U, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: lpg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    It is necessary to establish in few years a definitive warehouse for the radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, generated in the country and to satisfy the necessities of their confinement in the next ones 50 to 80 years. Therefore, it is required to be considered those volumes produced annually, those stored at the present and those estimated to medium and long term. The results of the simulation of 4 cases are presented, considering the operation from the 2 nuclear power reactors to 40 and 60 years, the use of the technology of current treatment and the use of super compaction of solids, as well as the importance in the taking of decision of the methodology for the dismantlement of each reactor to the finish of their useful life. At the moment the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, produces an average of 250 m{sup 3}/year of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, constituted by solid dry wastes, humid solids and liquids. In the last 3 years, the power plant has reached an effectiveness of re utilization of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, in Mexico the non energetic applications of the radioisotopes, produce annually of the order of 20 m{sup 3}/year of solid wastes, 280 m{sup 3}/year of liquid wastes and 300 worn out radioactive sources. (Author)

  2. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes; Forslag til beslutningsgrundlag for et dansk slutdepot for lav- og mellemaktivt affald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-15

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  3. Review of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of organic material likely to be present in intermediate level and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, B.F.; Rosevear, A.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    A review has been made of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of the solid organic materials likely to be present in intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Possible interactions between the three routes for degradation are also discussed. Attention is focussed on the generation of water-soluble degradation products which may form complexes with radioelements. The effects of complexation on radioelement solubility and sorption are considered. Recommendations are made for areas of further research. (author)

  4. The management of radioactive wastes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Ten papers are presented, dealing with the management and environmental impact of radioactive wastes, environmental considerations related to uranium mining and milling, the management of uranium refining wastes, reactor waste management, proposals for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level wastes, disposal of nuclear fuel wastes, federal government policy on radioactive waste management, licensing requirements, environmental assessment, and internatioal cooperation in wast management. (LL)

  5. Preliminary study on site-selection for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes on the northwest of Lop Nur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gexin; Chen Jianjie

    2008-01-01

    To clean up some radioactively polluted area, site-selection research was conducted for disposal of L/ILW on the northwest of Lop Nur. The research is involved mainly with regional ecological environment, human and cultural environment, natural resources, geological evolution, structural geology, petrography, hydrogeology and the stability of regional crust. It is found preliminarily that in the region the social and natural conditions are advantageous for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, without permanent local residents, far form residential area, with little vegetation, great evaporation and very low precipitation, stable geological environment, deep slow groundwater far from discharge region while the groundwater properties unfavorable for radionuclides to migrate. (authors)

  6. Estimation of expenses for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project in Croatia up to site license acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.

    2003-01-01

    The expenses needed for development of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository project in Croatia include: (a) preliminary activities, (b) preparatory activities, and (c) preparing of environmental impact study. The first group of expenses are referring to the project leading activities, project plan updating, build-up of required infrastructure, preparing of licensing documentation, site investigations, data acquisition programme, pre-operational radio-ecological monitoring, modelling, safety analysis (first iteration) and public related activities. Preparatory activities are referring to purchasing of land for repository and preparatory activities for carrying out of on-site investigations, while third group of expenses are related to preparation and validation of Environmental impact study. It was found out that about 50 % of total expenses refer to build-up of infrastructure. Additional 25 % finances are related to radio-ecological monitoring, site investigations and development of calculations and models, while remaining 25 % of total estimated sum is expected to be spent for repository safety assessment, public relations, purchasing and preparing the on-site terrain for construction, etc. It was calculated 607 EUR per m3 of LILW to be needed up to site license acquisition. According to the world-wide practice, by extrapolating of additional expenses necessary for construction of the repository and acquisition of operational license, it comes out the cost of 1.723 EUR per m3 of LILW for shallow-ground and 2.412 EUR per m3 of LILW for tunnel repository. The estimated expenses for Croatia are within the span of expenses for the same purpose in the countries considered. Expected duration of the project performance up to acquisition of the site license is 4 years and 3 months. (author)

  7. Final disposal of radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freiesleben H.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the origin and properties of radioactive waste as well as its classification scheme (low-level waste – LLW, intermediate-level waste – ILW, high-level waste – HLW are presented. The various options for conditioning of waste of different levels of radioactivity are reviewed. The composition, radiotoxicity and reprocessing of spent fuel and their effect on storage and options for final disposal are discussed. The current situation of final waste disposal in a selected number of countries is mentioned. Also, the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency with regard to the development and monitoring of international safety standards for both spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management is described.

  8. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  9. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  11. Development of an efficient and economic small scale management scheme for low-and intermediate level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S.L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the evolution of a pilot-scale management system for low-and intermediate level radioactive wastes to provide adequate protection to the public as well as maintain the equilibrium in the human environment. Discussions on the waste management and disposal scheme proposals, assessment of waste treatment requirements of the Atomic Research Center, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, previous experiences in the handling and management of radioactive wastes, current practices and alternatives to meet waste management problems and research studies on waste treatment are presented. In the selection of a chemical treatment process for ARC, comparative studies on the different waste processing methods or combination of processes that will be most suitable for the waste requirements of the Center are now in progress. The decontamination efficiency and economy of the lime-soda, ferrocyanide phosphate and ferric hydroxide methods are being compared. Jar experiments were conducted in the Lime-Soda Process to establish the optima conditions for certain parameter required in order to achieve an efficient and economical treatment system applicable to the local conditions for attaining maximum removal of contamination; maximum settling time - 5 hours after treatment, optimum pH-11, 2:3 ppm ratio of Ca +2 to Co 3 -2 concentration, concentration of dosing reagents can further be increased beyond 160 ppm Ca +2 and 240 ppm Co 3 -2 . Cobalt contamination can be removed with lime-soda treatment aside from strontium

  12. The radioactive waste management conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fareeduddin, S.; Hirling, J.

    1983-01-01

    The international conference on radioactive waste management was held in Seattle, Washington, from 16 to 20 May 1983. The response was gratifying, reflecting world-wide interest: it was attended by 528 participants from 29 Member States of the IAEA and eight international organizations. The conference programme was structured to permit reviews and presentation of up-to-date information on five major topics: - waste management policy and its implementation: national and international approaches; legal, economic, environmental, and social aspects (four sessions with 27 papers from 16 countries and four international organizations); - handling, treatment, and conditioning of wastes from nuclear facilities, nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants, including the handling and treatment of gaseous wastes and wastes of specific types (five sessions with 35 papers); - storage and underground disposal of radioactive wastes: general, national concepts, underground laboratories, and designs of repositories for high-level, and low- and intermediate-level waste disposal (five sessions with 35 papers); - environmental and safety assessment of waste management systems: goals methodologies, assessments for geological repositories, low- and intermediate-level wastes, and mill tailings (four sessions with 26 papers); - radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear operations: status and perspectives, environmental transport processes, and control of radioactive waste disposal into the environment (three sessions with 23 papers)

  13. Co-operation between Slovenia and Croatia in the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.; Tomse, P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the LILW repository project development in Slovenia and Croatia from the viewpoint of co-operation of national agencies for radioactive waste management - ARAO in Slovenia and APO in Croatia. The project performance, as well as the co-operation itself, are based on the fact that NPP Krsko, sited in Slovenia, is the joint venture facility of both countries, which are consequently obliged to find a proper solution for final disposal of operational and decommissioning radioactive waste generated by the plant. The main aspects of the project development in both countries, such as LILW repository site selection and characterisation, development of repository conceptual design, performance assessment/safety analysis procedures and public participation, are presented in the paper. Based on separate descriptions of the project development in Slovenia and Croatia respectively, the main aspects of co-operation between ARAO and APO are elaborated.(author)

  14. Validation and application of help code used for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Zhiwen; Gu Cunli; Zhang Jinsheng; Liu Xiuzhen

    1996-01-01

    The authors describes validation and application of HELP code used by the United States Environmental Protective Agency for design and review of cover of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in near-surface facilities. The HELP code was validated using data of field aerated moisture movement test by China Institute for Radiation Protection. The results show that simulation of HELP code is reasonable. Effects of surface layer thickness and surface treatment on moisture distribution in a cover was simulated with HELP code in the conditions of south-west China. The simulation results demonstrated that surface plantation of a cover plays very important role in moisture distribution in the cover. Special attention should be paid in cover design. In humid area, radioactive waste disposal safety should take full consideration with functions of chemical barrier. It was recommended that engineering economy should be added in future cover research so as to achieve optimization of cover design

  15. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package

  16. Hydrogeologic modelling in support of a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 16264

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Sykes, Eric A.; Jensen, Mark R.

    2009-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site in Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes a regional-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVSOPG flow and transport model. This provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geo-scientific data that explains and illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the Bruce DGR is located at the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site specific data have been used to define the structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an 18.500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. The computational sequence involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Long-term simulations that consider future glaciation scenarios include the impact of ice thickness and permafrost. The selection of the performance measure used to evaluate a groundwater system is important. The traditional metric of average water particle travel time is inappropriate for geologic units such as the Ordovician where solute transport is

  17. The hydrogeologic environment for a proposed deep geologic repository in Canada for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - 59285

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, Jonathan F.; Normani, Stefano D.; Yin, Yong; Jensen, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the Bruce nuclear site in Ontario, Canada. As proposed the DGR would be constructed at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation. This paper describes the hydrogeology of the DGR site developed through both site characterization studies and regional-scale numerical modelling analysis. The analysis provides a framework for the assembly and integration of the site-specific geo-scientific data and examines the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier. Flow system evolution was accomplished using both the density-dependent FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model and the two-phase gas and water flow computational model TOUGH2-MP. In the geologic framework of the Province of Ontario, the DGR is located on the eastern flank of the Michigan Basin. Borehole logs covering Southern Ontario combined with site-specific data from 6 deep boreholes have been used to define the structural contours and hydrogeologic properties at the regional-scale of the modelled 31 sedimentary strata that may be partially present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock. The regional-scale domain encompasses an approximately 18500 km 2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The groundwater zone below the Devonian includes units containing stagnant water having high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/L. The Ordovician sediments are significantly under-pressured. The horizontal hydraulic conductivity for the Cobourg limestone is estimated to be 2x10 -14 m/s based on straddle-packer hydraulic tests. The low advective velocities in the Cobourg and other Ordovician units result in solute transport that is diffusion dominant with Peclet numbers less than 0:003 for a characteristic length of unity. Long

  18. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  19. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  20. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)

  1. CEGB's radioactive waste management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passant, F.H.; Maul, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) produces low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the process of operating its eight Magnox and five Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) nuclear power stations. Future wastes will also arise from a programme of Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs) and the decommissioning of existing reactors. The paper gives details of how the UK waste management strategy is put into practice by the CEGB, and how general waste management principles are developed into strategies for particular waste streams. (author)

  2. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  5. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  6. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  7. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  8. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes)

  10. Understanding radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains information on all aspects of radioactive wastes. Facts are presented about radioactive wastes simply, clearly and in an unbiased manner which makes the information readily accessible to the interested public. The contents are as follows: questions and concerns about wastes; atoms and chemistry; radioactivity; kinds of radiation; biological effects of radiation; radiation standards and protection; fission and fission products; the Manhattan Project; defense and development; uses of isotopes and radiation; classification of wastes; spent fuels from nuclear reactors; storage of spent fuel; reprocessing, recycling, and resources; uranium mill tailings; low-level wastes; transportation; methods of handling high-level nuclear wastes; project salt vault; multiple barrier approach; research on waste isolation; legal requiremnts; the national waste management program; societal aspects of radioactive wastes; perspectives; glossary; appendix A (scientific American articles); appendix B (reference material on wastes). (ATT)

  11. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  12. The effects of radiation on intermediate-level waste forms. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, C.R.; Phillips, D.C.; Burnay, S.G.; Spindler, W.E.; Lyon, C.E.; Winter, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this programme was to determine the effects of radiation on the properties of intermediate-level waste forms relevant to their storage and disposal. It had two overall aims: to provide immediate data on the effect of radiation on important European ILW waste forms through accelerated laboratory tests; and to develop an understanding of the degradation processes so that long-term, low dose rate effects can be predicted with confidence from short-term, high dose rate experiments. The programme included cement waste forms containing inorganic wastes, organic matrix waste forms, and cement waste forms containing a substantial component of organic waste. Irradiations were carried out by external gamma sources and by the incorporation of alpha emitters, such as 238 Pu. Irradiated materials included matrix materials, simulated waste forms and real waste forms. 2 figs.; 3 tabs.; 8 refs

  13. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  14. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  15. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  16. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  17. Krsko NPP radioactive waste characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skanata, D.; Kroselj, V.; Jankovic, M.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005 Krsko NPP initiated the Radioactive Waste Characterization Project and commissioned its realization to the consulting company Enconet International, Zagreb. The Agency for Radwaste Management was invited to participate on the Project. The Project was successfully closed out in August 2006. The main Project goal consisted of systematization the existing and gathering the missing radiological, chemical, physical, mechanical, thermal and biological information and data on radioactive waste. In a general perspective, the Project may also be considered as a part of broader scope of activities to support state efforts to find a disposal solution for radioactive waste in Slovenia. The operational low and intermediate level radioactive waste has been structured into 6 waste streams that contain evaporator concentrates and tank sludges, spent ion resins, spent filters, compressible and non-compressible waste as well as specific waste. For each of mentioned waste streams, process schemes have been developed including raw waste, treatment and conditioning technologies, waste forms, containers and waste packages. In the paper the main results of the Characterization Project will be briefly described. The results will indicate that there are 17 different types of raw waste that have been processed by applying 9 treatment/conditioning technologies. By this way 18 different waste forms have been produced and stored into 3 types of containers. Within each type of container several combinations should be distinguished. Considering all of this, there are 34 different types of waste packages altogether that are currently stored in the Solid Radwaste Storage Facility at the Krsko NPP site. Because of these findings a new identification system has been recommended and consequently the improvement of the existing database on radioactive waste has been proposed. The potential areas of further in depth characterization are indicated. In the paper a brief description on the

  18. Composite ion-exchangers and their possible use in treatment of low/intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebesta, F.; Motl, A.; John, J.

    1993-01-01

    A new method of preparation of composite inorganic-organic ion exchangers using modified polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a binding polymer for the inorganic active component is described. This method enables incorporation of very fine to colloidal particles of active component in the binding polymer which increases the capacity and improves the kinetics of ion exchange of the resulting absorber. The proposed method can be applied on most of the inorganic ion exchangers known. Results of tests of some absorbers for treatment of radioactive wastes produced in the nuclear industry are given. For the removal of radiocesium from Long Term Fuel Storage Pond water at NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia) NiFC-PAN composite ion exchanger has been tested. Excellent results have been achieved both at low and high (floating bed) flow rates in the course of treatment of up to 45,000 BV of pond water. The possibility of decreasing the total activity of the Biological Shield water from the same NPP below the 37 Bq/l discharge limit has been proved using NiFC-PAN and NaTiO-PAN composite ion exchangers. NiFC-PAN, NaTiO-PAN, MnO-PAN, M315-PAN and Na-Y-PAN composite ion exchangers were tested for removal of radiocesium, radiocobalt and radiomanganese from standard liquid radioactive wastes and concentrates from NPP Krsko, Croatia. Different combinations of absorbers have been tested for the treatment of Boron Recycle Hold-up, Waste Condensate and Waste Hold-up Tanks. Radium could be quantitatively removed from highly saline acid waste water from uranium underground leaching on Ba(Ca)SO 4 -PAN absorber

  19. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  20. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  1. The development by means of trial assessments, of a procedure for radiological risk assessment of underground disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, B.G.J.

    1987-01-01

    Seven trials are outlined showing the development and testing of a procedure based upon pra using Monte Carlo simulators, to assess post closure risks from the underground disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The PRA method is found to be more justifiable than the use of 'best estimates'. Problems of accounting for long-term environmental changes and of future human intrusions are discussed. The importance of achieving statistical convergence within practical time scales and resources and of accounting for the influence of different sources of systematic bias is emphasised. (orig.)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary; Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Omraadebeskrivelser - Description of areas. Dansk og engelsk resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  3. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.; Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The first European Community conference on Radioactive Waste Management and Disposal was held in Luxembourg, where twenty-five papers were presented by scientists involved in European Community contract studies and by members of the Commission's scientific staff. The following topics were covered: treatment and conditioning technology of solid intermediate level wastes, alpha-contaminated combustible wastes, gaseous wastes, hulls and dissolver residues and plutonium recovery; waste product evaluation which involves testing of solidified high level wastes and other waste products; engineering storage of vitrified high level wastes and gas storage; and geological disposal in salt, granite and clay formations which includes site characterization, conceptual repository design, waste/formation interactions, migration of radionuclides, safety analysis, mathematical modelling and risk assessment

  4. Concept and Idea-Project for Yugoslav Low and Intermediate level Radioactive Waste Materials Final Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.

    1997-01-01

    Encapsulation of rad waste in a mortar matrix and displacement of such solidified waste forms into the shallow land burial system, engineered trench system type is suggested concept for the final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste. The mortar-rad waste mixtures are cured in containers of either concrete or metal for an appropriate period of time, after which solidified rad waste-mortar monoliths are then placed in the engineered trench system, parallelepiped honeycomb structure. Trench consists of vertical barrier-walls, bottom barrier-floors, surface barrier-caps and permeable-reactive walls. Surroundings of the trench consists of buffer barrier materials, mainly clay. Each segment of the trench is equipped with the independent drainage system, as a part of the main drainage. Encapsulation of each filled trench honeycomb segment is performed with concrete cap. Completed trench is covered with impermeable plastic foil and soil leaner, preferably clay. Paper presents an overview of the final disposal facility engineered trench system type. Advantages in comparison with other types of final disposal system are given. (author)

  5. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  6. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  7. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  8. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghattas, N K; Eskander, S B [Radioisotope dept., atomic energy authority, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  10. Characterization of decontamination factors for evaporators used in the treatment of low and intermediate level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rood, L.B.; Law, C.G. Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporator decontamination factors were studied as functions of boiloff rate, volume reduction, and feed pH. A bench-scale vertical tube evaporator operating on simulated intermediate level nuclear wastes was used. Decontamination factors were not found to be strong functions of volume reduction or boiloff below vapor velocities of 25 lb/ft 2 -hr. At higher vapor fluxes, splashing was encountered. Foaming occurred at a feed pH of 6 but not at higher values. The presence of radioisotopes in the feed had no effect on evaporator performance

  11. Radioactive mixed waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasen, W.G.; Erpenbeck, E.G.

    1993-02-01

    Various types of waste have been generated during the 50-year history of the Hanford Site. Regulatory changes in the last 20 years have provided the emphasis for better management of these wastes. Interpretations of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (AEA), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) have led to the definition of radioactive mixed wastes (RMW). The radioactive and hazardous properties of these wastes have resulted in the initiation of special projects for the management of these wastes. Other solid wastes at the Hanford Site include low-level wastes, transuranic (TRU), and nonradioactive hazardous wastes. This paper describes a system for the treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of solid radioactive waste

  12. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  13. Disposal facilities on land for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: draft principles for the protection of the human environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document gives the views of the authorising [United Kingdom] Departments under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 about the principles which those Departments should follow in assessing proposals for land disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. It is based on relevant research findings and reports by international bodies; but has been prepared at this stage as a draft on which outside comments are sought, and is subject to revision in the light of those comments. That process of review will lead to the preparation and publication of a definitive statement of principles, which will be an important background document for public inquiries into proposals to develop sites for land disposal facilities. Headings are: authorisation of disposal; other legislation governing new disposal facilities; basic radiological requirements; general principles; information requirements. (author)

  14. Treatment of rod shaped intermediate active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, A.; Blase, F.; Dirks, F.; Valencia, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Central Decontamination Operation Department (HDB) of the Research Center Karlsruhe operates facilities for the disposal of radioactive waste. In general, their objective is to reduce the volume of the radioactive waste and to obtain waste products suitable for repository storage. One of the central facilities of the HDB is the intermediate level waste (ILW) scrapping facility which processes intermediate level waste. Since the ILW scrapping facility was not large enough to handle radioactive waste coming from the dismantling and operating of nuclear facilities, HDB expanded and built a larger hot cell. It contains a hydraulically driven metal cutter with a guiding channel and a high pressure compactor. A major task in the hot cell of the ILW scrapping facility is disposing of fuel boxes. These are cut in pieces and scrapped, which is a unique technique in Germany for fuel box disposal. HDB's experiences in disposing of radioactive waste in the ILW scrapping facility will described in detail, with special emphasis on the handling of rod shaped components. (author)

  15. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  16. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  17. Sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsaev, Yu.V.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of investigations of possibility of sub-seabed disposal of long-living intermediate-level radioactive wastes carried out by NIREX (UK) is described. Advantages and disadvantages of sub-seabed disposal of radioactive wastes are considered; regions suitable for disposal, transport means for marine disposal are described. Three types of sub-seabed burials are characterized

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  19. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    According to the Section 24 of the Finnish Radiation Decree (1512/91), the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety shall specify the concentration and activity limits and principles for the determination whether a waste can be defined as a radioactive waste or not. The radiation safety requirements and limits for the disposal of radioactive waste are given in the guide. They must be observed when discharging radioactive waste into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste disposal plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilization of nuclear energy of natural resources. (4 refs., 1 tab.)

  20. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  1. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  2. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  3. Solid and liquid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The technology for the treatment of low - and intermediate-level radioactive solid and liquid wastes is somewhat extensive. Some main guidance on the treatment methods are shown, based on informations contained in technical reports and complementary documents. (author) [pt

  4. MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘自强

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated.Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run.Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities.Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces.Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of “regional disposal”.Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest.southwest,south and east China respectively.A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made.

  5. Management of radioactive wastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Ziqiang

    1994-01-01

    The policy and principles on management of radioactive wastes are stipulated. Cement solidification and bituminization unit has come into trial run. Solid radioactive waste is stored in tentative storage vault built in each of nuclear facilities. Seventeen storages associated with applications of nuclear technology and radioisotopes have been built for provinces. Disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes pursues the policy of 'regional disposal'. Four repositories have been planned to be built in northwest, southwest, south and east China respectively. A program for treatment and disposal of high level radioactive waste has been made

  6. Comparison of the intermediate storage periods and areas required for final storage of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel in various types of host rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Hoeppe, N.; Lerch, C.; Jobmann, M.; Filbert, W.

    2005-01-01

    The present new version of the German concept for radioactive waste and spent fuel management is based on the assumption that a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel will not be required until 2030. One reason frequently given for this date is the intermediate storage period of at least forty years to allow the very high initial heat generation to decay. However, calculations performed by the authors have shown that the minimum intermediate storage period for a repository in rock salt is only between four and nineteen years, depending on the final storage concept and the load of the waste package. In clay as a host rock, the minimum intermediate storage times were calculated to be between 31 and 142 years; the same time spans are expected to apply to final storage in magmatic rock, such as granite. The maximum permissible loads of a container holding spent fuel in salt are many times those in clay and granite, respectively. It was also seen that the area requirement for final storage of the same waste structures is roughly a factor of ten higher in clay than in salt. The differences between granite and salt are similar. The reasons for these grave differences, on the one hand, are the better thermal conductivity of salt and, on the other hand, the better heat tolerance of the crushed salt used as backfill material compared to that of bentonite used in the clay and granite concepts. While salt will allow temperatures of up to 200 C, the maximum temperature in bentonite is limited to 100 C. (orig.)

  7. Radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, U.

    1988-01-01

    For the Federal Government the safe disposal of waste from nuclear power plants constitutes the precondition for their further operation. The events in the year 1987 about the conditioning and transport of low activity waste and medium activity waste made it clear that it was necessary to intensify state control and to examine the structures in the field of waste disposal. A concept for the control of radioactive waste with negligible heat development (LAW) from nuclear installations is presented. (DG) [de

  8. OPG's long term management proposal for low and intermediate level radioactive waste: project description, operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Although the Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) is approximately 8 years away from being placed into service, it is time to start planning for operations. Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) Nuclear Waste Management Division (NWMD) has a systematic approach to preparing for operation of any new facility that is readily applicable to the DGR. The DGR Operational Readiness Plan has been benchmarked at similar facilities in North America and Europe. The operating vision is a living model, and is constantly being reviewed and refined to align with the detailed design of the DGR as it proceeds through its phases of development. Combined with 40 years of operating surface storage facilities for the storage of Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW), the DGR operating vision will enable NWMD to provide meaningful input during COMS (Constructability, Operability, Maintainability, and Safety) review in the DGR project detailed-design phase in 2011/2012. A Work Breakdown Structure has been used to communicate the detail of the operating vision, and also to estimate the costs of Operational Readiness and Operations during the lifetime of the facility. (author)

  9. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  10. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north–south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38 m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  11. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.

    1980-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of an Expert Group appointed in 1976 to consider the 1959 White Paper 'The Control of Radioactive Wastes' in the light of the changes that have taken place since it was written and with the extended remit of examining 'waste management' rather than the original 'waste disposal'. The Group undertook to; review the categories and quantities present and future of radioactive wastes, recommend the principles for the proper management of these wastes, advise whether any changes in practice or statutory controls are necessary and make recommendations. (UK)

  12. Encapsulation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, O.; Plows, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for encapsulating a particular radioactive waste which consists of suspending the waste in a viscous liquid encapsulating material, of synthetic resin monomers or prepolymers, and setting the encapsulating material by addition or condensation polymerization to form a solid material in which the waste is dispersed. (author)

  13. Classification of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive wastes are generated in a number of different kinds of facilities and arise in a wide range of concentrations of radioactive materials and in a variety of physical and chemical forms. To simplify their management, a number of schemes have evolved for classifying radioactive waste according to the physical, chemical and radiological properties of significance to those facilities managing this waste. These schemes have led to a variety of terminologies, differing from country to country and even between facilities in the same country. This situation makes it difficult for those concerned to communicate with one another regarding waste management practices. This document revises and updates earlier IAEA references on radioactive waste classification systems given in IAEA Technical Reports Series and Safety Series. Guidance regarding exemption of materials from regulatory control is consistent with IAEA Safety Series and the RADWASS documents published under IAEA Safety Series. 11 refs, 2 figs, 2 tab

  14. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BELGOWASTE was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: Purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste; centralization assumes the making of adequate arrangements for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of resiudal material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste; deep clay formations are at present preferred; disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol [fr

  15. Project study for the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in deep-lying geological formations and for intermediate storage. Projektstudie fuer die Endlagerung von hochaktiven Abfaellen in tiefliegenden geologischen Formationen sowie fuer die Zwischenlagerung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The present report has been written to show the feasibility of construction and the operational suitability of different intermediate and final storage concepts for high-level radioactive wastes. It summarizes the information from a project study given under contract by Nagra. The report should orient a broader public about the possible construction of such intermediate and final repositories. The work presented here refers to radioactive wastes which need an extremely long isolation time. Important information from a separate study concerning different aspects of the drilling of deep boreholes, has been integrated into the present report.

  16. Radioactive wastes of Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This conference studies the radioactive waste of nuclear industry. Nine articles and presentations are exposed here; the action of the direction of nuclear installations safety, the improvement of industrial proceedings to reduce the waste volume, the packaging of radioactive waste, the safety of radioactive waste disposal and environmental impact studies, a presentation of waste coming from nuclear power plants, the new waste management policy, the international panorama of radioactive waste management, the international transport of radioactive waste, finally an economic analysis of the treatment and ultimate storage of radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  17. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book highlights the main issues of public concern related to radioactive waste management and puts them into perspective. It provides an overview of radioactive waste management covering, among other themes, policies, implementation and public communication based on national experiences. Its purpose is to assists in increasing the understanding of radioactive waste management issues by public and national authorities, organizations involved in radioactive waste management and the nuclear industry; it may also serve as a source book for those who communicate with the public. Even in the unlikely event that nuclear power does not further develop around the world, the necessity for dealing with nuclear waste from past usages, from uranium mining and milling, decontamination and decommissioning of existing nuclear facilities and from the uses of radioactive materials in medicine, industry and research would still exist. In many countries, radioactive waste management planning involves making effective institutional arrangements in which responsibilities and liabilities are well established for the technical operation and long term surveillance of disposal systems. Financing mechanisms are part of the arrangements. Continuous quality assurance and quality control, at all levels of radioactive waste management, are essential to ensure the required integrity of the system. As with any other human activity, improvements in technology and economics may be possible and secondary problems avoided. Improvements and confirmation of the efficiency of processes and reduction of uncertainties can only be achieved by continued active research, development and demonstration, which are the goals of many national programmes. International co-operation, also in the form of reviews, can contribute to increasing confidence in the ongoing work. The problem of radioactive wastes is not a unique one; it may be compared with other problems of toxic wastes resulting from many other

  19. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  20. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  1. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, H.; Closs, K.D.; Kuhn, K.

    1981-01-01

    The solutions to the technical problem of the disposal of radioactive waste are limited by a) the state of knowledge of reprocessing possibilites, b) public acceptance of the use of those techniques which are known, c) legislative procedures linking licensing of new nuclear power plants to the solution of waste problems, and d) other political constraints. Wastes are generated in the mining and enriching of radioactive elements, and in the operation of nuclear power plants as well as in all fields where radioactive substances may be used. Waste management will depend on the stability and concentration of radioactive materials which must be stored, and a resolution of the tension between numerous small storage sites and a few large ones, which again face problems of public acceptability

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abdul Malik Syed Zain

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic subjects covered in the radioactive waste management. The subjects are policy and legislation, pre-treatment, classification, segregation, treatment, conditioning, storage, siting and disposal, and quality assurance

  3. Experiments relating to hydrogen generated by corrosion processes associated with repositories for intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, R.

    1983-12-01

    Organic components in an intermediate level waste repository decompose under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to produce carbon dioxide, which may lead to acid corrosion of metallic containers and hence to hydrogen production. The possibility of hydrogen production within the repository must be considered in determining the long term safety. Thermodynamic calculations show that only pure water is required to produce hydrogen with iron in a repository. The hydrogen evolution rate is thus the important parameter. However, the available kinetic data is insufficient and needs to be supplemented experimentally. Carbon steel specimens were immersed in water over which several gas mixtures containing nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were passed; the amount of hydrogen picked up by the gas stream was measured. 1.4 - 28 ml hydrogen per square meter per hour was evolved when the gas mixture contained 1 and 20 volume per cent carbon dioxide respectively. Hydrogen was also detected in natural CO 2 -free water when oxygen concentration cells are present. No hydrogen could be detected at pH 8.5 and above. The experiments were all carried out at 25 degrees C and atmospheric pressure and restricted to the carbonate system. Natural waters contain a mixture of salts; this may increase or reduce the hydrogen evolution rate. Higher temperatures and pressures, in particular a higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide, will probably lead to an increase in the hydrogen evolution rate. (author)

  4. CONDITIONING OF INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL WASTE AT FORSCHUNGSZENTRUM JUELICH GMBH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbach, H.

    2003-01-01

    This contribution to the group of low-level, intermediate, mixed and hazardous waste describes the conditioning of intermediate-level mixed waste (dose rate above 10 mSv/h at the surface) from Research Centre Juelich (FZJ). Conditioning of the waste by supercompaction is performed at Research Centre Karlsruhe (FZK). The waste described is radioactive waste arising from research at Juelich. This waste includes specimens and objects from irradiation experiments in the research reactors Merlin (FRJ-1) and Dido (FRJ-2) at FZJ. In principle, radioactive waste at Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH is differentiated by the surface dose rate at the waste package. Up to a surface dose rate of 10 mSv/h, the waste is regarded as low-level. The radioactive waste described here has a surface dose rate above 10 mSv/h. Waste up to 10 mSv/h is conditioned at the Juelich site according to different conditioning methods. The intermediate-level waste can only be conditioned by supercompaction in the processing facility for intermediate-level waste from plant operation at Research Centre Karlsruhe. Research Centre Juelich also uses this waste cell to condition its intermediate-level waste from plant operation

  5. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  6. Radioactive waste disposal process geological structure for the waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtois, G.; Jaouen, C.

    1983-01-01

    The process described here consists to carry out the two phases of storage operation (intermediate and definitive) of radioactive wastes (especially the vitrified ones) in a geological dispositif (horizontal shafts) at an adequate deepness but suitable for a natural convection ventilation with fresh air from the land surface and moved only with the calorific heat released by the burried radioactive wastes when the radioactive decay has reached the adequate level, the shafts are totally and definitely occluded [fr

  7. Monitoring of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houriet, J.Ph.

    1982-08-01

    The estimation of risks presented by final disposal of radioactive wastes depends, among other things, on what is known of their radioisotope content. The first aim of this report is to present the current state of possibilities for measuring (monitoring) radionuclides in wastes. The definition of a global monitoring system in the framework of radioactive waste disposal has to be realized, based on the information presented here, in accordance with the results of work to come and on the inventory of wastes to be stored. Designed for direct measurement of unpackaged wastes and for control of wastes ready to be stored, the system would ultimately make it possible to obtain all adaquate information about their radioisotope content with regard to the required disposal safety. The second aim of this report is to outline the definition of such a global system of monitoring. Designed as a workbase and reference source for future work by the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste on the topic of radioactive waste monitoring, this report describes the current situation in this field. It also makes it possible to draw some preliminary conclusions and to make several recommendations. Centered on the possibilities of current and developing techniques, it makes evident that a global monitoring system should be developed. However, it shows that the monitoring of packaged wastes will be difficult, and should be avoided as far as possible, except for control measurements

  8. Underground disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-08-15

    Disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes by shallow land burial, emplacement in suitable abandoned mines, or by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing has been practised in various countries for many years. In recent years considerable efforts have been devoted in most countries that have nuclear power programmes to developing and evaluating appropriate disposal systems for high-level and transuranium-bearing waste, and to studying the potential for establishing repositories in geological formations underlaying their territories. The symposium, organized jointly by the IAEA and OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the Geological Survey of Finland, provided an authoritative account of the status of underground disposal programmes throughout the world in 1979. It was evidence of the experience that has been gained and the comprehensive investigations that have been performed to study various options for the underground disposal of radioactive waste since the last IAEA/NEA symposium on this topic (Disposal of Radioactive Waste into the Ground) was held in 1967 in Vienna. The 10 sessions covered the following topics: National programme and general studies, Disposal of solid waste at shallow depth and in rock caverns, underground disposal of liquid waste by deep well injection and hydraulic fracturing, Disposal in salt formations, Disposal in crystalline rocks and argillaceous sediments, Thermal aspects of disposal in deep geological formations, Radionuclide migration studies, Safety assessment and regulatory aspects.

  9. Study on the development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes and its impact on the environment. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, Z.

    1976-05-01

    Efforts were made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. Practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  10. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Y.S.; Saling, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The purposes of the book are: To create a general awareness of technologies and programs of radioactive waste management. To summarize the current status of such technologies, and to prepare practicing scientists, engineers, administrative personnel, and students for the future demand for a working team in such waste management

  11. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  12. Radioactive waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI is the Supervisory Authority for Nuclear Safety and Security of Swiss Nuclear Facilities. The responsibilities include the evaluation and operational monitoring of the existing five Swiss nuclear power plants, the radioactive waste disposals and the nuclear research facilities. The supervisory area includes project planning, operational issues, and decommissioning of plants. ENSI supervises the formation, handling and storage of radioactive waste, the work on deep geological disposal and the transport of radioactive materials. The disposal of radioactive waste is regulated by the Swiss Nuclear Energy Act (2005) and the Nuclear Energy Ordinance (2005). The protection of humans and the environment must be guaranteed permanently. Waste disposal must be carried out in the own country by deep geological repositories. The licensing procedure for the disposal facilities is concentrated at the federal level, the cooperation of the location canton, neighboring cantons and the neighboring countries is ensured. The general license for the deep geological repository is subject to an optional referendum. The polluter pays principle applies to the disposal of radioactive waste. The waste producers are legally obliged to dispose of them and have founded the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (Nagra). The federal government is responsible for waste from medicine, industry and research (MIF). The Federal Council approved the waste management certificate for low and intermediate level waste (SMA) in 1988. High-level-waste (HAA) and long-live-intermediate-level-waste (LMA), where approved in 2006. Nagra's disposal concept envisages two separate deep geological repositories for SMA and HAA / LMA in a suitable, tectonically stable, low-permeability rock formation. If a site meets both the SMA and HAA / LMA storage requirements, the selection process may result in a common location for all radioactive waste. Until the

  13. A study on radiation-resistance of PIC (polymer-impregnated concrete) for container of conditioning and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Sudoh, Giichi; Araki, Kunio; Kasahara, Yuko.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation-resistance of PIC with test piece was evaluated by irradiation of gamma-rays. All the test pieces had JIS mortar size of 4 x 4 x 16 cm. JIS mortar and concrete were used as specimens. The maximum aggregate size of concrete was 10 mm. The specimens impregnated by MMA (methylmethacrylate) monomer and solution of 10% of PSt (polystyrene) in MMA monomer (MMA .PSt) were polymerized by irradiating for 5 hr at the dose rate of 1 MR (1 x 10 6 Roentgen)/hr. PIC specimens were exposed up to maximum 1000 MR to 60 Co gamma-rays in air and under water which simulate shallow land disposal and deep sea dumping conditions, respectively. The lowering of strength of the PIC exposed to gamma-rays under water was larger than that of the PIC in air. The improving effect of the added PSt on the radiation-resistance was observed. It was observed that the 50 MR-irradiated MMA.PSt-PIC under water, which had the residual compressive strength of 85%, was resistant to gamma-rays. When this residual strength was regarded as a limit of radiation-resistance in air, the limit of MMA and MMA.PSt-PIC were approximately 25 MR and 150 MR, respectively. The lowering of strength was mainly due to the deterioration of MMA polymer in PIC. The total exposure dose for PIC-container was estimated by assuming the conditions about the packaged radioactive wastes, dose rate, container and so on. The total exposure dose on PIC-container for 100 years became roughly 1.25 MR. Therefore, it is estimated that the PIC-containers for conditioning and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes have a sufficient resistance to radiation arising from wastes. (author)

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoulfanidis, N.

    1991-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste is a very important part of the nuclear industry. The future of the nuclear power industry depends to a large extent on the successful solution of the perceived or real problems associated with the disposal of both low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW). All the activities surrounding the management of radioactive waste are reviewed. The federal government and the individual states are working toward the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and the Low-Level Waste Policy Act. The two congressional acts are reviewed and progress made as of early 1990 is presented. Spent-fuel storage and transportation are discussed in detail as are the concepts of repositories for HLW. The status of state compacts for LLW is also discussed. Finally, activities related to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are also described

  15. NPP radioactive waste processing and solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.S.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharova, K.P.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of proce-sing NPP intermediate level- and low-level liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) are considered. Various methods are compared of LWR solidification on the base of bituminization, cement grouting and inclusion into synthetic resins. It is concluded that the considered methods ensure radioactive radionuclides effluents into open hydronetwork at the level below the sanitary, standards

  16. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  17. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slansky, C.M.

    1975-01-01

    High-level radioactive waste is produced at Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) during the recovery of spent highly enriched nuclear fuels. Liquid waste is stored safely in doubly contained tanks made of steel. The liquid waste is calcined to a solid and stored safely in a retrievable form in doubly contained underground bins. The calcine can be treated further or left untreated in anticipation of ultimate storage. Fluidized bed calcination has been applied to many kinds of high-level waste. The environmental impact of high-level waste management at the ICcP has been negligible and should continue to be negligible. 13 refs

  18. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmude, J.

    1976-01-01

    Speech on the 18th March 1976 in the Bundestag by the parliamentary Secretary of State, Dr. Juergen Schmude, to substantiate the Federal government's draft to a Fourth Act amending the Atomic Energy Act. The draft deals mainly with the final storage of radioactive wastes and interrelated questions concerning waste treatment and waste collection, and with several ordinance empowerments in order to improve licensing and supervisory procedures. (orig./LN) [de

  19. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtiss, D.H.; Heacock, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a process for treating radioactive waste whereby a mud of radioactive waste and cementing material is formed in a mixer. This mud is then transferred from the mixer to a storage and transport container where it is allowed to harden. To improve transport efficiency an alkali silicate or an alkaline-earth metal silicate is added to the mud. For one hundred parts by weight of radioactive waste in the mud, twenty to one hundred parts by weight of cementing material are added and five to fifty parts by weight of silicate, the amount of waste in the mud exceeding the combined amount of cementing and silicate material [fr

  20. Disposal of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This Safety Requirements publication applies to the disposal of radioactive waste of all types by means of emplacement in designed disposal facilities, subject to the necessary limitations and controls being placed on the disposal of the waste and on the development, operation and closure of facilities. The classification of radioactive waste is discussed. This Safety Requirements publication establishes requirements to provide assurance of the radiation safety of the disposal of radioactive waste, in the operation of a disposal facility and especially after its closure. The fundamental safety objective is to protect people and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. This is achieved by setting requirements on the site selection and evaluation and design of a disposal facility, and on its construction, operation and closure, including organizational and regulatory requirements.

  1. Security of Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldammer, W.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to achieve radioactive waste security are discussed. Categorization of waste in order to implement adequate and consistent security measures based on potential consequences is made. The measures include appropriate treatment/storage/disposal of waste to minimize the potential and consequences of malicious acts; management of waste only within an authorised, regulated, legal framework; management of the security of personnel and information; measures to minimize the acquisition of radioactive waste by those with malicious intent. The specific measures are: deter unauthorized access to the waste; detect any such attempt or any loss or theft of waste; delay unauthorized access; provide timely response to counter any attempt to gain unauthorised access; measures to minimize acts of sabotage; efforts to recover any lost or stolen waste; mitigation and emergency plans in case of release of radioactivity. An approach to develop guidance, starting with the categorisation of sources and identification of dangerous sources, is presented. Dosimetric criteria for internal and external irradiation are set. Different exposure scenarios are considered. Waste categories and security categories based on the IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 are presented

  2. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  3. Management on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balu, K.; Bhatia, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The basic philosophy governing the radioactive waste management activities in India is to concentrate and contain as much activity as possible and to discharge to the environment only such of these streams that have radioactive content much below the nationally and internationally accepted standards. The concept of ''Zero Release'' is also kept in view. At Tarapur, the effluents are discharged into coastal waters after the radioactivity of the effluents is brought down by a factor 100. The effluents fΩm Rajasthan reactors are discharged into a lake keeping their radioactivity well within permissible limits and a solar evaporation plant is being set up. The plant, when it becomes operational, will be a step towards the concept of ''Zero Release''. At Kalpakkam, the treated wastes are proposed to be diluted by circulating sea water and discharged away from the shore through a long pipe. At Narora, ion exchange followed by chemical precipitation is to be employed to treat effluents and solar evaporation process for total containment. Solid wastes are stored/dispsed in the concrete trenches, underground with the water proofing of external surfaces and the top of the trench is covered with concrete. Highly active wastes are stored/disposed in tile holes which are vaults made of steel-lined, reinforced concrete pipes. Gas cleaning, dilution and dispersion techniques are adopted to treat gaseous radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  4. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  5. Method for calcining radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorklund, W.J.; McElroy, J.L.; Mendel, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the preparation of radioactive wastes in a low leachability form involves calcining the radioactive waste on a fluidized bed of glass frit, removing the calcined waste to melter to form a homogeneous melt of the glass and the calcined waste, and then solidifying the melt to encapsulate the radioactive calcine in a glass matrix

  6. Radioactive waste storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state's boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected

  7. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  8. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Prototipo de degradacion termica para desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: lauradiazarch@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm{sup 3}), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  9. Effects of cellulose degradation products on the mobility of Eu(III) in repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesen, Veronica; Forsberg, Kerstin; Jonsson, Mats

    2017-10-15

    The deep repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste SFR in Sweden will contain large amounts of cellulosic waste materials contaminated with radionuclides. Over time the repository will be filled with water and alkaline conditions will prevail. In the present study degradation of cellulosic materials and the ability of cellulosic degradation products to solubilize and thereby mobilise Eu(III) under repository conditions has been investigated. Further, the possible immobilization of Eu(III) by sorption onto cement in the presence of degradation products has been investigated. The cellulosic material has been degraded under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in alkaline media (pH: 12.5) at ambient temperature. The degradation was followed by measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content in the aqueous phase as a function of time. After 173days of degradation the TOC content is highest in the anaerobic artificial cement pore water (1547mg/L). The degradation products are capable of solubilising Eu(III) and the total europium concentration in the aqueous phase was 900μmol/L after 498h contact time under anaerobic conditions. Further it is shown that Eu(III) is adsorbed to the hydrated cement to a low extent (<9μmol Eu/g of cement) in the presence of degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the research association BelgoWaste was founded in order to prepare a technical and administrative plan for radioactive waste management in Belgium and to take the preliminary steps for establishing an organization which would be responsible for this activity. The association made a survey of all forecasts concerning radioactive waste production by power reactors and the fuel cycle industry based on various schemes of development of the nuclear industry. From the technical point of view, the reference plan for waste management envisages: purification at the production site of large volumes of low-level effluents; construction of a central facility for the treatment and intermediate storage of process concentrates (slurries, resins, etc.) and medium-level waste, centralization assuming that adequate arrangements are made for transporting waste before final treatment; maximum recovery of plutonium from waste and treatment of residual material by incineration at very high temperatures; treatment at the production site of high-level effluents from irradiated fuel reprocessing; construction of an underground long-term storage site for high-level treated waste and plutonium fuel fabrication waste (deep clay formations are at present preferred); and disposal of low-level treated waste into the Atlantic Ocean. It is intended to entrust the entire responsibility for treatment, disposal and storage of treated waste to a single body with participation by the State, the Nuclear Energy Research Centre (CEN/SCK), the electricity companies and Belgonucleaire. The partners intend to set up their facilities and services in the area of Mol. (author)

  11. Aqueous radioactive waste bituminization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.S.

    1980-08-01

    The bituminzation of decontamination and ion exchange resin stripping wastes with four grades of asphalt was investigated to determine the effects of asphalt type on the properties of the final products. All waste forms deformed readily under light loads indicating they would flow if not restrained. It was observed in all cases that product leaching rates increased as the hardness of the asphalt used to treat the waste increased. If bituminization is adopted for any Ontario Hydro aqueous radioactive wastes they should be treated with soft asphalt to obtain optimum leaching resistance and mechanical stability during interim storage should be provided by a corrosion resistant container

  12. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and energy

  13. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and

  14. Radioactive wastes in Oklo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Flores R, J.H.; Pena, P.; Lopez, A.

    2006-01-01

    The acceptance of the Nuclear Energy as electric power supply implies to give answer to the population on the two main challenges to conquer in the public opinion: the nuclear accidents and the radioactive wastes. Several of the questions that are made on the radioactive wastes, its are the mobility migration of them, the geologic stability of the place where its are deposited and the possible migration toward the aquifer mantels. Since the half lives of the radioactive waste of a Nuclear Reactor are of several hundred of thousands of years, the technical explanations to the previous questions little convince to the public in general. In this work summary the results of the radioactive waste generated in a natural reactor, denominated Oklo effect that took place in Gabon, Africa, it makes several thousands of millions of years, a lot before the man appeared in the Earth. The identification of at least 17 reactors in Oklo it was carried out thanks to the difference in the concentrations of Uranium 235 and 238 prospective, and to the analysis of the non-mobility of the radioactive waste in the site. It was able by this way to determine that the reactors with sizes of hardly some decimeter and powers of around 100 kilowatts were operating in intermittent and spontaneous form for space of 150,000 years, with operation cycles of around 30 minutes. Recent studies have contributed information valuable on the natural confinement of the radioactive waste of the Oklo reactors in matrixes of minerals of aluminum phosphate that caught and immobilized them for thousands of millions of years. This extracted information from the nature contributes guides and it allows 'to verify' the validity of the current proposals on the immobilization of radioactive wastes of a nuclear reactor. This work presents in clear and accessible form to the public in general on the secure 'design', operation, 'decommissioning' and 'storage' of the radioactive waste of the reactors that the nature put

  15. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuramoto, Naohiko.

    1992-01-01

    When granular materials comprising radioactive wastes containing phosphorus are processed at first in a fluidized bed type furnace, if the granular materials are phosphorus-containing activated carbon, granular materials comprising alkali compound such as calcium hydroxide and barium hydroxide are used as fluidizing media. Even granular materials of slow burning speed can be burnt stably in a fluidizing state by high temperature heat of the fluidizing media, thereby enabling to take a long burning processing time. Accordingly, radioactive activated carbon wastes can be processed by burning treatment. (T.M.)

  16. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Kamiya, Kunio; Yusa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To form radioactive wastes into a pellet-like solid body having high strength. Structure: Liquid waste containing a radioactive material is heated into a powdery body. Granular solid matter such as sand greater in diameter than grain size of the powdery body are mixed into the powdery body, and thereafter the mixture is formed by a granulator into a pellet-like solid body. The thus formed material is introduced into a drum can, into which a thermoplastic material such as asphalt is poured into the can and cooled so that the asphalt is impregnated inside the pellet to obtain a solid having high strength. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Radioactive waste processing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    A radioactive waste processing container used for processing radioactive wastes into solidification products suitable to disposal such as underground burying or ocean discarding is constituted by using cements. As the cements, calcium sulfoaluminate clinker mainly comprising calcium sulfoaluminate compound; 3CaO 3Al 2 O 3 CaSO 4 , Portland cement and aqueous blast furnace slug is used for instance. Calciumhydroxide formed from the Portland cement is consumed for hydration of the calcium sulfoaluminate clinker. According, calcium hydroxide is substantially eliminated in the cement constituent layer of the container. With such a constitution, damages such as crackings and peelings are less caused, to improve durability and safety. (I.N.)

  18. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear operations generate a variety of primary solid waste comprising of tissue materials, glassware, plastics, protective rubber-wears, used components like filters, piping, structural items, unserviceable equipment, etc. This type of solid waste is generally associated with low and intermediate level of beta and gamma radiation and, in some cases, by low levels of alpha contamination. Radioactive Solid Waste Management Site (RSMS), Trombay is operational with an objective of safe and efficient management of low and intermediate level solid waste generated from various nuclear fuel cycle facilities of BARC, Trombay. The RSMS also manages the spent radioactive sources, utilised in healthcare, industries and research institutes, after completion of their useful life. The radioactive solid waste is first segregated, treated for volume reduction and disposed in engineered disposal module to prevent the migration of radionuclides and isolate them from human environment

  19. Radioactive waste containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beranger, J.-C.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of confining the radioactive wastes produced from the nuclear industry, after the ore concentration stage, is envisaged. These residues being not released into the environment are to be stored. The management policy consists in classifying them in view of adapting to each type of treatment, the suitable conditioning and storage. This classification is made with taking account of the following data: radioactivity (weak, medium or high) nature and lifetime of this radioactivity (transuranians) physical nature and volume. The principles retained are those of volume reduction and shaping into insoluble solids (vitrification) [fr

  20. Radioactive waste treatment and handling in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Classification of radioactive wastes customary in France and the program of radiation protection in handling them are discussed. Various methods of radioactive waste processing and burial are considered. The French classification of radioactive wastes differs from one used in the other countries. Wastes are classified under three categories: A, B and C. A - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with short-lived radionuclides (half-life - less than 30 years, negligible or heat release, small amount of long-lived radionuclides, especially such as plutonium, americium and neptunium); B - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (considerable amounts of long-lived radionuclides including α-emitters, low and moderate-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, low and moderate heat release); C - high-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (high-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, high heat release, considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides). Volumetric estimations of wastes of various categories and predictions of their growth are given. It is noted that the concept of closed fuel cycle with radiochemical processing of spent fuel is customary in France

  1. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid wastes are supplied to a ceramic filter to conduct filtration. In this case, a device for adding a powdery inorganic ion exchanger is disposed to the upstream of the ceramic filter. When the powdery inorganic ion exchanger is charged to the addition device, it is precoated to the surface of the ceramic filter, to conduct separation of suspended matters and separation of ionic nuclides simultaneously. Liquid wastes returned to a collecting tank are condensed while being circulated between the ceramic filter and the tank and then contained in a condensation liquid waste tank. With such a constitution, both of radioactive nuclides accompanied by suspended matters in the radioactive liquid wastes and ionic nuclides can be captured efficiently. (T.M.)

  2. Management of radioactive waste from nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Radioactive waste arises from the generation of nuclear energy and from the production of radioactive materials and their applications in industry, agriculture, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. Technical expertise is a prerequisite for safe and cost-effective management of radioactive waste. A training course is considered an effective tool for providing technical expertise in various aspects of waste management. The IAEA, in co-operation with national authorities concerned with radioactive waste management, has organized and conducted a number of radioactive waste management training courses. The results of the courses conducted by the IAEA in 1991-1995 have been evaluated at consultants meetings held in December 1995 and May 1996. This guidance document for use by Member States in arranging national training courses on the management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear applications has been prepared as the result of that effort. The report outlines the various requirements for the organization, conduct and evaluation of training courses in radioactive waste management and proposes an annotated outline of a reference training course

  3. Disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critchley, R.J.; Swindells, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for charging radioactive waste into a disposable steel drum having a plug type lid. The drum is sealed to a waste dispenser and the dispenser closure and lid are withdrawn into the dispenser in back-to-back manner. Before reclosing the dispenser the drum is urged closer to it so that on restoring the dispenser closure to the closed position the lid is pressed into the drum opening

  4. Underground storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, D.N.

    1977-01-01

    An introductory survey of the underground disposal of radioactive wastes is given. Attention is paid to various types of radioactive wastes varying from low to highly active materials, as well as mining techniques and salt deposits

  5. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, C.

    1985-01-01

    The incineration process currently seems the most appropriate way to solve the problems encountered by the increasing quantities of low and medium active waste from nuclear power generation waste. Although a large number of incinerators operate in the industry, there is still scope for the improvement of safety, throughput capacity and reduction of secondary waste. This seminar intends to give opportunity to scientists working on the different aspects of incineration to present their most salient results and to discuss the possibilities of making headway in the management of LL/ML radioactive waste. These proceedings include 17 contributions ranging over the subjects: incineration of solid β-γ wastes; incineration of other radwastes; measurement and control of wastes; off-gas filtration and release. (orig./G.J.P.)

  6. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfredson, P.G.; Levins, D.M.

    1975-08-01

    Present and future methods of managing radioactive wastes in the nuclear industry are reviewed. In the stages from uranium mining to fuel fabrication, the main purpose of waste management is to limit and control dispersal into the environment of uranium and its decay products, particularly radium and radon. Nuclear reactors produce large amounts of radioactivity but release rates from commercial power reactors have been low and well within legal limits. The principal waste from reprocessing is a high activity liquid containing essentially all the fission products along with the transuranium elements. Most high activity wastes are currently stored as liquids in tanks but there is agreement that future wastes must be converted into solids. Processes to solidify wastes have been demonstrated in pilot plant facilities in the United States and Europe. After solidification, wastes may be stored for some time in man-made structures at or near the Earth's surface. The best method for ultimate disposal appears to be placing solid wastes in a suitable geological formation on land. (author)

  8. Dynamics of radioactive waste generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Virtopeanu, Cornelia; Ivan, Alexandrina

    2008-01-01

    In Romania there are in operation three facilities licensed for collection, treatment and storage of radioactive waste resulted from industry, research, medicine, and agriculture, named institutional radioactive waste. The repository, which is of near surface type, is designed for disposing institutional radioactive waste. The institutional radioactive wastes generated are allowed to be disposed into repository according to the waste acceptance criteria, defined for the disposal facility. The radioactive wastes which are not allowed for disposal are stored on the site of each facility which is special authorised for this. The paper describes the dynamics of generation of institutional waste in Romania, both for radioactive waste which are allowed to be disposed into repository and for radioactive waste which are not allowed to be disposed of. (authors)

  9. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.

    1976-12-01

    The following conclusions are reached: (1) safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; (2) basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; (3) the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and (4) the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged

  10. Radioactive waste processing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Minoru.

    1993-01-01

    Storing space for radioactive wastes (storage tunnels) are formed underground of the sea bottom along coast. A plurality of boreholes through which sea water flows are pored vertically in a direction intersecting underground streams of brine in the ground between the tunnels and seaside. Sea water introduction pipes are joined to the upper side walls of the boreholes. The sea water introduction pipes have introduction ports protruded under the sea level of the coastal sea area region. Since sea water flows from the introduction ports to the boreholes passing through the sea water introduction pipes, sea water is always filled in the boreholes. Therefore, brine is sufficiently supplied toward the land by sea water from the boreholes, the underground stream of brine is negligibly small. This can prevent radioactive contamination due to flow of the underground water when radioactive wastes are buried in the underground near coast. (I.N.)

  11. Radioactive waste management at KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Tariq B.; Qamar Ali

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the existing radioactive waste management scheme of KANUPP. The radioactive wastes generated at KANUPP are in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. The spent fuel of the plant is stored underwater in the Spent Fuel Bay. For long term storage of low and intermediate level solid waste, 3m deep concrete lined trenches have been provided. The non-combustible material is directly stored in these trenches while the combustible material is first burnt in an incinerator and the ash is collected, sealed and also stored in the trenches. The low-level liquid and gaseous effluents are diluted and are discharged into the sea and the atmosphere. The paper also describes a modification carried out in the spent resin collection system in which a locally designed removable tank replaced the old permanent tanks. Presently the low level combustible solid waste is incinerated and stored, but it is planned to replace the present method by using compactor and storing the compacted waste in steel drums underground. (author)

  12. Radioactive waste material disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a process for direct conversion of solid radioactive waste, particularly spent nuclear fuel and its cladding, if any, into a solidified waste glass. A sacrificial metal oxide, dissolved in a glass bath, is used to oxidize elemental metal and any carbon values present in the waste as they are fed to the bath. Two different modes of operation are possible, depending on the sacrificial metal oxide employed. In the first mode, a regenerable sacrificial oxide, e.g., PbO, is employed, while the second mode features use of disposable oxides such as ferric oxide.

  13. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Funabashi, Kiyomi; Chino, Koichi.

    1992-01-01

    In a waste processing device for solidifying, pellets formed by condensing radioactive liquid wastes generated from a nuclear power plant, by using a solidification agent, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide or sodium nitrate is mixed upon solidification. In particular, since sodium sulfate in a resin regenerating liquid wastes absorbs water in the cement upon cement solidification, and increases the volume by expansion, there is a worry of breaking the cement solidification products. This reaction can be prevented by the addition of sodium chloride and the like. Accordingly, integrity of the solidification products can be maintained for a long period of time. (T.M.)

  14. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Waste Management Glossary defines over 300 terms in the English language that have special meanings when they are used in the context of radioactive waste management. The Glossary is intended to provide a consistent reference for these terms for specialists in this field. It also will assist non-specialists who read IAEA reports dealing with waste management. This is the second edition of the Glossary. It is intended to update and replace its predecessor, TECDOC-264, that was issued in 1982. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste management in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.; Reyes L, J.; Jimenez D, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the radioactive waste management in Mexico, particularly the activities that the National Institute of Nuclear Research (NINR) is undertaking in this field. Classification and annual generation of radioactive waste, together with practices and facilities relating to the management of radioactive waste are addressed. The respective national legal framework and policy are outlined. (author)

  16. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    In response to the Sixth Report of the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, a White Paper was published in 1977, announcing a number of steps to deal with the problems presented by wastes from the nuclear industry and setting out the position of the then government. The present White paper is in four sections. i. A brief description of the nature of radioactive wastes, and the general objectives of waste management. ii. What has been achieved, the role of the Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee, the expansion of research, and the conclusions from the review of existing controls. iii. The present position for each major category of waste, including relevant current action and research, transport and decommissioning. iv. The next steps. Research and development must continue; shallow land burial and the carefully controlled disposal of certain wastes to the sea will continue to play a role; and, for some wastes, new disposal facilities are needed at an early date. For others, the appropriate course of action at the moment is properly controlled storage. New developments are also required in organisation. Throughout, the public must be kept fully informed about what is being done, and there must be proper scope for public discussion. (U.K.)

  17. Radioactive waste management profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    In 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency began development of the Waste Management Data Base (WMDB) to, primarily, establish a mechanism for the collection, integration, storage, and retrieval of information relevant to radioactive waste management in Member States. This report is a summary and compilation of the information contained in the data base. The WMDB contains information and data on several aspects of waste management and offer a ready source of information on such activities as R and D efforts, waste disposal plans and programmes, important programme milestones, waste volume projections, and national and regulatory policies. This report is divided into two parts. Part one describes the Waste Management Data Base system and the type of information it contains. The second part contains data provided by Member States between August 1989 and December 1990 in response to a questionnaire sent by the Agency. However, if a Member State did not respond to the questionnaire, data from IAEA sources, such as technical assistance mission reports, were used - where such data exist. The WMDB system became operational in January 1991. The type of information contained in the data base includes radioactive waste management plans, policies and activities in Member States

  18. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  19. Radioactive wastes handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Inaguma, Masahiko; Ozaki, Shigeru; Matsumoto, Kaname.

    1997-01-01

    There are disposed an area where a conveyor is disposed for separating miscellaneous radioactive solid wastes such as metals, on area for operators which is disposed in the direction vertical to the transferring direction of the conveyor, an area for receiving the radioactive wastes and placing them on the conveyor and an area for collecting the radioactive wastes transferred by the conveyor. Since an operator can conduct handling while wearing a working cloth attached to a partition wall as he wears his ordinary cloth, the operation condition can be improved and the efficiency for the separating work can be improved. When the area for settling conveyors and the area for the operators is depressurized, cruds on the surface of the wastes are not released to the outside and the working clothes can be prevented from being involved. Since the wastes are transferred by the conveyor, the operator's moving range is reduced, poisonous materials are fallen and moved through a sliding way to an area for collecting materials to be separated. Accordingly, the materials to be removed can be accumulated easily. (N.H.)

  20. Management of hospital radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantrana, D.

    1986-01-01

    The general structure of a regulatory scheme for the management of hospital radioactive wastes is presented. The responsabilities of an institution in the radioactive waste management, and storage conditions are defined. The radioactive wastes are classified in physical terms, and the criteria for evaluating the activity of solid wastes are described. The container characteristics and, the types of treatments given to the wastes are specified. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Radioactive waste solidification material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Yukio; Wakuta, Kuniharu; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Koyanagi, Naoaki; Sakamoto, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Ikuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a radioactive waste solidification material containing vermiculite cement used for a vacuum packing type waste processing device, which contains no residue of calcium hydroxide in cement solidification products. No residue of calcium hydroxide means, for example, that peak of Ca(OH) 2 is not recognized in an X ray diffraction device. With such procedures, since calcium sulfoaluminate clinker and Portland cement themselves exhibit water hardening property, and slugs exhibit hydration activity from the early stage, the cement exhibits quick-hardening property, has great extension of long term strength, further, has no shrinking property, less dry- shrinkage, excellent durability, less causing damages such as cracks and peeling as processing products of radioactive wastes, enabling to attain highly safe solidification product. (T.M.)

  2. Treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Chuji

    1976-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is equipped with such atomic energy facilities as a power test reactor, four research reactors, a hot laboratory, and radioisotope-producing factory. All the radioactive wastes but gas generated from these facilities are treated by the waste treatment facilities established in JAERI. The wastes carried into JAERI through Japan Radioisotope Association are also treated there. Low level water solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, an ion-exchange apparatus, and a cohesive precipitating apparatus, while medium level solution is treated with an evaporating apparatus, and low level combustible solid is treated with an incinerating apparatus. These treated wastes and sludges are mixed with Portland cement in drum cans to solidify, and stored in a concrete pit. The correct classification and its indication as well as the proper packing for the wastes are earnestly demanded by the treatment facilities. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Stochastic and deterministic models to evaluate the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, A.S.M., E-mail: asergi@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e, E-mail: frutuoso@nuclear.ufrj.br [Graduate Program of Nuclear Engineering, COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Av. Horácio Macedo 2030, Bloco G, sala 206, 21941-914 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Passos, E.M., E-mail: epassos@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear – Eletronuclear S.A. , Rua da Candelária 65, 7° andar, GSN.T, 20091-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontes, G.S., E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia – IME, Praça General Tibúrcio 80, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • The water infiltration scenario is evaluated for a near surface repository. • The main objective is the determination of the critical distance of the repository. • The column liquid height in the repository is governed by an Ito stochastic equation. • Practical results are obtained for the Abadia de Goiás repository in Brazil. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the stochastic and deterministic models developed for the evaluation of the critical distance of a near surface repository for the disposal of intermediate (ILW) and low level (LLW) radioactive wastes. The critical distance of a repository is defined as the distance between the repository and a well in which the water activity concentration is able to cause a radiological dose to a member of the public equal to the dose limit set by the regulatory body. The mathematical models are developed based on the Richards equation for the liquid flow in the porous media and on the solute transport equation in this medium. The release of radioactive material from the repository to the environment is considered through its base and its flow is determined by Darcy's Law. The deterministic model is obtained from the stochastic approach by neglecting the influence of the Gaussian white noise on the rainfall and the equations are solved analytically with the help of conventional calculus (non-stochastic calculus). The equations of the stochastic model are solved analytically based on the Ito stochastic calculus and numerically by using the Euler–Maruyama method. The impact on the value of the critical distance of the Abadia de Goiás repository is analyzed, taken as a study case, when the deterministic methodology is replaced by the stochastic one, considered more appropriate for modeling rainfall as a stochastic process.

  4. The Impact of Biofilms upon Surfaces Relevant to an Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Geological Disposal Facility under Simulated Near-Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Charles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of biofilms to form on a range of materials (cementious backfill (Nirex Reference Vault Backfill (NRVB, graphite, and stainless steel relevant to potential UK intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW disposal concepts was investigated by exposing these surfaces to alkaliphilic flocs generated by mature biofilm communities. Flocs are aggregates of biofilm material that are able to act as a transport vector for the propagation of biofilms. In systems where biofilm formation was observed there was also a decrease in the sorption of isosaccharinic acids to the NRVB. The biofilms were composed of cells, extracellular DNA (eDNA, proteins, and lipids with a smaller polysaccharide fraction, which was biased towards mannopyranosyl linked carbohydrates. The same trend was seen with the graphite and stainless steel surfaces at these pH values, but in this case the biofilms associated with the stainless steel surfaces had a distinct eDNA basal layer that anchored the biofilm to the surface. At pH 13, no structured biofilm was observed, rather all the surfaces accumulated an indistinct organic layer composed of biofilm materials. This was particularly the case for the stainless steel coupons which accumulated relatively large quantities of eDNA. The results demonstrate that there is the potential for biofilm formation in an ILW-GDF provided an initiation source for the microbial biofilm is present. They also suggest that even when conditions are too harsh for biofilm formation, exposed surfaces may accumulate organic material such as eDNA.

  5. Biotic and abiotic catalysis of nitrate reduction in alkaline environment of repository storage cell for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertron, A.; Jacquemet, N.; Escadeillas, G.; Erable, B.; Alquier, M.; Kassim, C.; Albasi, C.; Basseguy, R.; Strehaiano, P.; Sablayrolles, C.; Vignoles, M.; Albrecht, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the reactivity of nitrates at the bitumen-concrete interface with the aim of determining redox conditions inside a repository storage cell for long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The first part of the work aimed to identify, under abiotic conditions, the interactions between two components of the system: concrete (introduced as cement pastes in the system) and bitumen (represented by leachates composed of organic acids and nitrates). The second part of the study was conducted under biotic conditions with selected denitrifying heterotrophic bacteria (Pseudomonas stutzeri - Ps and Halomonas desiderata - Hd) and aimed to analyse the microbial reaction of nitrate reduction (kinetics, by-products, role of the organic matter) under neutral to alkaline pH conditions (i.e. imposed by a concrete environment). Results showed that strong interactions occurred between cementitious matrices and acetic and oxalic organic acids, likely reducing the bio-availability of this organic matter (oxalate in particular). Results also confirmed the stability of nitrates under these conditions. Under biotic conditions, nitrates were reduced by both Ps and Hd following an anaerobic denitrification metabolic pathway. Reduction kinetics was higher with Ps but the reaction was inhibited for pH ≥ 9. Hd was capable of denitrification at least up to pH 11. (authors)

  6. Assessment of Malaysia Institutional radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma; Nik Marzukee; Ibrahim Martibi

    1996-01-01

    A complete inventory of radioactive wastes from different source bas been set up in Malaysia. Wastes from external agencies were sent to the National Radioactive Waste Management Center at MINT for final disposal. MINT has been collecting information on the accumulated wastes received since 1982. Assessment of radioactive waste management in Malaysia has been conducted based on the inventory record. The information in the inventory include description of users, type volume, characteristics of the wastes; and the current and accumulated activities of the radioisotopes in the wastes forms while storing. The records indicate that there is a significant increase in the volume of wastes from medical and industrial applications. The category of users varies; there are about 270 industrial users, about 60 in medical fields and 13 in research institutes and universities. Major users generating sealed source wastes for the industrial sector are services, manufacturing and consumer companies; including government department and universities. It is estimated that by the year 2005, approximately a total accumulated processed waste package volume for disposal will be between 210-215 m sup 3. This estimate includes low level and intermediate level wastes. From this study, future waste management activities in Malaysia can be planned with proper policy decision, treatment conditioning, storage and disposal facilities. This will enable radioactive wastes to be kept under control and their potential impact on man and the environment to be minimal

  7. Optimization of Concrete Composition in Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IIija, P.

    1999-01-01

    Low and Intermediate level radioactive waste re presents 95% of the total wastes that is conditioned into special concrete containers. Since these containers are to protect radioactive waste safely for about 300 years, the selection and precise control of physical and mechanical characteristics of materials is very important. After volume reduction and valuable components recovery, waste materials have to be conditioned for transport, storage and disposal. Conditioning is the waste management step in which radioactive wastes are immobilized and packed . In this paper methods and optimization of concrete container composition, used for storing radioactive waste, is presented

  8. Quality checking of radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, D.M.; Burgoyne, S.M.J.; Dale, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the work of the HMIP Waste Quality Checking Laboratory (WQCL) for the period September 1989 -August 1991. The WQCL has conducted research and development of procedures for the receipt, sampling and analysis of low level solid radioactive waste (LLW), intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) and hazardous chemical waste (HW). Operational facilities have been commissioned for quality checking both LLW and HW. Waste quality checking has been completed on LLW packages seized from the UK waste disposal route by HMIP Inspectors. Packages have ranged in size from the 200 litre steel drum to half-height ISO freight container. Development work was continued on methods of sample extraction and radio-chemical analysis for cement encapsulated ILW in the form of magnox, graphite and stainless steel. This work was undertaken on non-radioactive simulants. (author)

  9. International trends of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shanggeng

    1989-01-01

    The new trends of radioactive waste management in the world such as focusing on decreasing the amount of radioactive wastes, developing decontamination and decommissioning technology, conscientious solution for radiactive waste disposal, carrying out social services of waste treatment and quality assurance are reviewed. Besides, comments and suggestions are presented. Key words Radioactive waste management, Radioactive waste treatment, Radioactive waste disposal

  10. Perspectives concerning radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noynaert, L.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a general overview of the principles of radioactive waste management as established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Subsequently, research and development related to radioactive waste management at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK·CEN is discussed. Different topical areas are treated including radioactive waste characterisation, decontamination and the long-term management of radioactive waste. The decommissioning of the BR3 reactor and the construction and the exploitation of the underground research laboratory HADES are cited as examples of the pioneering role that SCK·CEN has played in radioactive waste management.

  11. Radioactive waste computerized management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Communaux, M.; Lantes, B.

    1993-01-01

    Since December 31, 1990, the management of the nuclear wastes for all the power stations has been computerized, using the DRA module of the Power Generation and Transmission Group's data processing master plan. So now EDF has a software package which centralizes all the data, enabling it to declare the characteristics of the nuclear wastes which are to be stored on the sites operated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). Among other uses, this application makes it possible for EDF, by real time data exchange with ANDRA, to constitute an inventory of validated, shippable packs. It also constitutes a data base for all the wastes produced on the various sites. This application was developed to meet the following requirements: give the producers of radioactive waste a means to fully manage all the characteristics and materials that are necessary to condition their waste correctly; guarantee the traceability and safety of data and automatically assure the transmission of this data in real time between the producers and the ANDRA; give the Central Services of EDF an operation and statistical tool permitting an experienced feed-back based on the complete national production (single, centralized data base); and integrate the application within the products of the processing master plan in order to assure its maintenance and evolution

  12. Radioactive lightning rods waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Dellamano, Jose C.; Hiromoto, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this paper, we present alternative processes that could be adopted for the management of radioactive waste that arises from the replacement of lightning rods with attached Americium-241 sources. Lightning protectors, with Americium-241 sources attached to the air terminals, were manufactured in Brazil until 1989, when the regulatory authority overthrew the license for fabrication, commerce, and installation of radioactive lightning rods. It is estimated that, during the license period, about 75,000 such devices were set up in public, commercial and industrial buildings, including houses and schools. However, the policy of CNEN in regard to the replacement of the installed radioactive rods, has been to leave the decision to municipal governments under local building regulations, requiring only that the replaced rods be sent immediately to one of its research institutes to be treated as radioactive waste. As a consequence, the program of replacement proceeds in a low pace and until now only about twenty thousand rods have reached the waste treatment facilities The process of management that was adopted is based primarily on the assumption that the Am-241 sources will be disposed of as radioactive sealed sources, probably in a deep borehole repository. The process can be described broadly by the following steps: a) Receive and put the lightning rods in initial storage; b) Disassemble the rods and pull out the sources; c) Decontaminate and release the metal parts to metal recycling; d) Store the sources in intermediate storage; e) Package the sources in final disposal packages; and f) Send the sources for final disposal. Up to now, the disassembled devices gave rise to about 90,000 sources which are kept in storage while the design of the final disposal package is in progress. (author)

  13. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1985-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) attaches considerable importance to its cooperation with Japan. It was said in the annual conference in 1977 that the presentation of the acceptable policy regarding radioactive waste management is the largest single factor for gaining public confidence when nuclear power is adopted with assurance. The risk connected with radioactive wastes was often presented as the major obstacle to the development of nuclear energy, however, an overall impression of optimism and confidence prevailed by the technical appraisal of the situation in this field by the committee of the NEA. This evolution can be easily explained by the significant progress achieved in radioactive waste management both at the technical level and with respect to the implementation of special legislation and the establishment of specialized institutions and financing schemes. More research will focus on the optimization of the technical, safety and economic aspects of specific engineering designs at specific sites on the long term isolation of wastes, and the NEA contributes to this general effort. The implementation of disposal programs is also in progress. (Kako, I.)

  14. Categorizing operational radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    The primary objective of this publication is to improve communications among waste management professionals and Member States relative to the properties and status of radioactive waste. This is accomplished by providing a standardized approach to operational waste categorization using accepted industry practices and experience. It is a secondary objective to draw a distinction between operational waste categorization and waste disposal classification. The approach set forth herein is applicable to waste generation by mature (major, advanced) nuclear programmes, small-to-medium sized nuclear programmes, and programmes with waste from other nuclear applications. It can be used for planning, developing or revising categorization methodologies. For existing categorization programmes, the approach set forth in this publication may be used as a validation and evaluation tool for assessing communication effectiveness among affected organizations or nations. This publication is intended for use by waste management professionals responsible for creating, implementing or communicating effective categorization, processing and disposal strategies. For the users of this publication, it is important to remember that waste categorization is a communication tool. As such, the operational waste categories are not suitable for regulatory purposes nor for use in health and safety evaluations. Following Section 1 (Introduction) Section 2 of this publication defines categorization and its relationship to existing waste classification and management standards, regulations and practices. It also describes the benefits of a comprehensive categorization programme and fundamental record considerations. Section 3 provides an overview of the categorization process, including primary categories and sub-categories. Sections 4 and 5 outline the specific methodology for categorizing unconditioned and conditioned wastes. Finally, Section 6 provides a brief summary of critical considerations that

  15. Thermal treatment of radioactive wastes by the PLASMARC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Haefeli, V.; Fuenfschilling, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The plasma plant for the thermal treatment of radioactive wastes to be supplied to ZWILAG is briefly described and the results of experiments with simulated waste are provided. The experiments led to the conclusion that the plant is well suited for handling low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs

  16. A study on the development of regulatory guide to stability conformation and classification criteria of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Paek, Min Hoon; Park, Jong Gil; Han, Byeong Seop; Cheong, Jae Hak; Lee, Hae Chan; Yang, Jin Yeong; Hong, Hei Kwan; Park, Jin Baek [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-01-15

    The objectives of this study are to examine basic principles and terms and to suggest and recommend definite methods and criteria necessary for the classification and stability conformation of radioactive wastes. In this study, following studies were performed : investigate the domestic regulations related with the stability conformation and classification of radioactive wastes in order to keep mutual relationship and consistency between the regulations, investigate the sources, types and characteristics of domestic radioactive wastes as a basis for this study, investigate the classification criteria and methods of others countries in a general point of view and in the view point of disposal method, select the classification criteria factors for the domestic case and general case in the both general and domestic points of view, investigate the general test items for the stability conformation of radioactive waste forms and analysis on the test items and criteria of others countries for the mined cavity disposal and shallow land disposal in the view point of disposal method, experimental leaching and immersion tests for the borate and spent resin wastes as a study on the stability conformation of waste forms, selection of acceptance criteria for the both of disposal methods in the domestic and general cases.

  17. Chapter 7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The inspection and assessment activities of Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) focused on minimization of activity and the quantity of produced radioactive waste (RAW), and on increasing safety of waste management. The general scheme of rad-waste management in the Slovak Republic is presented. The radioactive wastes produced during the operation of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 and NPP Mochovce in 1999 are listed.Liquid RAW was treated and conditioned into a solid form at the nuclear facility Technology for treatment and conditioning of RAW. In 1999 combustible solid waste was treated at the nuclear facility Incinerator of VUJE Trnava. Produced liquid and solid RAW are stored at designed equipment at individual nuclear installations (in case of NPP V-1, NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce in compliance with the Regulation No. 67/1987 Coll. law).The status of free capacity of these storages as of 31.121999 is presented. Storage solidified product built the SE-VYZ was fully filled at the end of 1999. In 1999 there was a significant improvement in the process of radioactive waste management by: (A) issuing approval for commissioning the National Repository for RAW, (B) issuing approval for commissioning the Treatment and Conditioning Center for RAW, (C) having the application for approval to transport conditioned RAW to the National repository Mochovce in the final stage of evaluation. At the beginning of 2000 it is realistic to expect that RAW conditioned in the Conditioning center of RAW will start to be disposed at the National repository of RAW in Mochovce

  18. Radioactive wastes eliminating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, Norimasa.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate impurities and radioactive wastes by passing liquid sodium in a cold trap and an adsorption device. Constitution: Heated sodium is partially extracted from the core of a nuclear reactor by way of a pump, flown into and cooled in heat exchangers and then introduced into a cold trap for removal of impurities. The liquid sodium eliminated with impurities is introduced into an adsorption separator and purified by the elimination of radioactive wastes. The purified sodium is returned to the nuclear reactor. A heater is provided between the cold trap and the adsorption separator, so that the temperature of the liquid sodium introduced into the adsorption separator is not lower than the minimum temperature in the cold trap to thereby prevent deposition of impurities in the adsorption separator. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. Radioactive wastes - inventories and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Hollmann, A.

    1992-01-01

    A survey is given of the origins, types, conditioning, inventories, and expected abundance of radioactive wastes in the future in the Federal Republic of Germany. The Federal Government's radioactive waste disposal scheme provides that radioactive wastes be buried in deep geological formations which are expected to ensure a maintenance-free, unlimited and safe disposal without intentional excavation of the wastes at a later date. (orig./BBR) [de

  20. Andra. Everything on the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This publication briefly presents the ANDRA, the French National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes, its mission, its activities, its financing, and some key figures. It briefly presents the phenomenon of radioactivity, radioactive wastes and their storage. It presents the different classes of radioactive wastes (very-low-level, low- and intermediate-level and short-lived, low-level and long-lived, high-level and intermediate-level and long-lived) and their storage principles. It sketches the pathway followed by a waste from its production to its storage. It presents the various ANDRA sites

  1. PROCESSING OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.M. Jr.; Barton, G.B.

    1961-11-14

    A process for treating radioactive waste solutions prior to disposal is described. A water-soluble phosphate, borate, and/or silicate is added. The solution is sprayed with steam into a space heated from 325 to 400 deg C whereby a powder is formed. The powder is melted and calcined at from 800 to 1000 deg C. Water vapor and gaseous products are separated from the glass formed. (AEC)

  2. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-11-15

    A discussion on the disposal of radioactive wastes was held in Vienna on 20 September 1960. The three scientists who participated in the discussion were Mr. Harry Brynielsson (Sweden), Head of the Swedish Atomic Energy Company; Mr. H. J. Dunster (United Kingdom), Health Physics Adviser to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority; and Mr. Leslie Silverman (United States), Professor of Harvard University, and Chairman of the US AEC Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards, as well as consultant on air cleaning

  3. Session 1984-85. Radioactive waste. Minutes of evidence, Monday 17 June 1985. Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The Environment Select Committee of the House of Commons received a memorandum from the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, on the management and disposal of radioactive waste arising in the UK, under the headings: introduction; the structure of NIREX; the nature of radioactive waste; plans for the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes. Representatives of NIREX were examined on the subject of the memorandum and the minutes of evidence are recorded. (U.K.)

  4. Management of radioactive waste in FR Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.

    1998-01-01

    In the last forty years, in FR Yugoslavia, as a result of the two research reactors operation and as a result of the radionuclides application in the medicine, industry and agriculture, radioactive waste materials of different levels of specific activity was generated. As a temporary solution, these radioactive waste materials are stored in the two interim storage facilities. Since the one of the storages is completely filled with the radioactive waste materials that are packed in the metal drums and plastic barrels, and the second one has a effective space for radioactive waste materials storing for the approximately next few years, attempts are made in the 'Vinca' institute of nuclear sciences in developing the immobilization process for the low and intermediate level radioactive waste materials and their safe disposal into the appropriate disposal system, that was adopted for such materials. Research work on optimization of the chosen techniques in treatment, conditioning, immobilization and storing the radioactive waste materials is in progress. Investigations are carrying out on materials that are adopted as components of the engineer trench system, in aim to improve their physical-chemical properties, mainly retention the radionuclides release from the disposal facility to environment, as well as their mechanical characteristics. Parallel with the optimization of the composition of the materials that will create the engineer trench system, optimization of the processes and matrix-radioactive waste mixture forms is in progress, and we hope that this work will influence the design of the future Yugoslav storage center, shallow land burial type, for low and intermediate level radioactive waste materials

  5. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    the high-level waste (HAA) barrels are packed into containers which guarantee absolute enclosure for at least 10,000 years; 3) the FA and HAA containers are stored in a tight Bentonite filling (cement for the low- and intermediate-level wastes, LMA) which at first slows down the access of corrosive substances to the containers and then diminishes the release of wastes; 4) the water- tightness of the surrounding Opalinus clay prevents any contact with water; 5) the rock layers above and below the Opalinus clay protect the host rock and the repository against natural or human influences; 6) the choice of a stable and settled tectonic site guarantees suitable conditions for at last 1 million years. With these characteristics for the repository, the safety analyses show that even for the most conservative conditions the calculated radioactive dose mostly remains below the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a

  6. Radioactive waste management glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    Terminology used in documents published by the IAEA is frequently defined in glossaries in the separate documents so that understanding is enhanced, particularly for terms having unique meanings in the field of radioactive waste management. This has been found to be a good practice but frequently a burdensome one, too. In addition, terms in various documents occasionally were used differently. Thus, a common glossary of terms for radioactive waste management documents is believed to have merit. This glossary has been developed for use in IAEA documentation on radioactive waste management topics. The individual items have been compiled by selecting terms and definitions from thirty sources, listed on the next page, and numerous people. An effort has been made to use the definitions in internationally-accepted glossaries (e.g. ICRP, ICRU, ISO), with minimum modification; similarly, definitions in recently published IAEA documents have been respected. Nevertheless, when modifications were believed appropriate, they have been made. The glossary, stored on magnetic tape, is intended to be used as a standard for terminology for IAEA use; it is hoped that some benefits of common international terminology may result from its use in IAEA documentation

  7. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  8. China's status and strategy of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Decai

    2001-01-01

    China has a forty-year history of nuclear industry and nuclear technology application. Safety management of radioactive wastes has been the great concern of related regulatory authorities. After the national policy on regional disposal for low and intermediate level radioactive waste was enacted in 1992, the management of radioactive wastes gradually focused on disposal. Currently, the strategies for radioactive waste management in China are: (a) storing high level radioactive wastes temporarily and launching the study of vitrification and deep geological disposal of high level liquid waste, treating spent fuels from PWR by reprocessing; (b) implementing regional disposal policy for low and intermediate level wastes, implementing cement solidification for low and intermediate level liquid waste before disposal, carrying out bulk casting shallow land disposal technology and hydraulic-fractured cement solidification for deep geological disposal in some special regions under specific conditions, treating low and intermediate level solid radioactive wastes by cement solidification after incineration or by compressing before final disposal; (c) stabilizing the tailing repository by reinforcing embankment, constructing flood dam and overlaying plantation; and (d) developing and formulating laws, regulations, and standards to ensure safe management of radioactive wastes. When establishing standards, other than to follow the generic principles and requirements, emphasis should be placed on the following principles: safety the first, economy, disposal of radioactive wastes as focus, and introduction of international advanced standards as possible. (author)

  9. Argentina's radioactive waste disposal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.

    1986-01-01

    The Argentina policy for radioactive waste disposal from nuclear facilities is presented. The radioactive wastes are treated and disposed in confinement systems which ensure the isolation of the radionucles for an appropriate period. The safety criteria adopted by Argentina Authorities in case of the release of radioactive materials under normal conditions and in case of accidents are analysed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Plasma-Gasification-Melting System (PGM) for Treatment of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILRW) Generated by Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegaz, D.

    2004-01-01

    Solid LILRW generated by NPP's is treated by various methods of Volume Reduction and Stabilization / Immobilization before disposal at suitable Storage Sites for Radioactive Waste. PGM Technology thermally treats such solid LILRW achieving maximum volume reduction and efficient stabilization of radionuclides of the waste in a Vitrified (glassy) solid residue, slag. Since such LILRW is made of a large variety of different materials, organic and inorganic, the PGM Process gasifies and pyrolizes the organics while the inorganics are melted and vitrified

  11. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  12. Radioactive waste management and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willrich, M.; Lester, R.K.; Greenberg, S.C.; Mitchell, H.C.; Walker, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Purpose of this book is to assist in developing public policy and institutions for the safe management of radioactive waste, currently and long term. Both high-level waste and low-level waste containing transuranium elements are covered. The following conclusions are drawn: the safe management of post-fission radioactive waste is already a present necessity and an irreversible long-term commitment; the basic goals of U.S. radioactive waste policy are unclear; the existing organization for radioactive waste management is likely to be unworkable if left unchanged; and the existing framework for radioactive waste regulation is likely to be ineffective if left unchanged. The following recommendations are made: a national Radioactive Waste Authority should be established as a federally chartered public corporation; with NRC as the primary agency, a comprehensive regulatory framework should be established to assure the safety of all radioactive waste management operations under U.S. jurisdiction or control; ERDA should continue to have primary government responsibility for R and D and demonstration of radioactive waste technology; and the U.S. government should propose that an international Radioactive Waste Commission be established under the IAEA

  13. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  14. Financing of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.

    1989-01-01

    Waste disposal is modelled as a financial calculus. In this connection the particularity is not primarily the dimension to be expected of financial requirement but above all the uncertainty of financial requirement as well as the ecological, socio-economic and especially also the temporal dimension of the Nuclear Waste Disposal project (disposal of spent fuel elements from light-water reactors with and without reprocessing, decommissioning = safe containment and disposal of nuclear power plants, permanent isolation of radioactive waste from the biosphere, intermediate storage). Based on the above mentioned factors the author analyses alternative approaches of financing or financial planning. He points out the decisive significance of the perception of risks or the evaluation of risks by involved or affected persons - i.e. the social acceptance of planned and designed waste disposal concepts - for the achievement and assessment of alternative solutions. With the help of an acceptance-specific risk measure developed on the basis of a mathematical chaos theory he illustrates, in a model, the social influence on the financing of nuclear waste disposal. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Acceptance criteria for radioactive waste deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzyski, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste in either shallow ground or rock cavities must be subjected to special guidelines which are used by national authorities and implementing bodies when establishing and regulating respositories. These informations are given by the acceptance criteria and will depend on specific site conditions and optmized procedures. (author) [pt

  16. Radioactive waste facility as environmental preservation factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbron Filho, P.F.L.; Xavier, Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show, in a resumed way, the many aspects involved in the selection, licensing and construction of a repository for the safe disposal of low and intermediate radioactive level wastes in Brazil where from we conclude that a repository is for sure an agent of environmental preservation. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste management in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    The responsibility for the disposal of radioactive waste is regulated in the Federal Republic of Germany in the Atomic Energy Act. Basically, it is the responsibility of the waste producers to carry out all necessary processing steps up to the delivery to a repository. The Federal Republic reserves the right to select, explore and operate the repository (§ 9a, para. 3 AtG). The costs of all necessary expenditures of this task are borne by the waste producers in accordance with § 21 AtG regulation. The waste quantity forecasts have shown that by the year 2080 a total volume of about 300,000 m3 of low- and intermediate-level (non-heat-generating) waste will be generated in research, industry, medicine and in the production of electricity in nuclear power plants. This waste is to be transported to the ‘Konrad repository’ which is under construction. The Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS), which is responsible for the construction and operation, intends to commission the repository at 2019. As a repository for heat-generating wastes, i. Approximately 10.000 tSM spent fuel (BE) 7,500 molds (HAW and MAW, corresponding to about 6000 tSM) returned Waste from reprocessing, the Gorleben salt dome has been explored since 1979. The works were resumed on 01.10.2010 after a 10-year break. Federal Environment Minister Röttgen has made it clear that the Federal Government has proposed a transparent procedure and a dialogue and participation procedure for open-ended exploration. (roessner)

  18. Radioactive liquid waste filtering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inami, Ichiro; Tabata, Masayuki; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent clogging in filter materials and improve the filtration performance for radioactive liquid wastes without increasing the amount of radioactive wastes. Constitution: In a radioactive waste filtering device, a liquid waste recycling pipe and a liquid recycling pump are disposed for recycling the radioactive liquid wastes in a liquid wastes vessel. In this case, the recycling pipe and the recycling pump are properly selected so as to satisfy the conditions capable of making the radioactive liquid wastes flowing through the pipe to have the Reynolds number of 10 4 - 10 5 . By repeating the transportation of radioactive liquid wastes in the liquid waste vessel through the liquid waste recycling pipe by the liquid waste recycling pump and then returning them to the liquid waste vessel again, particles of fine grain size in the suspended liquids are coagulated with each other upon collision to increase the grain size of the suspended particles. In this way, clogging of the filter materials caused by the particles of fine grain size can be prevented, thereby enabling to prevent the increase in the rising rate of the filtration differential pressure, reduce the frequency for the occurrence of radioactive wastes such as filter sludges and improve the processing performance. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. radioactive waste disposal standards abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yan; Xin Pingping; Wu Jian; Zhang Xue

    2012-01-01

    With the world focus on human health and environmental protection, the problem of radioactive waste disposal has gradually become a global issue, and the focus of attention of public. The safety of radioactive waste disposal, is not only related to human health and environmental safety, but also an important factor of affecting the sustainable development of nuclear energy. In recent years the formulation of the radioactive waste disposal standards has been generally paid attention to at home and abroad, and it has made great progress. In China, radioactive waste management standards are being improved, and there are many new standards need to be developed. The revised task of implement standards is very arduous, and there are many areas for improvement about methods and procedures of the preparation of standards. This paper studies the current situation of radioactive waste disposal standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency, USA, France, Britain, Russia, Japan, and give some corresponding recommendations of our radioactive waste disposal standards. (authors)

  20. Disposal facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsunomiya, Toru.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To remove heat generated from radioactive wastes thereby prevent the working circumstances from being worsened in a disposal-facility for radioactive wastes. Constitution: The disposal-facility comprises a plurality of holes dug out into the ground inside a tunnel excavated for the storage of radioactive wastes. After placing radioactive wastes into the shafts, re-filling materials are directly filled with a purpose of reducing the dosage. Further, a plurality of heat pipes are inserted into the holes and embedded within the re-filling materials so as to gather heat from the radioactive wastes. The heat pipes are connected to a heat exchanger disposed within the tunnel. As a result, heating of the solidified radioactive wastes itself or the containing vessel to high temperature can be avoided, as well as thermal degradation of the re-filling materials and the worsening in the working circumstance within the tunnel can be overcome. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Evolution in radioactive waste countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Yasutaka

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of radioactive waste management measures is important to proceed further with nuclear power development. While the storage facility projects by utilities are in progress, large quantity of low level wastes are expected to arise in the future due to the decommissioning of nuclear reactors, etc. An interim report made by the committee on radioactive waste countermeasures to the Atomic Energy Commission is described as follows: the land disposal measures of ultra-low level and low level radioactive wastes, that is, the concept of level partitioning, waste management, the possible practice of handling wastes, etc.; the treatment and disposal measures of high level radioactive wastes and transuranium wastes, including task sharing among respective research institutions, the solidification/storage and the geological formation disposal of high level wastes, etc. (Mori, K.)

  2. Statement by the Federal Government: Treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with regard to the irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toepfer, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Federal Government sees three major tasks to be done after inquiries have shown that irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear business also include some relating to nuclear safety: (1) Initiate investigation of possible hazards to man or the environment, and into events and scope of events in order to provide full information. (2) Immediate consequences with regard to the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, and state supervision thereof. (3) Investigate possible consequences with regard to nuclear waste management in the FRG. The Federal Government has taken immediate action on all three levels. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Statement by the Federal Government: Treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with regard to the irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K.

    1988-03-02

    The Federal Government sees three major tasks to be done after inquiries have shown that irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear business also include some relating to nuclear safety: (1) Initiate investigation of possible hazards to man or the environment, and into events and scope of events in order to provide full information. (2) Immediate consequences with regard to the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, and state supervision thereof. (3) Investigate possible consequences with regard to nuclear waste management in the FRG. The Federal Government has taken immediate action on all three levels. (orig./HSCH).

  4. The management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.; Blair, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    After an introduction on how radioactivity and radiation can cause damage, the three main types of radioactive wastes (high level (HLW), intermediate level (ILW) and low level (LLW)) are defined and the quantities of each produced, and current disposal method mentioned. The Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) was set up in 1982 to make proposals for the packaging, transportation and disposal of ILW and, if approved, to manage their implementation. NIREX has also taken over some aspects of the LLW disposal programme, and keeps an inventory of the radioactive waste in the country. The NIREX proposals are considered. For ILW this is that ILW should be immersed in a matrix of concrete, then stored in a repository, the design of which is discussed. The transportation of the concrete blocks is also mentioned. Possible sites for a suitable repository are discussed. Efforts are being made to gain public acceptance of these sites. (U.K.)

  5. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  6. Radioactive waste in Federal Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Schumacher, J.; Warnecke, E.

    1988-01-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is responsible for the long-term storage and disposal of radioactive waste according to the Federal Atomic Energy Act. On behalf of the Federal Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, since 1985, the PTB has been carrying out annual inquiries into the amounts of radioactive waste produced in the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the scope of this inquiry performed for the preceding year, the amounts of unconditioned and conditioned waste are compiled on a producer- and plant-specific basis. On the basis of the inquiry for 1986 and of data presented to the PTB by the waste producers, future amounts of radioactive waste have been estimated up to the year 2000. The result of this forecast is presented. In the Federal Republic of Germany two sites are under consideration for disposal of radioactive waste. In the abandoned Konrad iron mine in Salzgitter-Bleckenstedt it is intended to dispose of such radioactive waste which has a negligible thermal influence upon the host rock. The Gorleben salt dome is being investigated for its suitability for the disposal of all kinds of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, especially of heat-generating waste. Comparing the estimated amount of radioactive wastes with the capacity of both repositories it may be concluded that the Konrad and Gorleben repositories will provide sufficient capacity to ensure the disposal of all kinds of radioactive waste on a long-term basis in the Federal Republic of Germany. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  8. Stigma and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments

  9. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the round table debates which took place at Joinville, i.e. in the same area as the Bure underground laboratory of Meuse/Haute-Marne. Therefore, the discussion focuses more on the local impacts of the setting up of a waste disposal facility (environmental aspects, employment, economic development). (J.S.)

  10. Radioactive waste processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaguma, Masahiko; Takahara, Nobuaki; Hara, Satomi.

    1996-01-01

    In a processing device for filtering laundry liquid wastes and shower drains incorporated with radioactive materials, a fiber filtration device is disposed and an activated carbon filtration device is also disposed subsequent to the fiber filtration device. In addition, a centrifugal dewatering device is disposed for dewatering spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device, and a minute filtering device is disposed for filtering the separated dewatering liquid. Filtrates filtered by the minute filtration device are recovered in a collecting tank. Namely, at first, suspended solid materials in laundry liquid wastes and shower drains are captured, and then, ingredients concerning COD are adsorbed in the activated carbon filtration device. The radioactive liquid wastes of spent granular activated carbon in the activated carbon filtration device are reduced by dewatering them by the centrifugal dewatering device, and then the granular activated carbon is subjected to an additional processing. Further, it is separated by filtration using the minute filtration device and removed as cakes. Since the filtrates are recovered to the collecting tank and filtered again, the water quality of the drains is not degraded. (N.H.)

  11. National inventory of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    There are in France 1064 sites corresponding to radioactive waste holders that appear in this radioactive waste inventory. We find the eighteen sites of E.D.F. nuclear power plants, The Cogema mine sites, the Cogema reprocessing plants, The Cea storages, the different factories and enterprises of nuclear industry, the sites of non nuclear industry, the Andra centers, decommissioned installations, disposals with low level radioactive wastes, sealed sources distributors, national defence. (N.C.)

  12. Disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    The problem of disposal can be tackled in two ways: the waste can be diluted and dispersed so that the radiation to which any single individual would be subjected would be negligible, or it can be concentrated and permanently isolated from man and his immediate environment. A variety of methods for the discharge of radioactive waste into the ground were described at the Monaco conference. They range from letting liquid effluent run into pits or wells at appropriately chosen sites to the permanent storage of high activity material at great depth in geologically suitable strata. Another method discussed consists in the incorporation of high level fission products in glass which is either buried or stored in vaults. Waste disposal into rivers, harbours, outer continental shelves and the open sea as well as air disposal are also discussed. Many of the experts at the Monaco conference were of the view that most of the proposed, or actually applied, methods of waste disposal were compatible with safety requirements. Some experts, felt that certain of these methods might not be harmless. This applied to the possible hazards of disposal in the sea. There seemed to be general agreement, however, that much additional research was needed to devise more effective and economical methods of disposal and to gain a better knowledge of the effects of various types of disposal operations, particularly in view of the increasing amounts of waste material that will be produced as the nuclear energy industry expands

  13. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non

  14. Safety of radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in France vary considerably by their activity level, their half lives, their volume or even their nature. In order to manage them safely, the treatment and final disposal solution must be adapted to the type of waste considered by setting up specific waste management channels. A strong principle in France is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear operators as waste producers to dispose of their waste or have them disposed of in a suitable manner. The competent authorities regulate and control the radioactive waste management activities. At present, only short-lived low and intermediate level waste have a definitive solution, the surface repository, where adequate waste packages are disposed of in concrete structures. Other types of radioactive waste are in interim storage facilities at the production sites. For very low level waste coming mainly from dismantling of nuclear facilities a dedicated repository is planned to be built in the coming years. Dedicated repositories are also planned for radiferous, tritiated and graphite waste. As for high level waste and long-lived waste coming mainly from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel the disposal options are being sought along the lines specified by law 91-1381 concerning research on radioactive waste management, passed on December 30, 1991: research of solutions to partition and transmute long-lived radionuclides in the waste; studies of retrievable and non retrievable disposal in deep geological layers with the help of underground laboratories; studies of processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, the French Parliament will assess the results of the research conducted by ANDRA relative to deep geological disposal as well as the work conducted by CEA in the two other areas of research and, if this research is conclusive, pass a law defining the final disposal option. (author)

  15. Radioactive waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ik Hwan

    1997-01-01

    In order to meet the increasing energy demand in Korea, continuous promotion of nuclear power program will be inevitable in the future. However, the use of nuclear energy eventually requires effective and reliable radioactive waste management. For the safe and economical management of radioactive waste, first of all, volume reduction is essentially required and hence the development of related technologies continuously be pursued. A site for overall radioactive waste management has to be secured in Korea. KEPCO-NETEC will improve public understanding by reinforcing PA and will maintain transparency of radioactive waste management. (author). 1 fig

  16. Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration - SURAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucerka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The Atomic Act specifies, among other things, responsibilities of the government in the field of safe disposal of radioactive wastes. To satisfy this responsibility, the Ministry of Industry and Trade has established the Radioactive Waste Repositories Administration (SURAO). SURAO's major responsibilities include: (a) the preparation, construction, commissioning, operation, and decommissioning of radioactive waste repositories and the monitoring of their environmental impacts; (b) radioactive waste management; (c) spent or irradiated nuclear fuel processing into a form suitable for storage/disposal or reuse; (d) record-keeping of received radioactive wastes and their producers; (e) administration of fund transfers as stipulated by the Atomic Act, Article 27; (f) development of proposals for specification of fees to be paid to the Nuclear Account; (g) responsibility for and coordination of research and development in the field of radioactive waste handling and management; (h) supervision of licensees' margin earmarked for the decommissioning of their facilities; (i) providing services in radioactive waste handling and management; (j) handling and management of radioactive wastes that have been transferred to the Czech Republic from abroad and cannot be sent back; (k) interim administration of radioactive wastes that have become state property. The Statute of the Administration is reproduced in full. (P.A.)

  17. Solid and liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Desroches, J.

    1977-01-01

    The problems raised by the solid and liquid radioactive wastes from the CEA nuclear centres are briefly exposed. The processing methods developed at the Saclay centre are described together with the methods for the wastes from nuclear power plants and reprocessing plants. The different storage techniques used at the La Hague centre are presented. The production of radioactive wastes by laboratories, hospitals and private industry is studied for the sealed sources and the various radioactive substances used in these plants. The cost of the radioactive wastes is analysed: processing, transport, long term storage [fr

  18. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  19. Development of a Radioactive Waste Assay System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Duck Won; Song, Myung Jae; Shin, Sang Woon; Sung, Kee Bang; Ko, Dae Hach [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Jeong; Park, Jong Mook; Jee, Kwang Yoong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear Act of Korea requires the manifest of low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated at nuclear power plants prior to disposal sites.Individual history records of the radioactive waste should be contained the information about the activity of nuclides in the drum, total activity, weight, the type of waste. A fully automated nuclide analysis assay system, non-destructive analysis and evaluation system of the radioactive waste, was developed through this research project. For the nuclides that could not be analysis directly by MCA, the activities of the representative {gamma}-emitters(Cs-137, Co-60) contained in the drum were measured by using that system. Then scaling factors were used to calculate the activities of {alpha}, {beta}-emitters. Furthermore, this system can automatically mark the analysis results onto the drum surface. An automated drum handling system developed through this research project can reduce the radiation exposure to workers. (author). 41 refs., figs.

  20. Socioeconomic aspects and public opinion concerning radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Valentin

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear energy aspects in Spain are presented. The role of ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.) a public company, that manages low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Spain is discussed. ENRESA activities such as radioactive wastes transportation and processing, radioactive wastes disposal, decommissioning of an uranium plant, environmental recovery procedures, geological studies, information dissemination of nuclear energy, sponsoring of conferences, courses, etc, are briefly reported

  1. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities have been built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Area to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic (TRU) and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemical as well as radioactive constituents. This paper will focus on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  2. Hazardous chemical and radioactive wastes at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.F.; Stewart, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Site was established in 1944 to produce plutonium for defense. During the past four decades, a number of reactors, processing facilities, and waste management facilities were built at Hanford for plutonium production. Generally, Hanford's 100 Area was dedicated to reactor operation; the 200 Areas to fuel reprocessing, plutonium recovery, and waste management; and the 300 Area to fuel fabrication and research and development. Wastes generated from these operations included highly radioactive liquid wastes, which were discharged to single- and double-shell tanks; solid wastes, including both transuranic and low-level wastes, which were buried or discharged to caissons; and waste water containing low- to intermediate-level radioactivity, which was discharged to the soil column via near-surface liquid disposal units such as cribs, ponds, and retention basins. Virtually all of the wastes contained hazardous chemicals as well as radioactive constituents. This paper focuses on the hazardous chemical components of the radioactive mixed waste generated by plutonium production at Hanford. The processes, chemicals used, methods of disposition, fate in the environment, and actions being taken to clean up this legacy are described by location

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The dossier published in this issue deals with all matters relating to radioactive waste management. It describes in detail the guidelines implemented by France in this field and provides a general overview of actions carried out at international level. The articles are assembled in several chapters, treating the following subjects: I. Upstream storage management. II. Storage (surface and underground). III. Research to back up the management program. There then follows a description of various processes and equipment developed by research laboratories and industrialists to provide, at the different stages, a number of operations required by the management programs [fr

  4. The Spanish radioactive waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    All radioactive waste management activities in Spain are controlled by the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, installed by royal decree in 1984. The programme for low- and intermediate-level wastes is well advanced. A near-surface repository for these type of wastes has been in operation since October 1992. The programme for high-level wastes including spent fuel from the operating nuclear power plants is progressing stepwise. As the first step, effforts are made to secure the temporary storage of spent fuel. Final disposal is envisaged in an deep repository in one of the main geological media available in Spain, namely, granite, salt and clay. (orig.) [de

  5. Proceedings of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a summary of the main questions tackled during this debate from its preparation to its closing meeting and dealing with: the acceptation of the debate, the progress of the debate, the socio-technical problem of gathering the different points to be debated with respect to the different areas in concern, the general questions about the overall nuclear wastes and materials (radioactivity, health, radioprotection, management, reprocessing, control, actors organization, knowledge sharing, perenniality of the financing), the specific questions about long-lived wastes (inventory, separation-transmutation feasibility, nuclear energy and energy policy, management solutions, storage and geologic disposal feasibility, impact of debates on the 2006 law, long-lived waste territories), the conclusions for the 2006 law: mastering the overall nuclear wastes and materials and step-by-step building up of a solution for long-lived wastes (difficulties, lessons learnt from foreign experience, first draft of the 2006 law). Some opinions expressed by some participants about these proposals conclude

  6. Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003 EPA published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to collect public comment on alternatives for disposal of waste containing low concentrations of radioactive material ('low-activity' waste).

  7. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1979-09-01

    Reports and other Canadian literature on radioactive waste processing and disposal covering the period 1953-1979 are listed. A selected list of international conferences relating to waste management (1959-1979) is attached. (LL)

  8. Radioactive waste treatment apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.; Chellis, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment apparatus is disclosed in which the waste is burned in a controlled combustion process, the ash residue from the combustion process is removed and buried, the gaseous effluent is treated in a scrubbing solution the pH of which is maintained constant by adding an alkaline compound to the solution while concurrently extracting a portion of the scrubbing solution, called the blowdown stream. The blowdown stream is fed to the incinerator where it is evaporated and the combustibles in the blowdown stream burned and the gaseous residue sent to the scrubbing solution. Gases left after the scrubbing process are treated to remove iodides and are filtered and passed into the atmosphere

  9. Radioactive wastes processing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Yoshiyuki; Fukujoji, Seiya.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To exactly recognize the deposition state of mists into conduits thereby effectively conduct cleaning. Constitution: A drier for performing drying treatment of liquid wastes, a steam decontaminating tower for decontaminating the steams generated from the drier and a condenser for condensating the decontaminating steams are connected with each other by means of conduits to constitute a radioactive wastes processing apparatus. A plurality of pressure detectors are disposed to the conduits, the pressure loss within the conduits is determined based on the detector output and the clogged state in the conduits due to the deposition of mists is detected by the magnitude of the pressure loss. If the clogging exceeds a certain level, cleaning water is supplied to clean-up the conduits thereby keep the operation to continue always under sound conditions. (Sekiya, K.)

  10. Radioactive Waste SECURITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodowski, R.; Drapalik, M.; Gepp, C.; Gufler, K.; Sholly, S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the safety requirements for a radioactive waste repository, the fundamental problems involved and the legislative rules and arrangements for doing so. As the title already makes clear, the focus of this work is on aspects that can be assigned to the security sector - ie the security against the influence of third parties - and are to be distinguished from safety measures for the improvement of the technical safety aspects. In this context, mention is made of events such as human intrusion into guarded facilities, whereas e.g. a geological analysis on seismic safety is not discussed. For a variety of reasons, the consideration of security nuclear waste repositories in public discussions is increasingly taking a back seat, as ia. Terrorist threats can be considered as negligible risk or well calculable. Depending on the type of storage, different security aspects still have to be considered. (roessner)

  11. Regulation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A national calculator control system for the metropolitan radioactive waste banks was developed in 1999. The NNSA reviewed by the regulations the feasibility of some rectification projects for uranium ore decommissioning and conducted field inspections on waste treating systems and radioactive waste banks at the 821 plant. The NNSA realized in 1999 the calculator control for the disposal sites of low and medium radioactive waste. 3 routine inspections were organized on the reinforced concrete structures for disposal units and their pouring of concrete at waste disposal site and specific requirements were put forth

  12. Radioactive waste engineering and management

    CERN Document Server

    Nakayama, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    This book describes essential and effective management for reliably ensuring public safety from radioactive wastes in Japan. This is the first book to cover many aspects of wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle to research and medical use, allowing readers to understand the characterization, treatment and final disposal of generated wastes, performance assessment, institutional systems, and social issues such as intergenerational ethics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help to understand radioactive waste management in context.

  13. The management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  14. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  15. Disposal of radioactive wastes by UK NIREX Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginniff, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    In the United Kingdom UK Nirex Ltd., provides a comprehensive, long-term radioactive waste disposal service for low and intermediate level solid radioactive wastes arising from all radioactive operations in the country. The high level wastes which are not the responsibility of Nirex, are to be vitrified and stored for some 50 years. The low and intermediate wastes are to be emplaced in a deep underground repository and the developments during 1988 towards this objective are presented. Following the publication of a widely circulated consultation document entitled 'The Way Forward', design studies and site selection exercises for a deep underground repository were started. (author)

  16. Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low and intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    A number of IAEA Member States generate relatively small quantities of radioactive waste and/or disused sealed sources in research or in the application of nuclear techniques in medicine and industry. This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and to install and eventually operate those modules.

  17. Radioactive waste processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Ken-ichi; Kawamura, Hideki; Takeuchi, Kunifumi.

    1997-01-01

    Base rock is dug in a substantially cylindrical shape, bentonite blocks in an amount for a predetermined lift are disposed on the inner side of the dug wall surfaces. Concrete blocks constituting a structure of an underground silo are disposed at the inner side. Barrier blocks are disposed to the inner side thereof, and vessels incorporated with radioactive wastes are disposed to the inner side. The bentonite disposed to the inner side of the dug wall surfaces, the concrete structure of the underground silo and the barrier members are divided in the vertical direction into a plurality of blocks, and these blocks are stacked successively from the lowermost layer together with the containing vessels of the radioactive wastes, and after stacking them to a predetermined height, a filler is filled up to the circumference of the vessels. With such a constitution, the underground silo is not fallen down or vibrated even upon occurrence of an earthquake. In addition, bending stresses are scarcely caused thereby making reinforcement of iron reinforcing materials unnecessary. Accordingly, the sealing performance is improved, and processing cost is reduced. (T.M.)

  18. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  19. Radioactive waste management for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodger, W.A.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive waste management practices at nuclear power plants are summarized. The types of waste produced and methods for treating various types of wastes are described. The waste management systems, including simplified flow diagrams, for typical boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors are discussed. (U.S.)

  20. Central processing and interim storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Within the ZWILAG project, the buildings for the temporary storage of all categories of radioactive wastes including the spent fuel elements are being readied at a central location. The intermediate storage installations are enhanced by a conditioning and burning plant for weak radioactive operating waste from the nuclear power plants and from the area of responsibility of the state. (author) 2 figs

  1. Contribution to Radioactive Waste Management in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, M.; Frgic, L.; Sunjerga, S.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of dangerous waste disposal in Croatia is not more only technical problem; it grew over to political one of the first degree. Nobody likes to have the repository in own courtyard. Some five hundred institutions and factories produce in Croatia low, intermediate or high level radioactive waste. Till now all the dangerous waste is keeping in basements of the institute Rudjer Boskovic in Zagreb, just one kilometre form the city centre. This temporary solution is working fore some fifty years, but cannot be conserved forever. In the paper are presented some of the solutions for radioactive waste deposition, known from the references. The deep, impermeable layers in Panonian area have conserved petroleum and gas under pressure of more hundred bars for few dozens millions of years. Therefore, we propose the underground deposition of radioactive waste in deep boreholes. The liquid waste can be injected in deep isolated layers. In USA and Russia, for many years such solutions are realised. In USA exist special regulations for this kind of waste management. In the paper is described the procedure of designing, execution and verification of deposition in Russia. In northern part of Croatia exist thousand boreholes with known geological data. The boreholes were executed for investigation and exploitation of oil and gas fields. This data can make good use to define safe deep layers capable to be used for repositories of liquid waste. For the high level radioactive waste we propose the deep boreholes of greater diameter, filled with containers. One borehole with 50 cm diameter and 1000 m deep can be safe deposition for c/a 50 m3 of solid high level radioactive waste. Croatia has not big quantity of waste and some boreholes can satisfy all the quantities of waste in Croatia. This is not the cheapest solution, but it can satisfy the strongest conditions of safety. (author)

  2. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  3. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  4. PRINCIPLE ROCK TYPES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE REPOSITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibila Borojević Šostarić

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Underground geological storage of high- and intermediate/low radioactive waste is aimed to represent a barrier between the surface environment and potentially hazardous radioactive elements. Permeability, behavior against external stresses, chemical reacatibility and absorption are the key geological parameters for the geological storage of radioactive waste. Three principal rock types were discussed and applied to the Dinarides: (1 evaporites in general, (2 shale, and (3 crystalline basement rocks. (1 Within the Dinarides, evaporite formations are located within the central part of a Carbonate platform and are inappropriate for storage. Offshore evaporites are located within diapiric structures of the central and southern part of the Adriatic Sea and are covered by thick Mesozoic to Cenozoic clastic sediment. Under very specific circumstances they can be considered as potential site locations for further investigation for the storage of low/intermediate level radioactive wast e. (2 Thick flysch type formation of shale to phyllite rocks are exposed at the basement units of the Petrova and Trgovska gora regions whereas (3 crystalline magmatic to metamorphic basement is exposed at the Moslavačka Gora and Slavonian Mts. regions. For high-level radioactive waste, basement phyllites and granites may represent the only realistic potential option in the NW Dinarides.

  5. Radioactive waste processing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R.E.; Ziegler, A.A.; Serino, D.F.; Basnar, P.J.

    1985-08-30

    Apparatus for use in processing radioactive waste materials for shipment and storage in solid form in a container is disclosed. The container includes a top, and an opening in the top which is smaller than the outer circumference of the container. The apparatus includes an enclosure into which the container is placed, solution feed apparatus for adding a solution containing radioactive waste materials into the container through the container opening, and at least one rotatable blade for blending the solution with a fixing agent such as cement or the like as the solution is added into the container. The blade is constructed so that it can pass through the opening in the top of the container. The rotational axis of the blade is displaced from the center of the blade so that after the blade passes through the opening, the blade and container can be adjusted so that one edge of the blade is adjacent the cylindrical wall of the container, to insure thorough mixing. When the blade is inside the container, a substantially sealed chamber is formed to contain vapors created by the chemical action of the waste solution and fixant, and vapors emanating through the opening in the container. The chamber may be formed by placing a removable extension over the top of the container. The extension communicates with the apparatus so that such vapors are contained within the container, extension and solution feed apparatus. A portion of the chamber includes coolant which condenses the vapors. The resulting condensate is returned to the container by the force of gravity.

  6. Treatment of radioactive waste - Routine or challenge? Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The seminar had the following topics: Proposal for new legislation covering radioactive waste management in the EU, new requirements preparations for the later repository, efficient and cost effective treatment of radioactive waste water, intermediate level waste cementation, incineration of spent ion exchange resins in a triphasic mixture, application of THOR-technology on resins, new development for transportation and storage of reactor vessel parts, and conditioning of nuclear fuel containing wastes. (uke)

  7. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non

  8. A review of the predictive modelling and data requirements for the long-term safety assessment of the deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-06-01

    This report considers the Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution research and modelling requirements for a robust post-closure radiological risk assessment methodology applicable to the deep disposal of Low-Level Wastes and Intermediate-Level Wastes. Two disposal concepts have been envisaged: horizontal tunnels or galleries in a low permeability stratum of a sedimentary sequence located inland; vertical boreholes or shafts up to 15m diameter lined with concrete and of the order 500m to 1000m deep sunk into the seabed within territorial coastal waters of the United Kingdom. (author)

  9. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  10. Public debate - radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  11. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  12. Disposal method of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uetake, Naoto; Fukazawa, Tetsuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety of underground disposal of radioactive wastes for a long period of time by surrounding the periphery of the radioactive wastes with materials that can inhibit the migration of radioactive nuclides and are physically and chemically stable. Method: Hardening products prepared from a water-hardenable calcium silicate compound and an aqueous solution of alkali silicate have compression strength as comparable with that of concretes, high water tightness and adsorbing property to radioactive isotopes such as cobalt similar to that of concretes and they also show adsorption to cesium which is not adsorbed to concretes. Further, the kneaded slurry thereof is excellent in the workability and can be poured even into narrow gaps. Accordingly, by alternately charging granular radioactive wastes and this slurry before hardening into the ground, the radioactive wastes can be put to underground disposal stably with simple procedures. (Kamimura, M.)

  13. Management situation and prospect of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pil Jun

    1985-04-01

    This book tell US that management situation and prospect of radioactive waste matter, which includes importance of energy, independence, limitation of fossil fuel energy, density of nuclear energy, strategy of supply of energy resource in Korea, nuclear energy development and radioactive waste matter, summary of management of radioactive waste, statistics of radioactive waste, disposal principle of radioactive waste, management on radioactive waste after using, disposal of Trench, La Marche in French, and Asse salt mine in Germany.

  14. The International Conference on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The IAEA has been concerned with radioactive waste management since its inception. Its programme in this area was expanded in the mid 1970s as questions related to the management and disposal of radioactive wastes came into focus in conjunction with the further industrial development of nuclear power. The objectives of the Agency's wastes management programme are to assist its Member States in the safe and effective management of wastes by organizing the exchange and dissemination of information, providing guidance and technical assistance and supporting research. The current programme addresses all aspects of the industrial use of nuclear power under the aspects (a) technology of handling and treatment of wastes, (b) underground disposal of wastes, (c) environmental aspects of nuclear energy, including sea disposal of radioactive wastes. Systematic reviews have been made and publications issued concerning the technology of handling, treating, conditioning, and storing various categories of wastes, including liquid and gaseous wastes, wastes from nuclear power plants, spent fuel reprocessing and mining and milling of uranium ores, as well as wastes from decommissioning of nuclear facilities. As waste disposal is the current issue of highest interest, an Agency programme was set up in 1977 to develop a set of guidelines on the safe underground disposal of low-, intermediate- and high-level wastes in shallow ground, rock cavities or deep geological repositories. This programme will continue until 1990. Eleven Safety Series and Technical documents and reports have been published under this programme so far, which also addresses safety and other criteria for waste disposal. The environmental part of the waste management programme is concerned with the assessment of radiological and non-radiological consequences of discharges from nuclear facilities, including de minimis concepts in waste disposal and environmental models and data for radionuclide releases. The Agency

  15. Preliminary safety assessments in construction of the pilot industrial facility for final disposal of low and intermediate radioactive waste in the archipelago Novaya Zemlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopatin, V.V.; Lobanov, N.F.; Mankin, V.I.; Karamushka, V.P.; Ostroborodov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses a preliminary safety evaluation of radioactive waste burial at the experimental plant located on Novaya Zemlya. The issues considered are (1) the main provisions on radioactive waste burial in permafrost rock, (2) mining, geological and geocryological conditions at the experimental works' operating site, (3) the main properties of solid and solidified radioactive wastes, (4) the main parameters of the experimental works, (5) preliminary evaluation of safety. The evaluation includes the main requirements to geocryologic characteristics of the permafrost rock intended for waste burial and analyses the seasonal mining-geological and geocryological conditions in the area of the experimental works. The area is situated within the limits of the southern Novozemelsky anticlinorium composed of the Silurian, Devonian and carboniferous rocks of the Paleozoic group. It is mainly limestone and dolomite, showing in rock sequence the layers, benches and horizons of clay shales, aleurolites, conglomerates and magmatic rocks covered with a thin Quaternary sedimentary mantle on the surface. The area is characterised by a confluent continuous layer no less than 300 m thick, seasonal thawing depth 0.5-2.0 m, annual zero temperature variations 10-15 m by the depth, and mean annual rock temperature of -4.5 - 5.0 C. The plant is an independent enterprise supplied with all the required services for industrial and communal/living purposes. The evaluation studies two possible scenarios for accidents during transport of waste to Novaya Zemlya, and the consequences of damage to the plant caused by the impact of a celestial body/flying object, by a catastrophic earthquake, and the effect of global climate warming in the Arctic area

  16. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano B, A.

    1996-01-01

    This research was carried out to develop the most adequate technique to immobilize low and medium-activity radioactive waste. different brands of national cement were used, portland and pozzolanic cement. Prismatic and cylindrical test tubes were prepared with different water/cement (W/C) relationship. Additives such a as clay and bentonite were added in some other cases. Later, the properties of these test tubes were evaluated. Properties such as: mechanical resistance, immersion resistance, lixiviation and porosity resistance. Cement with the highest mechanical resistance values, 62,29 MPa was pozzolanic cement for a W/C relationship of 0,35. It must be mentioned that the other types of cements reached a mechanical resistance over 10 MPa, a value indicated by the international standards for transportation and storage of low and medium-activity radioactive waste at a superficial level. However, in the case of immersion resistance, Sol cement (portland type I) with a W/C relationship of 0,35 reached a compression resistance over 61,92 MPa; as in the previous cases, the other cements reached a mechanical resistance > 10 MPa. Regarding porosity, working with W/C relationships = 0,35 0,40 and 0,45, without additives and with additives, the percentage of porosity found for all cements is lower than 40% percentage indicated by international standards. With regard to the lixiviation test, pozzolanic cement best retained Cesium-137 and Cobalt-60, and increased its advantages when bentonite was added, obtaining a lixiviation rate of 2,02 x E-6 cm/day. Sol cement also improved its properties when bentonite was added and obtained a lixiviation rate of 2,84 x E-6 cm/day for Cesium-137. However, Cobalt-60 is almost completely retained with the 3 types of cement with or without additives, reaching the limits indicated by the international standards for the lixiviation rate of beta-gamma emitter < 5,00E-4 cm/day. Characterizing the final product involves the knowledge of its

  18. Radioactive waste management at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadsby, R.D.; Allan, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    AECL has maintained an active program in radioactive waste management since 1945, when the Canadian nuclear program commenced activities at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Waste management activities have included operation of waste management storage and processing facilities at AECL's CRL and Whiteshell Laboratories (WL); operation of the Low Level Radioactive Waste Management Office on behalf of Natural Resources Canada to resolve historic radioactive waste problems (largely associated with radioactive ore recovery, transport and processing operations) that are the responsibility of the Federal Government; development of the concept and related technology for geological disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste; development of the Intrusion-Resistant Underground Structure (IRUS) disposal concept for low-level nuclear waste; development of dry storage technology for the interim storage of used fuel; and development and assessment of waste processing technology for application in CANDU nuclear power plants and at CRL and WL. Today these activities are continuing. In addition, AECL is: preparing to decommission the nuclear facilities at WL; carrying out a number of smaller decommissioning projects at CRL; putting in place projects to upgrade the low-level liquid waste processing capabilities of the CRL Waste Treatment Centre, recover and process highly active liquid wastes currently in storage, and recover, condition and improve the storage of selected fuel wastes currently stored in below-ground standpipes in the CRL waste management areas; and assessing options for additional remediation projects to improve the management of other wastes currently in storage and to address environmental contamination from past practices. (author)

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  20. Long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes: defining the context, stakes and perspectives; Dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue: situer le contexte, les enjeux et les perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French law from December 30, 1991 has defined an ambitious 15 years program of researches in order to explore the different possible paths for the long-term management of long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The law foresees also that at the end of the 15 years research program, a project of law will be prepared by the French government and transmitted to the European parliament in 2006. A public debate has been organized and emceed in 2005 in order dialogue with the general public and to gather its questions, remarks and fears. In the framework of their contribution to this debate, the ministries of industry and environment have prepared this document which answers some key questions about radioactive waste management: where do wastes come from, what are the risks, how are they managed today in France and in foreign countries, what are the results of the researches carried out during 15 years, what are the advantages and drawbacks of each waste management solution considered, what is the perspective of application of each solution, what is the position of experts, what will be the decision process. This synthetic document supplies some reference marks to better understand these different points. Some pedagogical files about radioactivity, fuel cycle, and nuclear industry activities are attached to the document. (J.S.)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  2. Waste inventory record keeping systems (WIRKS) for the management and disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-06-01

    This report is intended to serve Member States planning to develop or implement radioactive waste disposal programmes and to discuss possible ways for compiling and managing information about the inventories in their radioactive waste repositories, which includes low and intermediate level waste (short lived and long lived) and high level radioactive waste. This report identifies generic information that may be recorded in a Waste Inventory Record Keeping System (WIRKS), as identified by consultants and based on their collective expertise in radioactive waste management. The report provides examples of WIRKS implementation in some countries

  3. CEA and its radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marano, S.

    1999-01-01

    CEA annually produces about 3500 tons of radioactive wastes in its 43 basic nuclear installations. CEA ranks third behind EDF and Cogema. Low-level wastes (A wastes) are sent to ANDRA (national agency for the management of nuclear wastes)whereas medium-level wastes (B wastes) are stored by CEA itself. CEA has checked off its storing places and has set up an installation Cedra to process and store ancient and new nuclear wastes. 3 other installations are planned to operate within 6 years: Agate (Cadarache) will treat liquid effluents, Stella (Saclay) will process liquid wastes that are beta or gamma emitters, and Atena (Marcoule) will treat and store radioactive sodium coming from Phenix reactor and IPSN laboratories. The use of plasma torch for vitrifying wastes is detailed, the management of all the nuclear wastes produced by CEA laboratories and installations is presented. (A.C.)

  4. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  5. The politics of radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1992-01-01

    Plans for radioactive waste disposal have been among the most controversial of all environmental policies, provoking vociferous public opposition in a number of countries. This book looks at the problem from an international perspective, and shows how proposed solutions have to be politically and environmentally, as well as technologically acceptable. In the book the technical and political agenda behind low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal in the UK, Western Europe, Scandinavia and North America is examined. The technical issues and the industrial proposals and analyses and factors which have been crucial in affecting relative levels of public acceptability are set out. Why Britain has lagged behind countries such as Sweden and France in establishing Low Level Waste (LLW) and Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) sites, the strength of the 'not in my backyard' syndrome in Britain, and comparisons of Britain's decision-making process with the innovative and open pattern followed in the US and Canada are examined. An important insight into the problems facing Nirex, Britain's radioactive waste disposal company, which is seeking to establish an underground waste site at Sellafield in Cumbria is given. (author)

  6. The disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormai, P.

    2006-01-01

    The first part shows different ways of 'producing' radioactive wastes, defines the wastes of small, medium and high activity and gives estimation on the quantity of the necessary capacities of waste disposal facilities. The modern radioactive waste disposal that is the integrated processing of the form of waste, the package, the technical facility and the embedding geological environment that guarantee the isolation together. Another factor is the lifetime of radioactive waste which means that any waste containing long lifetime waste in higher concentration than 400-4000 kBq/kg should be disposed geologically. Today the centre of debate disposal of radioactive waste is more social than technical. For this reason not only geological conditions and technical preparations, but social discussions and accepting communities are needed in selecting place of facilities. Now, the focus is on long term temporary disposal of high activity wastes, like burnt out heating elements. The final part of the paper summarizes the current Hungarian situation of disposal of radioactive wastes. (T-R.A.)

  7. Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundby, J.E.

    1988-08-01

    The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems

  8. Handling, treatment, conditioning and storage of biological radioactive wastes. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Biological materials that contain radioactive isotopes have many important applications. During the production and use of these materials, waste will inevitably arise which must be managed with particular care due to their potential biological as well as radiological hazards. This report deals with wastes that arise outside the nuclear fuel cycle and is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes. It is intended to provide guidance to Member States in the handling, treatment and conditioning of biological radioactive materials. The objective of radioactive waste management is to handle, pretreat, treat, condition, store, transport and dispose of radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment without imposing undue burdens on future generations. 31 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Handling, treatment, conditioning and storage of biological radioactive wastes. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Biological materials that contain radioactive isotopes have many important applications. During the production and use of these materials, waste will inevitably arise which must be managed with particular care due to their potential biological as well as radiological hazards. This report deals with wastes that arise outside the nuclear fuel cycle and is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes. It is intended to provide guidance to Member States in the handling, treatment and conditioning of biological radioactive materials. The objective of radioactive waste management is to handle, pretreat, treat, condition, store, transport and dispose of radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment without imposing undue burdens on future generations. 31 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs.

  10. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 5. Omraede Thise, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  11. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 3. Omraede Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  12. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 4. Omraede Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  13. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 6. Omraede Skive Vest, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 2. Omraede Roedbyhavn, Lolland Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  15. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 1. Omraede Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholms Regionskommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  16. Incineration of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caramelle, D.; Florestan, J.; Waldura, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that one of the methods used to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes is incineration. Incineration also allows combustible organic wastes to be transformed into inert matter that is stable from the physico-chemical viewpoint and ready to be conditioned for long-term stockage. The quality of the ashes obtained (low carbon content) depends on the efficiency of combustion. A good level of efficiency requires a combustion yield higher than 99% at the furnace door. Removal efficiency is defined as the relation between the CO 2 /CO + CO 2 concentrations multiplied by 100. This implies a CO concentration of the order of a few vpm. However, the gases produced by an incineration facility can represent a danger for the environment especially if toxic or corrosive gases (HCL,NO x ,SO 2 , hydrocarbons...) are given off. The gaseous effluents must therefore be checked after purification before they are released into the atmosphere. The CO and CO 2 measurement gives us the removal efficiency value. This value can also be measured in situ at the door of the combustion chamber. Infrared spectrometry is used for the various measurements: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry for the off-gases, and diode laser spectrometry for combustion

  17. Researching radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feates, F.; Keen, N.

    1976-01-01

    At present it is planned to use the vitrification process to convert highly radioactive liquid wastes, arising from nuclear power programme, into glass which will be contained in steel cylinders for storage. The UKAEA in collaboration with other European countries is currently assessing the relative suitability of various natural geological structures as final repositories for the vitrified material. The Institute of Geological Sciences has been commissioned to specify the geological criteria that should be met by a rock structure if it is to be used for the construction of a repository though at this stage disposal sites are not being sought. The current research programme aims to obtain basic geological data about the structure of the rocks well below the surface and is expected to continue for at least three years. The results in all the European countries will then be considered so that the United Kingdom can choose a preferred method for isolating their wastes. It is only at that stage that a firm commitment may be made to select a site for a potential repository, when a far more detailed scientific research study will be instituted. Heat transfer problems and chemical effects which may occur within and around repositories are being investigated and a conceptual design study for an underground repository is being prepared. (U.K.)

  18. Radioactive wastes. Management prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of management of radioactive wastes as defined in the French law from December 30, 1991. This law defines three ways of research: abatement of the radiotoxicity of wastes (first way), reversible geological storage (second way) or long duration geological disposal (third way). This article develops these three solutions: 1 - strategic perspectives; 2 - separation, transmutation and specific conditioning: isotopes to be separated (evolution of the radio-toxicity inventory of spent fuels, migration of long-living radionuclides, abatement of radio-toxicity), research on advanced separation (humid and dry way), research on transmutation of separate elements (transmutation and transmutation systems, realistic scenarios of Pu consumption and actinides transmutation, transmutation performances), research on materials (spallation targets, fuels and transmutation targets), research on conditioning matrices for separated elements; 3 - long-term storage: principles and problems, containers, surface and subsurface facilities; 4 - disposal: reversibility and disposal, geological disposal (principle and problems, site and concept selection), adaptation to reversibility, research on materials (bentonite and cements for geologic barrier, metals for containers), underground research and qualification laboratories, quantity of containers to be stored. (J.S.)

  19. Radioactive waste management of urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.

    1993-01-01

    The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area

  20. Method and techniques of radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafar, M.; Aasi, N.

    2002-04-01

    This study illustrates the characterization of radioactive wastes produced by the application of radioisotopes in industry and research. The treatment methods of such radioactive wastes, chemical co-precipitation and ion exchange depending on the technical state of radioactive waste management facility in Syria were described. The disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes, in a safe way, has been discussed including the disposal of the radioactive sources. The characterizations of the repository to stock conditioned radioactive wastes were mentioned. (author)

  1. Management of radioactive waste: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Paulo Sant'ana; Taynara Cristina Cordeiro

    2016-01-01

    The issue of disposal of radioactive waste around the world is not solved by now and the principal reason is the lack of an efficient technologic system. The fact that radioactive waste decays of radioactivity with time are the main reasons for setting nuclear or radioactive waste apart from the other common hazardous wastes management. Radioactive waste can be classified according to the state of matter and level of radioactivity and this classification can be differently interpreted from co...

  2. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mawson, C.A.

    1967-01-01

    When I first became concerned with radioactive waste management, in the early 1950's, very little was really known about the subject. There was a general feeling that it was a serious 'problem'. Articles were appearing in the press and talks were being given on the radio suggesting that the wastes generated by the proposed nuclear power reactors might be a serious menace to humanity. The prophets pointed with alarm to the enormous quantities of fission products that would accumulate steadily over the years in tank farms associated with reactor fuel reprocessing plants, and calculations were made of the possible results from rupture of the tanks due to corrosion, earthquakes or enemy attack. Responsible people suggested seriously that the waste disposal problem might be fatal to the development of a nuclear power industry, and this attitude was reinforced by the popular outcry that arose from experience with fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The Canadian nuclear power industry was not critically involved in this controversy because our heavy-water reactors are fuelled with natural uranium, and reprocessing of the fuel is not necessary. The spent fuel contains plutonium, a potential fuel, but the cost of recovering it was such that it was not competitive with natural uranium, which is not in short supply in Canada. Our spent fuel is not dissolved in acid - it is stored. still in its zirconium cladding, under water at the reactor site, or placed in sealed concrete-and-steel pipes below ground. If the price of uranium rises sufficiently it will become profitable to recover the plutonium, and only then shall we have an appreciable amount of waste from this source. However. during the first five or six years of research and development at Chalk River we did investigate fuel processing methods, and like everybody else we grad stainless steel tanks containing high and medium level wastes. These were located quite close to the Ottawa River, and we worried about what

  3. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.C.

    1998-04-01

    A deep gap, reflecting a persisting fear, separates the viewpoints of the experts and that of the public on the issue of the disposal of nuclear WASTES. The history of this field is that of the proliferation with time of spokesmen who pretend to speak in the name of the both humans and non humans involved. Three periods can be distinguished: 1940-1970, an era of contestation and confusion when the experts alone represents the interest of all; 1970-1990, an era of contestation and confusion when spokespersons multiply themselves, generating the controversy and the slowing down of most technological projects; 1990-, an era of negotiation, when viewpoints, both technical and non technical, tend to get closer and, let us be optimistic, leading to the overcome of the crisis. We show that, despite major differences, the options and concepts developed by the different actors are base on two categories of resources, namely Nature and Society, and that the consensus is built up through their 'hydridation'. we show in this part that the perception of nuclear power and, in particular of the underground disposal of nuclear wastes, involves a very deep psychological substrate. Trying to change mentalities in the domain by purely scientific and technical arguments is thus in vain. The practically instinctive fear of radioactivity, far from being due only to lack of information (and education), as often postulated by scientists and engineers, is rooted in archetypical structures. These were, without doubt, reactivated in the 40 s by the traumatizing experience of the atomic bomb. In addition, anthropological-linked considerations allow us to conclude that he underground disposal of wastes is seen as a 'rape' and soiling of Mother Earth. This contributes to explaining, beyond any rationality, the refusal of this technical option by some persons. However, it would naturally be simplistic and counter-productive to limit all controversy in this domain to these psychological aspects

  4. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-04-24

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs.

  5. Method of solidifying radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Mihara, Shigeru; Yamashita, Koji; Sauda, Kenzo.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain satisfactory plastic solidification products rapidly and more conveniently from radioactive wastes. Method: liquid wastes contain, in addition to sodium sulfate as the main ingredient, nitrates hindering the polymerizing curing reactions and various other unknown ingredients, while spent resins contain residual cationic exchange groups hindering the polymerizing reaction. Generally, as the acid value of unsaturated liquid polyester resins is lower, the number of terminal alkyd resins is small, formation of nitrates is reduced and the polymerizing curing reaction is taken place more smoothly. In view of the above, radioactive wastes obtained by dry powderization or dehydration of radioactive liquid wastes or spent resins are polymerized with unsaturated liquid polyester resins with the acid value of less than 13 to obtain plastic solidification. Thus, if the radioactive wastes contain a great amount of polymerization hindering material such as NaNO 2 , they can be solidified rapidly and conveniently with no requirement for pre-treatment. (Kamimura, Y.)

  6. Gaseous radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onizawa, Hideo.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To prevent explosion of hydrogen gas within gaseous radioactive waste by removing the hydrogen gas by means of a hydrogen absorber. Structure: A coolant extracted from a reactor cooling system is sprayed by nozzle into a gaseous phase (hydrogen) portion within a tank, thus causing slipping of radioactive rare gas. The gaseous radioactive waste rich in hydrogen, which is purged in the tank, is forced by a waste gas compressor into a hydrogen occlusion device. The hydrogen occlusion device is filled with hydrogen occluding agents such as Mg, Mg-Ni alloy, V-Nb alloy, La-Ni alloy and so forth, and hydrogen in the waste gas is removed through reaction to produce hydrogen metal. The gaseous radioactive waste, which is deprived of hydrogen and reduced in volume, is stored in an attenuation tank. The hydrogen stored in the hydrogen absorber is released and used again as purge gas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  7. Radioactive waste material melter apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.F.; Ross, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for preparing metallic radioactive waste material for storage is disclosed. The radioactive waste material is placed in a radiation shielded enclosure. The waste material is then melted with a plasma torch and cast into a plurality of successive horizontal layers in a mold to form a radioactive ingot in the shape of a spent nuclear fuel rod storage canister. The apparatus comprises a radiation shielded enclosure having an opening adapted for receiving a conventional transfer cask within which radioactive waste material is transferred to the apparatus. A plasma torch is mounted within the enclosure. A mold is also received within the enclosure for receiving the melted waste material and cooling it to form an ingot. The enclosure is preferably constructed in at least two parts to enable easy transport of the apparatus from one nuclear site to another. 8 figs

  8. Radioactive waste: show time? - 16309

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codee, Hans; Verhoef, Ewoud

    2009-01-01

    Time will render radioactive waste harmless. How can we manage the time radioactive substances remain harmful? Just 'wait and see' or 'marking time' is not an option. We need to isolate the waste from our living environment and control it as long as necessary. For the situation in the Netherlands, it is obvious that a period of long term storage is needed. Both the small volume of waste and the limited financial possibilities are determining factors. Time is needed to let the volume of waste grow and to let the money, needed for disposal, grow in a capital growth fund. An organisation such as COVRA - the radioactive waste organisation in the Netherlands - can only function when it has good, open and transparent relationship with the public and particularly with the local population. If we tell people that we safely store radioactive waste for 100 years, they often ask: 'That long?' How can we explain the long-term aspect of radioactive waste management in a way people can relate to? In this paper, an overview is given of the activities of COVRA on the communication of radioactive waste management. (authors)

  9. Radioactive waste programme in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmins, A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported

  10. Low- and intermediate-level waste management practices in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1982-05-01

    Low- and intermediate-level wastes arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power stations, nuclear research establishments, nuclear fuel and radioisotope production facilities, as well as from many medical, research and industrial organizations. Essentially all of the solid radioactive wastas are stored in a retrievable fashion at five waste management areas from which a portion is expected to be transferred to future disposal facilities. Waste processing for volume reduction and stabilization is becoming an increasingly important part of low-level waste management because of the advantages it provides for both interim storage currently, and permanent disposal in the future

  11. Radioactive waste management in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banzi, F.P.; Bundala, F.M.; Nyanda, A.M.; Msaki, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste, like many other hazardous wastes, is of great concern in Tanzania because of its undesirable health effects. The stochastic effects due to prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation produce cancer and hereditary effects. The deterministic effects due to higher doses cause vomiting, skin reddening, leukemia, and death to exposed victims. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the status of radioactive wastes in Tanzania, how they are generated and managed to protect humans and the environment. As Tanzania develops, it is bound to increase the use of ionizing radiation in research and teaching, industry, health and agriculture. Already there are more than 42 Centers which use one form of radioisotopes or another for these purposes: Teletherapy (Co-60), Brach-therapy (Cs-137, Sr-89), Nuclear Medicine (P-32, Tc-99m, 1-131, 1-125, Ga-67, In-111, Tl-206), Nuclear gauge (Am-241, Cs- 137, Sr-90, Kr-85), Industrial radiography (Am-241, C-137, Co-60, lr-92), Research and Teaching (1-125, Am241/Be, Co-60, Cs-137, H-3 etc). According to IAEA definition, these radioactive sources become radioactive waste if they meet the following criteria: if they have outlived their usefulness, if they have been abandoned, if they have been displaced without authorization, and if they contaminate other substances. Besides the origin of radioactive wastes, special emphasis will also be placed on the existing radiation regulations that guide disposal of radioactive waste, and the radioactive infrastructure Tanzania needs for ultimate radioactive waste management. Specific examples of incidences (theft, loss, abandonment and illegal possession) of radioactive waste that could have led to serious deterministic radiation effects to humans will also be presented. (author)

  12. Treatment of Radioactive Gaseous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive waste, with widely varying characteristics, is generated from the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, research laboratories and medical facilities. The waste needs to be treated and conditioned as necessary to provide waste forms acceptable for safe storage and disposal. Although radioactive gaseous radioactive waste does not constitute the main waste flow stream at nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste processing facilities, it represents a major source for potential direct environmental impact. Effective control and management of gaseous waste in both normal and accidental conditions is therefore one of the main issues of nuclear fuel cycle and waste processing facility design and operation. One of the duties of an operator is to take measures to avoid or to optimize the generation and management of radioactive waste to minimize the overall environmental impact. This includes ensuring that gaseous and liquid radioactive releases to the environment are within authorized limits, and that doses to the public and the effects on the environment are reduced to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable. Responsibilities of the regulatory body include the removal of radioactive materials within authorized practices from any further regulatory control — known as clearance — and the control of discharges — releases of gaseous radioactive material that originate from regulated nuclear facilities during normal operation to the environment within authorized limits. These issues, and others, are addressed in IAEA Safety Standards Series Nos RS-G-1.7, WS-G-2.3 and NS-G-3.2. Special systems should be designed and constructed to ensure proper isolation of areas within nuclear facilities that contain gaseous radioactive substances. Such systems consist of two basic subsystems. The first subsystem is for the supply of clean air to the facility, and the second subsystem is for the collection, cleanup and

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes. Chapter 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skitt, J.

    1979-01-01

    An account is given of the history and present position of legislation in the United Kingdom on the disposal of radioactive wastes. The sections are headed: introduction and definitions; history; the Radioactive Substances Act 1960; disposal of solid radioactive wastes through Local Authority services; function of Local Authorities; exemptions; national radioactive waste disposal service; incidents involving radioactivity. (U.K.)

  14. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  15. Radioactive waste management and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The public has demonstrated interest and even concern for radioactive waste. A fully demonstrated industrial solution already exists for 90% of the waste generated by the nuclear industry. Several solutions are currently under development for long-term management of long-lived waste. They could be implemented on an industrial scale within twenty years. The low volumes of this type of waste mean there is plenty of time to adopt a solution. (author). 5 photos

  16. Safety Aspects in Radioactive Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Brennecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short-lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-lived high level wastes, i.e. vitrified waste and spent nuclear fuel. Based on such results, near-surface repositories have successfully been operated in many countries. In contrast to that, the disposal of high level radioactive waste is still a scientific and technical challenge in many countries using the nuclear power for the electricity generation. Siting, planning and construction of repositories for the high level wastes in geological formations are gradually advancing. The site selection, the evaluation of feasible sites as well as the development of safety cases and performance of site-specific safety assessments are essential in preparing the realization of such a repository. In addition to the scientific-technical areas, issues regarding economical, environmental, ethical and political aspects have been considered increasingly during the last years. Taking differences in the national approaches, practices and the constraints into account, it is to be recognised that future developments and decisions will have to be extended in order to include further important aspects and, finally, to enhance the acceptance and confidence in the safety-related planning work as well as in the proposed radioactive waste management and disposal solutions.

  17. Treatment and conditioning of radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Radioactive materials are extensively used in industrial and research activities mainly related to medical, agricultural, environmental and other studies and applications. During the application and production of radioisotopes, significant amounts of radioactive wastes will inevitably arise, which must be managed (i.e. handled, treated, conditioned, intermediately stored and finally disposed of) with particular care. Serious efforts to minimize and appropriately segregate the waste arisings during the application of radioisotopes are the most important first step in waste management. The essential objective of the management of radioactive waste is the protection of mankind, the biosphere and the environment from the detrimental effects of nuclear radiation both now and in the future. This report deals with radioactive wastes outside the nuclear fuel cycle and it is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes, e.g. countries belonging to the Groups A, B and C. Group A includes Member States which utilize radioisotopes at a few hospital locations, universities and industries. Group B includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes in hospitals and other institutional areas and need a central collection and processing system. Group C includes Member States which have multi-use of radioisotopes and a nuclear research centre which is capable of indigenous production of several radioisotopes. When developing a waste management strategy, consideration should be given to the entire sequence of waste management operations from waste sources to disposal and all the related issues: every aspect of waste generation, processing, transportation, storage and disposal, including regulatory, socio-political and economic issues. The interaction of all these aspects must be analysed and understood before the entire waste management system can be properly built up and safely managed. 16 refs, 13 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Operating safety requirements for the intermediate level liquid waste system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    The operation of the Intermediate Level Liquid Waste (ILW) System, which is described in the Final Safety Analysis, consists of two types of operations, namely: (1) the operation of a tank farm which involves the storage and transportation through pipelines of various radioactive liquids; and (2) concentration of the radioactive liquids by evaporation including rejection of the decontaminated condensate to the Waste Treatment Plant and retention of the concentrate. The following safety requirements in regard to these operations are presented: safety limits and limiting control settings; limiting conditions for operation; and surveillance requirements. Staffing requirements, reporting requirements, and steps to be taken in the event of an abnormal occurrence are also described

  19. Radioactive waste mangement in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of the Canadian radioactive waste management program are to manage the wastes so that the potential hazards of the material are minimized, and to manage the wastes in a manner which places the minimum possible burden on future generations. The Atomic Energy Control Board regulates all activities in the nuclear field in Canada, including radioactive waste management facility licensing. The Atomic Energy Control Act authorizes the Board to make rules for regulating its proceedings and the performance of its functions. The Atomic Energy Control Regulations define basic regulatory requirements for the licensing of facilities, equipment and materials, including requirements for records and inspection, for security and for health and safety

  20. Low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbay, H.; Chapuis, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    During dismantling operations of nuclear facilities radioctive and non radioactive wastes are produced. The distinction between both kinds of wastes is not easy. In each dismantling operation special care and rules are defined for the separation of wastes. Each case must be separately studied. The volume and the surface activites are analyzed. Part of the wastes had been disposed in a public environment. The regulations, the international recommendations, thetheoretical and experimental investigations in this field are presented. A regulation principle and examples of radioactivity limits, on the basis of international recommendations, are provided. Those limits are calculated from individual radiation dose that may reach human beings [fr