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Sample records for intermediate level radioactive

  1. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, L.C.; Ortiz, J.R.; Sanchez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Currently, it is necessary to establish, in a few years, a definitive repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in order to satisfy the necessities of Mexico for the next 50 years. Consequently, it is required to estimate the volumes of the radioactive waste generated annually, the stored volumes to-date and their projection to medium-term. On this subject, the annual average production of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from the electricity production by means of nuclear power reactors is 250 m 3 /y which consist of humid and dry solid waste from the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant having a re-use efficiency of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, the applications in medicine, industry and research generate 20 m 3 /y of solid waste, 280 m 3 /y of liquid waste and approximately 10 m 3 /y from 300 spent sealed radioactive sources. The estimation of the total volume of these waste to the year 2035 is 17500 m 3 corresponding to the 46% of the volume generated by the operation and maintenance of the 2 units of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant, 34% to the decommissioning of these 2 units at the end of their useful life and 20% to the waste generated by applications in medicine, industry and research. (author)

  2. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report aims at giving the reader details of the experience gained in the treatment of both low- and intermediate-level radioactive liquid wastes. The treatment comprises those operations to remove radioactivity from the wastes and those that change only its chemical composition, so as to permit its discharge. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the satisfactory treatment of such wastes. Although there are no universally accepted definitions for low- and intermediate-level liquid radioactive wastes, the IAEA classification (see section 3.2) is used in this report. The two categories differ from one another in the fact that for low-level liquids the actual radiation does not require shielding during normal handling of the wastes. Liquid wastes which are not considered in this report are those from mining and milling operations and the high-level liquid wastes resulting from fuel reprocessing. These are referred to in separate IAEA reports. Likewise, wastes from decommissioning operations are not within the scope of this report. Apart from the description of existing methods and facilities, this report is intended to provide advice to the reader for the selection of appropriate solutions to waste management problems. In addition, new and promising techniques which are either being investigated or being considered for the future are discussed

  3. Containers for packaging of solid and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are generated at all stages in the nuclear fuel cycle and also from the medical, industrial and research applications of radiation. These wastes can potentially present risks to health and the environment if they are not managed adequately. Their effective management will require the wastes to be safely stored, transported and ultimately disposed of. The waste container, which may be defined as any vessel, drum or box, made from metals, concrete, polymers or composite materials, in which the waste form is placed for interim storage, for transport and/or for final disposal, is an integral part of the whole package for the management of low and intermediate level wastes. It has key roles to play in several stages of the waste management process, starting from the storage of raw wastes and ending with the disposal of conditioned wastes. This report provides an overview of the various roles that a container may play and the factors that are important in each of these roles. This report has two main objectives. The first is to review the main requirements for the design of waste containers. The second is to provide advice on the design, fabrication and handling of different types of containers used in the management of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes. Recommendations for design and testing are given, based on the extensive experience available worldwide in waste management. This report is not intended to have any regulatory status or objectives. 56 refs, 16 figs, 10 tabs

  4. Acceptability of a low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Polic, M.

    2000-01-01

    Siting of a radioactive waste repository, even for the waste of low and intermediate level (LILW) radioactivity, presents a great problem in almost every country that produces such waste. The main problem is not a technical one, but socio-psychological, namely the acceptability of this kind of repository. In general, people are opposed to any such kind of facility in their vicinity (NIMBY). In this study we try to establish the factors that influence people's behavior regarding the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their local community, with the use of Ajzen's model of planned behavior. Two different scenarios about the construction of a radioactive waste repository in their community, together with a set of questions were presented to participants from different schools. Data from the survey were analysed by multivariate methods, and a model of relevant behaviour was proposed. From the results it can be seen that different approaches to local community participation in site selection process slightly influence people's attitudes towards the LILW repository, while significant differences in answers were found in the responses which depend on participants' knowledge. Therefore the RAO Agency will further intensify preparation of the relevant communication plan and start with its implementation to support LILW repository site selection process, which will also include educational programme. (author)

  5. Treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    One of the essential aims in the waste management is to reduce as much as possible the waste volumes to be stored or disposed of, and to concentrate and immobilize as much as possible the radioactivity contained in the waste. This document describes the treatment of low- and intermediate-level solid waste prior to its conditioning for storage and disposal. This report aims primarily at compiling the experience gained in treating low- and intermediate-active solid wastes, one of the major waste sources in nuclear technology. Apart from the description of existing facilities and demonstrated handling schemes, this report provides the reader with the basis for a judgement that facilitates the selection of appropriate solutions for a given solid-waste management problem. It thus aims at providing guidelines in the particular field and indicates new promising approaches that are actually under investigation and development

  6. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    A new program underway at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate-level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. ILW are defined as those liquid and solid radioactive wastes, other than high-level wastes and fuel cladding hulls, that in packaged form have radiation dose readings greater than 200 millirem/hr at the packaged surface and 10 millirem/hr at three feet from the surface. The IAEA value of 10 4 Ci/m 3 for ILW defines the upper limit. For comparative purposes, reference is also made to certain aspects of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Because of the wide differences in composition (e.g., acids, salt solutions, resins and zeolites, HEPA filters, etc.) the wastes may require different treatments, particularly those wastes containing volatile contaminants. The various types of ILW have been grouped into categories amenable to similar treatment. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contain volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW

  7. Conditioning of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle, together with the use of separated radioisotopes, in many endeavours generates a variety of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. These waste materials contain quantities of radionuclides sufficient to present potential health risks to people if the wastes are not adequately managed, but usually insufficient quantities to require heat removal. Adequate management involves a series of steps which lead from the arising of the wastes to their safe disposal, steps which may include collection, segregation, treatment, volume reduction, conditioning, transport, interim storage and disposal. Each step is defined by the need to accommodate to the preceding one and to facilitate the ones that follow. This technical report describes primarily the technologies available for the conditioning steps (i.e., immobilization and packaging) and relates them to the other steps. In broad terms, the purpose of conditioning is to convert the wastes into packages that are suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  8. Policy and technical considerations for intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section has addressed issues, topics, and considerations related to low-level and intermediate-level wastes that are basic to developing and establishing environmental radiation protection criteria for radioactive wastes. Applicability of criteria, criteria considerations for sites, control of radiological impact to the population, and long-term considerations are discussed

  9. Status and advice of the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal sites in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng Keyan; Lu Caixia

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of nuclear power industry in China, as well as the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities, and the process of radioactive waste management, a mount of the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes will increase rapidly. How to dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes, that not only related to Chinese nuclear energy and nuclear technology with sustainable development, but also related to the public health, environment safety. According to Chinese « long-term development plan of nuclear power (2005- 2020) », when construct the nuclear power, should simultaneous consider the sites that dispose the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, In order to adapt to the needs that dispose the increasing low and intermediate level radioactive waste with development of nuclear power. In the future, all countries are facing the enormous challenge of nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  10. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  11. Feasibility of large volume casting cementation process for intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhuying; Chen Baisong; Zeng Jishu; Yu Chengze

    1988-01-01

    The recent tendency of radioactive waste treatment and disposal both in China and abroad is reviewed. The feasibility of the large volume casting cementation process for treating and disposing the intermediate level radioactive waste from spent fuel reprocessing plant in shallow land is assessed on the basis of the analyses of the experimental results (such as formulation study, solidified radioactive waste properties measurement ect.). It can be concluded large volume casting cementation process is a promising, safe and economic process. It is feasible to dispose the intermediate level radioactive waste from reprocessing plant it the disposal site chosen has resonable geological and geographical conditions and some additional effective protection means are taken

  12. Treatment and immobilization of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Greenhalgh, W.O.; Partridge, J.A.; Richardson, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses a new program underway to develop and demonstrate treatment and immobilization technologies for intermediate level wastes (ILW) generated in the nuclear fuel cycle. Initial work has defined the sources, quantities and types of wastes which comprise ILW. Laboratory studies are underway to define treatment technologies for liquid ILW which contains volatile contaminants and to define immobilization parameters for the residues resulting from treatment of ILW. Immobilization agents initially being evaluated for the various residues include cement, urea-formaldehyde, and bitumen although other immobilization agents will be studied. The program also includes development of acceptable test procedures for the final immobilized products as well as development of proposed criteria for storage, transportation, and disposal of the immobilized ILW. 20 figures, 10 tables

  13. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels

  14. Application of remote sensing technique to site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru; Jin Yuanxin; Liu Yuemiao; Hou Dewen

    2001-01-01

    Based on the relative criteria of selection of disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the social-economic conditions, landform, morphologic properties, regional geological stability, hydrogeological and engineering geological characters of adjacent area of Anhui, Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces were investigated. The geological interpretation of thematic mapper images, field reconnaissance and data analysis were conducted during the research work. The results show that three areas in the west part of Zhejiang Province were recommended as potential site for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. They are Bajiaotang area, Tiebanchong area and Changxing-Guangde-Anji nabes

  15. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K.; Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P.; Walderhaug, T.; Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S.; Backe, S.

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au)

  16. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB, (El Salvador); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe, (Denmark); Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P. [VVT, (Finland); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au).

  17. Natural analogue study for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Cunli; Fan Zhiwen; Huang Yawen; Cui Anxi; Liu Xiuzheng; Zhang Jinshen

    1995-01-01

    The paper makes a comparison of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design principle and construction procedures. Results showed that Chinese ancient tombs are very good analogue for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal. Long-term preservation of ancient tombs and buried objects demonstrated that low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste shallow burial disposal would be safe if suitable sites were selected, reasonable engineering structures and good backfill materials were adopted, and scientific construction procedures were followed. The paper reports for the first time the testing results of certain ancient tomb backfill materials. The results indicated that the materials have so low a permeability as 1.5 x 10 -8 cm/s , and strong adsorption to radionuclides Co and Cs with the distribution coefficients of 1.4 x 10 4 mL/g and 2.1 x 10 4 mL/g, and the retardation factors of 4.4 x 10 4 and 7.7 x 10 4 respectively. Good performance of these materials is important assurance of long-term preservation of the ancient tombs. These materials may be considered to be used as backfill materials in low-and-intermediate level radioactive shallow burial disposal. (4 figs., 10 tabs.)

  18. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of organic materials which are present in some intermediate level wastes on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  19. A strategy for the improvement of the intermediate and low level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez, J.C.; Salgado, M.; Jova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The work describes the surrent situation with regard to the management of intermediate and low level radioactive wastes that are generated in the country. Updated information is reffered on the quantities of stored wastes that are to be treated and conditioned at the facilities of the CPHR

  20. Management of intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Lakey, L.T.; Greenborg, J.

    1980-07-01

    While used extensively, the term intermediate-level waste is not a clearly defined waste category. Assuming the ILW includes all radioactive wastes requiring shielding but not ordinarily included in a high-level waste canister, its major sources include power plant operations, spent fuel storage, and spent fuel reprocessing. While the volume is approx. 10 2 greater than that of high-level waste, ILW contains only approx. 1% of the radioactivity. Power plant waste, constituting approx. 87% of the waste volume, is generally nontransuranic waste. The other approximately 13% from fuel reprocessing is generally transuranic. Intermediate-level wastes fall into the general categories of highly radioactive hardware, failed equipment, HEPA filters, wet wastes, and noncombustible solids. Within each category, however, the waste characteristics can vary widely, necessitating different treatments. The wet wastes, primarily power plant resins and sludges, contribute the largest volume; fuel hulls and core hardware represent the greatest activity. Numerous treatments for intermediate-level wastes are available and have been used successfully. Packaging and transportation systems are also available. Intermediate-level wastes from power plants are disposed of by shallow-land burial. However, the alpha-bearing wastes are being stored pending eventual disposal to a geologic repository or by other means, e.g., intermediate-depth burial, sea disposal. Problem areas associated with intermediate-level wastes include: disposal criteria need to be established; fixation of organic ion exchange resins from power plant operation needs improvement; and reprocessing of LWR fuels will produce ILW considerably different from power plant ILW and requiring different treatment

  1. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J.

    2005-01-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  2. Brazilian low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal and environmental conservation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Cuccia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. These facilities must include unoccupied areas as protection barriers, also called buffer zone. Besides that, Brazilian environmental laws require that certain enterprises must preserve part of their area for environmental conservation. The future Brazilian low and intermediate level waste repository (RBMN) might be classified as such enterprise. This paper presents and discusses the main Brazilian legal framework concerning different types of conservation areas that are allowed and which of them could be applied to the buffer zones of RBMN. The possibility of creating a plant repository in the buffer zone is also discussed. (author)

  3. Advances in technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In recent years the authorized maximum limits for radioactive discharges into the environment have been reduced considerably, and this, together with the requirement to minimize the volume of waste for storage or disposal and to declassify some wastes from intermediate to low level or to non-radioactive wastes, has initiated studies of ways in which improvements can be made to existing decontamination processes and also to the development of new processes. This work has led to the use of more specific precipitants and to the establishment of ion exchange treatment and evaporation techniques. Additionally, the use of combinations of some existing processes or of an existing process with a new technique such as membrane filtration is becoming current practice. New biotechnological, solvent extraction and electrochemical methods are being examined and have been proven at laboratory scale to be useful for radioactive liquid waste treatment. In this report an attempt has been made to review the current research and development of mature and advanced technologies for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive liquid wastes, both aqueous and non-aqueous. Non-aqueous radioactive liquid wastes or organic liquid wastes typically consist of oils, reprocessing solvents, scintillation liquids and organic cleaning products. A brief state of the art of existing processes and their application is followed by the review of advances in technologies, covering chemical, physical and biological processes. 213 refs, 33 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Rapid quantification of alpha emitters in low- and intermediate-level dry radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae-Hong Park; Eul-Hye Jeon; Yong Sul Choi; Jong-Ho Park; Hong Joo Ahn; Yong Jun Park

    2016-01-01

    We developed a rapid quantification method of Pu, Am, and Cm in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste using TRU resin, alpha spectrometry, and thermal ionization mass spectrometry for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, we focused on the optimization of sample preparation methods for alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry to reduce the analysis time. The optimized method used Am and Pu stripping solutions for micro-coprecipitation and showed good recovery and alpha spectrum resolution for alpha counting. In addition, appropriate selection of Pu elution solution decreased the sample preparation time for thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurements. (author)

  5. Site selection for low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Si-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The radioactive waste can be classified into low and intermediate level waste (LILW), spent fuel (SF) and high level waste according to the level of the emitted radioactivity in Korea. Currently radioactive waste is temporarily stored in the four nuclear power plant sites, where the LILW and SF are expected to be saturated from 2008 and 2016, respectively. Therefore the construction of a radioactive waste treatment facility is urgently needed to effectively and safely manage the radioactive waste under the government's supervision. Site securing effort for radioactive waste disposal facility in Korea had begun from 1986. During the 18 years from 1986 to 2004 nine times attempts of site securing were implemented. At 10th attempt when the Kyoungju site was selected as final one in 2005, our government had made special basic principles such as institution of special law, locating spent fuel interim storage in another site, and public acceptance shall be confirmed through the resident voting at each local government. Under the above basic principles, resident voting was implemented in the four local governments, which were Guansan, Youngdok, Pohang, and Kyoungju. Among these local governments Kyoungju city recorded the highest approval rate of resident voting and so was determined as the final site. (author)

  6. Removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solution : a laboratory investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, S.K.; Theyyunni, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Various methods were investigated in the laboratory for the removal of radioruthenium from alkaline intermediate level radioactive waste solutions of reprocessing plant origin. The methods included batch equilibration with different ion exchangers and sorbents, column testing and chemical precipitation. A column method using zinc-activated carbon mixture and a chemical precipitation method using ferrous salt along with sodium sulphite were found to be promising for plant scale application. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  7. Canadian experiences in characterizing two low-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste management sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heystee, R.J.; Rao, P.K.M.

    1984-02-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) and intermediate-level reactor waste (ILW) arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power reactors for the generation of electricity and from the operation of reactors for nuclear research and development as well as for the production of separated radioisotopes. The majority of this waste is currently being safely managed at two sites in the Province of Ontario: (1) Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, and (2) Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Power Development Radioactive Waste Operations Site 2. Although these storage facilities can safely manage the waste for a long period of time, there are advantages in disposal of the LLW and ILW. The design of the disposal facilities and the assessment of long-term performance will require that the hydrologic and geologic data be gathered for a potential disposal site. Past site characterization programs at the two aforementioned waste storage sites have produced information which will be useful to future disposal studies in similar geologic materials. The assessment of long-term performance will require that predictions be made regarding the potential subsurface migration of radionuclides. However there still remain many uncertainties regarding the chemical and physical processes which affect radionuclide mobility and concentrations, in particular hydrodynamic dispersion, geochemical reactions, and transport through fractured media. These uncertainties have to be borne in mind when conducting the performance assessments and adequate conservatism must be included to account for the uncertainties. (author)

  8. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marumo, Julio T.; Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino; Taveira, Gerson L.S.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  9. Questionnaire established for the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: jtmarumo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Fabio; Pinto, Antonio Juscelino, E-mail: silvaf@cdtn.br, E-mail: ajp@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Taveira, Gerson L.S., E-mail: gersonluizst@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao Civil

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN), an institute of Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is responsible for the technical coordination of the Brazilian Repository Project (RBMN), for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes. To establish the inventory of the low and intermediate radioactive level waste to be disposed in the national Repository, a questionnaire was elaborated to be filled on line, via WEB, exclusively to registered users, which involved CNEN's institutes, ELETRONUCLEAR, INB and CTMSP. Based on all standardized information received from questionnaires, an easy use database to inventory the radioactive waste was created in Microsoft Access® that supported the calculation of the volume of radioactive waste treated and non-treated, stored and generated presently in Brazil. In addition, from this database it will be possible to establish some disposal procedures and the necessary area of construction. The objective of this work is to present this database and some general information about the radwastes in Brazil. (author)

  10. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes 1988. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The International Symposium on Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, organized jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency with the Commission of the European Communities, was held in Stockholm, Sweden, from 16 to 20 May 1988. All basic stages of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (treatment, conditioning, waste form characterization and quality control, and disposal options) were addressed at the symposium. For the first time in IAEA practice the subject of treatment and conditioning of mixed radioactive and chemically and biologically hazardous wastes was also included in the programme. The papers presented at the symposium showed that substantial progress is still possible in the further development and improvement of the numerous existing technologies for waste treatment and conditioning. Much effort is being made to minimize the volume of waste, to reduce the total cost of waste management, and to improve the quality of immobilized wastes and the reliability of disposal. A great number of techniques available worldwide for the treatment and conditioning of radioactive wastes and several new treatment processes being developed in different countries were reported. The range and the novelty of this work indicate that substantial effort is continually being devoted to the improvement of treatment and conditioning techniques. It was strongly confirmed by many contributions at the symposium that waste product composition and quality should be adjusted to meet the disposal criteria and therefore depend on the disposal option selected. A range of disposal options were discussed at the symposium. Depending on many factors, including the geology and geography of the country concerned, waste composition, availability of appropriate abandoned mines and socio-political factors either deep underground disposal or shallow land burial or a combination of the two is being adopted for the disposal of radioactive wastes. The

  11. Management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes with regard to their chemical toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    A preliminary overview is provided of management options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) with regard to its chemical toxicity. In particular, the following issues are identified and described associated with the management and safe disposal of chemically toxic materials in LILW: the origin and characteristics; the regulatory approaches; the pre-disposal management; the disposal; the safety assessment. Also included are: regulatory framework for chemically toxic low level wastes in the USA; pre-disposal processing options for LILW containing chemically toxic components; example treatment technologies for LILW containing chemically toxic components and safety assessment case studies for Germany, Belgium, France and Sweden

  12. Projection to 2035 for the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.C.; Sanchez U, S.

    2004-01-01

    It is necessary to establish in few years a definitive warehouse for the radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, generated in the country and to satisfy the necessities of their confinement in the next ones 50 to 80 years. Therefore, it is required to be considered those volumes produced annually, those stored at the present and those estimated to medium and long term. The results of the simulation of 4 cases are presented, considering the operation from the 2 nuclear power reactors to 40 and 60 years, the use of the technology of current treatment and the use of super compaction of solids, as well as the importance in the taking of decision of the methodology for the dismantlement of each reactor to the finish of their useful life. At the moment the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, produces an average of 250 m 3 /year of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, constituted by solid dry wastes, humid solids and liquids. In the last 3 years, the power plant has reached an effectiveness of re utilization of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, in Mexico the non energetic applications of the radioisotopes, produce annually of the order of 20 m 3 /year of solid wastes, 280 m 3 /year of liquid wastes and 300 worn out radioactive sources. (Author)

  13. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kunio; Shinji, Yoshimasa; Maki, Yasuro; Ishizaki, Kanjiro; Minegishi, Keiichi; Sudoh, Giichi.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer-impregnated concrete (SFPIC) has been investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The present study has been carried out by the following stages. A) Preliminary evaluation: 60 L size container for cold and hot tests. B) Evaluation of size effect: 200 L size container for cold tests. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure-container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 . Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer for stage-A and B were performed by 60 Co-γ ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization, respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/cm 2 and 700 kg/cm 2 -outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about 1380 x 10 -6 and 3950 x 10 -6 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. An accelerated leaching test was performed by charging the concentrate of the liquid radioactive waste from JMTR in JAERI into the container. Although they were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. From results of various tests, it was evaluated that the SFPIC-container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. There was not any great difference between the two size containers for the physical and chemical properties except in their preparation process. (author)

  14. Corrosion of steel drums containing simulated radioactive waste of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, S.B.; Schulz Rodríguez, F.; Duffó, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins are frequently used during the operation of nuclear power plants and constitute radioactive waste of low and intermediate level. For the final disposal inside the repository the resins are immobilized by cementation and placed inside steel drums. The eventful contamination of the resins with aggressive species may cause corrosion problems to the drums. In order to assess the incidence of this phenomenon and to estimate the lifespan of the steel drums, in the present work, the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different aggressive species was studied. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (main ionic species of concern) and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation). The corrosion rate of the steel was monitored over a time period of 900 days and a chemical and morphological analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition was performed. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the drums containing the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina), it was found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination), the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums. (author)

  15. Influence of time dependent effects on the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Reviews are presented firstly of potential events and processes which may affect the evolution of the disposal environments of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in Britain and secondly of previous studies carried out worldwide in the field of time dependent effects. From the latter review available methodologies for incorporating time dependence into radiological assessments are identified. Finally, proposals are presented for the design and development of a time dependent effects model, based on the existing far field state model (FFSM) developed for ONWI in USA. (author)

  16. Feasibility study for the disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chales Suarez, G.; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriquez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1998-01-01

    The perspective of completing and operating the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and the development of nuclear applications justifies the need to establish an appropriate low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal system in Cuba. The design of one option which is consonant with the characteristics of this country is presented in the form of a feasibility study. The study discusses the characteristics of the wastes, the design of the repository, the packaging of the radioactive wastes as well as the siting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage. International practice and experience have been considered, as well as the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency [1-4] in the preparation of this study. (author)

  17. Studies concerning the degradation of concrete vaults for intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo S.; Arva, Esteban A; Giordano, Celia M.; Lafont, Claudio J.

    2007-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is the responsible for developing a management nuclear waste disposal programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is the near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of this concrete structures is an important aspect for the facilities integrity. This work presents a laboratory and field investigation performed for the last 6 years on reinforced concrete specimens, in order to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. On the other hand, the development of sensors that allow on-line measurements of rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity and chloride concentration is shown. Those sensors, properly embedded in a new full scale vault (nowadays in construction), will allow the monitoring of the corrosion process of the steel rebars embedded in the structure. All the information obtained from the sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities. (author) [es

  18. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A constructional engineering project study aimed at clarification of the feasibility of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (type B repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set derived from the geological, rock mechanical and topographical characterictics of one of Nagra's planned exploration areas. Final storage is effected in subterranean rock caverns accessed by horizontal tunnel. The reception area also is sited below the surface. Storage is conceived in such a way that, after closure of the repository, maintenance and supervision can be dispensed with and a guarantee of high long-term safety can nevertheless be provided. The envisaged repository consists of an entry tunnel for road vehicles and a reception area with a series of caverns for receiving waste, for additional technical facilities and for the production of the concrete back-fill material. The connecting tunnel is serviced by a tunnel railway and the actual repository area consists of several storage caverns. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of 200'000 m3 of solidified low- and intermediate-level waste. Valanginian marl is assumed as the host rock, although it would also be basically possible to house the proposed installations in other host rocks. The excavated material will total around 1'000'000 m3. The construction time for the whole installation is estimated as about 7 years and a working team of around 30 people will be required for the estimated 60-year operational duration. The project described in the present report justifies the conclusion that construction of a repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste is feasible with present-day technology. This conclusion takes into consideration quantitative and operational constraints as well as geological and hydrogeological data relevant to constructional engineering. The latter are derived from a model data-set based on a specific locality

  19. Conceptual designs for waste quality checking facilities for low level and intermediate level radioactive wastes and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driver, S.; Griffiths, M.; Leonard, C.D.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises work carried out on the design of facilities for the quality checking of Intermediate and Low Level Radioactive Waste and Hazardous Waste. The procedures used for the quality checking of these categories of waste are summarised. Three building options are considered: a separate LLW facility, a combined facility for LLW and HW and a Waste Quality Checking Facility for the three categories of waste. Budget Cost Estimates for the three facilities are given based on 1991 prices. (author)

  20. Surface-type repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucar-Dragicevic, S.; Zarkovic, V.; Subasic, D.

    1995-01-01

    The low-level intermediate-level (LL/IL) radioactive waste repository siting and construction project is one of the activities related to establishing the rad waste management system in the Republic of Croatia. The repository project design is one in an array of project activities which also include the site selection procedure and public attitude issues. The prepared design documentation gives technical, safety and financial background relevant for making a final decision on the waste disposal type, and it includes the technological, mechanical, civil and financial documentation on the preliminary/basic design level. During the last few years, the preliminary design has been prepared and safety assessment conducted for the tunnel-type LL/IL rad waste repository. As the surface-type repository is one of alternatives for final disposal the design documentation for that repository type was prepared during 1994. (author)

  1. Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive solidified waste forms and packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Evaluation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste forms and packages with respect to compliance with quality and safety requirements for transport, interim storage and disposal has become a very important part of the radioactive waste management strategy in many countries. The evaluation of waste forms and packages provides precise basic data for regulatory bodies to establish safety requirements, and implement quality control and quality assurance procedures for radioactive waste management programmes. The requirements depend very much upon the disposal option selected, treatment technology used, waste form characteristics, package quality and other factors. The regulatory requirements can also influence the methodology of waste form/package evaluation together with selection and analysis of data for quality control and safety assurance. A coordinated research programme started at the end of 1985 and brought together 12 participants from 11 countries. The results of the programme and each particular project were discussed at three Research Coordination Meetings held in Cairo, Egypt, in May, 1986; in Beijing, China, in April, 1998; and at Harwell Laboratory, United Kingdom, in November, 1989. This document summarises the salient features and results achieved during the four year investigation and a recommendation for future work in this area. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. A successful case site selection for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bongwoo

    2007-01-01

    Korea decided on Gyeongju-si as the site of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility by referendum in November, 2005. Five success factors are considered; 1) the mayor and municipal assembly leaded the public opinion of inhabitants, 2) an invitation group was formed by citizen, social and religious group, 3) Gyeongju-si has operated the nuclear power plant since 20 years ago, and this radioactive waste disposal facility brings large financial support, 4) many kinds of public information means were used for invitation agreement and 5) the preconception, a nuclear facility is danger, was removed by visiting citizen, social group and local inhabitants at the nuclear power plant facility. Promotion process of the project, invitation process of Gyeongju-si and success factors, construction of an invitation promotion group and development of public information activities, publicity of financial effects and safety of radioactive waste disposal facility, increase of general acceptance among inhabitants by many kinds of public information means, and P.R. of safety of nuclear power plant facility by visiting leadership layers are reported. (S.Y.)

  3. A methodology for assessing social considerations in transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allsop, R.E.; Banister, D.J.; Holden, D.J.; Bird, J.; Downe, H.E.

    1986-05-01

    A methodology is proposed for taking into account non-radiological social aspects of the transport of low and intermediate level radioactive waste when considering the location of disposal facilities and the transport of waste to such facilities from the sites where it arises. As part of a data acquisition programme, an attitudinal survey of a sample of people unconnected with any suggested site or transport route is proposed in order to estimate levels of concern felt by people of different kinds about waste transport. Probabilities of accident occurrence during transport by road and rail are also discussed, and the limited extent of quantified information about consequences of accidents is reviewed. The scope for malicious interference with consignments of waste in transit is considered. (author)

  4. The transport implications of regional policies for the disposal of intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report aims to evaluate transport parameters and logistics associated with the disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes, as generated by CEGB, SSEB, UKAEA and BNFL. The assumed power scenario is DoE Scheme 3, which approximates to a moderate power generation scenario, with a 15 GWe PWR programme commissioned between 1991 and 2010, existing Magnox and AGR stations are assumed to have a 30 year lifespan. Three transport options are again assumed, namely; road, rail and a hybrid system, as is consistent with previous studies. These three options will be used in investigating regional policies of disposal, initially at the national level and then progressively disaggregating to a system of three regional depositories serving their respective catchment areas. (author)

  5. The packaging and transport of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, J.R.; Price, M.S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Up to the present time, the majority of the radioactive waste which has been transported in the United Kingdom has been low level waste for disposal in the trenches of the shallow burial site operated by British Nuclear Fuels plc at Drigg and also the packaged waste destined for sea disposal in the annual operation. However, the main bulk of the low and intermediate level wastes which have been generated over the last quarter century remain in store at the various nuclear sites where it originated. Before significant packaging and transport of intermediate level wastes takes place it is desirable to examine the sources and types of wastes, the immobilisation and packaging processes and plants, the transport, and the problems of handling of packages at future land repositories. Optimisation of the packaging and transport must take account of both the upstream and downstream con=straints as well as the implications of complying with both the IAEA Transport Regulations and radiological protection guidelines. Packages for sea disposal must in addition comply with the requirements of the London Dumping Convention and the NEA guidelines. (author)

  6. Cost Considerations and Financing Mechanisms for the Disposal of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    The overall objective of this publication is to provide Member States who are currently planning or preparing new near surface repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW), guidance on cost considerations and funding mechanisms for the repositories' entire life cycle. The report focuses on both technical and non-technical factors affecting repository costs. It considers the major cost elements that comprise a cost evaluation for a disposal facility for LILW and identifies those factors which may result in major uncertainties in an overall cost estimate. In particular, the report lists the basic disposal options and summarizes the legal basis and infrastructure requirements for establishing an effective financing system. It further includes the cost estimation methodology, considers the major cost categories and discusses factors to be considered when planning the financing mechanism, and describes relevant financing schemes

  7. Siting Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in Egypt (Proposal approach)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdellatif, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of radioactive waste disposal is to isolate waste from the surrounding media so that it does not result in undue radiation exposure to humans and the environment. The required degree of isolation can be obtained by implementing various disposal methods and suitable criteria. Near surface disposal method has been practiced for some decades, with a wide variation in sites, types and amounts of wastes, and facility designs employed. Experience has shown that the effective and safe isolation of waste depends on the performance of the overall disposal system, which is formed by three major components or barriers: the site, the disposal facility and the waste form. The site selection process for low-level and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility addressed a wide range of public health, safety, environmental, social and economic factors. Establishing site criteria is the first step in the sitting process to identify a site that is capable of protecting public health, safety and the environment. This paper is concerning a proposal approach for the primary criteria for near surface disposal facility that could be applicable in Egypt.

  8. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  9. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Elstow Storage Depot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a new shallow repository at the CEGB's Elstow Storage Depot, Bedfordshire. The site is conveniently located and is situated on a suitable geologic formation, the Oxford Clay. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a shallow repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. The development would involve the construction of new buildings and a programme of trench excavation, waste positioning and trench closure. Existing tenants at the Depot will be accommodated as far as possible. The existing road and rail networks would be used for delivering the packaged wastes. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and workforce, both now and in the future, will be of paramount importance. (author)

  10. The disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: the Billingham anhydrite mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    This document explains the role of NIREX (Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) in planning for the safe disposal of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes and outlines the plans for the investigation and possible development of a deep repository at ICI's disused anhydrite mine, Billingham. The site is conveniently located and the geology is well understood. The existing workings are known to have a long history of stability and of particular importance, very little water is present. The next step is for NIREX to undertake site investigations and assess in detail the site's suitability. On the basis of this assessment NIREX will either confirm its interest in the site or reject it as unsuitable. If the site proves to be adequate for the development of a deep repository then NIREX will seek the necessary planning approvals and authorisations for such a development. Converting the mine into a repository would involve construction of some new buildings at the surface although little or no new excavation work would be necessary. As far as possible existing road and rail networks would be used. In designing and operating any repository the safety of the public and the work-force will be of paramount importance. (author)

  11. Summary report of a seminar on geosphere modelling requirements of deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, D.; Paige, R.W.; Broyd, T.W.

    1989-02-01

    A seminar on the geosphere modelling requirements of deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes was organised by WS Atkins Engineering Sciences as part of Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's Radioactive Waste Assessment Programme. The objectives of the seminar were to review geosphere modelling capabilities and prioritise, if possible, any requirements for model development. Summaries of the presentations and subsequent discussions are given in this report. (author)

  12. The project for national disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, A.; Boyanov, S.; Christoskova, M.; Ivanov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The State Enterprise Radioactive Waste is the responsible organisation in Bulgaria for the radioactive waste management and, in particular, for the establishment of the national disposal facility (NDF) for low and intermediate level short-lived radioactive waste (LIL RAW SL). According to the national strategy for the safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste the NDF should be commissioned in 2015. NDF will accept two main waste streams - for disposal and for storage if the waste is not disposable. The major part of disposable waste is generated by Kozloduy NPP. The disposal facility will be a near surface module type engineered facility. Consecutive erection of new modules will be available in order to increase the capacity of the facility. The corrective measures are previewed to be applied if needed - upgrading of engineered barriers and/or retrieval of the waste. The active control after the facility is closed should be not more than 300 years. The safety of the facility is supposed to be based on the passive measures based on defense in deep consisting of physical barriers and administrative measures. A multi barrier approach will be applied. Presently the NDF project is at the first stage of the facility life cycle - the site selection. The siting process itself consists of four stages - elaboration of a concept for waste disposal and site selection planning, data collection and region analyses, characterization of the preferred sites-candidates and site confirmation. Up till now the work on the first two stages of the siting process had been done by the SE RAW. Geological site investigations have been carried out for more than two decades all over the territory of the country. The results of the investigations have been summarized and analysed thoroughly. More than 40 potential sites have been considered, after the preselection 12 sites have been selected as favourable and among them 5 are pointed out as acceptable. The ultimate decision for a site

  13. Deep geologic repository for low and intermediate radioactive level waste in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianqin; Li Honghui; Sun Qinghong; Yang Zhongtian

    2012-01-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG) is undergoing a project for the long-term management of low and intermediate level waste (LILW)-a deep geologic repository (DGR) project for low and intermediate level waste. The waste source term disposed, geologic setting, repository layout and operation, and safety assessment are discussed. It is expected to provide reference for disposal of low and intermediate level waste that contain the higher concentration of long-lived radionuclides in China. (authors)

  14. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level waste radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    The influence of organic materials, which are present in some intermediate level wastes, on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents formed as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  15. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm 3 ), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  16. Corrosion on reinforced concrete structures. An application for the intermediate level radioactive waste container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arva, Alejandro; Alvarez, Marta G.; Duffo, Gustavo S.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of steel reinforcement bars (rebars) for a high performance reinforced concrete made of sulfate resistant portland cement was evaluated from the rebars corrosion point of view. The results from the present work will be used to evaluate the materials properties to be used in the construction of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal containers. The study is carried out evaluating the incidence of chloride and sulfate ions, as well as, concrete carbonation in the rebar corrosion process. The electrochemical parameters that characterize the corrosion process (corrosion potential [E corr ], polarisation resistance [Rp] and concrete electrical resistivity [ρ]) were monitored on specially designed reinforced concrete specimens. The results up to date (about 1000 days of exposure) reveal that the concrete under study provides to the steel reinforcement bars of a passive state against corrosion under the test conditions. An increasing tendency as a function of time of ρ is observed that corroborates the continuous curing process of concrete. The chloride and carbonation diffusion coefficients were also determined, and their values are comparable with those of high quality concrete. (author)

  17. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Storage of radioactive waste must delay the return of radionuclides to the biosphere for a long period of time and must maintain the release rates at a sufficiently low level for all time. This is achieved with the aid of a series of safety barriers which consist, on the one hand, of technical barriers in the repository and, on the other hand , of natural geological barriers as they occur at the repository location. In order to assess the efficiency of the barriers, the working methods of the technical barriers and the host rock must be understood. This understanding is transferred into quantitative models in order to calculate the safety of the repository. The individual barriers and the methods used to modelling their functions were described in volume NGB 85-07 of the Project Guarantee 1985 report series and the data necessary for modelling were given. The models and data are used in the safety analysis, the results of which are contained in the present report. Safety considerations show that models are available in Switzerland which allow, in principle, an assessment of the long-term behaviour of a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. The evaluation of earlier studies and experimental work, suitable laboratory measurements and results from field research enable compilation of a representative data-set so that the requirements for quantitative statements on safety of final disposal are met from this side also. The safety calculations show that the radiation doses calculated for a base case scenario with realistic/conservative parameter values are negligibly low. Also, radiation doses which are clearly under the protection standard of 10 mrem per year result for conservative values and the cumulation of several conservative assumptions. Even assuming exposure of the repository by erosion, a radiotoxicity of the soil formed results which is under natural values

  18. A product designed for final disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baboescu, E.; Popescu, I. V.

    2001-01-01

    The product 'metallic barrel - concrete - low level radioactive wastes - 1' (ABBD - 1) was certified according to the company's standard SF ICN/1994, updated 1. The product ABBD -1 is produced according to the following certified technologies: - technology for processing and conditioning of low level radioactive solid wastes; - technology for processing and conditioning of waste ion exchangers from the TRIGA reactor; - technology for conditioning the β - γ radioactive compacts. The product is constituted of a protection shield, the concrete block - radioactive waste, securing high mechanical strength and a high degree of radionuclides retaining, thus ensuring the necessary condition for long time disposal and, finally, the metallic container fulfilling the National Standards of Nuclear Safety for Radioactive Materials Transportation. The metallic container is made of pickled slab, with a 220 l capacity, according to STAS 7683/88 standards. The main characteristics of the product 'ABBD - 1' are: - size: height, 915 ± 10 mm, diameter, 600 ± 5 mm; - mass, 300 - 600 kg; - maximum permissible activity, 6 x 10 9 Bq/ barrel (0.164 Ci/barrel); - equivalent dose rate for gamma radiation at barrel's wall, max. 1 mSv/h (200 mrem/h); - unfixed external contamination, 2 ; - compression strength of concrete block alone, > 5 x 10 6 N/m 2 ; - lixiviation rate, -3 cm/day; - the compact concrete block-radioactive waste is leak-proof and crack-free. The final product is transferred from INR Pitesti to National Repository for Radioactive Waste by railway and road transportation according to the provisions of the National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control as stipulated in the National Standards of Nuclear Safety of Radioactive Materials Transportation

  19. Current issues in the management of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Ontario Hydro's CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasznai, J.P.; Vaughan, B.R.; Williamson, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear generating stations (NGSs) in Canada are operated by utilities in Ontario, Quebec, and New Brunswick. Ontario Hydro, with a committed nuclear program of 13,600 MW(electric) is the major producer of CANDU pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. All radioactive wastes with the exception of irradiated fuel are processed and retrievably stored at a centralized facility at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Solid-waste classifications and annual production levels are given. Solid-waste management practices at the site as well as the physical, chemical, and radiochemical characteristics of the wastes are well documented. The paper summarizes types, current inventory, and estimated annual production rate of liquid waste. Operation of the tritium recovery facility at Darlington NGS, which removes tritium from heavy water and produces tritium gas in the process, gives rise to secondary streams of tritiated solid and liquid wastes, which will receive special treatment and packaging. In addition to the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes, there are a number of other important issues in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste management that Ontario Hydro will be addressing over the next few years. The most pressing of these is the reduction of radioactive wastes through in-station material control, employee awareness, and improved waste characterization and segregation programs. Since Ontario Hydro intends to store retrievable wastes for > 50 yr, it is necessary to determine the behavior of wastes under long-term storage conditions

  20. Studies on environmental geology of the northwest disposal site for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Wang Ju; Li Sen; Xiao Xiangping

    1998-01-01

    The Northwest Disposal Site is used for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes in China. There are no poor geological phenomena in the site. The site has favorable engineering geological conditions. There is no phreatic water in the Quaternary sediments. The depth of confined water level in the Tertiary sediments is relatively deep. The groundwater recharge, runoff and discharge conditions are ascertained. Actual flow rate, direction, dispersity and dispersion coefficients of groundwater are achieved by the dispersion tests. The coefficient of unsaturated permeability of the rocks and soils of the site are obtained by research of the aerated zone. Rocks and soils of the site have higher exchangeable Ca 2+ . They with effectually adsorb and retard the 63 Ni and 239 Pu. There are many favourable environmental geological conditions at the Northwest Disposal Site. The site will provide effective natural barriers for low and intermediate level radioactive solid wastes

  1. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    considered in this publication begins with the refining and conversion of uranium concentrates. Recommendations on the management of radioactive waste from the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores are provided. Some parts of the nuclear fuel cycle generate both high level waste and LLW. The management of high level waste itself generates LLW. The predisposal management of this LLW is included in the scope of this Safety Guide. Recommendations on the predisposal management of high level waste are provided. The recommendations in this Safety Guide primarily concern complex management activities for LLW. The regulatory body should decide which parts of this Safety Guide are relevant and appropriate for particular circumstances, and the extent to which the recommendations and guidance apply. This Safety Guide provides only introductory material on the transport and storage of LLW. Requirements and recommendations are provided in Refs. There may be non-radiological hazards associated with the predisposal management of LLW. Some guidance is given on the safety measures to be taken against non-radiological hazards if they have potential consequences for radiation safety. However, detailed recommendations are beyond the scope of this Safety Guide. The user should seek guidance from the regulatory body in the areas of health and safety and environmental protection

  2. Cement-based processes for the immobilization of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.J.; Lee, D.J.; Price, M.S.T.; Smith, D.L.G.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the use of cement-based materials for the immobilisation of intermediate level wastes. Various cementitious materials are surveyed and the use of blast furnace slag is shown to be advantageous. The properties of cemented wastes are surveyed both during processing and as solid products. The application of Winfrith Cementation Laboratory technology to plant and flowsheet development for Winfrith Reactor sludge immobilisation is described. (author)

  3. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  4. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2008-04-01

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  5. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  6. Radioactive Operations Committee Review of the Intermediate-Level Waste Evaporator Facility, Building 2531 February 17, 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, B.; Brooksbank, R.E.

    1972-01-01

    A subcommittee of the Radioactive Operations Committee met with the Operators of the Intermediate Level Waste Evaporator Facility on February 17, 1972, to discuss the status of the facility and its operations since the review of October 7, 1970, and reported in ORNL-CF-70-11-12. This review was made to determine the status of the ILWEF since the last review, to discuss compliance with previously recommended changes, and to review any new items of safety significance. Several recommendations were made.

  7. Elaboration of a questionnaire for establishment of the Brazilian inventory of low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A.A.; Silva, Fabio; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CNEN, has been working in the Project of Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes, (RBMN Project) and the Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) is responsible for the technical coordination of this project. Among activities under development, the survey of National radwaste inventory must be firstly concluded since it is a requirement for the project cost estimation. Hence, an electronic questionnaire was created to collect all information necessary to obtain the volume of the treated and non-treated waste, presently stored in Brazil. This questionnaire was elaborated after survey of the possible characteristics of radioactive waste generated in nuclear and radioactive facilities and it will be available online only for registered users. The information gathered with this questionnaire was related only with the amount of radioactive waste and some generic characteristics, the isotopic inventory will be performed in future. The objective of this work is to present this form and its creation process. (author)

  8. A survey of possible microbiological effects within shallow land disposal sites designed to accept intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrook, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    A literature survey was conducted to assess the current knowledge on microbial activity that may occur within a shallow intermediate-level waste disposal trench. Relatively little published information exists that is directly based on intermediate radioactive wasteforms, but relevant work was identified from other scientific fields. The likely environmental conditions within a disposal trench and their influence on microbial activity are considered. Also discussed are specific microbiological effects on waste packagings, backfill materials and concrete structures. Overall, it is unlikely that there will be extensive activity within the trenches and little evidence exists to suggest microbiologically-enhanced radionuclide migration,. The quantitative effect of microbial action is not possible to ascertain from the literature, but the general impression is that it will be low. Physical or chemical degradation processes are likely to predominate over those of a microbiological nature. Areas where further research would be valuable are also recommended. (author)

  9. Ancient tombs in China and shallow ground burial of solid low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen; Gu Cunli

    1987-01-01

    Having reviewed the experiences with ancient tombs in China, particularly the experiences with tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques, a comparison between the ancient tombs and the shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes is made. The authors believe that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects are a historical evidence for safety of shallow ground burial of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences with the ancient tombs may be useful to shallow ground burial of solid radioactive wastes

  10. Ancient tombs in China and shallow land disposal of low-intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Gu, C.

    1987-01-01

    The paper summerises the experiences of ancient tombs in China on tomb siting, configuration of tombs, backfilling materials, civil engineering techniques, sealing (or airlight) techniques, drainage system, antiseptic techniques and so on based upon site investigation. Comparison between ancient tombs in China and shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes has been made. The authors point out that the brilliant achievements of ancient tombs in China in keeping ancient corpses and funeral objects is a historical evidence for safety of shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes, and that the main experiences of ancient tombs can be used for reference to shallow land disposal of radioactive wastes

  11. Review of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of organic material likely to be present in intermediate level and low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, B.F.; Rosevear, A.; Williams, S.J.

    1990-11-01

    A review has been made of the microbiological, chemical and radiolytic degradation of the solid organic materials likely to be present in intermediate-level and low-level radioactive wastes. Possible interactions between the three routes for degradation are also discussed. Attention is focussed on the generation of water-soluble degradation products which may form complexes with radioelements. The effects of complexation on radioelement solubility and sorption are considered. Recommendations are made for areas of further research. (author)

  12. Treatment of low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    The report of a panel convened by the IAEA in Vienna, 2-6 May 1966. Thirteen experts from eight countries and one international organization attended the meeting. This report is related to treatment and radioactive sludges or residues resulting from treatment and purification of radioactive wastes. It includes: (i) concentration by evaporation; (ii) filtration; (iii) insolubilization by means of bitumen; (iv) use of cement or cement-vermiculite. 31 refs, 34 figs, 14 tabs

  13. Monitoring Programme of Radionuclide Migration Through Food Chains at Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository in Trgoska Gora Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Kucar Dragicevic, S.; Subasic, D.; Barisic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic objective of the paper is to prepare a comprehensive programme of monitoring at the preferred site for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository in the region of Trgovska Gora mountain. The programme is based on available information regarding hydrogeology, lithostratigraphy, tectonics, seismotectonics, geomorphology, meteorology, bioecology, demography and other site relevant disciplines. It is supposed to ensure (1) identification of the zero state at the broader region of the Trgovska gora mountain, and (2) to underline activities needed for monitoring of concentrations of expected radionuclides throughout possible pathways (particularly through food chains) that would migrate to the biosphere in the period after start of radioactive waste repository operation. Inventory of radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste to be disposed of at the site is naturally an important element of the programme structure. There should be identified those radionuclides which concentrations require to be monitored. Concentration measuring methods are proposed in the article. In addition, relevant aquatic and terrestrial organisms, serving as bioindicators, are identified. Types, quantities, frequency and methodology of sampling present an important part of the monitoring programme. Determination of monitoring sites for undertaking particular types of sampling (e.g. stream waters, stream sediment, detritus, ichtiofauna, groundwater, terrestrial organisms, honey, etc.), presenting an important aspect of a well-organised monitoring programme, is also included into this presentation. (author)

  14. Disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This Guidebook summarizes the factors to be considered and the activities to be undertaken in the overall planning and development of a disposal system for solid or solidified low- and intermediate-level wastes in rock cavities. Aspects related to repository site selection, design, construction, operation, shutdown, surveillance, regulation and safety assessment are discussed here in general terms. They will be covered in greater technical detail in a separate document. This report considers the emplacement of wastes in categories II, III, IV and V, as defined in Table 3.1, in different kinds of cavities located at various depths from just below the surface to deep continental rock. The choice of the type of cavity and its depth and of the disposal site itself is related to the radiological protection requirements for the wastes concerned. The repositories considered include natural caves and abandoned mines as well as specially excavated cavities in various geological formations. Consideration is also given to hydrogeological, environmental and societal factors. The guidelines given in the report are made sufficiently general to cover a broad variety of different circumstances. Consequently, the practical application of these guidelines needs a case-by-case consideration which takes into account the local conditions, e.g. natural circumstances, the characteristics of the wastes and national and international regulations and practices

  15. On the possibility and conditions of intermediate-level radioactive waste vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'tyukov, V.A.; Brovkova, E.V.; Zakharenko, V.N.; Konstantinovich, A.A.; Krylova, l.V.; Kulichenko, V.V.; Musatov, N.D.; Sobolev, I.A.; Khomchik, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of laboratory studies on the possibility and conditions of vitrification of intermedium-level radioactive wastes are presented. The investigations are carried out as applied to a facility with the use of a direct electric heating furnace. Various available minerals are used as fluxing agents. The main part of experiments is conducted using datolite concentrate and fluorite. The studies are made with liquid wastes, containing from 260 to 370 kg/m 3 NaNO 3 , 2-8 kg/m 3 KNO 3 , different concentrations of iron compounds (up to 20 kg/m 3 ), magnesium (up to 35 kg/m 3 ), calcium (from 15 to 60 kg/m 3 ), chlorides (up to 15 kg/m 3 ), sulfates (up to 10 kg/m 3 ), and fluorides (up to 10 kq/m 3 ). Data, characterizing the entrainment of certain components of wastes and flux in the process of vitrification, and the main parameters of the procedure, as well as the effect of waste humidity on conditions of their reprocessing are obtained. A conclusion is drawn that the volume of vitrified wastes obtained as a result of vitrification of 1 m 3 of liquid wastes is 0.2 to 0.3 m 3 . It is 3.7 times less, than the volume with waste inclusions into bitumen and polymers and almost 10 times as less as the volume of a cement block obtained from the same wastes. The leaching out rate of the least strongly fixed radionuclide, 137 Cs, makes up (2-3)x10 -6 g/(cm 2 xday), which is by two orders lower than the rate of leaching from a bitumenous block and by fours orders lower than the rate of leaching from cement

  16. Application of Polymers for the Long-Term Storage and Disposal of Low- and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Hugues W.; Walker, Michael W.; Bui, Van Tam

    2004-01-01

    Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive-waste disposal containers. A research program was launched to investigate the possibilities of using advanced polymers and polymer-based composites for high-level radioactive waste management on one hand and for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal on the other hand. Research was thus conducted in parallel on both fronts, and the findings for the later phase are presented. Thermoplastic polymers were studied for this application because they are superior materials, having the advantage over metals of not corroding and of displaying high resistance to chemical aggression. The experimental methods used in this research focused on determining the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials considered: polypropylene, nylon 66, polycarbonate, and polyurethane, with and without glass fiber reinforcement. The method involved submitting injection-molded tensile test bars to the mixed radiation field generated by the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor at the Royal Military College of Canada to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. The physical, mechanical, and chemical effects of the various radiation doses on the materials were measured from density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests.For each polymer, the test results evidenced predominant cross-linking of the polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of cross-linking. The mechanical changes observed included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included

  17. Current development programs for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1979-08-01

    Canadian development work related to the disposal of non-fuel radioactive wastes arising at nuclear generating stations is reviewed. Current programs relate primarily to the conditioning of the wastes into a form suitable for disposal and the definition of criteria for the design and siting of the repository. (LL)

  18. Polymeric radioactive waste disposal containers: an investigation into the application of polymers vice metals to house low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.W.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2001-01-01

    The research carried out in Canada in the design of containers for the disposal of radioactive waste has focussed on spent nuclear fuel, even though the quantities of other currently stored radioactive wastes are substantially greater. Research carried out at the Royal Military College of Canada on the effects of mixed fields of radiation on high polymer adhesives and composite materials has shown that some polymers are quite resistant to radiation and could well serve in the fabrication of radioactive waste disposal containers. The purpose of this research was to determine if thermoplastic polymers could be used as superior materials to replace metals in the application of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal containers. Polymers have the advantage that they do not corrode like metals. The experimental methods, used in this research, focused on the effects of radiation on the properties of the materials. Polypropylene, Nylon 66, Polycarbonate, and Polyurethane, with and without glass fibre reinforcement, were studied. The method involved irradiating injection moulded tensile test bars with the SLOWPOKE-2 reactor to accumulate doses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 MGy. To determine the effects of the various doses on the materials, density, tensile, differential scanning calorimetry, and scanning electron microscopy tests were run. For each polymer, the test methods supported predominant crosslinking of polymeric chains severed by radiation. This was evident from observed changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of the polymers, typical of crosslinking. The mechanical changes included an overall increase in density, an increase in Young's modulus, a decrease in strain at break, and only minor changes in strength. The chemical changes included differences in chemical transition temperatures characteristic of radiation damage. The test methods also evidenced minor radiation degradation at the fibre/matrix interfaces in the glass fibre reinforced

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  2. Prediction and assessment of environmental impacts of Guangdong low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yawen

    1996-01-01

    Guangdong Low-and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site is located 5-7 km northeast to the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. It is in a hilly area with strongly weathered light metamorphic quartz siltstone. The groundwater is 2 m below the repository bottom. The disposal unit is a U-shape concrete structure with drainage and water collecting system at the bottom. The designed cover is a multi-layer structure with functions of preventing from water infiltration, animal and plant intrusion. It is assumed that the engineered barriers would be effective to avoid waste immersion by surface water and groundwater within the first 100 years after closure. After 100 years, the engineered barriers would fail gradually. Radionuclides may release from the disposal unite. Some will enter the nearby stream, some will flow into the Daya Bay, and some will transport to groundwater through geologic media

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  6. A preliminary assessment of polymer-modified cements for use in immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnay, S.G.; Dyson, J.R.

    1982-11-01

    A range of polymer-modified cements has been examined as candidate materials for the immobilisation of intermediate level radioactive waste. The waste streams studied were inactive simulates of real wastes and included ion-exchange resins, Magnox debris and dilute sludges. Preliminary experiments on the compatibility of the polymer-cement-waste combinations have been carried out and measurements of flexural strength before and after #betta#-irradiation to 10 9 rad and water immersion have been made. Soxhlet leach tests have been used to compare the leach rates of the different materials. From the results of these preliminary experiments, a limited number of polymer-modified cements have been suggested as suitable for more detailed study. (author)

  7. Technical economical study for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, G. Chales; Peralta Vital, J.L.; Castillo, R. Gil; Franklin Saburido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1997-01-01

    The wastes characteristics, the design of the repository, package of the radioactive wastes, as well as, the studies for sitting, conditioning and performance assessment in a preliminary stage are presented considering the perspectives to conclude and operate the Juragua Nuclear Power Station and development of nuclear application in Cuba. The practice and international experience, as well as, the recommendation from the IAEA[1-4] to perform these studies have been analysed

  8. Applying multi-criteria analysis to radiation protection optimisation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pages, P.; Schneider, T.; Lombard, J.

    1991-01-01

    Introduction of ALARA principles in the field of radioactive waste management implies a definition of the main characteristics of the decisional framework. Specific aspects should be taken into account: long term effects, large uncertainties and/or probabilistic events, with particular attention to the public and the political authorities. Traditional cost-benefit analysis is not qualified to deal with these different dimensions of the risk. The aim of this paper is to describe the principles of multi-criteria analysis applied to low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal. Three categories of barriers can be distinguished acting at different protection levels: site characteristics, waste package and disposal system. A set of possible solutions can be identified, but the selection of the 'optimum' is not easy because of the diversity of the factors to be allowed for. For example, the following problem needs to be addressed: is it preferable to limit public radiation exposure several hundred years ahead or to reduce occupational exposure during the monitoring period of the disposal facility? An optimisation study is currently being performed on the various components of the structure, assuming given site and waste package characteristics. Four steps are distinguished: identification and analysis of options for the structure; selection and estimation of the qualitative and quantitative criteria; determination of the 'most interesting' solutions using multi-criteria analysis; sensitivity analysis and discussion on uncertainties related to the various assumptions. Based on the preliminary findings, the paper focuses on practical solutions to address the methodological issues raised in applying the optimisation procedures to radioactive waste management. (au)

  9. Separation of cesium from intermediate level liquid radioactive waste by solvent extraction with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulis, G.

    1989-01-01

    Antioxidants AO 2246, AO 4, AO 4K, AO 301 (Czechoslovakia) and NOCRAC 2246 (Japan) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of cesiium by solvent extraction with substituted phenols. The following effects on extraction were studied: pH of water phase, influence of diluent and of antioxidant concentration, extraction time, influence of salt content. The extraction of cesium from liquid radioactive waste was tested. The best results were obtained by NOCRAC 2246 in nitrobenzene, the extraction efficiency was 92.3% with pH 13.23. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Pilot facilities for continuous countercurrent precipitation of radioactive low and intermediate level waste from NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, T.

    1990-11-01

    Continuous operating laboratory scale unit for coprecipitation of radionuclides in liquid radioactive waste was developed for decontamination of waste not batch-wise, but as a continuous countercurrent process. Coprecipitation of 85 Sr with BaCO 3 and BaSO 4 was studied as a continuous operating process. It was shown that the efficiency of this method depends upon the selection of chemical reagents, operation conditions (concentration, flow rate, temperature, etc.) and can be improved by using several units (multistage process). The operating unit developed could be suitable for connection in series providing coprecipitation of high efficiency and by ''mutatis mutandis'' for application for other systems. Refs and figs

  11. Risk management in the project of implantation of the repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borssatto, Maria de Fatima B.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Uemura, George

    2011-01-01

    Project RBMN is part of the Brazilian solution for the storage of radioactive waste generated by the activities of nuclear energy in Brazil. The aim of RBMN is to implement the National Repository to dispose the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Risk is a characteristic of all projects, and it is originated from uncertainties, assumptions and the environment of execution of the project. Risk management is the way to monitor systematically these uncertainties and a guaranty that the goals of the project will be attained. A specific methodology for the risk management of the Project RBMN is under development, which integrates models and processes for identification and analysis of risks, reactions, monitoring, control and planning of risk management. This methodology is fundamental and will be of primordial importance for future generations who will be responsible for the operation at final stages, closure and institutional control during the post-closure of the repository. It will provide greater safety to executed processes and safeguarding risks and specific solutions for this enterprise, guaranteeing the safety of the repository in its life cycle, which has a foreseen duration of at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary analysis of the opportunities, threats, strong points and weak points identified up to now, that will provide support to implement risk management procedures. The methodology will be based on the PMBOK R - Project Management Board of Knowledge - and will take into consideration the best practices for project management.(author)

  12. Risk management in the project of implantation of the repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borssatto, Maria de Fatima B.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Uemura, George, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br, E-mail: george@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG) Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Project RBMN is part of the Brazilian solution for the storage of radioactive waste generated by the activities of nuclear energy in Brazil. The aim of RBMN is to implement the National Repository to dispose the low and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Risk is a characteristic of all projects, and it is originated from uncertainties, assumptions and the environment of execution of the project. Risk management is the way to monitor systematically these uncertainties and a guaranty that the goals of the project will be attained. A specific methodology for the risk management of the Project RBMN is under development, which integrates models and processes for identification and analysis of risks, reactions, monitoring, control and planning of risk management. This methodology is fundamental and will be of primordial importance for future generations who will be responsible for the operation at final stages, closure and institutional control during the post-closure of the repository. It will provide greater safety to executed processes and safeguarding risks and specific solutions for this enterprise, guaranteeing the safety of the repository in its life cycle, which has a foreseen duration of at least three hundred years. The aim of this paper is to present the preliminary analysis of the opportunities, threats, strong points and weak points identified up to now, that will provide support to implement risk management procedures. The methodology will be based on the PMBOK{sup R} - Project Management Board of Knowledge - and will take into consideration the best practices for project management.(author)

  13. Immobilization of low and intermediate level of organic radioactive wastes in cement matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Abdel Aziz, S.M.; El-Didamony, H.; Sayed, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Solidification/stabilization of liquid scintillation waste. → Resistance to frost attack. → Retarding effect of scintillator waste was overcome by adding clay. → Evaluation of the suitability of cement-clay composite to solidify and stabilize scintillation waste. - Abstract: The adequacy of cement-clay composite, for solidification/stabilization of organic radioactive spent liquid scintillator wastes and its resistance to frost attack were determined by a freezing/thawing (F/T) test. Frost resistance is assessed for the candidate cement-clay composite after 75 cycles of freezing and thawing by evaluating their mass durability index, compressive strength, apparent porosity, volume of open pores, water absorption, and bulk density. Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed for the final waste form (FWF) before and after the F/T treatment to follow the changes that may take place in its microstructure during the hydration regime. The results were obtained indicate that the candidate composite exhibits acceptable resistance to freeze/thaw treatment and has adequate suitability to solidify and stabilize organic radioactive spent liquid scintillator wastes even at very exaggerating conditions (-50 ° C and +60 ° C ).

  14. Geomorphologic characteristic of low-intermediate level radioactive waste disposal land candidate at Lemahabang area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucipta

    1998-01-01

    Geomorphological aspect is a factor should be considered on land evaluation for radioactive wastes disposal purpose. The aspect is important because geomorphological factors contribute on hydrological and erosion condition of the land. The objective of the study is to characterize the geomorphological condition of the land, i.e. land form, geomorphological processes, rock type, soil, surface water, ground water, vegetation and land use. The study was conducted by descriptive analyses from literature study and field geomorphological method, with evaluation as well as developed for terrain analyses. The study area can be divided industry for land from units, I.e. tuff undulating unit (land use: plantation), coastal deposits plain unit, silty sand fluvial plain unit (land use: wet rice field) and unconsolidated sand beach deposits plain unit (opened land without vegetation). Hydrologically, the study area can be divided indus tri three small river stream area (RSA). Detailed description of geomorfological condition is showed by table and geomorphological map. (author)

  15. Safety Assessment Context for Croatian Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Safety assessments in a small country are usually performed to support the national waste management strategy, demonstrating compliance with national regulation for a particular facility. However, this assessment should - quite generally - provide reasonable assurance both to the public and to decision makers than the Croatian share of LILW from NPP Krsko can be safely disposed in Croatia. More specifically, assessment should clearly present all realistic options and compare the associated long term repository performances, demonstrating that desirable safety goals can be archived by an appropriate choice of (a) location, (b) facility design, (c) institutional control period and (d) waste acceptance criteria. As relevant national legislation is presently under review, generally recognized international safety standards, criteria and recommendations (e.g. as presented in the recent IAEA publications) should provide guidance for the assessment evaluation, since it is expected that they will be incorporated in the new national regulations. Finally, since Croatian radioactive waste management strategy is yet to be developed, such an assessment may contribute to its formulation and facilitate some specific decisions. (author)

  16. Safety evaluation methodology of engineering barriers at repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnic, R.; Bokan Bosiljkov, V.; Giacomelli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of the roles of cement-based barriers in radioactive waste isolation show that models used to estimate their characteristics during the lifetime of the repository must consider the alteration of material properties with time due to degradation processes. Reinforced concrete barriers at repositories shall be designed in such manner that they fulfil besides isolative capabilities also the required functions of mechanical resistance and stability. Key elements of safety evaluation are mainly the correct selection of materials for mineral composites with cement binder (cements, aggregates, mineral additives and chemical admixtures) and their design, execution of construction works and production of precast concrete containers (continuous casting of concrete - no cold joints, limited number of construction joints, proper placing and consolidation, finishing and curing), strict control of used materials and inspection of works, as well as investigation after the construction (visual inspection, non-destructive testing, monitoring, ageing assessment on test containers). According to the methodology presented in this paper the lifetime of the repository can be estimated and, if shorter than 300 years or shorter than the period resulting from safety analysis, appropriate corrective measures shall be taken. (author)

  17. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  18. Long{sub t}erm performance of structural component of intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whang, J. H.; Kim, S. S.; Chun, T. H.; Lee, J. M.; Yum, M. O.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, M. S. [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    Underground repository for intermediate- and low-level radioactive waste is to be sealed and closed after operation. Structural components, which are generally made of cement concrete, are designed and accommodated in the repository for the purpose of operational convenience and stability after closure. To forecast the change of long-term integrity of the structural components, experimental verification, using in-situ or near in-situ conditions, is necessary. Domestic and foreign requirements with regard to the selection criteria and the performance criteria for structural components in disposal facility were surveyed. Characteristics of various types of cement were studied. Materials and construction methods of structural components similar to those of disposal facility was investigated and test items and methods for integrity of cement concrete were included. Literature survey for domestic groundwater characteristics was performed together with Ca-type bentonite ore which is a potential backfill material. Causes or factors affecting the durability of the cement structures were summarized. Experiments to figure out the ions leaching out from and migrating into cement soaked in distilled water and synthetic groundwater, respectively, were carried out. And finally, diffusion of chloride ion through cement was experimentally measured.

  19. Generation, transport and conduct of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Generacion, transporte y gestion de desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Jimenez, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The technological development of the last decades produced an increment in the application of the radiations in different human activities. The effect of it has been it the production of radioactive wastes of all the levels. In Mexico, some of the stages of the administration of the waste of low and intermediate level have not been completely resolved, as the case of the treatment and the final storage. In this work aspects of the generation, the transport and the administration of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level produced in the non energy applications from the radioactive materials to national level, indicating the generated average quantities, transported and tried annually by the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ). The main generators of wastes in Mexico, classified according to the activity in which the radioactive materials are used its are listed. Some of the main processes of treatment of radioactive wastes broadly applied in the world and those that are used at the moment in our country are also presented. (Author)

  20. Closure of the Richard underground repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste - application of the hydraulic cage concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, B.; Biurrun, E.

    2006-01-01

    The Richard Repository, in the North of the Czech Republic, is a near surface underground repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste of institutional origin. Disposal has been carried out here since the mid nineteen-sixties, leading to a current inventory of about 1E+15 Bq. In 2003, the Czech Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA) launched a Phare project aimed at reducing burden from past practices during the first phase of the Richard repository operation and at improving its overall long term safety. The contract for this project was awarded to DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH. When reviewing the preliminary closure concept and the related safety assessment prepared by RAWRA, it became clear that the existing concept had deficits in regard to potential radiological exposure after closure of the repository. To remediate such hazards, DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH developed a new concept for the closure of individual waste chambers. The main technological element of this concept is the installation of an additional engineered barrier called hydraulic cage around the waste chambers. This cage prevents the development of advective flow through the waste/concrete body within the backfilled chambers and thereby advective transport of radionuclides. An important advantage of the new closure concept is that fact that the safety against potential radiological impact originating from waste inside a closed chamber is achieved directly and does not rely on any additional measures connected with the future closure of the repository as a whole. After consulting the competent Czech authorities RAWRA decided to follow the hydraulic cage concept for the planned realization of the closure of a certain chamber system within the mine. During further execution of the project a detailed plan for this closure work was elaborated to a degree of detail, which allowed its direct technical realization, which started at the beginning of 2006. By October 2006, the first segment of the

  1. Estimation of expenses for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project in Croatia up to site license acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.

    2003-01-01

    The expenses needed for development of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository project in Croatia include: (a) preliminary activities, (b) preparatory activities, and (c) preparing of environmental impact study. The first group of expenses are referring to the project leading activities, project plan updating, build-up of required infrastructure, preparing of licensing documentation, site investigations, data acquisition programme, pre-operational radio-ecological monitoring, modelling, safety analysis (first iteration) and public related activities. Preparatory activities are referring to purchasing of land for repository and preparatory activities for carrying out of on-site investigations, while third group of expenses are related to preparation and validation of Environmental impact study. It was found out that about 50 % of total expenses refer to build-up of infrastructure. Additional 25 % finances are related to radio-ecological monitoring, site investigations and development of calculations and models, while remaining 25 % of total estimated sum is expected to be spent for repository safety assessment, public relations, purchasing and preparing the on-site terrain for construction, etc. It was calculated 607 EUR per m3 of LILW to be needed up to site license acquisition. According to the world-wide practice, by extrapolating of additional expenses necessary for construction of the repository and acquisition of operational license, it comes out the cost of 1.723 EUR per m3 of LILW for shallow-ground and 2.412 EUR per m3 of LILW for tunnel repository. The estimated expenses for Croatia are within the span of expenses for the same purpose in the countries considered. Expected duration of the project performance up to acquisition of the site license is 4 years and 3 months. (author)

  2. Preliminary study on site-selection for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes on the northwest of Lop Nur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Gexin; Chen Jianjie

    2008-01-01

    To clean up some radioactively polluted area, site-selection research was conducted for disposal of L/ILW on the northwest of Lop Nur. The research is involved mainly with regional ecological environment, human and cultural environment, natural resources, geological evolution, structural geology, petrography, hydrogeology and the stability of regional crust. It is found preliminarily that in the region the social and natural conditions are advantageous for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, without permanent local residents, far form residential area, with little vegetation, great evaporation and very low precipitation, stable geological environment, deep slow groundwater far from discharge region while the groundwater properties unfavorable for radionuclides to migrate. (authors)

  3. Corrosion behaviour of steel rebars embedded in a concrete designed for the construction of an intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz F.M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The National Atomic Energy Commission of the Argentine Republic is developing a nuclear waste disposal management programme that contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers. The major components are made in reinforced concrete so, the durability of these structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents an investigation performed on an instrumented reinforced concrete prototype specifically designed for this purpose, to study the behaviour of an intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility from the rebar corrosion point of view. The information obtained will be used for the final design of the facility in order to guarantee a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of facilities.

  4. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  5. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  6. The evolution of clay rock/cement interfaces in a cementitious repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Georg; Berner, Urs

    In Switzerland, deep geological storage in clay rich host rocks is the preferred option for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. For these waste types cementitious materials are used for tunnel support and backfill, waste containers and waste matrixes. The different geochemical characteristics of clay and cementitious materials may induce mineralogical and pore water changes which might affect the barrier functionality of host rocks and concretes. We present numerical reactive transport calculations that systematically compare the geochemical evolution at cement/clay interfaces for the proposed host rocks in Switzerland for different transport scenarios. We developed a consistent set of thermodynamic data, simultaneously valid for cementitious (concrete) and clay materials. With our setup we successfully reproduced mineralogies, water contents and pore water compositions of the proposed host rocks and of a reference concrete. Our calculations show that the effects of geochemical gradients between concrete and clay materials are very similar for all investigated host rocks. The mineralogical changes at material interfaces are restricted to narrow zones for all host rocks. The extent of strong pH increase in the host rocks is limited, although a slight increase of pH over greater distances seems possible in advective transport scenarios. Our diffusive and partially also the advective calculations show massive porosity changes due to precipitation/dissolution of mineral phases near the interface, in line with many other reported transport calculations on cement/clay interactions. For all investigated transport scenarios the degradation of concrete materials in emplacement caverns due to diffusive and advective transport of clay pore water into the caverns is limited to narrow zones. A specific effort has been made to improve the geochemical setup and the extensive use of solid solution phases demonstrated the successful application of a thermodynamically

  7. Study on safety assessment methodology for shallow land disposal of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Wang Zhiming; Guo Zede; Li Zhentang; Zhao Yingjie; Li Shengfang; Hideo Kamiyama; Tadatoshi Yamamoto; Shinichi Takebe; Hiromichi Ogawa; Tadao Tanaka; Masayuki Mukai

    2000-01-01

    China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) conducted a five-year (from Jan. 1988 to Jan. 1993) project entitled 'Study on Safety Assessment Methodology for Shallow Land Disposal of Low-and-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste' in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The project was aimed to develop a set of techniques and methods, including parameters, models and computer codes, for safety assessment of shallow land disposal of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste. The author describes the pattern of nuclide migration in loess aerated zone, study on moisture movement, determination of related parameters and the results. Site characteristics and development of relevant models and codes are also described. In order to carry out the field tracing test and the laboratory simulation test of radionuclide migration, a field test site (CIRP's Field Test Site), a test hall equipped with sprinkler, and an environmental simulation laboratory were established. A direct measurement device used for field radionuclide migration test, laboratory simulation setup for radionuclide migration and an intact soil sampler were developed. The loess aerated zone radionuclide migration test started in May 1989 and finished in August 1991. Tests were carried out under two rainfall conditions, natural rainfall (438 mm/a) and artificial sprinkling (with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d, corresponding to annual rainfall of 5480 mm). The laboratory simulation ran about one year with daily sprinkling density of 0.796 mm for soil column 4 and 0.656 mm for soil column 2. The tracer nuclides are 60 Co, 85 Sr and 134 Cs and (or 137 Cs). Field moisture movement study and a test using 3 H as tracer for moisture movement were performed simultaneously. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Under the artificial sprinkling condition, peak of 85 Sr moved about 13 cm in the loess aerated zone during about two years, while under the natural condition, it

  8. Development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate-Level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S. L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper describes the efforts made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. The past and current practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  9. Use of the mixture of clay and crushed rock as a backfill material for low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository. Appendix 10: Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, W.J.; Lee, J.O.; Hahn, P.S.; Chun, K.S.

    2001-01-01

    At the time of the CRP, a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes arising from nuclear power plant operation and radioisotope application in the Republic of Korea was to be constructed in the bedrock below ground surface. As the intermediate level waste cavern would contain the major part of radionuclide inventory in the cavern, the radionuclide release from the intermediate level waste cavern was therefore important from the viewpoint of disposal facility performance. The then current design concept suggested that the intermediate level waste would be emplaced into the compartment made of reinforced concrete, and the space between the concrete wall and cavern surface would be backfilled with a clay-based material. As compacted clay-based materials have a low hydraulic conductivity and the hydraulic gradient in a disposal cavern was expected to be relatively low, molecular diffusion was considered to be the principal mechanism by which radionuclides would migrate through the backfill. The mixture of calcium bentonite and crushed rock was being suggested as a candidate backfill material. This appendix summarises the KAERI research activities on the evaluation of hydraulic conductivity, radionuclide diffusion coefficient, and mechanical properties of the candidate clay-based backfill material for the intermediate level waste cavern

  10. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cotthem, Alain [TRACTEBEL ENGINEERING SA (Belgium); Van Humbeeck, Hughes [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Biurrun, Enrique [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  11. Projection to 2035 for the radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level in Mexico; Proyeccion al 2035 de los desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes G, L.C. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carr. Mexico-Toluca, 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Sanchez U, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde, Veracruz (Mexico)]. e-mail: lpg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    It is necessary to establish in few years a definitive warehouse for the radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, generated in the country and to satisfy the necessities of their confinement in the next ones 50 to 80 years. Therefore, it is required to be considered those volumes produced annually, those stored at the present and those estimated to medium and long term. The results of the simulation of 4 cases are presented, considering the operation from the 2 nuclear power reactors to 40 and 60 years, the use of the technology of current treatment and the use of super compaction of solids, as well as the importance in the taking of decision of the methodology for the dismantlement of each reactor to the finish of their useful life. At the moment the Nuclear Power Plant of Laguna Verde, produces an average of 250 m{sup 3}/year of radioactive waste of low and intermediate level, constituted by solid dry wastes, humid solids and liquids. In the last 3 years, the power plant has reached an effectiveness of re utilization of effluents of 95%. On the other hand, in Mexico the non energetic applications of the radioisotopes, produce annually of the order of 20 m{sup 3}/year of solid wastes, 280 m{sup 3}/year of liquid wastes and 300 worn out radioactive sources. (Author)

  12. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: a case study in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north-south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  13. Assessment of site conditions for disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: A case study in southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Shuping; Ma, Haiyi; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zhu, Xiaobin; Wang, Hua'an; Li, Xueshan; Hu, Xueling; Qin, Jianbo

    2012-01-01

    Near surface disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LILW) requires evaluating the field conditions of the candidate site. However, assessment of the site conditions may be challenging due to the limited prior knowledge of some remote sites, and various multi-disciplinary data requirements at any given site. These situations arise in China as in the rest of the industrialized world, particularly since a regional strategy for LILW disposal has been implemented to protect humans and the environment. This paper presents a demonstration of the site assessment process through a case study focusing mainly on the geologic, hydrogeologic and geochemical characteristics of the candidate site. A joint on-site and laboratory investigation, supplemented by numerical modeling, was implemented in this assessment. Results indicate that no fault is present in the site area, although there are some minor joints and fractures, primarily showing a north–south trend. Most of the joints are filled with quartz deposits and would thus function hydraulically as impervious barriers. Investigation of local hydrologic boundaries has shown that the candidate site represents an essentially isolated hydrogeologic unit, and that little or no groundwater flow occurs across its boundaries on the north or east, or across the hilly areas to the south. Groundwater in the site area is recharged by precipitation and discharges primarily by evapo-transpiration and surface flow through a narrow outlet to the west. Groundwater flows slowly from the hilly area to the foot of the hills and discharges mainly into the inner brooks and marshes. Some groundwater circulates in deeper granite in a slower manner. The vadose zone in the site was investigated specially for their significant capability for restraining the transport of radionuclides. Results indicate that the vadose zone is up to 38 m in thickness and is made up of alluvial clay soils and very highly weathered granite. The vadose

  14. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taesinge and Fyn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  15. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  16. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 6. Characterization and description of areas. Sjaelland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 5 and 6 on Zealand. (LN)

  17. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 10. Characterization and description of areas. Nordjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the area 22 in Northern Jutland. (LN)

  18. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. OEstjylland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  19. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 8. Characterization and description of areas. Oestjylland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 12,13,14 and 15 in Eastern Jutland. (LN)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 11. Description of areas. Danish and English summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by choosing deposits with low water flow and high sorption potential of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs, salt pillows and salt deposits and deep basement rocks are not included in the present study. These rocks and deposits are situated too deep for the present study and salt deposits seem to be unstable for a disposal (e.g. German salt mines). The regional geologic survey based on existing data was concluded by selecting 22 areas in Denmark. There remains now to reduce the number of potential areas to 1-3 where detailed field studies will be performed in order to select the final location. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 5. Characterization and description of areas. Falster and Lolland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 3 and 4 on Falster and Lolland. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 4. Characterization and description of areas. Bornholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low - and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities and high sorption potentials of the sediments or rocks. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier been focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks, but the Tertiary clays were also mapped. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 2-3 more precise locations, where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological-hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. The present report describes areas 1 and 2 on Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 7. Characterization and description of areas. Langeland, Taasinge and Fyn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, high sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas where a waste disposal potentially can be located. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 7,8,9,10, and 11 on the islands Langeland, Taasinge and Funen. (LN)

  6. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 9. Characterization and description of areas. Limfjorden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe: the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The task is to locate and recognize sediments or rocks with low permeability which can isolate the radioactive waste from the surrounding deposits, the groundwater resources, the recipients and from human activities. The sediments or rocks shall also act as a protection if the waste disposal leaks radioactive material to the surroundings. This goal can be reached by low water flow possibilities, strong sorption capacity for many radionuclides and self-sealing properties. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. The salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included in the present study. The task is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. The 20 areas have to be reduced to 1-3 most potential locations where detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical and geotechnical conditions will be performed. The present report describes the areas 16,17,18,19,20 and 21 around Limfjorden. (LN)

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 3. Geological setting and tectonic framework in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Gravesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The task for the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) is to find approximately 20 areas potentially useful for a waste disposal. These 20 areas are afterwards reduced to 2-3 most optimal locations. At these 2-3 locations, detailed field investigations of the geological, hydrogeological - hydrochemical and technical conditions will be performed. This report provides an introduction to the geological setting of Denmark with the focus on providing an overview of the distribution of various tectonic and structural features. These are considered important in the context of choosing suitable areas for the location of a disposal for radioactive waste. The geological structures, deep and shallow are important for the selection of potential disposals basically because the structures describes the geometry of the areas. Additionally, the structures provides the information about the risk of unwanted movements of the geological layers around the disposal that have to be investigated and evaluated as a part of the selection process. (LN)

  9. Concept and Idea-Project for Yugoslav Low and Intermediate level Radioactive Waste Materials Final Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peric, A.

    1997-01-01

    Encapsulation of rad waste in a mortar matrix and displacement of such solidified waste forms into the shallow land burial system, engineered trench system type is suggested concept for the final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste. The mortar-rad waste mixtures are cured in containers of either concrete or metal for an appropriate period of time, after which solidified rad waste-mortar monoliths are then placed in the engineered trench system, parallelepiped honeycomb structure. Trench consists of vertical barrier-walls, bottom barrier-floors, surface barrier-caps and permeable-reactive walls. Surroundings of the trench consists of buffer barrier materials, mainly clay. Each segment of the trench is equipped with the independent drainage system, as a part of the main drainage. Encapsulation of each filled trench honeycomb segment is performed with concrete cap. Completed trench is covered with impermeable plastic foil and soil leaner, preferably clay. Paper presents an overview of the final disposal facility engineered trench system type. Advantages in comparison with other types of final disposal system are given. (author)

  10. Preliminary assesment of performance of the conceptual design the repository of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil Castillo, Reynaldo; Peralta Vital, Jose Luis; Benitez, Gustavo; Chales Suarez, Gustavo; Castillo, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The work presents the preliminary results of the assessment of the behaviour and safety for a repository of radioactive wastes in Cuba. The methodology to follow is shown; a code is chosen which models the migration of radionuclides toward the environment according to the adopted scenario, taking into account the results, the radiological impact of the installation is evaluated

  11. Co-operation between Slovenia and Croatia in the low- and intermediate level radioactive waste repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, A.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.; Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.; Tomse, P.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the LILW repository project development in Slovenia and Croatia from the viewpoint of co-operation of national agencies for radioactive waste management - ARAO in Slovenia and APO in Croatia. The project performance, as well as the co-operation itself, are based on the fact that NPP Krsko, sited in Slovenia, is the joint venture facility of both countries, which are consequently obliged to find a proper solution for final disposal of operational and decommissioning radioactive waste generated by the plant. The main aspects of the project development in both countries, such as LILW repository site selection and characterisation, development of repository conceptual design, performance assessment/safety analysis procedures and public participation, are presented in the paper. Based on separate descriptions of the project development in Slovenia and Croatia respectively, the main aspects of co-operation between ARAO and APO are elaborated.(author)

  12. Oxidative degradation of low and intermediate level Radioactive organic wastes 2. Acid decomposition on spent Ion-Exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The present work provides a simplified, effective and economic method for the chemical decomposition of radioactively contaminated solid organic waste, especially spent ion - exchange resins. The goal is to achieve volume reduction and to avoid technical problems encountered in processes used for similar purposes (incineration, pyrolysis). Factors efficiency and kinetics of the oxidation of the ion exchange resins in acid medium using hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, namely, duration of treatment and the acid to resin ratio were studied systematically on a laboratory scale. Moreover the percent composition of the off-gas evolved during the decomposition process was analysed. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Cement mortar-degraded spinney waste composite as a matrix for immobilizing some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Consistency under frost attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Spinney fiber is one of the wastes generated from spinning of cotton raw materials. ► Cement mortar composite was hydrated by using the degraded slurry of spinney wastes. ► Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar-degraded spinney waste composite specimens. ► SEM image, FT-IR and XRD patterns were performed for samples subjected to frost attack. - Abstract: The increasing amounts of spinning waste fibers generated from cotton fabrication are problematic subject. Simultaneous shortage in the landfill disposal space is also the most problem associated with dumping of these wastes. Cement mortar composite was developed by hydrating mortar components using the waste slurry obtained from wet oxidative degradation of these spinney wastes. The consistency of obtained composite was determined under freeze–thaw events. Frost resistance was assessed for the mortar composite specimens by evaluating its compressive strength, apparent porosity and mass loss at the end of each period of freeze–thaw up to 45 cycles. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses were performed for samples subjected to frost attack aiming at evaluating the cement mortar in the presence of degraded spinney waste. The cement mortar composite exhibits acceptable resistance and durability against the freeze–thaw treatment that could be chosen in radioactive waste management as immobilizing agent for some low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  14. Development of an efficient and economic small scale management scheme for low-and intermediate level radioactive waste and its impact on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, A.Ph.; Panem, J.A.; Manalastas, H.C.; Cortez, S.L.; Paredes, C.H.; Bartolome, Z.M.

    1976-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the evolution of a pilot-scale management system for low-and intermediate level radioactive wastes to provide adequate protection to the public as well as maintain the equilibrium in the human environment. Discussions on the waste management and disposal scheme proposals, assessment of waste treatment requirements of the Atomic Research Center, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, previous experiences in the handling and management of radioactive wastes, current practices and alternatives to meet waste management problems and research studies on waste treatment are presented. In the selection of a chemical treatment process for ARC, comparative studies on the different waste processing methods or combination of processes that will be most suitable for the waste requirements of the Center are now in progress. The decontamination efficiency and economy of the lime-soda, ferrocyanide phosphate and ferric hydroxide methods are being compared. Jar experiments were conducted in the Lime-Soda Process to establish the optima conditions for certain parameter required in order to achieve an efficient and economical treatment system applicable to the local conditions for attaining maximum removal of contamination; maximum settling time - 5 hours after treatment, optimum pH-11, 2:3 ppm ratio of Ca +2 to Co 3 -2 concentration, concentration of dosing reagents can further be increased beyond 160 ppm Ca +2 and 240 ppm Co 3 -2 . Cobalt contamination can be removed with lime-soda treatment aside from strontium

  15. Overview of management of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes at the Institute for Nuclear Research for to save management of the waste from decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujoreanu, D.; Bujoreanu, L.

    2010-01-01

    The national policy of radioactive waste management fully complies with the international requirements established by 'Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management and with the EURATOM treaty, directives, recommendations and policy of radioactive waste management promoted at the level of the European Union. The Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti (INR) has its own Radwaste Treatment Plant. The object of activity is to treat and condition radioactive waste resulted from the nuclear facility. According to the National Nuclear Program, the institute is the main support for implementation of the methods and technologies for conditioning and disposal of radioactive waste generated by Cernavoda NPP. For all these, in accordance with the Governmental order no. 11/2003, INR shall must prepare and manage the decommissioning projects of its own facilities and to upgrade the facilities for the management of the radioactive waste resulting from decommissioning activities. (authors)

  16. Prototype of thermal degradation for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level; Prototipo de degradacion termica para desechos radiactivos de nivel bajo e intermedio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz A, L.V.; Pacheco S, J.O.; Pacheco P, M.; Monroy G, F.; Emeterio H, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: lauradiazarch@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    At the present time, the scientific, academic, industrial and technological activities, generate great quantity of radioactive wastes of low and intermediate level (DRNBI). For to assure an appropriate final disposal of these, it is intended their treatment and vitrification by means of thermal plasma. This alternative offers multiple advantages in an only process: elevated energy density (105W/cm{sup 3}), high enthalpy (1400 kJ/mol), elevated chemical reactivity, quick quenching (106K/s) and operation temperatures of 4000 to 15000K; this allows the treatment of a great diversity of waste. Those reactors are compact and they work to atmospheric pressure and reduced thermal inertia. This technology allows to degrade DRNBI and to contain them in a vitreous matrix by means of a system made up of a reactor, canyon of plasma, of monitoring, of washing of gases and of control. Besides the design and general characteristics of the Prototype of Thermal Degradation of DRNBI, they are reported in this work the advances achieved in the selection of the ceramic material for the vitrification. Their characterization was carried out by means of SEM and XRD. With the preliminary results it can discern that the material but appropriate to be used as vitreous matrix is a ceramic clay. With the development of the proposed technology and the material for the vitreous matrix, it will be to treat DRNBI. (Author)

  17. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  18. Effects of cellulose degradation products on the mobility of Eu(III) in repositories for low and intermediate level radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesen, Veronica; Forsberg, Kerstin; Jonsson, Mats

    2017-10-15

    The deep repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste SFR in Sweden will contain large amounts of cellulosic waste materials contaminated with radionuclides. Over time the repository will be filled with water and alkaline conditions will prevail. In the present study degradation of cellulosic materials and the ability of cellulosic degradation products to solubilize and thereby mobilise Eu(III) under repository conditions has been investigated. Further, the possible immobilization of Eu(III) by sorption onto cement in the presence of degradation products has been investigated. The cellulosic material has been degraded under anaerobic and aerobic conditions in alkaline media (pH: 12.5) at ambient temperature. The degradation was followed by measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content in the aqueous phase as a function of time. After 173days of degradation the TOC content is highest in the anaerobic artificial cement pore water (1547mg/L). The degradation products are capable of solubilising Eu(III) and the total europium concentration in the aqueous phase was 900μmol/L after 498h contact time under anaerobic conditions. Further it is shown that Eu(III) is adsorbed to the hydrated cement to a low extent (<9μmol Eu/g of cement) in the presence of degradation products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Model for definition of a semi industrial experimental facility for low-and intermediate-level radioactive wastes for Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares/IPEN or institutions with similar scale needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Luis E.T.

    1997-01-01

    A model for the design, and the definition of scale, of a facility for the treatment of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes is presented. The facility is designed to manage wastes generated in research and production of radioisotopes and labeled compounds, and wastes coming from users of radioisotopes, including: compatible solid wastes, spent sealed sources, radioactive lightning rods, organic and inorganic liquids, and wet bulk solids. The input is one hundred cubic meters per year of untreated wastes and the output is two hundred drums of treated waste in a form suitable for transportation and disposal. (author). 2 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Spanish experience in managing low and intermediate activity radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Spanish experience in management of low and intermediated level radioactive wastes is presented. The radioactive wastes stored come from research reactors, nuclear power plants, nuclear fuel cycle, scientific research, radiodiagnostic and medical applications. The commonest method is incorporation in cement inside special drums, even though some facilities use processes based on urea formal dehyde and on asphalt. Transport of the wastes is carried out by private undertakings and the Nuclear Energy Board. The sites used for storing are temporary in nature. The wastes produced by nuclear power plants are stored on site, with those processed by the Nuclear Energy Board are taken to a province of Cordoba. The National Company ENRESA for managing of all kinds of wastes was created. The Spanish legislation on this subject and the research being carried out by Spain itself and in cooperation with other States, are described. (Author) [pt

  1. Acceptance criteria for deposition of low-level and intermediate-level radiation levels radioactive wastes; Criterios de aceitacao para deposicao de rejeitos radioativos de baixo e medio niveis de radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-15

    This norm establishes the criteria for acceptance low and intermediate radiation level for safe deposition in repositories, for assuring the protection of workers, population and environment against the hazardous effects of the ionizing radiations. The criteria of this norm applies to the low and intermediate radiation levels.

  2. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level;Factores tecnicos en la seleccion del sitio para un almacen de desechos radioactivos de bajo y medio nivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C., E-mail: veronica.badillo@inin.gob.m [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  3. Regional and Site-Scale Hydrogeologic Analyses of a Proposed Canadian Deep Geologic Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, J. F.; Normani, S. D.; Yin, Y.; Sykes, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level radioactive waste has been proposed by Ontario Power Generation for the eastern edge of the Michigan Basin at the Bruce site, near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The DGR is to be constructed within the argillaceous Ordovician limestone of the Cobourg Formation at a depth of about 680 m below ground surface. This paper describes a regional-scale and linked site-scale geologic conceptual model for the DGR site and analyzes flow system evolution using the FRAC3DVS-OPG flow and transport model. The work illustrates the factors that influence the predicted long-term performance of the geosphere barrier and provides a framework for the assembly and integration of site-specific geoscientific data. The structural contours at the regional and site scale of the 31 sedimentary strata that may be present above the Precambrian crystalline basement rock were defined by the Ontario Petroleum Institute's Oil, Gas and Salt Resources Library borehole logs covering Southern Ontario and by site-specific data. The regional- scale domain encompasses an 18,500 km2 region extending from Lake Huron to Georgian Bay. The site- scale spatial domain encompasses an area of approximately 361 km2 with the repository at its centre. Its boundary conditions are determined using both the nested model approach and an embedment approach. The groundwater zone below the Devonian is characterized by units containing pore fluids with high concentrations of total dissolved solids that can exceed 300 g/l. Site-specific data indicate that the Ordovician is under-pressured relative to the surface elevation while the Cambrian is over-pressured. The computational sequence for the analyses involves the calculation of steady-state density independent flow that is used as the initial condition for the determination of pseudo-equilibrium for a density-dependent flow system that has an initial TDS distribution developed from observed data. Sensitivity

  4. The impact of low and intermediate-level radioactive waste on humans and the environment over the next one hundred thousand years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautsky, Ulrik; Saetre, Peter; Berglund, Sten; Jaeschke, Ben; Nordén, Sara; Brandefelt, Jenny; Keesmann, Sven; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Andersson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess the potential radiological risk to humans and the environment from a geological repository for radioactive waste, a safety assessment must be performed. This implies that the release and transfer of radionuclides from the repository into the surface environment are calculated and that the effects in the biosphere are evaluated for an assessment period up to one hundred thousand years according to Swedish regulations. This paper discusses the challenges associated with the modelling of surface ecosystems over such long time scales, using the recently completed assessment for the extension of the existing repository for the low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste (called SFR) in Forsmark, Sweden as an applied example. In the assessment, natural variation and uncertainties in climate during the assessment period were captured by using a set of climate cases, primarily reflecting different expectations on the effects of global warming. Development of the landscape at the site, due to post-glacial isostatic rebound, was modelled, and areas where modelling indicated that radionuclides could discharge into the biosphere were identified. Transfers of surface water and groundwater were described with spatially distributed hydrological models. The projected release of radionuclides from the bedrock was then fed into a biosphere radionuclide transport model, simulating the transport and fate of radionuclides within and between ecosystems in the landscape. Annual doses for human inhabitants were calculated by combining activity concentrations in environmental media (soil, water, air and plants) with assumptions on habits and land-use of future human inhabitants. Similarly, dose rates to representative organisms of non-human biota were calculated from activity concentrations in relevant habitats, following the ERICA methodology. In the main scenario, the calculated risk for humans did not exceed the risk criteria or the screening dose rate for non

  5. 77 FR 26991 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ...] RIN 3150-AI92 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The purpose of this public meeting is... experience in the management of LLW and intermediate-level radioactive wastes that did not exist at the time...

  6. The management of intermediate level wastes in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultgren, Aa.; Thegerstroem, C.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview of current practices and research in Sweden on the management of intermediate level wastes is given. Intermediate level wastes include spent resins, filters and core components from the six power reactors in operation; radioactive wastes from nuclear fuel development at Studsvik and from non-nuclear applications are a minor contribution. (Auth.)

  7. Study on the development of an efficient and economical small scale management scheme for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes and its impact on the environment. Part of a coordinated programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolome, Z.

    1976-05-01

    Efforts were made towards the establishment of a pilot-scale management system for the low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes of the Atomic Research Center. Practices in handling radioactive wastes are discussed and the assessment of their capabilities to meet the projections on the waste production is presented. The future waste management requirements of the Center was evaluated and comparative studies on the Lime-Soda and Phosphate Processes were conducted on simulated and raw liquid wastes with initial activity ranging from 10 -4 uCi/ml to 10 -2 uCi/ml, to establish the ideal parameters for best attaining maximum removal of radioactivity in liquids. The effectiveness of treatment was evaluated in terms of the decontamination factor, DF, obtained

  8. France’s State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo’s severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution. PMID:28608831

  9. DISPOSAL OF LOW AND INTERMEDIATE LEVEL WASTE IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint Nős

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are two operating facilities for management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Hungary. Experience with radioactive waste has a relatively long history and from its legacy some problems are to be solved, like the question of the historical waste in the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility (RWTDF. Beside the legacy problems the current waste arising from the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP has to be dealt with a safe and economically optimized way.

  10. Statement by the Federal Government: Treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants with regard to the irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear GmbH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toepfer, K.

    1988-03-02

    The Federal Government sees three major tasks to be done after inquiries have shown that irregularities disclosed in the Transnuklear business also include some relating to nuclear safety: (1) Initiate investigation of possible hazards to man or the environment, and into events and scope of events in order to provide full information. (2) Immediate consequences with regard to the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste from nuclear power plant, and state supervision thereof. (3) Investigate possible consequences with regard to nuclear waste management in the FRG. The Federal Government has taken immediate action on all three levels. (orig./HSCH).

  11. A review of the predictive modelling and data requirements for the long-term safety assessment of the deep disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1988-06-01

    This report considers the Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution research and modelling requirements for a robust post-closure radiological risk assessment methodology applicable to the deep disposal of Low-Level Wastes and Intermediate-Level Wastes. Two disposal concepts have been envisaged: horizontal tunnels or galleries in a low permeability stratum of a sedimentary sequence located inland; vertical boreholes or shafts up to 15m diameter lined with concrete and of the order 500m to 1000m deep sunk into the seabed within territorial coastal waters of the United Kingdom. (author)

  12. The effects of radiation on intermediate-level waste forms. Task 3 characterization of radioactive waste forms a series of final reports (1985-89) no. 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilding, C.R.; Phillips, D.C.; Burnay, S.G.; Spindler, W.E.; Lyon, C.E.; Winter, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this programme was to determine the effects of radiation on the properties of intermediate-level waste forms relevant to their storage and disposal. It had two overall aims: to provide immediate data on the effect of radiation on important European ILW waste forms through accelerated laboratory tests; and to develop an understanding of the degradation processes so that long-term, low dose rate effects can be predicted with confidence from short-term, high dose rate experiments. The programme included cement waste forms containing inorganic wastes, organic matrix waste forms, and cement waste forms containing a substantial component of organic waste. Irradiations were carried out by external gamma sources and by the incorporation of alpha emitters, such as 238 Pu. Irradiated materials included matrix materials, simulated waste forms and real waste forms. 2 figs.; 3 tabs.; 8 refs

  13. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and energy

  14. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  15. Project SAFE. Microbial features, events and processes in the Swedish final repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Karsten [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    2001-01-01

    The waste disposed of in the Swedish final repository for low and intermediate radioactive waste (SFR) typically contains large amounts of organic substances. This waste thus constitutes a possible source of energy and nutrients for microorganisms. Microbes can degrade the waste to degradation products, which to a varying degree may create problems if the process is significant. The environment for microbial life in the SFR is, however, unique since it cannot be compared to any environment to which microbes have adapted naturally over millions of years. Most similar to the SFR are waste dumps and landfills. In those, microbes degrade the waste and form degradation products. The experience from such 'analogues' and from research performed under repository-like conditions may provide useful clues about the microbial processes which may occur in the repository. Microbes have the ability to degrade bitumen, used to solidify some wastes, but this degradation is very slow under anaerobic conditions. Bitumen degradation will, therefore, not influence the safety of the SFR. However, some microbes can produce acids that could influence concrete stability, particularly in the presence of oxygen. The future SFR environment is anaerobic, which suggests that acid production is a very unlikely problem. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have the ability to produce sulphide, which may act as a corrosive on metals. Under specific conditions, with the local groundwater flow close to a metal surface and with dissolved organic material from the repository, pitting corrosion of metal canisters is a potential threat. This process appears to require conditions fairly atypical of the SFR, however. Large groups of microorganisms can use hydrogen as a source of energy, thereby contributing to the decrease of this gas mainly formed from water during the anaerobic corrosion of metals. Cellulose is an excellent substrate for many microorganisms and it will be the dominating carbon and

  16. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churtgen, C.

    2007-01-01

    The low-level radioactivity measurements service performs measurements of alpha or beta emitters on various types of low-radioactivity samples (biological and environmental) from internal and external clients. to maintain and develop techniques concerning the measurement of low-level radioactivity of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental or biological samples; to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters and alpha-spectrometers); to support and advise the nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination or low level radioactivity measurements; to maintain the quality assurance system according to the ISO17025 standard for which we obtained the Beltest accreditation in 1998; to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides for workers of the nuclear industry;

  17. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 1. Data, maps, models and methods used for selection of potential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. The Minister for Health and Prevention presented the background and decision plan for the Danish Parliament in January 2009. All political parties agreed on the plan. The investigation of geological deposits as potential waste disposals for high radioactive waste from nuclear power plants has earlier focused on deep seated salt deposits and basement rocks. Nevertheless, the Tertiary clays were mapped as well. In the present study, the salt diapirs and the salt deposits are not included. The present report briefly describes the existing data collections (including databases, maps and models), that are used during the work of selection of ca. 20 potentially suitable areas. Most of the information is stored in GEUS databases: Location of boreholes, borehole data, rock sediment and ground water compounds, maps, geophysical data and much more, but information is also collected from other institutions. The methods are described in more details (chapter 6) and this description is the direct background for the selection process, the characterisation of the 20 areas and for the final selection of the 2 or 3 most potential sites. (LN)

  18. Long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes: defining the context, stakes and perspectives; Dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue: situer le contexte, les enjeux et les perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French law from December 30, 1991 has defined an ambitious 15 years program of researches in order to explore the different possible paths for the long-term management of long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The law foresees also that at the end of the 15 years research program, a project of law will be prepared by the French government and transmitted to the European parliament in 2006. A public debate has been organized and emceed in 2005 in order dialogue with the general public and to gather its questions, remarks and fears. In the framework of their contribution to this debate, the ministries of industry and environment have prepared this document which answers some key questions about radioactive waste management: where do wastes come from, what are the risks, how are they managed today in France and in foreign countries, what are the results of the researches carried out during 15 years, what are the advantages and drawbacks of each waste management solution considered, what is the perspective of application of each solution, what is the position of experts, what will be the decision process. This synthetic document supplies some reference marks to better understand these different points. Some pedagogical files about radioactivity, fuel cycle, and nuclear industry activities are attached to the document. (J.S.)

  19. Low-level Radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This meeting describes low-level radioactive waste management problems and contains 8 papers: 1 Low-level radioactive waste management: exemption concept and criteria used by international organizations. 2 Low-level radioactive waste management: french and foreign regulations 3 Low-level radioactive waste management in EDF nuclear power plants (FRANCE) 4 Low-level radioactive waste management in COGEMA (FRANCE) 5 Importance of low-level radioactive wastes in dismantling strategy in CEA (FRANCE) 6 Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals 7 Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws 8 Methods of low-level radioactive materials measurements during reactor dismantling or nuclear facilities demolition (FRANCE)

  20. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 2. Roedbyhavn, Lolland Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 2. Omraede Roedbyhavn, Lolland Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Roedbyhavn in the Municipality of Lolland, southern Denmark. (LN)

  1. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 1. Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholm Region; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 1. Omraede Oestermarie - Paradisbakkerne, Bornholms Regionskommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area at Oestermarie-Paradisbakkerne in the region of Bornholm, East Denmark. (LN)

  2. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 4. Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 4. Omraede Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, Struer Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Hvidbjerg, Thyholm, in the Municipality of Struer, northern Jutland. (LN)

  3. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 3. Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 3. Omraede Kertinge Mark, Kerteminde Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Kertinge Mark in the Municipality of Kerteminde, the island Funen. (LN)

  4. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 5. Thise, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 5. Omraede Thise, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Thise, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  5. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Site studies. Report no. 6. Skive Vest, Skive Municipality; Lav- og mellem radioaktivt affald fra Risoe, Danmark. Omegnsstudier. Rapport nr. 6. Omraede Skive Vest, Skive Kommune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Binderup, M.; Larsen, Tine; Schack Pedersen, S.A.

    2012-07-01

    The low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings, different types of material from the research periods and waste from hospitals and research institutes) have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In 2011, the results of the first analyses of 20 potential areas for siting a waste disposal were published. Of these potential areas, 6 specific sites were selected for further detailed studies. The site studies include information about geology, land use, nature preservation, archaeology, drinking water supply etc. The 5 municipalities with the 6 selected sites have been visited to obtain as much information about local conditions as possible. The present report describes the results for the area Skive Vest, in the Municipality of Skive, northern Jutland. (LN)

  6. Radiological assessment of the impact on human populations and the environment of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.; Menard, F.

    1990-12-01

    A thorough radiological assessment of the impact of the 1949 to 1982 dumping of low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste in the deep North-East Atlantic is performed with the numerical compartmental REJMAR model. The calculations include the assessment of the dose equivalent to the individuals of a theoretical critical group through a large set of pathways, and the collective dose to mankind through the ingestion pathways. The complete dumping performed in the deep North-East Atlantic is taken into account. The assumptions of biological short-circuit through marin food chains are tested. The order of magnitude of the dose delivered to marine organisms living near the dumping site is assessed [fr

  7. Low and intermediate radioactive waste characterization using MICROSHIELD 5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, Silvia; Pantazi, Doina; Stanciu, Marcela

    2002-01-01

    Low and intermediate radioactive gaseous, liquid and solid waste produced at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant must be known from the point of view of contained radionuclide activity, during all steps of their processing, storage and transport, to ensure the nuclear safety of radioactive waste management. As the waste activity changes by radioactive decay and nuclear transmutation, the evolution in time of these sources is necessary to be assess, for the purpose of biological shielding determination at any time. On the other hand, during the transport of waste package at the repository, the external dose rates must meet the national and international requirements concerning radioactive materials transportation on public roads. In this paper, a calculation methodology for waste characterization based on external exposure rate measurement and on sample analysis results is presented. The time evolution of waste activity, as well as the corresponding shielding at different moments of management process, has been performed using MICROSHIELD-5 code. The spent resins proceeded from systems for clean-up and purification of cooling water and moderator, water from spent fuel storage bays, etc. have been analyzed. In this paper an example of spent ionic resins characterization, using the MICROSHIELD 5 code, is presented. (authors)

  8. Technological demonstrators. Researches and studies on the storage and disposal of long living intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes; Les demonstrateurs technologiques. Recherches et etudes sur le stockage et l'entreposage des dechets de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the technological demonstrators made by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and exhibited at Limay (Yvelines, France). These demonstrators, built at scale 1, have been an essential support to the establishment of the 'Dossier 2005' which demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible disposal of long living-intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of Meuse-Haute Marne. Two type of demonstrators were built: demonstrators of storage containers for long living-intermediate level wastes and for spent fuels, and dynamic demonstrators for containers handling. This brochure presents these different demonstrators, their characteristics and the results of their tests. (J.S.)

  9. Approach to defining de minimis, intermediate, and other classes of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.; Smith, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    This study has developed a framework within which the complete spectrum of radioactive wastes can be defined. An approach has been developed that reflects both concerns in the framework of a radioactive waste classification system. In this approach, the class of any radioactive waste stream is dependent on its degree of radioactivity and its persistence. To be consistent with conventional systems, four waste classes are defined. In increasing order of concern due to radioactivity and/or duration, these are: 1. De Minimis Wastes: This waste has such a low content of radioactive material that it can be considered essentially nonradioactive and managed according to its nonradiological characteristics. 2. Low-Level Waste (LLW): Maximum concentrations for wastes considered to be in this class are prescribed in 10CFR61 as wastes that can be disposed of by shallow land burial methods. 3. Intermediate Level Waste (ILW): This category defines a class of waste whose content exceeds class C (10CFR61) levels, yet does not pose a sufficient hazard to justify management as a high-level waste (i.e., permanent isolation by deep geologic disposal). 4. High-Level Waste: HLW poses the most serious management problem and requires the most restrictive disposal methods. It is defined in NWPA as waste derived from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel and/or as highly radioactive wastes that require permanent isolation

  10. Low-level Radioactivity Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtgen, C.

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of the research performed in the area of low-level radioactivity measurements are (1) to maintain and develop techniques for the measurement of low-level environmental and biological samples, (2) to measure these samples by means of low-background counters (liquid scintillators, proportional counters, ZnS counters, alpha spectrometry), (3) to support and advice the nuclear and non-nuclear industry in matters concerning radioactive contamination and/or low-level radioactivity measurements; (4) to maintain the quality assurance system according to the EN45001/ISO17025 standard; and (5) to assess the internal dose from occupational intakes of radionuclides of workers of the nuclear industry. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2000 are reported

  11. High Level Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the second annual international conference on High Level Radioactive Waste Management, held on April 28--May 3, 1991, Las Vegas, Nevada, provides information on the current technical issue related to international high level radioactive waste management activities and how they relate to society as a whole. Besides discussing such technical topics as the best form of the waste, the integrity of storage containers, design and construction of a repository, the broader social aspects of these issues are explored in papers on such subjects as conformance to regulations, transportation safety, and public education. By providing this wider perspective of high level radioactive waste management, it becomes apparent that the various disciplines involved in this field are interrelated and that they should work to integrate their waste management activities. Individual records are processed separately for the data bases

  12. Time depending assessment of low and intermediate radioactive waste characteristics from Cernavoda NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateescu, S.; Pantazi, D.; Stanciu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Low and intermediate radioactive gaseous, liquid and solid waste produced at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant must be well known from the point of view of contained radionuclide activity, during all steps of their processing, storage and transport, to ensure the nuclear safety of radioactive waste management. As in intermediate storage stage, the waste activity changes by radioactive decay and nuclear transmutation, the evolution in time of these sources is necessary to be assessed, for the purpose of biological shielding determination at any time. On the other hand, during the transport of waste package at the repository, the external dose rates must meet the national and international requirements concerning radioactive materials transportation on public roads. In this paper, a calculation methodology for waste characterization based on external exposure rate measurement and on sample analysis results is presented. The time evolution of waste activity, as well as the corresponding shielding at different moments of management process, have been performed using MICROSHIELD-5 code. The spent resins proceeded from clean-up and purification systems and solutions from decontamination have been analyzed. The proposed methodology helps us to assess radiation protection during the handling of low and intermediate - level radioactive waste drums, ensuring safety conditions for the public and environment.(author)

  13. High-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 812 citations on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through July 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  14. Very low level radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.H.; Linsley, G.; Elert, M.

    1993-01-01

    Man's environment contains naturally occurring radionuclides and doses from exposures to these radionuclides mostly cannot be avoided. Consequently, almost everything may be considered as very low level radioactive material. In practical terms, management and the selection of different routes for low level material is confined to material which was subject to industrial processing or which is under a system of radiological control. Natural radionuclides with concentrations reaching reporting or notification levels will be discussed below; nevertheless, the main body of this paper will be devoted to material, mainly of artificial origin, which is in the system involving notification, registration and licensing of practices and sources. It includes material managed in the nuclear sector and sources containing artificially produced radionuclides used in hospitals, and in industry. Radioactive materials emit ionising radiations which are harmful to man and his environment. National and international regulations provide the frame for the system of radiation protection. Nevertheless, concentrations, quantities or types of radionuclide may be such, that the material presents a very low hazard, and may therefore be removed from regulatory control, as it would be a waste of time and effort to continue supervision. These materials are said to be exempted from regulatory control. Material exempted in a particular country is no longer distinguishable from ''ordinary'' material and may be moved from country to country. Unfortunately, criteria for exempting radioactive materials differ strongly between countries and free trade. Therefore there is a necessity for an international approach to be developed for exemption levels

  15. Some Intermediate-Level Violin Concertos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Contends that many violin students attempt difficult concertos before they are technically or musically prepared. Identifies a variety of concertos at the intermediate and advanced intermediate-level for students to study and master before attempting the advanced works by Bach and Mozart. Includes concertos by Vivaldi, Leclair, Viotti, Haydn,…

  16. Low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    This bibliography contains information on low-level radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base for January through December 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Low-Level Radioactive Wastes/Transport. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each proceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 492 references

  17. Criteria for the siting, construction, management and evaluation of low and intermediate activity radioactive waste stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granero, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The experience acquired by Spain for the storage of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes, is presented. General considerations related to the technology, financing, administrative measures and risk determination are done. The criteria of site selection for construction and management of the waste storage facility are described, evaluating the specific criteria for the licensing procedure, and taking in account the safety and the radiation protection during periods of the system operation. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. MNE Entrepreneurial Capabilities at Intermediate Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoenen, Anne K.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn

    2014-01-01

    at intermediate geographical levels differ from local subsidiaries and global corporate headquarters, and why those differences are important. We illustrate our arguments using data on European regional headquarters (RHQs). We find that RHQs' entrepreneurial capabilities depend on their external embeddedness...

  19. Radiological protection and the selection of management strategies for intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the steps involved in selecting management systems and an overall management strategy for intermediate level solid radioactive wastes. The radiological protection inputs to intermediate level waste management decisions are discussed, together with the results of preliminary radiological assessments of disposal options. Areas where further work is required are identified. (author)

  20. Low- and intermediate-level waste management practices in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.H.

    1982-05-01

    Low- and intermediate-level wastes arise in Canada from the operation of nuclear power stations, nuclear research establishments, nuclear fuel and radioisotope production facilities, as well as from many medical, research and industrial organizations. Essentially all of the solid radioactive wastas are stored in a retrievable fashion at five waste management areas from which a portion is expected to be transferred to future disposal facilities. Waste processing for volume reduction and stabilization is becoming an increasingly important part of low-level waste management because of the advantages it provides for both interim storage currently, and permanent disposal in the future

  1. The ARES High-level Intermediate Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Nicholas David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-03

    The LLVM intermediate representation (IR) lacks semantic constructs for depicting common high-performance operations such as parallel and concurrent execution, communication and synchronization. Currently, representing such semantics in LLVM requires either extending the intermediate form (a signi cant undertaking) or the use of ad hoc indirect means such as encoding them as intrinsics and/or the use of metadata constructs. In this paper we discuss a work in progress to explore the design and implementation of a new compilation stage and associated high-level intermediate form that is placed between the abstract syntax tree and when it is lowered to LLVM's IR. This highlevel representation is a superset of LLVM IR and supports the direct representation of these common parallel computing constructs along with the infrastructure for supporting analysis and transformation passes on this representation.

  2. Low level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, J.; Chren, O.

    2015-01-01

    The Mochovce National Radwaste Repository is a near surface multi-barrier disposal facility for disposal of processed low and very low level radioactive wastes (radwastes) resulting from the operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities situated in the territory of the Slovak Republic and from research institutes, laboratories, hospitals and other institutions (institutional RAW) which are in compliance with the acceptance criteria. The basic safety requirement of the Repository is to avoid a radioactive release to the environment during its operation and institutional inspection. This commitment is covered by the protection barrier system. The method of solution designed and implemented at the Repository construction complies with the latest knowledge and practice of the repository developments all over the world and meets requirements for the safe radwaste disposal with minimum environmental consequences. All wastes are solidified and have to meet the acceptance criteria before disposal into the Repository. They are processed and treated at the Bohunice RAW Treatment Centre and Liquid RAW Final Treatment Facility at Mochovce. The disposal facility for low level radwastes consists of two double-rows of reinforced concrete vaults with total capacity 7 200 fibre reinforced concrete containers (FCCs) with RAW. One double-row contains 40 The operation of the Repository was started in year 2001 and after ten years, in 2011 was conducted the periodic assessment of nuclear safety with positive results. Till the end of year 2014 was disposed to the Repository 11 514 m 3 RAW. The analysis of total RAW production from operation and decommissioning of all nuclear installation in SR, which has been carried out in frame of the BIDSF project C9.1, has showed that the total volume estimation of conditioned waste is 108 thousand m 3 of which 45.5 % are low level waste (LLW) and 54,5 % very low level waste (VLLW). On the base of this fact there is the need to build 7

  3. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: public involvement aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Mourao, Rogerio P.; Fleming, Peter M.; Soares, Wellington A.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Santos, Rosana A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear energy acceptance creates several problems, and one of the most important is the disposal of the radioactive waste. International experiences show that not only environmental, radiological and technical questions have to be analyzed, but the public opinion about the project must be considered. The objective of this article is to summarize some public involvement aspects associated with low and intermediate level waste repositories. Experiences from USA, Canada, South Africa, Ukraine and other countries are studied and show the importance of the population in the site selection process for a repository. (author)

  4. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes; Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte der langfristigen Zwischenlagerung von bestrahlten Brennelementen und verglastem HAW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellinger, A.; Geupel, S.; Gewehr, K.; Gmal, B.; Hannstein, V.; Hummelsheim, K.; Kilger, R.; Wagner, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany); Schmidt, G.; Spieth-Achtnich, A. [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer angewandte Oekolgie (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  5. Controlling low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This series of information sheets describes at a popular level the sources of low-level radioactive wastes, their associated hazards, methods of storage, transportation and disposal, and the Canadian regulations that cover low-level wastes

  6. ASSESSMENT OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINANTS FOUND IN LOW LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.H. Little, P.R. Maul, J.S.S. Penfoldag

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes and presents the findings from two studies undertaken for the European Commission to assess the long-term impact upon the environment and human health of non-radioactive contaminants found in various low level radioactive waste streams. The initial study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of nonradioactive contaminants in low level radioactive waste. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. The follow-up study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The calculations undertaken indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive, as well as radioactive contaminants, when assessing the impacts of low level radioactive waste disposal. For some waste streams with relatively low concentrations of radionuclides, the potential post-closure disposal impacts from non-radioactive contaminants can be comparable with the potential radiological impacts. For such waste streams there is therefore an added incentive to explore options for recycling the materials involved wherever possible

  7. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-07-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  8. Low- and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe, Denmark. Location studies for potential disposal areas. Report no. 2. Characterization of low permeable and fractured sediments and rocks in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravesen, P.; Nilsson, B.; Schack Pedersen, S.A.; Binderup, M.; Laier, T.

    2011-01-01

    The low and intermediate level radioactive waste from Risoe (the nuclear reactor buildings plus different types of material from the research periods) and radioactive waste from hospitals and research institutes have to be stored in a final disposal in Denmark for at least 300 years. In Denmark, many different kinds of fine-grained sediments and crystalline rocks occur from the ground surface down to 300 meters depth. Therefore, the possible geological situations include sediments and rocks of different composition and age. These situations are geographical distributed over large areas of Denmark. These sediments and rocks are shortly described based on existing information and include five different major types of sediments and rocks: 1: Crystalline granite and gneiss of Bornholm (because these rock types are host for waste disposals in many other countries). 2: Sandstone and shale from Bornholm (as these sediments are rela- tively homogeneous although they have fracture permeability). 3: Chalk and limestone (because these sediments may act as low permeable seals, but in most areas they act as groundwater reservoirs). 4: Fine-grained Tertiary clay deposits (as these sediments have a low permeability, are widely distributed and can reach large thicknesses). 5: Quaternary glacial, interglacial and Holocene clay deposits. These sediments are distributed all over Denmark. Following the descriptions of the geologic deposits, the areas below (including several possible locations for waste disposal sites) are selected for further investigation. The Precambrian basement rocks of Bornholm could be host rocks for the disposal. The rock types for further evaluation will be: Hammer Granite, Vang Granite, Roenne Granite, Bornholm gneiss, Paradisbakke Migmatite and Alminding Granite. In the Roskilde Fjord area around Risoe, a combination of Paleocene clays, meltwater clay and clayey till could be interesting. The area is partly included in the OSD area in North Sjaelland but

  9. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva

    2013-08-01

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety

  10. Melting of metallic intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huutoniemi, Tommi; Larsson, Arne; Blank, Eva [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    This report presents a feasibility study of a melting facility for core components and reactor internals. An overview is given of how such a facility for treatment of intermediate level waste might be designed, constructed and operated and highlights both the possibilities and challenges. A cost estimate and a risk analysis are presented in order to make a conclusion of the technical feasibility of such a facility. Based on the authors' experience in operating a low level waste melting facility, their conclusion is that without technical improvements such a facility is not feasible today. This is based on the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, in conjunction with the radiological risks associated with operation and the uncertain benefits to disposal and long term safety.

  11. Microbiological treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, N.V.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Banks, C.J.; Humphreys, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the work of an experimental programme investigating the anaerobic digestion of low-level radioactive wastes. The project focused on the selection of the optimum bioreactor design to achieve 95% removal or stabilisation of the biodegradable portion of low-level radioactive wastes. Performance data was obtained for the bioreactors and process scale-up factors for the construction of a full-scale reactor were considered. (author)

  12. An updated overview of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Uemura, George; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de, E-mail: vc@cdtn.br, E-mail: george@cdtn.br, E-mail: vvmf@cdtn.br, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Malta, Ricardo Scott V. [SEMC Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. Some countries already have these facilities and others are planning theirs. Information about disposal facilities around the world is useful and necessary; however, data on this matter are usually scattered in official reports per country. In order to allow an easier access to this information, this paper aims to provide an overview of disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste around the world, as updated as possible. Also, characteristics of the facilities are provided, when possible. Considering that the main source of radioactive waste are the activities of nuclear reactors in research or power generation, the paper will also provide a summarized overview of these reactors around the world, updated until April, 2011. This data collection may be an important tool for researchers, and other professionals in this field. Also, it might provide an overview about the final disposal of radioactive waste. (author)

  13. An updated overview of low and intermediate level waste disposal facilities around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Uemura, George; Ferreira, Vinicius Verna M.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O. de; Malta, Ricardo Scott V.

    2011-01-01

    Low and intermediate level radioactive waste should be disposed off in proper disposal facilities. Some countries already have these facilities and others are planning theirs. Information about disposal facilities around the world is useful and necessary; however, data on this matter are usually scattered in official reports per country. In order to allow an easier access to this information, this paper aims to provide an overview of disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radioactive waste around the world, as updated as possible. Also, characteristics of the facilities are provided, when possible. Considering that the main source of radioactive waste are the activities of nuclear reactors in research or power generation, the paper will also provide a summarized overview of these reactors around the world, updated until April, 2011. This data collection may be an important tool for researchers, and other professionals in this field. Also, it might provide an overview about the final disposal of radioactive waste. (author)

  14. Treatment of low and intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.

    1978-05-01

    The methods described of low and intermediate level waste treatment are based exclusively on operating experience gathered with the KfK facilities for waste management, the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK), the ALKEM fuel element fabrication plant, the MZFR, KNK and FR 2 reactors as well as at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center and at the state collecting depot of Baden-Wuerttemberg. The processing capacities and technical status are similar to that in 1976. With an annual throughput of 10000 m 3 of solid and liquid raw wastes, an aggregate activity of 85000 Ci, 500 kg of U and 2 kg of Pu, final waste in the amount of 500 m 3 was produced which was stored in the ASSE II salt mine. (orig.) [de

  15. Expertise on the provision of evidence with respect to Nagra's disposal concept for spent fuel assemblies, vitrified high-level radioactive waste as well as for long-living intermediate-level wastes (Opalinus clay project); Gutachten zum Entsorgungsnachweis der Nagra fuer abgebrannte Brennelemente, verglaste hochaktive sowie langlebige mittelaktive Abfaelle (Projekt Opalinuston)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-15

    spent fuel assemblies (FA) and the high-level waste (HAA) barrels are packed into containers which guarantee absolute enclosure for at least 10,000 years; 3) the FA and HAA containers are stored in a tight Bentonite filling (cement for the low- and intermediate-level wastes, LMA) which at first slows down the access of corrosive substances to the containers and then diminishes the release of wastes; 4) the water- tightness of the surrounding Opalinus clay prevents any contact with water; 5) the rock layers above and below the Opalinus clay protect the host rock and the repository against natural or human influences; 6) the choice of a stable and settled tectonic site guarantees suitable conditions for at last 1 million years. With these characteristics for the repository, the safety analyses show that even for the most conservative conditions the calculated radioactive dose mostly remains below the statutory limit of 1 mSv/a

  16. Management for low and intermediate level wastes in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, H.R.

    1986-01-01

    A research and demonstration project was developed, to offer management options for low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The project considered: the experience of other countries; the laws and regulations according to internationally accepted standards; criteria and recommendations; the technical, socio-political realities, and the expectation of our countrie related to the nuclear power plants. Preliminary guidelines for waste acceptance critetia were established. The solution for shallow land burial was a multibarrier system. Since, there is no final decision about the repository localization it was decided that the waste produced by nuclear power plants will be kept on-site and those from medicine, agriculture, industry and research are sent to the IPEN/CNEN-SP for treatment and temporary storage. (Author/M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Reinforced concrete in the intermediable-level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffo, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) is responsible for developing the nuclear waste disposal management programme. This programme contemplates the design and construction of a facility for the final disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The proposed model is a near-surface monolithic repository similar to those in operation in El Cabril, Spain. The design of this type of repository is based on the use of multiple, independent and redundant barriers and the model foresees a period of 300 years of institutional post-closure control. Since the vault and cover are major components of the engineered barriers, the durability of these concrete structures is an important aspect for the facility integrity. This work presents laboratory investigations performed on the corrosion susceptibility of steel rebars embedded in two different types of high performance reinforced concretes, recently developed by the National Institute of Industrial Technology (Argentine). Concretes were made with cement with Blast Furnace Slag (CAH) and Silica Fume cement (CAH + SF). The aim of this work is to predict the service life of the intermediate level radioactive waste disposal vaults from data obtained from electrochemical techniques. Besides, the diffusion coefficients of aggressive species, such as chloride and carbon dioxide, were also determined. On the other hand, data obtained with corrosion sensors embedded in a vault prototype is also included. These sensors allow on-line measurements of several parameters related to the corrosion process such as rebar corrosion potential and corrosion current density; incoming oxygen flow that reaches the metal surface; concrete electrical resistivity; chloride concentration and internal concrete temperature. All the information obtained from both, laboratory tests and sensors will be used for the final design of the container in order to achieve a service life more or equal than the foreseen durability for this type of

  18. Aube storage centre for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2009 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, opinion of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  19. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2008 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information

  20. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, recommendations of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  1. Handling, treatment, conditioning and storage of biological radioactive wastes. Technical manual for the management of low and intermediate level wastes generated at small nuclear research centres and by radioisotope users in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Biological materials that contain radioactive isotopes have many important applications. During the production and use of these materials, waste will inevitably arise which must be managed with particular care due to their potential biological as well as radiological hazards. This report deals with wastes that arise outside the nuclear fuel cycle and is directed primarily to countries without nuclear power programmes. It is intended to provide guidance to Member States in the handling, treatment and conditioning of biological radioactive materials. The objective of radioactive waste management is to handle, pretreat, treat, condition, store, transport and dispose of radioactive waste in a manner that protects human health and the environment without imposing undue burdens on future generations. 31 refs, 15 figs, 3 tabs

  2. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations

  3. IEN Low-level-radioactive waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The control, treatment and disposal of the low-level radioactive waste produced in the units of IEN-CNEN, in Brazil are presented, in details. These wastes are generated from a particle accelerator (CV-28 cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). (Author) [pt

  4. Large diameter boreholes (LDB) for low and intermediate radioactive waste storage/disposal in clay deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkachenko, A.V.; Litinsky, Y.V.; Guskov, A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The State Unitary Enterprise of Moscow MosSIA 'RADON' has been carrying out collecting, treatment, conditioning and storage/disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILW) produced by research, medical and industry enterprises in the Central Region of Russia since 1961. Typical near surface facilities were and still are widely used for long-term storage of conditioned low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LILW). They are the vault type constructions made of monolithic reinforced concrete or from concrete blocks placed mostly below the ground level in previously excavated trenches in clayey rocks. The depth of trenches is usually from 3 to 6 m and the volume of such repositories varies from 200 up to 20 thousand m3. Operation practice and monitoring results has revealed their common disadvantage typical for 'RADON'-type facilities on the territory of the Russian Federation and some other countries. As a result of continental climate conditions with cyclic seasonal freezing and thawing of host rock and underground constructions, the permeability of grouting cement and engineering barriers is increasing in time more quickly then was supposed when designing and constructing such facilities due to cracks and cement destruction caused by these cycles. This leads to water infiltration and accumulation inside the vault, leaching of radionuclides and their migration out of the repository. In some cases radionuclide migration into the near field and radioactive contamination of the ground around the storage facility was detected. Decontamination of such ground results in generation of secondary wastes that requires additional space in existing repositories for its storage or disposal and corresponding growth of final costs of RAW isolation. Construction of new near surface repositories for the same purpose at the operating sites within the boundaries of lease area is problematic because of the

  5. Method of processing low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Yoshiro; Takaya, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to dispose a great amount of low level radioactive wastes with safety in the process of burying underground radioactive wastes tightly sealed in vessels. Method: Water shield walls surrounding the boundary of a disposal site are constructed by the method of successively repeating the steps of digging out shafts holes with the width corresponding to the wall thickness and reaching the water impermeable layer of the disposal site, putting iron wire cages into the holes and then spiking concretes. Then, vertical shafts each of a rectangular transversal section are dug out in the disposal site surrounded with the walls with an appropriate gap from the wall. Then, after accommodating vessels containing low level radioactive wastes tightly shield therein in the shafts, stabilizing liquid filled in the shafts is replaced with self-curing stabilizing liquid, by which radioactive wastes can be disposed with safety being covered around the periphery thereof and with the outside of them being surrounded with the water shield walls. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Simon P; Charles, Christopher J; Garratt, Eva J; Laws, Andrew P; Gunn, John; Humphreys, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0) soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA) resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW) inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF) concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  7. Evidence of the generation of isosaccharinic acids and their subsequent degradation by local microbial consortia within hyper-alkaline contaminated soils, with relevance to intermediate level radioactive waste disposal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available The contamination of surface environments with hydroxide rich wastes leads to the formation of high pH (>11.0 soil profiles. One such site is a legacy lime works at Harpur Hill, Derbyshire where soil profile indicated in-situ pH values up to pH 12. Soil and porewater profiles around the site indicated clear evidence of the presence of the α and β stereoisomers of isosaccharinic acid (ISA resulting from the anoxic, alkaline degradation of cellulosic material. ISAs are of particular interest with regards to the disposal of cellulosic materials contained within the intermediate level waste (ILW inventory of the United Kingdom, where they may influence radionuclide mobility via complexation events occurring within a geological disposal facility (GDF concept. The mixing of uncontaminated soils with the alkaline leachate of the site resulted in ISA generation, where the rate of generation in-situ is likely to be dependent upon the prevailing temperature of the soil. Microbial consortia present in the uncontaminated soil were capable of surviving conditions imposed by the alkaline leachate and demonstrated the ability to utilise ISAs as a carbon source. Leachate-contaminated soil was sub-cultured in a cellulose degradation product driven microcosm operating at pH 11, the consortia present were capable of the degradation of ISAs and the generation of methane from the resultant H2/CO2 produced from fermentation processes. Following microbial community analysis, fermentation processes appear to be predominated by Clostridia from the genus Alkaliphilus sp, with methanogenesis being attributed to Methanobacterium and Methanomassiliicoccus sp. The study is the first to identify the generation of ISA within an anthropogenic environment and advocates the notion that microbial activity within an ILW-GDF is likely to influence the impact of ISAs upon radionuclide migration.

  8. Present status of intermediate energy data evaluation for accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1994-05-01

    The recent developments in the field of nuclear data evaluation for energies above 20 MeV are outlined. As a particularly interesting application we consider accelerator-based transmutation of radioactive waste. The most urgent data needs for accelerator-based transmutation have been prioritized and translated in terms of intermediate-energy data libraries. Priorities are assigned to the materials relevant to an incineration system and to the most important associated nuclear reactions (notably reactions involving nucleons). In this contribution, the proposed actions as indicated in previous work are further discussed and a sample intermediate-energy ''starter'' data file is presented. (orig.)

  9. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  10. Colloids related to low level and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, J.D.F.; Russell, P.J.; Avery, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive research investigation has been undertaken to improve the understanding of the potential role of colloids in the context of disposal and storage of low level and intermediate level waste immobilized in cement. Several topics have been investigated which include: (a) the study of the formation and characteristics of colloids in cement leachates; (b) the effects of the near-field aqueous chemistry on the characteristics of colloids in repository environments; (c) colloid sorption behaviour; (d) interactions of near-field materials with leachates; (e) characteristics of near-field materials in EC repository simulation tests; and (f) colloid migration behaviour. These experimental investigations should provide data and a basis for the development of transport models and leaching mechanisms, and thus relate directly to the part of the Task 3 programme concerned with migration and retention of radionuclides in the near field. 114 Figs.; 39 Tabs.; 12 Refs

  11. Disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasby, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Although controversy surrounding the possible introduction of nuclear power into New Zealand has raised many points including radiation hazards, reactor safety, capital costs, sources of uranium and earthquake risks on the one hand versus energy conservation and alternative sources of energy on the other, one problem remains paramount and is of global significance - the storage and dumping of the high-level radioactive wastes of the reactor core. The generation of abundant supplies of energy now in return for the storage of these long-lived highly radioactive wastes has been dubbed the so-called Faustian bargain. This article discusses the growth of the nuclear industry and its implications to high-level waste disposal particularly in the deep-sea bed. (auth.)

  12. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro

    2003-01-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  13. Intergenerational ethics of high level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Nagoya Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Nasu, Akiko; Maruyama, Yoshihiro [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The validity of intergenerational ethics on the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste originating from nuclear power plants was studied. The result of the study on geological disposal technology showed that the current method of disposal can be judged to be scientifically reliable for several hundred years and the radioactivity level will be less than one tenth of the tolerable amount after 1,000 years or more. This implies that the consideration of intergenerational ethics of geological disposal is meaningless. Ethics developed in western society states that the consent of people in the future is necessary if the disposal has influence on them. Moreover, the ethics depends on generally accepted ideas in western society and preconceptions based on racism and sexism. The irrationality becomes clearer by comparing the dangers of the exhaustion of natural resources and pollution from harmful substances in a recycling society. (author)

  14. Solidification process for high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Chisato

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To integrally solidify high level radioactive wastes with water-curable solidifying material thereby improve the heat- and radiation-resistance. Constitution: High level radioactive wastes are integrally solidified with water curable solidifying material comprising a mixture of alumina cements, aggregates, inorganic fluidizing materials and dispersing agent. Alumina cements are mainly composed of calcium aluminate and excellent in refractory property. Chamotte particles and baked bauxite particles are used as the aggregates, which can improve the strength of the solidification products. Fine alumina powder and fine silica powder of less than 10 μm radius are used as the inorganic fluidizing materials and condensated phosphoric acid salt and polycarboxylic acid type polymeric surface active agent are used as the dispersing agents for improving the slidability between the particles. (Yoshino, Y.)

  15. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, L.H. (ed.)

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  16. IEN low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.C.S. da; Pina, J.L.S.; Silva, S. da; Silva, J.J.G.

    1986-09-01

    The low-level radioactive waste produced in Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is generated basically from three distinct modes: a particle accelerator (CV-28 Cyclotron), radiochemistry laboratories and the operation of a nuclear research reactor (Argonaut type). In the Cyclotron unit, all water flow from hot labs as well as from the decontamination laundry is retained in special tank with homogenizing system and a remote control, that signalizes when the tank gets a pre-specified level. Samples homogenized from the tank are colected for previous analysis. (Author) [pt

  17. Summary of investigations carried out prior to 19 October 1984 regarding the location of the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site for the burial of intermediate and low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambleton-Jones, B.B.

    1984-10-01

    A recommendation by a specialist study group that the State set in motion a program to locate a suitable site or sites for the storage/disposal of radioactive waste in South Africa was accepted in 1978. A site-selection program was therefore duly initiated and in February 1983 culminated in the purchase of three farms, Garing, Geelpan and Stofkloof, some 100 km south-southeast of the town of Springbok in the northwestern Cape. The site, known as Vaalputs, is about 10 000 ha in extent. Detailed geological, geophysical, geohydrological, geobotanical, geomorphological and environmental investigations have been completed, with emphasis on the Geelpan Block, previously recommended as being the most suitable area for a disposal site. The final site of 0,5 X 0,7 km has now been selected

  18. Types of organic materials present in BNFL intermediate level waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    This presentation lists the constituents present in BNFL intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The inorganic and organic components are listed and there is a detailed analysis of the plutonium contaminated materials in terms of proportion of combustible and non-combustible content, up to the year 2000. A description of the Waste Treatment Complex at Sellafield is presented. The research programme for leach testing, sorption and solubility testing and decomposition of organic matter was outlined. (U.K.)

  19. Natural radioactivity levels in soils of Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garimella, S.; Kumar, A.; Prasad, U.; Jafar, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 10 cm (diameter) x 7.5 cm NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer with a low background shield has been used to measure the natural radioactivity levels in soils of Viti Levu, the main island of Fiji. From this, the external gamma-dose which is likely to be delivered to the local population in this region is computed and found to be 99 μGy a -1 . This is well below the world average, but it is comparable to that observed in Marshall Islands and the Micronesia

  20. Update on the national low level radioactive waste repository study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Activity to establish a national repository for low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive waste in Australia began in the early 1980's. From the early 1990's computer-based geographic information systems had developed sufficiently so that all of Australia could be quickly reviewed using digital data relevant to site selection criteria. A three-phased approach to site selection was commenced which included an iterative process of data collection, interpretation, and public involvement through discussion papers. All of Australia was reviewed using national-scale data, and eight broad regions were identified and reviewed using regional-scale data. A third phase report will be released shortly which includes details on the process for identifying the preferred region of the eight. This region will be the focus for public involvement and for detailed study to identify a site for the national repository

  1. 77 FR 10401 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...-3150-AI92 [NRC-2011-0012] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The purpose of this public... version of this Order has been in place for about 11 years and applies to management of radioactive waste...

  2. The management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennemann, Wm.L.

    1979-01-01

    The definition of high-level radioactive wastes is given. The following aspects of high-level radioactive wastes' management are discussed: fuel reprocessing and high-level waste; storage of high-level liquid waste; solidification of high-level waste; interim storage of solidified high-level waste; disposal of high-level waste; disposal of irradiated fuel elements as a waste

  3. Glasses used for the high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombret, C.

    1983-06-01

    High level radioactive wastes generated by the reprocessing of spent fuels is an important concern in the conditioning of radioactive wastes. This paper deals with the status of the knowledge about glasses used for the treatment of these liquids [fr

  4. Conditioning characterization of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    This study has been carried out in the radioactive waste management laboratory Sudan Atomic Energy Commission. The main purpose of this work is method development for treatment and conditioning of low level liquid waste in order to improve radiation protection level in the country. For that purpose a liquid radioactive material containing Cs-137 was treated using the developed method. In the method different type of materials (cement, sands, concrete..etc) were tested for absorption of radiation emitted from the source as well as suitability of the material for storage for long time. It was found that the best material to be used is Smsmia concrete. Where the surface dose reduced from 150 to 3μ/h. Also design of storage container was proposed (with specification: diameter 6.5 cm, height 6 cm, placed in internal cylinder of diameter 10.3 cm, height 12.3 cm) and all are installed on the concrete and cement in the cylinder. Method was used in the process of double-packaging configuration. For more protection it is proposed that a mixed of cement to fill the void in addition to the sand be added to ensure low amount of radiation exposure while transport or storage. (Author)

  5. Processing vessel for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi

    1998-01-01

    Upon transferring an overpack having canisters containing high level radioactive wastes sealed therein and burying it into an underground processing hole, an outer shell vessel comprising a steel plate to be fit and contained in the processing hole is formed. A bury-back layer made of dug earth and sand which had been discharged upon forming the processing hole is formed on the inner circumferential wall of the outer shell vessel. A buffer layer having a predetermined thickness is formed on the inner side of the bury-back layer, and the overpack is contained in the hollow portion surrounded by the layer. The opened upper portion of the hollow portion is covered with the buffer layer and the bury-back layer. Since the processing vessel having a shielding performance previously formed on the ground, the state of packing can be observed. In addition, since an operator can directly operates upon transportation and burying of the high level radioactive wastes, remote control is no more necessary. (T.M.)

  6. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R.S.

    1992-03-01

    An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste. By using the Radioactive Material Incident Report data base to evaluate transportation accidents involving commercial low-level radioactive waste, it was found that there have been only four transportation accidents involving the release of commercial low-level radioactive waste in the last 20 years. The accidents were minor, and the released materials were quickly repackaged. There has never been a radiologically related injury or death associated with a transportation accident involving commercial low-level radioactive waste

  7. Licence applications for low and intermediate level waste predisposal facilities: A manual for operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    This publication covers all predisposal waste management facilities and practices for receipt, pretreatment (sorting, segregation, characterization), treatment, conditioning, internal relocation and storage of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, including disused sealed radioactive sources. The publication contains an Annex presenting the example of a safety assessment for a small radioactive waste storage facility. Facilities dealing with both short lived and long lived low and intermediate level waste generated from nuclear applications and from operation of small nuclear research reactors are included in the scope. Processing and storage facilities for high activity disused sealed sources and sealed sources containing long lived radionuclides are also covered. The publication does not cover facilities processing or storing radioactive waste from nuclear power plants or any other industrial scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Disposal facilities are excluded from the scope of this publication. Authorization process can be implemented in several stages, which may start at the site planning and the feasibility study stage and will continue through preliminary design, final design, commissioning, operation and decommissioning stages. This publication covers primarily the authorization needed to take the facility into operation

  8. Study of radionuclides complexes formation by organic compounds in intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes; Etude de la mobilisation, par des complexants organiques, des radionucleides contenus dans les dechets radioactifs de faible et moyenne activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourbon, X.

    1994-12-01

    In the general framework of the safety of nuclear wastes of low and intermediate activity, we studied the effects of organic compounds on the solubilization of metallic cations. Organic compounds originate from the degradation of cellulose in concrete interstitial waters. Degradation reactions generate a number of products, among which carboxylic acids. These acids are known for their chelating properties. We first analysed the degradation of cellulose in alkaline conditions: we qualitatively and quantitatively determined the degradation products for various reaction progress indices, including a dozen of carboxylic acids. The principal goal of our work was the prediction of the behaviour of metallic cations in such cellulose degradation solutions. Owing the complexity of the system, a priori theoretical calculation are not possible. We have thus decided to choose tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid as a reference compound in order to simulate as accurately as possible the behaviour of more complex acids which contain similar functional groups. We have experimentally determined the complexing properties of this reference acid toward divalent cobalt and copper, and trivalent samarium and europium. Simple and mixed complex (hydroxyl) have been evidenced in alkaline medium. Their stability constants have been determined and extrapolated at zero ionic strength using the SIT theory. These results allowed us to theoretically predict the behaviour of our four reference cations in cellulose degradation products formed in concrete interstitial waters. In parallel, we have measured their solubility in real cellulose degradation solutions. Solubility predictions are correct for transition metals, but not for rare earth cations. In this case the complexes which have been identified with tetra hydroxy pentanoic acid are not stable enough to dissolve metallic hydroxides. In real degradation solutions, other compounds would account for the enhancement of rare earth elements solubility.

  9. Geomechanical problems in study of radioactive wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yixing

    1987-01-01

    Methods for both low-intermediate level radioactive wastes disposal and high level radioactive waste disposal were introduced briefly. Geomechanical problems in radioactive wastes disposal were discussed. Some suggestions were proposed for the radioactive wastes disposal in China

  10. Characteristics of medically related low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, G.J. Jr.; Teele, B.

    1986-07-01

    This report describes a survey that identified the current sources of medically generated radioactive wastes. Included are recommendations on how to reduce the volume of medically-related material classified as low-level radioactive wastes, to improve handling techniques for long-lived radioisotopes, and for options for the use of radioactive materials in medical studies. 8 refs., 11 tabs

  11. Standards for high level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.; Steindler, M.J.; Pomeroy, P.W.; Hinze, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Standards for a high level radioactive waste repository can be expressed in terms of qualitative or quantitative safety goals, acceptable risks and/or health effects to members of the public, or the degree of confinement of the waste. Such standards can also be expressed in terms of design or operation, the total system or subparts thereof, temporal or spatial considerations, or in comparison to other risks in daily life. On the basis of its review, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste has concluded that standards for such a repository should be hierarchical in structure, they should be expressed in a form that is applicable both to facility design and operation, they should apply to the total system, and to the extent possible they should be expressed in terms of dose rate limits for members of the public

  12. Inheritance from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Kume, Tamikazu; Makuuchi, Keizo; Inoue, Tomio; Komoda, Fumio; Maeda, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    A benefit born as an inheritance from low-level radioactive waste is considered. In the present study, a direct economic scale of application of radiation in Japanese industry, agriculture and medicine is taken as parameter for quantifying the size of benefit. In 2006, the economic scale is about 21 billion dollars (b$) for industry, 2.5b$ for agriculture and 14b$ for medicine. Economic scale covered the all fields is totaled 37b$. Due to those benefit, one can drive a car and play an internet, pleasure the dinning food. Diagnosis and treatment by nuclear medicine can possible to survive the millions of lives and resulting in improving the quality of life, decreasing pain and suffering. However, most Japanese (80%>) may not aware those benefits to date. This report is prepared for aiming at disseminating those benefits to our peoples. (author)

  13. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F. P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-07-01

    A new 160 MeV H- linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities.

  14. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, J.; La Torre, F.P.; Silari, M.; Vollaire, J.

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H − linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling water circuit were also quantified. The aim of this paper is to provide data of sufficiently general interest to be used for similar studies at other intermediate-energy proton accelerator facilities

  15. Annual report of the Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes (CSTFA) - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2011 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  16. Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  17. Alternative concepts for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal: Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This conceptual design report is provided by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Low-Level Waste Management Program to assist states and compact regions in developing new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities in accordance with the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendment Act of 1985. The report provides conceptual designs and evaluations of six widely considered concepts for LLW disposal. These are shallow land disposal (SLD), intermediate depth disposal (IDD), below-ground vaults (BGV), above-ground vaults (AGV), modular concrete canister disposal (MCCD), earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB). 40 refs., 45 figs., 77 tabs

  18. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  19. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government's system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government's program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

  20. PNGMDR - Characterisation of intermediate-level long-lived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents the status of the characterization of intermediate-level long-lived wastes which are warehoused on exploited EDF sites or which will be produced during the deconstruction of first-generation reactors. It addresses aspects related to characterisation and packaging of wastes produced before 2015. More specifically, it addresses aspects related to contamination and to activation. Contamination is assessed by measurements whereas activation assessment is based on numerical simulations associated with measurements performed during parcel production. After having mentioned the concerned reactors, the document presents the methodology adopted for these assessments, and reports the progress status of the characterization process for these intermediate-level long-lived wastes

  1. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-11-01

    Reports are presented on work on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate-level radioactive wastes: comparative evaluation of α and β γ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; α damage in non-reference waste form matrix materials; leaching mechanisms and modelling; inorganic ion exchange treatment of medium active effluents; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid waste; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; effects of radiation on the properties of cemented MTR waste forms; equilibrium leach testing of cemented MTR waste forms; radiolytic oxidation of radionuclides; immobilisation of liquid organic waste; quality control, non-conformances and corrective action. (U.K.)

  2. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

  3. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders

  4. Ocean disposal of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This study confirms, subject to limitations of current knowledge, the engineering feasibility of free fall penetrators for High Level Radioactive Waste disposal in deep ocean seabed sediments. Restricted sediment property information is presently the principal bar to an unqualified statement of feasibility. A 10m minimum embedment and a 500 year engineered barrier waste containment life are identified as appropriate basic penetrator design criteria at this stage. A range of designs are considered in which the length, weight and cross section of the penetrator are varied. Penetrators from 3m to 20m long and 2t to 100t in weight constructed of material types and thicknesses to give a 500 year containment life are evaluated. The report concludes that the greatest degree of confidence is associated with performance predictions for 75 to 200 mm thick soft iron and welded joints. A range of lengths and capacities from a 3m long single waste canister penetrator to a 20m long 12 canister design are identified as meriting further study. Estimated embedment depths for this range of penetrator designs lie between 12m and 90m. Alternative manufacture, transport and launch operations are assessed and recommendations are made. (author)

  5. Expertise concerning the request by the ZWILAG Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG for granting of a licence for the building and operation of the Central Intermediate Storage Facility for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    On July 15, 1993, the Intermediate Storage Facility Wuerenlingen AG (ZWILAG) submitted a request to the Swiss Federal Council for granting of a license for the construction and operation of a central intermediate storage facility for radioactive wastes. The project foresees intermediate storage halls as well as conditioning and incineration installations. The Federal Agency for the Safety of Nuclear Installations (HSK) has to examine the project from the point of view of nuclear safety. The present report presents the results of this examination. Different waste types have to be treated in ZWILAG: spent fuel assemblies from Swiss nuclear power plants (KKWs); vitrified, highly radioactive wastes from reprocessing; intermediate and low-level radioactive wastes from KKWs and from reprocessing; wastes from the dismantling of nuclear installations; wastes from medicine, industry and research. The wastes are partitioned into three categories: high-level (HAA) radioactive wastes containing, amongst others, α-active nuclides, intermediate-level (MAA) radioactive wastes and low-level (SAA) radioactive wastes. The projected installation consists of three repository halls for each waste category, a hot cell, a conditioning plant and an incineration and melting installation. The HAA repository can accept 200 transport and storage containers with vitrified high-level wastes or spent fuel assemblies. The expected radioactivity amounts to 10 20 Bq, including 10 18 Bq of α-active nuclides. The thermal power produced by decay is released to the environment by natural circulation of air. The ventilation system is designed for a maximum power of 5.8 MW. Severe conditions are imposed to the containers as far as tightness and shielding against radiation is concerned. In the repository for MAA wastes the maximum radioactivity is 10 18 Bq with 10 15 Bq of α-active nuclides. The maximum thermal power of 250 kW is removed by forced air cooling. Because of the high level of radiation the

  6. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  7. Intermediate-Level Knowledge in Child-Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barendregt, Wolmet; Torgersson, Olof; Eriksson, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Based on an analysis of all papers at IDC from 2003 to 2016 this paper urges the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) field to start formulating intermediate-level knowledge, in the form of e.g. strong concepts. Our analysis showed that 40% of all papers at the Interaction Design and Children confere...

  8. Solidification of intermediate level liquid waste - ILLW, CEMEX waste form qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Andrea, V.; Guerra, M.; Pancotti, F.; Maio, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Sogin EUREX Facility about 125 m 3 of intermediate level radioactive waste and about 113 m 3 of low level radioactive waste, produced during the re-processing of MTR and CANDU fuel, are stored. Solidification of these wastes is planned in order to fulfill the specific requirements established by the Safety Authority, taking into account the criteria set up in a Technical Guide on the issue of radioactive waste management. The design of a cementation plant (CEMEX) of all liquid radioactive wastes is currently ongoing. The process requires that the liquid waste is neutralized with NaOH (NaOH 19 M) and metered into 440 liter drum together with the cement, while the mixture is stirred by a lost paddle ('in drum mixing process'). The qualification of the Waste Form consists of all the activities demonstrating that the final cemented product has the minimum requirements (mechanical, chemical and physical characteristics) compliant with all the subsequent management phases: long-term interim storage, transport and long-term disposal of the waste. All tests performed to qualify the conditioning process for immobilizing first extraction cycle (MTR and CANDU) and second extraction cycle liquid wastes, gave results in compliance with the minimum requirements established for disposal

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations worldwide, with special reference to organic compounds in leachates and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrook, P.E.; McGahan, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are defined and ground disposal practices worldwide are discussed. The organic content of low-level wastes is tabulated and the organic composition of leachates and gaseous emissions from low-level wastes in the U.K. and U.S.A. are discussed. The radionuclide content of these leachates is tabulated. (U.K.)

  10. Issue briefs on low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report contains 4 Issue Briefs on low-level radioactive wastes. They are entitled: Handling, Packaging, and Transportation, Economics of LLW Management, Public Participation and Siting, and Low Level Waste Management

  11. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  12. Low-level radioactive waste management. Background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, R.

    1993-11-01

    The management of radioactive waste is one of the most serious environmental problems facing Canadians. From the early industrial uses of radioactive material in the 1930s to the development of nuclear power reactors and the medical and experimental use of radioisotopes today, there has been a steady accumulation of waste products. Although the difficulties involved in radioactive waste management are considerable, responsible solutions are possible. This paper will discuss low-level radioactive waste, including its production, the amounts in storage, the rate of waste accumulation and possible strategies for its management. (author). 2 figs

  13. Low-level radioactive waste management in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In medical establishments, radioisotopes are used in diagnostic techniques, in chemotherapy or in radioimmunology. Hospitable radioactive wastes are characterized by polymorphism and low activity levels in a great volume. These wastes are also associated with infectivity and toxicity. This paper makes a balance and describes new radioactive waste management proposals. 4 refs.; 3 tabs.; 1 fig

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: radiation protection laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapuis, A.M.; Guetat, P.; Garbay, H.

    1991-01-01

    The politics of radioactive waste management is a part of waste management and activity levels are one of the components of potential waste pollutions in order to assume man and environment safety. French regulations about personnel and public' radiation protection defines clearly the conditions of radioactive waste processing, storage, transport and disposal. But below some activity levels definite by radiation protection laws, any administrative procedures or processes can be applied for lack of legal regulations. So regulations context is not actually ready to allow a rational low-level radioactive waste management. 15 refs.; 4 tabs.; 3 figs

  15. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  16. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  17. The radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rainwaters, caused by the accident in NPP 'Lenin'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barishicj, D.; Koshuticj, K.; Kvastek, K.; Lulicj, S.; Tuta, J.; Vertachnik, A.; Vrhovac, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the radioactive contamination level in Croatia by means of radioactive rainwaters, caused by the accident in NPP 'Lenin', has been described. The results represent the sum of measured and evaluated data, the map of the radioactive contamination in Croatia caused by radioactive rainwaters between April, 28 to May, 20 1986 has been constructed. (author) 3 tabs.; 5 figs

  18. Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Technical career opportunities in high-level radioactive waste management are briefly described in the areas of: Hydrology; geology; biological sciences; mathematics; engineering; heavy equipment operation; and skilled labor and crafts

  19. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Tables are presented of trends in annual emissions of radioactive gaseous effluents at sites of civil establishments in the U.K. Trends in the discharge to surface and coastal water sites in the U.K. and trends in the radioactivity of solid wastes dumped in the N.E. Atlantic and in the volume and activity level of wastes disposed at sites in the U.K. are presented. Tables of radioactivity in samples of fish and shellfish at selected sites are presented. Radioactivity from global fallout and the annual mean ratio of 90 Sr to calcium, and concentrations of 137 Cs in milk are given. Trends in estimated collective doses from the consumption of fish and shellfish in the U.K. and Europe are presented. (U.K.)

  20. Low- and intermediate-level waste repository-induced effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leupin, O.X.; Marschall, P.; Johnson, L.; Cloet, V.; Schneider, J.; Smith, P.; Savage, D.; Senger, R.

    2016-10-01

    This status report aims at describing and assessing the interactions of the radioactive waste emplaced in a low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repository with the engineered materials and the Opalinus Clay host rock. The Opalinus Clay has a thickness of about 100 m in the proposed siting regions. Among other things the results are used to steer the RD and D programme of NAGRA. The repository-induced effects considered in this report are of the following broad types: - Thermal effects: i.e. effects arising principally from the heat generated by the waste and the setting of cement. - Rock-mechanical effects: i.e. effects arising from the mechanical disturbance to the rock caused by the excavation of the emplacement caverns and other underground structures. - Hydraulic and gas-related effects: i.e. the effects of repository resaturation and of gas generation, e.g. due to the corrosion of metals within the repository, on the host rock and engineered barriers. - Chemical effects: i.e. chemical interactions between the waste, the engineered materials and the host rock. Deep geological repositories are designed to avoid or mitigate the impact of potentially detrimental repository-induced effects on long-term safety. For the repository under consideration in the present report, an assessment of those repository-induced effects that remain shows that detrimental chemical and mechanical impacts are largely confined to the rock adjacent to the excavations, thermal impacts are minimal and gas effects can be mitigated by appropriate design measures to reduce gas production and provide pathways for gas transport that limit gas pressure build-up (engineered gas transport system, or EGTS). Specific measures that are part of the current reference design are discussed in relation to their significance with respect to repository-induced effects. The disposal system described in this report provides a system of passive barriers with multiple safety functions. The disposal

  1. Problems related to final disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    According to this presentation, the radioactivity of the total amount of radioactive waste accumulated in Russia to date is 1.5*10 9 Ci and of spent fuel 4.5*10 9 Ci. A table is given that shows the source, type, volume activity and storage type under the responsibility of the different departments and enterprises. 99.9% of the wastes are accumulated at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation. Some companies inject their liquid wastes from ionisation sources and intermediate liquid waste from the nuclear power industry into deep-seated reliably isolated aquifers. The Mayak plant has released liquid low-level and intermediate wastes into artificial reservoirs and Lake Karachay. Liquid high-level wastes are always stored in special tanks at interim storage facilities. A large number of nuclear submarines are laid up in North-Western Russia and East Russia, with spent fuel still in place as the interim storages in these regions are filled up and there are no conditioning plants. Underground disposal is considered the best way of isolating radioactive waste for as long as it is hazardous to the environment. Two new technologies are discussed. One involves including long-lived isotopes in high-stable mineral matrices, the other uses selective separation from the bulk of wastes. The matrices should be disposed of deep in the Earth's crust, at least 2-3 km down. Liquid waste of caesium-strontium fraction must be transformed into glass-like form and stored underground at a depth of a few hundred metres. Short-lived low level and intermediate level wastes should be conditioned and then deposited in subsurface ferroconcrete repositories constructed in clays. Finally, the presentation discusses the selection of sites and conditions for radioactive waste disposal. Two sites are discussed, the Mayak plant and a possible site at Mining Chemical Combine in Krasnoyarsk-26

  2. Low-Level Radioactive Waste temporary storage issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 gave responsibility for the disposal of commercially generated low-level radioactive waste to the States. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 attached additional requirements for specific State milestones. Compact regions were formed and host States selected to establish disposal facilities for the waste generated within their borders. As a result of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, the existing low-level radioactive waste disposal sites will close at the end of 1992; the only exception is the Richland, Washington, site, which will remain open to the Northwest Compact region only. All host States are required to provide for disposal of low-level radioactive waste by January 1, 1996. States also have the option of taking title to the waste after January 1, 1993, or taking title by default on January 1, 1996. Low-level radioactive waste disposal will not be available to most States on January 1, 1993. The most viable option between that date and the time disposal is available is storage. Several options for storage can be considered. In some cases, a finite storage time will be permitted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the generator site, not to exceed five years. If disposal is not available within that time frame, other options must be considered. There are several options that include some form of extension for storage at the generator site, moving the waste to an existing storage site, or establishing a new storage facility. Each of these options will include differing issues specific to the type of storage sought

  3. Radiochemical methodologies applied to analytical characterization of low and intermediate level wastes from nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Júnior, Aluísio Souza R.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Oliveira, Thiago C. de; Amaral, Ângela M.; Franco, Milton B., E-mail: rpgm@cdtn.br, E-mail: reisas@cdtn.br, E-mail: gfk@cdtn.br, E-mail: esct@cdtn.br, E-mail: tco@cdtn.br, E-mail: ama@cdtn.br, E-mail: francom@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work is to present radiochemical methodologies developed at CDTN/CNEN in order to answer a program for isotopic inventory of radioactive wastes from Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants. In this program some radionuclides, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 55}Fe, {sup 59}Ni, {sup 63}Ni, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 93}Zr, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}+{sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 242}Cm e {sup 243}+{sup 244}Cm, were determined in Low Level Wastes (LLW) and Intermediate Level Wastes (ILW) and a protocol of analytical methodologies based on radiochemical separation steps and spectrometric and nuclear techniques was established. (author)

  4. Assessment of low levels of radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a general methodology for the verification and clearance of sites contaminated with radioactive materials; general expressions for the risk or health detriment are derived. Techniques are developed, using Bayesian decision theory, to optimize the resources allocated to a site monitoring procedure, and to construct the probability distribution of the spatial distribution of specific activity within a site. A technique is also developed to determine the probability that a localized source of specified characteristics will not be detected by the monitoring procedure employed. The application of these techniques is illustrated by means of simple examples. This report confirms that a very large number of measurements are needed if a source of localized activity is to be detected with a high probability, and demonstrates how prior information about past radiological practices might be used to increase the probability of detection. Proposals are made for a programme of research to determine whether or not representative sites can be verified using current measuring techniques. (author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste management handbook series: Low-level radioactive waste management in medical and biomedical research institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    Development of this handbook began in 1982 at the request of the Radhealth Branch of the California Department of Health Services. California Assembly Bill 1513 directed the DHS to ''evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of (1) reducing the volume, reactivity, and chemical and radioactive hazard of (low-level radioactive) waste and (2) substituting nonradioactive or short-lived radioactive materials for those radionuclides which require long-term isolation from the environment. A contract awarded to the University of California at Irvine-UCI (California Std. Agreement 79902), to develop a document focusing on methods for decreasing low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generation in institutions was a result of that directive. In early 1985, the US Department of Energy, through EG and G Idaho, Inc., contracted with UCI to expand, update, and revise the California text for national release

  6. The basics in transportation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allred, W.E.

    1998-06-01

    This bulletin gives a basic understanding about issues and safety standards that are built into the transportation system for radioactive material and waste in the US. An excellent safety record has been established for the transport of commercial low-level radioactive waste, or for that matter, all radioactive materials. This excellent safety record is primarily because of people adhering to strict regulations governing the transportation of radioactive materials. This bulletin discusses the regulatory framework as well as the regulations that set the standards for packaging, hazard communications (communicating the potential hazard to workers and the public), training, inspections, routing, and emergency response. The excellent safety record is discussed in the last section of the bulletin

  7. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  8. Low and medium level radioactive waste repository: risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de; Bueno, Lilian de Oliveira; Vieira, Martha Marques Ferreira; Fonseca, Edvaldo Roberto Paiva da; Bellintani, Sandra Aparecida [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: araquino@ipen.br, e-mail: lbueno@ipen.br, e-mail: mmvieira@ipen.br, e-mail: efonseca@ipen.br, e-mail: sbellint@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the risk perception associated to the installation of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLRW and ILRW) disposal facilities. The purpose is to give support for the implementation of a repository in Brazil. Public acceptance results from a long term work and trust is vital for the process as it takes long to be conquered but might be shortly lost. Therefore, it is essential to care about the way each step is conducted. The knowledge about the system and the risks, the comprehension about these risks, the commitment with safety, adequate support systems for the project (legislation, involved institutions) and the excellence as a goal to be reached are extremely important parameters. The involvement of all interested parties in the decision-making process is condition for a successful and publicly acceptable implementation of such project. The steps for public acceptance of a repository are summarized as follow: Risk perception: to verify how the local population understand and feel the installation of a repository in the region. Media observatory: to continuously follow the news reaching the region where the repository will be installed, including different media. Local population social/economical/cultural profile identification: to determine the local population social/economical/cultural profile; to conduct a survey to know their expectations, allowing the proposal of compensation and incentives to fully account for their expectations. Finally, the philosophy governing this Project is: on doubt, the public must be heard and only after this public hearing the policies concerning the project shall be formulated. (author)

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Calvin B.; Kerr, Thomas A.; Williams, R. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Two national systems comprise the low-level radioactive waste management system in the United States of America. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulates low-level radioactive waste produced in the public sector (commercial waste), and the U.S. Department of Energy manages low-level radioactive waste produced by government-sponsored programs. The primary distinction between the two national systems is the source of regulatory control. This paper discusses two issues critical to the success of each system: the site selection process used by the commercial low-level waste disposal system, and the evaluation process used to determine configuration of the DOE waste management system. The two national systems take different approaches to reach the same goals, which are increased social responsibility, protection of public health and safety, and protection of the environment

  10. Low-Level Radioactive Waste siting simulation information package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a simulation exercise designed to facilitate the process of siting and licensing disposal facilities for low-level radioactive waste. The siting simulation can be conducted at a workshop or conference, can involve 14-70 participants (or more), and requires approximately eight hours to complete. The exercise is available for use by states, regional compacts, or other organizations for use as part of the planning process for low-level waste disposal facilities. This information package describes the development, content, and use of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Simulation. Information is provided on how to organize a workshop for conducting the simulation. 1 ref., 1 fig

  11. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. The US Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program is directed toward a coordinated program covering the period from low-level radioactive waste generation through the decommissioning of the disposal site. This paper addresses the treatment portion of the program. The development efforts include: mechanical methods for metal and compactible waste volume reduction; incineration of trash or other combustibles through the use of controlled air, cyclone, or molten glass furnaces; ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, biological or chemical destruction of nitrates; adsorption treatment of low-concentration aqueous waste streams; combustion of organic liquids; and smelting of metal wastes to reduce their volume and conserve our natural resources. (author)

  12. Modeling of concrete carbonation in deep geological disposal of intermediate level waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poyet S.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of atmospheric carbonation of Intermediate-Level Long-lived radioactive Waste (ILLW concrete packages were conducted to evaluate their possible chemical degradations. Two-phase liquid water-air flow is combined with gas component diffusion processes leading to a progressive drying of the concrete.Complete drying of the 11 cm thick waste disposal package wall occurs over a period ranging from 2 years for the low-performance concrete to 10 years for the high-performance concrete. The drying process slows down when transport characteristics of concretes are enhanced. Carbonation depths in the order of 2 to 3 cm in 100 years are predicted for this cementitious component. However, these values are slightly overestimated compared to experimental data. Also the kinetic model of mineral reactivity requires improvements with respect to the protective effect of secondary carbonates and to thermodynamic data.

  13. OPG's deep geologic repository for low and intermediate level waste - recent progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides a status report on Canada's first project to build a permanent repository for the long-term management of radioactive waste. Ontario Power Generation has initiated a project to construct a deep geologic repository for low- and intermediate-level waste at the Bruce Nuclear Site, at a depth in the range of 600 to 800 m in an Ordovician-age argillaceous limestone formation. The project is currently undergoing an Environmental Assessment and consulting companies in the areas of environmental assessment, geoscientific site characterization, engineering and safety assessment have been hired and technical studies are underway. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling will be initiated in the fall of 2006. The next major milestone for the project is the submission of the Environmental Assessment report, currently scheduled for December 2008. (author)

  14. Managing low-level radioactive waste in Massachusetts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bander, S.R.; Goldstein, M.E.

    1983-12-01

    As one of the country's largest generators of low-level radioactive waste, Massachusetts has begun independently seeking solutions to the questions surrounding low-level waste management issues. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Radiation Control Program, obtained funding from the U.S. Department ofEnergy through EG and G, Idaho, Inc. to develop a low-level waste management strategy for the Commonwealth. The Working Group was made up of individuals from various waste generating industries, environmental and public interest groups, medical and academic institutions, and affected state agencies. This final report document contains the following staff project reports: Proposed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Plan for The Commonwealth of Massachusetts, February 1983 and Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management in Massachusetts - Actions to be Considered for Implementation in 1984-1986, December 1983. These two staff reports represent the completion of the Massachusetts Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Project. The first report provides some of the background material to the issues and some of the alternative courses of action which can be considered by state policy-makers. The second report provides the next phase in the process by delineating specific steps which may be taken before 1986 in order to address the low-level waste problem, and the estimated amount of time needed to complete each step

  15. High-level radioactive waste disposal type and theoretical analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yingfa; Wu Yanchun; Luo Xianqi; Cui Yujun

    2006-01-01

    Study of high-level radioactive waste disposal is necessary for the nuclear electrical development; the determination of nuclear waste depository type is one of importance safety. Based on the high-level radioactive disposal type, the relative research subjects are proposed, then the fundamental research characteristics of nuclear waste disposition, for instance: mechanical and hydraulic properties of rock mass, saturated and unsaturated seepage, chemical behaviors, behavior of special soil, and gas behavior, etc. are introduced, the relative coupling equations are suggested, and a one dimensional result is proposed. (authors)

  16. STUTTERING THERAPY FOR A CHILD AT INTERMEDIATE STUTTERING LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevzeta SALIHOVIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuttering therapy very often demands combination of various approaches or its modification. The main purpose of this study was to present an integrated approach to stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy for an intermediate school-age male stutterer (11 years old.The therapy for the child lasted for 12 months, sessions have been carried out twice a week, each session lasted for 45 minutes. The child still attends the therapy. The therapy uses integration of stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy. For the purpose of the fluency shaping therapy, delayed auditory feedback program is applied. During the stuttering modification therapy the child has been taught how to stutter more easily which implies prolongation of all sounds in words on which child stutters, with easy and soft transition from one sound to another. It is continuously being worked with the child on reducing negative feelings and attitudes as well as elimination of avoidance of words and speaking situations. We explained to the parents the treatment program and their role in the program realization. We also explained the possible causes of stuttering, and tried to identify and reduce fluency distractors, and engage the child in as many situations as possible which improved speech fluency.After the application of this program the child has improved fluency during the conversation in clinical and nonclinical conditions (environment. This fluency consists of spontaneous and controlled fluency. Furthermore, fear of speaking and avoidance of speech situations are significantly reduced. On the basis of the applied therapy on the child at intermediate stuttering level it can be concluded that it is possible to integrate successfully both approaches: stuttering modification therapy and fluency shaping therapy.

  17. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  18. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  19. Low-level radioactive waste management. Volume IV. Radioactive waste solidification and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizollahi, F.

    1979-08-01

    This study evaluates low-level waste management technology for light water reactors and identifies the problems that must be solved within the next few years to allow for the orderly development of large-scale management of low-level radioactive wastes generated at nuclear power facilities and by the nuclear power industry in California. This study provides an independent assessment of current and projected low-level waste management techniques, technology, and advanced volume reduction schemes. This assessment, when evaluated, will become part of the California Energy Commission's policy for licensing sites and facilities for proposed nuclear power plants in California. The results of the study are published in five volumes: Current Power-Reactor Low-Level Radwaste Management Practices; Forecast of Low-Level Radwaste Management Requirements; Feasibility of Volume-Reduction Processes; Radioactive Waste Solidification and Handling Practices; and Policy Recommendations, Conclusions, and Summary

  20. Low and Intermediate Level Waste Repository: Radiation and Public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, M.

    1998-01-01

    Some of basic elements related to public participation in radioactive waste management in Croatia are underlined in the paper. Most of them are created or led by the APO-Hazardous Waste Management Agency. Present efforts in improvement of public participation in the field radioactive waste management are important in particular due to negligible role of public in environmentally related issues during former Yugoslav political system. For this reason it is possible to understand the public fearing to be deceived or neglected again. Special attention is paid to the current APO editions related to public information and education in the field of radioactive waste management. It is important because only the well-informed public can present an active and respectful factor in hazardous and radioactive waste management process. (author)

  1. Immobilization of intermediate-level wastes in geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, M. Y.; Merz, E.

    1994-08-01

    Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) are immobilized in monolithic solids of low dispersibility. Alkali-activated aluminosilicate binders, known as geopolymers, are investigated in this work for possible application in ILW solidification. Results show that Sr is reasonably immobilized. Its concentrations in water were below the detection limit. In Q-brine, 2-7 wt% of Sr were leached in 6 months. Cs was leached more rapidly than Sr. Leached fractions were 1-11 wt% and 14-28 wt% in water and Q-brine, respectively, depending on the geopolymer composition. 20-40 wt% of Mo were leached in water, and 4-18 wt% were leached in Q-brine. Tolerance of the solidified matrix to water was quite adequate. Samples maintained their shape, dimensions, and strength to the end of experiments. On the contrary, tolerance of most compositions to Q-brine was poor. Cement-glass, for comparison, gave better results under the same conditions. Concentrations of Mo and Sr were below the detection levels in all cases. Cs was also not detectable in Q-brine. Only 4-6 wt% of Cs were leached into water. In addition, tolerance to both water and Q-brine was quite good

  2. Pollination benefits are maximized at intermediate nutrient levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Giovanni; Lami, Francesco; Marini, Lorenzo

    2017-08-16

    Yield production in flowering crops depends on both nutrient availability and pollination, but their relative roles and potential interactions are poorly understood. We measured pollination benefits to yield in sunflower, combining a gradient in insect pollination (0, 25, 50, 100%) with a continuous gradient in nitrogen (N) fertilization (from 0 to 150 kg N ha -1 ) in an experiment under realistic soil field conditions. We found that pollination benefits to yield were maximized at intermediate levels of N availability, bolstering yield by approximately 25% compared with complete pollinator exclusion. Interestingly, we found little decrease in yield when insect visits were reduced by 50%, indicating that the incremental contribution of pollination by insects to yield is greater when the baseline pollination service provision is very low. Our findings provide strong evidence for interactive, nonlinear effects of pollination and resource availability on seed production. Our results support ecological intensification as a promising strategy for sustainable management of agroecosystems. In particular, we found optimal level of pollination to potentially compensate for lower N applications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Development of Data Base on Radioactive Discharges and Environmental Activity Levels in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokal, B.; Krizman, M.

    2003-01-01

    Radioactivity monitoring in the environment in Slovenia has been currently performed on a regular basis as a monitoring of global radioactive contamination and as operational monitoring in the surroundings of facilities with radioactive discharges. Environmental radioactivity monitoring due to atmospheric nuclear bomb tests in Slovenia started in 1961, while monitoring of radioactive discharges from nuclear facilities in Slovenia started in early 1980s with the extent programmes: in the Krsko nuclear power plant in 1981, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Zirovski vrh (1985) and in the research reactor at Brinje near Ljubljana (1986). Both categories of the results are documented in written reports and sent to the competent authorities, mostly on annual basis. According to the requirements of the European Commission (Commission Recommendation of 8. June 2000 on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty concerning the monitoring of the levels of the radioactivity in the environment for the purpose of assessing the exposure of the population as a whole (2000/473/Euratom) and Commission Recommendation of 6. December 1999 on the application of Article 37 of the Euratom Treaty (1999/829/Euratom)) and on initiative of the IAEA (IAEA Document International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Project International Data base on Discharges of Radioactive Material to the Environment, 2000) the Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) started in 2002 with development of the computerised data base on environmental data and radioactive discharges data for the most facilities, specially for the nuclear fuel cycle. At present the environmental database contains the data on global contamination of air, surface waters, tap water sources and food chain (1 37C s, 9 0S r) and also on levels of major natural radionuclides (7 B e, 2 10P b, 2 26R a, 4 0K ). Data base on radioactive discharges for the recent years comprises the activities of fission and activation

  4. Membrane methods for the treatment of low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrzewska-Trznadel, G.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Harasimowicz, M.; Tyminski, B.

    2001-01-01

    Membrane processes have been investigated at Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (INCT) since eighties. Different polymeric membranes were tested with radioactive solutions in long time operations. Such membrane processes as ultrafiltration, 'seeded' ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis were studied in a laboratory scale and in pilot plant experiments. The experiments show the advantage of membrane methods over some other processes used for radioactive wastes treatment. The RO method is being implemented at Institute of Atomic Energy in Swierk (Warsaw), where liquid radioactive wastes from all of Poland are collected and processed. Another method for liquid radioactive wastes treatment employing hydrophobic polymer membrane was developed at INCT. The process called membrane distillation was investigated for some years and the pilot plant for the processing 50 dm 3 /h of radioactive effluents was constructed. The pilot plant experiments show membrane distillation allows complete purification of liquid radioactive waste in one stage and does not need additional processes to ensure sufficient purity of water discharged to the environment. Comparison between two processes: membrane distillation and reverse osmosis showed that in some cases MD could be more beneficial. (author)

  5. International high-level radioactive waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.

    1996-01-01

    Although nuclear technologies benefit everyone, the associated nuclear wastes are a widespread and rapidly growing problem. Nuclear power plants are in operation in 25 countries, and are under construction in others. Developing countries are hungry for electricity to promote economic growth; industrialized countries are eager to export nuclear technologies and equipment. These two ingredients, combined with the rapid shrinkage of worldwide fossil fuel reserves, will increase the utilization of nuclear power. All countries utilizing nuclear power produce at least a few tens of tons of spent fuel per year. That spent fuel (and reprocessing products, if any) constitutes high-level nuclear waste. Toxicity, long half-life, and immunity to chemical degradation make such waste an almost permanent threat to human beings. This report discusses the advantages of utilizing repositories for disposal of nuclear wastes

  6. Corrosion susceptibility of steel drums to be used as containers for intermediate level nuclear waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffó G.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a study of the corrosion susceptibility of steel drums in contact with cemented ion-exchange resins contaminated with different types and concentrations of aggressive species. A special type of specimen was manufactured to simulate the cemented ion-exchange resins in the drum. The evolution of the corrosion potential and the corrosion rate of the steel, as well as the electrical resistivity of the matrix were monitored over a time period of 900 days. The aggressive species studied were chloride ions (the main ionic species of concern and sulphate ions (produced during radiolysis of the cationic exchange-resins after cementation. The work was complemented with an analysis of the corrosion products formed on the steel in each condition, as well as the morphology of the corrosion products. When applying the results obtained in the present work to estimate the corrosion depth of the steel drumscontaining the cemented radioactive waste after a period of 300 years (foreseen durability of the Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste facility in Argentina , it is found that in the most unfavourable case (high chloride contamination, the corrosion penetration will be considerably lower than the thickness of the wall of the steel drums.

  7. Aube's storage centre for low and intermediate level wastes: Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the ANDRA (the French national Agency for radioactive waste management), its missions, its facilities, and its financing, this report reviews the activity of its storage centre for low and intermediate level wastes located on the territory of three towns in the Aube district. It briefly describes the facilities, the different categories of liquid effluents and their associated networks. It indicates some important figures characterizing the centre's operation. It describes the main safety objectives, technical measures and results in terms of radioprotection. It reports the main events in the relationship with the safety authority. It also briefly describes the incidents and accidents which occurred in 2008. It presents and specifies some results of the numerous environmental analyses performed around the centre (radioactivity measurements in air, water, milk, mushrooms, fishes, and so on), comments the radiologic impact of releases, and actions to improve these results. It gives assessments of the amount of produced wastes and describes their processing and management. Information actions are presented and the CHSCT (Committee of hygiene, safety, and working conditions) are reported

  8. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Low-level radioactive waste disposal facility closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.J.; Ferns, T.W.; Otis, M.D.; Marts, S.T.; DeHaan, M.S.; Schwaller, R.G.; White, G.J.

    1990-11-01

    Part I of this report describes and evaluates potential impacts associated with changes in environmental conditions on a low-level radioactive waste disposal site over a long period of time. Ecological processes are discussed and baselines are established consistent with their potential for causing a significant impact to low-level radioactive waste facility. A variety of factors that might disrupt or act on long-term predictions are evaluated including biological, chemical, and physical phenomena of both natural and anthropogenic origin. These factors are then applied to six existing, yet very different, low-level radioactive waste sites. A summary and recommendations for future site characterization and monitoring activities is given for application to potential and existing sites. Part II of this report contains guidance on the design and implementation of a performance monitoring program for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. A monitoring programs is described that will assess whether engineered barriers surrounding the waste are effectively isolating the waste and will continue to isolate the waste by remaining structurally stable. Monitoring techniques and instruments are discussed relative to their ability to measure (a) parameters directly related to water movement though engineered barriers, (b) parameters directly related to the structural stability of engineered barriers, and (c) parameters that characterize external or internal conditions that may cause physical changes leading to enhanced water movement or compromises in stability. Data interpretation leading to decisions concerning facility closure is discussed. 120 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs

  10. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Chapters are devoted to the following: introduction; a brief description of low-level radioactive wastes and their management; system-side issues; waste reduction and packaging; transportation; disposal; issues for further study; and summary of recommendations. Nine appendices are included

  11. Low level air radioactivity measurements in Prague, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rulík, P.; Malá, H.; Bečková, V.; Hölgye, Z.; Schlesingerová, E.; Světlík, Ivo; Škrkal, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 67, - (2009), s. 969-973 ISSN 0969-8043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : atmospheric radionuclides * monitoring * low level activities Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.094, year: 2009

  12. Report on the evaluation under the Act No 24/2006 of Coll. Environmental Impact Assessment Law Extension of National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal low-level radioactive waste and construction of very low-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanusik, V.; Moravek, J.; Kusovska, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The report elaborated assessment of the environmental impact of extension of the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. Within this repository also the premises for very low level radioactive waste deposition should be built. The assessment report was prepared according to the Act no. 24/2006 Coll, as amended 'On the assessment of environmental impacts' Annex No. 11 upon The scope of assessment issued by the competent authority on the basis of assessment of Intent for this action. The report was prepared in VUJE, Inc. Trnava for Nuclear and Decommissioning Company, Inc. Bratislava (JAVYS).

  13. Commissioning of the very low level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This press kit presents the solution retained by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) for the management of very low level radioactive wastes. These wastes mainly come from the dismantling of decommissioned nuclear facilities and also from other industries (chemical, metal and other industries). The storage concept is a sub-surface disposal facility (Morvilliers center, Aube) with a clay barrier and a synthetic membrane system. The regulatory framework, and the details of the licensing, of the commissioning and of the environment monitoring are recalled. The detailed planing of the project and some exploitation data are given. (J.S.)

  14. Operation of low-level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.C.; Drolet, T.S.; Stewart, W.B.; Campbell, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    Ontaro Hydro's radioactive waste incinerator designed to reduce the volume of low-level combustible wastes from nuclear generating station's was declared in-service in September 1977. Hiterto about 1500 m 3 of combustible waste have been processed in over 90 separate batches. The process has resulted in 40:1 reduction in the volume and 12.5:1 reduction in the weight of the Type 1 wastes. The ultimate volume reduction factor after storage is 23:1. Airborne emissions has been maintained at the order of 10 -3 to 10 -5 % of the Derived Emission Limits. Incineration of radioactive combustible wastes has been proven feasible, and will remain as one of the most important processes in Ontario Hydro's Radioactive Waste Management Program

  15. SPECIAL ANALYSIS: REVISION OF INTERMEDIATE LEVEL VAULT DISPOSAL LIMITS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLACH, GREGORY

    2004-07-20

    New disposal limits have been computed for the IL vaults based on several revisions to the performance assessment. The most important changes are implementation of a 1,000 year time for compliance, rather than 10,000 years, and consideration of additional radon precursors. Other revisions include refinement of the aquifer mesh to more accurately model the footprint of two intermediate level (IL) vaults, a new Pu chemistry model accounting for the different transport properties of oxidation states III/IV and V/VI, and implementation of a timed sum-of-fractions approach to setting limits. A significant decrease in the groundwater pathway limits for I-129 was speculated in the FY2003 interim measures assessment, in response to refinement of the aquifer mesh and source node definition. In fact, the new limits for these nuclides are only slightly lower. Based on the IL vault inventory as of 7/2/04 and disposal limits developed herein, the largest inventory fractions are 30 per cent for Ra-226 and the radon analysis, 11 per cent for I-129 (generic) and the groundwater pathway, and 9 percent for C-14 and the air pathway. For comparison the volume-filled fraction is at about 36 percent. Continued operation of the IL vault should not challenge performance objectives, assuming future disposal patterns are similar to historic use of the facility.

  16. Low and intermediate level disposal in Spain (El Cabril Facility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.

    1997-01-01

    El Cabril disposal facility is located in Southern Spain and was commissioned in October 1992. The main objective of this facility is the disposal of all low- and intermediate-level waste produced in Spain in a disposal system (Figure 1) consisting of concrete overpacks placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. The facility also includes : 1) A treatment and conditioning shop (with incineration, non-NPP wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection) 2) A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive tests on the waste forms (specimens extractions, unskinning of drums, mechanical strength, leaching tests on specimens and full size packages) 3) A fabrication shop for overpacks construction 4) Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practice and the reception and transport of the wastes from the producers to facilities. (author). 11 figs

  17. An assessment of filter aids and filter cloths in the dewatering of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knibbs, R.H.; Hudson, B.C.; Blackwell, J.C.W.

    1984-12-01

    This report considers a range of filter cloths and precoat materials intended for use in dewatering intermediate level radioactive wastes, and their interaction when used on a rotary drum vacuum filter. The report outlines the advantages and disadvantages of various grades and types of precoat and shows that grades with permeabilities in the intermediate range, 3 to 4 x 10 -12 m 2 , give satisfactory filtrate quality together with ease of operation. The work on filter cloths shows that: radiation damage is not a limiting factor as regards operational life for any of the cloths examined; polyester-based cloths are unsuitable due to their poor resistance to alkali attack; polyamide cloths are satisfactory; and stainless steel Dutch weave cloths are satisfactory and have the added advantage of high strength. The report also briefly considers the radiation resistance of two elastomeric membranes used on the 'epidermal' filter and shows that the natural latex rubber membrane is considerably more resistant to radiation than the silicone rubber membrane and has an estimated operational life of at least 1200 hours when dewatering Magnox silo sludge or α-contaminated alumino ferric flocs. (author)

  18. Nonshorthand Impediments to Trascription at the Intermediate and Advanced Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Mary Jane

    1975-01-01

    The basic purpose of the study was to determine the types and frequency of nonshorthand errors on typewritten transcripts of shorthand dictation of 40 intermediate and 34 advanced stenography students at the University of Missouri in 1970-71. (Author)

  19. Discussion on the methods for calculation release limits for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fengbo; Liu Xiaochao

    2012-01-01

    The release request for low-level radioactive waste are briefly described in this paper. Associating with the conditions of low-level radioactive waste of some radioactive waste processing station, the methods and gist for calculating release limits for low-level radioactive waste with national release limits and annual effective dose limit for the public or the occupation are discussed. Then release limits for the low-level radioactive waste are also proposed. (authors)

  20. Geological factors of disposal site selection for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangru

    1993-01-01

    For disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes, shallow-ground disposal can provide adequate isolation of waste from human for a fairly long period of time. The objective of disposal site selection is to ensure that the natural properties of the site together with the engineered barrier site shall provide adequate isolation of radionuclides from the human beings and environment, so the whole disposal system can keep the radiological impact within an acceptable level. Since the early 1980's, complying with the national standards and the expert's conception as well as the related IAEA Criteria, geological selection of disposal sites for low-and intermediate-level solid radwastes has been carried out in East China, South China, Northwest China and Southwest China separately. Finally, 5 candidate sites were recommended to the CNNC

  1. Bioprocessing of low-level radioactive and mixed hazard wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Biologically-based treatment technologies are currently being developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to aid in volume reduction and/or reclassification of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous wastes prior to processing for disposal. The approaches taken to treat low-level radioactive and mixed wastes will reflect the physical (e.g., liquid, solid, slurry) and chemical (inorganic and/or organic) nature of the waste material being processed. Bioprocessing utilizes the diverse metabolic and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The application of bioadsorption and bioflocculation to reduce the volume of low-level radioactive waste are strategies comparable to the use of ion-exchange resins and coagulants that are currently used in waste reduction processes. Mixed hazardous waste would require organic as well as radionuclide treatment processes. Biodegradation of organic wastes or bioemulsification could be used in conjunction with radioisotope bioadsorption methods to treat mixed hazardous radioactive wastes. The degradation of the organic constituents of mixed wastes can be considered an alternative to incineration, while the use of bioemulsification may simply be used as a means to separate inorganic and organics to enable reclassification of wastes. The proposed technology base for the biological treatment of low-level radioactive and mixed hazardous waste has been established. Biodegradation of a variety of organic compounds that are typically found in mixed hazardous wastes has been demonstrated, degradative pathways determined and the nutritional requirements of the microorganisms are understood. Accumulation, adsorption and concentration of heavy and transition metal species and transuranics by microorganisms is widely recognized. Work at the INEL focuses on the application of demonstrated microbial transformations to process development

  2. Who regulates the disposal of low-level radioactive waste under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostaghel, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    The present existence of immense quantities of low-level nuclear waste, a federal law providing for state or regional control of such waste disposal, and a number of state disposal laws challenged on a variety of constitutional grounds underscore what currently may be the most serious problem in nuclear waste disposal: who is to regulate the disposal of low-level nuclear wastes. This problem's origin may be traced to crucial omissions in the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 and its 1954 amendments (AEA) that concern radioactive waste disposal. Although the AEA states that nuclear materials and facilities are affected with the public interest and should be regulated to provide for the public health and safety, the statute fails to prescribe specific guidelines for any nuclear waste disposal. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 (LLRWPA) grants states some control over radioactive waste disposal, an area from which they were previously excluded by the doctrine of federal preemption. This Comment discusses the question of who regulates low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities by examining the following: the constitutional doctrines safeguarding federal government authority; area of state authority; grants of specific authority delegations under the LLRWPA and its amendment; and finally, potential problems that may arise depending on whether ultimate regulatory authority is deemed to rest with single states, regional compacts, or the federal government

  3. The transport of low level radioactive waste in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) Study Group 2 was set up to advise on all matters concerned with compliance with regulations for the safe transport of such materials. The definitions, forms, arisings and disposal options for low-level wastes were reviewed. Current and past practices in the packaging, movement and transport of low-level wastes were discussed. Regulatory practices and their implementation of quality controls and assurance procedures by operators were reviewed. (UK)

  4. Low level radioactive liquid waste decontamination by electrochemical way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronche, E.

    1994-10-01

    As part of the work on decontamination treatments for low level radioactive aqueous liquid wastes, the study of an electro-chemical process has been chosen by the C.E.A. at the Cadarache research centre. The first part of this report describes the main methods used for the decontamination of aqueous solutions. Then an electro-deposition process and an electro-dissolution process are compared on the basis of the decontamination results using genuine radioactive aqueous liquid waste. For ruthenium decontamination, the former process led to very high yields (99.9 percent eliminated). But the elimination of all the other radionuclides (antimony, strontium, cesium, alpha emitters) was only favoured by the latter process (90 percent eliminated). In order to decrease the total radioactivity level of the waste to be treated, we have optimized the electro-dissolution process. That is why the chemical composition of the dissolved anode has been investigated by a mixture experimental design. The radionuclides have been adsorbed on the precipitating products. The separation of the precipitates from the aqueous liquid enabled us to remove the major part of the initial activity. On the overall process some operations have been investigated to minimize waste embedding. Finally, a pilot device (laboratory scale) has been built and tested with genuine radioactive liquid waste. (author). 77 refs., 41 tabs., 55 figs., 4 appendixes

  5. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds

  6. Special Analysis for Disposal of High-Concentration I-129 Waste in the Intermediate-Level Vaults at the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collard, L.B.

    2000-09-26

    This revision was prepared to address comments from DOE-SR that arose following publication of revision 0. This Special Analysis (SA) addresses disposal of wastes with high concentrations of I-129 in the Intermediate-Level (IL) Vaults at the operating, low-level radioactive waste disposal facility (the E-Area Low-Level Waste Facility or LLWF) on the Savannah River Site (SRS). This SA provides limits for disposal in the IL Vaults of high-concentration I-129 wastes, including activated carbon beds from the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF), based on their measured, waste-specific Kds.

  7. Storage of intermediate level waste at UKAEA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the storage of wastes at UKAEA sites and accordingly contributes to the investigations conducted by the Department of the Environment into the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) for radioactive waste storage and/or disposal. This report on the storage of ILW should be read in conjunction with a similar NII funded CTS study for Licensed Sites in the UK. (author)

  8. USDOE activities in low-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vath, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes current research, development and demonstration (R, D and D) programs sponsored by the US Department of Energy in the area of low-level radioactive waste treatment. During the twelve month period ending September 30, 1981, 14 prime US Department of Energy contractors were involved with over 40 low-level radioactive waste disposal technology projects. Three specific projects or task areas have been selected for discussion to illustrate new and evolving technologies, and application of technology developed in other waste management areas to low-level waste treatment. The areas to be discussed include a microwave plasma torch incinerator, application of waste vitrification, and decontamination of metal waste by melting

  9. Managing the nation's commercial high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste. It represents a major update and expansion of the Analysis presented to Congress in our summary report, Managing Commercial High-Level Radioactive Waste, published in April of 1982 (NWPA). This new report is intended to contribute to the implementation of NWPA, and in particular to Congressional review of three major documents that DOE will submit to the 99th Congress: a Mission Plan for the waste management program; a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) proposal; and a report on mechanisms for financing and managing the waste program. The assessment was originally focused on the ocean disposal of nuclear waste. OTA later broadened the study to include all aspects of high-level waste disposal. The major findings of the original analysis were published in OTA's 1982 summary report

  10. Review process for low-level radioactive waste disposal license application under Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittiglio, C.L. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    This document estimates the level of effort and expertise that is needed to review a license application within the required time. It is intended to be used by the NRC staff as well as States and interested parties to provide a better understanding of what the NRC envisions will be involved in licensing a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. OCRWM [Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management] publications catalog on high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is publishing this catalog to provide citations of selected technical and public information on the subject of high-level radioactive waste management. The catalog is a resource and reference tool. It will be updated and printed annually. The online catalog will be available for review through OCRWM's Product Record System (PRS) and can eventually be made available to the public. The printed catalog version is suitable for libraries and those individuals needing either a broad base of information or a particular source; the computerized catalog version provides the most current information resources available, since updates to citations will be made as they are received. The number of documents suitable for listing in this catalog is expected to grow significantly each year

  12. Economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.; Jennrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Regardless of who develops new low-level radioactive waste disposal sites or when, economics will play a role. To assist in this area the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program has developed a computer program, LLWECON, and data base for projecting disposal site costs. This program and its non-site specific data base can currently be used to compare the costs associated with various disposal site development, financing, and operating scenarios. As site specific costs and requirements are refined LLWECON will be able to calculate exact life cycle costs for each facility. While designed around shallow land burial, as practiced today, LLWECON is flexible and the input parameters discrete enough to be applicable to other disposal options. What the program can do is illustrated

  13. Status of Maine's low-level radioactive waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.; Thompson, S.N.; Williams, J.S.; Anderson, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    During the latter part of 1987, the 113th Main legislative session created the Main Low-level Radioactive Waste Authority (the authority). To meet the milestones established in the 1985 Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act, the authority submitted a Siting Plan to the DOE and sited states which was approved in the early part of 1988. The authority has initiated a contract for preparing a site screening methodology and for evaluation and compiling a statewide geologic, hydrologic and environmental data base on a Geographic Information System (GIS) which is addressed in this paper. In addition, the authors address the authority's development of community impact and public information programs to involve the people of Maine throughout the site screening and selection process. A presentation of Maine's unique environment is a part of this paper with concluding facts on existing climatological data

  14. Low-level radioactive waste disposal process and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.E.; Anderson, R.E.; Vander Wall, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    The primary object of this invention is to provide an improved process and apparatus for disposing of low-level liquid radioactive wastes wherein the volume of the wastes can be reduced by a factor of at least ten to thereby minimize costs of storage and ultimate disposal of the wastes. The wastes will be in a form more suitable for storage, transit and burial while still conforming to safety codes. Another object of this invention is to provide a process of disposing of low-level liquid radioactive wastes wherein the wastes are reduced in volume to a mass of free-flowing, solid particles by calcining and the particles are packaged in the presence of a solidifying agent or the particles are compressed, sintered or fused to cause the wastes to be converted to a monolithic product capable of being readily and more safely stored or moved to a burial site. (auth)

  15. Teaching New Keynesian Open Economy Macroeconomics at the Intermediate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofinger, Peter; Mayer, Eric; Wollmershauser, Timo

    2009-01-01

    For the open economy, the workhorse model in intermediate textbooks still is the Mundell-Fleming model, which basically extends the investment and savings, liquidity preference and money supply (IS-LM) model to open economy problems. The authors present a simple New Keynesian model of the open economy that introduces open economy considerations…

  16. Final disposal of low and intermediate radioactive waste - aspects of diffusion through cement lattice modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, C.

    1998-01-01

    The present work performed in our department is related to development of safety assessment programme for the National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita, Bihor. The rate of radionuclide release in the proximity of National Repository for Radioactive Waste - Baita, Bihor was minimized by taking into account the multibarrier principle. This implies the uses of a complex system of natural and engineered barriers which should neutralize the main processes of radionuclide migration. In the first component of the system mentioned above, cement lattice, the migration of incorporated radionuclides takes place mainly by diffusion process. The diffusion equation is given for the particular case of cylindrical shape of the container, from which the ratio between the released fraction and the initial quantity of radionuclides is obtained. We studied the process of diffusion in three different materials (the radionuclides used were 65 Zn, 51 Cr, 82 Br). The results obtained allowed a pertinent selection of the material for improvement of retardation factors of cement lattice. (author)

  17. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.

    1995-01-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going

  18. Commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.

    1995-10-01

    Why are 11 states attempting to develop new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities? Why is only on disposal facility accepting waste nationally? What is the future of waste disposal? These questions are representative of those being asked throughout the country. This paper attempts to answer these questions in terms of where we are, how we got there, and where we might be going.

  19. Long-term residual radioactivity in an intermediate-energy proton linac

    CERN Document Server

    Blaha, J; Silari, M; Vollaire, J

    2014-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H−H− linear accelerator (LINAC4) is being installed at CERN to replace the present 50 MeV LINAC2 as proton injector of the PS Booster (PSB). During operation, the accelerator components will be activated by the beam itself and by the secondary radiation field. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations, for various beam energies and several decay times, were performed to predict the residual radioactivity in the main accelerator components and to estimate the residual dose rate inside the tunnel. The results of this study will facilitate future dismantling, handling and storage of the activated parts and consequently minimize the radiation dose to involved workers. The component activation was also compared with the exemption limits given in the current Swiss legislation and to the CERN design values, in order to make predictions for the future storage and disposal of radioactive waste. The airborne radioactivity induced by particles escaping the beam dump and the activation of the beam dump cooling w...

  20. An Applied Study of the Storage for Old Intermediate Level Waste at the Studsvik Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, Rolf; Lindskog, Staffan

    2004-02-01

    The Storage for Old Intermediate Level Waste (SOILW) at Studsvik has been used for interim storage of intermediate and high level radioactive waste from various activities at the Studsvik site including post irradiation investigations. The SOILW facility was in operation during the years 1961 - 1984. The waste was stored in tube positions in concrete blocks and in concrete vaults. In some instances, radioactive debris and liquid has contaminated the storage positions as well as the underlying ventilation space. The primary purpose of the present work is to improve and extend the present knowledge basis for cost estimates for decommissioning, with the ACSF facility as an example. The main objective has been to explore the possibilities to improve the reliability and accuracy of capital budgeting for decommissioning costs at SOILW. In this study, the present international status of decommissioning, planning and cost estimation has been compiled. The various relevant guidance documents of the IAEA are also compiled, and their emphasis on the necessity of radiological and other surveying as well as technical planning and method selection is reiterated. Cost calculation schemes for new plants and for decommissioning are compiled. It is emphasized that the calculations should be carried out differently at different stages. At the early stages of decommissioning, there should be more emphasis on comparison, and at later stages the emphasis should be more oriented towards summation. The error/uncertainty in a cost calculation is strongly dependent on the selection of methodology, which, in turn, is strongly dependent on the radiological condition. The magnitude of the level of uncertainty has been illustrated by the example of concrete surface removal, and advice is provided on how to identify alternative measures that will enable more sure decisions. An example is also given on a rather similar decontamination and dismantling involving highly contaminated tubes in a

  1. Performance of backfill materials in near surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate level radwaste. Appendix 4: China (a)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunli, G.; Yawen, H.; Zhiwen, F.; Anxi, C.; Xiuzhen, L.; Jinsheng, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Backfill material is an important component of a multi-barriered disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. This appendix describes the work concerning 'performance study on engineering materials of shallow land disposal of low and intermediate level radwaste'. At the time of the CRP, China had planned to establish five regional disposal sites for low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste. According to the potential distribution of these sites, forty-three sampling points were selected through information survey and table discussion. After field survey and screening, eight of them were selected for further studies in laboratory. Basic physical and chemical properties of each sample were measured in laboratory. The results indicate that no one of the samples can individually function as the backfill material in a multi-barriered near surface facility. Then nine additives for adsorption modification were tested using a static method. Further adsorption tests were conducted: three additives screened out in previous experiment were evaluated using the static method. Results obtained show that the Kd values of mixtures of 90% NW-3 and 10% BC for Co-60, Cs-134 and Sr-85, compared with those of 100% NW-3, are 4.8, 4.6 and 4.7 times higher, respectively. Effects of contact time, pH of tracer solutions and radionuclide concentrations of tracer solutions on Kd values of three samples, NW-3, BC and 90% NW-3 with 10% BC, were also be evaluated using the static method. Column tests were performed to evaluate migration of Co-60, Cs-134 and Sr-85 in NW-3 columns with different densities. The column tests were carried out for 210 days. However, no breakthrough was obtained. Long term performance of backfill materials was assessed through natural analogue. We compared Chinese ancient tombs with near-surface low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facilities. Both were designed based upon multi-barrier principle. Then three

  2. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description.

  3. High level radioactive wastes: Considerations on final disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciallella, Norberto R.

    2000-01-01

    When at the beginnings of the decade of the 80 the National Commission on Atomic Energy (CNEA) in Argentina decided to study the destination of the high level radioactive wastes, was began many investigations, analysis and multidisciplinary evaluations that be origin to a study of characteristics never before carried out in Argentina. For the first time in the country was faced the study of an environmental eventual problem, several decades before that the problem was presented. The elimination of the high level radioactive wastes in the technological aspects was taken in advance, avoiding to transfer the problems to the future generations. The decision was based, not only in technical evaluations but also in ethical premises, since it was considered that the future generations may enjoy the benefits of the nuclear energy and not should be solve the problem. The CNEA in Argentina in 1980 decided to begin a feasibility study and preliminary engineering project for the construction of the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes

  4. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Vaughan, N.D.; Hyder, L.K.

    1980-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 447 references contains scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on environmental transport, disposal site, and waste treatment studies. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1952 to 1979. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Specialized data fields have been incorporated into the data file to improve the ease and accuracy of locating pertinent references. Specific radionuclides for which data are presented are listed in the Measured Radionuclides field, and specific parameters which affect the migration of these radionuclides are presented in the Measured Parameters field. In addition, each document referenced in this bibliography has been assigned a relevance number to facilitate sorting the documents according to their pertinence to low-level radioactive waste technology. The documents are rated 1, 2, 3, or 4, with 1 indicating direct applicability to low-level radioactive waste technology and 4 indicating that a considerable amount of interpretation is required for the information presented to be applied. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. Indexes are provide for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) subject category, (4) title, (5) geographic location, (6) measured parameters, (7) measured radionuclides, and (8) publication description

  5. An incineration technology for low level radioactive solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyari, Mamoru; Nakanishi, Ryota; Noura, Tsuyoshi; Fujitomi, Masashi; Ano, Shintaroh

    2003-01-01

    Low-level radioactive solid waste, mainly consisting of rag paper and cloth, is usually incinerated. However, polymeric waste, including rubber and polyvinyl chloride plastic, is securely stored in view of safe treatment. Kobe Steel has developed a new kind of incinerator which can be used for polymeric waste. It has the following characteristics: (a) A controlled air type furnace with a unique grate design (b) In order to control dioxin emissions, the furnace wall is refractory-lined to maintain furnace temperatures at 900degC or higher (c) Secondary combustion air is injected into the furnace to mix with gas from the primary combustion zone. In this paper, the following non-radioactive test results using an actual incinerator, (feed rate: 130 kg/hr.) are presented: (1) Polymeric waste, including rubber, polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride plastic, was incinerated under stable operation; (2) Design specifications including treatment capacity, emission limits were satisfactorily achieved. (author)

  6. Issues in the management of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashbrook, A.W.

    1984-01-01

    All industry finds itself today enmeshed in a morass of regulation, political apathy and public antagonism when it comes to hazardous industrial waste. Our industry is a world-class leader on all three fronts. There are no disposal facilities in Canada for radioactive wastes and the prognosis for the future is bleak. As the industry gets older, more and more facilities will be closed and require decommissioning. New facilities require plans for the long-term management of their wastes. Indeed, one major public issue with the nuclear industry is the fate of the wastes produced. In looking at the situation in which we find ourselves today with respect to the long-term management of naturally-occurring low-level radioactive wastes, one must wonder where we are going in the future, and whether indeed is an end in sight

  7. Volume reduction by crystallization of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, D.C.; Murray, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes containing boric acid, borax, or sodium sulfate, with radioactive contaminants, are generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. These wastes require disposal, and as such, it is economically and environmentally desirable to reduce their volume. Crystallization was examined in the laboratory as a means of accomplishing this. The crystallizer was operated in both of two modes: evaporative cooling and total evaporation. A 12 wt% boric acid waste feed was concentrated to a 40 to 45 wt% slurry in both modes of operation. Using pure boric acid, a slurry containing over 60 wt% was obtained. An 18.5 wt% borax waste feed was concentrated to 50 wt% in the total evaporative mode and 70 wt% in the evaporatively cooled mode. A 22 wt% sodium sulfate feed was concentrated to a 78 wt% slurry in the total evaporative mode. For all of the feeds, this represents a 4- to 5-fold volume reduction by the crystallizer

  8. Remote ignitability analysis of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundholm, C.W.; Morgan, J.M.; Shurtliff, R.M.; Trejo, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), was used to reprocess nuclear fuel from government owned reactors to recover the unused uranium-235. These processes generated highly radioactive liquid wastes which are stored in large underground tanks prior to being calcined into a granular solid. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and state/federal clean air statutes require waste characterization of these high level radioactive wastes for regulatory permitting and waste treatment purposes. The determination of the characteristic of ignitability is part of the required analyses prior to calcination and waste treatment. To perform this analysis in a radiologically safe manner, a remoted instrument was needed. The remote ignitability Method and Instrument will meet the 60 deg. C. requirement as prescribed for the ignitability in method 1020 of SW-846. The method for remote use will be equivalent to method 1020 of SW-846

  9. Vitrification of high-level radioactive and hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.

    1993-12-01

    The main objective is to summarize work conducted on glasses as waste forms for high-level radioactive fission product solutions up to the late 1980's (section I and II). Section III addresses the question, whether waste forms designed for the immobilization of radioactive residues can be used for the same purpose for hazardous wastes. Of particular interest are those types of hazardous wastes, e.g., fly ashes from municipal combustion plants, easy to convert into glasses or ceramic materials. A large number of base glass compositions has been studied to vitrify waste from reprocessing but only borosilicate glasses with melting temperatures between 1100 C and 1200 C and very good hydrolytic stability is used today. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Incineration of Low Level Radioactive Vegetation for Waste Volume Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.P.S.; Rucker, G.G.; Looper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The DOE changing mission at Savannah River Site (SRS) are to increase activities for Waste Management and Environmental Restoration. There are a number of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) locations that are contaminated with radioactivity and support dense vegetation, and are targeted for remediation. Two such locations have been studied for non-time critical removal actions under the National Contingency Plan (NCP). Both of these sites support about 23 plant species. Surveys of the vegetation show that radiation emanates mainly from vines, shrubs, and trees and range from 20,000 to 200,000 d/m beta gamma. Planning for removal and disposal of low-level radioactive vegetation was done with two principal goals: to process contaminated vegetation for optimum volume reduction and waste minimization, and for the protection of human health and environment. Four alternatives were identified as candidates for vegetation removal and disposal: chipping the vegetation and packing in carbon steel boxes (lined with synthetic commercial liners) and disposal at the Solid Waste Disposal Facility at SRS; composting the vegetation; burning the vegetation in the field; and incinerating the vegetation. One alternative 'incineration' was considered viable choice for waste minimization, safe handling, and the protection of the environment and human health. Advantages and disadvantages of all four alternatives considered have been evaluated. For waste minimization and ultimate disposal of radioactive vegetation incineration is the preferred option. Advantages of incineration are that volume reduction is achieved and low-level radioactive waste are stabilized. For incineration and final disposal vegetation will be chipped and packed in card board boxes and discharged to the rotary kiln of the incinerator. The slow rotation and longer resident time in the kiln will ensure complete combustion of the vegetative material

  11. AECL experience with low-level radioactive waste technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckley, L.P.; Charlesworth, D.H.

    1988-08-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), as the Canadian government agency responsible for research and development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, has had experience in handling a wide variety of radioactive wastes for over 40 years. Low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is generated in Canada from nuclear fuel manufacturers and nuclear power facilities, from medical and industrial uses of radioisotopes and from research facilities. The technologies with which AECL has strength lie in the areas of processing, storage, disposal and safety assessment of LLRW. While compaction and incineration are the predominant methods practised for solid wastes, purification techniques and volume reduction methods are used for liquid wastes. The methods for processing continue to be developed to improve and increase the efficiency of operation and to accommodate the transition from storage of the waste to disposal. Site-specific studies and planning for a LLRW disposal repository to replace current storage facilities are well underway with in-service operation to begin in 1991. The waste will be disposed of in an intrusion-resistant underground structure designed to have a service life of over 500 years. Beyond this period of time the radioactivity in the waste will have decayed to innocuous levels. Safety assessments of LLRW disposal are performed with the aid of a series of interconnected mathematical models developed at Chalk River specifically to predict the movement of radionuclides through and away from the repository after its closure and the subsequent health effects of the released radionuclides on the public. The various technologies for dealing with radioactive wastes from their creation to disposal will be discussed. 14 refs

  12. The licensing procedure for an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste in Hanau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, P.; Graebener, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginnings of nuclear energy utilisation in Germany, Hanau has been well-known worldwide as the centre for processing nuclear fuels. Names like Nukem, Alkem, RBU and Siemens are synonymous with the production of fuel elements made of highly enriched uranium for material test reactors, low-enriched uranium and uranium-plutonium mixtures (MOX) for prototype reactors and power reactors. Since the Transnuklear controversy in the late eighties, and particularly during the time of the Socialist-Green coalition in Hesse, the firms in Hanau have increasingly downscaled their activities, and finally closed down their fuel element facilities. Decommissioning of the facilities has been approved under paragraph 7 Para. 3 of the German atomic energy act (AtG). Decommissioning at the Uranium Processing Division of Siemens AG, the former RBU, is already well advanced, while Siemens' MOX Processing Division, the former Alkem, is currently being emptied of remaining nuclear fuels; at Nukem, the first buildings have been demolished. The radioactive waste encountered during decommissioning contains enriched uranium and plutonium, and thus constitutes a special category of radioactive waste. (orig.)

  13. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  14. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program

  15. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers

  16. Commercial low-level radioactive waste transportation liability and radiological risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, G.J.; Brown, O.F. II; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-08-01

    This report was prepared for States, compact regions, and other interested parties to address two subjects related to transporting low-level radioactive waste to disposal facilities. One is the potential liabilities associated with low-level radioactive waste transportation from the perspective of States as hosts to low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The other is the radiological risks of low-level radioactive waste transportation for drivers, the public, and disposal facility workers.

  17. 1992 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This report summarizes the progress States and compact regions made during 1992 in establishing new low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. It also provides summary information on the volume of low-level radioactive waste received for disposal in 1992 by commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This report is in response to section 7 (b) of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act

  18. Design features of a reverse osmosis demonstration plant for treatment of low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhar, P.; Sudesh Nath; Gandhi, P.M.; Mishra, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Reverse osmosis, a novel process in the field of nuclear waste management, is under evaluation globally. Its application is basically considered for the treatment of low level waste; yet references are found for its possible use to treat specific intermediate level waste streams, if segregated at source. The process of reverse osmosis (RO) is proposed for use in conjunction with other conventional processes like chemical treatment, ion exchange and evaporation. Flow sheets have been developed wherein RO can come as a replacement of one of these processes or is used as a pre or post treatment stage. The emphasis is on reducing the secondary wastes so as to realize an optimum levelised cost of treatment. This paper outlines the design basis for an RO plant for treating low level radioactive wastes based on the studies carried out on laboratory as well as bench scale. (author)

  19. Environmental policy. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The report contains information on the natural (background) radiation exposure (chapter II), the natural radiation exposure as influenced by anthropogenic effects (chapter III), the anthropogenic radiation exposure (chapter IV), and the radiation doses to the environment and the population emanating from the Chernobyl fallout (chapter V). The natural radiation exposure is specified referring to the contributions from cosmic and terrestrial background radiation and intake of natural radioactive substances. Changes of the natural environment resulting from anthropogenic effects (technology applications) inducing an increase in concentration of natural radioactive substances accordingly increase the anthropogenic radiation exposure. Indoor air radon concentration in buildings for instance is one typical example of anthropogenic increase of concentration of natural radioactivity, primarily caused by the mining industry or by various materials processing activities, which may cause an increase in the average radiation dose to the population. Measurements so far show that indoor air concentration of radon exceeds a level of 200 Bq/m 3 in less than 2% of the residential buildings; the EUropean Commission therefore recommends to use this concentration value as a maximum value for new residential buildings. Higher concentrations are primarily measured in areas with relevant geological conditions and abundance of radon, or eg. in mining areas. (orig./CB) [de

  20. A Low Level Radioactivity Monitor for Aqueous Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirk, E.J.M.

    1968-04-01

    A system is described for continuous monitoring of very low levels of radioactivity in waste water containing typically 3.5 g/l dissolved solids. Spray evaporation of the water enables the dissolved solids to be recovered in the form of an aerosol and collected on a filter tape where the radioactivity is measured by a radiation detector. The advantage of this method compared with a direct measurement is that the attenuating effect of the water is removed and thus greater sensitivity is obtained. Compensation for background and any contamination is achieved by feeding distilled water to the aerosol generator every alternate sampling period and recording the count difference between two successive sampling periods . A printed record of the totalised count difference is obtained once per hour during the integration time of one month. For β radioactivity the minimum values of specific activity measurable extend from 1 x 10 -6 Ci/m 3 to 6 x 10 -8 Ci/m depending on the B end-point energy in the range 167 KeV to 2.26 MeV. The estimated minimum measurable specific activity is 6 x 10 -8 Ci/m 3

  1. Design concepts of definitive disposal for high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V.E.; Alonso V, G.

    2007-01-01

    It is excessively known the importance about finding a solution for the handling and disposition of radioactive waste of all level. However, the polemic is centered in the administration of high level radioactive waste and the worn out fuel, forgetting that the more important volumes of waste its are generated in the categories of low level wastes or of very low level. Depending on the waste that will be confined and of the costs, several technological modalities of definitive disposition exist, in function of the depth of the confinement. The concept of deep geologic storage, technological option proposed more than 40 years ago, it is a concept of isolation of waste of long half life placed in a deep underground installation dug in geologic formations that are characterized by their high stability and their low flow of underground water. In the last decades, they have registered countless progresses in technical and scientific aspects of the geologic storage, making it a reliable technical solution supported with many years of scientific work carried out by numerous institutions in the entire world. In this work the design concepts that apply some countries for the high level waste disposal that its liberate heat are revised and the different geologic formations that have been considered for the storage of this type of wastes. (Author)

  2. Ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses. Annual report 2014; Umweltradioaktivitaet und Strahlenbelastung. Jahresbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trugenberger-Schnabel, Angela; Loebke-Reinl, Angelika; Peter, Josef (comps.) [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    The annual report 2014 on ambient radioactivity levels and radiation doses covers the following topics: (1) Actual data and their evaluation: natural environmental radioactivity, artificial environmental radioactivity, occupational radiation exposure, radiation exposures from medical applications, handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation. (2) Fundamentals and general information: legal basis and explanations, basic information on natural environmental radioactivity, basic information on artificial radioactivity in the environment, basic information on occupational radiation exposure, basic information on radiation exposures from medical applications, basic information on the handling of radioactive materials and sources of ionizing radiation, basic information on non-ionizing radiation. (3) Tables.

  3. Public participation in the process of decision making related to site selection of low and intermediate radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerskov Klika, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the work with public related to the acceptance of low and intermediate radioactive waste disposal facility in the Republic of Croatia. Activities performing in the field of public relations in the Hazardous Waste Management Agency - APO have been described. The fact that all the important decisions on site selections and constructions of different facilities, frequently controversial, were made in the former system without involvement of the public, makes them more significant. Therefore, the public is afraid of being cheated and manipulated again. In order to represent APO not only as the expert ecologically interested actor in the decision-making process on site selection, the study on forming the ecological image of the agency, has been done. In accordance with the results of the study, the activities related to the permanent informing and educating of the public, are being performed. In the end, it has been concluded that it is not enough to inform the public properly, accurately and timely, but it is necessary to educate the public too, because only in the way the public can be thoroughly involved in the decision-making process on site selection of radioactive waste disposal

  4. High-level radioactive waste disposal in the deep ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.W.

    1977-01-01

    A joint programme has begun between the Fisheries Laboratory, Lowestoft and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley to study the dispersion of radioactivity in the deep ocean arising from the possible dumping of high level waste on the sea bed in vitrified-glass form which would permit slow leakage over a long term scale. The programme consists firstly of the development of a simple diffusion/advection model for the dispersion of radioactivity in a closed and finite ocean, which overcomes many of the criticisms of the earlier model proposed by Webb and Morley. Preliminary results from this new model are comparable to those of the Webb-Morley model for radio isotopes with half-lives of 10-300 years but are considerably more restrictive outside this range, particularly for those which are much longer-lived. The second part of the programme, towards which the emphasis is directed, concerns the field programme planned to measure the advection and diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean to provide realistic input parameters to the model and increase our fundamental understanding of the environment in which the radioactive materials may be released. The first cruises of the programme will take place in late 1976 and involve deep current meter deployments and float dispersion experiments around the present NEA dump site with some sediment sampling, so that adsorption experiments can be started on typical deep sea sediments. The programme will expand the number of long-term deep moored stations over the next five years and include further float experiments, CTD profiling, and other physical oceanography. In the second half of the 5-year programme, attempts will be made to measure diffusion parameters in the deeper layers of the ocean using radioactive tracers

  5. Conception of the low and intermediate radioactive wastes disposal system in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalez Suares, G.; Peralta Vidal, J.L.; Gil Castillo, R.; Franklin Saburrido, R.; Rodriguez Reyes, A.; Castillo Gomez, R.

    1997-01-01

    According to the possibilities of conclusion the construction and operation of the Juragua NPP as well as the development of the nuclear application is necessary to have in the country a reliable Radioactive Wastes Disposal System. With this objective was worked in the conception of a variant of solution for disposal of these wastes that is adjustment to the characteristics of our country this work also includes a technical Economic Study of the Repositories. In this paper are shown the characteristics of wastes, the design of the installation, the package and the conditioning of these wastes as well as the process for the Site Selection of repositories the Safety Assessment and the Performance Assessment in preliminary stage

  6. ANDRA's Centre de l'Aube: Design, construction, operation of a state of the art surface disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    The ANDRA's Centre de I'Aube disposal facility for low and intermediate level radioactive waste may be considered as a state-of-the-art repository. Since its implementation in the early nineties, the French facility has been used as a model by many countries worldwide for the surface disposal of radioactive waste. The disposal concept developed by ANDRA, the French Radioactive Waste Management Agency, consists of a multiple-barrier system designed to isolate radioactivity and provide protection to the public and to the environment. Waste operations at ANDRA's Centre de I'Aube are largely automated to ensure better protection to site workers. The paper reviews all aspects of the repository implementation: siting, design, construction, operation and future closure, and environmental monitoring. (author)

  7. An evaluation on the disposal alternatives for low- and intermediate- level radwaste (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hun Hwee; Han, Kyung Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Dwan; Park, Chung Kyun; Lee, Myung Joo; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Youn Myoung

    1988-02-01

    An evaluation on the radioactive waste disposal alternatives for the low-and intermediate level wastes being produced from nuclear power generation and radioisotope application was carried out in view of the radiological safety, socio-political aspects and repository construction economics. Three types of possible alternatives-sample shallow land disposal method, engineered shallow land disposal method and engineered rock cavern disposal method are investigated. The safety assessment consists of radiological dose calculation and nonradiological impacts which is expressed as total number of injuries and fatalities during construction, operation and transportation. The sociopolitical assessment is done in terms of site conditions including easiness for land acquisition, technical feasibility and public acceptance. The economic assessment is performed by cost comparison regarding land acquisition, construction, operation and closure for each alternatives. The evaluation shows that engineered rock cavern disposal method has remarkable favour in safety than others. And also an integrated evaluation using AHP results the engineered rock cavern disposal method as the most favorable option

  8. Preliminary scenarios and nuclide transport models for low-and intermediate-level repository system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Kyong Won; Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2001-02-01

    Through the study 11 scenarios with which nuclide release from the low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste could be simulated and assessed are selected, based upon FEPs identified. For each scenario, some practical methodologies as well as mathematical models involved in modling of nuclide transport in various media are also proposed. It is considered that such methodologies can play a great role when real repository system is constructed and operated in very near future. Real repository system is anticipated not to be quite different with the repository system postulated through this study. Even though there shows very complicated features for relevant parameters associated with various phisical-, geohydrological-, and geochemical situation and even human society as well, it is very necessary to propose the methodologies for a quantitative assessment of the performance of the repository in order to use them as a template on the practical point of view of preliminary safety assessment. Mathematical models proposed could be easily adopted by such common computer codes as, for example, MIMOSA and MASCOT-K.

  9. The low and medium level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    One of the most controversial aspects in the nuclear energy utilization for pacific purposes is related with the low and medium level solid radioactive wastes production, during the nuclear power plants operation. These wastes shall be inmobilizated before their storage on-site or their transport out-site. This paper presents an exposition about the avobe mentioned problem, attending three basic areas: the fundamental concepts and criteria for their management, the methods used in western countries and the present situation of the spanish nuclear power plants in operation and under construction. (auth.)

  10. United States high-level radioactive waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    Ten years have now passed since the United States established a national policy and process for developing a waste management system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Of those ten years, the last two years have marked the greatest progress in studying a site for development of a geologic repository. This paper will discuss the United States program underway for developing the waste management system, with particular emphasis on our recent progress at Yucca Mountain, Nevada -- the site designated by the United States Congress for detailed site characterization to determine whether or not it is suitable for development of a repository

  11. Centralized cement solidification technique for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Masami; Nishi, Takashi; Izumida, Tatsuo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki.

    1996-01-01

    A centralized cement solidification system has been developed to enable a single facility to solidify such low-level radioactive wastes as liquid waste, spent ion exchange resin, incineration ash, and miscellaneous solid wastes. Since the system uses newly developed high-performance cement, waste loading is raised and deterioration of waste forms after land burial prevented. This paper describes the centralized cement solidification system and the features of the high-performance cement. Results of full-scale pilot plant tests are also shown from the viewpoint of industrial applicability. (author)

  12. Application of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, C.C.; Bossio, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (author)

  13. A critically educated public explores high level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    It is vital to the citizens of Nevada that they and their children are given an opportunity to explore all sides of the characterization of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository site for spent nuclear fuel. The state-wide, national and international implications demand a reasoned and complete approach to this issue, which has become emotionally and irrationally charged and fueled by incomplete perception and information. The purpose of this paper is to provide curriculum suggestions and recommend concomitant policy developments that will lead to the implementation of a Critical Thinking (CT) approach to High Level Radioactive Waste Management

  14. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  15. Development of package systems for miscellaneous Low Level Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Keiji; Ishibashi, Hirohito; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hirabayashi, Kiyoteru; Takeda, Tsuneo.

    1992-01-01

    The package system for miscellaneous Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) has been developed. This system is the combination of the steel drum with resin mortar linear and the fills with admixture. Resin mortars have better mechanical properties and water permeability resistance than other cement mortars. The high flowabilities and nonshrinkage of this fills give the very low gross void fraction of the system. Then, this combination gives strong containment ability of radionuclides. Consequently, this package system is promising candidate barrier for the containment of radionuclides from miscellaneous LLW. (author)

  16. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Application of Generic Exemption Levels for Radioactive Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, Carolina C.; Bossio, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    In essence, exemption is an authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the user of the radioactive source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. This paper briefly describes and analyses these scenarios and also, describes the status of an implementation guide of these levels in the Argentinean Regulatory System. (authors) [es

  18. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  19. Managing commercial high-level radioactive waste: summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-04-01

    This summary presents the findings and conclusions of OTA's analysis of Federal policy for the management of commercial high-level radioactive waste - an issue that has been debated over the last decade and that now appears to be moving toward major congressional action. After more than 20 years of commercial nuclear power, the Federal Government has yet to develop a broadly supported policy for fulfilling its legal responsibility for the final isolation of high-level radioactive waste. OTA's study concludes that until such a policy is adopted in law, there is a substantial risk that the false starts, shifts of policy, and fluctuating support that have plagued the final isolation program in the past will continue. The continued lack of final isolation facilities has raised two key problems that underlie debates about radioactive waste policy. First, some question the continued use of nuclear power until it is shown that safe final isolation for the resulting wastes can and will be accomplished, and argue that the failure to develop final isolation facilities is evidence that it may be an insoluble problem. Second, because there are no reprocessing facilities or federal waste isolation facilities to accept spent fuel, existing reactors are running out of spent fuel storage space, and by 1986 some may face a risk of shutting down for some period. Most of the 72,000 metric tons of spent fuel expected to be generated by the year 2000 will still be in temporary storage at that time. While it is possible that utilities could provide all necessary additional storage at reactor sites before existing basins are filled, some supplemental storage may be needed if there are delays in their efforts

  20. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  1. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  2. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-01-01

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF 2 with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  3. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Radionuclide transport modelling for a buried near surface low level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste, which is the last step of any radioactive waste management policy, has not yet been developed in Turkey. The existing legislation states only the discharge limits for the radioactive wastes to be discharged to the environment. The objective of this modelling study is to assist in safety assessment and selecting disposal site for gradually increasing non-nuclear radioactive wastes. This mathematical model has been developed for the environmental radiological assessment of near surface disposal sites for the low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The model comprised of three main components: source term, geosphere transport and radiological assessment. Radiation dose for the babies (1 years age) and adults (≥17 years age) have been computed for the radionuclides Cesium 137 (Cs-137) and Strontium 90 (Sr-90), having the activity of 1.10 12 Becquerel(Bq), in radioactive waste through transport of radionuclide in liquid phase with the various pathways. The model consisted of first order ordinary differential equations was coded as a TCODE file in MATLAB program. The radiation dose to man for the realist case and low probability case have been calculated by using Runge-Kutta solution method in MATLAB programme for radionuclide transport from repository to soil layer and then to the ground water(saturated zone) through drinking water directly and consuming agricultural and animal products pathways in one year period. Also, the fatal cancer risk assessment has been made by taking into account the annual dose received by people. Various dose values for both radionuclides have been found which depended on distribution coefficient, retardation factor and dose conversion factors. The most important critical parameters on radiological safety assessment are the distribution coefficient in soil layer, seepage velocity in unsaturated zone and thickness of the unsaturated zone (soil zone). The highest radiation dose and average dose to

  5. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  6. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  7. Canadian high-level radioactive waste management system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, C.J.; Gray, B.R.

    1992-01-01

    In Canada responsibility for the management of radioactive wastes rests with the producer of those wastes. This fundamental principle applies to such diverse wastes as uranium mine and mill tailings, low-level wastes from universities and hospitals, wastes produced at nuclear research establishments, and wastes produced at nuclear generating stations. The federal government has accepted responsibility for historical wastes for which the original producer can no longer be held accountable. Management of radioactive wastes is subject to the regulatory control of the Atomic Energy Control Board, the federal agency responsible for regulating the nuclear industry. In this paper the authors summarize the current situation concerning the management of high level (used nuclear fuel) wastes. In 1981 the two governments also announced that selection of a disposal site would not proceed, and responsibility for site selection and operation would not be assigned until the Concept for used fuel disposal had been reviewed and assessed. Thus the concept assessment is generic rather than site specific. The Concept that has been developed has been designed to conform with safety and performance criteria established by the Atomic Energy Control Board. It is based on burial deep in plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield, using a multi-barrier approach with a series of engineered and natural barriers: these include the waste form, container, buffer and backfill, and the host rock

  8. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    On February 17,1989, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments and the US Department of Energy entered into a cooperative agreement authorizing the initiation of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. The transportation project continued to receive funding from DOE through amendments to the original cooperative agreement, with December 31, 1993, marking the end of the initial 5-year period. This progress report reflects the work completed by the Midwestern Office from February 17,1989, through December 31,1993. In accordance with the scopes of work governing the period covered by this report, the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments has worked closely with the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Committee. Project staff have facilitated all eight of the committee's meetings and have represented the committee at meetings of DOE's Transportation Coordination Group (TCG) and Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC/WG). Staff have also prepared and submitted comments on DOE activities on behalf of the committee. In addition to working with the committee, project staff have prepared and distributed 20 reports, including some revised reports (see Attachment 1). Staff have also developed a library of reference materials for the benefit of committee members, state officials, and other interested parties. To publicize the library, and to make it more accessible to potential users, project staff have prepared and distributed regular notices of resource availability

  9. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  10. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  11. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ''comprehensive overview of the issues.'' This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list

  12. Transport of radioactive high level waste to the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    First results on the feasibility of the disposal of high-level waste from reprocessing plants for LWR fuer elements are presented. The emphasis is on the transport of the waste to the sun by meams of existing and planned carrier systems and on a mission-specific upper stage (AMOS). The article discusses transition orbits earth-sun, gravitation losses, suitable carrier systems, design criteria, types of propulsion (radioisojet with hydrogen as propulsion gas), safety aspects and costs. It arrives at the conclusion that the transport of radioactive high-level waste to the sun by means of spacecraft technology appears feasible for the future and that the costs are not too high. It is pointed out that this project can only be carried out in international cooperation. (HR) [de

  13. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  14. Technological and culinary treatment. Effects on radioactivity levels in foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauby, A.; Miribel, J.

    1989-01-01

    As a result of the radioactive fall-out following the first overground nuclear explosions and the Windscale accident, from the end of the 1950 onwards the various radioelements began to be monitored by means of the food chain. However, few writers were concerned with the decontamination of foodstuffs. During this time the ICRP drew up recommendations which were then included in the basic safety standards of the Euratom Treaty and which are the only representative standards for public safety. The unprocessed raw product has therefore been used as the reference for the assessment of radiological risk for 25 years. In the period immediately after the Chernobyl accident, the differing levels of contamination of agricultural produce in the various countries led governments to adopt conservation measures by setting radioactivity tolerance levels for both the raw product and the processed product. These levels, which were based on economic and political considerations, caused problems for the marketing of certain products. Although these difficulties were limited by the relative unimportance of the local economy in the stricken area, it cannot be ruled out that, after a future accident, the economy of a whole region might be destroyed because of a ban on marketing products containing levels of contamination considered to be too high by market standards. Countermeasures must therefore be taken. Some experiments had previously been conducted in this area, but in the last two years many more tests have been carried out and new programmes launched. It therefore became necessary to organize a seminar on this subject in order to take stock of the work carried out and to draw up various kinds of recommendation. The latter include: - the provision of incentives for increased cooperation between the food processing industry and those responsible for nuclear safety: - the establishment of decision-making criteria for the authorities; - and lastly the identification of areas at risk

  15. Sources and levels of radioactivity in the Philippine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, E.B.; De Vera, C.M.; De la Cruz, F.M.; Enriquez, E.B.; Garcia, T.Y.; Palad, L.H.; Enriquez, S.O.; Eduardo, J.M.; Asada, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Over the years, the Health Physics Research Section has assessed the sources and levels of radiation exposure in the Philippine environment. The data show that although Filipinos are exposed to both natural and artificial sources of environmental radioactivity, natural sources contribute much more significantly to the dose received by Filipinos than artificial sources. The average equivalent dose rate due to external sources of natural radiation in the Philippines is 45 μSv h -1 . Of this total dose rate, an average of 22 μSv h -1 is due to cosmic radiation while an average of 23 μSv h -1 is due to terrestrial radiation. External sources of natural radiation in the Philippines thus account for an annual per caput effective dose of about 400 μSv. In contrast, the annual per caput dose due to an artificial source, i.e., nuclear power production, was estimated by UNSCEAR (1988) to be only 0.6 μSv. Based on levels of background radioactivity due to external sources of natural radiation which were measured in 1600 locations, a radiation map of the country was developed. Among the internal sources of natural radiation, radon is the large contributor to dose and is considered as a serious indoor pollutant. Indoor radon levels in about 400 Filipino houses ranged from 1 to 63 Bq m -3 with a mean of 24 Bq m -3 . Significantly higher levels ranging from 30 to 347 Bq m -3 were observed in underground, non-uranium mines. Since there are no operational nuclear power plant in the Philippines, artificial radionuclides in the environment consist mainly of long-lived 137 Cs and 90 Sr from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests

  16. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  17. Options for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.T.; Laughton, A.S.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste within the fuel cycle, especially the high-level wastes from reprocessing of nuclear fuel, is currently a matter of particular concern. In the short term (meaning a timescale of tens of years) management by engineered storage is considered to provide a satisfactory solution. Beyond this, however, the two main alternative options which are considered in the paper are: (a) disposal by burial into geologic formations on land; and (b) disposal by emplacement into or onto the seabed. Status of our present knowledge on the land and seabed disposal options is reviewed together with an assessment of the extent to which their reliability and safety can be judged on presently available information. Further information is needed on the environmental behaviour of radioactivity in the form of solidified waste in both situations in order to provide a more complete, scientific assessment. Work done so far has clarified the areas where further research is most needed - for instance modelling of the environmental transfer processes associated with the seabed option. This is discussed together with an indication of the research programmes which are now being pursued

  18. Radioactivity levels in jurak and moasel, comparison with cigarette tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Kutbi, I.I.; Basabrain, M.

    1994-01-01

    Jurak and moasel are tobacco products that contain, in addition to tobacco, juice of sugar cane, fruits, spices, tar and nicotine. These products are smoked by hubble-bubble, a popular smoking habit in the Middle Eastern and North African countries. Charcoal is put directly on these products during smoking and the smoke passes through water for cooling purpose before it goes to the lung, without filtering. Radioactivity levels were measured in these products, tobacco leaves, charcoal and in cigarette tobacco of most well known brand names by gamma spectrometry system consisting of HPGe detector coupled to a PC-based 8192 channel multichannel analyzer. The average 226 Ra concentrations in jurak, moasel, tobacco leaves, charcoal and cigarette tobacco in Bq/kg were:3.4, 1.8, 3.2, 2.9 and 7 respectively; that of 232 Th were: 3.8, 2.6, 3.5, 2.2 and 7.8 respectively; that of 40 K were 620, 445, 511, 163 and 876 respectively. It is expected that a jurak smoker inhales 10 times the radioactivity and a moasel smoker twice that compared to a 25 cigarette/d smoker. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Low and intermediate level waste repositories: Socioeconomic aspects and public involvement. Proceedings of a workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    Waste management facilities are needed to protect the environment and improve public health for the long term future. One significant challenge is to inform the public on the relative hazards of radioactive waste compared to other hazards in our modern society and to get the acceptance of the appropriate members of the public for these necessary facilities. Over the entire life cycle of these facilities, the projects must be managed without expending a disproportionate share of the collective resources. Public involvement plays a key role and the sophisticated and extensive public education systems that exist provide a vital service to gain public acceptance. There is a full range of compensation and benefit programmes used as incentives for hosting a LILW facility. Even if exemptions exist the experience in most countries indicate the direct/indirect incentives as a necessary part of gaining public acceptance. The countries, regions and local communities have their own established processes to make public decisions. Each organization developing a site must select and implement the methods that are acceptable within their framework of laws and regulations. A three day workshop on socio-economic issues and public involvement practices and approaches for developing and operating repositories for low and intermediate level waste took place in the IAEA headquarters on 9-11 November 2005. The workshop provided a forum where experts from Member States shared their experiences in non-technical aspects of planning, licensing and operating LILW disposal facilities. Description of both principles and practices applied in particular countries provides a useful overview of potential approaches in application of non-technical issues during a repository lifecycle. Participants presented approaches and practices applied in their countries, established new contacts and were able to take advantage of activities and experiences from abroad. There were 25 interesting presentations

  20. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  1. 76 FR 10810 - Public Workshop to Discuss Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... Radioactive Waste Management AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Public Workshop and Request for... regulatory framework for the management of commercial low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The purpose of this... has been in place for about 11 years and applies to management of radioactive waste within the DOE...

  2. Transmutation of high-level radioactive waste - Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Junghans, Arnd; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Kögler, Toni; Massarczyk, Ralf; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In a fast neutron spectrum essentially all long-lived actinides (e.g. Plutonium) undergo fission and thus can be transmuted into generally short lived fission products. Innovative nuclear reactor concepts e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS) are currently in development that foresee a closed fuel cycle. The majority of the fissile nuclides (uranium, plutonium) shall be used for power generation and only fission products will be put into final disposal that needs to last for a historical time scale of only 1000 years. For the transmutation of high-level radioactive waste a lot of research and development is still required. One aspect is the precise knowledge of nuclear data for reactions with fast neutrons. Nuclear reactions relevant for transmutation are being investigated in the framework of the european project ERINDA. First results from the new neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf will be presented.

  3. Soil gas surveying at low-level radioactive waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, A.B.; Moor, K.S.; Hull, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    Soil gas sampling is a useful screening technique for determining whether volatile organic compounds are present at low-level radioactive waste burial sites. The technique was used at several DOE sites during the DOE Environmental Survey to determine the presence and extent of volatile organic compound contamination. The advantages of the soil gas sampling are that near real time data can be obtained, no excavation is required, safety concerns are relatively minor, costs are relatively low, and large amounts of data can be obtained rapidly on the contaminants that may pose the greatest threat to groundwater resources. The disadvantages are that the data are difficult to interpret and relate to soil concentrations and environmental standards. This paper discusses the experiences of INEL sampling and analysis personnel, the advantages and disadvantages of the technique, and makes recommendations for improving the sampling and procedures. 11 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Licensing the California low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressen, A.L.; Serie, P.J.; Junkert, R.

    1992-01-01

    California has made significant progress toward the issuance of a license to construct and operate the Southwestern Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. However, obstacles to completing construction and preparing to receive waste still exist. This paper will describe the technical licensing issues, EIR/S process, political events, and public interactions that have impacted on California regulators' ability to complete the license application review and reach a decision on issuing a license. Issues associated with safely and liability evaluations, finalization of the environmental impact report, and land transfer processes involving multiple state, federal, and local agencies will be identified. Major issues upon which public and political opposition is focusing will also be described. (author)

  5. Low-level radioactive waste minimization for health care institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years medical waste has been the subject of considerable public and governmental attention. This has been, in part, due to the media's attraction to unfortunate instances of environmental pollution caused by hazardous and medical wastes. While a considerable amount of information is currently available on the treatment and disposal practices for hazardous wastes, a shortfall of information exists on the subject of medical wastes. Such wastes are generated by various health care institutions. Medical waste is a wide and all encompassing term which refers to a variety of wastes. This presentation addresses medical low-level (LLW) radioactive waste; its generation, recovery and handling. The development of generic waste minimization models and greater use of alternative technologies are part of the discussion

  6. Organic complexing agents in low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Persson, G.

    1985-11-01

    Low and medium level radioactive wastes will contain various organic agents, such as ion exchange resins (mainly in the operational wastes), plastics and cellulose (mainly in the reprocessing wastes and in the decommissioning wastes) and bitumen (mainly in the reprocessing wastes). The degradation of these organics will lead to the formation of complexing agents that possibly could affect the release of radionuclides from an underground repository and the subsequent transport of these nuclides. The solution chemistry of the actinides may be totally dominated by the presence of such organic degradation products within the repository. However, hydrolysis and formation of carbonates (and possibly humates) will most likely dominate solubility and speciation outside the immediate vicinity of the repository. The minor quantities of strong complexing agents (in the reprocessing waste), notably aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, DTPA) and possibly organic phosphates (DBP) could significantly affect speciation and sorption behaviour of primarily the trivalent actinides even outside the repository. (author)

  7. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing

  8. High-level radioactive-waste-disposal investigations in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council (TENRAC) was designated in 1980 to coordinate the interaction between the State of Texas and the federal government relating to the high-level radioactive waste disposal issue. This report was prepared to summarize the many aspects of that issue with particular emphasis on the activities in Texas. The report is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction for individuals with little or no previous exposure to the issue and to provide a broader perspective for those individuals who have addressed specific aspects of the issue but have not had the opportunity to study it in a broader context. Following the introduction, contents of this report are as follows: (1) general status of major repository siting investigations in the US; (2) detailed review of Texas studies; (3) possible facilities to be sited in Texas; (4) current Texas policy; (5) federal regulations; and (6) federal legislation. 9 figures, 2 tables

  9. Environmental radioactivity levels, Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Annual report, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The report presents data gathered during radiological monitoring program conducted in the environs of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Dose estimates were made from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of media including air, milk, food products, drinking water, and fish. Inhalation and ingestion doses estimated for persons at the indicator locations were essentially identical to those determined for persons at control locations. Greater than 95% of those doses were contributed by the naturally occurring K-40 and by Sr-90 and Cs-137 which are long-lived radioisotopes found in fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Increased levels of I-131 were reported in air, milk, and rainwater following the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station. In addition, Ru-103, Cs-137, and Cs-134 were identified in air particulates, and traces of Ru-103 were found in rainwater

  10. Development of chemical decontamination for low level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Seigo; Omata, Kazuo; Obinata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiko; Kanamori, Osamu.

    1995-01-01

    During routine intermittent inspection and maintenance at nuclear power plants, a considerable quantity of low level radioactive waste is generated requiring release from the nuclear site or treating additionally. To decontaminate this waste for safe release from the nuclear power plant, the first step could be washing the waste in Methylene chloride, CH 2 Cl 2 , to remove most of the paint coating. However, CH 2 Cl 2 washing does not completely remove the paint coating from the waste, which in the next step is shot blasted with plastic bead media to loose and remove the remaining paint coating. Following in succession, in the third step, the waste is washed in a chelate solution, after which most waste is decontaminated and suitable to be released for recycling. The residual chelate solution may be decomposed into nontoxic carbon dioxide and water by an electrolysis process and then safely discharged into the environment. (author)

  11. Levels and trends of radioactive contaminants in the Greenland environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, H.; Eriksson, M.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    . Reindeer and lamb contain the largest observed (137)Cs concentrations in the terrestrial environment-up to 80 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight have been observed in reindeer. Due to special environmental conditions, (137)Cs is transferred to landlocked Arctic char with extremely high efficiency in South Greenland......Levels of radioactive contaminants in various Greenland environments have been assessed during 1999-2001. The source of (137)Cs (90)Sr and (239,240)Pu in terrestrial and fresh water environments is mainly global fallout. In addition, the Chernobyl accident gave a small contribution of (137)Cs...... leading to concentrations up to 100 Bq kg(-1) fresh weight. In these cases very long ecological half-lives are seen. Concentrations of (99)Tc, (137)Cs and (90)Sr in seawater and in marine biota decrease in the order NorthEast Greenland and the coastal East Greenland current> South-West Greenland> Central...

  12. Low-level radioactive waste form qualification testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohal, M.S.; Akers, D.W.

    1998-06-01

    This report summarizes activities that have already been completed as well as yet to be performed by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to develop a plan to quantify the behavior of radioactive low-level waste forms. It briefly describes the status of various tasks, including DOE approval of the proposed work, several regulatory and environmental related documents, tests to qualify the waste form, preliminary schedule, and approximate cost. It is anticipated that INEEL and Brookhaven National Laboratory will perform the majority of the tests. For some tests, services of other testing organizations may be used. It should take approximately nine months to provide the final report on the results of tests on a waste form prepared for qualification. It is anticipated that the overall cost of the waste quantifying service is approximately $150,000. The following tests are planned: compression, thermal cycling, irradiation, biodegradation, leaching, immersion, free-standing liquid tests, and full-scale testing.

  13. Separation processes for high-level radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.G.

    1992-11-01

    During World War II, production of nuclear materials in the United States for national defense, high-level waste (HLW) was generated as a byproduct. Since that time, further quantities of HLW radionuclides have been generated by continued nuclear materials production, research, and the commercial nuclear power program. In this paper HLW is defined as the highly radioactive material resulting from the processing of spent nuclear fuel. The HLW is the liquid waste generated during the recovery of uranium and plutonium in a fuel processing plant that generally contains more than 99% of the nonvolatile fission products produced during reactor operation. Since this paper deals with waste separation processes, spent reactor fuel elements that have not been dissolved and further processed are excluded

  14. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Using bench scale apparatus, asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth were evaluated as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80% to less than 1%. To collect the same quantity of fly ash, less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co, counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1% at moderate pressure drop

  15. Low-level radioactive waste technology: a selected, annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Carrier, R.F.; Brewster, R.H.; Hyder, L.K.; Barnes, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    This annotated bibliography of 416 references represents the third in a series to be published by the Hazardous Materials Information Center containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information relevant to low-level radioactive waste technology. The bibliography focuses on disposal site, environmental transport, and waste treatment studies as well as general reviews on the subject. The publication covers both domestic and foreign literature for the period 1951 to 1981. Major chapters selected are Chemical and Physical Aspects; Container Design and Performance; Disposal Site; Environmental Transport; General Studies and Reviews; Geology, Hydrology, and Site Resources; Regulatory and Economic Aspects; Social Aspects; Transportation Technology; Waste Production; and Waste Treatment. Entries in each of the chapters are further classified as a field study, laboratory study, theoretical study, or general overview involving one or more of these research areas

  16. Defining mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    During the last several months, staffs of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have been developing a working definition of Mixed Low-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Waste (Mixed LLW). Such wastes are currently being regulated by NRC under authority of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), as amended, and by EPA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), as amended. Development of the definition is one component of a comprehensive program to resolve differences between the regulatory programs of the two agencies pertaining to the regulation of the management and disposal of Mixed LLW. Although the definition is still undergoing legal and policy reviews in both agencies, this paper presents the current working definition, discusses a methodology that may be used by NRC licensees to identify Mixed LLW, and provides responses to anticipated questions from licensees about the definition. 3 references, 1 figure

  17. Derivation of Waste Acceptance Criteria for Low and Intermediate Level Waste in Surface Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagner, L.; Voinis, S.

    2000-01-01

    In France, low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are disposed in a near-surface facility, at Centre de l'Aube disposal facility. This facility, which was commissioned in 1992, has a disposal capacity of one million cubic meters, and will be operated up to about 2050. It took over the job from Centre de la Manche, which was commissioned in 1969 and shut down in 1994, after having received about 520,000 cubic meters of wastes. The Centre de l'Aube disposal facility is designed to receive a many types of waste produced by nuclear power plants, reprocessing, decommissioning, as well as by the industry, hospitals and armed forces. The limitation of radioactive transfer to man and the limitation of personnel exposure in all situations considered plausible require limiting the total activity of the waste disposed in the facility as well as the activity of each package. The paper presents how ANDRA has derived the activity-related acceptance criteria, based on the safety analysis. In the French methodology, activity is considered as end-point for deriving the concentration limits per package, whereas it is the starting point for deriving the total activity limits. For the concentration limits (called here LMA) the approach consists of five steps: the determination of radionuclides important for safety with regards to operational and long-term safety, the use of relevant safety scenarios as a tool to derive quantitative limits, the setting of dose constraint per situation associated with scenarios, the setting of contribution factor per radionuclide, and the calculation of concentration activity limits. An exhaustive survey has been performed and has shown that the totality of waste packages which should be delivered by waste generators are acceptable in terms of activity limits in the Centre de l'Aube. Examples of concentration activity limits derived from this methodology are presented. Furthermore those limits have been accepted by the French regulatory body and

  18. Institutionalized Crucible Experiences within Intermediate-Level Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Command and General Staff College identifies meaning making as a vital step in developing leaders. The process of meaning making allows the student ...contrary, testing a member’s ability to mentally perform while under sleep deprivation may offer the same level of test for the participant while...Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF MILITARY ART AND SCIENCE General

  19. Shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, J.B.; Jacobs, D.G.; Lee, D.W.

    1986-02-01

    The performance objectives included in regulations for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61 for commercial waste and DOE Order 5820.2 for defense waste) are generic principles that generate technical requirements which must be factored into each phase of the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility. These phases include a determination of the quantity and characteristics of the waste, selection of a site and appropriate facility design, use of sound operating practices, and closure of the facility. The collective experience concerning shallow land burial operations has shown that achievement of the performance objectives (specifically, waste isolation and radionuclide containment) requires a systems approach, factoring into consideration the interrelationships of the phases of facility development and operation and their overall impact on performance. This report presents the technical requirements and procedures for the development and operation of a shallow land burial facility for low-level radioactive waste. The systems approach is embodied in the presentation. The report is not intended to be an instruction manual; rather, emphasis is placed on understanding the technical requirements and knowing what information and analysis are needed for making informed choices to meet them. A framework is developed for using the desired site characteristics to locate potentially suitable sites. The scope of efforts necessary for characterizing a site is then described and the range of techniques available for site characterization is identified. Given the natural features of a site, design options for achieving the performance objectives are discussed, as are the operating practices, which must be compatible with the design. Site closure is presented as functioning to preserve the containment and isolation provided at earlier stages of the development and operation of the facility

  20. Legislator's guide to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J.M.; Melson, L.G.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of the guide is to provide state legislators and their staff with information on low-level radioactive waste management, issues of special concern to the states, and policy options. During 1979, producers of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) faced a crisis. Two of the three commercial disposal sites were temporarily closed and some LLW producers were running short on storage space. For hospitals, clinics, research organizations, and some industries, this meant potential curtailment of activities that produced these materials. Commercial nuclear reactors were not as hard hit during the crisis because they have larger storage areas. The two sites at Beatty, Nevada, and Hanford, Washington, reopened and the immediate crisis was averted. However, the longer term problem of shortage of disposal capacity was just beginning to be recognized. States should be concerned with this problem for several reasons. First, all states produce LLW although the volumes differ among states. Second, states have the responsibility to protect the public health and welfare of their citizens. Third, states may be given the authority to regulate LLW disposal if they enter into agreements with the federal government (Agreement States Program), and 26 states have that authority. Fourth, because of the long-term monitoring and surveillance necessary at a disposal site, states rather than private industry will be held responsible for ensuring that the disposal site is performing safely. Finally, Congress established a policy in 1980 that each state is responsible for the safe disposal of LLW generated within its borders. This policy also includes provisions that could lead to excluding states from using disposal facilities unless they have entered into regional agreements with other states. Two primary options exist for a state: developing its own disposal facility for LLW generated within its borders or joining with other states to develop a regional disposal facility

  1. High-level radioactive waste disposal problem in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichkin, Vasily I.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation on radioactive waste management in Russia discusses criteria for the selection of disposal sites, how the various types of waste should be contained and stored, and gives a list showing the liable owner, type, volume, activity and storage place of the present amount of radioactive waste. The bulk of this waste, in volume and radioactivity, is at the enterprises of Minatom of the Russian Federation

  2. Managing low-level radioactive wastes: a proposed approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, J.W.; Levin, G.B.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978, President Carter established the Interagency Review Group on Nuclear Waste Management (IRG) to review the nation's plans and progress in managing radioactive wastes. In its final report, issued in March 1979, the group recommended that the Department of Energy (DOE) assume responsibility for developing a national plan for the management of low-level wastes. Toward this end, DOE directed that a strategy be developed to guide federal and state officials in resolving issues critical to the safe management of low-level wastes. EG and G Idaho, Inc. was selected as the lead contractor for the Low-Level Waste Management Program and was given responsibility for developing the strategy. A 25 member task force was formed which included individuals from federal agencies, states, industry, universities, and public interest groups. The task force identified nineteen broad issues covering the generation, treatment, packaging, transportation, and disposal of low-level wastes. Alternatives for the resolution of each issue were proposed and recommendations were made which, taken together, form the draft strategy. These recommendations are summarized in this document

  3. A survey of radioactive levels of agricultural products in Saitama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motegi, Misako; Miyake, Sadaaki; Oosawa, Takashi; Nakazawa, Kiyoaki

    1997-01-01

    Past atmospheric nuclear testing which have been conducted frequently, have caused environmental pollution due to the diffusion of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and from the radioactive fallout. The environmental pollution from nuclear testing into the atmosphere has resulted in the radioactive contamination in agricultural products and has continued for a long time. The radioactive contamination of agricultural products occurs through air, water and soil which were contaminated by radioactive fallout. In this paper, for the purpose of analyzing the extent of the radioactive contamination levels in the agricultural products of Saitama Prefecture, spinach, green soybeans, dried shiitake and welsh onion, were selected among products, as the amount of the harvest is abundant in all of Japan. Radioactivity concentration was investigated by gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analysis. The radioactivity concentrations of artificial radioactive nuclides, cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and strontium-90 ( 90 Sr), were detected in the range which is considered to be the result of radioactive fallout. Moreover, in order to examine the effect on radioactivity concentrations in agricultural products by culinary processing, the raw agricultural products were boiled, and their radioactivity concentrations were compared with the raw produce. The radioactivity concentrations in the boiled were lower than those in the raw produce. (author)

  4. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  5. Low level radioactive waste disposal: An evaluation of reports comparing ocean and land based disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This document evaluates reports presenting comparative assessments of land and sea disposal options for low and intermediate level radioactive waste. It was performed following a request by the LDC to the IAEA. In this evaluation, IAEA Safety Series No. 65 ''Environmental Assessment Methodologies for Sea Dumping of Radioactive Wastes'', was used as the main reference in reviewing the comparative assessments made to date. IAEA Safety Series No. 65 gives guidance on the performance of comparative assessments of the different options, and provides a list and scheme of factors to be considered. 5 studies were transmitted by the Contracting Parties and considered in this review. A larger number of reports was not considered in this effort on the basis that the evaluation would be most effective if directed at those studies which specifically compared ocean disposal with land based disposal in a consistent manner. It is not the purpose of this report to state whether one document is better than another or whether one report forms a good blueprint for future assessments. This would require a different type of review and is outside the scope of this document. Indeed since the purposes of the five reports were originally so different it would not be possible to produce such a ranking and any attempts in that direction would be very misleading. 11 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Directions in low-level radioactive-waste management. Planning state policy on low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The majority of states face a growing problem in the management of low-level radioactive waste generated within their borders. The current uncertainty regarding the availability of disposal sites for these waste products exacerbates their increasing generation rate. The purpose of this publication is to assist state governments in planning effective policy to address these problems. Background information is presented on the current situation, the responsibilities of state government, and the assistance available to states from federal agencies and national groups. The document then focuses on state policy planning, including: (a) methodology for assessing a state's current waste management status and for projecting future needs, (b) consideration of waste management options for a state, and (c) insight into the possible effects and implications of planned policies. This information is intended primarily for state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - and does not include detailed technical information on waste characteristics or handling techniques

  7. Treatment of low level radioactive liquid waste containing appreciable concentration of TBP degraded products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valsala, T.P., E-mail: tpvalsala@gmail.com [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India); Sonavane, M.S.; Kore, S.G.; Sonar, N.L.; De, Vaishali; Raghavendra, Y.; Chattopadyaya, S.; Dani, U.; Kulkarni, Y.; Changrani, R.D. [Nuclear Recycle Board, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Tarapur 401 502 (India)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low Level radioactive liquid waste is decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation of TBP degraded products from the waste by acidification provided very good DF with respect to different radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reductive co-precipitation of {sup 106}Ru and {sup 99}Tc effectively removed these radio nuclides from the waste stream. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of the separated organic mass is of concern due to its organic nature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fixation of organic mass in cement matrix can be adopted for its conditioning and shallow land disposal. - Abstract: The acidic and alkaline low level radioactive liquid waste (LLW) generated during the concentration of high level radioactive liquid waste (HLW) prior to vitrification and ion exchange treatment of intermediate level radioactive liquid waste (ILW), respectively are decontaminated by chemical co-precipitation before discharge to the environment. LLW stream generated from the ion exchange treatment of ILW contained high concentrations of carbonates, tributyl phosphate (TBP) degraded products and problematic radio nuclides like {sup 106}Ru and {sup 99}Tc. Presence of TBP degraded products was interfering with the co-precipitation process. In view of this a modified chemical treatment scheme was formulated for the treatment of this waste stream. By mixing the acidic LLW and alkaline LLW, the carbonates in the alkaline LLW were destroyed and the TBP degraded products got separated as a layer at the top of the vessel. By making use of the modified co-precipitation process the effluent stream (1-2 {mu}Ci/L) became dischargeable to the environment after appropriate dilution. Based on the lab scale studies about 250 m{sup 3} of LLW was treated in the plant. The higher activity of the TBP degraded products separated was due to short lived {sup 90}Y isotope

  8. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls.

  9. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs

  10. Management of low-level radioactive wastes around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakey, L.T.; Harmon, K.M.; Colombo, P.

    1985-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of various practices used throughout the world for managing low-level radioactive wastes. Most of the information in this review was obtained through the DOE-sponsored International Program Support Office (IPSO) activities at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) at Richland, Washington. The objective of IPSO is to collect, evaluate, and disseminate information on international waste management and nuclear fuel cycle activities. The center's sources of information vary widely and include the proceedings of international symposia, papers presented at technical society meetings, published topical reports, foreign trip reports, and the news media. Periodically, the information is published in topical reports. Much of the information contained in this report was presented at the Fifth Annual Participants' Information Meeting sponsored by DOE's Low-Level Waste Management Program Office at Denver, Colorado, in September of 1983. Subsequent to that presentation, the information has been updated, particularly with information provided by Dr. P. Colombo of Brookhaven National Laboratory who corresponded with low-level waste management specialists in many countries. The practices reviewed in this paper generally represent actual operations. However, major R and D activities, along with future plans, are also discussed. 98 refs., 6 tabls

  11. Methodology development for radioactive waste treatment of CDTN/BR - liquid low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Carlos Antonio de

    1996-01-01

    The radioactive liquid wastes generated in Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN) were initially treated by precipitation/filtration and then the resulting wet solid wastes were incorporated in cement. These wastes were composed of different chemicals and different radioactivities and were generated by different sectors. The objective of the waste treatment method was to obtain minimum wet solid waste volume and decontamination and minimum operational cost. The composition of the solid wastes were taken into consideration for compatible cementation process. Approximately 5,400 litres of liquid radioactive wastes were treated by this process during 1992-1995. The volume reduction was 1/24 th and contained 20% solids. (author)

  12. High-Level Radioactive Waste: Safe Storage and Ultimate Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are problems and techniques for safe disposal of radioactive waste. Degrees of radioactivity, temporary storage, and long-term permanent storage are discussed. Included are diagrams of estimated waste volumes to the year 2000 and of an artist's conception of a permanent underground disposal facility. (SL)

  13. Preliminary site characterization at Beishan northwest China-A potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Su Rui; Xue Weiming; Zheng Hualing

    2004-01-01

    Chinese nuclear power plants,radioactive waste and radioactive waste disposal are introduced. Beishan region (Gansu province,Northwest China)for high-level radioactive waste repository and preliminary site characterization are also introduced. (Zhang chao)

  14. 1996 annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (the Act), Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the activities during calendar year 1996 related to the establishment of new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress in developing new disposal facilities, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on US policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  15. Report to Congress: 1995 Annual report on low-level radioactive waste management progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    This report is prepared in response to the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, Public Law 96-573, 1980, as amended by the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, Public Law 99-240. The report summarizes the progress of states and compact regions during calendar year 1995 in establishing new disposal facilities for commercially-generated low-level radioactive waste. The report emphasizes significant issues and events that have affected progress, and also includes an introduction that provides background information and perspective on United States policy for low-level radioactive waste disposal

  16. Development of geopolymers as candidate materials for low/intermediate level highly alkaline nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perera, D.S.; Vance, E.R.; Kiyama, S.; Aly, Z.; Yee, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Geopolymers have been studied for many years as a possible improvement on cement in respect of compressive strength, resistance to fire, heat and acidity, and as a medium for the encapsulation of hazardous or low/ intermediate level radioactive waste. They are made by adding aluminosilicates to concentrated alkali solutions and the application of heat at 0 Cfor subsequent polymerisation. In this work we studied them as suitable candidate materials to incorporate NaOH/NaA10 2 containing waste with low levels of Cs, Sr and Nd. Geopolymers were produced by incorporating the highly alkaline solution as part of the composition with added metakaolinite, fumed silica and extra NaOH, such that the overall geopolymer composition was of molar ratios Si/Al = 2 and Na/Al = 1. The simulated waste contained Na2SO 4 , therefore Ba(OH) 2 was also added to precipitate the SO 4 x 2 as BaSO 4 . Three geoplymers of the same composition containing simulated wastes were leach tested in triplicate after heating at 400 0 Cfor 1 h (to remove -98% of free and interstitial water) under the PCT-B test protocol at 90 0 Cfor 7 days and their results are listed in Table 1. The Cs, Sr and Nd normalised leach rates were low. The Na leach rate was ∼ 4 g/L thus passing the PCT-B test protocol value of 13.5 g/L for EA glass. The X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that BaS04 did precipitate, however all the S did not appear to have precipitated. The ANSI/ANS-16.1-2003 test was carried out on the above geopolymer composition for 5 days. The ANSI Leachability Index D (diffusivity of 10''cm sec'') for the elements released are listed in Table 2. A Portland cement was also tested for comparison and the Leachability index values are 11, 8 and 10 for Al, Na and Ca respectively. Both passed the test protocol insofar as they were > 6. Geopolymers thus passing the tests for high level nuclear waste glass (PCT-B) and for low level nuclear waste (ANSI) show promising potential

  17. What are Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are materials from nuclear power plants and government defense programs. These materials contain highly radioactive elements, such as cesium, strontium, technetium, and neptunium. Some of these elements will remain radioactive for a few years, while others will be radioactive for millions of years. Exposure to such radioactive materials can cause human health problems. Scientists worldwide agree that the safest way to manage these materials is to dispose of them deep underground in what is called a geologic repository

  18. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program. Revision 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-12-01

    This is the sixth update of ''Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration.'' It completely replaces the fifth update (15 September 1984). The updated report covers low-level radioactive waste compacts, and the administration, the legislature and the laws related to radioactive waste management in each of the fifty states. The report is organized by low-level waste compact regions. Each section begins with a description of the low-level waste compact, followed by reports on each state within the region. There are also sections for states which have made plans to dispose of waste independently of a compact, and for those states which have not yet declared their intentions. The report on each compact is divided into four sections: Cover Page, Chair Organization, State Delegations, and Compact

  19. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  20. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  1. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237

  2. Surface encapsulation process for managing low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, S.L.; Telles, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Current processes for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) stabilization involve mixing contaminants with a fixative such as cement, asphalt, polyethylene, or vinyl monomers, and subsequently curing the mixtures in containers. These methods give rise to processing difficulties and yield products lacking performance to assure long-term LLRW immobilization. Mixing of LLRW into fixatives is impeded by viscous media and the curing reaction is inhibited by LLRW constituents. Product performance is affected by corrosion of the containers which ultimately expose the cured mixtures to environmental stresses. This process, termed the ''Surface Encapsulation Process,'' circumvents these problems. A thermosetting fixative is employed that mixes readily with LLRW and is highly insensitive to inhibition in curing. The agglomerated mixtures are further stabilized by encapsulation with seamless jackets of corrosion resistant plastic, such as polyethylene. In laboratory-scale investigations, feasibility of the technique was demonstrated for managing a broad spectrum of LLRW simulants including ion-exchange resins, beads, and glasses, and sodium salts. Products tested to date meet all relevant NRC and DOT regulations governing waste fixation. The high waste loadings of the products, use of commodity resins, and processing simplicity indicated our process would provide high performance LLRW stabilization at costs that are competitive to those for processes employing state-of-the-art fixatives. An economic analysis based on managing LLRW generated by commercial power plants (≅1,000 MeW) substantiates the competitive process costs advantages

  3. Particulate collection in a low level radioactive waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudnick, S.N.; Leith, D.; First, M.W.

    1976-01-01

    As designed, sintered stainless steel filters will clean the gas from the secondary cyclone at a low level radioactive waste incinerator. Bench-scale apparatus was used to evaluate asbestos floats and diatomaceous earth as filter aids to prevent clogging of the sintered metal interstices and to decrease filter penetration. Both precoats prevented irreversible pressure drop increase, and decreased cold DOP penetration from 80 percent to less than 1 percent. Less diatomaceous earth was needed than asbestos floats, to collect the same quantity of fly ash. A back-up study evaluated a moving bed of sodium carbonate pellets in lieu of the sintered metal filters. Since identical sodium carbonate pellets are used to neutralize hydrogen chloride in the incinerator, their use in a moving bed has the advantages of trouble free disposal and cost free replacement. Co - , counter, and cross-current beds were studied and gave fly ash penetrations less than 0.1 percent at moderate pressure drop. The filter cake which forms on the pellet surfaces decreases penetration greatly

  4. High-level radioactive waste from light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1977-01-01

    The production of radioactive nuclei during the operation of a light-water reactor is traced, and their decay history is followed. The potential environmental impacts of this waste are calculated and shown to be comparable to those of other materials we produce. Assuming deep burial, it is shown that there are important time delays which prevent the waste from reaching the biosphere in the first few hundred years while its toxicity is decreasing by several orders of magnitude. In the long term,,the most important pathway to man was found to be through groundwater into food and water supplies, with consequences calculated t to be 0.4 fatalities in 10 6 years from each year of all-nuclear power in U.S. Other pathways considered and found to be less important include meteorites, volcanism, release through ground water to airborne particulate, and human intrusion by drilling and mining for unspecified materials and for salt. For time scales longer than 10 6 years, nuclear power is shown to reduce man's exposure to radiation by consuming uranium. A cost-benefit analysis is developed for surveillance of buried waste. It is shown that buried high-level waste is environmentally much less dangerous than uranium mill tailings

  5. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. Because of apparent ease of use and normal structural integrity, cement has been widely used as a binder to solidify LLW. However, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. This report reviews laboratory efforts that are being developed to address the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. Groups of microorganisms are being employed that are capable of metabolically converting organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this report. Sufficient data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW has been developed during the course of this study. These data support the continued development of appropriate tests necessary to determine the resistance of cement-solidified LLW to microbially induced degradation that could impact the stability of the waste form. They also justify the continued effort of enumeration of the conditions necessary to support the microbiological growth and population expansion

  6. Control of high level radioactive waste-glass melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.; Choi, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Slurry Fed Melters (SFM) are being developed in the United States, Europe and Japan for the conversion of high-level radioactive waste to borosilicate glass for permanent disposal. The high transition metal, noble metal, nitrate, organic, and sulfate contents of these wastes lead to unique melter redox control requirements. Pilot waste-glass melter operations have indicated the possibility of nickel sulfide or noble-metal fission-product accumulation on melter floors, which can lead to distortion of electric heating patterns, and decrease melter life. Sulfide formation is prevented by control of the redox chemistry of the melter feed. The redox state of waste-glass melters is determined by balance between the reducing potential of organic compounds in the feed, and the oxidizing potential of gases above the melt, and nitrates and polyvalent elements in the waste. Semiquantitative models predicting limitations of organic content have been developed based on crucible testing. Computerized thermodynamic computations are being developed to predict the sequence and products of redox reactions and is assessing process variations. Continuous melter test results have been compared to improved computer staged-thermodynamic-models of redox behavior. Feed chemistry control to prevent sulfide and moderate noble metal accumulations are discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs

  7. The disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, F.L.; Broshears, R.E.; Pasztor, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Beijer Institute received request from the Swedish Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (Naemnden for Anvaent Kaernbraensle - NAK) to undertake an international review of the major programmes which were currently making arrangements for the future disposal of high-level radioactive wastes and spent nuclear fuel. The request was accepted, a detailed proposal was worked out and agreed to by NAK, for a critical technical review which concentrated on the following three main tasks: 1. a 'state-of-the-art' review of selected ongoing disposal programmes, both national and international; 2. an assessment of the scientific and technical controversies involved, and 3. recommendations for further research in this field. This review work was to be built on a survey of the available technical literature which was to serve as a basis for a series of detailed interviews, consultations and discussions with scientific and technical experts in Japan, Canada, USA, Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. This first volume contains: disposal options; review of the state-of-the-art (international activities, national programs); analysis of waste disposal systems. (orig./HP)

  8. Salt removal from tanks containing high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiser, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant (SRP), there are 23 waste storage tanks containing high-level radioactive wastes that are to be retired. These tanks contain about 23 million liters of salt and about 10 million liters of sludge, that are to be relocated to new Type III, fully stress-relieved tanks with complete secondary containment. About 19 million liters of salt cake are to be dissolved. Steam jet circulators were originally proposed for the salt dissolution program. However, use of steam jet circulators raised the temperature of the tank contents and caused operating problems. These included increased corrosion risk and required long cooldown periods prior to transfer. Alternative dissolution concepts were investigated. Examination of mechanisms affecting salt dissolution showed that the ability of fresh water to contact the cake surface was the most significant factor influencing dissolution rate. Density driven and mechanical agitation techniques were developed on a bench scale and then were demonstrated in an actual waste tank. Actual waste tank demonstrations were in good agreement with bench-scale experiments at 1/85 scale. The density driven method utilizes simple equipment, but leaves a cake heel in the tank and is hindered by the presence of sludge or Zeolite in the salt cake. Mechanical agitation overcomes the problems found with both steam jet circulators and the density driven technique and is the best method for future waste tank salt removal

  9. Extended storage of low-level radioactive waste: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, B.

    1986-01-01

    If a state or regional compact does not have adequate disposal capacity for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), then extended storage of certain LLRW may be necessary. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory to address the technical issues of extended storage. The dual objectives of this study are (1) to provide practical technical assessments for NRC to consider in evaluating specific proposals for extended storage and (2) to help ensure adequate consideration by NRC, Agreement States, and licensees of potential problems that may arise from existing or proposed extended storage practices. The circumstances under which extended storage of LLRW would most likely result in problems during or after the extended storage period are considered and possible mitigative measures to minimize these problems are discussed. These potential problem areas include: (1) the degradation of carbon steel and polyethylene containers during storage and the subsequent need for repackaging (resulting in increased occupational exposure), (2) the generation of hazardous gases during storage, and (3) biodegradative processes in LLRW

  10. Low-level radioactive waste research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.; Lambert, J.

    1989-11-01

    The Waste Management Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, has developed a strategy for conducting research on issues of concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its efforts to ensure safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). The resulting LLW research program plan provides an integrated framework for planning the LLW research program to ensure that the program and its products are responsive and timely for use in NRC's LLW regulatory program. The plan discusses technical and scientific issues and uncertainties associated with the disposal of LLW, presents programmatic goals and objectives for resolving them, establishes a long-term strategy for conducting the confirmatory and investigative research needed to meet these goals and objectives, and includes schedules and milestones for completing the research. Areas identified for investigation include waste form and other material concerns, failure mechanisms and radionuclide releases, engineered barrier performance, site characterization and monitoring, and performance assessment. The plan proposes projects that (1) analyze and test actual LLW and solidified LLW under laboratory and field conditions to determine leach rates and radionuclide releases, (2) examine the short- and long-term performance of concrete-enhanced LLW burial structures and high-integrity containers, and (3) attempt to predict water movement and contaminant transport through low permeability saturated media and unsaturated porous media. 4 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low level-radioactive waste disposal: currently operating commercial facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This publication discusses three commercial facilities that receive and dispose of low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located in Barnwell, South Carolina; Beatty, Nevada; and Richland, Washington. All three facilities initiated operations in the 1960s. The three facilities have operated without such major problems as those which led to the closure of three other commercial disposal facilities located in the United States. The Beatty site could be closed in 1983 as a result of a Nevada Board of Health ruling that renewal of the site license would be inimical to public health and safety. The site remains open pending federal and state court hearings, which began in January 1983, to resolve the Board of Health ruling. The three sites may also be affected by NRC's 10 CFR Part 61 regulations, but the impact of those regulations, issued in December 1982, has not yet been assessed. This document provides detailed information on the history and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials - executive, legislative, and agency - in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities. 12 references

  12. Conventional incinerator redesign for the incineration of low level radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lara Z, L.E.C.

    1997-01-01

    From several years ago have been detected some problems with the storage of low level radioactive solids wastes, they are occasioned growth in volume and weight, one of most effective treatment for its reduction, the incineration has been. In the work was designed an incinerator of low level radioactive solid wastes, the characteristics, range of temperatures, that operate and the excess of air in order to get a near incineration at 100 %; thickness of refractory material in the combustion chamber, materials and forms of installation, the balances of mass, energy and radioactive material necessary for the design of the auxiliary peripheral equipment is discussed. In theory the incineration is a viable option for the treatment of low level radioactive solid wastes, upon getting an approximate reduction to 95 % of the wastes introduced to the incinerator in the Department of Radioactive Wastes of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, avoiding the dispersion of combustion gases and radioactive material at the environment. (Author)

  13. Hydrogeological characterization on sites for high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yonghai; Liu Shufen; Wang Ju; Su Rui

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research experiences of our country and some developed countries in the world, the processes and methods on hydrological performance assessment for sitting of high radioactive repository radioactive waste to distinct research stages are discussed in this paper. Hydrological investigation in three scales of the region, the area and the site are discussed in hydrological performance assessment. Meanwhile, the presentation on evaluation of hydrological performance is introduced, aiming at providing reference for future study. (authors)

  14. Japan's strategy on high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactive waste management in Japan and analyses the recommendations of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEC) about radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. A question arising from the approach of introducing partitioning technologies is how to manage the product partitioned and the secondary waste generated. A variety of technologies to transmute the product long-lived nuclides into short-lived ones are developed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  15. Radioactivity levels in surface water of lakes around Izmir / Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyurum, S.; Turkozu, D. A.; Aslani, M. A. A.; Aytas, S.; Eral, M.; Kaygun, A. K.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactivity presents in surface continental waters is mainly due to the presence of radioactive elements in the earth's crust, other artificial radionuclides have appeared due to such human activities as nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing and manufacture and use of radioactive sources It is well known that natural radionuclides can be effective as tracers for the different processes controlling the distribution of elements among dissolved and particulate phases in aquatic systems. The detection of high radionuclide concentrations was proposed as a public health problem in several areas and consequently studies into the risks of radionuclides were started in the 2000s. Especially, these radioactive substances in groundwater are an unwanted and involuntary risk factor from natural sources, not artificial sources. These radioactive substances include uranium, radon found in uranium series, and other radioactive substances such as radium and gross alpha. Uranium present in rock, soil, and natural materials, and is found in small quantities in air, water, and food that people always contact. In this project, lake water samples were collected from three lakes around Izmir-Turkey. In surface lake water samples, pH, mV and conductivity values were measured and alkaline content was determined titrimetrically. The uranium concentrations in the lake water samples were measured using uranium analyzer. The radioactivity concentrations related to gross radium isotopes, gross-? and gross-? activities in the surface lake water were determined. The correlation among some parameters for water samples and concentrations of uranium, activity concentration of gross radium isotopes, gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity are also discussed

  16. AERE contracts with DoE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-06-01

    This document reports work carried out in 1983/84 under 10 contracts between DoE and AERE on the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes. Individual summaries are provided for each contract report within the document, under the headings: comparative evaluation of α and βγ irradiated medium level waste forms; modelling and characterisation of intermediate level waste forms based on polymers; optimisation of processing parameters for polymer and bitumen modified cements; ceramic waste forms; radionuclide release during leaching; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; flowsheeting/systems study. (U.K.)

  17. Method to determine the radioactivity of radioactive waste packages. Basic procedure of the method used to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document describes the procedures adopted in order to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants in Japan. The standards applied have been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberations by the Subcommittee on the Radioactivity Verification Method for Waste Packages, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee, and the Standards Committee. The method for determining the radioactivity of the low-level radioactive waste packages was based on procedures approved by the Nuclear Safety Commission in 1992. The scaling factor method and other methods of determining radioactivity were then developed on the basis of various investigations conducted, drawing on extensive accumulated knowledge. Moreover, the international standards applied as common guidelines for the scaling factor method were developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear Energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology. Since the application of accumulated knowledge to future radioactive waste disposal is considered to be rational and justified, such body of knowledge has been documented in a standardized form. The background to this standardization effort, the reasoning behind the determination method as applied to the measurement of radioactivity, as well as other related information, are given in the Annexes hereto. This document includes the following Annexes. Annex 1: (reference) Recorded items related to the determination of the scaling factor. Annex 2 (reference): Principles applied to the determining the radioactivity of waste packages. (author)

  18. Environmental monitoring of low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This branch technical position (BTP) paper on the environmental monitoring program for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility provides general guidance on what is required by Section 61.53 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR) of applicants submitting a license application for such a facility. In general, the environmental monitoring program consists of three phases: preoperational, operational, and postoperational. Each phase of the monitoring program should be designed to fulfill the specific objectives defined in the BTP paper. During the preoperational phase, the objectives of the program are to provide site characterization information, to demonstrate site suitability and acceptability, to obtain background or baseline information, and to provide a record for public information. During the operational phase, the emphasis on measurement shifts. Monitoring data are obtained to provide early warning of releases and to document compliance with regulations, the dose limits of 10 CFR Part 61, or applicable standards of the US Environmental Protection Agency. Data are also used to update important pathway parameters to improve predictions of site performance and to provide a record of performance for public information. The postoperational environmental monitoring program emphasizes measurements to demonstrate compliance with the site-closure requirements and continued compliance with the performance objective in regard to the release of radionuclides to the environment. The data are used to support evaluation of long-term effects on the general public and for public information. Guidance is also provided in the BTP paper on the choice of which constituents to measure, setting action levels, relating measurements to appropriate actions in a corrective action plan, and quality assurance

  19. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1997-01-01

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories

  20. 18th U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Conference. Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1997-05-20

    This conference explored the latest developments in low-level radioactive waste management through presentations from professionals in both the public and the private sectors and special guests. The conference included two continuing education seminars, a workshop, exhibits, and a tour of Envirocare of Utah, Inc., one of America's three commercial low-level radioactive waste depositories.

  1. Volume reduction of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryson, H.; Weeter, D.W.; Oakes, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Biology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), located at the Y-12 site of the Oak Ridge Reservation, produces modest amounts of radioactive mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes which present unique disposal problems under current Federal (Dept. of Energy (DOE)), Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and State of Tennessee rules and regulations governing the disposal of these types of wastes. These wastes fall into five categories, as generated: (a) liquid (laboratory process) wastes, (b) dry (lab trash) wastes, (c) animal carcases. The liquid waste is considered to contain approx. = 90% of the total radioactivity of the wastes. The most feasible long-term method of dealing with these wastes, consists of four inter-related processes. These are (1) distillation of the liquid wastes to remove a volatile, slightly radioactive organic fraction (to be incinerated); (2) scintillation fluid (''cocktail'') recovery and component separation; (3) incineration (high temperature, high efficiency) of the relatively low activity dry waste, animal bedding, animal carcasses; and the slightly radioactive ( 3 H and 14 C) flammable components from the liquid and scintillation fluid wastes; and (4) cold chemical oxidation and solidification in cement of the aqueous waste fractions from distillation and scintillation fluid separation steps. This alternative provides for the elimination of all hazardous components with the minimum release of radioactivity into the environment. Only a small fraction of the original waste would be landfilled as either immobiled radioactive waste (low activity tritiated water in carbon-14 carbonate and other ''institutional'' radioisotopes or non-hazardous ash

  2. Success in siting low-level radioactive waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.; McCauley, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Government of Canada is about to conclude a legal agreement with three municipalities that will result in a $260-million 10-year multi-phase project to cleanup low-level radioactive wastes and contaminated soils and establish long-term low-level radioactive waste management facilities. Over the last two decades, numerous efforts were undertaken to resolve this long-standing environmental issue. Finally, the communities where the wastes are located came forward with resolutions that they were willing to develop local solutions to the problem. All three municipalities, facilitated by Government funding and assistance, put forward their own local solution to their own waste problem. Government accepted the municipalities' proposals as the basis of a comprehensive approach for dealing with the local problem. Negotiations ensued on Principles of Understanding under which the cleanup would proceed and new long-term waste management facilities would be established. Government's acceptance of the negotiated Principles led to the preparation of a legal agreement that was subsequently signed by each of the municipalities and is now about to be ratified by the Government of Canada. Resolution of the issue will be a major milestone in the Government's environmental agenda. The project will result in an environmentally-responsible, safe, and publicly-accepted approach to the long-term management of the wastes and remove one of the largest contaminated sites issues from the Government's agenda. It also advances the Government's nuclear waste policy and indicates to waste producers that the Government is developing and implementing solutions for wastes for which it is responsible. A key lesson for the Government of Canada in this process has been the advantages of a locally-generated solution. Through the process, the Government empowered the local municipalities to develop their own solution to the local waste problem. It facilitated and supported that effort

  3. Alternatives To The Burial Of Low-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J. Mark

    2008-01-01

    have been fully dismantled. Proven techniques and equipment are available to dismantle nuclear facilities safely. Most parts of a nuclear power plants do not become radioactive or are contaminated at very low levels and most metal can be recycled. There are obvious environmental benefits to the decontamination, recycle and reuse of materials. The benefits come primarily from the reduction of waste and eliminating the need to obtain fresh materials for the new product. The benefits of recycling in other industries are well recognized. Not having a waste management option can sometimes delay decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Therefore, the availability of a recycling route for the waste may accelerate decommissioning progress. With improving prospects for building new nuclear power plants, the industry would likely use the option if significant amounts of waste materials could be recycled economically. There is little consistency in national approaches to recycling radioactive waste. Many options for recycling allow for the release of materials into the public domain (after decontamination to allowable levels). There is not uniform endorsement of this practice from country to country and some stakeholders do not agree with this type of material release (often reduced to as unconditional release). There is a large amount of material that can have conditional release within the industry that assures consistent endorsement by stakeholders. This material includes: concrete, lead, carbon and stainless steel, and graphite. More work needs to be done to ensure consistency in regulation from country to country. The IAEA is working to this end

  4. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  5. The case for deep-sea disposal of low-level solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The scientific justification for the sea disposal of low-level solid radioactive wastes is summarized and the relevant national and international codes of practice and legislation are outlined. It is concluded that, since the amount of radioactivity disposed of in the oceans is very small compared with the natural radioactivity, the environmental hazard is small and sea dumping could be increased. (U.K.)

  6. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filter, H.E.; Roberson, K.

    1979-01-01

    Test program results for the Dow system for solidification of low-level radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are described. Simulated radioactive wastes containing 137 Cs and 60 Co and actual radioactive nuclear power plant wastes were solidified in the Dow system. All wastes were converted to homogeneous, liquid-free solids. Data are presented for solidified boiling water reactor (BWR) wastes, pressurized water reactor (PWR) wastes, mixed bed ion exchange resin (MBR), and filter aid (DE) slurries

  7. Assessment of the Biodegradability of Containers for Low and Intermediate Level Nuclear Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobenko, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete and reinforced concrete are widely used as engineered barriers (containers) for radioactive waste disposal facilities due to their isolating ability, mechanical stability and low cost. Several types of protective reinforced concrete containers for low and intermediate level waste have been designed in Ukraine. Evaluation of these containers for microbial stability is required according to NRC of Ukraine Regulation No.306.608-96. The research was therefore aimed at studying the degradation of the cement material due to microbiological interaction and the possibility of biodegraded cement as an ideal environment for the growth of other microorganisms under waste disposal conditions to satisfy the regulatory requirements. Results from this study indicated that Aspergillus niger induced gluconic and oxalic acids that dissolve portlandite (with a low leaching of calcium) after one year of contact time. This resulted in an increase in porosity, loss in tensile strength biomechanically deteriorated and cracking. XRD analysis identified crystalline precipitates within the biomass on the concrete surface as calcium oxalate dehydrate (weddellite) and calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite). The mechanism regarding of the microbiological interaction on the concrete surface can be summarized as follows: Phase 1: Fungi accumulate on the surface of the concrete, thereby degrading the concrete surface by biochemical and biomechanical interactions. When this effect is in the presence of air with available carbon dioxide, the micro fungi reduces the pH of the concrete from >13 to 8.5. During this phase no accumulation were observed in sections where granite aggregates are present. Phase 2: After reducing the pH of the concrete paste during phase 1, and provided that sufficient nutrients, moisture and oxygen are present sulphur oxidizing bacteria start to accumulate on the concrete surface. The result form this study therefore concluded that fungal biogeochemical activity

  8. Solidification of low-level radioactive wastes in masonry cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Colombo, P.

    1987-03-01

    Portland cements are widely used as solidification agents for low-level radioactive wastes. However, it is known that boric acid wastes, as generated at pressurized water reactors (PWR's) are difficult to solidify using ordinary portland cements. Waste containing as little as 5 wt % boric acid inhibits the curing of the cement. For this purpose, the suitability of masonry cement was investigated. Masonry cement, in the US consists of 50 wt % slaked lime (CaOH 2 ) and 50 wt % of portland type I cement. Addition of boric acid in molar concentrations equal to or less than the molar concentration of the alkali in the cement eliminates any inhibiting effects. Accordingly, 15 wt % boric acid can be satisfactorily incorporated into masonry cement. The suitability of masonry cement for the solidification of sodium sulfate wastes produced at boiling water reactors (BWR's) was also investigated. It was observed that although sodium sulfate - masonry cement waste forms containing as much as 40 wt % Na 2 SO 4 can be prepared, waste forms with more than 7 wt % sodium sulfate undergo catastrophic failure when exposed to an aqueous environment. It was determined by x-ray diffraction that in the presence of water, the sulfate reacts with hydrated calcium aluminate to form calcium aluminum sulfate hydrate (ettringite). This reaction involves a volume increase resulting in failure of the waste form. Formulation data were identified to maximize volumetric efficiency for the solidification of boric acid and sodium sulfate wastes. Measurement of some of the waste form properties relevant to evaluating the potential for the release of radionuclides to the environment included leachability, compression strengths and chemical interactions between the waste components and masonry cement. 15 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  9. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented

  10. Microbial degradation of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, R.D.; Hamilton, M.A.; Veeh, R.H.; McConnell, J.W. Jr

    1996-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission stipulates in 10 CFR 61 that disposed low-level radioactive waste (LLW) be stabilized. To provide guidance to disposal vendors and nuclear station waste generators for implementing those requirements, the NRC developed the Technical Position on Waste Form, Revision 1. That document details a specified set of recommended testing procedures and criteria, including several tests for determining the biodegradation properties of waste forms. Information has been presented by a number of researchers, which indicated that those tests may be inappropriate for examining microbial degradation of cement-solidified LLW. Cement has been widely used to solidify LLW; however, the resulting waste forms are sometimes susceptible to failure due to the actions of waste constituents, stress, and environment. The purpose of this research program was to develop modified microbial degradation test procedures that would be more appropriate than the existing procedures for evaluation of the effects of microbiologically influenced chemical attack on cement-solidified LLW. The procedures that have been developed in this work are presented and discussed. Groups of microorganisms indigenous to LLW disposal sites were employed that can metabolically convert organic and inorganic substrates into organic and mineral acids. Such acids aggressively react with cement and can ultimately lead to structural failure. Results on the application of mechanisms inherent in microbially influenced degradation of cement-based material are the focus of this final report. Data-validated evidence of the potential for microbially influenced deterioration of cement-solidified LLW and subsequent release of radionuclides developed during this study are presented.

  11. Cover technology demonstration for low-level radioactive sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, F.J.; Warren, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The performance of a shallow land burial site in isolating low-level radioactive and mixed waste is strongly influenced by the behavior of the precipitation falling on the site. Predicting the long-term integrity of a cover design requires a knowledge of the water balance dynamics, and the use of predictive models. The multiplicity of factors operating on a site in the years post-closure (precipitation intensity and duration, soil conditions, vegetation seasonality and variability) have made it extremely difficult to predict the effects of natural precipitation with accuracy. Preliminary results are presented on a three-year field demonstration at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the influence of different waste trench cap designs on water balance under natural precipitation. Erosion plots having two different vegetative covers (shrubs and grasses) and with either gravel-mulched or unmulched soil surface treatments have been established on three different soil profiles on an inactive waste site. Total runoff and soil loss from each plot are measured biweekly while plant canopy cover is measured seasonally. Preliminary results from the first year show that the application of a gravel mulch reduced runoff by 73 to 90%. Total soil loss was reduced by 83 to 93% by the mulch treatment. On unmulched plots, grass cover reduced both runoff and soil loss by about 50% compared to the shrub plots. Soil moisture reduction during the growing season was more pronounced on the shrub plots. This indicates that a more complex vegetative cover provides greater soil moisture storage capacity for winter precipitation than the usual grass cover

  12. Solving the high-level (and low-level) radioactive waste puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Finding sites for both high-level and low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW and HLRW) has come to a virtual halt. The present system is based on a open-quotes command- and controlclose quotes philosophy, in which affected areas or states are told by a central authority that they must accept wastes. The reverse Dutch auction (RDA) allows a way out of the endless cycle of confrontation, lawsuits and delay. It preserves environmental standards, at the same time producing a volunteer site. The citizens of the volunteer area will have a consensus in favor of accepting the wastes. No coercion is required or even attempted

  13. Maine State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The Maine State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and Federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Maine. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Maine. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested partices including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant goverment agencies and activities, all of which may impact management practices in Maine.

  14. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island

  15. Rhode Island State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The Rhode Island State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Rhode Island. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Rhode Island. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Rhode Island.

  16. Kansas State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Kansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Kansas. The profile is the result of a survey of radioactive material licensees in Kansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Kansas

  17. Proposal of threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1979-01-01

    With increasing amounts of radioactive wastes along with the advances of nuclear power generation and radioactive material utilizations, the needs for management cost reduction and resource saving have arisen. Under the situation, the threshold levels for the definition of non-radioactive solid wastes are required. The problem has been studied by an ad hoc committee in Nuclear Safety Research Association, by the request of the Science and Technology Agency. The matters described are the procedures of deriving the threshold levels, the feasibility studies of the management of waste threshold-level with several enterprises, and future subjects of study. The threshold levels are grouped in two, i.e. the unconditional level and the conditional level. According to the unconditional threshold level, solid wastes are separated definitely into radioactive and non-radioactive ones. According to the conditional threshold level, under certain conditions, some radioactive solid wastes according to the unconditional level are regarded as non-radioactive ones. (J.P.N.)

  18. Preliminary estimate of the costs involved in the implantation of a low and medium level radioactive waste repository in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, Otavio E.A.; Carvalho Filho, Carlos A.; Ferreira, Vinicius V.M.; Alves, Paulo R.R.

    2009-01-01

    One relevant subject in the decision making process linked to the implantation of a low and intermediate level waste (LILW) repository in Brazil is regarding to the project expected costs. It is important to estimate in a solid way the total and partial costs expected, considering each one of the enterprise implantation phases. This work shows an initial estimative of these costs, based on reports and papers that evaluate the implantation, operation, closure and post closure costs of radioactive LILW waste repositories. In the development of this research only the costs regarding to near surface repositories, or similar ones, were considered. The total cost was estimated as approximately 115 million dollars, considering the whole project lifetime as 300 years. Considering the repository start-up costs (site selection, licensing, project and construction), the total value is estimated as 48 million dollars (1600 dollars/m 3 ). It is important to emphasize that some cares should be taken when costs obtained from the acquired experience by another countries in the repositories development are analyzed. As example, the costs for disposal 1 m 3 of low and medium level radioactive waste vary significantly from one country to another, even when repositories with similar projects are compared. Also the total costs of construction and licensing are significantly higher when compared those ones from 'conventional' facilities with similar technological characteristics. Finally, although about a dozen low and medium level radioactive waste repository are operating in Europe, new projects should be faced, as the international practice demonstrate, as original developments. (author)

  19. Disposal of high level radioactive wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, L.A.M.; Carvalho Bastos, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The disposal of high-activity radioactive wastes is the most serious problem for the nuclear industry. Among the solutions, the disposal of wastes in approriated geological formations is the most realistic and feasible. In this work the methods used for geological disposal, as well as, the criteria, programs and analysis for selecting a bite for waste disposal are presented [pt

  20. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-02-01

    In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE's development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE's Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade

  1. Dolmetschen als Fertigkeit im Franzosischunterricht der Mittelstufe (Interpreting as a Skill in Intermediate-Level French)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Heribert

    1974-01-01

    Interpreting as an exercise of language skill is presented as a necessity for communication, limited (in the instructional process) to everyday situations. Interpreting offers something different, and is therefore a source of motivation at the intermediate level. Basic characteristics of the skill, teaching hints, and types of exercises are…

  2. L'Economie Francais. Units in Economics for French Classes. Intermediate Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Carol; And Others

    Four units on the French economy, designed for classroom use at the intermediate level, are related in their educational objectives: to shed light on French culture and strengthen second language skills. Each unit describes its specific objectives, materials, texts, instructional procedures, and student evaluation methods. Sample tests and…

  3. Central repository for low- and intermediate-level waste (ALMA) conceptual design, siting and safety study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.; Haeggblom, H.; Cederstroem, M.; Lundgren, T.

    1980-07-01

    A generic design, siting and safety study of a proposed repository for low- and intermediate-level waste has been made. Special emphasis has been placed on safety characterostics. The conceptual design and the generic site, on which the study is based, are realistically chosen in accordance with present construction techniques and the existing geohydrological conditions in Sweden. (Auth.)

  4. Exploring Optimal Pronunciation Teaching: Integrating Instructional Software into Intermediate-Level EFL Classes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Hanna, Barbara E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of teaching pronunciation with instructional software to a cohort of Chinese learners of English aged 13 to 16 at lower-intermediate level. It also explores the relationship between learners' attitudes towards pronunciation and their pronunciation learning. Participants were 60 students at a language…

  5. ESL for Hotel/Hospitality Industry. Level: Advanced Beginner/Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Suffolk County Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Northport, NY.

    This document contains 16 lesson plans for an advanced beginning and intermediate course in work-related English for non-English- or limited-English-speaking entry-level employees in the hotel and hospitality industry. Course objectives are as follows: helping participants understand and use job-specific vocabulary; receive and understand…

  6. Deep geologic storage of high level radioactive wastes: conceptual generic designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the studies on deep geologic storage of radioactive wastes and specially for the high-level radioactive wastes. The study is focussed to the geotechnical assessment and generic-conceptual designs. Methodology analysis, geotechnical feasibility, costs and operation are studied

  7. 77 FR 25760 - Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0183] Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management and Volume... Radioactive Waste (LLRW) Volume Reduction (Policy Statement). This statement encouraged licensees to take..., cannot be required to implement the elements of a policy statement because such statements, unlike NRC...

  8. Fifth international conference on radioactive waste management and environmental remediation -- ICEM '95: Proceedings. Volume 2: Management of low-level waste and remediation of contaminated sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slate, S.; Baker, R.; Benda, G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this conference is the broad international exchange of information on technologies, operations, management approaches, economics, and public policies in the critical areas of radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. The ICEM '95 technical program includes four parallel program tracks: Low/intermediate-level waste management; High-level waste, spent fuel, nuclear material management; Environmental remediation and facility D and D; and Major institutional issues in environmental management. Volume 2 contains approximately 200 papers divided into the following topical sections: Characterization of low and intermediate level waste; Treatment of low and intermediate level waste; LLW disposal and near-surface contaminant migration; Characterization and remediation of contaminated sites; and Decontamination and decommissioning technologies and experience. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  9. Analysis of generic exemption levels for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossio, Maria C.; Muniz, Carolina C.

    2007-01-01

    In essence, exemption may be considered a generic authorization granted by the regulatory body, which, once issued, releases the practice or source from the requirements that would otherwise apply, in particular, the requirements relating to notification and authorization. The exemption figures included in the Basic Safety Standards BSS 115 were derived from the scenarios postulated in the document 'Radiation Protection 65' of the Commission of the European Communities considering quantitative exemption criteria. After presenting the basic exemption criteria for limited quantities of radioactive materials this paper describes and analyses the exposure scenarios utilized, namely: 1- Normal use (workplace) scenario; 2- Accidental ( workplace) scenario; 3- Disposal (public) scenario. Each one has different exposure pathways, summing up a total of 24, covering external exposure, ingestion and inhalation. These scenarios were used to calculate both, exempted activity concentrations (Bq/g) and total activity (Bq), though in the first case exemption applies to limited masses of low concentration activity materials. For each radionuclide, the generic exemption level was derived as the more restrictive value obtained from the scenarios, that is the lowest ratio between the applicable individual dose and the dose per unit activity (Bq) or activity concentration (Bq/g). The individual dose per unit (Bq or Bq/g, as applicable) was calculated by a formula that was adjusted, for each scenario and pathway, through different parameters, such as exposure time, dosimetric factors and geometric factors. In general, the critical pathways for α emitters were inhalation of dust and aerosols in workplace for activity concentration scenario and inhalation of dust and volatiles from an accidental fire in the workplace for total activity scenario. For β emitters the critical pathways were ingestion of an object from a landfill site by a member of the public for activity concentration

  10. Some historical background to the IAEA Definition and Recommendations concerning high-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radioactive matter unsuitable for dumping at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The need for internationally acceptable standards and regulations for preventing pollution of the sea by radioactive materials was recognized by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which adopted the Convention on the High Seas in April 1958. Article 25 of the Convention provides that ''every State shall take measures to prevent pollution of the seas from the dumping of radioactive wastes, taking into account any standards and regulations which may be formulated by the competent international organizations.'' The Conference also adopted a resolution recommending that the IAEA pursue studies and take action to assist States in controlling the discharge of radioactive materials into the sea. When the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was adopted at the Intergovernmental Conference in London, 1972, the IAEA was given specific responsibilities to define criteria and standards for dealing with the questions of sea disposal of radioactive wastes. The IAEA Definition and Recommendations concerning ''high-level radioactive wastes or other high-level radioactive matter unsuitable for dumping at sea'' identify material, the radioactive content of which is at such a level that the Parties to the Convention would wish to prevent any participating State from issuing a special permit even after a detailed appraisal of the safety of the proposed operation, and even for the sector of the marine environment furthest removed from man, i.e. the deep sea with depth greater than 4000 m. Some historical background to these problems is discussed and some of the Japanese findings of the deep sea survey in the Pacific are introduced for comparison with the North Atlantic data which formed a basis of the IAEA Definition and Recommendations for the London Dumping Convention

  11. Radioactivity level in the Raul Doamnei - Arges (Prundu Dam) ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, Al.; Pavelescu, M.; Margeanu, S.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrosphere is an important pathway of dispersion of the radionuclides released in the environment following nuclear activities. In this work the determination of the main pathway of radionuclide migration in the Raul Doamnei - Arges ecosystem (Prundu Dam) was carried out. The region is significant because it is a receptor of the radioactive liquid effluents resulting from Institute for Nuclear Research/Nuclear Fuel Plants compound activities. An evaluation of the source term (liquid effluents, deposition, soil erosion) and of natural and artificial radioactive isotope inventory in different zones of the ecosystem. Finally, the multi-compartmental radio-ecologic model applicable to this case is presented and an evaluation of the inter-compartment transfer parameters is given

  12. Radioactive waste management: a summary of state laws and administration. National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Mangement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This is the first quarterly update of Radioactive Waste Management: A Summary of State Laws and Administration. Because states have been very active on waste management issues, the whole report is being reissued in this update. It covers the administration, the legislature and the laws in the 50 states related to radioactive waste. The report for each state is divided into four sections: Cover Page; Administrative; Legislative; and Applicable Legislation. The cover page indicates whether or not it is an Agreement State, the low-level waste compacts in which the state is listed as an eligible state, and the high-level waste repository site screening regions in which the state or a portion of it is located. The administrative section provides information on the governor, lead agencies, other involved administrative agencies, relevant commissions, boards and councils and various contacts. The Legislative section provides general information on the legislature and lists legislative leaders, the relevant committees and their chairs and a legislative contact. In the section covering Applicable Legislation, laws related to radiation protection, low-level waste and high-level waste have been summarized. Hazardous waste siting laws are included for states that do not have a siting law covering radioactive waste. The section also contains summaries of relevant bills introduced in 1982 and 1983 legislative sessions and their disposition. In general, the information in this report is accurate as of 15 April 1983

  13. CESARR V.2 manual: Computer code for the evaluation of surface storage of low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moya Rivera, J.A.; Bolado Lavin, R.

    1997-01-01

    CESARR (Code for the safety evaluation of low and medium level radioactive waste storage). This code was developed for the safety probabilistic evaluations in the facilities of low-and medium level radioactive waste storage

  14. Bituminization of low- and medium-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefillatre, G.

    1976-01-01

    French operations are presented concerning mainly: the bituminization of radioactive wastes produced in light water reactors; the direct bituminization of liquid effluents without concentration; the experiments carried out for 18 months on the land burial of concentrates solidified by bitumen into blocks of 100 liters. The knowledge acquired in France is exposed: in Valduc and in Saclay with facilities equipped with thin film evaporators and in Marcoule with the conditioning of trilaurylamine and tributyl-phosphate. At last the Cadarache bituminization [fr

  15. Low and medium level radioactive waste disposal in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated management system allowing complete control of radioactive waste, from conditioning and packaging at the generator site to final disposal is presented. A central feature of the system is a comprehensive quality assurance and control program, including specifications for waste processing, packaging and labeling; requirements for transportation and acceptance at the disposal facility; and criteria for siting, design, construction and operation of the disposal facility. 3 refs., 5 figs

  16. Environmental radioactivity levels, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant. Annual report, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the environmental radiological monitoring of the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, conducted in 1983. Dose estimates were calculated from concentrations of radioactivity found in samples of air, milk, water, and fish. It was concluded there were no significant increases in the exposure to members of the general public attributable to the operation of SQN. 11 figures, 34 tables

  17. Radioactivity partitioning in incinerators for miscellaneous low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, S.; Bellinger, E.

    1988-03-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution (HMIP) authorises the use of hospital, university and Local Authority incinerators for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. At present these authorisations are calculated on ''worst case'' assumptions, this report aims to review the experimental data on radioactivity partitioning in these incinerators, in order to improve the accuracy of HMIP predictions. The types of radionuclides used in medicine were presented and it is noted there is no literature on the composition of university waste. The different types of incinerators are detailed, with diagrams. Major differences in design are apparent, particularly the offgas cleaning equipment in nuclear incinerators which hinders comparisons with institutional incinerators. A comprehensive literature review revealed 17 references on institutional radioactive waste incineration, 11 of these contained data sets. The partitioning experiments were described and show a wide range of methodology from incinerating guinea pigs to filter papers. In general, only ash composition data were presented, with no details of emissions or plating out in the incinerator. Thus the data sets were incomplete, often with a poor degree of accuracy. The data sets contained information on 40 elements; those were compared and general trends were apparent such as the absence of H-3, C-14 and I-125 in the ash in contrast to the high retention of Sc-46. Large differences between data sets were noted for P-32, Sr-85 and Sn-113 and within one experiment for S-35. (author)

  18. Sizing of the overpacks containing high-level radioactive waste packages from French nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codau, Claudia; Fernandes, Roméo

    2017-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the project Cigeo (Geological Storage Industrial Center: www.cigeo.com) which aims to store in a deep geological layer, intermediate, high-level and long-lived radioactive waste from all French nuclear facilities. The project is led by ANDRA (French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency). EDF (Electricity of France), as the nuclear electricity producer, will be a beneficiary of the facility and follows it for reasons of consistency with the rest of the nuclear cycle. Packages of the most radioactive vitrified waste from the processing of spent fuel will be placed in steel overpacks (storage containers) whose main function will be to protect the waste from water during the so-called thermal phase of the glass (t° glass < 50°C - 70°C). In addition to the waterproof criterion, the challenges associated with the design of the overpacks are: To limit the production of hydrogen due to corrosion (∼50.000 overpacks). To increase glass life: a decrease in steel thickness reduces the amount of corrosion products and improves the longevity of the glass. To reduce production costs. The objective of this work is to implement the radiological dimensioning methodology based on neutron modeling. As an illustration of what this method allows to do, a sizing of the steel overpack is proposed in order to achieve these technical and economic specifications. The overpack is mainly designed by taking into account the mechanical load that will be applied and degradation due to corrosion, particularly the corrosion by radiolysis. According to ANDRA, the most important criterion is to maintain the dose rate below 10 Gy/h at a distance of 5 cm from the overpack interface. The dose rates were calculated with the TRIPOLI4 code using as input data the temporal radiological evolution of waste obtained with DARWIN/PEPIN2. This work has shown that, in the most penalizing case among the studied configurations, a steel thickness of 4.6 cm for the overpack

  19. Assessment and the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yulan

    1989-03-01

    In order to assess the levels of radioactivity of natural radionuclides in drinking waters and to estimate the internal doses of the population of China from ingestion, 1650 samples of waters were collected from normal radiation background areas of 28 provinces or autonomous regions of China. Radioactivity levels of U, Th, 226 Ra and 40 K in drinking waters were determined. The levels and the characteristics of distribution of 4 radionuclides are given. The results show that radioactivity levels in the southeast China are lower than in the north and northwest China. The average radioactivity levles of the 4 radionuclides in China close to the average levels given in UNSCEAR 1986 report. The result of estimation of internal doses from ingestion in the population of China is below the corresponding results given in UNSCEAR 1986 report, but near the result given by ICRP

  20. The study of fracture mineralization and relationship with high level radioactive waste of deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Cristina N.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive investigations of the Ordovician, Dinantian and Permo-Triassic rocks of the Sellafield area of northwest England were undertaken by United Kingdom Nirex Ltd. as a possible national site for geological disposal of intermediate and low-level radioactive waste. Very detailed studies of fracture mineralisation at Sellafield were thus put in hand by Nirex Ltd. and the results summarised by the British Geological Survey. Deep (up to 2 km) boreholes were put down with excellent core recovery. It is generally agreed that the most significant pathway for the escape of all but a very few radionuclides is by solution in and advection of groundwater. In this context, rock fracture systems are particularly important because they offer a potentially rapid pathway to the surface and the biosphere. One striking aspect of this work is that the fracture mineralisation seemingly records major and rapid fluctuations in redox conditions -sometimes during apparently continuous precipitation of cements (ferroan and non-ferroan calcites, dolomite). Carbonate cements record variations in Fe 2+ availability. Fe(III) precipitates also as oxide (hematite) and Fe(II) as sulphide (pyrite). This study focuses on these elements and valence states and also on Mn; another element susceptible to redox controls but known to respond differently from Fe. Shallow sub-surface stores or repositories would be more likely to have oxidising or fluctuating redox conditions. The mineralisation sequences documented at Sellafield are potentially promising in this context. Ferroan carbonate cements are sensitive indicators of later movement of oxidising ground waters. (author)

  1. Long term behaviour of low and intermediate level waste packages under repository conditions. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1997-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    The development and application of approaches and technologies that provide long term safety is an essential issue in the disposal of radioactive waste. For low and intermediate level radioactive waste, engineered barriers play an important role in the overall safety and performance of near surface repositories. Thus, developing a strong technical basis for understanding the behaviour and performance of engineered barriers is an important consideration in the development and establishment of near surface repositories for radioactive waste. In 1993, a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on Performance of Engineered Barrier Materials in Near Surface Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste was initiated by the IAEA with the twin goals of addressing some of the gaps in the database on radionuclide isolation and long term performance of a wide variety of materials and components that constitute the engineered barriers system (IAEA-TECDOC-1255 (2001)). However, during the course of the CRP, it was realized that that the scope of the CRP did not include studies of the behaviour of waste packages over time. Given that a waste package represents an important component of the overall near surface disposal system and the fact that many Member States have active R and D programmes related to waste package testing and evaluation, a new CRP was launched, in 1997, on Long Term Behaviour of Low and Intermediate Level Waste Packages Under Repository Conditions. The CRP was intended to promote research activities on the subject area in Member States, share information on the topic among the participating countries, and contribute to advancing technologies for near surface disposal of radioactive waste. Thus, this CRP complements the afore mentioned CRP on studies of engineered barriers. With the active participation and valuable contributions from twenty scientists and engineers from Argentina, Canada, Czech Republic, Egypt, Finland, India, Republic of Korea, Norway, Romania

  2. Proposed classification scheme for high-level and other radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Croff, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 defines high-level radioactive waste (HLW) as: (A) the highly radioactive material resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel....that contains fission products in sufficient concentrations; and (B) other highly radioactive material that the Commission....determines....requires permanent isolation. This paper presents a generally applicable quantitative definition of HLW that addresses the description in paragraph (B). The approach also results in definitions of other waste classes, i.e., transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste (LLW). A basic waste classification scheme results from the quantitative definitions

  3. Radiation safety and health effects related to low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hazards associated with low-level radioactive waste, one of the nation's greatest concerns, are discussed from a health physicist's perspective. Potential biological hazards, four stages of the low-level radioactive waste disposal process, and suggested methods of reducing the risks of handling and disposal, based on previous studies, are defined. Also discussed are potential pathways of human exposure and two scenarios designed to demonstrate the complexity of modeling exposure pathways. The risks of developing a fatal cancer from exposure to the radioactive material, should it occur, is compared to other more commonly accepted risks

  4. North Carolina State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The North Carolina State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Carolina. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Carolina. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Carolina.

  5. Hawaii State briefing book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Hawaii State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Hawaii. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Hawaii. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Hawaii

  6. New Mexico State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The New Mexico State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Mexico. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Mexico. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Mexico

  7. New Jersey State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The New Jersey state Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in New Jersey. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in New Jersey. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in New Jersey.

  8. Oregon State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The Oregon State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Oregon. The profile is a result of a survey of NRC licensees in Oregon. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Oregon.

  9. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of State briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist State and Federal Agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  10. Tennessee State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Tennessee State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Tennessee. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Tennessee. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Tennessee

  11. North Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The North Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in North Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in North Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in North Dakota

  12. Iowa State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Iowa State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Iowa. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Iowa. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Iowa

  13. Ohio State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Ohio State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Ohio. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Ohio. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Ohio

  14. Colorado State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Colorado State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Colorado. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Colorado. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Colorado

  15. Wyoming State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The Wyoming State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Wyoming. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Wyoming. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Wyoming

  16. Connecticut State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-06-01

    The Connecticut State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Connecticut. The profile is the result of a survey of Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees in Connecticut. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may affect waste management practices in Connecticut

  17. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  18. South Dakota State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    The South Dakota State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in South Dakota. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in South Dakota. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in South Dakota

  19. Elementary migration around the Oklo nuclear reactors. Implications for high level radioactive wastes storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menet-Dressayre, C.; Menager, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The study of Uranium and rare earths near the reactors has displayed the radioelements transfer in the reactors neighbourhood. The main implications for high level radioactive wastes disposal in geological formations are discussed. 12 refs

  20. Mississippi State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Mississippi State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state an federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Mississippi. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Mississippi. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Mississippi